WorldWideScience

Sample records for extremely important role

  1. Daily temperature extremes play an important role in predicting thermal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gang; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-07-01

    Organisms in natural environments experience diel temperature fluctuations, including sporadic extreme conditions, rather than constant temperatures. Studies based mainly on model organisms have tended to focus on responses to average temperatures or short-term heat stress, which overlooks the potential impact of daily fluctuations, including stressful daytime periods and milder night-time periods. Here, we focus on daily maximum temperatures, while holding night-time temperatures constant, to specifically investigate the effects of high temperature on demographic parameters and fitness in the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae. We then compared the observed effects of different daily maximum temperatures with predictions from constant temperature-performance expectations. Moderate daily maximum temperatures depressed aphid performance while extreme conditions had dramatic effects, even when mean temperatures were below the critical maximum. Predictions based on daily average temperature underestimated negative effects of temperature on performance by ignoring daily maximum temperature, while predictions based on daytime maximum temperatures overestimated detrimental impacts by ignoring recovery under mild night-time temperatures. Our findings suggest that daily maximum temperature will play an important role in regulating natural population dynamics and should be considered in predictions. These findings have implications for natural population dynamics, particularly when considering the expected increase in extreme temperature events under climate change.

  2. An importance sampling algorithm for estimating extremes of perpetuity sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collamore, Jeffrey F.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide class of problems in insurance and financial mathematics, it is of interest to study the extremal events of a perpetuity sequence. This paper addresses the problem of numerically evaluating these rare event probabilities. Specifically, an importance sampling algorithm is described which...... is efficient in the sense that it exhibits bounded relative error, and which is optimal in an appropriate asymptotic sense. The main idea of the algorithm is to use a ``dual" change of measure, which is employed to an associated Markov chain over a randomly-stopped time interval. The algorithm also makes use...

  3. Importance of resolution and model configuration when downscaling extreme precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J. Champion

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical downscaling is frequently used to investigate the dynamical variables of extra-tropical cyclones, for example, precipitation, using very high-resolution models nested within coarser resolution models to understand the processes that lead to intense precipitation. It is also used in climate change studies, using long timeseries to investigate trends in precipitation, or to look at the small-scale dynamical processes for specific case studies. This study investigates some of the problems associated with dynamical downscaling and looks at the optimum configuration to obtain the distribution and intensity of a precipitation field to match observations. This study uses the Met Office Unified Model run in limited area mode with grid spacings of 12, 4 and 1.5 km, driven by boundary conditions provided by the ECMWF Operational Analysis to produce high-resolution simulations for the Summer of 2007 UK flooding events. The numerical weather prediction model is initiated at varying times before the peak precipitation is observed to test the importance of the initialisation and boundary conditions, and how long the simulation can be run for. The results are compared to raingauge data as verification and show that the model intensities are most similar to observations when the model is initialised 12 hours before the peak precipitation is observed. It was also shown that using non-gridded datasets makes verification more difficult, with the density of observations also affecting the intensities observed. It is concluded that the simulations are able to produce realistic precipitation intensities when driven by the coarser resolution data.

  4. The role of climate variability in extreme floods in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Nobre, G.; Jongman, B.; Aerts, J.; Ward, P. J.

    2017-08-01

    Climate variability is shown to be an important driver of spatial and temporal changes in hydrometereological variables in Europe. However, the influence of climate variability on flood damage has received little attention. We investigated the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the East Atlantic pattern (EA) during their neutral, positive, and negative phases, to understand their relationships with four flood indicators: Occurrence of Extreme Rainfall, Intensity of Extreme Rainfall, Flood Occurrence, and Flood Damage. We found that positive and negative phases of NAO and EA are associated with more (or less) frequent and intense seasonal extreme rainfall over large areas of Europe. The relationship between ENSO and the Occurrence of Extreme Rainfall and Intensity of Extreme Rainfall in Europe is much smaller than the relationship with NAO or EA, but still significant in some regions. We show that Flood Damage and Flood Occurrence have strong links with climate variability, especially in southern and eastern Europe. Therefore, when investigating flooding across Europe, all three indices of climate variability should be considered. Future research should focus on their joint influence on flood risk. The potential inclusion of seasonal forecasts of indices of climate variability could be effective in forecasting flood damage.

  5. Extreme climatic events: impacts of drought and high temperature on physiological processes in agronomically important plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs eFeller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate models predict more frequent and more severe extreme events (e.g. heat waves, extended drought periods, flooding in many regions for the next decades. The impact of adverse environmental conditions on crop plants is ecologically and economically relevant. This review is focused on drought and heat effects on physiological status and productivity of agronomically important plants. Stomatal opening represents an important regulatory mechanism during drought and heat stress since it influences simultaneously water loss via transpiration and CO2 diffusion into the leaf apoplast which further is utilized in photosynthesis. Along with the reversible short-term control of stomatal opening, stomata and leaf epidermis may produce waxy deposits and irreversibly down-regulate the stomatal conductance and non-stomatal transpiration. As a consequence photosynthesis will be negatively affected. Rubisco activase - a key enzyme in keeping the Calvin cycle functional – is heat-sensitive and may become a limiting factor at elevated temperature. The accumulated reactive oxygen species during stress represent an additional challenge under unfavorable conditions. Drought and heat cause accumulation of free amino acids which are partially converted into compatible solutes such as proline. This is accompanied by lower rates of both nitrate reduction and de novo amino acid biosynthesis. Protective proteins (e.g. dehydrins, chaperones, antioxidant enzymes or the key enzyme for proline biosynthesis play an important role in leaves and may be present at higher levels under water deprivation or high temperatures. On the whole plant level, effects on long-distance translocation of solutes via xylem and phloem and on leaf senescence (e.g. anticipated, accelerated or delayed senescence are important. The factors mentioned above are relevant for the overall performance of crops under drought and heat and must be considered for genotype selection and breeding programs.

  6. Curriculum change: the importance of team role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomfield, D; Bligh, J

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes a study examining aspects of team role in the management of curriculum change. The Belbin Team Role Self-Perception Inventory was completed by 25 members (83%) of a faculty curriculum development team. Overall the group showed a preference for the implementer and shaper roles, whilst the completer-finisher role was relatively weakly represented, ranking fifth out of eight possible roles. Older and more senior team members favoured the co-ordinator role, whilst younger and more junior members favoured the team-worker and completer-finisher roles. Some implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the current trend for widespread change in undergraduate medical curricula and the challenges faced by medical schools in a resource constrained environment.

  7. Role Playing, Issue Importance, and Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarup, Gian

    1981-01-01

    Contrasted three major theories on attitude change: cognitive dissonance, incentive, and social judgment. Results from student questionnaires provided little support for cognitive dissonance. Also provided credible, though overlapping, evidence for incentive and social judgment theories. Improvised role playing produced more change than did…

  8. Minimal Clinically Important Difference of Patient Reported Outcome Measures of Lower Extremity Injuries in Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Derya; Çoban, Özge; Kılıçoğlu, Önder

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: MCID scores for outcome measures are frequently used evidence-based guides to gage meaningful changes. To conduct a systematic review of the quality and content of the the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) relating to 16 patient-rated outcome measures (PROM) used in lower extremity. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review on articles reporting MCID in lower extremity outcome measures and orthopedics from January 1, 1980, to May 10, 2016. We evaluated MCID of the 16 patient reported outcome measures (PROM) which were Harris Hip Score (HHS), Oxford Hip Score (OHS), Hip Outcome Score (HOS), Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), The International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC), The Lysholm Scale, The Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET), The Anterior Cruciate Ligament Quality of Life Questionnaire (ACL-QOL), The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), The Western Ontario and Mcmaster Universities Index (WOMAC), Knee İnjury And Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale, The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment Patellar Tendinosis (Jumper’s Knee) (VİSA-P), Tegner Activity Rating Scale, Marx Activity Rating Scale, Foot And Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), The Foot Function Index (FFI), Foot And Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), The Foot And Ankle Disability Index Score and Sports Module, Achill Tendon Total Rupture Score(ATRS), The Victorian İnstitute Of Sports Assesment Achilles Questionnaire(VİSA-A), American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS). A search of the PubMed/MEDLINE, PEDro and Cochrane Cen¬tral Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases from the date of inception to May 1, 2016 was conducted. The terms “minimal clinically important difference,” “minimal clinically important change”, “minimal clinically important improvement” “were combined with one of the PROM as mentioned above

  9. The non-Gaussianity and spatial asymmetry of temperature extremes relative to the jet: the role of horizontal advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnik, Nili; Garfinkel, Chaim

    2016-04-01

    Global warming is expected raise the number of warm spells and lower the number of cold spells, by simply shifting of the near-surface temperature probability distribution to warmer temperatures. However, changes in the shape of distribution strongly affect how the occurrence of temperature extremes will change. Hence, understanding the processes shaping the spatial and statistical distribution of temperature variations and extremes in the present climate is central to understanding how temperature extremes might vary in the future. Using meteorological reanalyses data we show that the distribution of near-surface temperature variability is non-Gaussian, and consistent with this, extreme warm anomalies occur preferentially poleward of the location of extreme cold anomalies. The non-Guassianity evident in reanalysis data is also found in a set of dry General Circulation Model runs in which the jet is forced at different latitudes, and the location of extremes is influenced by the location of the jet stream. Using a simple model of Lagrangian temperature advection, we investigate the role of synoptic dynamics in causing this non Gaussianity. The meridional shifting between cold and warm extremes, and the related non-Gaussianity are traced back to the synoptic evolution leading up to cold and warm extreme events. We find that the meridional movement of synotpic systems, as well as nonlinear temperature advection are both of crucial importance for the warm/cold asymmetry in the latitudinal distribution of the temperature extremes. The possible implications for future changes in extremes will be briefly discussed.

  10. The critical role of uncertainty in projections of hydrological extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meresa, Hadush K.; Romanowicz, Renata J.

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to quantify the uncertainty in projections of future hydrological extremes in the Biala Tarnowska River at Koszyce gauging station, south Poland. The approach followed is based on several climate projections obtained from the EURO-CORDEX initiative, raw and bias-corrected realizations of catchment precipitation, and flow simulations derived using multiple hydrological model parameter sets. The projections cover the 21st century. Three sources of uncertainty are considered: one related to climate projection ensemble spread, the second related to the uncertainty in hydrological model parameters and the third related to the error in fitting theoretical distribution models to annual extreme flow series. The uncertainty of projected extreme indices related to hydrological model parameters was conditioned on flow observations from the reference period using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) approach, with separate criteria for high- and low-flow extremes. Extreme (low and high) flow quantiles were estimated using the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution at different return periods and were based on two different lengths of the flow time series. A sensitivity analysis based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the uncertainty introduced by the hydrological model parameters can be larger than the climate model variability and the distribution fit uncertainty for the low-flow extremes whilst for the high-flow extremes higher uncertainty is observed from climate models than from hydrological parameter and distribution fit uncertainties. This implies that ignoring one of the three uncertainty sources may cause great risk to future hydrological extreme adaptations and water resource planning and management.

  11. PRI Play Important Role in West-East Project · Interview with PIR Director Xue Zhenkui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lu

    2002-01-01

    @@ Pipeline Research Institute of CNPC (PRI) is playing a more and more important role in the oil and natural gas pipeline industrial development in the present-day China. The pipeline technology and equipment developed by PRI have proven costeffective and extremely useful in the country's WestEast gas transmission pipeline project

  12. The role of synoptic and intraseasonal anomalies in the life cycle of summer rainfall extremes over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Fernando E.; Grimm, Alice M.

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of this study is to describe the role of synoptic and intraseasonal anomalies during the life cycle of summer rainfall extremes over South America. Eastward-propagating synoptic-scale midlatitude waves are the main drivers of extreme precipitation events south of the Amazon and their interaction with intraseasonal anomalies over South America is important for heavy rainfall over the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) region and the La Plata basin. Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) convective activity in the western Pacific (phases 6 and 7) leads 31 out of 81 extremes over the SACZ region by nearly 10 days. The connection between the MJO and rainfall extremes in other regions is less robust. During El Niño seasons extremes are more frequent in the La Plata basin, with decreased importance of intraseasonal anomalies. Precipitation extremes over the La Plata basin tend to be less frequent and also shorter during La Niña summers and, consequently, less hazardous. In the SACZ and the southeastern Brazilian coast, heavy rainfall is also more frequent under El Niño conditions, while La Niña episodes also increase extreme events in the southeastern coast. Extremes over the southeastern coast during El Niños are favored by strong intraseasonal anomalies flanking the subtropical jet, while during La Niñas intraseasonal anomalies are not significant.

  13. Estimating the Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields and Farmland Values: The Importance of Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation titled Estimating the Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields and Farmland Values: The Importance of Extreme Temperatures that was given for the National Center for Environmental Economics

  14. The role of planetary waves in weather extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    The recent decade has seen an exceptional number of high-impact weather extremes in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, such as the European heat wave 2003, the Russian heat wave and the Indus river flood in Pakistan in 2010, the heat waves in the United States and southern Europe and catastrophic floods in China and Japan in 2012, the heat wave in the United States and the severe flooding in central Europe in 2013. Many of these events were associated with anomalous jet stream circulation patterns. Recently, a novel mechanism, involving the amplification of quasi-stationary Rossby waves by resonance with thermal and orographic forcing patterns, has been proposed that could explain many of these boreal summer extremes (1). We discuss the evidence linking planetary wave resonance to extreme weather events and present new analysis on temporal changes in the occurrence of wave resonance events. 1. Petoukhov, V., S. Rahmstorf, S. Petri, and H. J. Schellnhuber, 2013: Quasiresonant amplification of planetary waves and recent Northern Hemisphere weather extremes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110, 5336-5341

  15. Communicating natural hazards. The case of marine extreme events and the importance of the forecast's errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Eduardo; Camargo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    possible to produce short and long term forecasts. While the statistic of extremes is useful for many stakeholders, short term forecasts could be of importance for the whole society. Whatever the case, the prediction errors have to be emphasizes even more than the forecasts. The most common forecast in terms of general public understanding is the weather prediction. Nowadays, general public knows it well enough to properly deal with the uncertainties, because after so many year of not perfect forecasts, society knows the limits. Other coastal hazards deserve to be presented more carefully, and some successful example of the use of the precautionary principle could be observed, for instance, on the Pacific Tsunami alert system. Nowadays, the preparedness of the coastal population is good enough (even in such big and diverse area) not to be bored to run up the hill, most of the times unnecessarily, because they know the uncertainty and accept it. The key issue we, scientists, have to work better at any level, is the need of properly estimate and communicate the uncertainties of our results, cause they are not obvious nor irrelevant.

  16. Coaching Teachers: An Important Principal Role. Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    A principal's most important role is instructional leader. There is a growing recognition of the importance of working with teachers, serving as a mentor and coach. Coaching has emerged as one of the more effective professional development options for adult learners. It is an important tool because it is an investment in human capital and in the…

  17. The role and importance of the independent shipowner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugland, A. [Andreas Ugland & Sons AS, (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper relates to the transport of oil by tanker ships with the focus on the role and importance of the independent shipowner. About 60 per cent of the world`s crude oil is carried by sea, and 99.98 per cent of it arrives at its destination without incident. Topics cover: The independent owner`s role; cost of transportation; what is the importance of the independent owners. 7 figs.

  18. On the importance of observational data properties when assessing regional climate model performance of extreme precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Christensen, Ole Bøssing

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of climate studies addressing changes in extreme precipitation. A common step in these studies involves the assessment of the climate model performance. This is often measured by comparing climate model output with observational data....... In the majority of such studies the characteristics and uncertainties of the observational data are neglected. This study addresses the influence of using different observational datasets to assess the climate model performance. Four different datasets covering Denmark using different gauge systems and comprising...... both networks of point measurements and gridded datasets are considered. Additionally, the influence of using different performance indices and metrics is addressed. A set of indices ranging from mean to extreme precipitation properties is calculated for all the datasets. For each of the observational...

  19. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  20. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  1. Role of cerebral blood flow in extreme breath holding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of cerebral blood flow (CBF on a maximal breath-hold (BH in ultra-elite divers was examined. Divers (n = 7 performed one control BH, and one BH following oral administration of the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (1.2 mg/kg. Arterial blood gases and CBF were measured prior to (baseline, and at BH termination. Compared to control, indomethacin reduced baseline CBF and cerebral delivery of oxygen (CDO2 by about 26% (p < 0.01. Indomethacin reduced maximal BH time from 339 ± 51 to 319 ± 57 seconds (p = 0.04. In both conditions, the CDO2 remained unchanged from baseline to the termination of apnea. At BH termination, arterial oxygen tension was higher following oral administration of indomethacin compared to control (4.05 ± 0.45 vs. 3.44 ± 0.32 kPa. The absolute increase in CBF from baseline to the termination of apnea was lower with indomethacin (p = 0.01. These findings indicate that the impact of CBF on maximal BH time is likely attributable to its influence on cerebral H+ washout, and therefore central chemoreceptive drive to breathe, rather than to CDO2.

  2. On the importance of cloud—cloud interaction to invigorate convective extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Moseley, Christopher; Hohenegger, Cathy; Haerter, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Observational studies have shown that convective extremes are invigorated with increasing temperatures beyond thermodynamic constraints through the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship (e.g. Lenderink and van Meijgaard, Nature Geosci., 2008; Berg et al., Nature Geosci., 2013). This implies that there are changes in the dynamics of the convective showers that are dependent on the environmental conditions. Observations of convective cells lack sufficient resolution to investigate the dynamics in detail. We have therefore applied a large eddy simulator (LES) at a 200 m horizontal resolution to study the dynamical interaction between convective cells in a set of idealized simulations of a full diurnal cycle with a vertical profile of a typical day with convective showers (Moseley et al., Nature Geosci., 2016). The simulations show that the convective cells are subjected to a gradual self-organization over the day, forming larger cell clusters and more intense precipitation. Further, by tracking rain cells, we find that cells that collide with other cells during their lifetime have a different response to changes in the environmental conditions, such as an increase in temperature, than cells that do not interact. Whereas the non-interacting cells remain almost unaffected by the boundary conditions, the colliding cells show a strong invigoration. Interestingly, granting more time for the self-organization to occur has a similar effect as increasing the temperature. We therefore speculate that self-organization is a key element to explain the strong response of convective extremes to increasing temperature. Our results suggest that proper modeling and predicting of convective extremes requires the description of the interaction between convective clouds.

  3. Socio-economic hazards and impacts of space weather: the important range between mild and extreme

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Carolus J

    2015-01-01

    Society needs to prepare for more severe space weather than it has experienced in the modern technological era. To enable that, we must both quantify extreme-event characteristics and analyze impacts of lesser events that are frequent yet severe enough to be informative. Exploratory studies suggest that economic impacts of a century-level space hurricane and of a century of lesser space-weather "gales" may turn out to be of the same order of magnitude. The economic benefits of effective mitigation of the impacts of space gales may substantially exceed the required investments, even as these investments provide valuable information to prepare for the worst possible storms.

  4. An investigation into the role of place attachment within extreme sport tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkup, Naomi; Sutherland, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Extreme sport participation is a growing phenomenon, both in terms of active and passive consumption. Nevertheless this growth is not mirrored in the academic literature where a clear dearth in research into extreme sport tourism consumption is evident. The conceptualisation of sport tourism is of a unique interaction of three components, namely: activity, people and place, although some argue that the role of place is unclear. Place, within a tourism context, is concerned with the destinatio...

  5. An investigation into the role of place attachment within extreme sport tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkup, Naomi; Sutherland, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Extreme sport participation is a growing phenomenon, both in terms of active and passive consumption. Nevertheless this growth is not mirrored in the academic literature where a clear dearth in research into extreme sport tourism consumption is evident. The conceptualisation of sport tourism is of a unique interaction of three components, namely: activity, people and place, although some argue that the role of place is unclear. Place, within a tourism context, is concerned with the destinatio...

  6. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES IN RESTAURANT BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern restaurant business, as part of a catering business, offers a variety of meals and beverages in restaurants and various related facilities. Promotional activities play a very important role in managing a restaurant and related facilities, because any serious restaurant facility must take all the necessary and effective measures in order to maintain regular guests and approach potential new guests. In this paper, I will write about conceptualizing restaurant business and elementary business systems in restaurant business. In a separate part, I will write about conceptualizing promotions and promotional activities as important factors in achieving better and more efficient communication of restaurants with regular and potential guests.

  7. The role of land use change in the recent warming of daily extreme temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Betts, Richard A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Understanding how temperature extremes respond in a climate forced by human activity is of great importance, as extreme temperatures are detrimental to health and often responsible for mortality increases. While previous detection and attribution studies demonstrated a significant human influence on the recent warming of daily extremes, contributions of individual anthropogenic forcings like changes in land use have not yet been investigated in such studies. Here we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to data from observations and experiments with a new earth system model to examine whether changing land use has led to detectable changes in daily extreme temperatures on a quasi-global scale. We find that loss of trees and increase of grassland since preindustrial times has caused an overall cooling trend in both mean and extreme temperatures which is detectable in the observed changes of warm but not cold extremes. The warming in both mean and extreme temperatures due to anthropogenic forcings other than land use is detected in all cases, whereas the weaker effect of natural climatic forcings is not detected in any. This is the first formal attribution of observed climatic changes to changing land use, suggesting further investigations are justified, particularly in studies of warm extremes.

  8. Communicating adaptation with emotions: the role of intense experiences in raising concern about extreme weather.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Vasileiadou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to extreme weather is often considered as having a low urgency and being a low priority governance option, even though the intensity of extreme weather events is expected to increase as a result of climate change. An important issue is how to raise an adequate level of concern among individuals, policy makers, and broader decision makers in companies and organizations so that adaptation to extreme events becomes mainstream practice. We conducted 40 indepth interviews with individuals from different sectors in The Netherlands to identify the different types of experiences with extreme events, as well as the relationship between such experiences and the level of concern about extreme weather. Our results indicate that individuals who have experienced an intense, life-threatening event have a significantly higher level of concern than those without such an experience. Professional experience and secondhand experience through participating in information events do not significantly affect the level of concern about extreme events. This suggests limited intervention possibilities for communication of adaptation, as well as for raising support for adaptation measures. Framing adaptation measures in relation to personal circumstances and emotions during extreme events could help raise concern about extreme weather events, as well as societal support for adaptation measures.

  9. Role and Importance of Evaluation in Management Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NICOARA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In determining the enterprise value is assessed, are taken into account all areas that help to generate future profits in the întreprindrii evaluated, respectively. In this respect, a special role is managerial decision.This is the main tool to achieve business objectives, which should be based on past actual situation of the enterprise, the current existing ralitatile on forecasting ability, but also work with other specialisti.Rezultatele assessment is an important source of decision management.

  10. Important role of alkali atoms in A4C60

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, O.; Erwin, S. C.; Koch, E.; Martin, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    We show that hopping via the alkali atoms plays an important role for the t1u band of A4C60 (A=K, Rb), in strong contrast to A3C60. Thus the t1u band is broadened by more than 40 % by the presence of the alkali atoms. The difference between A4C60 and A3C60 is in particular due to the less symmetric location of the alkali atoms in A4C60.

  11. The Important Role of Physics in Industry and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Igor

    2012-10-01

    Good Physics requires good education. Good education translates into good Physics professionals. The process starts early with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education programs for Middle and High-School students. Then it continues with competitive higher education programs (2 years and 4 years) at colleges and universities designed to satisfy the needs of industry and academia. The research work conducted by graduate students in Physics (and Engineering Physics) frequently translates into new discoveries and innovations that have direct impact in society (e.g. Proton Cancer Therapy). Some of the major and largest scientific experiments in the world today are physics-centered (e.g. Large Hadron Collider-LHC) that generate employment and business opportunities for thousands of scientists, academic research groups and companies from around the world. New superconducting magnets and advanced materials that have resulted from previous research in physics are commonly used in these extreme experiments. But not all physicists will end up working at these large high-energy physics experiments, universities or National Laboratories (e.g. Fermilab); industry requires new generations of (industrial) physicists in such sectors as semiconductor, energy, space, life sciences, defense and advanced manufacturing. This work presents an industry perspective about the role of Physics in economic development and the need for a collaborative Academic-Industry approach for a more effective translational research. A series of examples will be presented with emphasis in the measurement, control, diagnostics and computing capabilities needed to translate the science (physics) into innovations and practical solutions that can benefit society as a whole.

  12. [Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), an extremely important naturalist and scholar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

    2002-11-01

    Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) belongs to the famous scientists of the 19th century. His research work is enormous. Important termini e.g. diverticulum Meckelii, cartilago Meckelii, Meckel syndrome and Meckel Serres law reflect the scientific results obtained by Meckel. He worked as a professor of anatomy, pathology and zoology at the University of Halle, a town in the Central Germany. Meckel founded the scientific teratology. In the literature he is also referred to the German Cuvier. On 8 April 1802, J. F. Meckel defended his doctoral thesis "De cordis conditionibus abnormibus". On occasion of the 200th anniversary of this event, we like to honor J. F. Meckel the famous German anatomist. Therefore, during the 97th session of the Anatomische Gesellschaft at Halle, a satellite symposium "From Meck el to genom" was held.

  13. Perceived role legitimacy and role importance of Australian school staff in addressing student cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J; Norberg, Melissa M; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such, this study surveyed a sample of 1691 Australian school staff by utilizing Generation Next seminars which are attended by professionals working with young people. The self-completed survey identified that, despite elevated contact with students relative to other school staff, teachers reported the least role importance and legitimacy of all school staff. Further, teachers reported the lowest level of staff drug education training, which was an important predictor of an increased feeling of role importance and legitimacy among school staff.

  14. IMPORTANCE AND ROLE OF COST ACCOUNTING IN COMPANY CRISIS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Todorović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Company crisis could be defined asa process in a period of time that unexpectedlythreatesn the realization of the mission and goals ofthe company. As such, it has been present forseveral years both in highly developed countries ofthe world and in our country. The causes of thecrisis can be numerous, and the current crisis inour business is in many ways specific, and requiresa large extent and greater involvement ofmanagement structures in the detection andelimination of consequences caused by the crisis. Inthis regard, the management structure must focusattention to high-quality accounting - informationsupport, which results from adequately establishedconcept of managing accounting. Appropriate,timely and relevant information on economicperformance are necessary for its success, which atthe same time assume the role of control and/ordispositive crisis management instruments in thecompany. The information derived from managingaccounting as a quality base for decision makingshould enable recognition of symptoms and causesof the crisis, as well as crisis prevention andassessment. The paper recalls the specific and mostcommon causes of the crisis in the company, as oneof the important issues, especially in the globaleconomic crisis. In addition, the paper will pointout the importance of setting realistic goals andpossibilities to prevent the crisis. Finally, wehighlight the importance of cost accounting inorder to overcome the effects of the crisis.

  15. Perceived Role Legitimacy and Role Importance of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…

  16. Perceived Role Legitimacy and Role Importance of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…

  17. Representing ozone extremes in European megacities: the importance of resolution in a global chemistry climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Stock

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuing growth of the world's urban population has led to an increasing number of cities with more than 10 million inhabitants. The higher emissions of pollutants, coupled to higher population density, makes predictions of air quality in these megacities of particular importance from both a science and a policy perspective. Global climate models are typically run at coarse resolution to enable both the efficient running of long time integrations, and the ability to run multiple future climate scenarios. However, when considering surface ozone concentrations at the local scale, coarse resolution can lead to inaccuracies arising from the highly non-linear ozone chemistry and the sensitivity of ozone to the distribution of its precursors on smaller scales. In this study, we use UM-UKCA, a global atmospheric chemistry model, coupled to the UK Met Office Unified Model, to investigate the impact of model resolution on tropospheric ozone, ranging from global to local scales. We focus on the model's ability to represent the probability of high ozone concentrations in the summer and low ozone concentrations, associated with polluted megacity environments, in the winter, and how this varies with horizontal resolution. We perform time-slice integrations with two model configurations at typical climate resolution (CR, ~150 km and at a higher resolution (HR, ~40 km. The CR configuration leads to overestimation of ozone concentrations on both regional and local scales, while it gives broadly similar results to the HR configuration on the global scale. The HR configuration is found to produce a more realistic diurnal cycle of ozone concentrations and to give a better representation of the probability density function of ozone values in urban areas such as the megacities of London and Paris. We discuss the possible causes for the observed difference in model behaviour between CR and HR configurations and estimate the relative contribution of chemical and

  18. Community participatory approach: an important managerial role in cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latiff, Khalib Abdul

    2008-01-01

    Despite the mountain of information generated by researchers, the cancer problem has not significantly declined and perhaps in certain situations it is gradually increasing, affecting those who are previously at low risk. There is a tendency to believe that positive outcomes can always be expected once intervention activities, like exercise promotion, are carried out, but practical experience gives rise to serious doubt. A greater understanding of the biological mechanisms operating in the physical activity, cancer relation, complete measurement of physical activity through a subject's life, assessment of all potential confounders and association modifiers are needed to confirm a protective role of physical activity in cancer development and allow specific exercise prescriptions for community-based prevention in particular cancer sites. Furthermore, the most important impetus of any community intervention approach should be oriented in the form of 'from people to the people'. More emphasis needs to be placed on effective management and parameters for assessment of management success.

  19. Copy number variation plays an important role in clinical epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Heather; Shen, Yiping; Avallone, Jennifer; Sheidley, Beth R.; Pinsky, Rebecca; Bergin, Ann M.; Berry, Gerard T.; Duffy, Frank H.; Eksioglu, Yaman; Harris, David J.; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ho, Eugenia; Irons, Mira; Jacobsen, Christina M.; James, Philip; Kothare, Sanjeev; Khwaja, Omar; Lipton, Jonathan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Markowitz, Jennifer; Maski, Kiran; Megerian, J. Thomas; Neilan, Edward; Raffalli, Peter C.; Robbins, Michael; Roberts, Amy; Roe, Eugene; Rollins, Caitlin; Sahin, Mustafa; Sarco, Dean; Schonwald, Alison; Smith, Sharon E.; Soul, Janet; Stoler, Joan M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Tan, Wen-Han; Torres, Alcy R.; Tsai, Peter; Urion, David K.; Weissman, Laura; Wolff, Robert; Wu, Bai-Lin; Miller, David T.; Poduri, Annapurna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of copy number abnormalities detectable by chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing in patients with epilepsy at a tertiary care center. Methods We identified patients with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures and clinical CMA testing performed between October 2006 and February 2011 at Boston Children’s Hospital. We reviewed medical records and included patients meeting criteria for epilepsy. We phenotypically characterized patients with epilepsy-associated abnormalities on CMA. Results Of 973 patients who had CMA and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures, 805 patients satisfied criteria for epilepsy. We observed 437 copy number variants (CNVs) in 323 patients (1–4 per patient), including 185 (42%) deletions and 252 (58%) duplications. Forty (9%) were confirmed de novo, 186 (43%) were inherited, and parental data were unavailable for 211 (48%). Excluding full chromosome trisomies, CNV size ranged from 18 kb to 142 Mb, and 34% were over 500 kb. In at least 40 cases (5%), the epilepsy phenotype was explained by a CNV, including 29 patients with epilepsy-associated syndromes and 11 with likely disease-associated CNVs involving epilepsy genes or “hotspots.” We observed numerous recurrent CNVs including 10 involving loss or gain of Xp22.31, a region described in patients with and without epilepsy. Interpretation Copy number abnormalities play an important role in patients with epilepsy. Given that the diagnostic yield of CMA for epilepsy patients is similar to the yield in autism spectrum disorders and in prenatal diagnosis, for which published guidelines recommend testing with CMA, we recommend the implementation of CMA in the evaluation of unexplained epilepsy. PMID:24811917

  20. RISK MANAGEMENT’S IMPORTANCE AND ROLE IN AUDIT

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    Dreve Raluca-Madalina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of treating this theme is proved by the current situation that economy and the entities activating on the market are confronted with. Risk is present in all the actions and event of humanity. Risk is in a permanent change, it evolves in complexity, among the traditional exposures to hazard other risks are added: operational, financial, strategic, market, country, legal, human, fraud risks and its complex character can be attributed to a range of factors that are grouped by the specialized literature in macroeconomic factors, also called extern, and microeconomic factors, also called intern. In the last few years, the importance of the corporate governance involvement in risk management is more and more recognized. The organizations are under the pressure of identifying all risks that it is confronted with starting with social risks, ethical and environment risks to those financial and operational, and also to the way it manages them at an acceptable level. In the same time, using integrated risk management procedures and politics at enterprise level (ERM-Enterprise Risk Management has extended, in this way organizations are admitting the risk management approach advantages. The internal audit, in both his roles of providing assurance and consultancy, contributes to risk management in various ways, its importance being increasing due to the current financial crisis. For the financial auditor the term of risk has other senses, meaning that risks are regarded through the mission type and objectives. But still, identifying and measuring audit risks during the mission’s planning are strong connected to the existing risk management of the entity. In this way, if the audited entity has an implemented risk management that is proved to be efficient, this will represent a starting point for the auditor in evaluating the risks connected to his engagement, meaning that the general audit risk will be lower and the assurance level will be

  1. The importance of role sending in the sensemaking of change agent roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Danielle A; Hendy, Jane; Barlow, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate what happens when a lack of role-sending results in ambiguous change agent roles during a large scale organisational reconfiguration. The authors consider the role of sensemaking in resolving role ambiguity of middle manager change agents and the consequences of this for organisational restructuring. Data were collected from a case study analysis of significant organisational reconfiguration across a local National Health Service Trust in the UK. Data consists of 82 interviews, complemented by analysis of over 100 documents and field notes from 51 hours of observations collected over five phases covering a three year period before, during and after the reconfiguration. An inductive qualitative analysis revealed the sensemaking processes by which ambiguity in role definition was resolved. The data explains how change agents collectively make sense of a role in their own way, drawing on their own experiences and views as well as cues from other organisational members. The authors also identified the organisational outcomes which resulted from this freedom in sensemaking. This study demonstrates that by leaving too much flexibility in the definition of the role, agents developed their own sensemaking which was subsequently very difficult to manipulate. In creating new roles, management first needs to have a realistic vision of the task and roles that their agents will perform, and second, to communicate these expectations to both those responsible for recruiting these roles and to the agents themselves. Much of the focus in sensemaking research has been on the importance of change agents' sensemaking of the change but there has been little focus on how change agents sensemake their own role in the change.

  2. Assessing the Importance of Gender Roles in Couples' Home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    based ... impact men and women in this setting, influencing the perceived benefits of ... and policymakers have also supported greater .... 20-24), likely due to sexual relationships between ... specific ways in which gender roles and gender.

  3. Role Ambiguity and Role Overload as Important Predictors of Work-Family Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Izzaty Mohamad

    2016-10-01

    the actual survey as the main procedure of collecting data for this study. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the work stress and work-family conflict of workers using 97 questionnaires collected from navy in Malaysia. The outcomes of testing hypothesis by using smartPLS path model confirmed two important findings. First, role ambiguity was significantly correlated with work-family conflict. Second, role overload was significantly correlated with work-family conflict. This result confirms that the ability of employees to appropriately manage the ambiguity and overload in performing daily job may reduce reduce work-family conflict in the studied organization.

  4. Upper extremity peripheral neuropathies: role and impact of MR imaging on patient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreisek, Gustav [University Hospital Zurich, Institute for Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, 5th Floor, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Burg, Doris [University Hospital Zurich (Academic Medical Center), Division for Plastic, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Studer, Ansgar [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Neurology, Zurich (Switzerland); Weishaupt, Dominik [University Hospital Zurich, Institute for Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-09-15

    To investigate the role of MR imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of peripheral nerve lesions of the upper extremities and to assess its impact on the patient management. Fifty-one patients with clinical evidence of radial, median, and/or ulnar nerve lesions and unclear or ambiguous clinical findings had MRI of the upper extremity at 1.5 T. MR images and clinical data were reviewed by two blinded radiologists and a group of three clinical experts, respectively, with regard to radial, median, and/or ulnar nerve, as well as muscle abnormalities. MRI and clinical findings were correlated using Spearman's (p) rank correlation test. The impact of MRI on patient management was assessed by the group of experts and ranked as ''major,'' ''moderate,'' or ''no'' impact. The correlation of MRI and clinical findings was moderate for the assessment of the median/radial nerve and muscles (p=0.51/0.51/0.63, respectively) and weak for the ulnar nerve (p=0.40). The impact of MRI on patient management was assessed as ''major'' in 24/51 (47%), ''moderate'' in 19/51 (37%), and ''no'' in 8/51 (16%) patients. MRI in patients with upper extremity peripheral neuropathies and unclear or ambiguous clinical findings substantially influences the patient management. (orig.)

  5. Extreme conditions over Europe and North America: role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Msadek, Rym; Delworth, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is the result and possibly the source of marked modulations of the climate over many areas of the globe. For instance, the relatively warm and dry climate of North America throughout the 30-yr interval of 1931-60, during which the Dust Bowl and the 1950's drought occurred, has been linked to the concomitant warm phase of the AMV. During this period relative warm and wet conditions prevailed over Europe. After 1960, the Atlantic began to cool, and for almost three decades the North American climate turned wetter and cooler whereas Europe experienced cooler and dryer conditions. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period suggested by longer proxy (~60-80yr) does not allow to firmly conclude on the causal effect of the AMV. We use a model approach to isolate the causal role of the AMV on the occurrence of extreme events over Europe and North America. We present experiments based on two GFDL global climate models, a low resolution version, CM2.1 and a higher resolution model for the atmospheric component, FLOR. In both model experiments sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic sector are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts on extreme events, we use large ensemble simulations (100 members for CM2.1 and 50 for FLOR) that we run for 20 years. We find that a positive phase of the AMV increases the frequency of occurrence of drought over North America and of extremely cold/warm conditions over Northern/Central Europe during winter/summer. Interestingly, we find that the AMV impacts on these extreme conditions are modulated by the Pacific response to the AMV itself. Members that develop a weak Pacific response show more extreme events over Europe whereas those that develop a strong Pacific response show more extreme events over North America.

  6. The Important Role of Grasping the Context in Word Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals the importance of context.It contains four aspects:eliminate ambiguity,indicate referent,explain the linguistic phenomenon and enrich word meaning.It aims to draw English learners' attention in context.

  7. Bioethics mediation: the role and importance of nursing advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlairet, Maura C

    2009-01-01

    Ethics consultations are utilized in health care to identify and manage conflict, difficult decision-making, and ethical issues. In bioethics mediation, a more updated approach using interpersonal, mediative, conflict management, and dispute resolution skills is merged with ethical principles to manage dilemmas arising in healthcare settings. This article argues, based on a professional obligation to advocate for the good of the client, that nurses must assume leadership roles in mediation processes. Nurses can initiate and fully participate in formal bioethics mediation and other mediative interventions. Nurse administrators can work to evolve existing ethics consult models to mediation models. Nonetheless, mediative efforts of individual nurses must be grounded in realization of the multifactorial nature of conflict and dilemma in healthcare settings. Multidisciplinary mediative interventions, framed by sound institutional policies, may best serve the complex needs of ethically vulnerable clients. To best advocate for these at-risk clients, nurses must assume various leadership roles in mediation processes.

  8. Role and importance of poultry products for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrancean Calin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses to a topical issue about the enormous importance of nutrition to health. Research conducted shows that people today want the food they consume to have all appropriate nutrients and in order to be able to operate and how to have a better life.

  9. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF POULTRY PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin VRANCEAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses to a topical issue about the enormous importance of nutrition to health. Research conducted shows that people today want the food they consume to have all appropriate nutrients and in order to be able to operate and how to have a better life.

  10. The Important Role of Context of Culture in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高飞; 黄英双

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the indispensable role of c ontext of culture in the translation of meaning of language in-use,showing it to be the source of contex tual background of a particular text and of which the contextual features derive .It pays special attention to the tactics for understanding as well as interpret ing words in the light of context.It maintains that the context of culture in wh ich the translator works in mainly affects and limits the choice of words in tra nslation.

  11. Important roles for membrane lipids in haloarchaeal bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Matthias Y; Yoshinaga, Marcos Y; Valentine, Raymond C; Wörmer, Lars; Valentine, David L

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in lipidomic analysis in combination with various physiological experiments set the stage for deciphering the structure-function of haloarchaeal membrane lipids. Here we focused primarily on changes in lipid composition of Haloferax volcanii, but also performed a comparative analysis with four other haloarchaeal species (Halobacterium salinarum, Halorubrum lacusprofundi, Halorubrum sodomense and Haloplanus natans) all representing distinctive cell morphologies and behaviors (i.e., rod shape vs. pleomorphic behavior). Common to all five haloarchaea, our data reveal an extraordinary high level of menaquinone, reaching up to 72% of the total lipids. This ubiquity suggests that menaquinones may function beyond their ordinary role as electron and proton transporter, acting simultaneously as ion permeability barriers and as powerful shield against oxidative stress. In addition, we aimed at understanding the role of cations interacting with the characteristic negatively charged surface of haloarchaeal membranes. We propose for instance that by bridging the negative charges of adjacent anionic phospholipids, Mg(2+) acts as surrogate for cardiolipin, a molecule that is known to control curvature stress of membranes. This study further provides a bioenergetic perspective as to how haloarchaea evolved following oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere. The success of the aerobic lifestyle of haloarchaea includes multiple membrane-based strategies that successfully balance the need for a robust bilayer structure with the need for high rates of electron transport - collectively representing the molecular basis to inhabit hypersaline water bodies around the planet.

  12. An Important Role Culture Plays in Communicative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓霞

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the effects of cultural background on the communicative approach exemplified by the teaching of Integrated Skills of English (ISE).It proceeds from the interpretation of culture in light of linguis tic and pedagogic perspectives,then target on how cultural knowledge affects the communicative approach with the actual examples from ISE,and concludes that greater importance should be attached to EFL teaching

  13. The spanish agrofood industry: importance and role in regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Juste Carrión

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Le système agrolimentaire se trouve parmi les activités les plus directement touchées par les processus actuels de restructuration productive et de globalisation économique. En fait, l’entrée de l’Espagne dans l’UE a constitué tout un défi pour l’industrie agroalimentaire (IAA espagnole, compte tenu du besoin d’adaptation à un nouveau scénario où l’élargissement du marché entraînait non seulement une augmentation de la clientèle potentielle mais aussi la concurrence de nombreux compétiteurs en matière de commerce extérieur. L’objectif principal de notre article est de mettre en évidence la pertinence de l’industrie agroalimentaire espagnole et son potentiel en tant qu’instrument capable de promouvoir la croissance économique et le développement territorial. Après avoir essayer de déterminer l’importance relative de l’agroalimentaire dans les industries espagnoles et européenne, on analysera les principales caractéristiques de l’industrie agroalimentaire nationale en considérant son comportement ces deux dernières décennies. Enfin, la recherche incluera quelques réflexions sur les points forts et les faiblesses du secteur qui seront les bases de sa future évolution.Among the activities most directly affected by the ongoing processes of productive restructuration and economic globalization include those related with the agrofood sector. The Spanish agrofood industry (AFI has not been an exception. In fact, obtaining membership in the European Union was a real challenge for Spain. That was largely because of its need to speed up the adaptation process to a new scenario in which the broadening of the market produced a noticeable increase in the potential clientele and brought a larger number of more experienced competitors into the import-export business. The main objective of our research is to emphasise the relevance of the Spanish agrofood industry and its potential as an instrument to promote

  14. Adrenocortical carcinoma: An extremely uncommon entity and the role of Immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, G.; Baruah, Manash P; Borah, P.; Borgohain, M.

    2012-01-01

    Adrenocortcal carcinoma is an extremely uncommon entity with an incidence of two in one millionth population. Here we present a 60 year gentleman with pain in abdomen, nausea, and backache, and weight loss. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) abdomen revealed a heterogenous well defined mass measuring (15 × 10.3 × 13) cm3 on the left suprarenal region with central necrosis which extended medially up to the midline. Locally, the growth infiltrated the upper pole of left kidney. Initially, the differential diagnosis included that of renal cell carcinoma arising from upper pole of left kidney involving adrenal gland. The patient underwent left radical nephrectomy and left adrenalectomy. Histological evaluation could not differentiate it from of malignant pheochromocytoma, but immunohistochemistry confirmed it as adrenocortical carcinoma. This case highlights the crucial role of immunohistochemistry in establishing the diagnosis like tumors. PMID:23565434

  15. Adrenocortical carcinoma: An extremely uncommon entity and the role of Immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gogoi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortcal carcinoma is an extremely uncommon entity with an incidence of two in one millionth population. Here we present a 60 year gentleman with pain in abdomen, nausea, and backache, and weight loss. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT abdomen revealed a heterogenous well defined mass measuring (15 × 10.3 × 13 cm 3 on the left suprarenal region with central necrosis which extended medially up to the midline. Locally, the growth infiltrated the upper pole of left kidney. Initially, the differential diagnosis included that of renal cell carcinoma arising from upper pole of left kidney involving adrenal gland. The patient underwent left radical nephrectomy and left adrenalectomy. Histological evaluation could not differentiate it from of malignant pheochromocytoma, but immunohistochemistry confirmed it as adrenocortical carcinoma. This case highlights the crucial role of immunohistochemistry in establishing the diagnosis like tumors.

  16. The role of the tropical West Pacific in the extreme northern hemisphere winter of 2013/14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Peter; Weisheimer, Antje; Knight, Jeff; Palmer, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the 2013/14 winter, the eastern USA was exceptionally cold, the Bering Strait region was exceptionally warm, California was in the midst of drought and the UK suffered severe flooding. It has been suggested that elevated SSTs in the tropical West Pacific (TWPAC) were partly to blame due to their producing a Rossby wavetrain that propagated into the extratropics. We find that seasonal forecasts with the tropical atmosphere relaxed towards a reanalysis give 2013/14 winter-mean anomalies with strong similarities to those observed in the Northern Hemisphere, indicating that low-latitude anomalies had a role in the development of the extremes. Relaxing just the TWPAC produces a strong wavetrain over the North Pacific and North America in January, but not in the winter-mean. This suggests that anomalies in this region alone had a large influence, but cannot explain the extremes through the whole winter. We also examine the response to applying the observed TWPAC SST anomalies in two atmospheric general circulation models. We find that this does produce winter-mean anomalies in the North Pacific and North America resembling those observed, but that the tropical forcing of Rossby waves due to the applied SST anomalies appears stronger than that in reanalysis, except in January. Therefore both experiments indicate that the TWPAC influence was important, but the true strength of the TWPAC influence is uncertain. None of the experiments indicate a strong systematic impact of the TWPAC anomalies on Europe.

  17. Role and Importance of Chlamydia Trachomatis in Pregnant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Angelova Angelova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chlamydial infection among pregnant women and to determine the role of this infection in the fetus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the first phase of this study were reported 58 pregnant women with a positive test for active chlamydial infection by applying immunofluorescence. In the second phase of the study were reported pregnant with premature burst membranes (PBM, postnatal complications associated with chlamydial infection as puerperal endometritis, and newborns are monitored for low birth weight and growth retardation at birth. RESULTS: With a positive test are 58 patients in the first trimester or pregnancy registration in our consultation. After regimen with Sumamed (2 x 500 mg for three days and after 10 days again same scheme for them and their partner at the beginning of the third trimester, the PCR test was made again. Of these, 5 were positive again, participants are between 20 and 30 years old. With premature rupture of OM are 20 patients. There was no increased incidence of premature births. Infants born to infected mothers have a higher risk of developing respiratory symptoms in the first 60 days of life. 3 of them have low for his age bodyweight. CONCLUSIONS: The scarcity of data on manifestations of chlamydial infection during pregnancy and neonatal outcomes justifies this study. Early diagnosis for registration of pregnancy and timely treatment of chlamydial infection as well as scrutinising the infection during the third trimester of pregnancy can prevent infection of the newborn. Therefore, preventive examinations should be considered as a priority for early detection of asymptomatic chlamydial infection in the conduct of antenatal care.

  18. The role and importance of mentoring in physiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Naidoo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous opportunities are afforded by mentoring for career development, new knowledge, stronger theoretical and practical foundations, as well as development of leadership and problem-solving skills. In physiotherapy, mentoring as relates to practice, education and research will help to ensure the growth and future of the profession. Mentoring can be utilised in many different instances in the teaching and learning cycle of physiotherapy students and physiotherapists and can contribute towards professional growth. The benefits derived by the mentor and mentee are immense if implemented in accordance with a deep understanding of the mentoring process. The mentoring process needs to be based on intelligent reading of situations and action by the mentor and mentee for a successful relationship. Each mentoring connection is unique, therefore each person enters the relationship and process with their own values and expectations. Mentoring practices are an effective way of supporting and fosteringdevelopment throughout the duration of the undergraduate physiotherapy programme, and professional and career development of physiotherapists. This article reviews the process of mentoring and its importance for implementation in physiotherapy, for undergraduate training and physiotherapy professional growth.

  19. Vegetation plays an important role in mediating future water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, A. M.; Keenan, T. F.; Kelley, D. I.; Prentice, I. C.

    2016-09-01

    Future environmental change is expected to modify the global hydrological cycle, with consequences for the regional distribution of freshwater supplies. Regional precipitation projections, however, differ largely between models, making future water resource projections highly uncertain. Using two representative concentration pathways and nine climate models, we estimate 21st century water resources across Australia, employing both a process-based dynamic vegetation model and a simple hydrological framework commonly used in water resource studies to separate the effects of climate and vegetation on water resources. We show surprisingly robust, pathway-independent regional patterns of change in water resources despite large uncertainties in precipitation projections. Increasing plant water use efficiency (due to the changing atmospheric CO2) and reduced green vegetation cover (due to the changing climate) relieve pressure on water resources for the highly populated, humid coastal regions of eastern Australia. By contrast, in semi-arid regions across Australia, runoff declines are amplified by CO2-induced greening, which leads to increased vegetation water use. These findings highlight the importance of including vegetation dynamics in future water resource projections.

  20. Role of Soils in Hydrologic Response to Climate Extremes and Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Save, H.; Reedy, R. C.; Faunt, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing demand for water in response to growing global population underscores the need to better understand linkages and feedbacks between land surface processes and water resources to manage water resources more sustainably. Here we examine the role of soils on hydrologic response to climate extremes and land use change using field scale and remote sensing data at point to basin scales in the U.S. High Plains and California Central Valley. In the U.S. High Plains, soil-textural variations make the difference between sustainable water resources related to coarse-grained soils in the northern High Plains and groundwater mining associated with fine-grained soils in much of the central and southern High Plains. Field data show dynamic response of water resources to droughts and land use change in the northern High Plains with limited response in much of the central and southern High Plains. Soil profiles provide a key to the past by archiving system response to environmental changes in subsurface soil physics and environmental tracer data. Areas with coarse-grained soils are vulnerable to reduced recharge during droughts and increased recharge with land use change from perennial to annual vegetation whereas fine-grained soils are generally insensitive to these stresses. GRACE satellite monitoring of total water storage variations in response to recent droughts is consistent with these spatial variations in soils across the High Plains and hydrologic response to droughts.In the California Central Valley, coarse grained soils in alluvial basins result in dynamic hydrologic responses to climate extremes. GRACE satellite data show marked depletion in total water storage in response to recent droughts reflecting groundwater and surface reservoir storage declines consistent with regional groundwater modeling and monitoring data. The coarse alluvial soils typical of much of the region facilitate managed aquifer recharge in depleted aquifers to complement surface reservoir

  1. The Role of CO2 Physiological Forcing in Driving Future Precipitation Variability and Precipitation Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. B.; Poulsen, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Transpired water contributes roughly 25% to total precipitation over the Earth's land surface. In addition to transpiration's impact on climatological mean precipitation, recent work suggests that transpiration reduces daily and intraseasonal precipitation variability in tropical forest regions. Projected increases in the concentration of CO2 are expected to reduce transpiration through changes in plant physiology (termed the CO2 physiological effect). Here, we use an ensemble of climate model experiments to assess the potential contribution of the CO2 physiological effect to future changes in precipitation variability and extreme precipitation events. Within our model simulations, precipitation responses to the physiological effects of increased CO2 concentrations are greatest throughout the tropics. In most tropical forest regions CO2 physiological forcing increases the annual number of dry (less than 0.1 mm/day) and extremely wet (rainfall exceeds 95th percentile) days. Changes in precipitation are primarily driven by an increase in surface temperature and subsequent changes in atmospheric stability and moisture convergence over vegetated tropical land regions. Our results suggest that the plant physiological response to CO2 forcing may serve as an important contributor to future precipitation variability in the tropics, and that future work should aim to reduce uncertainty in the response of plant physiology to changes in climate.

  2. Role and importance of rehabilitation treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VODA, Ioana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the extrapyramidal system, which occurs following the slow and progressive destruction of the pigmented dopaminergic neurons in the brain stem, particularly the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies. Parkinson’s disease has a progressive evolution and its signs and symptoms develop in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential role of rehabilitation treatment for the prevention of complications in patients with Parkinson’s disease, compared to patients with drug therapy alone. The study included 30 patients aged between 50 and 82 years, divided into two groups: group A, including 15 patients who received both anti-Parkinson drug treatment and rehabilitation treatment consisting of massage, kinesiotherapy and occupational therapy, and group B, patients who received only anti-Parkinson drug treatment. The duration of treatment was two weeks. The study included patients with stages I-IV (the Hoehn and Yahr scale. The evaluation scale used was the Garden City Scale for the testing of tremor, bradykinesia, stiffness, gait, posture, facies, upper limb balance, speech, vegetative disorders and the self-care ability. At the end of the study, the study group, with rehabilitation treatment, had statistically significant improvements compared to the control group, with drug treatment alone. The highest improvements were found in the items “stiffness” and “bradykinesia”, and due to these, the quality of gait was also improved. The exercises for the increase of facial mobility are extremely important, because they improve the verbal and non-verbal communication function. Our data suggest the fact that early individualized rehabilitation treatment plays an important role in the improvement of the quality of life of patients with Parkinson’s disease, by the reduction of the degree of disability, the prevention of complications and the increase of the quality of life

  3. Social roles and the evolution of networks in extreme and isolated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on the evolution of network structure as it relates to formal and informal social roles in well-bounded, isolated groups. Research was conducted at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Data were collected on crewmembers' networks of social interaction over each of three winter-over periods, when the station is completely isolated. In addition, data were collected on the informal roles played by crewmembers (e.g., instrumental leadership, expressive leadership). The study found that globally coherent networks in winter-over groups were associated with group consensus on the presence of critically important informal social roles (e.g., expressive leadership) where global coherence is the extent to which a network forms a single group composed of a unitary core and periphery as opposed to being factionalized into two or more subgroups. Conversely, the evolution of multiple subgroups was associated with the absence of consensus on critical informal social roles, above all the critically important role of instrumental leader.

  4. Social roles and the evolution of networks in extreme and isolated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on the evolution of network structure as it relates to formal and informal social roles in well-bounded, isolated groups. Research was conducted at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Data were collected on crewmembers' networks of social interaction over each of three winter-over periods, when the station is completely isolated. In addition, data were collected on the informal roles played by crewmembers (e.g., instrumental leadership, expressive leadership). The study found that globally coherent networks in winter-over groups were associated with group consensus on the presence of critically important informal social roles (e.g., expressive leadership) where global coherence is the extent to which a network forms a single group composed of a unitary core and periphery as opposed to being factionalized into two or more subgroups. Conversely, the evolution of multiple subgroups was associated with the absence of consensus on critical informal social roles, above all the critically important role of instrumental leader.

  5. Interpreting the Climatic Effects on Xylem Functional Traits in Two Mediterranean Oak Species: The Role of Extreme Climatic Events

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Rita; Marco Borghetti; Luigi Todaro; Antonio Saracino

    2016-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, the widely predicted rise in temperature, change in the precipitation pattern, and increase in the frequency of extreme climatic events are expected to alter the shape of ecological communities and to affect plant physiological processes that regulate ecosystem functioning. Although change in the mean values are important, there is increasing evidence that plant distribution, survival, and productivity respond to extremes rather than to the average climatic condit...

  6. Discussing the role of tropical and subtropical moisture sources in extreme precipitation events in the Mediterranean region from a climate change perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Krichak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme precipitation events in the Mediterranean region during the cool season are strongly affected by the export of moist air from tropical and subtropical areas into the extratropics. The aim of this paper is to present a discussion of the major research efforts on this subject and to formulate a summary of our understanding of this phenomenon, along with its recent past trends from a climate change perspective. The issues addressed are: a discussion of several case studies; the origin of the air moisture and the important role of atmospheric rivers for fueling the events; the mechanism responsible for the intensity of precipitation during the events, and the possible role of global warming in recent past trends in extreme weather events over the Mediterranean region.

  7. The critical role of extreme heat for maize production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, David B.; Hammer, Graeme L.; McLean, Greg; Messina, Carlos; Roberts, Michael J.; Schlenker, Wolfram

    2013-05-01

    Statistical studies of rainfed maize yields in the United States and elsewhere have indicated two clear features: a strong negative yield response to accumulation of temperatures above 30°C (or extreme degree days (EDD)), and a relatively weak response to seasonal rainfall. Here we show that the process-based Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) is able to reproduce both of these relationships in the Midwestern United States and provide insight into underlying mechanisms. The predominant effects of EDD in APSIM are associated with increased vapour pressure deficit, which contributes to water stress in two ways: by increasing demand for soil water to sustain a given rate of carbon assimilation, and by reducing future supply of soil water by raising transpiration rates. APSIM computes daily water stress as the ratio of water supply to demand, and during the critical month of July this ratio is three times more responsive to 2°C warming than to a 20% precipitation reduction. The results suggest a relatively minor role for direct heat stress on reproductive organs at present temperatures in this region. Effects of elevated CO2 on transpiration efficiency should reduce yield sensitivity to EDD in the coming decades, but at most by 25%.

  8. Importância dos minerais na alimentação do pré-termo extremo Minerals in the nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide E. P. Trindade

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão crítica da literatura sobre os minerais cálcio, fósforo e microelementos na nutrição do pré-termo extremo, considerando a importância no crescimento, mineralização óssea e como componente de dietas. FONTES DOS DADOS: Utilizamos o banco de dados MEDLINE e o Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, de 1994 a 2004. Selecionamos artigos com enfoques originais, artigos de revisão e livros específicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: As dificuldades na nutrição de prematuros extremos aumentam a freqüência de prematuros com restrição de crescimento, cujas conseqüências futuras estão para serem determinadas. Todavia, há pouca literatura sobre minerais, especialmente sobre micronutrientes na nutrição do pré-termo extremo, considerando-se o deficiente armazenamento e a importância destes em nutrição. O principal enfoque desta revisão foi sobre o cálcio e o fósforo na mineralização óssea e na suplementação em nutrição parenteral e enteral, bem como a avaliação crítica da nutrição pós-alta sobre a mineralização óssea. São abordadas as necessidades de micronutrientes, principalmente selênio e zinco, e a função antioxidante do selênio na provável prevenção de doenças do prematuro com atuação de radicais livres. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando os baixos estoques de minerais em prematuros extremos, há necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre minerais na nutrição destes prematuros para definir suas reais necessidades, os aspectos metabólicos, bem como aplicar os conhecimentos na formulação de dietas que permitam prevenir quadros de deficiência e conseqüências a longo prazo. Ainda há controvérsias sobre a influência de fórmulas pós-alta sobre a evolução da doença óssea da prematuridade.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the role of calcium, phosphorus and trace elements in the nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants, considering their importance for metabolism, bone mineralization

  9. The Downsides of Extreme Conscientiousness for Psychological Well-being: The Role of Obsessive Compulsive Tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nathan T; Guan, Li; Maples, Jessica L; Williamson, Rachel L; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-08-01

    Although conscientiousness exhibits positive relations with psychological well-being, theoretical and empirical work suggests individuals can be too conscientious, resulting in obsessive-compulsiveness, and therein less positive individual outcomes. However, the potential for curvilinearity between conscientiousness and well-being has been underexplored. We measured 912 subjects on facets of conscientiousness, obsessive-compulsive personality, and well-being variables (life satisfaction, job satisfaction, self-esteem, positive affect, negative affect, work stress). Methods of scoring included traditional sum-scoring, traditional item response theory (IRT), and a relatively new IRT approach. Structural models were estimated to evaluate curvilinearity. Results confirmed the curvilinear relationship between conscientiousness and well-being, and demonstrated that differential facet-level relationships underlie weaker curvilinearity at the general trait level. Consistency was found in the strength of relation between conscientiousness facets with their obsessive-compulsive variants and their contribution to decreased well-being. The most common association was that higher standing on conscientiousness facets was positively related to negative affect. Findings support the idea that extreme standing on facets of conscientiousness more strongly linked to their obsessive-compulsive variants contributed to lower well-being, highlighting the importance of considering alternative functional representations of the relationship between personality and other constructs. Future work should seek to further clarify the link between conscientiousness and negative affect.

  10. The role of preoperative pulmonary function tests in the surgical treatment of extremely severe scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lao, Lifeng; Weng, Xisheng; Qiu, Guixing; Shen, Jianxiong

    2013-01-01

    Background The patients with extremely severe spinal deformity are commonly considered high-risk candidates for surgical treatment because of their underlying lung disease. Currently, little has been reported about the postoperative pulmonary complication events in this population. This retrospective study sought to evaluate preoperative pulmonary function tests in the surgical treatment of extremely severe scoliosis. Methods Preoperative forced vital capacity (FVC), FVC ratio, forced expirat...

  11. Interpreting the Climatic Effects on Xylem Functional Traits in Two Mediterranean Oak Species: The Role of Extreme Climatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Angelo; Borghetti, Marco; Todaro, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, the widely predicted rise in temperature, change in the precipitation pattern, and increase in the frequency of extreme climatic events are expected to alter the shape of ecological communities and to affect plant physiological processes that regulate ecosystem functioning. Although change in the mean values are important, there is increasing evidence that plant distribution, survival, and productivity respond to extremes rather than to the average climatic condition. The present study aims to assess the effects of both mean and extreme climatic conditions on radial growth and functional anatomical traits using long-term tree-ring time series of two co-existing Quercus spp. from a drought-prone site in Southern Italy. In particular, this is the first attempt to apply the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS) technique and Bayesian modeling procedures to xylem traits data set, with the aim of (i) detecting non-linear long-term responses to climate and (ii) exploring relationships between climate extreme and xylem traits variability in terms of probability of occurrence. This study demonstrates the usefulness of long-term xylem trait chronologies as records of environmental conditions at annual resolution. Statistical analyses revealed that most of the variability in tree-ring width and specific hydraulic conductivity might be explained by cambial age. Additionally, results highlighted appreciable relationships between xylem traits and climate variability more than tree-ring width, supporting also the evidence that the plant hydraulic traits are closely linked to local climate extremes rather than average climatic conditions. We reported that the probability of extreme departure in specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks) rises at extreme values of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Therefore, changing frequency or intensity of extreme events might overcome the adaptive limits of vascular transport, resulting

  12. Interpreting the climatic effects on xylem functional traits in two Mediterranean oak species: the role of extreme climatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Rita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean region, the widely predicted rise in temperature, change in the precipitation pattern and increase in the frequency of extreme climatic events are expected to alter the shape of ecological communities and to affect plant physiological processes that regulate ecosystem functioning. Although change in the mean values are important, there is increasing evidence that plant distribution, survival and productivity respond to extremes rather than to the average climatic condition. The present study aims to assess the effects of both mean and extreme climatic conditions on radial growth and functional anatomical traits using long-term tree-ring time series of two co-existing Quercus spp. from a drought-prone site in Southern Italy. In particular, this is the first attempt to apply the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS technique and Bayesian modeling procedures to xylem traits data set, with the aim of i detecting non-linear long-term responses to climate and ii exploring relationships between climate extreme and xylem traits variability in terms of probability of occurrence. This study demonstrates the usefulness of long-term xylem trait chronologies as records of environmental conditions at annual resolution. Statistical analyses revealed that most of the variability in tree-ring width and specific hydraulic conductivity might be explained by cambial age. Additionally, results highlighted appreciable relationships between xylem traits and climate variability more than tree-ring width, supporting also the evidence that the plant hydraulic traits are closely linked to local climate extremes rather than average climatic conditions. We reported that the probability of extreme departure in specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks rises at extreme values of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. Therefore, changing frequency or intensity of extreme events might overcome the adaptive limits of vascular transport

  13. Role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability on extreme climate conditions over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Delworth, Thomas; Msadek, Rym; Castruccio, Frederic; Yeager, Stephen; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2017-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is associated with marked modulations of climate anomalies observed over many areas of the globe like droughts, decline in sea ice or changes in the atmospheric circulation. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period ( 60-80yr) makes it difficult to show that the AMV is a direct driver of these variations. To isolate the AMV climate response, we use a suite of global coupled models from GFDL and NCAR, in which the North Atlantic sea surface temperatures are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other ocean basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts on extreme events, we use large ensemble simulations (between 30 and 100 members depending on the model) that are integrated for 10 years. We investigate the importance of model resolution by analyzing GFDL models that vary in their atmospheric resolution and we assess the robustness of the results by comparing them to similar experiments performed with the NCAR coupled model. Further, we investigate the influence of model surface temperature biases on the simulated AMV teleconnections using a flux-adjusted experiment based on a model configuration that corrects for momentum, enthalpy and freshwater fluxes. We focus in this presentation on the impact of the AMV on the occurrence of the North American heat waves. We find that the AMV modulates by about 30% the occurrence of heat waves over North Mexico and the South-West of USA, with more heat waves during a warm phase of the AMV. The main reason for such an increase is that, during a warm AMV phase, the anomalously warm sea surface temperature leads to an increase of the atmospheric convection over the tropical Atlantic, as well as to a an anomalous downward motion over North America. This atmospheric response to AMV inhibits the precipitation over there and drives a deficit of soil moisture. In the summer, the latent heat of

  14. On the use of ocean-atmosphere-wave models during an extreme CAO event: the importance of being coupled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniel, Sandro; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Miglietta, Mario M.; Ricchi, Antonio; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    During winter 2012 an extreme meteorological event stroke the whole Europe and particularly its central-southern sector. A strong and persistent spit of cold air coming from Siberian region (a Cold Air Outbreak, CAO) insisted on northern Italy and the Adriatic sea basin, leading to decreases in the sea temperatures up to 6 °C in less than two weeks, ice formation on the Venice lagoon and an exceptional snow fall in the Apennine region. In the sea the CAO was associated to a significant episode of dense water formation (DWF), a crucial phenomenon that heavily impacts the whole Adriatic Sea (from the sinking of water masses and associated ventilation of the northernmost shelf, to the flow along the western coast, until the flushing of southern Adriatic open slope and submarine canyons, with associated sediment transport and bottom reshaping). The extent of the DWF event in the Northern Adriatic sub-basin was estimated by means of coastal observatories, ad hoc measurements and, until now, results from existing one-way coupled atmosphere-ocean models. These are characterized by no SST feedback from the ocean to the atmosphere, and therefore by turbulent heat fluxes that may heavily reflect a non-consistent ocean state. The study proposes an investigation of the 2012 CAO using a fully coupled, three components, ocean-atmosphere-wave system (COAWST). Results highlight that, although the energy interplays between air and sea do not seem to significantly impact the wind forecasts, when providing heat fluxes that are consistent with the ocean temperature we find modified heat fluxes and air sea temperatures figures. Moreover, the consistent description of thermal exchanges adopted in the fully coupled model can affect the basin circulation, the quantification of dense water produced mass, and the description of its migration pathways and rates of off-shelf descent.

  15. Adaptation to climate extremes in developing countries : the role of education

    OpenAIRE

    Blankespoor, Brian; Dasgupta, Susmita; Laplante, Benoit; Wheeler, David

    2010-01-01

    Global climate models predict a rise in extreme weather in the next century. To better understand future interactions among adaptation costs, socioeconomic development, and climate change in developing countries, observed losses of life from floods and droughts during 1960-2003 are modeled using three determinants: weather events, income per capita, and female education. The analysis revea...

  16. Logoplaste : how business models can play an important role in the achievement of sustained competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Pita, Miguel Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Dissertation title: Logoplaste: How Business Models can play an important role in the achievement of Sustained Competitive Advantage Author: Miguel Vieira Pita The following dissertation gives focus to the case study of Logoplaste, a successful Portuguese company where strategy plays an important role in the short and long term success of the company. Focusing on writing a dissertation that gives highlight to the creation and development of the firm’s valuable resources and ...

  17. Scientist Role Models in the Classroom: How Important Is Gender Matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Laura D. Carsten; Danielson, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Gender-matched role models are often proposed as a mechanism to increase identification with science among girls, with the ultimate aim of broadening participation in science. While there is a great deal of evidence suggesting that role models can be effective, there is mixed support in the literature for the importance of gender matching. We used…

  18. [Importance of revision- and tumor-endoprosthetics in the treatment of periprosthetic fractures of the lower extremity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, P M; Harrasser, N; Suren, C; Pohlig, F; Mühlhofer, H; Schauwecker, J; von Eisenhart-Rothe, R

    2016-04-01

    Periprosthetic fractures of hip and knee prostheses are gaining clinical significance due to the increasing numbers of of primary arthroplasties. Additionally, these fractures are often associated with poor bone quality or present in patients after multiple revision procedures and concomitant excessive bone defects precluding those patients to be adequately treated by conventional osteosynthesis. Revision implants provide a wide range of options for the treatment of these fractures in order to achieve good clinical results. In the acetabular region cavitary defects associated with periprosthetic fractures can be treated by the use of megacups. Extensive segmental defects and pelvic discontinuity necessitate the use of cups with additional iliac support or even customized implants. Proximal femoral fractures can usually be fixed with modular stems and diaphyseal anchorage. Periprosthetic knee joint fractures can be treated with revision implants with modular sleeves or augment-combinations allowing sufficient bridging of bony defects. Functional reconstruction or refixation of the extensor mechanism is of crucial importance.

  19. A painful reminder: the role of level and salience of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Katherine B; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Soryal, Ashley S; Fanning, Jessie J

    2009-01-01

    In his seminal book, L. Festinger (1957) emphasized the role of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance. This study (N = 308) explored whether people's use of dissonance reduction strategies differs as a function of level of attitude importance and whether the personal importance of an attitude is salient. Results showed that level and salience of attitude importance interacted to affect high-choice (HC) participants' tendency to use attitude change and trivialization to reduce dissonance. When HC participants were not reminded of the personal importance of their attitude (i.e., it was not salient), they changed their attitudes equally irrespective of attitude importance, but engaged in greater trivialization with increasing levels of importance. In contrast, when attitude importance was salient, HC participants changed their attitudes less with increasing attitude importance and showed no evidence of trivializing under any level of importance.

  20. The critical role of N- and C-terminal contact in protein stability and folding of a family 10 xylanase under extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bhardwaj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stabilization strategies adopted by proteins under extreme conditions are very complex and involve various kinds of interactions. Recent studies have shown that a large proportion of proteins have their N- and C-terminal elements in close contact and suggested they play a role in protein folding and stability. However, the biological significance of this contact remains elusive. METHODOLOGY: In the present study, we investigate the role of N- and C-terminal residue interaction using a family 10 xylanase (BSX with a TIM-barrel structure that shows stability under high temperature, alkali pH, and protease and SDS treatment. Based on crystal structure, an aromatic cluster was identified that involves Phe4, Trp6 and Tyr343 holding the N- and C-terminus together; this is a unique and important feature of this protein that might be crucial for folding and stability under poly-extreme conditions. CONCLUSION: A series of mutants was created to disrupt this aromatic cluster formation and study the loss of stability and function under given conditions. While the deletions of Phe4 resulted in loss of stability, removal of Trp6 and Tyr343 affected in vivo folding and activity. Alanine substitution with Phe4, Trp6 and Tyr343 drastically decreased stability under all parameters studied. Importantly, substitution of Phe4 with Trp increased stability in SDS treatment. Mass spectrometry results of limited proteolysis further demonstrated that the Arg344 residue is highly susceptible to trypsin digestion in sensitive mutants such as DeltaF4, W6A and Y343A, suggesting again that disruption of the Phe4-Trp6-Tyr343 (F-W-Y cluster destabilizes the N- and C-terminal interaction. Our results underscore the importance of N- and C-terminal contact through aromatic interactions in protein folding and stability under extreme conditions, and these results may be useful to improve the stability of other proteins under suboptimal conditions.

  1. Important aspects regarding the role of microorganisms in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Renata Chiapinotto; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia; Cherubini, Karen

    2014-08-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is an important side effect of bisphosphonates, whose etiopathogenesis has not been completely elucidated. Theories pointing to bone turnover and angiogenesis inhibition, as well as effects on epithelial cells of oral mucosa and the role of microorganisms have been reported. Nevertheless, the true contribution of each one of these factors to BRONJ is unknown. We present here a literature review focusing on important aspects regarding the role of microorganisms in BRONJ development. Knowledge about specific microbiota and its role in the etiopathogenesis of this disease can help the optimisation of preventive and therapeutic interventions in patients with or at-risk for BRONJ.

  2. Role of the import motor in insertion of transmembrane segments by the mitochondrial TIM23 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Waegemann, Karin; Mapa, Koyeli; Neupert, Walter; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2011-06-01

    The TIM23 complex mediates translocation of proteins across, and their lateral insertion into, the mitochondrial inner membrane. Translocation of proteins requires both the membrane-embedded core of the complex and its ATP-dependent import motor. Insertion of some proteins, however, occurs in the absence of ATP, questioning the need for the import motor during lateral insertion. We show here that the import motor associates with laterally inserted proteins even when its ATPase activity is not required. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for the import motor in lateral insertion. Thus, the import motor is involved in ATP-dependent translocation and ATP-independent lateral insertion.

  3. The role of extreme orbits in the global organization of periodic regions in parameter space for one dimensional maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Diogo Ricardo; Hansen, Matheus; Guarise, Gustavo; Medrano-T, Rene O.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-04-01

    We show that extreme orbits, trajectories that connect local maximum and minimum values of one dimensional maps, play a major role in the parameter space of dissipative systems dictating the organization for the windows of periodicity, hence producing sets of shrimp-like structures. Here we solve three fundamental problems regarding the distribution of these sets and give: (i) their precise localization in the parameter space, even for sets of very high periods; (ii) their local and global distributions along cascades; and (iii) the association of these cascades to complicate sets of periodicity. The extreme orbits are proved to be a powerful indicator to investigate the organization of windows of periodicity in parameter planes. As applications of the theory, we obtain some results for the circle map and perturbed logistic map. The formalism presented here can be extended to many other different nonlinear and dissipative systems.

  4. Hourly storm characteristics along the U.S. West Coast: Role of atmospheric rivers in extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamjiri, Maryam A.; Dettinger, Michael; Ralph, F. Martin; Guan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Gridded hourly precipitation observations over the conterminous U.S., from 1948 to 2002, are analyzed to determine climatological characteristics of storm precipitation totals. Despite generally lower hourly intensities, precipitation totals along the U.S. West Coast (USWC) are comparable to those in southeast U.S. (SEUS). Storm durations, more so than hourly intensities, strongly modulate precipitation-total variability over the USWC, where the correlation coefficients between storm durations and storm totals range from 0.7 to 0.9. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) contribute 30–50% of annual precipitation on the USWC and make such large contributions to extreme storms that 60–100% of the most extreme storms, i.e., storms with precipitation-total return intervals longer than 2 years, are associated with ARs. These extreme storm totals are more strongly tied to storm durations than to storm hourly or average intensities, emphasizing the importance of AR persistence to extreme storms on the USWC.

  5. Lags in hydrologic recovery following an extreme drought: Assessing the roles of climate and catchment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; McVicar, Tim R.; Donohue, Randall J.; Zhang, Yongqiang; Roderick, Michael L.; Chiew, Francis H. S.; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Junlong

    2017-06-01

    Drought, generally characterized by below-average water supply, propagates through the hydrologic system with consequent ecological and societal impacts. Compared with other drought aspects, the recovery of drought especially in the hydrological components, which directly relates to the recovery of water resources for agricultural, ecological and human needs, is less-understood. Here, taking the Millennium drought in southeast Australia (˜1997-2009) as an illustrating case, we comprehensively examined multiple aspects of the meteorological (i.e., precipitation) and hydrological (i.e., streamflow and base flow) droughts across 130 unimpaired catchments using long-term hydro-meteorological observations. Results show that the duration and intensity of the meteorological drought are both lengthened and amplified in the hydrological drought, suggesting a nonstationarity in the rainfall-runoff relationship during a prolonged drought. Additionally, we find a time lag commonly exists between the end of the meteorological droughts and the end of the hydrological drought, with the recovery of base flow showing a longer lag than the recovery of streamflow. The recovery rate of precipitation after drought was found to be the dominant factor that controls the recovery of hydrological droughts while catchment landscape (i.e., valley bottom flatness) plays an important but secondary role in controlling the lags in the hydrological recovery. Other hydro-climatic factors and catchment properties appear to have only minor influences governing hydrological drought recovery. Our findings highlight a delayed response in the terrestrial components of the hydrological cycle to precipitation after prolonged drought, and provide valuable scientific guidance to water resources management and water security assessment in regions facing future droughts.

  6. Role of Anomalous States of Upper Tropospheric Circulation on Extremely Dry and Wet Summer Monsoon Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Koike, T.; Nishii, K.; Shrestha, M.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonal changes in wind pattern, monsoon, sometimes result in severe droughts and intense flooding in many parts of the world including South Asian countries like Pakistan. The livelihood of a vast population in Pakistan depends on agriculture and land use is strongly influenced by water-based ecosystems that depend on the monsoon rains. Furthermore, climate change studies undertaken so far reveal that action is essential in order to prevent long term damage to water cycle and thus of great concern to the community and stakeholders. Pakistan Summer Monsoon (PSM) is affected by both the disturbances from the tropical and the extratropical regions; however there is lack of understanding of physical mechanisms of PSM compared to other regional studies i.e. Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and South-East Asian Monsoon (SEAM). In our study, we applied heat and vorticity budgets, and wave train analysis to reveal the mechanisms of the extremely dry and wet PSM events associated with the anomalous upper tropospheric conditions. We found that the extremely dry (wet) PSM events were closely related with the anomalous cyclonic (anticyclonic) upper-tropospheric circulation around northwest of Pakistan, and mid-upper tropospheric cooling (warming) anomaly around Pakistan and to its north/northwest. We also found in addition to Rossby wave response due to the suppressed (enhanced) convective activities around monsoon regions, the midlatitude wave energy propagation emanating around cyclonic/anticyclonic anomaly around northwestern Atlantic, northeastern Atlantic, Europe or Mediterranean regions induced/reinforced/maintained the anomalous upper tropospheric cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation around northwest of Pakistan during extremely dry (wet) PSM events. Therefore, devastating drought (flood) events over the PSM region resulting from weak (strong) convection anomalies are induced by both the tropical and extratropical processes.

  7. The role of regional information in estimation of extreme point rainfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan; Madsen, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    of regional prior distributions for the PDS-parameters in a Bayesian estimation procedure. The advantages of this theoretically satisfactory, but also somewhat complicated procedure are evaluated by means of a comparison with simplified procedures. These include modelling based on regional pooling of all...... point rainfall data into one sample from a common parent distribution and modelling with disregard of either the dependence between stations or the regional heterogeneity. The different models are analysed and compared with respect to the uncertainty of the predicted extreme events....

  8. Countering violent extremism in Indonesia: priorities, practice and the role of civil society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Sumpter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has experimented with initiatives aimed at countering violent extremism (CVE since the wave of arrests following the first Bali bombing attack in 2002. Initial efforts involved police attempting to develop relationships of trust with terrorists in custody. Today, a broader range of strategies are employed, from promoting peace among youth and thwarting the allure of extremist narratives, to managing prisoners and assisting former terrorists reintegrate with society. The lead government body since 2010 has been the national counterterrorism agency, Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terorisme (BNPT, which is tasked with coordinating stakeholders in Indonesia’s struggle with domestic terrorism. But managing the divergent and sometimes competing interests of Indonesia’s large state institutions has not been straightforward, and effective collaboration between relevant state agencies remains an obstacle to the success of CVE initiatives. Where government has fallen short, civil society organisations (CSOs often fill the gaps, and a number of dedicated practitioners now have invaluable experience, local contacts, and the specific knowledge required for countering extremism in the Indonesian context. CSOs also possess greater levels of trust among the communities they engage than security-centric state agencies could possibly hope to achieve. Yet instead of exploiting these civil society resources, the BNPT has largely preferred an independent (and top-down approach to CVE initiatives, collaborating if and when assistance is required. The Indonesian government should make better use of the unique legitimacy and expertise of civil society organisations.

  9. THE ROLE OF IRON IN Deinococcus radiodurans ENGINEERED FOR GROWTH ON TOLUENE AND THE ROLE OF MANGANESE IN THE EXTREME RADIATION RESISTANCE PHENOTYPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan Brim; Elena K. Gaidamakova; Vera Y. Matrosova; Min Zhai; Amudhan Venkateswaran; Marina Omelchenko; Kira S. Makarova; Lawrence P. Wackett; James K. Fredrickson; Michael J. Daly

    2004-03-17

    Toluene and other fuel hydrocarbons are commonly found in association with radionuclides at numerous Department of Energy (DOE) sites, frequently occurring together with Cr(VI) and other heavy metals. In this study, the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans was engineered for complete toluene mineralization by cloned expression of tod and xyl genes of Pseudomonas putida. The recombinant Tod/Xyl strain showed significant incorporation of carbon from the toluene aromatic ring into cellular macromolecules and carbon dioxide, in the absence or presence of chronic radiation. We have shown that intracellular iron concentrations in wild-type D. radiodurans in minimal medium are exceptionally low and not sufficient to support growth on toluene using Fe-dependent oxygenases cloned from P. putida. Introducing the fur mutation into D. radiodurans increased intracellular Fe levels, and imparted on the engineered strain the ability to grow on meta-toluate as the sole carbon and energy source. The organism's native Cr(VI) reduction capabilities were facilitated by toluene when present as the sole carbon and energy source in natural sediment analogues of DOE contaminated environments. The engineered bacteria were able to oxidize toluene under both minimal and complex nutrient conditions, which is important since both conditions have environmental equivalents in the context of bioremediation processes. As such, the Tod/Xyl strain is providing a model for understanding the role of Fe and reduction of metals coupled to organic contaminant oxidation in aerobic radionuclide contaminated sediments. We have shown that D. radiodurans contains high intracellular manganese levels, and that Mn restriction sensitizes cells to irradiation. We propose that the unusually high Mn/Fe ratio of D. radiodurans facilitates survival by quenching oxidative stress during recovery.

  10. THE ROLE OF IRON IN Deinococcus radiodurans ENGINEERED FOR GROWTH ON TOLUENE AND THE ROLE OF MANGANESE IN THE EXTREME RADIATION RESISTANCE PHENOTYPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan Brim; Elena K. Gaidamakova; Vera Y. Matrosova; Min Zhai; Amudhan Venkateswaran; Marina Omelchenko; Kira S. Makarova; Lawrence P. Wackett; James K. Fredrickson; Michael J. Daly

    2004-03-17

    Toluene and other fuel hydrocarbons are commonly found in association with radionuclides at numerous Department of Energy (DOE) sites, frequently occurring together with Cr(VI) and other heavy metals. In this study, the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans was engineered for complete toluene mineralization by cloned expression of tod and xyl genes of Pseudomonas putida. The recombinant Tod/Xyl strain showed significant incorporation of carbon from the toluene aromatic ring into cellular macromolecules and carbon dioxide, in the absence or presence of chronic radiation. We have shown that intracellular iron concentrations in wild-type D. radiodurans in minimal medium are exceptionally low and not sufficient to support growth on toluene using Fe-dependent oxygenases cloned from P. putida. Introducing the fur mutation into D. radiodurans increased intracellular Fe levels, and imparted on the engineered strain the ability to grow on meta-toluate as the sole carbon and energy source. The organism's native Cr(VI) reduction capabilities were facilitated by toluene when present as the sole carbon and energy source in natural sediment analogues of DOE contaminated environments. The engineered bacteria were able to oxidize toluene under both minimal and complex nutrient conditions, which is important since both conditions have environmental equivalents in the context of bioremediation processes. As such, the Tod/Xyl strain is providing a model for understanding the role of Fe and reduction of metals coupled to organic contaminant oxidation in aerobic radionuclide contaminated sediments. We have shown that D. radiodurans contains high intracellular manganese levels, and that Mn restriction sensitizes cells to irradiation. We propose that the unusually high Mn/Fe ratio of D. radiodurans facilitates survival by quenching oxidative stress during recovery.

  11. Role of the tissue free amino acids in adaptation of medicinal leeches Hirudo medicinalis L., 1758 to extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernaya, L V; Kovalchuk, L A; Nokhrina, E S

    2016-01-01

    The first comparison of the spectra of free amino acids in tissues of the medicinal leeches H. medicinalis from different climatic and geographical Eurasian areas has been performed. Adaptation of H. medicinalis to extreme climatic conditions occurs via intensification of the amino acid metabolism resulting from a significant increase in the content of essential amino acids. Accumulation of arginine, histidine, and lysine (3.6-, 3.9-, and 2.0-fold increases, respectively) has proved to play a special protective role in adaptation of H. medicinalis to the low positive temperatures.

  12. The child is father to the man: developmental roles for proteins of importance for neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Danny; Schor, Nina F

    2010-02-01

    Although Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases predominately affect elderly adults, the proteins that play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases are expressed throughout life. In fact, many of the proteins hypothesized to be important in the progression of neurodegeneration play direct or indirect roles in the development of the central nervous system. The systems affected by these proteins include neural stem cell fate decisions, neuronal differentiation, cellular migration, protection from oxidative stress, and programmed cell death. Insights into the developmental roles of these proteins may ultimately impact the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases and lead to the discovery of novel treatments.

  13. The role of extreme orbits in the global organization of periodic regions in parameter space for one dimensional maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Diogo Ricardo da, E-mail: diogo_cost@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Hansen, Matheus [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Univ. São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Cidade Universitária, 05314-970, São Paulo – SP (Brazil); Guarise, Gustavo [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Medrano-T, Rene O. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP – Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua São Nicolau, 210, Centro, 09913-030, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Leonel, Edson D. [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-04-22

    We show that extreme orbits, trajectories that connect local maximum and minimum values of one dimensional maps, play a major role in the parameter space of dissipative systems dictating the organization for the windows of periodicity, hence producing sets of shrimp-like structures. Here we solve three fundamental problems regarding the distribution of these sets and give: (i) their precise localization in the parameter space, even for sets of very high periods; (ii) their local and global distributions along cascades; and (iii) the association of these cascades to complicate sets of periodicity. The extreme orbits are proved to be a powerful indicator to investigate the organization of windows of periodicity in parameter planes. As applications of the theory, we obtain some results for the circle map and perturbed logistic map. The formalism presented here can be extended to many other different nonlinear and dissipative systems. - Highlights: • Extreme orbits and the organization of periodic regions in parameter space. • One-dimensional dissipative mappings. • The circle map and also a time perturbed logistic map were studied.

  14. Simulation of extreme rainfall event of November 2009 over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: the explicit role of topography and surface heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Raju, P. V. S.; Yusef, A.; Hussein, M. A. A.; Omar, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a nonhydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used to simulate the extreme precipitation event of 25 November 2009, over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The model is integrated in three nested (27, 9, and 3 km) domains with the initial and boundary forcing derived from the NCEP reanalysis datasets. As a control experiment, the model integrated for 48 h initiated at 0000 UTC on 24 November 2009. The simulated rainfall in the control experiment depicts in well agreement with Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission rainfall estimates in terms of intensity as well as spatio-temporal distribution. Results indicate that a strong low-level (850 hPa) wind over Jeddah and surrounding regions enhanced the moisture and temperature gradient and created a conditionally unstable atmosphere that favored the development of the mesoscale system. The influences of topography and heat exchange process in the atmosphere were investigated on the development of extreme precipitation event; two sensitivity experiments are carried out: one without topography and another without exchange of surface heating to the atmosphere. The results depict that both surface heating and topography played crucial role in determining the spatial distribution and intensity of the extreme rainfall over Jeddah. The topography favored enhanced uplift motion that further strengthened the low-level jet and hence the rainfall over Jeddah and adjacent areas. On the other hand, the absence of surface heating considerably reduced the simulated rainfall by 30% as compared to the observations.

  15. Longevity and relationships with children: the importance of the parental role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Maria-Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks predict longevity across societies but specific mechanisms are largely unknown. The aim of this work was to examine the role of children in the longevity of elderly men and women in a cohort of community dwelling elderly people in Spain. Methods The data were taken from the "Aging in Leganes" cohort study with 15 years of follow-up. The baseline population was an age- and sex-stratified random sample of community dwelling people over 65 living in Leganés (Madrid in 1993. Poor relationship with at least one child, emotional support and the perceived roles elders play in the lives of their children, extended family, spouse and friends were assessed at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to investigate the effects of social roles variables on longevity, adjusting for a wide range of socioeconomic, behavioural and health covariates. Results In the fully adjusted model, having a poor relationship with at least one child increased mortality by 30%. Elderly persons who felt their role in their children's lives was important (HR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.54; 0.91 had a lower mortality risk than those who felt they played a small role. Feeling loved and listened to by one's children did not have an effect on survival. Maintaining an important role in the extended family was also significantly associated with survival. Conclusion In this Mediterranean population, maintaining an important role in the lives of one's children is associated with survival. Functions of social networks related to meaning of life and different forms of social support may have important effects on mortality, and these functions may vary across cultures according to family norms and values.

  16. The Photographic History of Greenland's Glaciers - and how the historical data plays an important role in today's glacier research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Aagaard, S.; Andresen, C. S.; Bamber, J. L.; van den Broeke, M.; Colgan, W. T.; Funder, S.; Khan, S. A.; Larsen, N. K.; Machguth, H.; Nuth, C.; Schomacker, A.; Kjaer, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    As the Greenland Ice Sheet and Greenland's glaciers are continuing to loss mass at high rates, knowledge of their past response to climatic changes is ever important. By harvesting the archives for images, both terrestrial and airborne, we are able to expand the record of glacier observation by several decades, thus supplying crucial knowledge on glacier behavior to important climatic transitions such as the end of the Little Ice Age and the early 20th Century warming. Here we show how a large collection of historical aerial images portray the glacial response to the Little Ice Age deglaciation in Greenland and document frontal change throughout the 20th Century. A detailed story of the LIA-deglaciation is told by supplementing with terrestrial photos that capture the onset of retreat and high resolution aerial images that portray geomorphological evidence of the Little Ice Age maximum extent. This work is the result of several generations of Greenland researches and their efforts to portray and document the state of the glaciers, and highlights that while interpretations and conclusions may be challenged and changed through time, the raw observations remain extremely valuable. Finally, we also show how archival data besides photos may play an important role in future glacier research in Greenland.

  17. Explaining the emergence of echo chambers on social media: the role of ideology and extremism

    CERN Document Server

    Bright, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of politically driven divisions in online discussion networks has attracted a wealth of literature, but also one which has thus far been largely limited to single country studies. Hence whilst there is good evidence that these networks do divide and fragment into what are often described as 'echo chambers', we know little about the factors which might explain this division or make networks more or less fragmented, as studies have been limited to a small number of political groupings with limited possibilities for systematic comparison. This study seeks to remedy this deficit, by providing a systematic large scale study of fragmentation on Twitter which considers discussion networks surrounding 59 different political parties in 11 different countries. It shows that political party groupings which are further apart in ideological terms interact less, and that individuals and parties which sit at the extreme ends of the ideological scale are particularly likely to form echo chambers. Indeed, exchan...

  18. Redesigning and Transforming: A Case Study of the Role of Semiotic Import in Early Composing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranker, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I explore the role of semiotic import (Van Leeuwen, 2005) in the composing processes of three bilingual students (six to seven years old) emerging as writers of English. Using social semiotic (Van Leeuwen, 2005) and design (New London Group, 2000) frameworks, I trace a qualitative "micro-history" of how the students imported…

  19. Redesigning and Transforming: A Case Study of the Role of Semiotic Import in Early Composing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranker, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I explore the role of semiotic import (Van Leeuwen, 2005) in the composing processes of three bilingual students (six to seven years old) emerging as writers of English. Using social semiotic (Van Leeuwen, 2005) and design (New London Group, 2000) frameworks, I trace a qualitative "micro-history" of how the students imported…

  20. The Importance of Positive Self-Concept for Islamic Education Teachers as a Role Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Nurul Asiah Fasehah; Hamzah, Mohd Isa; Tamuri, Ab. Halim; Ja'afar, Noornajihan; Ghazali, Norzulaili Mohd; Amat, Robiatul Adawiyah Mohd; Raus, Norakyairee Mohd; Hassan, Syed Najihuddin Syed

    2013-01-01

    This study embarks from the great and huge responsibility of teachers nowadays especially the IRT (Islamic religious teachers). As the role model of students, they play an important task especially in producing the good Muslim character. Therefore, their job not only focuses on the content of subject but becomes wider in scope, more than other…

  1. Important role for Toll-like receptor 9 in host defense against meningococcal sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölinder, Hong; Mogensen, Trine; Kilian, Mogens;

    2008-01-01

    and induction of cytokine gene expression were independent of TLR2 or TLR9 in macrophages and conventional dendritic cells. In contrast, plasmacytoid dendritic cells relied entirely on TLR9 to induce these activities. Thus, our data demonstrate an important role for TLR9 in host defense against N. meningitidis....... have been reported to be involved in the host response to N. meningitidis. While TLR4 has been suggested to play an important role in early containment of infection, the roles of TLR2 and TLR9 in meningococcal disease are not well described. Using a model for meningococcal sepsis, we report that TLR9......(-/-) mice displayed reduced survival and elevated levels of bacteremia compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, TLR2(-/-) mice controlled the infection in a manner comparable to that of wild-type mice. TLR9 deficiency was also associated with reduced bactericidal activity in vitro, which was accompanied...

  2. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management: The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import...... in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created...... by foreign sales activities....

  3. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF THE INTERNET IN CONTEMPORARY TOURISM IN TRAVEL AGENCIES BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing competitiveness in the global tourism market encourages tourism operators to investment more in promotion, resources, knowledge and quality in order to achieve satisfactory growth. Therefore, it is extremely important to be in touch with the latest technological trends and have the knowledge required to effectively respond to the challenges of global competition. Internet technology provides high-quality and efficient operations in all economic sectors, including the tourism industry. In this paper, the changes in tourism industry caused by the introduction of Internet technology and advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet in contemporary business travel agencies were analyzed. Through this work, the impact of the Internet technology on marketing activities of contemporary travel agencies was also analyzed. 

  4. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  5. Extreme-Velocity Quasar Outflows and the Role of X-ray Shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Fred; McGraw, Sean; Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Shields, Joseph; Capellupo, Daniel; Charlton, Jane; Eracleous, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Quasar accretion disk winds observed via broad absorption lines (BALs) in the UV produce strong continuous absorption in X-rays. The X-ray absorber is believed to serve critically as a radiative shield to enable radiative driving. However, "mini-BAL" and narrow absorption line outflows have dramatically less X-ray absorption than BALs. Here we examine X-ray and rest-frame UV spectra of 8 mini-BAL quasars with outflow speeds in the range 0.1c to 0.2c to test whether extreme speeds require a strong shield. We find that the X-ray absorption is weak or moderate, with neutral-equivalent column densities N_H ~ 8 x 10^15 cm (based on measured line depths), the outflows have shapes like thin "pancakes" viewed face-on, or they occupy larger volumes like a spray of many dense clouds with a small volume filling factor. These results favor models with magnetic confinement in magnetic disk winds.

  6. The Role of Axisymmetric Reconnection Events in JET Discharges with Extreme Shear Reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.C. Stratton; J.A. Breslau; R.V. Budny; S.C. Jardin; W. Park; H.R. Strauss; L.E. Zakharov; B. Alper; V. Drozdov; N.C. Hawkes; S. Reyes-Cortes; and Contributors to the EFDA-JET Work Programme

    2001-12-03

    Injection of Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive into the current ramp-up phase of Joint European Torus (JET) discharges can produce extremely reversed q-profiles characterized by a core region of very small or zero current density (within Motional Stark Effect diagnostic measurement errors) and q(subscript min) > 1. T(subscript e)-profiles show sawtooth-like collapses and the presence of an internal transport barrier. Accurate equilibrium reconstructions of these discharges are obtained using the ESC code, which was recently extended to allow equilibrium reconstructions in which a free boundary solver determines the plasma boundary and a fixed boundary solver provides the magnetic geometry and current density profile. The core current density does not appear to go negative, although current diffusion calculations indicate that sufficient non-inductive current drive to cause this is present. This is explained by nonlinear resistive MHD simulations in toroidal geometry which predict that these discharges undergo n=0 reconnection events (axisymmetric sawteeth) that redistribute the current to hold the core current density near zero.

  7. Pancreatic paraganglioma: An extremely rare entity and crucial role of immunohistochemistry for diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondita Borgohain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms arising in extra-adrenal chromaffin cells of autonomic nervous system and histologically akin to chemodectomas. They are rare, affecting about 1 in 2,000,000 population. It is a generic term applied to tumors of paraganglia regardless of the location. In rare instances, paragangliomas present around and involve the pancreas, thereby mimicking any one of the more common primary pancreatic lesions. Pancreatic paraganglioma is an extremely rare tumor. It grows slowly, so radical resection is recommended to achieve curability with good prognosis. These neoplasms present considerable diagnostic difficulty not only for the clinician and radiologist but also for the pathologist. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with a left-sided abdominal swelling for 3 months duration, initially having clinical suspicion of an ovarian tumor. The radiological imaging revealed a lesion in the tail of pancreas with a differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and metastatic tumor. Only after exploratory laparotomy, the diagnosis was made as a rare case of pancreatic paraganglioma on the basis of histological examination and immunohistochemistry.

  8. Pancreatic paraganglioma: An extremely rare entity and crucial role of immunohistochemistry for diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgohain, Mondita; Gogoi, Gayatri; Das, Dipak; Biswas, Manjusha

    2013-01-01

    Paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms arising in extra-adrenal chromaffin cells of autonomic nervous system and histologically akin to chemodectomas. They are rare, affecting about 1 in 2,000,000 population. It is a generic term applied to tumors of paraganglia regardless of the location. In rare instances, paragangliomas present around and involve the pancreas, thereby mimicking any one of the more common primary pancreatic lesions. Pancreatic paraganglioma is an extremely rare tumor. It grows slowly, so radical resection is recommended to achieve curability with good prognosis. These neoplasms present considerable diagnostic difficulty not only for the clinician and radiologist but also for the pathologist. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with a left-sided abdominal swelling for 3 months duration, initially having clinical suspicion of an ovarian tumor. The radiological imaging revealed a lesion in the tail of pancreas with a differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and metastatic tumor. Only after exploratory laparotomy, the diagnosis was made as a rare case of pancreatic paraganglioma on the basis of histological examination and immunohistochemistry. PMID:24083178

  9. Winter climate extremes and their role for priming SOM decomposition under the snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazov, Konstantin; Bahn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The central research question of this project is how soil respiration and soil microbial community composition and activity of subalpine grasslands are affected by extreme winter climate events, such as mid-winter snowmelt and subsequent advanced growing season date. In the scope of this talk, focus will be laid on the assumptions that (1) reduced snow cover leads to intensive freeze-thaw cycles in the soil with larger amplitudes of microbial biomass, DOC and soil CO2 production and efflux over the course of winter, and shifts peak microbial activity to deeper soil layers with limited and recalcitrant substrate; (2) causes a shift in microbial community composition towards decreased fungal/bacterial ratios; and (3) results in a stronger incorporation of labile C in microbial biomass and more pronounced priming effects of soil organic matter turnover. Our findings indicate that snow removal, induces a strong and immediate negative effect on the physiology of soil microbes, impairing them in their capacity for turnover of SOM in the presence of labile substances (priming). This effect however is transient and soil microbes recover within the same winter. The reason for that is that snow removal did not produce any measurable (PLFA) changes in soil microbial community composition. The advanced start of the growing season, as a result of snow removal in mid-winter, granted the bacterial part of the microbial community more active in the uptake of labile substrates and the turnover of SOM than the fungal one. This finding is in line with the concept for a seasonal shift towards bacterial-dominated summer microbial community composition and could bring about implications for the plant-microbe competition for resources at the onset of the growing season.

  10. Role of the contralesional hemisphere in post-stroke recovery of upper extremity motor function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrin M Buetefisch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification of optimal treatment strategies to improve recovery is limited by the incomplete understanding of the neurobiological principles of recovery. Motor cortex (M1 reorganization of the lesioned hemisphere (ipsilesional M1 plays a major role in post-stroke motor recovery, and is a primary target for rehabilitation therapy. Reorganization of M1 in the hemisphere contralateral to the stroke (contralesional M1 may, however, serve as an additional source of cortical reorganization and related recovery. The extent and outcome of such reorganization depends on many factors, including lesion size and time since stroke. In the chronic phase post-stroke, contralesional M1 seems to interfere with motor function of the paretic limb in a subset of patients, possibly through abnormally increased inhibition of lesioned M1 by the contralesional M1. In such patients, decreasing contralesional M1 excitability by cortical stimulation results in improved performance of the paretic limb. However, emerging evidence suggests a potentially supportive role of contralesional M1. After infarction of M1 or its corticospinal projections, there is abnormally increased excitatory neural activity and activation in contralesional M1 that correlates with favorable motor recovery. Decreasing contralesional M1 excitability in these patients may result in deterioration of paretic limb performance. In animal stroke models, reorganizational changes in contralesional M1 depend on the lesion size and rehabilitation treatment and include long-term changes in neurotransmitter systems, dendritic growth and synapse formation. While there is, therefore, some evidence that activity in contralesional M1 will impact the extent of motor function of the paretic limb in the subacute and chronic phase post-stroke and may serve as a new target for rehabilitation treatment strategies, the precise factors that specifically influence its role in the recovery process remain to be defined.

  11. The role of Natural Flood Management in managing floods in large scale basins during extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; ODonnell, Greg; Nicholson, Alex; Hetherington, David

    2016-04-01

    There is a strong evidence database showing the negative impacts of land use intensification and soil degradation in NW European river basins on hydrological response and to flood impact downstream. However, the ability to target zones of high runoff production and the extent to which we can manage flood risk using nature-based flood management solution are less known. A move to planting more trees and having less intense farmed landscapes is part of natural flood management (NFM) solutions and these methods suggest that flood risk can be managed in alternative and more holistic ways. So what local NFM management methods should be used, where in large scale basin should they be deployed and how does flow is propagate to any point downstream? Generally, how much intervention is needed and will it compromise food production systems? If we are observing record levels of rainfall and flow, for example during Storm Desmond in Dec 2015 in the North West of England, what other flood management options are really needed to complement our traditional defences in large basins for the future? In this paper we will show examples of NFM interventions in the UK that have impacted at local scale sites. We will demonstrate the impact of interventions at local, sub-catchment (meso-scale) and finally at the large scale. These tools include observations, process based models and more generalised Flood Impact Models. Issues of synchronisation and the design level of protection will be debated. By reworking observed rainfall and discharge (runoff) for observed extreme events in the River Eden and River Tyne, during Storm Desmond, we will show how much flood protection is needed in large scale basins. The research will thus pose a number of key questions as to how floods may have to be managed in large scale basins in the future. We will seek to support a method of catchment systems engineering that holds water back across the whole landscape as a major opportunity to management water

  12. THE SUSTAINABLE IMPORTANCE OF REMITTANCES AND THEIR ROLE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana SON

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amplitude of migrants and remittences in the last years, especially toward the developing countries has positive effects on development in the countries of origin. Empiric research outline the potentially significant effect of remittances on the economy of a country in various ways, as a source of external financing, contributing to the growth and economic development, to the increase of the national income and stimulation of consumption, and at the same time, important in financing households, contributing to poverty decrease. These challenges are a priority for Romania, an emigration country that receives every year un important volume of remittances, but, at present with a preponderant role in the consumption.

  13. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  14. PURCHASING MANAGEMENT AND ITS IMPORTANT ROLE IN PROVIDING VALUE ADDED TO ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Sitar Corina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the knowledge based society, purchasing management has become one of the most important tool for improving the profitability of organizations. Because of its important role, purchasing is the function that has a tremendous impact on these efforts to create value in the organizations. This article summarizes the main value that can be provided by the purchasing function to the organizations. The paper starts with the presentation of the evolution stages of purchasing management Furthermore, we present the strategic role of the purchasing management in the knowledge based society. Based on the results of a questionnaire we summarized the main value added by purchasing in the companies from Maramures county. Finally, we draw conclusions and we elaborate some guidelines for managers.

  15. [Important role of a nurse parctitioner-like specialized registered nurse in a cardiac surgery team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutani, Hironori

    2012-11-01

    Team medical practice by physician, nurse, and other co-medical staffs has been performed and it provides numerous values to the patients. Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare reported that a registered nurse was a key person of medicine. The importance of nurse's role expansion and involving medical cure by a registered nurse was emphasized in the report. Japanese nurse practitioner for a new profession is going to start in near future. In our institute, a specialized registered nurse has joined a cardiac surgery team. She plays an important role of assisting and consulting cardiac physicians for patient cure and care as a member of the surgery team. Cardiac surgery team including specialized registered nurse gives quality surgical results and patient satisfaction.

  16. The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, J; Janssens, M; Gooris, G S; Bouwstra, J A

    2014-03-01

    The skin protects the body from unwanted influences from the environment as well as excessive water loss. The barrier function of the skin is located in the stratum corneum (SC). The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. This lipid matrix is crucial for the lipid skin barrier function. This paper provides an overview of the reported SC lipid composition and organization mainly focusing on healthy and diseased human skin. In addition, an overview is provided on the data describing the relation between lipid modulations and the impaired skin barrier function. Finally, the use of in vitro lipid models for a better understanding of the relation between the lipid composition, lipid organization and skin lipid barrier is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias.

  17. The Role of Imaging in Patient Selection, Preoperative Planning, and Postoperative Monitoring in Human Upper Extremity Allotransplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eira S.; Buck, David G.; Gorantla, Vijay S.; Losee, Joseph E.; Foust, Daniel E.; Britton, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the role of imaging in vascular composite allotransplantation based on one institution's experience with upper extremity allotransplant patients. Methods. The institutional review board approved this review of HIPAA-compliant patient data without the need for individual consent. A retrospective review was performed of imaging from 2008 to 2011 on individuals undergoing upper extremity transplantation. This demonstrated that, of the 19 patients initially considered, 5 patients with a mean age of 37 underwent transplantation. Reports were correlated clinically to delineate which preoperative factors lead to patient selection versus disqualification and what concerns dictated postoperative imaging. Findings were subdivided into musculoskeletal and vascular imaging criterion. Results. Within the screening phase, musculoskeletal exclusion criterion included severe shoulder arthropathy, poor native bone integrity, and marked muscular atrophy. Vascular exclusion criterion included loss of sufficient arterial or venous supply and significant distortion of the native vascular architecture. Postoperative imaging was used to document healing and hardware integrity. Postsurgical angiography and ultrasound were used to monitor for endothelial proliferation or thrombosis as signs of rejection and vascular complication. Conclusion. Multimodality imaging is an integral component of vascular composite allotransplantation surgical planning and surveillance to maximize returning form and functionality while minimizing possible complications. PMID:24800056

  18. The Role of Imaging in Patient Selection, Preoperative Planning, and Postoperative Monitoring in Human Upper Extremity Allotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eira S. Roth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the role of imaging in vascular composite allotransplantation based on one institution’s experience with upper extremity allotransplant patients. Methods. The institutional review board approved this review of HIPAA-compliant patient data without the need for individual consent. A retrospective review was performed of imaging from 2008 to 2011 on individuals undergoing upper extremity transplantation. This demonstrated that, of the 19 patients initially considered, 5 patients with a mean age of 37 underwent transplantation. Reports were correlated clinically to delineate which preoperative factors lead to patient selection versus disqualification and what concerns dictated postoperative imaging. Findings were subdivided into musculoskeletal and vascular imaging criterion. Results. Within the screening phase, musculoskeletal exclusion criterion included severe shoulder arthropathy, poor native bone integrity, and marked muscular atrophy. Vascular exclusion criterion included loss of sufficient arterial or venous supply and significant distortion of the native vascular architecture. Postoperative imaging was used to document healing and hardware integrity. Postsurgical angiography and ultrasound were used to monitor for endothelial proliferation or thrombosis as signs of rejection and vascular complication. Conclusion. Multimodality imaging is an integral component of vascular composite allotransplantation surgical planning and surveillance to maximize returning form and functionality while minimizing possible complications.

  19. The role of imaging in patient selection, preoperative planning, and postoperative monitoring in human upper extremity allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eira S; Buck, David G; Gorantla, Vijay S; Losee, Joseph E; Foust, Daniel E; Britton, Cynthia A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the role of imaging in vascular composite allotransplantation based on one institution's experience with upper extremity allotransplant patients. Methods. The institutional review board approved this review of HIPAA-compliant patient data without the need for individual consent. A retrospective review was performed of imaging from 2008 to 2011 on individuals undergoing upper extremity transplantation. This demonstrated that, of the 19 patients initially considered, 5 patients with a mean age of 37 underwent transplantation. Reports were correlated clinically to delineate which preoperative factors lead to patient selection versus disqualification and what concerns dictated postoperative imaging. Findings were subdivided into musculoskeletal and vascular imaging criterion. Results. Within the screening phase, musculoskeletal exclusion criterion included severe shoulder arthropathy, poor native bone integrity, and marked muscular atrophy. Vascular exclusion criterion included loss of sufficient arterial or venous supply and significant distortion of the native vascular architecture. Postoperative imaging was used to document healing and hardware integrity. Postsurgical angiography and ultrasound were used to monitor for endothelial proliferation or thrombosis as signs of rejection and vascular complication. Conclusion. Multimodality imaging is an integral component of vascular composite allotransplantation surgical planning and surveillance to maximize returning form and functionality while minimizing possible complications.

  20. LEADERSHIP IMPORTANCE AND ROLE IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR - FEATURES IN THE CONTEMPORARY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDALENA IORDACHE-PLATIS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays leadership is considered a managerial and organizational process that influences and guides the activities of the companies. As a management process, leadership can systematically influence the relationships that occur between managers and employees as a result of applying the management functions application. This study aims to highlight the main elements that designate the modern and revolutionary concept named”leadership”. The main objectives of the study are: 1. explaining the importance of leadership in the contemporary context; 2. analyzing the similarities and differences between two seemingly similar concepts - “leadership” and “management”; 3. description of the main management styles; 4. analyzing the correlation between leadership and emotional intelligence; 5. explaining leadership role in the public sector in Romania. In every company leadership has a very important role in achieving performance. The leader also plays an important role in a company, because a leader is the person who influences the behavior, actions, positive or negative attitude of others who are determined to act and take decisions voluntarily without fear of being punished if they do not follow the leader. Emotional self-awareness, trust, adaptability, initiative, optimism and team spirit are the ingredients of modern management style which determines the competitiveness of an organization.

  1. Why Are Omics Technologies Important to Understanding the Role of Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette R. Ferguson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For many years, there has been confusion about the role that nutrition plays in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. It is apparent that good dietary advice for one individual may prove inappropriate for another. As with many diseases, genome-wide association studies across large collaborative groups have been important in revealing the role of genetics in IBD, with more than 200 genes associated with susceptibility to the disease. These associations provide clues to explain the differences in nutrient requirements among individuals. In addition to genes directly involved in the control of inflammation, a number of the associated genes play roles in modulating the gut microbiota. Cell line models enable the generation of hypotheses as to how various bioactive dietary components might be especially beneficial for certain genetic groups. Animal models are necessary to mimic aspects of the complex aetiology of IBD, and provide an important link between tissue culture studies and human trials. Once we are sufficiently confident of our hypotheses, we can then take modified diets to an IBD population that is stratified according to genotype. Studies in IBD patients fed a Mediterranean-style diet have been important in validating our hypotheses and as a proof-of-principle for the application of these sensitive omics technologies to aiding in the control of IBD symptoms.

  2. Why Are Omics Technologies Important to Understanding the Role of Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.

    2016-01-01

    For many years, there has been confusion about the role that nutrition plays in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). It is apparent that good dietary advice for one individual may prove inappropriate for another. As with many diseases, genome-wide association studies across large collaborative groups have been important in revealing the role of genetics in IBD, with more than 200 genes associated with susceptibility to the disease. These associations provide clues to explain the differences in nutrient requirements among individuals. In addition to genes directly involved in the control of inflammation, a number of the associated genes play roles in modulating the gut microbiota. Cell line models enable the generation of hypotheses as to how various bioactive dietary components might be especially beneficial for certain genetic groups. Animal models are necessary to mimic aspects of the complex aetiology of IBD, and provide an important link between tissue culture studies and human trials. Once we are sufficiently confident of our hypotheses, we can then take modified diets to an IBD population that is stratified according to genotype. Studies in IBD patients fed a Mediterranean-style diet have been important in validating our hypotheses and as a proof-of-principle for the application of these sensitive omics technologies to aiding in the control of IBD symptoms. PMID:27775675

  3. The Perceived Importance of Role-Specific Competencies for Health Care Leaders Establishes the Need to Expand Role Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional quantitative study was undertaken to determine the extent to which individuals who have differing health care leadership roles perceived the importance of selected leadership competencies in their specific roles based on their experience. A total of 313 participants responded to the health care questionnaire. Principal component analysis identified factor structure and Cronbach α at .96 supported the reliability of the factor analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance tested the 4 health care leadership roles to determine if an effect was present among the competencies. A subsequent analysis of variance test was conducted on the competencies to confirm an effect was present, and a Games-Howell post hoc test followed. These tests indicated that there was a significant difference in rating the perceived importance of specific leadership competencies by the health care leaders in each competency domain. The participants included in this study consisted of the chief executive officer (CEO), director of nursing (DON), operating room director (ORD), and director of radiology (DOR). Based on the Games-Howell post hoc test, a commonality existed between the leaders. The CEOs and DONs often indicated no significant difference in competency perception to one another in relation to the dependent variables, yet indicated a significant difference in competency perception when compared with the ORDs and DORs. Similarly, the ORD and DOR variables often indicated no significant difference in competency perception to one another in relation to the dependent variables, yet indicated a significant difference in competency perception compared with the CEO and DON variables. This study positively indicated that health care leadership's perception of competencies does differ between the various leadership roles.

  4. 'Extreme mass spectrometry': the role of mass spectrometry in the study of the Antarctic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, Emanuele; Tanwar, Shivani

    2014-11-01

    A focus on the studies of the Antarctic environment that have been performed by mass spectrometry is presented herein; our aim is to give evidence of the essential role of this instrumental technique in the framework of the scientific research in Antarctica, with a comprehensive review on the main literature of the last two decades. Due to the wideness of the topic, the present review is limited to the determination of organic pollutants, natural molecules and biomarkers in Antarctica, thus excluding elemental analysis and studies on inorganic species. The work has been divided into five sections, on the basis of the considered environmental compartment: air; ice and snow; seawater, pack ice and lakes; soil and sediments; and organisms and biomarkers.

  5. Did large animals play an important role in global biogeochemical cycling in the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.

    2014-12-01

    In the late Pleistocene (~50-10,000 years ago), ninety-seven genera of large animals (>44kg) (megafauna) went extinct, concentrated in the Americas and Australia. The loss of megafauna had major effects on ecosystem structure, seed dispersal and land surface albedo. However, the impact of this dramatic extinction on ecosystem nutrient biogeochemistry, through the lateral transport of dung and bodies, has never been explored. Here we explore these nutrient impacts using a novel mathematical framework that analyses this lateral transport as a diffusion-like process and demonstrates that large animals play a disproportionately large role in the horizontal transfer of nutrients across landscapes. For example, we estimate that the extinction of the Amazonian megafauna led to a >98% reduction in the lateral transfer flux of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P) with similar, though less extreme, decreases in all continents outside of Africa. This resulted in strong decreases in phosphorus availability in Eastern Amazonia away from fertile floodplains, a decline which may still be ongoing, and current P limitation in the Amazon basin may be partially a relic of an ecosystem without the functional connectedness it once had. More broadly, the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions resulted in major and ongoing disruptions to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling at continental scales and increased nutrient heterogeneity globally.

  6. Important role of translational science in rare disease innovation, discovery, and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, Anne R; Gahl, William A

    2014-08-01

    Rare diseases play a leading role in innovation and the advancement of medical and pharmaceutical science. Most rare diseases are genetic disorders or atypical manifestations of infectious, immunologic, or oncologic diseases; they all provide opportunities to study extremes of human pathology and provide insight into both normal and aberrant physiology. Recently, drug development has become increasingly focused on classifying diseases largely on genetic grounds; this has allowed the identification of molecularly defined targets and the development of targeted therapies. Clinical trials are now focusing on progressively smaller subgroups within both common and rare disease populations, often based on genetic tests or biomarkers. Drug developers, researchers, and regulatory agencies face a variety of challenges throughout the life cycle of drug research and development for rare diseases. These include the small numbers of patients available for study, lack of knowledge of the disease's natural history, incomplete understanding of the basic mechanisms causing the disorder, and variability in disease severity, expression, and course. Traditional approaches to rare disease clinical research have not kept pace with advances in basic science, and increased attention to translational science is needed to address these challenges, especially diagnostic testing, registries, and novel trial designs.

  7. The role of human carboxylesterases in drug metabolism: have we overlooked their importance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laizure, S Casey; Herring, Vanessa; Hu, Zheyi; Witbrodt, Kevin; Parker, Robert B

    2013-02-01

    Carboxylesterases are a multigene family of mammalian enzymes widely distributed throughout the body that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters, amides, thioesters, and carbamates. In humans, two carboxylesterases, hCE1 and hCE2, are important mediators of drug metabolism. Both are expressed in the liver, but hCE1 greatly exceeds hCE2. In the intestine, only hCE2 is present and highly expressed. The most common drug substrates of these enzymes are ester prodrugs specifically designed to enhance oral bioavailability by hydrolysis to the active carboxylic acid after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Carboxylesterases also play an important role in the hydrolysis of some drugs to inactive metabolites. It has been widely believed that drugs undergoing hydrolysis by hCE1 and hCE2 are not subject to clinically significant alterations in their disposition, but evidence exists that genetic polymorphisms, drug-drug interactions, drug-disease interactions and other factors are important determinants of the variability in the therapeutic response to carboxylesterase-substrate drugs. The implications for drug therapy are far-reaching, as substrate drugs include numerous examples from widely prescribed therapeutic classes. Representative drugs include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, antiplatelet drugs, statins, antivirals, and central nervous system agents. As research interest increases in the carboxylesterases, evidence is accumulating of their important role in drug metabolism and, therefore, the outcomes of pharmacotherapy.

  8. The role and importance of leadership in business development in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Hoti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leadership in Kosovo today is one of the questions of exceptional importance. This institution has not yet been analyzed properly based on: quality, efficiency and responsibility, legal-, material- and moral leadership. Kosovo is faced with many challenges consisting of the needed steps towards the business development of the enterprise in Kosovo and in the international arena. Leaders cannot be created only by giving orders to others but the main problem is to identify the principles of cooperation and co-financing that identify people who can and should be able to mobilize forces to create economic advantages to the society. In this sense the most important thing is the determination of the exact diagnosis of the current situation before promoting economic growth. Main purpose of this article is the analysis of the role and importance of leadership in the business development in Kosovo.

  9. Functions of synapsins in corticothalamic facilitation: important roles of synapsin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Maxim; Heggelund, Paul

    2015-10-01

    The synaptic vesicle associated proteins synapsin I and synapsin II have important functions in synaptic short-term plasticity. We investigated their functions in cortical facilitatory feedback to neurons in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), feedback that has important functions in state-dependent regulation of thalamic transmission of visual input to cortex. We compared results from normal wild-type (WT) mice and synapsin knockout (KO) mice in several types of synaptic plasticity, and found clear differences between the responses of neurons in the synapsin I KO and the WT, but no significant differences between the synapsin II KO and the WT. These results are in contrast to the important role of synapsin II previously demonstrated in similar types of synaptic plasticity in other brain regions, indicating that the synapsins can have different roles in similar types of STP in different parts of the brain. The synaptic vesicle associated proteins synapsin I (SynI) and synapsin II (SynII) have important functions in several types of synaptic short-term plasticity in the brain, but their separate functions in different types of synapses are not well known. We investigated possible distinct functions of the two synapsins in synaptic short-term plasticity at corticothalamic synapses on relay neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. These synapses provide excitatory feedback from visual cortex to the relay cells, feedback that can facilitate transmission of signals from retina to cortex. We compared results from normal wild-type (WT), SynI knockout (KO) and SynII KO mice, in three types of synaptic plasticity mainly linked to presynaptic mechanism. In SynI KO mice, paired-pulse stimulation elicited increased facilitation at short interpulse intervals compared to the WT. Pulse-train stimulation elicited weaker facilitation than in the WT, and also post-tetanic potentiation was weaker in SynI KO than in the WT. Between SynII KO and the WT we found no

  10. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  11. Assessing the importance of spatio-temporal RCM resolution when estimating sub-daily extreme precipitation under current and future climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Luchner, J.; Onof, C.

    2017-01-01

    The increase in extreme precipitation is likely to be one of the most significant impacts of climate change in cities due to increased pluvial flood risk. Hence, reliable information on changes in sub-daily extreme precipitation is needed for robust adaptation strategies. This study explores...

  12. Understanding the Climatology of Thermodynamic Signatures and their Role in Modification of Extreme Precipitation around Artificial Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degu, A. M.; Hossain, F.

    2010-12-01

    Very little is known about how dams and reservoirs modify rainfall and flood frequency in their vicinity. This is because conventional dam design and reservoir planning over the last century have been “one-way,” without acknowledging the possible feedback mechanisms on precipitation recycling due to local evaporation and systematic change in land use and land cover. In this study, using the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) database, the climatology of important thermodynamic signatures, such as CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy), Convective Inhibition, Temperature, Latent Heat, Humidity, Precipitation and Wind are analyzed as a function of proximity to large artificial reservoirs in the United States. The analysis is cast in the context of the chronology of extreme precipitation trends around dams for the pre-dam and post-dam period. To understand how storms may have been intensified by reservoirs, the climatology was analyzed for a set of about 100 large dams for three specific scenarios: 1) right over the reservoir 2) right over land adjacent to the reservoir and 3) over land far away from the reservoir by at least 100 km. Precipitation records from the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) were used to correlate the temporal and spatial trends in extreme precipitation to the climatology of the thermodynamic signatures. Several hypotheses on the physical mechanism of storm intensification are proposed and tested using the analysis presented herein. Location of large dams with their climatic classification

  13. Mitochondria play an important role in the cell proliferation suppressing activity of berberine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Jin; Yu, Xuan; Wang, Xin-Pei; Jiang, Jing-Fei; Yuan, Zhi-Yi; Lu, Xi; Lei, Fan; Xing, Dong-Ming

    2017-01-01

    After being studied for approximately a century, berberine (BBR) has been found to act on various targets and pathways. A great challenge in the pharmacological analysis of BBR at present is to identify which target(s) plays a decisive role. In the study described herein, a rescue experiment was designed to show the important role of mitochondria in BBR activity. A toxic dose of BBR was applied to inhibit cell proliferation and mitochondrial activity, then α-ketobutyrate (AKB), an analogue of pyruvate that serves only as an electron receptor of NADH, was proven to partially restore cell proliferation. However, mitochondrial morphology damage and TCA cycle suppression were not recovered by AKB. As the AKB just help to regenerate NAD+, which is make up for part function of mitochondrial, the recovered cell proliferation stands for the contribution of mitochondria to the activity of BBR. Our results also indicate that BBR suppresses tumour growth and reduces energy charge and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in a HepG2 xenograft model. In summary, our study suggests that mitochondria play an important role in BBR activity regarding tumour cell proliferation and metabolism. PMID:28181523

  14. The Importance of Moral Construal: Moral versus Non-Moral Construal Elicits Faster, More Extreme, Universal Evaluations of the Same Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bavel, Jay J.; Packer, Dominic J.; Haas, Ingrid Johnsen; Cunningham, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, intuitionist models of morality have challenged the view that moral reasoning is the sole or even primary means by which moral judgments are made. Rather, intuitionist models posit that certain situations automatically elicit moral intuitions, which guide moral judgments. We present three experiments showing that evaluations are also susceptible to the influence of moral versus non-moral construal. We had participants make moral evaluations (rating whether actions were morally good or bad) or non-moral evaluations (rating whether actions were pragmatically or hedonically good or bad) of a wide variety of actions. As predicted, moral evaluations were faster, more extreme, and more strongly associated with universal prescriptions—the belief that absolutely nobody or everybody should engage in an action—than non-moral (pragmatic or hedonic) evaluations of the same actions. Further, we show that people are capable of flexibly shifting from moral to non-moral evaluations on a trial-by-trial basis. Taken together, these experiments provide evidence that moral versus non-moral construal has an important influence on evaluation and suggests that effects of construal are highly flexible. We discuss the implications of these experiments for models of moral judgment and decision-making. PMID:23209557

  15. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 plays an important role in normal terminal erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Burke, Karly A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-06-10

    Gene-targeting experiments report that the homeodomain-interacting protein kinases 1 and 2, Hipk1 and Hipk2, are essential but redundant in hematopoietic development because Hipk1/Hipk2 double-deficient animals exhibit severe defects in hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis, whereas the single knockouts do not. These serine-threonine kinases phosphorylate and consequently modify the functions of several important hematopoietic transcription factors and cofactors. Here we show that Hipk2 knockdown alone plays a significant role in terminal fetal liver erythroid differentiation. Hipk1 and Hipk2 are highly induced during primary mouse fetal liver erythropoiesis. Specific knockdown of Hipk2 inhibits terminal erythroid cell proliferation (explained in part by impaired cell-cycle progression as well as increased apoptosis) and terminal enucleation as well as the accumulation of hemoglobin. Hipk2 knockdown also reduces the transcription of many genes involved in proliferation and apoptosis as well as important, erythroid-specific genes involved in hemoglobin biosynthesis, such as alpha-globin and mitoferrin 1, demonstrating that Hipk2 plays an important role in some but not all aspects of normal terminal erythroid differentiation.

  16. Role of anxiety in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome: importance of the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Brent; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2009-01-01

    A common characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is that symptoms, including abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits, are often triggered or exacerbated during periods of stress and anxiety. However, the impact of anxiety and affective disorders on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is poorly understood and may in part explain the lack of effective therapeutic approaches to treat IBS. The amygdala is an important structure for regulating anxiety with the central nucleus of the amygdala facilitating the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system in response to stress. Moreover, chronic stress enhances function of the amygdala and promotes neural plasticity throughout the amygdaloid complex. This review outlines the latest findings obtained from human studies and animal models related to the role of the emotional brain in the regulation of enteric function, specifically how increasing the gain of the amygdala to induce anxiety-like behavior using corticosterone or chronic stress increases responsiveness to both visceral and somatic stimuli in rodents. A focus of the review is the relative importance of mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanisms within the amygdala in the regulation of anxiety and nociceptive behaviors that are characteristic features of IBS. This review also discusses several outstanding questions important for future research on the role of the amygdala in the generation of abnormal GI function that may lead to potential targets for new therapies to treat functional bowel disorders such as IBS.

  17. Role of anxiety in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome: importance of the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Myers

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A common characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is that symptoms, including abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits, are often triggered or exacerbated during periods of stress and anxiety. However, the impact of anxiety and affective disorders on the gastrointestinal (GI tract is poorly understood and may in part explain the lack of effective therapeutic approaches to treat IBS. The amygdala is an important structure for regulating anxiety with the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA facilitating the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the autonomic nervous system in response to stress. Moreover, chronic stress enhances function of the amygdala and promotes neural plasticity throughout the amygdaloid complex. This review outlines the latest findings obtained from human studies and animal models related to the role of the emotional brain in the regulation of enteric function, specifically how increasing the gain of the amygdala to induce anxiety-like behavior using corticosterone (CORT or chronic stress increases responsiveness to both visceral and somatic stimuli in rodents. A focus of the review is the relative importance of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR-mediated mechanisms within the amygdala in the regulation of anxiety and nociceptive behaviors that are characteristic features of IBS. This review also discusses several outstanding questions important for future research on the role of the amygdala in the generation of abnormal GI function that may lead to potential targets for new therapies to treat functional bowel disorders such as IBS.

  18. Phosphorus plays an important role in enhancing biodiesel productivity of Chlorella vulgaris under nitrogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fei-Fei; Chu, Pei-Na; Cai, Pei-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Zeng, Raymond J

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the role of phosphorus in lipid production under nitrogen starvation conditions, five types of media possessing different nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations or their combination were prepared to culture Chlorella vulgaris. It was found that biomass production under nitrogen deficient condition with sufficient phosphorus supply was similar to that of the control (with sufficient nutrition), resulting in a maximum lipid productivity of 58.39 mg/L/day. Meanwhile, 31P NMR showed that phosphorus in the medium was transformed and accumulated as polyphosphate in cells. The uptake rate of phosphorus in cells was 3.8 times higher than the uptake rate of the control. This study demonstrates that phosphorus plays an important role in lipid production of C. vulgaris under nitrogen deficient conditions and implies a potential to combine phosphorus removal from wastewater with biodiesel production via microalgae.

  19. The important role of civil society groups in eco-innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss, theoretically and practically, the role of civil society groups in eco-innovation. Design/methodology/approach – Starting from a discussion on the emergence of “triple helix twins”, “quadruple helix” and “N-tuple helices”, this paper discusses...... the role of civil society groups in eco-innovation by addressing the following research questions: Why is it necessary to stress that civil society groups are as important as university, industry and government in eco-innovation? What inspiration can “triple helix twins” and “quadruple helix” provide when...... arguing for a fourth actor of civil society groups in eco-innovation? How are civil society groups affecting eco-innovation practice and what does it tell us about the relation between civil society groups and the triple helix actors? In addressing the “How” question the authors draw on examples of eco...

  20. The role and importance of UAV within the current theaters of operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae MARIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Current theaters of operations are not limited to battlefields, but they are much morediversified, including the fight against the international terrorism phenomenon, the social conflicts (ofreligious, political, economic and separatist nature within several countries, thus supplying somepolitical-military conflicts within different states and areas of the world. The armed interference mustbe done based on some highly accurate information that must be gathered without endangering thehuman lives. This is the role currently played by the unmanned air vehicles (UAVs; they can performseveral functions: surveillance, information gathering, data storage and their transmission to theground stations, including the function of interference, when needed. This paper presents, within theabove context, the status of the current theaters of operations and of the UAVs performing differentmissions within these theaters, together with their role and importance in warfare operations.

  1. The patient's role in patient safety and the importance of a dedicated vascular access team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, David; Olsha, Oded; Goldin, Ilya; Danin, Sigalit

    2015-01-01

    The role of dialysis patients in ensuring their own safety throughout the process of vascular access construction should be far from negligible. Patients can make important contributions to their safety starting in the predialysis stage, via vascular access construction and through the experience of chronic hemodialysis. Currently, patients assume a passive role and their empowerment requires both patients and caregivers to overcome many personal and cultural barriers, thus encouraging safety-related behavior. There are many opportunities for end-stage renal failure patients to be involved in every stage of their disease. In this chapter, we discuss how hemodialysis patients can participate in patient safety, including some of the main opportunities for involvement along the care pathway from the point at which the decision is made that the patient requires vascular access surgery.

  2. The terminal structure plays an important role in the biological activity of cecropin CMIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦非; 谢维; 董雪吟; 徐贤秀

    1999-01-01

    Antibacterial peptides have received increasing attention as a new pharmaceutical substance. But the molecular mechanism of lysis is still poorly understood. CMIV gene and mutant CMIV gene in GST fusion system were expressed. After cleaving with different cleavage reagents, the peptide with an excess of N-terminus and with an un-amidated C-terminus stopped the activity while the peptide with an excess Asn at the C-terminus had the activity level the same as natural CMIV. The results showed that the terminal structure of cecropin CMIV played an important role in its biological activity.

  3. Post Testicular Sperm Maturational Changes in the Bull: Important Role of the Epididymosomes and Prostasomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Caballero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After spermatogenesis, testicular spermatozoa are not able to fertilize an oocyte, they must undergo sequential maturational processes. Part of these essential processes occurs during the transit of the spermatozoa through the male reproductive tract. Since the sperm become silent in terms of translation and transcription at the testicular level, all the maturational changes that take place on them are dependent on the interaction of spermatozoa with epididymal and accessory gland fluids. During the last decades, reproductive biotechnologies applied to bovine species have advanced significantly. The knowledge of the bull reproductive physiology is really important for the improvement of these techniques and the development of new ones. This paper focuses on the importance of the sperm interaction with the male reproductive fluids to acquire the fertilizing ability, with special attention to the role of the membranous vesicles present in those fluids and the recent mechanisms of protein acquisition during sperm maturation.

  4. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF INTERNET MARKETING IN MODERN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and rapid development of Internet technology and marketing opportunities provided by modern digital technology, enabled the radical change in traditional marketing activities and opened the space for the development of Internet marketing. Internet marketing has become an inevitable trend in the business, and its benefits are recognized by many businesses, regardless of their economic activity, with the aim of achieving better business results. Representatives of the hospitality and tourism demand (potential users of services and products are more frequently and increasingly getting their information on offers through the Internet, and the marketing presentation of the overall offer via the Internet is becoming an increasingly important success factor of each hotel as a business system. This paper analyzes the basic determinants of Internet marketing and the role and importance of Internet marketing in modern hotel business.

  5. The role and importance of ECB's monetary policy in the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stakić Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of the European Central Bank (ECB in the context of measures and effects that are being taken to repair the consequences of the current economic crisis. The ECB, together with the European single currency, the euro, symbolizes long-lasting monetary integration of the EU states. Such form of integration has created the possibility of a supranational action of ECB in the banking sector and financial markets in general. Along with the other most important central banks in the world, the ECB applies various unconventional instruments of monetary policy to stimulate economic growth and development. In this context, the paper explains the nature and mechanism of such measures in order to influence on the insufficient liquidity in the financial markets.

  6. Readiness for future managerial leadership roles: nursing students' perceived importance of organizational values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Tova; Eshel, Nira; Traister, Lelit; Galon, Vered

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the values held by nursing students attending a baccalaureate program. Our aim was to determine whether nursing students' values change after being exposed to educators as well as mentors and ethics education and after experiencing today's challenging work environment, with an emphasis on the organizational domain of the students' values set. The conceptual framework that underpins the approach to values presented in this study argues that the total values set of a working person consists of three domains: personal, professional, and organizational values. Our sample consisted of first, third, and fourth year nursing students (N = 496) attending the Tel Aviv University in Israel. Participants were requested to answer a questionnaire and to rate their perceived importance of 30 values. The results revealed significant differences in the participants' perceived importance of the three values domains. The organizational values--the new business values--were perceived significantly to be least important. Sex was found to be significantly related to perception of values' importance. Year of study was not found to be significantly correlated to perception of values. The findings reflect that senior nursing students are only moderately prepared for their future managerial leadership roles and point out the need to provide students with more stimulating and supportive learning experiences.

  7. The role of synoptic and intraseasonal anomalies on the life cycle of rainfall extremes over South America: non-summer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Fernando E.; Grimm, Alice M.

    2016-09-01

    Previous study showed that the interaction of synoptic disturbances with intraseasonal anomalies is important for heavy rainfall in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and the La Plata basin during the austral summer. Here, we conduct similar analysis to study the evolution of rainfall extremes during austral spring (SON), fall (MAM) and winter (JJA). A relatively homogeneous region over southeastern South America, whose limits change little from season to season, is heavily affected by extreme precipitation events, as indicated by the value of the 95th percentile of daily rainfall, higher during the spring season (16.94 mm day-1) and lower in winter (13.79 mm day-1). From 1979 to 2013, extreme rainfall events are more frequent in spring (131 events) and less frequent in fall (112 events). Similar to summertime extreme events, synoptic-scale waves continue to be the main drivers of extreme precipitation over the region. The interaction between these waves and intraseasonal anomalies during the development of rainfall extremes over southeastern South America is observed especially during neutral ENSO and La Niña conditions. Warm ENSO phases tend to favor more frequent extremes in all three seasons and extreme events during El Niños are associated with synoptic waves, with no significant interaction with intraseasonal anomalies.

  8. The role of imported cases and favorable meteorological conditions in the onset of dengue epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuin-Shee Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Travelers who acquire dengue infection are often routes for virus transmission to other regions. Nevertheless, the interplay between infected travelers, climate, vectors, and indigenous dengue incidence remains unclear. The role of foreign-origin cases on local dengue epidemics thus has been largely neglected by research. This study investigated the effect of both imported dengue and local meteorological factors on the occurrence of indigenous dengue in Taiwan. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using logistic and Poisson regression models, we analyzed bi-weekly, laboratory-confirmed dengue cases at their onset dates of illness from 1998 to 2007 to identify correlations between indigenous dengue and imported dengue cases (in the context of local meteorological factors across different time lags. Our results revealed that the occurrence of indigenous dengue was significantly correlated with temporally-lagged cases of imported dengue (2-14 weeks, higher temperatures (6-14 weeks, and lower relative humidity (6-20 weeks. In addition, imported and indigenous dengue cases had a significant quantitative relationship in the onset of local epidemics. However, this relationship became less significant once indigenous epidemics progressed past the initial stage. CONCLUSIONS: These findings imply that imported dengue cases are able to initiate indigenous epidemics when appropriate weather conditions are present. Early detection and case management of imported cases through rapid diagnosis may avert large-scale epidemics of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever. The deployment of an early-warning surveillance system, with the capacity to integrate meteorological data, will be an invaluable tool for successful prevention and control of dengue, particularly in non-endemic countries.

  9. Enhancing the nurses' role in healthcare delivery through strategic management: recognizing its importance or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Marie

    2009-09-01

    To determine the importance of strategy in nursing management and to establish if strategic management has entered the lexicon of nurses' vocabulary. Developing and managing strategy is a critical success factor for health care managers. It remains unclear if nurse managers view strategy development as their role. A review of scholarly International nursing and management literature, available through CINAHL and PUBMED Data Bases was undertaken. The titles of 1063 articles, published between 1997 and 2007 were examined in order to determine the profile of strategy in those titles. Documentary analysis was undertaken on a random sample of 250 of those articles and on the full text of a further 100. Less than 10% of journal titles contained the word strategy. What was presented as strategy was in the majority of cases describing policy, administration or management. Little formal strategy theory was evident. The nursing profession does not appear to have adopted the terms strategy or strategic management to any great extent. Nurse Managers could play a greater role in enhancing healthcare delivery if an understanding of, and acceptance of the importance of strategy in health care delivery was promoted.

  10. Understanding Biological Roles of Venoms Among the Caenophidia: The Importance of Rear-Fanged Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackessy, Stephen P; Saviola, Anthony J

    2016-11-01

    Snake venoms represent an adaptive trophic response to the challenges confronting a limbless predator for overcoming combative prey, and this chemical means of subduing prey shows several dominant phenotypes. Many front-fanged snakes, particularly vipers, feed on various vertebrate and invertebrate prey species, and some of their venom components (e.g., metalloproteinases, cobratoxin) appear to have been selected for "broad-brush" incapacitation of different prey taxa. Using proteomic and genomic techniques, the compositional diversity of front-fanged snakes is becoming well characterized; however, this is not the case for most rear-fanged colubroid snakes. Because these species consume a high diversity of prey, and because venoms are primarily a trophic adaptation, important clues for understanding specific selective pressures favoring venom component composition will be found among rear-fanged snake venoms. Rear-fanged snakes typically (but not always) produce venoms with lower complexity than front-fanged snakes, and there are even fewer dominant (and, arguably, biologically most relevant) venom protein families. We have demonstrated taxon-specific toxic effects, where lizards and birds show high susceptibility while mammals are largely unaffected, for both Old World and New World rear-fanged snakes, strongly indicating a causal link between toxin evolution and prey preference. New data are presented on myotoxin a, showing that the extremely rapid paralysis induced by this rattlesnake toxin is specific for rodents, and that myotoxin a is ineffectual against lizards. Relatively few rear-fanged snake venoms have been characterized, and basic natural history data are largely lacking, but directed sampling of specialized species indicates that novel compounds are likely among these specialists, particularly among those species feeding on invertebrate prey such as scorpions and centipedes. Because many of the more than 2200 species of colubroid snakes are rear

  11. Transcription Factor ets-2 Plays an Important Role in the Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Christopher P.; Fischer, Sara N.; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Kabbout, Mohamed N.; Hitchcock, Charles L.; Bringardner, Benjamin D.; McMaken, Sara; Newland, Christie A.; Cantemir-Stone, Carmen Z.; Phillips, Gary S.; Ostrowski, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Ets-2 is a ubiquitous transcription factor activated after phosphorylation at threonine-72. Previous studies highlighted the importance of phosphorylated ets-2 in lung inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling, two pathways involved in pulmonary fibrosis. We hypothesized that phosphorylated ets-2 played an important role in pulmonary fibrosis, and we sought to determine the role of ets-2 in its pathogenesis. We challenged ets-2 (A72/A72) transgenic mice (harboring a mutated form of ets-2 at phosphorylation site threonine-72) and ets-2 (wild-type/wild-type [WT/WT]) control mice with sequential intraperitoneal injections of bleomycin, followed by quantitative measurements of lung fibrosis and inflammation and primary cell in vitro assays. Concentrations of phosphorylated ets-2 were detected via the single and dual immunohistochemical staining of murine lungs and lung sections from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Ets-2 (A72/A72) mice were protected from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, compared with ets-2 (WT/WT) mice. This protection was characterized by decreased lung pathological abnormalities and the fibrotic gene expression of Type I collagen, Type III collagen, α–smooth muscle actin, and connective tissue growth factor. Immunohistochemical staining of lung sections from bleomycin-treated ets-2 (WT/WT) mice and from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis demonstrated increased staining of phosphorylated ets-2 that colocalized with Type I collagen expression and to fibroblastic foci. Lastly, primary lung fibroblasts from ets-2 (A72/A72) mice exhibited decreased expression of Type I collagen in response to stimulation with TGF-β, compared with fibroblasts from ets-2 (WT/WT) mice. These data indicate the importance of phosphorylated ets-2 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis through the expression of Type I collagen and (myo)fibroblast activation. PMID:21562315

  12. AtTMEM18 plays important roles in pollen tube and vegetative growth in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ying Dou; Ke-Zhen Yang; Zhao-Xia Ma; Li-Qun Chen; Xue-Qin Zhang; Jin-Rong Bai; De Ye

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, pol en tube growth is essential for delivery of male gametes into the female gametophyte or embryo sac for double fertilization. Although many genes have been identified as being involved in the process, the molecular mechanisms of pol en tube growth remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified that the Arabidopsis Transmembrane Protein 18 (AtTMEM18) gene played important roles in pol en tube growth. The AtTMEM18 shares a high similarity with the Transmembrane 18 proteins (TMEM18s) that are conserved in most eukaryotes and may play important roles in obesity in humans. Mutation in the AtTMEM18 by a Ds insertion caused abnormal cal ose deposition in the pol en grains and had a significant impact on pol en germination and pol en tube growth. AtTMEM18 is expressed in pol en grains, pol en tubes, root tips and other vegetative tissues. The pol en-rescued assays showed that the mutation in AtTMEM18 also caused defects in roots, stems, leaves and transmitting tracts. AtTMEM18-GFP was located around the nuclei. Genetic assays demonstrated that the localization of AtTMEM18 around the nuclei in the generative cel s of pol en grains was essential for the male fertility. Furthermore, expression of the rice TMEM18-homologous protein (OsTMEM18) driven by LAT52 promoter could recover the fertility of the Arabidopsis attmem18 mutant. These results suggested that the TMEM18 is important for plant growth in Arabidopsis.

  13. The important role of scattered trees on the herbaceous diversity of a grazed Mediterranean dehesa

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Aida; San Miguel, Alfonso; López-Carrasco, Celia; Huntsinger, Lynn; Roig, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    Scattered trees are considered keystone structures and play an important role in Mediterranean sylvopastoral systems. Such systems are associated with high biodiversity and provide important natural resources and ecosystem services. In this study, we measured the contribution of scattered trees and different grazing management (cattle, sheep and wildlife only) to the diversity of the grassland sward in a dehesa (open holm oak woodland) located in Central Spain. We analyzed alpha and beta diversity through measurement of species richness, Shannon-Wiener, and Whittaker indices, respectively; and the floristic composition of the herb layer using subplots within two adjacent plots (trees present vs. trees absent) under three different grazing management regimes, including wildlife only, during a year. We found a 20-30% increment in the alpha diversity of wooded plots, compared to those without trees, regardless of grazing management. All beta indices calculated showed more than 60% species turnover. Wooded plots were occupied by different herbaceous species in different heterogeneous microsites (under the canopy, in the ecotone or on open land) created by the trees. Livestock grazing modified species composition (e.g. more nitrophilous species) compared to wildlife only plots. In addition to all their other benefits, trees are important to maintaining grassland diversity in Mediterranean dehesas.

  14. Scientific Grand Challenges: Challenges in Climate Change Science and the Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Johnson, Gary M.; Washington, Warren M.

    2009-07-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in partnership with the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) held a workshop on the challenges in climate change science and the role of computing at the extreme scale, November 6-7, 2008, in Bethesda, Maryland. At the workshop, participants identified the scientific challenges facing the field of climate science and outlined the research directions of highest priority that should be pursued to meet these challenges. Representatives from the national and international climate change research community as well as representatives from the high-performance computing community attended the workshop. This group represented a broad mix of expertise. Of the 99 participants, 6 were from international institutions. Before the workshop, each of the four panels prepared a white paper, which provided the starting place for the workshop discussions. These four panels of workshop attendees devoted to their efforts the following themes: Model Development and Integrated Assessment; Algorithms and Computational Environment; Decadal Predictability and Prediction; Data, Visualization, and Computing Productivity. The recommendations of the panels are summarized in the body of this report.

  15. Peptide synthesis in aqueous environments: the role of extreme conditions and pyrite mineral surfaces on formation and hydrolysis of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Eduard; Nair, Nisanth N; Wittekindt, Carsten; Marx, Dominik

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive study of free energy landscapes and mechanisms of COS-mediated polymerization of glycine via N-carboxy anhydrides (NCAs, "Leuchs anhydrides") and peptide hydrolysis at the water-pyrite interface at extreme thermodynamic conditions is presented. Particular emphasis is set on the catalytic effects of the mineral surface including the putative role of the ubiquitous sulfur vacancy defects. It is found that the mere presence of a surface is able to change the free energetics of the elementary reaction steps. This effect can be understood in terms of a reduction of entropic contributions to the reactant state by immobilizing the reactants and/or screening them from bulk water in a purely geometric ("steric") sense. Additionally, the pyrite directly participates chemically in some of the reaction steps, thus changing the reaction mechanism qualitatively compared to the situation in bulk water. First, the adsorption of reactants on the surface can preform a product-like structure due to immobilizing and scaffolding them appropriately. Second, pyrite can act as a proton acceptor, thus replacing water in this role. Third, sulfur vacancies are found to increase the reactivity of the surface. The finding that the presence of pyrite speeds up the rate-determining step in the formation of peptides with respect to the situation in bulk solvent while stabilizing the produced peptide against hydrolysis is of particular interest to the hypothesis of prebiotic peptide formation at hydrothermal aqueous conditions. Apart from these implications, the generality of the studied organic reactions are of immediate relevance to many fields such as (bio)geochemistry, biomineralization, and environmental chemistry.

  16. The role and importance of social media in communicating brand value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Suzana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication between consumers is the most important way of communicating value and forming opinions on brands and enterprises. The expansion of communication technologies has made communication between people easier and provided the links with consumers on a radically new basis. Virtual space represents a dominant meeting place for people with similar interests. Thus, virtual consumer communities across the world preferring and committed to same brands have been created. Members are loyal to communities they belong to and participate actively and indirectly in modeling and developing them. By expressing their own opinions and exploring others, consumers influence and help each other in finding solutions for certain situations in buying and consumption. Considering the intensity of the exchange of information, opinions, experience and ideas, one can speak about the expansion of communication messages that are exchanged in the virtual space and social media as transfer channels. These are the media formed by consumers themselves, who control the information communicated through them. Because of the importance of massages exchanged through them and their impact on consumer behavior, social media have an important place in integrated marketing communications. Although enterprises cannot completely control the communication within social media, the efficiency of marketing communication can be realized by providing conditions for friendly, correct, continuous and transparent message exchange between consumers and enterprises as well as between consumers themselves. The paper examines the communication possibilities of social media determining their role and importance in communicating value in the market for the purpose of enhancing consumer loyalty and creating image and professional respectability of the enterprise.

  17. An Na+/H+ antiporter gene from wheat plays an important role in stress tolerance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jia Ning Yu; Jian Huang; Zi Ning Wang; Jin Song Zhang; Shou Yi Chen

    2007-09-01

    A vacuole Na+/H+ antiporter gene TaNHX2 was obtained by screening the wheat cDNA library and by the 5′-RACE method. The expression of TaNHX2 was induced in roots and leaves by treatment with NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG), cold and abscisic acid (ABA). When expressed in a yeast mutant (nhx1), TaNHX2 suppressed the salt sensitivity of the mutant, which was deficient in vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter, and caused partial recovery of growth of nhx1 in NaCl and LiCl media. The survival rate of yeast cells was improved by overexpressing the TaNHX2 gene under NaCl, KCl, sorbitol and freezing stresses when compared with the control. The results imply that TaNHX2 might play an important role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance in plant cells.

  18. Surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus play an important role in experimental skin infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Jin, Tao; Josefsson, Elisabet

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin infections that range from mild diseases up to life-threatening conditions. Mechanisms of S. aureus virulence in those infections remain poorly studied. To investigate the impact of S. aureus surface proteins on skin infection, we used mouse models of skin abscess formation and skin necrosis, induced by a subcutaneous injection of bacteria. In the skin abscess model, a sortase-deficient S. aureus strain lacking all of its cell-wall anchored proteins was less virulent than its wild-type strain. Also, strains specifically lacking protein A, fibronecting binding proteins, clumping factor A or surface protein SasF were impaired in their virulence. When a model of dermonecrosis was studied, the S. aureus surface proteins could not be shown to be involved. In summary, surface proteins play an important role in virulence of S. aureus skin abscess infections, but not in formation of skin necrosis.

  19. Importance And Role Of Competence In Professional Career Of Product Develop Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenović, Aleksandar; Banić, Milan; Miltenović, Vojislav

    2015-07-01

    Product development is a creative task where is systematically created a new product, which makes possible to firms to offer attractive, innovative and market oriented products. In conditions of fierce competition and saturated markets, companies that do not innovate are stagnating and disappear from the market. Innovation is therefore every intervention which can reduce production costs, enables optimum utilization of available human, energy and material resources, improve product quality, improve the placement, which leads to an increase in competitiveness. A prerequisite for fulfillment of the above-mentioned tasks is that the companies have engineers with the appropriate competencies, which are able to, through creativity, innovation and fascinating technique of creating new or improving existing products and lunch it on the market. The paper discusses the role and importance of the competences that are necessary for a successful professional career of product development engineers.

  20. The important role of water in growth of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Christoph; Chen, Christopher T.; Kuykendall, Tevye; Shevitski, Brian; Darlington, Thomas P.; Borys, Nicholas J.; Krayev, Andrey; Schuck, P. James; Aloni, Shaul; Schwartzberg, Adam M.

    2017-06-01

    2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are commonly grown by chemical vapor deposition using transition metal oxides as solid precursors. Despite the widespread use of this technique, challenges in reproducibility, coverage, and material quality are pervasive, suggestive of unknown and uncontrolled process parameters. In this communication, we demonstrate the impact of water vapor on this growth process. Our results show a direct correlation between gas phase water content and the morphology of TMD films. In particular, we show that the presence of water enhances volatilization, and therefore the vapor transport of tungsten and molybdenum oxide. Surprisingly, we find that water not only plays an important role in volatilization but is also compatible with TMD growth. In fact, carefully controlled humidity can consistently produce high quality, luminescent materials.

  1. [Does the diuretic effect of calcium inhibitors play an important role in the hypertensive efficacy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Martin, A; Gil Extremera, B; Rubio Luengo, M A

    1995-04-08

    Calcium ions play an important role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Calcium antagonists, a group of first line drugs in the treatment of hypertension, reduce the intracellular content of calcium in vascular smooth muscle cells, and decrease the peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure. These drugs differ from other vasodilators in that they also have natriuretic effects; thus they can affect the kidney on three levels: Renal haemodynamics are affected by increased renal blood flow, and increased glomerular filtration rate. Changes in the renin-angiotensin system can decrease aldosterone secretion. Finally, they affect sodium management by acting directly on the renal tubule, increasing sodium excretion and inhibiting tubular reabsorption of this ion. The natriuretic effect of calcium antagonists is independent of the subject's sodium balance. The vasodilating action of these drugs is therefore accompanied by a natriuretic effect that makes satisfactory control of hypertension possible without placing the patient on a low-salt or salt-free diet.

  2. Expression of the human glucokinase gene: important roles of the 5' flanking and intron 1 sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucokinase plays important tissue-specific roles in human physiology, where it acts as a sensor of blood glucose levels in the pancreas, and a few other cells of the gut and brain, and as the rate-limiting step in glucose metabolism in the liver. Liver-specific expression is driven by one of the two tissue-specific promoters, and has an absolute requirement for insulin. The sequences that mediate regulation by insulin are incompletely understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the liver-specific expression of the human glucokinase gene we compared the structures of this gene from diverse mammals. Much of the sequence located between the 5' pancreatic beta-cell-specific and downstream liver-specific promoters of the glucokinase genes is composed of repetitive DNA elements that were inserted in parallel on different mammalian lineages. The transcriptional activity of the liver-specific promoter 5' flanking sequences were tested with and without downstream intronic sequences in two human liver cells lines, HepG2 and L-02. While glucokinase liver-specific 5' flanking sequences support expression in liver cell lines, a sequence located about 2000 bases 3' to the liver-specific mRNA start site represses gene expression. Enhanced reporter gene expression was observed in both cell lines when cells were treated with fetal calf serum, but only in the L-02 cells was expression enhanced by insulin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the normal liver L-02 cell line may be a better model to understand the regulation of the liver-specific expression of the human glucokinase gene. Our results also suggest that sequences downstream of the liver-specific mRNA start site have important roles in the regulation of liver-specific glucokinase gene expression.

  3. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. N.; Son, S. F.; Asay, B. W.; Sander, R. K.

    2005-03-01

    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6mm±0.4mm exists below which ignition by CO2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29W /cm2 and 38W/cm2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials.

  4. Comparative Phosphoproteomics Reveals an Important Role of MKK2 in Banana (Musa spp.) Cold Signal Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; He, Wei-Di; Shao, Xiu-Hong; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Deng, Gui-Ming; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Hu, Chun-Hua; Yi, Gan-Jun; Yang, Qiao-Song

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the key environmental stresses, which greatly affects global banana production. However, little is known about the global phosphoproteomes in Musa spp. and their regulatory roles in response to cold stress. In this study, we conducted a comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of cold-sensitive Cavendish Banana and relatively cold tolerant Dajiao under cold stress. Phosphopeptide abundances of five phosphoproteins involved in MKK2 interaction network, including MKK2, HY5, CaSR, STN7 and kinesin-like protein, show a remarkable difference between Cavendish Banana and Dajiao in response to cold stress. Western blotting of MKK2 protein and its T31 phosphorylated peptide verified the phosphoproteomic results of increased T31 phosphopeptide abundance with decreased MKK2 abundance in Daojiao for a time course of cold stress. Meanwhile increased expression of MKK2 with no detectable T31 phosphorylation was found in Cavendish Banana. These results suggest that the MKK2 pathway in Dajiao, along with other cold-specific phosphoproteins, appears to be associated with the molecular mechanisms of high tolerance to cold stress in Dajiao. The results also provide new evidence that the signaling pathway of cellular MKK2 phosphorylation plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance that likely serves as a universal plant cold tolerance mechanism. PMID:28106078

  5. Entamoeba mitosomes play an important role in encystation by association with cholesteryl sulfate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi-ichi, Fumika; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Takao, Shouko; Jeelani, Ghulam; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Hara, Hiromitsu; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroki

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes are mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) that have highly reduced and divergent functions in anaerobic/microaerophilic eukaryotes. Entamoeba histolytica, a microaerophilic, parasitic amoebozoan species, which causes intestinal and extraintestinal amoebiasis in humans, possesses mitosomes, the existence and biological functions of which have been a longstanding enigma in the evolution of mitochondria. We previously demonstrated that sulfate activation, which is not generally compartmentalized to mitochondria, is a major function of E. histolytica mitosomes. However, because the final metabolites of sulfate activation remain unknown, the overall scheme of this metabolism and the role of mitosomes in Entamoeba have not been elucidated. In this study we purified and identified cholesteryl sulfate (CS) as a final metabolite of sulfate activation. We then identified the gene encoding the cholesteryl sulfotransferase responsible for synthesizing CS. Addition of CS to culture media increased the number of cysts, the dormant form that differentiates from proliferative trophozoites. Conversely, chlorate, a selective inhibitor of the first enzyme in the sulfate-activation pathway, inhibited cyst formation in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that CS plays an important role in differentiation, an essential process for the transmission of Entamoeba between hosts. Furthermore, we show that Mastigamoeba balamuthi, an anaerobic, free-living amoebozoan species, which is a close relative of E. histolytica, also has the sulfate-activation pathway in MROs but does not possess the capacity for CS production. Hence, we propose that a unique function of MROs in Entamoeba contributes to its adaptation to its parasitic life cycle.

  6. Mechanical factors play an important role in pectus excavatum with thoracic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuncang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the incidence, imaging characteristics and mechanical factors in scoliotic patients with pectus excavatum. Methods A total of 142 scoliostic patients with pectus excavatum were evaluated prior to operation. The evaluation included a complete physical exam, phenotype and severity of the pectus excavatum, incidence and severity of scoliosis, and analysis of radiological images, including calculation of the Haller index. Results Twenty five out of 142 patients (17.61% with pectus excavatum had scoliosis with a Cobb angle >10 degrees, and in 80.00% of the cases the spinal column was bent to the right. Seventeen patients had bent-to-the-right spines that involved the 6th to 10 th thoracic vertebrae. We found that 23 out of 25 patients with a Cobb angle more than 10° were teenagers and adults. The incidence of scoliosis was only 6.06% in the children under 11 years whereas it was 21.79% in the teenage group. Conclusions Mechanical forces appear to play a role in the coexistence of pectus excavatum and scoliosis. There is a relationship between age, severity (Haller index, asymmetry and scoliosis. The heart and mediastinum play a role in providing an outward force to the left of the sternum which may be an important reason for the coexistence of pectus excavatum and scoliosis, but the correlation needs further proof.

  7. The Common Agricultural Policy Role in Addressing External Shocks - The Case of Russian Import Ban

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    ANDREEA DRĂGOI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP is one of the oldest and most controversial common policies and it is financed directly from the European Union budget. Some critics of CAP argue that especially in the context of the challenges brought by the international crisis, this policy represents a “burden” for the European budget. Our research aims to responds those critics by showing that CAP may represent an important tool for addressing the external shocks impact on agricultural sector of EU. In this view, we will highlight the role of CAP in sustaining the European farmer during the crisis generated by the Russian import ban, adopted as a response to the sanctions imposed by EU to the Russian Federation in the context of Ukrainian crisis. Using a quantitative and qualitative analysis we will assess how the CAP has supported the European agricultural sector and also the future measures that could be adopted to create a more flexible response in the case of other external shocks.

  8. Does elevated osteopontin level play an important role in the development of scoliosis in bipedal mice?

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    Xie, Ning; Li, Mo; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Wang, Binbin; Tang, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies implied indirectly that an elevated osteopontin (OPN) level might play a key role in the pathomechanism of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nonetheless, up to now, no direct evidence was proposed to determine this issue. The aim was to determine the role of OPN in the pathomechanism of scoliosis. This was an experimental study to investigate the role of OPN in a bipedal mouse scoliosis model. All procedures were performed under the approval and supervision of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of our university. A new bipedal mouse model with elevated OPN level was established in this study. Amputation of forelimbs and tail was performed on 80 male C3H/HeJ mice at the age of 3 weeks. Then, these mice were randomly divided into two groups: Group A consisted of 40 mice treated with OPN 40 mg/kg daily and Group B consisted of the remaining 40 mice treated with saline. Then, 40 quadruped mice with saline were included in Group C. Body length, X-rays, and computed tomographic scans were obtained at the twentieth week. Then, scoliosis incidence, curve magnitude, and circulating OPN level were compared among groups. Osteopontin level was significantly higher in Group A compared with that in Groups B and C. Spine deformity was identified in 37 mice in Group A, 21 mice in Group B, and 5 mice in Group C. The average Cobb angle was 29.8° in Group A, 20.9° in Group B, and 17.5° in Group C. Although no significant difference of body length was found, significant statistical difference was noted in terms of scoliosis incidence and curve magnitude, among the three groups. The results of the present study indicated that the elevated OPN level might play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of scoliosis, that is, it not only raises the risk for scoliosis in bipedal mice but also contributes to curve progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. TGF-β signaling plays an important role in resisting γ-irradiation

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    An, You Sun; Kim, Mi-Ra [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Sook [Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sil [College of Pharmacy and Division of Life Science and Pharmaceuticals, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Eunkyung [Department of Genetic Engineering, College of Life Science, Kyung-Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jie-Young [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeeyong, E-mail: jeeyongl@gmail.com [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jae Youn, E-mail: yjy_71@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) regulates various biological processes, including differentiation, bone remodeling and angiogenesis, and is particularly important as a regulator of homeostasis and cell growth in normal tissue. Interestingly, some studies have reported that TGF-β1 induces apoptosis through induction of specific genes, whereas others suggest that TGF-β1 inhibits apoptosis and facilitates cell survival. Resolving these discrepancies, which may reflect differences in cellular context, is an important research priority. Here, using the parental mink lung epithelial cell line, Mv1Lu, and its derivatives, R1B and DR26, lacking TGF-β receptors, we investigated the involvement of TGF-β signaling in the effects of γ-irradiation. We found that canonical TGF-β signaling played an important role in protecting cells from γ-irradiation. Introduction of functional TGF-β receptors or constitutively active Smads into R1B and DR26 cell lines reduced DNA fragmentation, Caspase-3 cleavage and γ-H2AX foci formation in γ-irradiated cells. Notably, we also found that de novo protein synthesis was required for the radio-resistant effects of TGF-β1. Our data thus indicate that TGF-β1 protected against γ-irradiation, decreasing DNA damage and reducing apoptosis, and thereby enhanced cell survival. - Highlights: ► TGF-β1 pretreatment inhibits γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis. ► TGF-β signaling reduces γ-irradiation-induced γ-H2AX foci formation. ► de novo protein synthesis is necessary for TGF-β1-induced radio-resistance.

  10. [Treatment of gunshot fractures of the lower extremity: Part 1: Incidence, importance, case numbers, pathophysiology, contamination, principles of emergency and first responder treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, A; Bieler, D; Wilms, A; Hentsch, S; Johann, M; Kollig, E

    2014-11-01

    Gunshot wounds are rare in Germany and are mostly the result of suicide attempts or improper handling of weapons. The resulting injuries involve extensive tissue damage and complications which are thus unique and require a differentiated approach. As trauma centers may be confronted with gunshot wounds at any time, treatment principles must be understood and regularly reevaluated. Due to Bundeswehr operations abroad and the treatment of patients from other crisis regions a total of 85 gunshot wounds in 64 patients were treated between 2005 and 2011. In the majority of cases the lower extremities were affected and we were able to carry out treatment to preserve the extremities. In this article we report on our experiences and the results of treatment of gunshot wounds to the lower extremities. This part of the article deals with the epidemiology and pathophysiology of gunshot wounds to the lower extremities. By means of an evaluation of microbiological findings in a subgroup of patients involved in a civil war (n=10), the problem of multidrug resistant pathogen contamination, colonization and infection is discussed. In addition to a description of initial and emergency treatment of gunshot wounds, measures required for further treatment and decontamination are presented. Finally, the results are discussed with reference to the literature in this field.

  11. Role of the chosen general practitioner in educating women on the importance of regular gynecological examinations

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    Markov Zlatka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since regular screening is the best way of preventing the development of cervical cancer, the objective has been set to assess the motivation of women to have regular gynecological examinations and to estimate the role of the chosen general practitioner. Material and Methods. The survey was performed on the basis of the prospective study done at the Health Centre ”Novi Sad” in 2009 during the systematic regular examinations carried out by general practitioners. Results. It was found that 60.8% of the examined women had regular checkups; 21.5% visited their doctor once in the period of two to five years and 4.9% had undergone the examination in a period > 10 years, whereas 1.9 women had never had an examination. Other examinees had occasional check-ups with various time laps between them. Discussion. The reasons for not visiting a gynecologist were fear of the examination, absence of discomforts and lack of time. However, 87.2% of the examinees visited a gynecologist after they had been advised to do so by their general practitioner. Gynecological finding was good in 87.6% of the women, 3.4% were found to have carcinoma and 8.9% had some other abnormal finding. Conclusion. According to the obtained results, it has been concluded that the chosen general practitioner has a very important role in motivating women to have regular gynecological examinations and in educating them on the risk factors for developing malignant diseases and on the possible prevention.

  12. Unexpected diversity in Shisa-like proteins suggests the importance of their roles as transmembrane adaptors.

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    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-03-01

    The Shisa family of single-transmembrane proteins is characterized by an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain and a proline-rich C-terminal region. Its founding member, Xenopus Shisa, promotes head development by antagonizing Wnt and FGF signaling. Recently, a mouse brain-specific Shisa protein CKAMP44 (Shisa9) was shown to play an important role in AMPA receptor desensitization. We used sequence similarity searches against protein, genome and EST databases to study the evolutionary origin and phylogenetic distribution of Shisa homologs. In addition to nine Shisa subfamilies in vertebrates, we detected distantly related Shisa homologs that possess an N-terminal domain with six conserved cysteines. These Shisa-like proteins include FAM159 and KIAA1644 mainly from vertebrates, and members from various bilaterian invertebrates and Porifera, suggesting their presence in the last common ancestor of Metazoa. Shisa-like genes have undergone large expansions in Branchiostoma floridae and Saccoglossus kowalevskii, and appear to have been lost in certain insects. Pattern-based searches against eukaryotic proteomes also uncovered several other families of predicted single-transmembrane proteins with a similar cysteine-rich domain. We refer to these proteins (Shisa/Shisa-like, WBP1/VOPP1, CX, DUF2650, TMEM92, and CYYR1) as STMC6 proteins (single-transmembrane proteins with conserved 6 cysteines). STMC6 genes are widespread in Metazoa, with the human genome containing 17 members. Frequent occurrences of PY motifs in STMC6 proteins suggest that most of them could interact with WW-domain-containing proteins, such as the NEDD4 family E3 ubiquitin ligases, and could play critical roles in protein degradation and sorting. STMC6 proteins are likely transmembrane adaptors that regulate membrane proteins such as cell surface receptors.

  13. Entamoeba mitosomes play an important role in encystation by association with cholesteryl sulfate synthesis

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    Mi-ichi, Fumika; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Takao, Shouko; Jeelani, Ghulam; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Hara, Hiromitsu; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes are mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) that have highly reduced and divergent functions in anaerobic/microaerophilic eukaryotes. Entamoeba histolytica, a microaerophilic, parasitic amoebozoan species, which causes intestinal and extraintestinal amoebiasis in humans, possesses mitosomes, the existence and biological functions of which have been a longstanding enigma in the evolution of mitochondria. We previously demonstrated that sulfate activation, which is not generally compartmentalized to mitochondria, is a major function of E. histolytica mitosomes. However, because the final metabolites of sulfate activation remain unknown, the overall scheme of this metabolism and the role of mitosomes in Entamoeba have not been elucidated. In this study we purified and identified cholesteryl sulfate (CS) as a final metabolite of sulfate activation. We then identified the gene encoding the cholesteryl sulfotransferase responsible for synthesizing CS. Addition of CS to culture media increased the number of cysts, the dormant form that differentiates from proliferative trophozoites. Conversely, chlorate, a selective inhibitor of the first enzyme in the sulfate-activation pathway, inhibited cyst formation in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that CS plays an important role in differentiation, an essential process for the transmission of Entamoeba between hosts. Furthermore, we show that Mastigamoeba balamuthi, an anaerobic, free-living amoebozoan species, which is a close relative of E. histolytica, also has the sulfate-activation pathway in MROs but does not possess the capacity for CS production. Hence, we propose that a unique function of MROs in Entamoeba contributes to its adaptation to its parasitic life cycle. PMID:25986376

  14. Gravity Plays an Important Role in Muscle Development and the Differentiation of Contractile Protein Phenotype

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    Adams, Gregory A.; Haddad, Fadia; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    2003-01-01

    Several muscles in the body exist mainly to work against gravity. Whether gravity is important in the development of these muscles is not known. By examining the basic proteins that compose muscle, questions about the role of gravity in muscle development can be answered. Myosin heavy chains (MHCs) are a family of proteins critically important for muscle contraction. Several types of MHCs exist (e.g., neonatal, slow, fast), and each type is produced by a particular gene. Neonatal MHCs are produced early in life. Slow MHCs are important in antigravity muscles, and fast MHCs are found in fast-twitch power muscles. The gene that is turned on or expressed will determine which MHC is produced. Early in development, antigravity skeletal muscles (muscles that work against gravity) normally produce a combination of the neonatal/embryonic MHCs. The expression of these primitive MHCs is repressed early in development; and the adult slow and fast MHC genes become fully expressed. We tested the hypothesis that weightbearing activity is critical for inducing the normal expression of the slow MHC gene typically expressed in adult antigravity muscles. Also, we hypothesized that thyroid hormone, but not opposition to gravity, is necessary for expressing the adult fast IIb MHC gene essential for high-intensity muscle performance. Groups of normal thyroid and thyroid-deficient neonatal rats were studied after their return from the 16-day Neurolab mission and compared to matched controls. The results suggest: (1) Weightlessness impaired body and limb skeletal muscle growth in both normal and thyroid-deficient animals. Antigravity muscles were impaired more than those used primarily for locomotion andor nonweightbearing activity. (2) Systemic and muscle expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), an important body and tissue growth factor, was depressed in flight animals. (3) Normal slow, type I MHC gene expression was markedly repressed in the normal thyroid flight group. (4

  15. THE IMPORTANCE AND THE ROLES OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN PRESCHOOL EDUCATION

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    Nazım BURGUL

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the importance and the roles of the existing informationtechnologies in preschool education and to do a content analysis.The research is done by using the descriptive study method which is one of the general scanning models. Having examinedthe results of the previous researches, the theoretical framework that would light the way for the research was prepared. Theavailable information about the subject was scanned from resources such as documents, other written sources and also theinternet, and expert’s opinions were asked for. The content analysis of the collected information was done.The preschool period is a process to which all education scientists attach great importance. However, in order to realize theaim of this process, well planned education programmes are needed. The preschool education period provides crèche,nursery and reception education activities. Because of the annual changes of education technologies, positive differences areseen for the teaching activities in this area. On the other hand, there are some requirements to do to speed up the educationand to increase the productivity of education in our present day information society.The preschool education programmes are “the Crèche Programme (0-36 months”, “The Nursery Programme (37-60months and “The Reception Programme (61-72 months”. Optimum educational programs must be prepared for activitiesthat will take place on a daily basis according to specific aims and attitudes to determine the educational status of theseactivities. After having examined the technology-based education model, it is observed by the evaluation and assessmentdiscipline that using equipment such as tv, radio, computer, video, projection, overhead projector and slide apparatus makesthe learning process more effective and productive.As a result, information has become the most expensive product today. The roles of computer-aided education and the

  16. Complement and the alternative pathway play an important role in LPS/D-GalN-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

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    Shihui Sun

    Full Text Available Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF is a clinically severe type of liver injury with an extremely high mortality rate. Although the pathological mechanisms of FHF are not well understood, evidence suggests that the complement system is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver disorders. In the present study, to investigate the role of complement in FHF, we examined groups of mice following intraperitoneal injection of LPS/D-GalN: wild-type C57BL/6 mice, wild-type mice treated with a C3aR antagonist, C5aR monoclonal antibody (C5aRmAb or CR2-Factor H (CR2-fH, an inhibitor of the alternative pathway, and C3 deficient mice (C3⁻/⁻ mice. The animals were euthanized and samples analyzed at specific times after LPS/D-GalN injection. The results show that intraperitoneal administration of LPS/D-GalN activated the complement pathway, as evidenced by the hepatic deposition of C3 and C5b-9 and elevated serum levels of the complement activation product C3a, the level of which was associated with the severity of the liver damage. C3a receptor (C3aR and C5a receptor (C5aR expression was also upregulated. Compared with wild-type mice, C3⁻/⁻ mice survived significantly longer and displayed reduced liver inflammation and attenuated pathological damage following LPS/D-GalN injection. Similar levels of protection were seen in mice treated with C3aR antagonist,C5aRmAb or CR2-fH. These data indicate an important role for the C3a and C5a generated by the alternative pathway in LPS/D-GalN-induced FHF. The data further suggest that complement inhibition may be an effective strategy for the adjunctive treatment of fulminant hepatic failure.

  17. Taurine plays an important role in the protection of spermatogonia from oxidative stress.

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    Higuchi, Masato; Celino, Fritzie T; Shimizu-Yamaguchi, Sonoko; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that taurine has various physiological functions in the body. We demonstrated that taurine is abundant in the serum, liver, muscle and testis of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). In the eel testis, taurine is found mainly in spermatogonia and is weakly expressed also in the Sertoli cells. We have further found in the eel testis that taurine is actively accumulated via the sodium/chloride-dependent taurine transporter (TauT; SLC6A6), which is expressed in germ cells. In our current study, the effects of taurine on the anti-oxidant response were examined. Taurine was found to promote the total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the testis. Moreover, our results indicate that taurine does not affect the mRNA levels of copper-zinc (Cu/Zn) SOD or manganese SOD, but promotes the translation of Cu/Zn SOD. Overall, our present data suggest that taurine may modulate Cu/Zn SOD at the translational level and thereby may play an important role in the protection of germ cells from oxidative stress.

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF MONEY MARKET INTEREST FORMATION AND ITS ROLE IN CREDIT COST

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    Medar Lucian-Ion

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary period the place and role of banks in economy is very well defined, they mainly acting as main intermediary in savings-investment relationship, critical relationship to economic growth. Although the current financial crisis demonstrates that the banking system is no longer the foundation of the economic system, yet banks continue to be the most important institutions that intermediate monetary affairs. Through bank credit institutions in our country continues to attract large sums of money from the public and offer banking products and services. Banking market is dominated both by opening accounts for all the people who do acts of trade, debt collection and debt repayment, and especially the provision of services on product placement credit institutions. Each institution has its own strategy and is constantly concerned about cost sources of credit drawn and placed. This cost is calculated based on the interest rate plus any fees. This study attempts to make an analysis of how the interest rate is fixed at the products offered by bank to customers.

  19. Transposons play an important role in the evolution and diversification of centromeres among closely related species

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    Scott eJackson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Centromeres are important chromosomal regions necessary for eukaryotic cell segregation and replication. Due to high amounts of tandem repeats and transposons, centromeres have been difficult to sequence in most multicellular organisms, thus their sequence structure and evolution are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed transposons in the centromere 8 (Cen8 from the African cultivated rice (O. glaberrima and two subspecies of the Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa, indica and japonica. We detected much higher transposon contents (>69% in centromere regions than in the whole genomes of O. sativa ssp japonica and O. glaberrima (~35%. We compared the three Cen8s and identified numerous recent insertions of transposons that were frequently organized into multiple-layer nested blocks, similar to nested transposons in maize. Except for the Hopi retrotransposon, all LTR retrotransposons were shared but exhibit different abundances amongst the three Cen8s. Even though a majority of the transposons were located in intergenic regions, some gene-related transposons were found and may be involved in gene diversification. Chromatin immunoprecipitated (ChIP data analysis revealed that 165 families from both Class I and Class II transposons were found in CENH3-associated chromatin sequences. These results indicate essential roles for transposons in centromeres and that the rapid divergence of the Cen8 sequences between the two cultivated rice species was primarily caused by recent transposon insertions.

  20. The psychobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: how important is the role of disgust?

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    Stein, D J; Liu, Y; Shapira, N A; Goodman, W K

    2001-08-01

    Psychobiologic models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have focused on cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CTSC) circuits, noting normal function in cognitive and motoric procedural strategies. Such models have relied on the classification of OCD as an anxiety disorder, seldom exploring other relevant emotions. Based on the hypothesis that a central emotion in OCD is disgust, the authors review the literature on its psychobiology and its relevance to current models of OCD. There are important parallels between the psychobiology of OCD and that of disgust. Obsessive- compulsive disorder may be conceptualized in terms of a false contamination alarm in which disgust plays a crucial organizing or embodying role, not only at a basic brain level, but also in terms of the psychosocial aspects of the disorder. Just as psychobiologic models of panic disorder and post- traumatic stress disorder have been strengthened by the inclusion of preclinical work on amygdala-mediated fear conditioning, so findings on disgust and its mediating CSTC circuits may generate useful hypotheses for OCD research.

  1. Biotransformation effect of Bombyx Mori L. may play an important role in treating diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Li, Yin; Guo, Xin-Feng; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Compared with herbal drugs, medicine processed from animals (animal medicine) was thought to have more bioactive substances and higher activities. Biotransformation effect often plays an important role in their effect. However, researches about effect of animal medicine on diabetic nephropathy and applying animal medicine as natural bio-transformer were seldom reported. The purpose of this paper was to reveal the use of Bombyx Mori L. on diabetic nephropathy from ancient to modern times. The classical literature indicated that Saosi Decoction (), which contains Bombyx Mori L. or silkworm cocoon, was applied to treat disorders congruent with modern disease diabetic nephropathy from the Ming to Qing Dynasty in ancient China. Modern studies showed that Bombyx Mori L. contains four main active constituents. Among these, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) and quercetin showed promising potential to be new agents in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The concentrations of 1-DNJ and the activities of quercetin in Bombyx Mori L. are higher than in mulberry leaves, because of the biotransformation in the Bombyx Mori L. body. However, these specifific components need further human and mechanistic studies to determine their therapeutic potential for this challenging condition.

  2. An important developmental role for oligosaccharides during early embryogenesis of cyprinid fish.

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    Bakkers, J; Semino, C E; Stroband, H; Kijne, J W; Robbins, P W; Spaink, H P

    1997-07-22

    Derivatives of chitin oligosaccharides have been shown to play a role in plant organogenesis at nanomolar concentrations. Here we present data which indicate that chitin oligosaccharides are important for embryogenesis in vertebrates. We characterize chitin oligosaccharides synthesized in vitro by zebrafish and carp embryos in the late gastrulation stage by incorporation of radiolabeled N-acetyl-D-[U14C]glucosamine and by HPLC in combination with enzymatic conversion using the Bradyrhizobium NodZ alpha-1, 6-fucosyltransferase and chitinases. A rapid and sensitive bioassay for chitin oligosaccharides was also used employing suspension-cultured plant cells of Catharanthus roseus. We show that chitin oligosaccharide synthase activity is apparent only during late gastrulation and can be inhibited by antiserum raised against the Xenopus DG42 protein. The DG42 protein, a glycosyltransferase, is transiently expressed between midblastula and neurulation in Xenopus and zebrafish embryogenesis. Microinjection of the DG42 antiserum or the Bradyrhizobium NodZ enzyme in fertilized eggs of zebrafish led to severe defects in trunk and tail development.

  3. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes

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    Si-Yuan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. Methods: In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. Results: MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR-378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP, were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1 was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2 and Ras-related nuclear (RAN-binding protein 10 (RANBP10 were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes

  4. Soil water content plays an important role in soil-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

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    Yi, Zhigang; Behrendt, Thomas; Bunk, Rüdiger; Wu, Dianming; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a quite stable gas in the troposphere and is transported up to the stratosphere, where it contributes to the sulfate aerosol layer (Crutzen 1976). The tropospheric concentration seems to be quite constant, indicating a balance between sinks and sources. Recent work by Sandoval-Soto et al. (2005) demonstrated the enormous strength of the vegetation sink and the urgent needs to understand the sinks and sources. The role of soils is a matter of discussion (Kesselmeier et al., 1999; Van Diest and Kesselmeier, 2008; Maseyk et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2015). To better understand the influence of soil water content and OCS mixing ratio on OCS fluxes, we used an OCS analyzer (LGR COS/CO Analyzer 907-0028, Los Gatos, CA, USA) coupled with automated soil chamber system (Behrendt et al., 2014) to measure the OCS fluxes with a slow drying of four different types of soil (arable wheat soil in Mainz, blueberry soil in Waldstein, spruce soil in Waldstein and needle forest soil in Finland). Results showed that OCS fluxes as well as the optimum soil water content for OCS uptake varied significantly for different soils. The net production rates changed significantly with the soil drying out from 100% to about 5% water holding capacity (WHC), implying that soil water content play an important role in the uptake processes. The production and uptake processes were distinguished by the regression of OCS fluxes under different OCS mixing ratios. OCS compensation points (CP) were found to differ significantly for different soil types and water content, with the lowest CP at about 20% WHC, implying that when estimating the global budgets of OCS, especially for soils fluxes, soil water content should be taken into serious consideration. References Crutzen, P. J. 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 73-76. Sandoval-Soto, L. et al., 2005, Biogeosciences, 2, 125-132. Kesselmeier, J. et al., 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577-11584. Van Diest, H. and Kesselmeier, J. 2008

  5. The important roles of steroid sulfatase and sulfotransferases in gynecological diseases

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    Tea eLanisnik Rizner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gynecological diseases such as endometriosis, adenomyosis and uterine fibroids, and gynecological cancers including endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer, affect a large proportion of women. These diseases are estrogen dependent, and their progression often depends on local estrogen formation. In peripheral tissues, estrogens can be formed from the inactive precursors dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and estrone sulfate. Sulfatase and sulfotransferases have pivotal roles in these processes, where sulfatase hydrolyzes estrone sulfate to estrone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate to dehydroepiandrosterone, and sulfotransferases catalyze the reverse reactions. Further activation of estrone to the most potent estrogen, estradiol, is catalyzed by 17-ketosteroid reductases, while estradiol can be formed from dehydroepiandrosterone by the sequential actions of 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-4-isomerase, aromatase, and 17-ketosteroid reductase. This review introduces the sulfatase and sulfotransferase enzymes, in terms of their structures and reaction mechanisms, and the regulation and different transcripts of their genes, together with the importance of their currently known single nucleotide polymorphisms. Data on expression of sulfatase and sulfotransferases in gynecological diseases are also reviewed. There are often unchanged mRNA and protein levels in diseased tissue, with higher sulfatase activities in cancerous endometrium, ovarian cancer cell lines, and adenomyosis. This can be indicative of a disturbed balance between the sulfatase and sulfotransferases enzymes, defining the potential for sulfatase as a drug target for treatment of gynecological diseases. Finally, clinical trials with sulfatase inhibitors are discussed, where two inhibitors have already concluded phase II trials, although so far with no convincing clinical outcomes for patients with endometrial cancer and endometriosis.

  6. PGK1, a glucose metabolism enzyme, may play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Zhao, Yan; Yan, Xinfeng; Li, Xia; Zheng, Yabing; Li, Shufeng; Chang, Xiaotian

    2016-10-01

    Some studies have indicated that glucose metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to find the novel genes affecting glucose metabolism in RA. Synovial tissues of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were analyzed with Rat Glucose Metabolism RT(2) Profiler™ PCR Array to screen those genes with special expressions in glucose metabolism. Real-time PCR, western blotting, and ELISA were used to confirm the result in synovial tissues and blood of human RA. Culture synovial fibroblast cells (RASF) was treated with siRNA to suppress expressions of the target genes. CCK-8 cell proliferation assay and two-compartment transwell system were performed to examine cell proliferation and cell migration of the treated RASF. Both PCR array and real-time PCR detected the up-regulation of ENO1, HK2, and PGK1 and the down-regulation of PCK1 and PDK4 in synovial tissues of CIA rats. Real-time PCR and western blotting detected the increased expression of ENO1 and PGK1 in RA synovial tissues. ELISA detected a high level of PGK1 in the blood of RA patients. Decreased cell proliferation and cell migration capabilities were significantly detected in RASF following treatment of anti-PGK1 siRNA. IL-1β and IFN-γ rather than TNF-α and IL-1α levels were significantly declined in supernatants of the treated RASF. PGK1, a glycolytic enzyme catalyzing the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate into 2-phosphoglycerate, has increased expression in synovial tissues and blood of RA, which may be involved in pro-inflammation and synovial hyperplasia of the disease.

  7. LvDJ-1 plays an important role in resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingzhu; Liu, Yuan; Xie, Chenying; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-05-01

    DJ-1 was first identified as an oncogene that transformed mouse NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with activated Ras. It has since exhibited a variety of functions in a range of organisms. In this study, the DJ-1 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvDJ-1) was identified and characterized. A recombinant protein LvDJ-1 was produced in Pichia pastoris. LvDJ-1 expression in vivo was knocked down by dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi), which led to significantly decreased levels of LvDJ-1 mRNA and protein. When the L. vannamei were challenged with RNAi and Vibrio alginolyticus, the transcription and expression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (LvCZSOD) in the hepatopancreas were dramatically lower in shrimp with knocked down LvDJ-1 than in controls. Transcription and expression of P53 (LvP53) were significantly higher in shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 than in controls. Hepatopancreas samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Moreover, blood samples from the shrimp, assessed with flow cytometry, showed significant increases in respiratory burst and apoptosis in those lacking LvDJ-1 compared to the controls. Cumulative mortality in the shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 was significantly different from that in the control group after challenge with V. alginolyticus. Altogether, the results prove that LvDJ-1 regulates apoptosis and antioxidant activity, and that these functions play an important role in L. vannamei resistance against V. alginolyticus.

  8. White coat hypertension is more risky than prehypertension: important role of arterial wave reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Shih-Hsien; Cheng, Hao-Min; Wang, Kang-Ling; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Ting, Chih-Tai; Lakatta, Edward G; Yin, Frank C P; Chou, Pesus; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2013-06-01

    Arterial aging may link cardiovascular risk to white coat hypertension (WCH). The aims of the present study were to investigate the role of arterial aging in the white coat effect, defined as the difference between office and 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressures, and to compare WCH with prehypertension (PH) with respect to target organ damage and long-term cardiovascular mortality. A total of 1257 never-been-treated volunteer subjects from a community-based survey were studied. WCH and PH were defined by office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressures. Left ventricular mass index, carotid intima-media thickness, estimated glomerular filtration rate, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, carotid augmentation index, amplitude of the reflection pressure wave, and 15-year cardiovascular mortality were determined. Subjects with WCH were significantly older and had greater body mass index, blood pressure values, intima-media thickness, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, amplitude of the backward pressure wave, and a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate than PH. Amplitude of the backward pressure wave was the most important independent correlate of the white coat effect in multivariate analysis (model r(2)=0.451; partial r(2)/model r(2)=90.5%). WCH had significantly greater cardiovascular mortality than PH (hazard ratio, 2.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-7.91), after accounting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, fasting plasma glucose, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio. Further adjustment of the model for amplitude of the backward pressure wave eliminated the statistical significance of the WCH effect. In conclusion, the white coat effect is mainly caused by arterial aging. WCH carries higher risk for cardiovascular mortality than PH, probably via enhanced wave reflections that accompany arterial aging.

  9. Male Parent Plays More Important Role in Heat Tolerance in Three-Line Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Guan-fu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ten F1 combinations with their male and female parents were employed to evaluate their heat tolerance during the flowering and early grain filling stages. The rice plants were subjected to heat stress (39 °C–43 °C for 1–15 d during flowering. Based on the heat stress index, heat tolerance was only observed in the F1 combinations H2 (K22A × R207, H3 (Bobai A × R207 and H4 (Bobai A × Minghui 63, whereas the others received above 0.5000 of heat stress index. Both parents of the tolerant combination (heat-tolerant × heat-tolerant possessed heat tolerance, whereas the susceptible combinations were crossed by heat-tolerant (sterile lines × heat-susceptible (restorer lines, heat-susceptible × heat-tolerant, or heat-susceptible × heat-susceptible parents. This result indicated that heat tolerance in rice was controlled by recessive genes. Thus, both parents should possess high temperature tolerance to develop heat-tolerant F1 combinations. Furthermore, the heat stress index of F1 combinations was significantly correlated with the heat stress index of restorer lines but not with the heat stress index of maintainer lines. This result suggested that male parents play a more important role in heat-tolerant combinations than female parents. Therefore, the heat susceptibility of the hybrid rice in China is mainly due to the wide application of low-heat-tolerant restorer lines with high yield in three-line hybrid rice breeding.

  10. Emerging concept for the role of photorespiration as an important part of abiotic stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, I; Sunil, B; Scheibe, R; Raghavendra, A S

    2013-07-01

    When plants are exposed to stress, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is often one of the first responses. In order to survive, cells attempt to down-regulate the production of ROS, while at the same time scavenging ROS. Photorespiration is now appreciated as an important part of stress responses in green tissues for preventing ROS accumulation. Photorespiratory reactions can dissipate excess reducing equivalents and energy either directly (using ATP, NAD(P)H and reduced ferredoxin) or indirectly (e.g., via alternative oxidase (AOX) and providing an internal CO2 pool). Photorespiration, however, is also a source of H2 O2 that is possibly involved in signal transduction, resulting in modulation of gene expression. We propose that photorespiration can assume a major role in the readjustment of redox homeostasis. Protection of photosynthesis from photoinhibition through photorespiration is well known. Photorespiration can mitigate oxidative stress under conditions of drought/water stress, salinity, low CO2 and chilling. Adjustments to even mild disturbances in redox status, caused by a deficiency in ascorbate, AOX or chloroplastic NADP-malate dehydrogenase, comprise increases in photorespiratory components such as catalase, P-protein of glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) and glycine content. The accumulation of excess reducing equivalents or ROS in plant cells also affects mitochondria. Therefore, a strong interaction between the chloroplast redox status and photorespiration is not surprising, but highlights interesting properties evident in plant cells. We draw attention to the fact that a complex network of multiple and dynamic systems, including photorespiration, prevents oxidative damage while optimising photosynthesis. Further experiments are necessary to identify and validate the direct targets of redox signals among photorespiratory components.

  11. The Role and Importance of Local Economic Development in Urban Development: A Case of Harare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Mandisvika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the role and importance of Local Economic Development as a means of enhancing urban development paying particular attention to the regulators of Local Economic Development in Harare. Local Economic Development is a process which encourages partners from the community, public sector, private sector and non-governmental sectors to work collectively to create better conditions for economic growth and employment generation with the aim of improving the locality economic future and the quality of life for all citizens. The study was premised on the theory of competitive advantage which puts up that prosperity and wealth creation is determined by microeconomic factors and that prosperity means increasing the standards of living for the local people and ultimately their quality of life. Primary data for the research was gathered through observation and key informant interviews. Data on key stakeholders understanding on the concept of Local Economic Development, how it is being practised and how the current regulatory framework enhance or impinge on local people’s participation in Local Economic Development was collected. Secondary data was also collected from Harare’s 2014 budget, census and existing forward plans. The study revealed that the practice of Local Economic Development in Harare is biased towards the setting aside of land zoned for industrial and commercial uses and implementation of development control parameters. Small to Medium Enterprises and the informal sector have also been identified as the major forms of Local Economic Development that citizens are involved in. However, the study revealed that proper policy frameworks which guide practice of Local Economic Development initiatives were missing

  12. Subequatorial cytoplasm plays an important role in ectoderm patterning in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominami, Tetsuya; Akagawa, Megumi; Takata, Hiromi

    2006-02-01

    To gain information on the process of ectoderm patterning, the animal halves of sea urchin embryos were isolated at various stages, and their morphology was examined when control embryos developed into pluteus larvae. The animal halves separated at the 8-cell stage developed into 'dauerblastula', without showing any conspicuous ectoderm differentiation. In contrast, some of the animal halves isolated at the 60-cell stage (after the sixth cleavage) formed a ciliated band and oral opening, suggesting that some patterning signal was transmitted from the vegetal to animal hemisphere during early cleavage. Further patterning of the animal hemisphere did not seem to occur until hatching, since both the animal halves isolated at the 60-cell stage and hatching stage showed the same degree of ectoderm patterning. After hatching, the later animal halves were isolated, the more patterned ectoderm they formed. The animal halves isolated just prior to gastrulation differentiated well-patterned ectoderm. It is of note, however, that the level of separation was a more crucial factor than the timing of separation; even the animal fragments of newly hatched embryos differentiated well-patterned ectoderm if they had been separated at a subequatorial level. This suggests that the signal for ectoderm patterning is transmitted over the equator after hatching, and once the cells in the supra-equatorial region receive the signal, they, in turn, can transmit the signal upwardly. Interestingly, if the third cleavage plane was shifted toward the vegetal pole, the isolated animal pole-side fragments developed into 'embryoids' with fully patterned ectoderm. These results indicate that not the micromere descendants but the subequatorial cytoplasm plays an important role in ectoderm patterning.

  13. The MBD4 Gene Plays an Important Role in Porcine Adipocyte Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Jiang Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: MBD4 (methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4 is an important G: T glycosylase that can identify T-G mismatches. It plays a role in active demethylation through base excision repair. Overexpression of MBD4 gene can cause the demethylation of numerous genes, and the remethylation of MBD4-associated genes can occur when the MBD4 gene is knocked out. To date, the functions and regulatory mechanisms of the MBD4 gene in the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes have not been clearly established. Methods: Subcutaneous fat cells from 1- to 7-day-old Junmu-1 piglets were cultured in vitro, induced to differentiate, and then identified. A real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis was conducted to detect MBD4 messenger RNA (mRNA expression. Cells were treated with MBD4-siRNA (small interfering RNA and induced to differentiate. Changes in the lipid droplets were observed by oil red O staining. Changes in the mRNA and protein expression levels of MBD4 and the adipose differentiation-associated genes C/EBPα (CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha, PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and aP2 (adipocyte protein 2 were detected. In addition, the bisulfite sequencing method was used to detect changes in methylation in the promoters of certain genes associated with adipose differentiation. Results: Levels of MBD4 mRNA and protein expression varied with time over the course of the porcine adipocyte differentiation, with the highest levels of this expression observed on day two of the differentiation process. After silencing MBD4 and inducing differentiation, the production of lipid droplets decreased, the mRNA expression levels of C/EBPα, PPARγ, and aP2 were significantly reduced, and DNA methylation modification levels were significantly elevated in the examined promoter regions. Conclusion: The silencing of the MBD4 gene can influence the DNA methylation levels of preadipocyte

  14. The role and importance of public relations at non-governmental organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Duhalm

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenon of globalization during the twentieth century, has increased the importance of nongovernmental organizations. Their development has gained to the whole world providing an important part of social, educational, cultural and welfare services that the community felt. Voluntary and non-profit activity which it carries led, implicitly, to increasing importance in public relations sector, compared with profit business.

  15. Narrowing the Insurance Protection Gap: The important role of Natural Hazards Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghnani, V.

    2016-12-01

    The Insurance industry is a key component of the economic engine. It allows businesses to reduce uncertainty in their operations, and individuals to rebound from unanticipated events. A thriving insurance industry efficiently transfers risk from individuals and businesses to the capital markets. It allows society to function smoothly and fosters growth. In areas where the private insurance is not a viable option, the outcome is suboptimal - the society ends up carrying the burden. Higher insurance penetration increases disaster resiliency. The long term viability of an insurance product depends on the ability of the insurance provider to accurately assess risks, which is critical to pricing insurance and risk monitoring. Insurance payouts are typically incurred during extreme events, therefore the industry is very interested in extreme events research. There are several examples where the insurance industry has stepped away from a market or severely limited its appetite because of lack of data or proper understanding of the underlying risks - such as, flood. Further, the insurance Industry has seen a rising trend of natural hazard related losses over the past few decades. The trends have been particularly strong in hydro meteorological hazards. While a good part of this increasing trend can been explained by increase in exposures, there is also concern that underlying hazard landscape may be evolving. The industry would really benefit from research that identifies secular and long term trends in hydro-meteorological hazards, particularly in the extremes. Insight into non-stationarity in the climate system at a regional level would be very informative of risk management decisions. One can envision a scenario where in the industry stops insuring certain risk (such as storm surge), because of a lack of understanding of the trends in the underlying risk and a consequent poor performance record. In sum, the ability of the industry to assess complex and emerging natural

  16. Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  17. Calmodulin-dependent nuclear import of HMG-box family nuclear factors: importance of the role of SRY in sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Delluc-Clavieres, Aurelie; Poon, Ivan K H; Forwood, Jade K; Glover, Dominic J; Jans, David A

    2010-08-15

    The HMG (high-mobility group)-box-containing chromatin-remodelling factor SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) plays a key role in sex determination. Its role in the nucleus is critically dependent on two NLSs (nuclear localization signals) that flank its HMG domain: the C-terminally located 'beta-NLS' that mediates nuclear transport through Impbeta1 (importin beta1) and the N-terminally located 'CaM-NLS' which is known to recognize the calcium-binding protein CaM (calmodulin). In the present study, we examined a number of missense mutations in the SRY CaM-NLS from human XY sex-reversed females for the first time, showing that they result in significantly reduced nuclear localization of GFP (green fluorescent protein)-SRY fusion proteins in transfected cells compared with wild-type. The CaM antagonist CDZ (calmidazolium chloride) was found to significantly reduce wild-type SRY nuclear accumulation, indicating dependence of SRY nuclear import on CaM. Intriguingly, the CaM-NLS mutants were all resistant to CDZ's effects, implying a loss of interaction with CaM, which was confirmed by direct binding experiments. CaM-binding/resultant nuclear accumulation was the only property of SRY found to be impaired by two of the CaM-NLS mutations, implying that inhibition of CaM-dependent nuclear import is the basis of sex reversal in these cases. Importantly, the CaM-NLS is conserved in other HMG-box-domain-containing proteins such as SOX-2, -9, -10 and HMGN1, all of which were found for the first time to rely on CaM for optimal nuclear localization. CaM-dependent nuclear translocation is thus a common mechanism for this family of important transcription factors.

  18. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  19. The Role of Goal Importance in Predicting University Students' High Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Vanessa A.; White, Katherine M.; Hyde, Melissa K.; Occhipinti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We examined goal importance, focusing on high, but not exclusive priority goals, in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict students' academic performance. At the beginning of semester, students in a psychology subject (N = 197) completed TPB and goal importance items for achieving a high grade. Regression analyses revealed partial…

  20. Role of Academic Self-Efficacy in Moderating the Relation between Task Importance and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun; Liau, Albert K.

    2011-01-01

    Emphasizing task importance, which is regarded as a way of motivating engaged behavior, may increase an individual's anxiety. The present research investigated whether academic self-efficacy could moderate the maladaptive relation between task importance and test anxiety. 1978 and 1670 Grade 9 Singaporean students participated in a survey related…

  1. [Biological role and importance in the skin metabolism of vitamin C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleszczewska, Ewa

    2007-12-01

    Vitamins are a group of compounds indispensable for the development, normal growth and functioning of the human body. Lack of vitamins causes serious diseases for human, even though small amounts of them are required to maintain good health. Therefore there is growing interest conceding the role of vitamin C in biochemical-physiological conditions. This article reviews the role of water--soluble vitamin C in metabolic processes and discusses criteria used for recommended ingestion and presents recommendations for vitamin C intake. In the paper is discussed in detail the influence of level vitamin C (physico-chemical aspects) on the metabolism in skin.

  2. The Importance of a Role-Specific, In-Hospital Ward Clerk Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Ward clerks are essential members of the healthcare team, providing administrative and organizational support to acute care units and clinics. This role influences such matters as nurses' direct patient-care time, timeliness of patient discharges, and patient safety. To support ward clerks in the varying responsibilities and complex scope of this role, a formal orientation and ongoing education program is imperative. Whereas corporate orientation informs new employees of overall organizational processes, a ward clerk-specific workplace education program prepares individuals for the demands of the position, ultimately supporting the healthcare team and patient safety.

  3. Haemostatic role of intermediate filaments in adhered platelets: importance of the membranous system stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerecedo, Doris; Martínez-Vieyra, Ivette; Mondragón, Ricardo; Mondragón, Mónica; González, Sirenia; Galván, Iván J

    2013-09-01

    The role of platelets in coagulation and the haemostatic process was initially suggested two centuries ago, and under appropriate physiological stimuli, these undergo abrupt morphological changes, attaching and spreading on damaged endothelium, preventing bleeding. During the adhesion process, platelet cytoskeleton reorganizes generating compartments in which actin filaments, microtubules, and associated proteins are arranged in characteristic patterns mediating crucial events, such as centralization of their organelles, secretion of granule contents, aggregation with one another to form a haemostatic plug, and retraction of these aggregates. However, the role of Intermediate filaments during the platelet adhesion process has not been explored. J. Cell. Biochem. 114: 2050-2060, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. THE ROLE AND THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN THE MANAGER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA JARMILA GUŢĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the role that the communication activity has as a tool for implementing change, redesign internal processes and establishing the organization's strategy in the work of an organization manager.Starting from emergence of communication as inseparable part of social life and to the identification of managerial communication as a factor of competitiveness and strategic advantage of the organization.

  5. MTOR plays an important role in cow's milk allergy-associated behavioral and immunological deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jiangbo; De Theije, Caroline M G; Da Silva, Sofia Lopes; Van Der Horst, Hilma; Reinders, Margot T M; Broersen, Laus M.; Willemsen, Linette E M; Kas, Martien J H; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is multifactorial, with both genetic as well as environmental factors working in concert to develop the autistic phenotype. Immunological disturbances in autistic individuals have been reported and a role for food allergy has been suggested in ASD. Single gene mutation

  6. Interleukin-13 as an important cytokine: A review on its roles in some human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfizadeh, Narges; Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Gharibi, Tohid; Babaloo, Zohreh

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin-13 (IL-13) as a pleiotropic cytokine acts through the IL-13Ra1/IL-4Ra complex to induce activation responses which contribute to the inflammatory diseases. Genetic polymorphisms in IL-13 and its receptor components have been proved to be associated with higher disease prevalence rates. Animal models such as in IL-13 deficient mice and transgenic animals also have been confirmed the critical role of this cytokine in the immune responses, mostly by IL-13 neutralization and IL-13/IL-4 dual neutralization strategies. This review highlights IL-13 structure as well as its pivotal roles in the normal physiologic and pathologic states. It is followed by a section on the recent findings on IL-13 receptors and signalling mechanisms to briefly summarize its functions in the immune systems. IL-13 roles in the human diseases such as asthma, systematic sclerosis, and some inflammatory diseases are described concisely. Finally some of the ongoing therapeutic applications are presented to comprehensively review IL-13 mediator roles.

  7. Role of anxiety in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome: importance of the amygdala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Brent; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2009-01-01

    .... The amygdala is an important structure for regulating anxiety with the central nucleus of the amygdala facilitating the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous...

  8. Important roles of brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase and ceramide metabolism in leptin hypothalamic control of feeding%Important roles of brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase and ceramide metabolism in leptin hypothalamic control of feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In a recent issue of PNAS, Professor Wu Donghai of Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health (GIBH) and his colleagues published a paper titled "Important roles of brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase and ceramide metabolism in leptin hypothalamic control of feeding". Prof. Wu has receivedsustained support from NSFC since 2006.

  9. How important are financing constraints ? The role of finance in the business environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyagari, Meghana; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Maksimovic, Vojislav

    2006-01-01

    What role does the business environment play in promoting and restraining firm growth? Recent literature points to a number of factors as obstacles to growth. Inefficient functioning of financial markets, inadequate security and enforcement of property rights, poor provision of infrastructure, inefficient regulation and taxation, and broader governance features such as corruption and macroeconomic stability are all discussed without any comparative evidence on their ordering. In this paper, w...

  10. The importance and possibilities of role playing on children surgery classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goremykin I.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the first experience in the implementation into the pedagogical process of one of the methods of active training — role playing. The need for intensification of medical education process is linked primarily to the rapid increase in the volume required to provide students with information and the lack of training time. The analysis showed that the game significantly increases the level of students' knowledge, but require substantial modernization of the educational process.

  11. Ketoprofen impairs immunosuppression induced by severe sepsis and reveals an important role for prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogliato, Ariane Rennó; Antunes, Carlos A; Carvalho, Renato S; Monteiro, Ana Paula T; Tinoco, Rodrigo F; Bozza, Marcelo T; Canetti, Claudio; Peters-Golden, Marc; Kunkel, Steven L; Vianna-Jorge, Rosane; Benjamim, Claudia Farias

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism of immunosuppression induced by severe sepsis is not fully understood. The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) during sepsis is well known, but its role in long-term consequences of sepsis has not been explored. The current study evaluates the role of PGE2 in the development of immunosuppression secondary to sepsis and its potential as therapeutic target. Cecal ligation and puncture was used as an experimental model for sepsis induction in Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice. Immunosuppression was evaluated by the response to secondary infection with Aspergillus fumigatus in sepsis survivors. The role of prostanoids was evaluated in vivo and in vitro by treatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ketoprofen. Balb/c mice were more susceptible than C57BL/6 to severe sepsis and to secondary infection, with a greater mortality rate. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations found in bronchoalveolar lavage in sham and cecal ligation and puncture group after fungal challenge were much higher in Balb/c than in C57BL/6 mice. Ketoprofen treatment improved survival of septic Balb/c mice subjected to secondary infection, while also enhancing macrophage phagocytosis and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs. We identified a pivotal role for PGE2 acting on EP4 receptors in modulating cytokine production differentially by sham and septic macrophages. Furthermore, sepsis also altered key enzymes in PGE2 synthesis and degradation. Our results indicate the involvement of PGE2 in severe sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Inhibition of PGE2 production represents an attractive target to improve innate immune response against secondary infection in the immunocompromised host.

  12. A Crucial Role of the Mitochondrial Protein Import Receptor MOM19 for the Biogenesis of Mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkness, Troy A.A.; Nargang, Frank E.; Klei, Ida van der; Neupert, Walter; Lill, Roland

    1994-01-01

    The novel genetic method of "sheltered RIP" (repeat induced point mutation) was used to generate a Neurospora crassa mutant in which MOM19, a component of the protein import machinery of the mitochondrial outer membrane, can be depleted. Deficiency in MOM19 resulted in a severe growth defect, but

  13. Specific subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins play important roles during nodulation in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Pandey, Sona

    2013-05-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins comprising Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits regulate many fundamental growth and development processes in all eukaryotes. Plants possess a relatively limited number of G-protein components compared with mammalian systems, and their detailed functional characterization has been performed mostly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the presence of single Gα and Gβ proteins in both these species has significantly undermined the complexity and specificity of response regulation in plant G-protein signaling. There is ample pharmacological evidence for the role of G proteins in regulation of legume-specific processes such as nodulation, but the lack of genetic data from a leguminous species has restricted its direct assessment. Our recent identification and characterization of an elaborate G-protein family in soybean (Glycine max) and the availability of appropriate molecular-genetic resources have allowed us to directly evaluate the role of G-protein subunits during nodulation. We demonstrate that all G-protein genes are expressed in nodules and exhibit significant changes in their expression in response to Bradyrhizobium japonicum infection and in representative supernodulating and nonnodulating soybean mutants. RNA interference suppression and overexpression of specific G-protein components results in lower and higher nodule numbers, respectively, validating their roles as positive regulators of nodule formation. Our data further show preferential usage of distinct G-protein subunits in the presence of an additional signal during nodulation. Interestingly, the Gα proteins directly interact with the soybean nodulation factor receptors NFR1α and NFR1β, suggesting that the plant G proteins may couple with receptors other than the canonical heptahelical receptors common in metazoans to modulate signaling.

  14. Increasing evidence for the important role of Labyrinthulomycetes in marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Damare, V.S.

    specific habitats do they occur? 3. How many of them exist in each habitat and what are their biomasses and productivities? 4. What is their exact role in food web linkages and with which other organisms do they compete? Eminent mycologists during... pollen was greater in tubes with antibiotics during the initial 2–3 days. However, 100% of pine pollen was colonized both in the presence and absence of bacteria by 3–5 days. These observations suggest the following: (1) bacteria compete...

  15. Chemokines and their receptors play important roles in thedevelopment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The chemokine system consists of four differentsubclasses with over 50 chemokines and 19 receptors.Their functions in the immune system have beenwell elucidated and research during the last decadesunveils their new roles in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). The chemokines and their receptors in themicroenvironment influence the development of HCC by several aspects including: inflammation, effects onimmune cells, angiogenesis, and direct effects on HCCcells. Regarding these aspects, pre-clinical research bytargeting the chemokine system has yielded promisingdata, and these findings bring us new clues in thechemokine-based therapies for HCC.

  16. The Importance of Culture in Language Teaching and its Implications for the Role of Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and alleviating the influence of culture in a language-learning environment is not simply which a case of ensuring effective communication, it is also imperative to ensure that the students are actually able to learn the language according to their own culturally specific learning methods. Effective communication between student and teacher may not produce the desired results if the learner is unable to incorporate this new knowledge into their existing understanding of the world. This paper is mainly about the element of culture in the process of language teaching. In the meanwhile, the author will present the ideas and examples on its implications for the roles of English teachers.

  17. The ZupT transporter plays an important role in zinc homeostasis and contributes to Salmonella enterica virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasi, Mauro; Liu, Janet Z.; Ammendola, Serena; Poe, Adam J.; Petrarca, Patrizia; Pesciaroli, Michele; Pasquali, Paolo; Raffatellu, Manuela; Battistoni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential metal for cellular homeostasis and function in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. To acquire this essential nutrient, bacteria employ transporters characterized by different affinity for the metal. Several studies have investigated the role of the high affinity transporter ZnuABC in the bacterial response to zinc shortage, showing that this transporter has a key role in adapting bacteria to zinc starvation. In contrast, the role of the low affinity zinc importer ZupT has been the object of limited investigations. Here we show that a Salmonella strain lacking ZupT is impaired in its ability to grow in metal devoid environments and that a znuABC zupT strain exhibits a severe growth defect in zinc devoid media, is hypersensitive to oxidative stress and contains reduced level of intracellular free zinc. Moreover, we show that ZupT plays a role also in the ability of S. Typhimurim to colonize the host tissues. During systemic infections, the single zupT mutant strain was attenuated only in Nramp1+/+ mice, but competition experiments between znuABC and znuABC zupT mutants revealed that ZupT contributes to metal uptake in vivo independently from the presence a functional Nramp1 transporter. Altogether, the here reported results show that ZupT plays an important role in Salmonella zinc homeostasis, being involved in metal import both in vitro and in infected animals. PMID:24430377

  18. Exosomes serve as tumour markers for personalized diagnostics owing to their important role in cancer metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taixue An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes, membrane vesicles of 40–100 nm in diameter, are derived from endosomes in various cells. The bioactive molecules specifically packed into exosomes can be horizontally transferred into recipient cells changing their biological properties, by which tumour cells continuously modify their surrounding microenvironment and distant target cells favouring cancer metastasis. It has been suspected for a long time that exosomes participate in the whole process of tumour metastasis. Although there is much unknown and many controversies in the role of cancer exosome, the major contribution of tumour-associated exosomes to different steps of cancer metastasis are demonstrated in this review. Mainly because these exosomes are easily accessible and capable of representing their parental cells, exosomes draw much attention as a promising biomarker for tumour screening, diagnosis and prognosis. Currently, researchers have found numerous biomarkers in exosomes with great potential to be utilized in personalized medicine. In this article, we summarize the roles of biomarkers, which are validated by clinical samples. Even though many conundrums remain, such as exosome extraction, large multicentre validation of biomarkers and data interpretation, exosomes are certain to be used in clinical practice in the near future as the field rapidly expands.

  19. Exosomes serve as tumour markers for personalized diagnostics owing to their important role in cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Taixue; Qin, Sihua; Xu, Yong; Tang, Yueting; Huang, Yiyao; Situ, Bo; Inal, Jameel M; Zheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes, membrane vesicles of 40-100 nm in diameter, are derived from endosomes in various cells. The bioactive molecules specifically packed into exosomes can be horizontally transferred into recipient cells changing their biological properties, by which tumour cells continuously modify their surrounding microenvironment and distant target cells favouring cancer metastasis. It has been suspected for a long time that exosomes participate in the whole process of tumour metastasis. Although there is much unknown and many controversies in the role of cancer exosome, the major contribution of tumour-associated exosomes to different steps of cancer metastasis are demonstrated in this review. Mainly because these exosomes are easily accessible and capable of representing their parental cells, exosomes draw much attention as a promising biomarker for tumour screening, diagnosis and prognosis. Currently, researchers have found numerous biomarkers in exosomes with great potential to be utilized in personalized medicine. In this article, we summarize the roles of biomarkers, which are validated by clinical samples. Even though many conundrums remain, such as exosome extraction, large multicentre validation of biomarkers and data interpretation, exosomes are certain to be used in clinical practice in the near future as the field rapidly expands.

  20. Overcoming limits set by scarce resources - role of local food production and food imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkka, Miina; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Gerten, Dieter; Kummu, Matti

    2017-04-01

    There is a fundamental tension between population growth and carrying capacity, i.e. the population that could potentially be supported using the resources and technologies available at a given time. This makes the assessments of resource use and agricultural productivity central to the debate on future food security. Local carrying capacity can be increased by expanding (e.g. through land conversion and irrigation infrastructure) or intensifying (e.g. through technologies and practices that increase efficiency) the resource use in agriculture. Food imports can be considered another way of overcoming current local limits and continuing growth beyond the local human-carrying capacity. Focusing on water as the key limiting resource, we performed a global assessment of the capacity for food self-sufficiency at sub-national and national scale for 1961-2009, taking into account the availability of both green and blue water as well as technology and management practices affecting water productivity at a given time, and using the hydrology and agriculture model LPJmL as our primary tool. Furthermore, we examined the use of food imports as a strategy to increase carrying capacity in regions where the potential for food self-sufficiency was limited by water availability and productivity. We found that the capacity for food self-sufficiency reduced notably during the study period due to the rapid population growth that outpaced the substantial improvements in water productivity. In 2009 more than a third (2.2 billion people) of the world's population lived in areas where sufficient food production to meet the needs of the population was not possible, and some 800 million people more were approaching this threshold. Food imports have nearly universally been used to overcome these local limits to growth, though the success of this strategy has been highly dependent on economic purchasing power. In the unsuccessful cases, increases in imports and local productivity have not

  1. What Is the Role and Importance of the Revised AERA, APA, NCME "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plake, Barbara S.; Wise, Lauress L.

    2014-01-01

    With the 2014 publication of the 5th revision of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing," the cochairs of the Joint Committee for the revision process were asked to consider the role and importance of the "Standards" for the educational testing community, and in particular for members of the National Council…

  2. The Role of Peers in Predicting Students' Homophobic Behavior: Effects of Peer Aggression, Prejudice, and Sexual Orientation Identity Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Rivers, Ian; Vecho, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from an ecological framework, there has been growing attention on the role of peers in accounting for adolescents' homophobic behavior. In this study, we considered whether individuals' homophobic behavior could be attributed to their peers' collective levels of aggression, sexual prejudice, and importance placed on their sexual…

  3. The Role of Beliefs about the Importance of Social Skills in Elementary Children's Social Behaviors and School Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyongboon; Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Positive attitudes toward school have been suggested as a meaningful indicator of school engagement among elementary children. The current study was guided by a social cognitive developmental perspective which suggests that social cognitions, including beliefs, play an important role in children's adjustment outcomes. Objective: The…

  4. Importance of prebiotic and probiotic: the role of galactooligosacharides as prebiotic additives: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rosenberg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In today's well-resistant pathogens and excessive use of antibiotics which weake and undermine the immune system the importance of pre- and probiotics is more desired. Probiotics - lactic acid bacteria - our intestinal symbiotes, has significant affect on our intestinal tract and brings us to number of positive physiological effects – inhibit the development of pathogenic microflora and serious stimulate the immune system, which subsequently leads to secondary health benefits - efficient use of energy from food, better resorption of minerals and vitamins by intestinal epithelium, suppression of diseases and inflammatory processes in the human intestine and many others. This article discusses the impact of prebiotics (essential substrate for probiotic bacteria, but also natural occurrence and important of prebiotics. Galactooligosaccharides (GOS as prebiotic are the most suitable and therefore their commercial application is discussed.doi:10.5219/251

  5. The role and importance of leadership in business development in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi Hoti; Edisona Kurhasku

    2016-01-01

    Leadership in Kosovo today is one of the questions of exceptional importance. This institution has not yet been analyzed properly based on: quality, efficiency and responsibility, legal-, material- and moral leadership. Kosovo is faced with many challenges consisting of the needed steps towards the business development of the enterprise in Kosovo and in the international arena. Leaders cannot be created only by giving orders to others but the main problem is to identify the principles of coop...

  6. Role of Anxiety in the Pathophysiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Importance of the Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Brent Myers; Beverley Greenwood-VanMeerveld

    2009-01-01

    A common characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is that symptoms, including abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits, are often triggered or exacerbated during periods of stress and anxiety. However, the impact of anxiety and affective disorders on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is poorly understood and may in part explain the lack of effective therapeutic approaches to treat IBS. The amygdala is an important structure for regulating anxiety with the central nucleus of the amygdala...

  7. The importance of Family Participant for caregivers of elderly hospitalized patients: Role of the nurse

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Mayara Amancio de; Torturella, Márcia; Miranda, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This article it’s a research conducted from an experience made on “Professional Development Program of Interdisciplinary Approach in Gerontology and Geriatrics” at Hospital Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. Based on this research, it was possible to realize the relevance of the project “Família Participante” (Participating Family) and the importance of the project, with the respective activities, to the caretaker of the elderlies, like the improvement of the interaction between interdis...

  8. The critical role of partially exposed N-terminal valine residue in stabilizing GH10 xylanase from Bacillus sp.NG-27 under poly-extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bhardwaj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanisms that govern protein stability under poly-extreme conditions continues to be a major challenge. Xylanase (BSX from Bacillus sp. NG-27, which has a TIM-barrel structure, shows optimum activity at high temperature and alkaline pH, and is resistant to denaturation by SDS and degradation by proteinase K. A comparative circular dichroism analysis was performed on native BSX and a recombinant BSX (R-BSX with just one additional methionine resulting from the start codon. The results of this analysis revealed the role of the partially exposed N-terminus in the unfolding of BSX in response to an increase in temperature. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the poly-extremophilicity of BSX to deduce the structural features responsible for its stability under one set of conditions, in order to gain information about its stability in other extreme conditions. To systematically address the role of the partially exposed N-terminus in BSX stability, a series of mutants was generated in which the first hydrophobic residue, valine (Val1, was either deleted or substituted with various amino acids. Each mutant was subsequently analyzed for its thermal, SDS and proteinase K stability in comparison to native BSX. CONCLUSIONS: A single conversion of Val1 to glycine (Gly changed R-BSX from being thermo- and alkali- stable and proteinase K and SDS resistant, to being thermolabile and proteinase K-, alkali- and SDS- sensitive. This result provided insight into the structure-function relationships of BSX under poly-extreme conditions. Molecular, biochemical and structural data revealed that the poly-extremophilicity of BSX is governed by a partially exposed N-terminus through hydrophobic interactions. Such hitherto unidentified N-terminal hydrophobic interactions may play a similar role in other proteins, especially those with TIM-barrel structures. The results of the present study are therefore of major significance for protein folding

  9. CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1: important roles in neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhan-Cheng; Wang, Chuang; Wang, Qin-Wen; Zhang, Jun-Fang

    2015-04-25

    The cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator, CRTC (also known as transducer of regulated CREB, TORC), is identified as a potent modulator of cAMP response element (CRE)-driven gene transcription. The CRTC family consists of three members (CRTC1-3), among which the CRTC1 shows the highest expression in the brain. Several studies have demonstrated that the CRTC1 plays critical roles in neuronal dendritic growth, long-term synaptic plasticity, memory consolidation and reconsolidation etc., whereas dysfunction of CRTC1 is mainly involved in neurodegenerative disorders. In light of these findings, we aim to review recent research reports that indicate the CRTC1 dysfunction and its underlying mechanisms in the neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. The Role and Importance of the Lease Towards the Farms’ Size Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Popescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lease reactivation, within the agrarian relations, at year 1994, was considered as a "normal economic phenomenon". The rent, as a price of the land lease, should equal gratify the interest of those two marketer partners, land owner and leaseholder. The estimations prove the restrictive character of the lease for owner of the land, not through the hectare’s quantum, but through the total income size gained by the family, as a result of the farm low size, or of the plot of land gave to lease. The lease as a landed market’s action has demonstrated its role within the agriculture farm size increase, merely through the restrictive manufactures factors character at the renters, which has substituted to the households.

  11. Dysregulation of JAM-A plays an important role in human tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Lu, Funian; Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Xianda; Sun, Jun; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is a transmembrane protein that belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. Evidence determines that JAM-A plays a role in numerous cellular processes, including tight junction assembly, leukocyte migration, platelet activation, angiogenesis and virus binding. Recent research suggests that JAM-A is dysregulated in various cancers and is vital for tumor progression. JAM-A is implicated in carcinogenesis via different signal pathways such as TGF-β1 signaling. Furthermore, JAM-A expression in cancers is usually associated with certain outcome of patients and might be a prognostic indicator. In this review, the correlation between JAM-A expression and human cancers will be described.

  12. The Role and Importance of the Lease Towards the Farms’ Size Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Popescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lease reactivation, within the agrarian relations, at year 1994, was considered as a "normal economic phenomenon". The rent, as a price of the land lease, should equal gratify the interest of those two marketer partners, land owner and leaseholder. The estimations prove the restrictive character of the lease for owner of the land, not through the hectare's quantum, but through the total income size gained by the family, as a result of the farm low size, or of the plot of land gave to lease. The lease as a landed market's action has demonstrated its role within the agriculture farm size increase, merely through the restrictive manufactures factors character at the renters, which has substituted to the households.

  13. Resveratrol plays important role in protective mechanisms in renal disease - mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Albertoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RESV is a polyphenolic compound found in various plants, including grapes, berries and peanuts, and its processed foods as red wine. RESV possesses a variety of bioactivities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, anticancer, chemopreventive, neuroprotective, renal lipotoxicity preventative, and renal protective effects. Numerous studies have demonstrated that polyphenols promote cardiovascular health. Furthermore, RESV can ameliorate several types of renal injury in animal models, including diabetic nephropathy, hyperuricemic, drug-induced injury, aldosterone-induced injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, sepsis-related injury, and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, RESV can prevent the increase in vasoconstrictors, such as angiotensin II (AII and endothelin-1 (ET-1, as well as intracellular calcium, in mesangial cells. Together, these findings suggest a potential role for RESV as a supplemental therapy for the prevention of renal injury.

  14. Exosomes play an important role in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Xu, Chengfeng; Hua, Yitong; Sun, Leitao; Cheng, Kai; Jia, Zhongming; Han, Yong; Dong, Jianli; Cui, Yuzhen; Yang, Zhenlin

    2016-12-01

    Release of exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in drug resistance by delivering cargo. Targeting the transfer of exosomes from resistant cells to sensitive cells may be an approach to overcome some cases of drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the potential role of exosomes in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation of culture media from MCF-7/ADR cells (ADR/exo) and MCF-7 parental cells (S/exo). Exosomes were characterized by morphology, exosomal markers and size distribution. The ability of ADR/exo to transfer multidrug resistance was assessed by MTT and real-time quantitative PCR. The different formation and secretion of exosomes were detected by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Then we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis using RNA-Seq technology and real-time quantitative PCR to better understand the gene expression regulation in exosmes formation and release after psoralen treatment. Our data showed that exosomes derived from MCF-7/ADR cells were able to promote active sequestration of drugs and could induce a drug resistance phenotype by transferring drug-resistance-related gene MDR-1 and P-glycoprotein protein. Psoralen could reduce the formation and secretion of exosomes to overcome drug resistance. There were 21 differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology (GO) pathway analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the most significantly expressed genes were linked to PPAR and P53 signaling pathways which were related to exosomes formation, secretion and cargo sorting. Psoralen can affect the exosomes and induce the reduction of resistance transmission via exosomes might through PPAR and P53 signaling pathways, which might provide a novel strategy for breast cancer resistance to chemotherapy in the future.

  15. Sperm associated antigen 9 plays an important role in bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Kanojia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Majority of bladder cancer deaths are caused due to transitional cell carcinoma (TCC which is the most prevalent and chemoresistant malignancy of urinary bladder. Therefore, we analyzed the role of Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9 in bladder TCC. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We examined SPAG9 expression and humoral response in 125 bladder TCC patients. Four bladder cancer cell lines were assessed for SPAG9 expression. In addition, we investigated the effect of SPAG9 ablation on cellular proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion in UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cells by employing gene silencing approach. Our SPAG9 gene and protein expression analysis revealed SPAG9 expression in 81% of bladder TCC tissue specimens. High SPAG9 expression (>60% SPAG9 positive cells was found to be significantly associated with superficial non-muscle invasive stage (P = 0.042 and low grade tumors (P = 0.002 suggesting SPAG9 putative role in early spread and tumorigenesis. Humoral response against SPAG9 was observed in 95% of patients found positive for SPAG9 expression. All four bladder cancer cell lines revealed SPAG9 expression. In addition, SPAG9 gene silencing in UM-UC-3 cells resulted in induction of G0-G1 arrest characterized by up-regulation of p16 and p21 and consequent down-regulation of cyclin E, cyclin D and cyclin B, CDK4 and CDK1. Further, SPAG9 gene silencing also resulted in reduction in cellular growth, and migration and invasion ability of cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data in clinical specimens indicated that SPAG9 is potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder TCC.

  16. Proteins Play Important Role in Intercellular Adhesion Affecting on Fruit Textural Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahadur Adhikari, Khem; Shomer, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA......H 3.5 ( pKa) incubated fruits (~2 N). The protein bands at ~29 kDa, ~75 kDa, ~32 kDa and 87 kDa were exclusively or prominently found in ICA strengthened fruits (pH 3.5

  17. The kidneys play an important role in the clearance of rFVIIa in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Appa, Rupa S.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    study was to evaluate the importance of the kidneys in the clearance process of rFVIIa after iv administration to rats using a nephrectomy model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nephrectomized rat model was established and validated using inulin, a compound primarily cleared by the kidneys, as a test substance...... of mixed effects methods, where a pharmacokinetic model was used to simultaneously model all data from healthy, sham operated, and nephrectomized rats. RESULTS: Nephrectomized animals showed stable rectal temperature, SpO2 and pulse and as expected, clearance of inulin was essentially abolished compared...

  18. The importance of Family Participant for caregivers of elderly hospitalized patients: Role of the nurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Amancio de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article it’s a research conducted from an experience made on “Professional Development Program of Interdisciplinary Approach in Gerontology and Geriatrics” at Hospital Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. Based on this research, it was possible to realize the relevance of the project “Família Participante” (Participating Family and the importance of the project, with the respective activities, to the caretaker of the elderlies, like the improvement of the interaction between interdisciplinary team, nurse staff an caretakers.

  19. The importance of Good Clinical Practice guidelines and its role in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayananthan, A; Nawawi, O

    2008-01-01

    Good Clinical Practice (GCP) is an international ethical and scientific quality standard for the design, conduct, performance, monitoring, auditing, recording, analyses and reporting of clinical trials. It also serves to protect the rights, integrity and confidentiality of trial subjects. It is very important to understand the background of the formation of the ICH-GCP guidelines as this, in itself, explains the reasons and the need for doing so. In this paper, we address the historical background and the events that led up to the formation of these guidelines. Today, the ICH-GCP guidelines are used in clinical trials throughout the globe with the main aim of protecting and preserving human rights.

  20. Extreme haze pollution in Beijing during January 2013: chemical characteristics, formation mechanism and role of fog processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K.; Zhuang, G.; Wang, Q.; Fu, J. S.; Lin, Y.; Liu, T.; Han, L.; Deng, C.

    2014-03-01

    Severe haze hovered over large areas of China in January 2013 right after the public release of PM2.5 data of major cities in China at the very first time. This historical severe haze emerged over the northern China with monthly average concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 exceeding 225, 200, and 80 μg m-3, respectively. Surface aerosol mean concentration of Beijing in January 2013 reached record high (only slightly lower than 2006) compared to historical data from 2003-2012, but with the largest daily fluctuation. Anomalous meteorological conditions in 2013 compared to the mean climatology from 2007-2012 were especially favorable for the formation of haze, such as higher humidity, lower temperature, lower PBL height, lower wind speed, and the high frequency of fog occurrences. The field campaign in Beijing showed an extremely high PM2.5 average concentration of 299.2 ± 79.1μg m-3 with extremely low visibility of 0.92 ± 0.82 km during an episode of high relative humidity with fog events. High AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) was observed during fog days but with relatively low Angstrom exponent (relative humidity, suggesting the significant impact of aerosol hygroscopicity on the visibility impairment. SO42- increased ∼5 folds while NO3-, NH4+, and C2O42- increased ∼3 folds in the fog days compared to the non-fog days. Aerosol in fog days was much more acidic than that in non-fog days. The in situ aerosol pH ranged from -0.78 to 0.14 in fog days based on the E-AIM model simulation. Bisulfate (HSO42-) accounted for 52% of the total sulfate and free hydrogen ion (H+Aq) accounted for 27% of the total acids in average. Enhanced coal combustion during the winter heating season along with traffic and industrial emissions were recognized to be the major causes for this severe haze. Fog processing was found to be the major pathway of producing extremely high yields of secondary inorganic aerosol and impacting the neutralization process (i.e. aerosol acidity) in this

  1. Intercellular Trogocytosis Plays an Important Role in Modulation of Immune Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed; Manjunatha Ankathatti Munegowda; Yufeng Xie; Jim Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Intercellular communication is an important means of molecular information transfer through exchange of membrane proteins from cells to cells. Advent of the latest analytical and imaging tools has allowed us to enhance our understanding of the cellular communication through the intercellular exchange of intact membrane patches, also called trogocytosis, which is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Immune responses against pathogens or any foreign antigens require fine immune regulation, where cellular communications are mediated by either soluble or cell surface molecules. It has been demonstrated that the membrane molecule transfer between immune cells such as dendritic and T cells can be derived through internalization/recycling pathway, dissociation-associated pathway, uptake of exosomes and membrane nanotube formations. Recent evidence implicates the trogocytosis as an important mechanism of the immune system to modulate immune responses. Exchange of membrane molecules/ antigens between immune cells has been observed for a long time, but the mechanisms and functional consequences of these transfers remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms of trogocytosis and its physiological relevance to immune system, with special reference to T cells and the stimulatory or suppressive immune responses derived from T cells with acquired dendritic cell membrane molecules. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(4):261-269.

  2. STUDY REGARDING IMPORTANCE, ROLE AND FORMS OF MARTIAL ARTS PRACTICE IN ARAD DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assistant VIOREL PETRU ARDELEAN, Msc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Man’s need to assert themselves, to impose for others, or to defend against attackers in various situations, various wars to win by any means, cause them to fight. Martial arts (art of war bear is ancient fighting styles, hands-free or with different weapons (sword, long or short stick, spear, knife, etc. that originate mainly in the Asian region, in countries like India, China, Japan, Korea, etc. These fighting styles were practiced at the beginning of a small number of people, usually caste warriors (samurai and is mainly transmitted among family mem- bers. We believe that martial arts are very important, both in training and preparation of structures for security and order (police, gendarmerie, army, etc., may be prophylactic methods to prevent certain diseases to people with various ailments and is an effective method of hardening the body, strengthen the physical and mental health among different categories of population - children, youth, adults. Therefore we decided to make a study of the forms of practicing martial arts, their spread, and the importance of practicing in Arad county.

  3. The role and importance of Sokolski dom in development of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dimitrije

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper analyses the socio-economic conditions that preceded the construction of the Sokolski dom in Novi Sad. The construction of this building of great cultural and historical value, during the process of transformation and enlargement of the main square throughout the interwar period, has made a significant impact on the further development of the central areas of the city. The realization of the building was part of the opening of the city towards the Danube, and thus it sets an architectural framework for future spatial development. In addition, architectural and stylistic features of this cultural monument are presented, occupying an important place in the oeuvre of architect Đorđe Tabaković, one of the most important creators of the modern period. Afterwards the research points to the significant stages through which this institution has passed in its history, with emphasis on the different social, cultural and political influences and consequences which have followed. Finally, it has been concluded that Sokolsko društvo, from its establishment until the present day, as a commissioner and a regular user of the facility, has great social significance and impact on the cultural, educational and sports development of the population of Novi Sad.

  4. Evidence for an important social role of allogrooming in a platyrrhine primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di bitetti MS

    1997-07-01

    Allogrooming behaviour was analysed in a wild group of tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apellain Iguazu National Park, Argentina. Evidence is provided that allogrooming in this platyrrhine species serves an important social function, as has been demonstrated for catarrhine primates. Using ad libitum sampling, 654 grooming sessions were recorded during 740 contact hours with one group. Seasonal variation was found in daily time allocation to allogrooming and the mean duration and reciprocity of sessions. Individual dominance rank was an important determinant of grooming relationships. The dominant male and female were the most actively involved in grooming. Among adults, dominant individuals were involved in more sessions than were subordinate individuals. The females maintained strong grooming relationships with each other and tended to reciprocate more within sessions than did males. Oestrous females engaged in more grooming bouts with adult males than did non-oestrous females. Females with newborn infants were attractive social partners for the remaining members of the group. A social function for allogrooming in Cebus is indicated by the close relationship between allogrooming, the social system and coalition formation, and by the changes in quantity and direction of grooming in response to oestrous behaviour and to the birth of infants.

  5. The role of atmospheric diagnosis and Big Data science in improving hydroclimatic extreme prediction and the merits of climate informed prediction for future water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mengqian; Lall, Upmanu

    2017-04-01

    The threats that hydroclimatic extremes pose to sustainable development, safety and operation of infrastructure are both severe and growing. Recent heavy precipitation triggered flood events in many regions and increasing frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation suggested by various climate projections highlight the importance of understanding the associated hydrometeorological patterns and space-time variability of such extreme events, and developing a new approach to improve predictability with a better estimation of uncertainty. This clear objective requires the optimal utility of Big Data analytics on multi-source datasets to extract informative predictors from the complex ocean-atmosphere coupled system and develop a statistical and physical based framework. The proposed presentation includes the essence of our selected works in the past two years, as part of our Global Floods Initiatives. Our approach for an improved extreme prediction begins with a better understanding of the associated atmospheric circulation patterns, under the influence and regulation of slowly changing oceanic boundary conditions [Lu et al., 2013, 2016a; Lu and Lall, 2016]. The study of the associated atmospheric circulation pattern and the regulation of teleconnected climate signals adopted data science techniques and statistical modeling recognizing the nonstationarity and nonlinearity of the system, as the underlying statistical assumptions of the classical extreme value frequency analysis are challenged in hydroclimatic studies. There are two main factors that are considered important for understanding how future flood risk will change. One is the consideration of moisture holding capacity as a function of temperature, as suggested by Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The other is the strength of the convergence or convection associated with extreme precipitation. As convergence or convection gets stronger, rain rates can be expected to increase if the moisture is available. For

  6. Is there any role for terlipressin in the extremely low birth weight infant with refractory septic shock?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bissolo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terlipressin, a synthetic long-acting analogue of vasopressin, has been investigated as a second line vasopressor in adults and children with refractory septic shock, i.e. not responding to fluid resuscitation and high-dose catecholamine administration. Little experience is available about the safety and efficacy of terlipressin in term and preterm newborns. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight infant with severe septic shock, unresponsive to fluids, noradrenalin and hydrocortisone, in whom terlipressin was attempted as a rescue drug. Despite three doses of terlipressin, administered 6-hourly, the patient remained profoundly hypotensive and eventually died. Further studies are required before any recommendation on the use of terlipressin in term or preterm newborns with septic shock can be made.

  7. Biological role of Interleukin 33 and its importance in pathophysiology of cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Czyżewska-Buczyńska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin 33 (IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 cytokin family. It is expressed by various cells and tissues, mainly epithelial and endothelial cells. It is a cytokine with dual function. It may act both as a traditional cytokine and as intracellular nuclear factor, functioning as transcription regulator. Its biological effect via interaction with membrane-bound ST2 receptor and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP is associated with the induction of Th2-type immune response and IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis. IL-33 has a strong immunoregulatory properties. Depending on the type of activated cells, microenvironment, and costimulatory factors, IL-33 can act either as a pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine. Recent studies indicate various protective effect of IL-33/ST2 sygnaling in atherosclerosis, obesity, disorders in glucose homeostasis and in heart diseases. The paper presents current state of knowledge about the structure and biological function of IL-33 and its receptor ST2, with particular emphasis on its role in pathophysiology of cardiovascular system.

  8. [Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)--structure, clinical importance and the role in human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Z; Ciszko, B

    2001-01-01

    DHEA and DHEA-S are hormones synthetized primarily by the adrenal cortex. The levels oh this hormones are systematically decreased, beginning from the fourth life decade. The levels of this hormones are also abberrated as a consequence of divorce systematical diseases like cardiovascular diseases, skeletal diseases, diabetes mellitus or obesity. This hormones, probably, have antiaheromatic facilities. There are also data suggesting their influence on stimulation of immunological system. It is already confirmed that the levels of this hormones are modified in congenital function disorders that are present in different diseases, like Alzheimer diseases, and oral administration of DHEA can improves the memory. Presumably DHEA-S have also anticarcinogenic facilities. The levels of this hormones can be also a marker monitoring the course of pregnancy. There are still a lot of discrepancies between results of different studies and it is very difficult to describe their role in human body. Because their levels are decreased with ageing process, this observation makes the researchers call them as the "youth hormones".

  9. The Role of Cognitive Content and Cognitive Processes in Chronic Pain: An Important Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Thorn, Beverly E; Carmody, James; Keefe, Francis J; Burns, John W

    2017-09-15

    Pain-related cognitive content (what people think about pain) and cognitive processes (how people think about pain; what they do with their pain-related thoughts) and their interaction are hypothesized to play distinct roles in patient function. However, questions have been raised regarding whether it is possible or practical to assess cognitive content and cognitive process as distinct domains. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which measures that appear to assess mostly pain-related cognitive content, cognitive processes, and content and process, are relatively independent from each other and contribute unique variance to the prediction of patient function. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N=165) participating in an ongoing RCT were administered measures of cognitions, pain, and function (depressive symptoms and pain interference) pre-treatment. Analyses provided support for the hypothesis that cognitive content and cognitive process, while related, can be assessed as distinct components. However, the measure assessing a cognitive process - mindfulness - evidenced relatively weak associations with function, especially compared with the stronger and more consistent findings for the measures of content (catastrophizing and self-efficacy). Moreover, the results provide preliminary evidence for the possibility that mindfulness could have both benefits and costs. Research to evaluate this possibility is warranted.

  10. A White Paper. Professional chaplaincy: its role and importance in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the role and significance of spiritual care and is the first joint statement on this subject prepared by the five largest healthcare chaplaincy organizations in North America representing over 10,000 members. As a consensus paper, it presents the perspectives of these bodies on the spiritual care they provide for the benefit of individuals, healthcare organizations and communities. Throughout this paper, the word spirituality is inclusive of religion; spiritual care includes pastoral care. Spiritual caregivers in healthcare institutions are often known as chaplains although they may have different designations in some settings, i.e. spiritual care providers. The paper contains four sections. 1. The Meaning and Practice of Spiritual Care This first section describes spirit as a natural dimension of all persons and defines the nature of spiritual care. With the basic premise that attention to spirituality is intrinsic to healthcare, the paper establishes their relationship and outlines the various environments in which it is provided. 2. Who Provides Spiritual Care? Professional chaplains provide spiritual care and this section describes their education, skills and certification. 3. The Functions and Activities of Professional Chaplains This section delineates the typical activities of professional chaplains within healthcare settings, focusing on their care of persons and their participation in healthcare teams. 4. The Benefits of Spiritual Care Provided by Professional Chaplains The materials here describe how professional chaplains benefit healthcare patients and their families, staff members, employing organizations, and communities.

  11. The importance and role of strategic tool of balanced scorecard in diversified enterprises management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosić Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Justification of the diversification strategy is derived from the success of the corporate management of diversified companies in adding value to a portfolio of strategic business units in its composition to a greater amount than they could achieve alone or under someone else's control. Such a level of added value can be achieved by identifying and using strategic fit between strategic business units themselves or between strategic business units and corporate management. Since the strategic fits, which represent a specific interdependence relationships, in modern companies usually exist among the various forms of intangible assets, they often remain unused because they can not be easily identified. Even when we recognize the opportunities to achieve strategic fits, it is not easy to achieve them because it is often necessary coordinated action of different organizational units at different hierarchical levels. Therefore strategic tool Balanced scorecard have great importance in the management of modern diversified enterprises.

  12. Home- and Hospital-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise: The Important Role of Physician Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Susan L; Dunn, L Maureen; Buursma, Madison P; Clark, Jacob A; Vander Berg, Lucas; DeVon, Holli A; Tintle, Nathan L

    2016-09-02

    Exercise reduces morbidity and mortality for patients with heart disease. Despite clear guidelines and known benefits, most cardiac patients do not meet current exercise recommendations. Physician endorsement positively affects patient participation in hospital-based Phase II cardiac rehabilitation programs, yet the importance of physician recommendation for home-based cardiac rehabilitation exercise is unknown. A prospective observational design was used to examine predictors of both home-based and Phase II rehabilitation exercise in a sample of 251 patients with coronary heart disease. Regression analyses were done to examine demographic and clinical characteristics, physical functioning, and patient's report of physician recommendation for exercise. Patients with a strong physician referral, who were married and older, were more likely to participate in Phase II exercise. Increased strength of physician recommendation was the unique predictor of home-based exercise. Further research is needed to examine how health professionals can motivate cardiac patients to exercise in home and outpatient settings.

  13. Aspects Regarding the Role and the Importance of Physical Preparation in the Modern Football Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cărăbaş Ionică

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the great performance, the physical preparation represents one of the most important factors of the sports training. The development of speed, of force resistance and of skill at superior parameters should represent major objectives in the training of the football teams which aim to attain the top of the national and international hierarchies. The results of the assessments of the football games at high level, confirm this hypothesis that is why the physical preparation should be reconsidered and adapted to the requirements of the modern play. According to the opinion of the great specialists of the field, the physical qualities have a weight of 47% compared with the other qualities which a top football player should possess. For us the trainers, it is only about to find the most appropriate means in order to develop and exploit at maximum, those qualities.

  14. [Importance of the school nurse's role in the Canary Islands schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Pedro Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Today there are more and more children with chronic diseases or physical conditions that regularly attend schools. This study aims to identify the importance of school centers' directors attribute to the school nurse. It has been decided to make a cross-sectional study. So, it has been to sent by e-mail a questionnaire of 20 questions to 635 schools, receiving 209 completed. 65.6% of children in schools have required drugs administration. In 59.3% of schools, teachers have attended at one time any health problems (acute or chronic) of children. 98.1% of schools know the health problems of the students who is in charge. The most common health problem among children in schools were food allergies, followed by asthma, diabetes and epilepsy. 67% of school centers' directors know the guide attention to health emergencies in schools.

  15. Boron Plays an Important Role in the Regulation of Plant Cell Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Boron is an essential nutrition for higher plants.However, the primary function of boron remains a matter of discussion.Boron may function by forming complexes with compounds having cis-hydroxyl groups(diols), e.g., pectic materials in cell walls, glycoproteins or glycolipids in membranes and o-diphenols.The well-defined functions of boron are its involvement in maintaining cell wall structure and both the structural and the functional integrity of plasma membrane.Lack of boron causes an increase in the leakage of ions and compounds which reflects the impairment of plasma membrane.Boron is functionally important in forming a pectic network in cell wall which is responsible for the extensibility of cell wall and consequently regulates cell growth.

  16. The role and importance of porosity in the deflagration rates of HMX-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E A; Hsu, P C; Springer, H K

    2011-03-15

    The deflagration behavior of thermally damaged HMX-based materials will be discussed. Strands of material were burned at pressures ranging from 10-300 MPa using the LLNL high pressure strand burner. Strands were heated in-situ and burned while still hot; temperatures range from 90-200 C and were chosen in order to allow for thermal damage of the material without significant decomposition of the HMX. The results indicate that multiple variables affect the burn rate but the most important are the polymorph of HMX and the nature and thermal stability of the non-HE portion of the material. Characterization of the strands indicate that the thermal soak produces significant porosity and permeability in the sample allowing for significantly faster burning due to the increased surface area and new pathways for flame spread into the material. Specifically, the deflagration rates of heated PBXN-9, LX-10, and PBX-9501 will be discussed and compared.

  17. Sorption of phenanthrene and benzene on differently structural kerogen: important role of micropore-filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong

    2014-02-01

    Shale was thermally treated to obtain a series of kerogen with varied maturation. Their chemical, structural and porous properties were related to the sorption and/or desorption behaviors of phenanthrene and benzene. As the treatment temperature increases, aliphatic and carbonyl carbon of the kerogen samples decrease, while their aromaticity and maturation increase. Meanwhile, the isothermal nonlinearity of phenanthrene and benzene increases whereas the sorption capacity and micropore adsorption volumes (Vo,d) initially increase and then decrease. The Vo,d of benzene is significantly correlated with, but higher than that of phenanthrene, suggesting similar micropore filling mechanism and molecular sieve effect. The benzene desorption exhibits hysteresis, which is related to the pore deformation of the kerogen and the entrapment of solute in the kerogen matrix. The Vo,d of phenanthrene and benzene on the kerogen samples accounts for 23-46% and 36-65% of the maximum sorption volumes, respectively, displaying the importance of the micropore filling.

  18. The hypocretin/orexin system: an increasingly important role in neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanhui; de Lecea, Luis; Hu, Zhian; Gao, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Hypocretins, also named as orexins, are excitatory neuropeptides secreted by neurons specifically located in lateral hypothalamus and perifornical areas. Orexinergic fibers are extensively distributed in various brain regions and involved in a number of physiological functions, such as arousal, cognition, stress, appetite, and metabolism. Arousal is the most important function of orexin system as dysfunction of orexin signaling leads to narcolepsy. In addition to narcolepsy, orexin dysfunction is associated with serious neural disorders, including addiction, depression, and anxiety. However, some results linking orexin with these disorders are still contradictory, which may result from differences of detection methods or the precision of tools used in measurements; strategies targeted to orexin system (e.g., antagonists to orexin receptors, gene delivery, and cell transplantation) are promising new tools for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, though studies are still in a stage of preclinical or clinical research.

  19. Important role of platelets in modulating endotoxin-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiqi Zhao

    Full Text Available Mutation of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator leads to cystic fibrosis (CF. Patients with CF develop abnormalities of blood platelets and recurrent lung inflammation. However, whether CFTR-mutated platelets play a role in the development of lung inflammation is elusive. Therefore, we intratracheally challenged wildtype and F508del (a common type of CFTR mutation mice with LPS to observe changes of F508del platelets in the peripheral blood and indexes of lung inflammation (BAL neutrophils and protein levels. Furthermore, we investigated whether or not and how F508del platelets modulate the LPS-induced acute lung inflammation by targeting anti-platelet aggregation, depletion of neutrophils, reconstitution of bone marrow or neutrophils, blockade of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, platelet activating factor (PAF, and correction of mutated CFTR trafficking. We found that LPS-challenged F508del mice developed severe thrombocytopenia and had higher levels of plasma TXB2 coincided with neutrophilic lung inflammation relative to wildtype control. Inhibition of F508del platelet aggregation or depletion of F508del neutrophils diminished the LPS-induced lung inflammation in the F508del mice. Moreover, wildtype mice reconstituted with either F508del bone marrow or neutrophils developed worse thrombocytopenia. Blocking PSGL-1, platelet activating factor (PAF, or rectifying trafficking of mutated CFTR in F508del mice diminished and alveolar neutrophil transmigration in the LPS-challenged F508del mice. These findings suggest that F508del platelets and their interaction with neutrophils are requisite for the development of LPS-induced lung inflammation and injury. As such, targeting platelets might be an emerging strategy for dampening recurrent lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients.

  20. IL-1 Inhibition May Have an Important Role in Treating Refractory Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusser, Perrine; Koné-Paut, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute inflammatory vasculitis occurring in young children before 5 years and representing at this age, the main cause of acquired heart disease. A single infusion of 2 g/kg of intravenous immunoglobulins along with aspirin has reduced the frequency of coronary artery aneurysms from 25 to 5%. However, 10–20% of patients do not respond to standard treatment and have an increased risk of cardiac complications and death. The development of more potent therapeutic approaches of KD is an urgent need. Phenotypical and immunological similarities between KD and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis led to the hypothesis that KD could be considered as an autoinflammatory disease. New insights regarding KD’s pathogenesis have merged from the combination of genetic and transcriptomic data revealing the key role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling in the pathogenesis of the vasculitis. Once activated, IL-1α and IL-1β trigger a local proinflammatory environment-inducing vasodilatation and attracting monocytes and neutrophils to sites causing tissue damage and stress. Both IL-1α and IL-1β have been shown to induce myocarditis and aneurysm formation in Lactobacillus casei cell-wall extract mouse model of KD; both being successfully improved with IL-1 blockade treatment such as anakinra. Treatment failure in patients with the high-risk inositol-triphosphate 3-kinase C genotype was associated with highest basal and stimulated intracellular calcium levels, increased cellular production of IL-1β, and IL-18, and higher circulating levels of both cytokines. Three clinical trials of IL-1 blockade enrolling KD patients are currently being conducted in Western Europe and in USA, they could change KD outcome. PMID:28400731

  1. Evaluation of liver fibrosis in patients with thalassemia: the important role of hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastamataki, Maria; Delaporta, Polyxeni; Premetis, Evangelos; Kattamis, Antonios; Ladis, Vassilios; Papassotiriou, Ioannis

    2010-10-15

    Patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia major often develop liver fibrosis due to liver iron overload and/or hepatitis virus C (HCV) infection. Hyaluronic acid (HA) plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and the elevation of serum HA concentration is due to either increased synthesis by inflammatory cells and hepatic stellate cells or impaired degradation by sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) and thus is proposed as a non-invasive biomarker of liver fibrosis either by itself and/or included in the Hepascore formula. In this study we evaluated prospectively a screening of liver fibrosis in 201 adult patients aged 19-54 years with transfusion-dependent thalassemia major, based on HA measurements. 41/201 patients were HCV-RNA (+). HA was measured with a turbidimetric assay applied on a clinical chemistry analyzer. The Hepascore was computed from the results by using the model previously published. The main results of the study showed that: a) HA levels were increased in 110/201 (55%) thalassemia patients 85.0 ± 10.3 ng/ml, ranged from 15.0 to 1495.0 μg/l, compared to 20.8 ± 7.4 μg/l reference laboratory values, p0.324 and p>0.270, respectively). Our findings indicate that hyaluronic acid measurements contribute to the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with thalassemia and might be helpful for further evaluation of patients with liver biopsy if this is truly needed. Furthermore, liver fibrosis in thalassemia seems to be independent from liver siderosis.

  2. The importance of the role of language in fostering multilingualism in educational contexts in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Baker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In a multilingual society such as ours, all teachers play an integral part in the language acquisition of the learners from pre-school level right up to matric. Teaching content subjects in the mother tongue of the learner is of great importance in his/her acquisition of other languages, especially majority or high-status languages. In the wider society, there is a need for language workers, particularly in urban areas where there is a great diversity of languages. The implication is that changes will have to take place in the curricula of schools and tertiary education institutions. The starting point, however, should be the early years of schooling. More people should be enabled to speak indigenous languages and all people should be able to pursue education in their Ll. Teachers who are currently employed could do in-service training to cope with new demands and to enable them to understand the importance of multilingualism. Parallel medium schools and language centres, such as Australia is using, would go a long way towards giving all language groups equal opportunities.In 'n veeltalige samelewing soos ons s'n speel alle onderwysers 'n integrale deel in leerders se taalverwerwing, van die voorskoolse vlak tot by matriek Die onderrig van inhoudsvakke in die leerder se moedertaal is van groot belang in sylhaar aanleer van ander tale, vera/ die hooftale of tale met 'n hoe status. Daar bestaan 'n behoefte aan taalwerkers in die breer samelewing, vera/ in stedelike gebiede waar groot taaldiversiteit bestaan. Die implikasie is dat daar veranderinge in die kurrikula van skole en inrigtings vir tersiere opvoeding moet kom. Die beginpunt moet egter die vroee skooljare wees. Meer mense moet in staat gestel word om inheemse tale te praat, en alle mense moet daartoe in staat wees om hulle opvoeding in hul moedertaal voort te sit. Opvoeders wat tans in diens is, kan indiens-opleiding ontvang ten einde die nuwe eise die hoof te bied en om hulle in staat te

  3. Cholesterol-rich lipid rafts play an important role in the Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 replication cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Graham; Adamek, Mikołaj; Proepsting, Marcus J; Ulrich, Reiner; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2015-09-30

    The Cyprinus herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is a member of the new Alloherpesviridae virus family in the Herpesvirales order. CyHV-3 has been implicated in a large number of disease outbreaks in carp populations causing up to 100% mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the requirement of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in CyHV-3 entry and replication in carp cells. Plasma membrane cholesterol was depleted from common carp brain (CCB) cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Treated and non-treated cells were infected with CyHV-3 and virus binding and infection parameters were assessed using RT-qPCR, immunocytochemistry and virus titration. The effect of cholesterol reduction severely stunted virus entry in vitro, however after cholesterol replenishment virus entry and subsequent replication rates were similar to the control infection. Furthermore, cholesterol depletion did not significantly influence virus binding and the subsequent post-entry replication stage, however had an impact on virus egress. Comparative analysis of the lipid compositions of CyHV-3 and CCB membrane fractions revealed strong similarities between the lipid composition of the CyHV-3 and CCB lipid rafts. The results presented here show that cholesterol-rich lipid rafts are important for the CyHV-3 replication cycle especially during entry and egress.

  4. Groundwater surface water interactions through streambeds and the role of phreatophytes in identifying important recharge zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ahring

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater and surface water interactions within riparian corridors impact the distribution of phreatophytes that tap into groundwater stores. The changes in canopy area of phreatophytes over time is related to changes in depth to groundwater, distance from a stream or river, and hydrologic soil group. Remote sensing was used to determine the location of trees with predevelopment and post-development aerial photography over the Ogallala Aquifer in the central plains of the United States. It was found that once the depth to groundwater becomes greater than about 3 m, tree populations decrease as depth to water increases. This subsequently limited the extent of phreatophytes to within 700 m of the river. It was also found that phreatophytes have a higher likelihood of growing on hydrologic soil groups with higher saturated hydraulic conductivity. Phreatophytes exist along portions of the Arkansas River corridor where significant decreases in groundwater occurred as long as alluvium exists to create perched conditions where trees survive dry periods. Significant decreases (more that 50% in canopy cover exists along river segments where groundwater declined by more than 10 m, indicating areas with good hydraulic connectivity between surface water and groundwater. Thus, interpretation of changes in phreatophyte distribution using historical and recent aerial photophaphy is important in delineating zones of enhanced recharge where aquifers might be effectively recharged through diversion of surface water runoff.

  5. The importance of mutual positive expressivity in social adjustment: understanding the role of peers and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallquist, Julie; DiDonato, Matthew D; Hanish, Laura D; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A

    2012-04-01

    The relations between young children's mutual (reciprocated) and overall positive emotion (PE) with same- and other-gender peers and their social adjustment were explored. Children's PE and peers' PE were observed across the preschool year during peer interactions (N = 166; 46% girls; M age = 52 months). Results revealed that girls and boys had similar frequencies of overall PE and mutual PE when interacting with same-gender peers, but girls were marginally higher compared with boys in overall and mutual PE when interacting with other-gender peers. Girls and boys did not have greater rates of either type of PE after controlling for gender segregation during same- or other-gender interactions. Using structural equation modeling, children's mutual PE, regardless of their gender, positively predicted indicators of positive adjustment (e.g., prosocial behavior, cooperation) and negatively predicted indicators of negative adjustment (e.g., hyperactivity, disruption, exclusion by peers). Children's overall PE did not predict either type of adjustment. Findings support the importance of mutual PE for children's development.

  6. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Dove

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science; and consortia ethics (Big Ethics. These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  7. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-09-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, "extreme centrism", and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics-separate and together-have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  8. Role of a Highly Conserved and Catalytically Important Glutamate-49 in the Enterococcus faecalis Acetolactate Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Miyoung; Lee, Sangchoon; Cho, Junehaeng; Ryu, Seong Eon; Yoon, Moonyoung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bonsung [Rural Development Administration, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is a thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of pyruvate and then condenses the hydroxyethyl moiety with another molecule of pyruvate to give 2-acetolactate (AL). AL is a key metabolic intermediate in various metabolic pathways of microorganisms. In addition, AL can be converted to acetoin, an important physiological metabolite that is excreted by many microorganisms. There are two types of ALSs reported in the literature, anabolic aceto-hydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) and catabolic ALSs (cALS). The anabolic AHAS is primarily found in plants, fungi, and bacteria, is involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), and contains flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), whereas the cALS is found only in some bacteria and is involved in the butanediol fermentation pathway. Both of the enzymes are ThDP-dependent and require a divalent metal ion for catalytic activity. Despite the similarities of the reactions catalyzed, the cALS can be distinguished from anabolic AHAS by a low optimal pH of about 6.0, FAD-independent functionality, a genetic location within the butanediol operon, and lack of a regulatory subunit. It is noteworthy that the structural and functional features of AHAS have been extensively studied, in contrast to those of cALS, for which only limited information is available. To date, the only crystal structure of cALS reported is from Klebsiella pneumonia, which revealed that the overall structure of K. pneumonia ALS is similar to that of AHAS except for the FAD binding region found in AHAS.

  9. The origin of aromaticity: important role of the sigma framework in benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacević, Borislav; Barić, Danijela; Maksić, Zvonimir B; Müller, Thomas

    2004-09-20

    The physical nature of aromaticity is addressed at a high ab initio level. It is conclusively shown that the extrinsic aromatic stabilization energy of benzene E(ease)B, estimated relative to its linear polyene counterpart(s), is very well-reproduced at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level. This is a consequence of the fact that the contributions arising from the zero-point vibrational energy (ZPVE) and electron correlation are rather small. More specifically, they yield together 2.0 kcalmol(-1) to the destabilization of benzene. A careful scrutiny of the HF energies by virial theorem shows further that the kinetic energies of the sigma and pi electrons E(T)HF(sigma) and E(T)HF(pi) are strictly additive in the gauge linear zig-zag polyenes, which also holds for their sum Et(T)HF This finding has the important corollary that E(ease)B is little dependent on the choice of the homodesmic reactions involving zig-zag polyenes. A detailed physical analysis of the sigma- and pi-electron contributions to extrinsic aromaticity requires explicit introduction of the potential energy terms Vne, Vee, and Vnn, which signify Coulomb interactions between the electrons and the nuclei. The Vee term involves repulsive interaction Vee(sigmapi) between the sigma and pi electrons, which cannot be unequivocally resolved into sigma and pi contributions. The same holds for the Vnn energy, which implicitly depends on the electron density distribution via the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) potential energy surface. Several possibilities for partitioning Vee(sigmapi) and Vnn terms into sigma and pi components are examined. It is argued that the stockholder principle is the most realistic, which strongly indicates that E(ease)B is a result of favorable sigma-framework interactions. In contrast, the pi-electron framework prefers the open-chain linear polyenes.

  10. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  11. Altered mitochondrial morphology and defective protein import reveal novel roles for Bax and/or Bak in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Iqbal, Sobia; O'Leary, Michael F N; Menzies, Keir J; Saleem, Ayesha; Ding, Shuzhe; Hood, David A

    2013-09-01

    The function Bax and/or Bak in constituting a gateway for mitochondrial apoptosis in response to apoptotic stimuli has been unequivocally demonstrated. However, recent work has suggested that Bax/Bak may have unrecognized nonapoptotic functions related to mitochondrial function in nonstressful environments. Wild-type (WT) and Bax/Bak double knockout (DKO) mice were used to determine alternative roles for Bax and Bak in mitochondrial morphology and protein import in skeletal muscle. The absence of Bax and/or Bak altered mitochondrial dynamics by regulating protein components of the organelle fission and fusion machinery. Moreover, DKO mice exhibited defective mitochondrial protein import, both into the matrix and outer membrane compartments, which was consistent with our observations of impaired membrane potential and attenuated expression of protein import machinery (PIM) components in intermyofibrillar mitochondria. Furthermore, the cytosolic chaperones heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) were markedly increased with the deletion of Bax/Bak, indicating that the cytosolic environment related to protein folding may be changed in DKO mice. Interestingly, endurance training fully restored the deficiency of protein import in DKO mice, likely via the upregulation of PIM components and through improved cytosolic chaperone protein expression. Thus our results emphasize novel roles for Bax and/or Bak in mitochondrial function and provide evidence, for the first time, of a curative function of exercise training in ameliorating a condition of defective mitochondrial protein import.

  12. Does release of encapsulated nutrients have an important role in the efficacy of xylanase in broilers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, A; Lourenço, M; Delezie, E; Maertens, L; Goderis, A; Mombaerts, R; Höfte, M; Eeckhaut, V; Van Immerseel, F; Janssens, G P J

    2016-05-01

    The non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in cell walls can act as a barrier for digestion of intracellular nutrients. This effect is called "cage effect." Part of the success of fibrolytic enzymes in broiler feed is assumed to be attributed to cage effect reduction. Further, changes in viscosity and potential prebiotic action should also be considered. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the relative importance of the cage effect in xylanase efficacy in broilers. Using a 2×2 factorial design, 24 pens with 30 Ross 308 male chicks were fed corn-soy based diets consisting of normal and freeze-thawed (5 d at -18°C) corn, both with and without xylanase. The freeze-thaw method was used to eliminate the cage effect, whereas a corn-based diet was used to exclude viscosity effects. Body weights (BW), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined at d 13, 26, and 39. A balance study was executed at the end of the growing phase. These birds were euthanized at d 34 (non-fasted) to determine the viscosity of digesta, blood metabolites, intestinal morphology, and microbiota composition. During the finisher period, there was a significant interaction between enzyme supplementation and freeze-thawing for FCR, in which FCR was improved by freeze-thawed corn and tended to be improved by normal corn+enzyme compared with the control group. The improvement in performance (finisher period) of freeze-thawed corn and xylanase coincided with increased gut absorption of glucose (based on postprandial plasma concentrations) and increased number of Clostridiumcluster IV in the caecum, and agreed with the higher gut villus height. In addition, xylanase inclusion significantly increased the postprandial plasma glycine and triglycerides concentration, and led to elevated bacterial gene copies of butyryl CoA:acetate CoA-transferase, suggesting a prebiotic effect of xylanase addition through more than just the cage effect reduction. The applied model managed to rule

  13. Role of the epistemic subject in Piaget's genetic epistemology and its importance for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    , attempts to build a general model applicable across types of situations/subjects. The distinction between the epistemic and the psychological subjects is important not for defending Piaget's theory (which has serious theoretical flaws) but to understand epistemic transitions, for example, the one between Piaget's epistemic subject and Pascual-Leone's metasubject. It is concluded that failure to understand the distinction between the epistemic and the psychological subjects would lead to misconstruing the significance of our research findings and, what is more serious, to a lack of a historical perspective.

  14. Intra-urban societal vulnerability to extreme heat: the role of heat exposure and the built environment, socioeconomics, and neighborhood stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K; Wilhelmi, Olga V; Golden, Jay S; Mills, David M; Gulino, Sam P; Samenow, Jason P

    2011-03-01

    Extreme heat is an important weather hazard associated with excess mortality and morbidity. We determine the relative importance of heat exposure and the built environment, socioeconomic vulnerability, and neighborhood stability for heat mortality (Philadelphia, PA, USA) or heat distress (Phoenix, AZ, USA), using an ecologic study design. We use spatial Generalized Linear and Mixed Models to account for non-independence (spatial autocorrelation) between neighboring census block groups. Failing to account for spatial autocorrelation can provide misleading statistical results. Phoenix neighborhoods with more heat exposure, Black, Hispanic, linguistically and socially isolated residents, and vacant households made more heat distress calls. Philadelphia heat mortality neighborhoods were more likely to have low housing values and a higher proportion of Black residents. Our methodology can identify important risk factors and geographic areas to target interventions.

  15. Role of a major facilitator superfamily transporter in adaptation capacity of Penicillium funiculosum under extreme acidic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxue; Chen, Jinyin; Xu, Houjuan; Li, Duochuan

    2014-08-01

    Fungal species present in extreme low pH environments are expected to have adapted for tolerance to high H(+) concentrations. However, their adaptability mechanism is unclear. In this study, we isolated an acid-tolerant strain of Penicillium funiculosum, which can grow actively at pH 1.0 and thrived in pH 0.6. A major facilitator superfamily transporter (PfMFS) was isolated from an acid-sensitive random insertional mutant (M4) of the fungus. It encodes a putative protein of 551 residues and contains 14 transmembrane-spanning segments. A targeted mutant (M7) carrying an inactivated copy of PfMFS showed an obvious reduction of growth compared with the wild type (WT) and complementation of M7 with PfMFS restored the wild-type level of growth at pH 1.0. Further data showed that the wild-type showed higher intracellular pH than M7 in response to pH 1. Subcellular localization showed that PfMFS was a cell membrane protein. Homology modeling showed structural similarity with an MFS transporter EmrD from Escherichiacoli. These results demonstrate that the PfMFS transporter is involved in the acid resistance and intracellular pH homeostasis of P. funiculosum.

  16. Insights from the metagenome of an acid salt lake: the role of biology in an extreme depositional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Chevrette, Marc Gerard; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Benison, Kathleen Counter

    2015-01-01

    The extremely acidic brine lakes of the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia are home to some of the most biologically challenging waters on Earth. In this study, we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to generate a microbial profile of the depositional environment associated with the sulfur-rich sediments of one such lake. Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community. In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox) system. This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity. Our findings also illuminate the possibility that we may be meaningfully underestimating the effects of biology on the chemistry of these sulfur-rich sediments, thereby influencing our understanding of past geobiological conditions that may have been present on Earth as well as early Mars.

  17. Using extremely halophilic bacteria to understand the role of surface charge and surface hydration in protein evolution, folding, and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Wouter; Deole, Ratnakar; Osu Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Halophilic Archaea accumulate molar concentrations of KCl in their cytoplasm as an osmoprotectant, and have evolved highly acidic proteomes that only function at high salinity. We examine osmoprotection in the photosynthetic Proteobacteria Halorhodospira halophila. We find that H. halophila has an acidic proteome and accumulates molar concentrations of KCl when grown in high salt media. Upon growth of H. halophila in low salt media, its cytoplasmic K + content matches that of Escherichia coli, revealing an acidic proteome that can function in the absence of high cytoplasmic salt concentrations. These findings necessitate a reassessment of two central aspects of theories for understanding extreme halophiles. We conclude that proteome acidity is not driven by stabilizing interactions between K + ions and acidic side chains, but by the need for maintaining sufficient solvation and hydration of the protein surface at high salinity through strongly hydrated carboxylates. We propose that obligate protein halophilicity is a non-adaptive property resulting from genetic drift in which constructive neutral evolution progressively incorporates weakly stabilizing K + binding sites on an increasingly acidic protein surface.

  18. China Performs an Important Role in the World Economy A Speech by Bo Xilai, the Minister of Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ By means of mutual trade and investment, China performs a more and more important role in the world economy.As the weekly magazine Economist said: Although the United States stock market bubble broke in 2000 to 2001,the world economy survived from depression due to the strong development of Chinese economy. Both China and the United States are depicted by UN Conference on Trade and Development as two growth engines of the world economy. China is quite different from20 years before.

  19. Role of Education in Employment opportunities for women in Iran as a important factor for the sustainability of the society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Education plays an important role in a person’s life because it allows for personal growth,enrichment, awareness of environment and opportunities for social-economic improvement. Itis because of education, research and application that society has progressed the way it hasand it is the lack of education that perhaps can be blamed for many dark spots of humanhistory, particularly for women. Therefore, it is only logical to think that education would beavailable throughout the world, to all people, of all colors, economic backgrounds, gender andethnicity in order to safeguard the future’s wellbeing.One of most important criteria for measuring development of one country is importance ofthe subject and validity women have. Whatever the effective and active attendance of womenbecomes more in the social affairs, the country develops more. It's clear that real importanceis not apparent and effective and the attendance is not symbolic. As women are appreciated,they can undertake their main tasks, namely up bringing human and regenerating occupationalopportunity that will be accomplished in the future society. Thus the recognition of womenstatus and promoting their basis and the role of training has very important to developoccupational opportunity.Many researchers have discovered that the road to education holds many traps and barriers.It depends much on the economy of a nation, and its religious and racial beliefs. In Iran forexample, the role of education on women’s life has affected their relationship with the othergender and their role in society. Most significantly, education after the Islamic Revolution hasbeen used to promote the ideals of Islam, and to construct the ideals of motherhood andwifehood.

  20. The pleiotropic CymR regulator of Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role in virulence and stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Soutourina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We have characterized a novel pleiotropic role for CymR, the master regulator of cysteine metabolism. We show here that CymR plays an important role both in stress response and virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. Genes involved in detoxification processes, including oxidative stress response and metal ion homeostasis, were differentially expressed in a DeltacymR mutant. Deletion of cymR resulted in increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-, disulfide-, tellurite- and copper-induced stresses. Estimation of metabolite pools suggests that this heightened sensitivity could be the result of profound metabolic changes in the DeltacymR mutant, with an increase in the intracellular cysteine pool and hydrogen sulfide formation. Since resistance to oxidative stress within the host organism is important for pathogen survival, we investigated the role of CymR during the infectious process. Our results indicate that the deletion of cymR promotes survival of S. aureus inside macrophages, whereas virulence of the DeltacymR mutant is highly impaired in mice. These data indicate that CymR plays a major role in virulence and adaptation of S. aureus for survival within the host.

  1. The Important Role of Specialist Nurse in the Improvement of Patients With Diabetic Foot Ulcer: Letter to the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirmohseni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU is considered as one of the main causes of hospitalization in diabetic patients, which can lead to infection, gangrene, amputation, and even death if the necessary care is not provided. Based on the recent investigations, one of the most effective tactics to manage diabetic foot ulcer is to form a multidisciplinary team including a general practitioner, a nurse, an educator, podiatrists, and some consultants. Although all team members play their own important roles in reduction of DFU and amputation incidence, the role of nurses seems to be more essential. In the developed countries, the diabetes nursing is divided into several categories which one of them is diabetic foot specialist nurse. Totally, these specialists play an effective role in prevention, care, and rehabilitation of the patients with diabetic foot ulcer. Today, the specialist nurses provide effective foot ulcer management and treatment in many countries; however, these specialists, in some developing countries such as Iran, highlight a lack of specialist training as an obstacle to effective healthcare provision. Therefore, the current study aimed to emphasize on the important role of specialist nurses in the improvement of patients with diabetic foot ulcer to encourage the authorities in order to take appropriate strategies.

  2. Circadian Clock-Regulated Phosphate Transporter PHT4;1 Plays an Important Role in Arabidopsis Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Ying Wang; Jiang-Li Shi; Gina Ng; Stephanie L. Battle; Chong Zhang; Hua Lu

    2011-01-01

    T The Arabidopsis accelerated cell death 6-1 (acd6-1) mutant shows constitutive defense, cell death, and extreme dwarf phenotypes. In a screen for acd6-1 suppressors, we identified a mutant that was disrupted by a T-DNA in the PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER 4;1 (PHT4;1) gene. The suppressor mutant pht4;1-1 is dominant, expresses truncated PHT4;1 transcripts, and is more susceptible to virulent Pseudomonas syringae strains but not to several avirulent strains. Treatment with a salicylic acid (SA) agonist induced a similar level of resistance in Col-0 and pht4;1-1, suggesting that PHT4;1 acts upstream of the SA pathway. Genetic analysis further indicates that PHT4;1 contributes to S/D2-dependent and -independent pathways. Transgenic expression of the DNA fragment containing the PHT4;1-1 region or the full-length PHT4;1 gene in wild-type conferred enhanced susceptibility to Pseudomonas infection. Interestingly, expression of PHT4;1 is regulated by the circadian clock. Together, these data suggest that the phosphate transporter PHT4;1 is critical for basal defense and also implicate a potential role of the circadian clock in regulating innate immunity of Arabidopsis.

  3. The role of syntax in complex networks: Local and global importance of verbs in a syntactic dependency network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čech, Radek; Mačutek, Ján; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk

    2011-10-01

    Syntax of natural language has been the focus of linguistics for decades. The complex network theory, being one of new research tools, opens new perspectives on syntax properties of the language. Despite numerous partial achievements, some fundamental problems remain unsolved. Specifically, although statistical properties typical for complex networks can be observed in all syntactic networks, the impact of syntax itself on these properties is still unclear. The aim of the present study is to shed more light on the role of syntax in the syntactic network structure. In particular, we concentrate on the impact of the syntactic function of a verb in the sentence on the complex network structure. Verbs play the decisive role in the sentence structure (“local” importance). From this fact we hypothesize the importance of verbs in the complex network (“global” importance). The importance of verb in the complex network is assessed by the number of links which are directed from the node representing verb to other nodes in the network. Six languages (Catalan, Czech, Dutch, Hungarian, Italian, Portuguese) were used for testing the hypothesis.

  4. SDF-1 and CXCR4 play an important role in adult SVZ lineage cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang; Yao, Wen-Long; Tan, Wei; Zhang, Chuan-Han

    2017-02-15

    Evidence has shown that stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1/CXCL12) plays an important role in maintaining adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs). SDF-1 is also known to enhance recovery by recruiting NPCs to damaged regions and recent studies have revealed that SDF-1α exhibits pleiotropism, thereby differentially affecting NPC subpopulations. In this study, we investigated the role of SDF-1 in in vitro NPC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation, following treatment with different concentrations of SDF-1 or a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100. We observed that AMD3100 inhibited the formation of primary neurospheres. However, SDF-1 and AMD3100 exhibited no effect on proliferation upon inclusion of growth factors in the media. Following growth factor withdrawal, AMD3100 and SDF-1 treatment resulted in differential effects on NPC proliferation. SDF-1, at a concentration of 500ng/ml, resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of oligodendrocytes following growth factor withdrawal-induced differentiation. Using CXCR4 knockout mice, we observed that SDF-1 affected NPC proliferation in the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ). We also investigated the occurrence of differential CXCR4 expression at different stages during lineage progression. These results clearly indicate that signaling interactions between SDF-1 and CXCR4 play an important role in adult SVZ lineage cell proliferation and differentiation.

  5. The degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in the presence of light and natural biofilms: the important role of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiuyi; Li, Ming; Su, Yulong; Dong, Deming; Guo, Zhiyong; Liang, Dapeng

    2012-08-30

    Photosynthesis of algae usually changes the chemical conditions of microenvironment in natural waters. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the effects of diurnal variation and photosynthesis on behavior of organic pollutants in aquatic environments. In this study, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was selected as a representative of non-persistent organic pollutants to investigate the degradation of this type of pollutants in the presence of light and natural biofilms by laboratory batch experiments, with special emphasis on the effect of photosynthesis of the biofilms. The maximum decrease of LAS was observed in the coexistence of both illumination and fully active biofilms, and about 75% of the LAS were removed after a 36-h degradation experiment. The removal of LAS was found to be dominated by photosynthesis of the biofilms, with lesser roles attributed to biodegradation and adsorption by the biofilms, and the role of direct photolysis was negligible. The production of some reactive oxygen species might account for the role of photosynthesis in decomposing the LAS. The study confirms the important roles of algae biofilms and their photosynthesis in determining the fate of organic pollutants in aquatic environments.

  6. The nucleotide excision repair (NER system of Helicobacter pylori: Role in mutation prevention and chromosomal import patterns after natural transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moccia Claudia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive genetic diversity and rapid allelic diversification are characteristics of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, and are believed to contribute to its ability to cause chronic infections. Both a high mutation rate and frequent imports of short fragments of exogenous DNA during mixed infections play important roles in generating this allelic diversity. In this study, we used a genetic approach to investigate the roles of nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway components in H. pylori mutation and recombination. Results Inactivation of any of the four uvr genes strongly increased the susceptibility of H. pylori to DNA damage by ultraviolet light. Inactivation of uvrA and uvrB significantly decreased mutation frequencies whereas only the uvrA deficient mutant exhibited a significant decrease of the recombination frequency after natural transformation. A uvrC mutant did not show significant changes in mutation or recombination rates; however, inactivation of uvrC promoted the incorporation of significantly longer fragments of donor DNA (2.2-fold increase into the recipient chromosome. A deletion of uvrD induced a hyper-recombinational phenotype. Conclusions Our data suggest that the NER system has multiple functions in the genetic diversification of H. pylori, by contributing to its high mutation rate, and by controlling the incorporation of imported DNA fragments after natural transformation.

  7. Functional Roles of microRNAs in Agronomically Important Plants-Potential as Targets for Crop Improvement and Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djami-Tchatchou, Arnaud T; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Dubery, Ian A

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression, mainly through cleavage and/or translation inhibition of the target mRNAs during or after transcription. miRNAs play important roles by regulating a multitude of biological processes in plants which include maintenance of genome integrity, development, metabolism, and adaptive responses toward environmental stresses. The increasing population of the world and their food demands requires focused efforts for the improvement of crop plants to ensure sustainable food production. Manipulation of mRNA transcript abundance via miRNA control provides a unique strategy for modulating differential plant gene expression and miRNAs are thus emerging as the next generation targets for genetic engineering for improvement of the agronomic properties of crops. However, a deeper understanding of its potential and the mechanisms involved will facilitate the design of suitable strategies to obtain the desirable traits with minimum trade-offs in the modified crops. In this regard, this review highlights the diverse roles of conserved and newly identified miRNAs in various food and industrial crops and recent advances made in the uses of miRNAs to improve plants of agronomically importance so as to significantly enhance crop yields and increase tolerance to various environmental stress agents of biotic-or abiotic origin.

  8. An Investigation of the Attitudes of the National Teams’ Coaches Towards the Role and Importance of Information Technology in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Salehi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the attitude of elite coaches of the team and individual sports towards the role and importance of information technology in sport, 132 coaches were chosen as a sample and answered to the questionnaire of the role of information technology in sport organised by Liebermann and Katz that consisted of 3 different sections: A General attitude of the coaches towards computer and technology; B The importance of science and technology in achieving coaching experience; C Understanding science and technology in sport. Descriptive and inferential statistics (CFA and independent t - test were used in order to analyse the data. The findings demonstrated that elite coaches selected two aims as their chief ones: 1 - Winning medals in competitions; 2- Having a good relationship with the athletes. There was not any significant relationship between the attitudes of the men and women and the coaches of the individual and team sports on science and technology. It seems that elite coaches are aware on the general importance of sport sciences and have a positive attitude towards the use of sport technologies. But they do not practically transfer this positive attitude to competitive sport environments even when they use information technology for other purposes. Eventually it can be stated that the attitude of the coaches towards technology is very positive and consequently it is a must to find strategies in order to encourage them to use current technology and science practically.

  9. Elucidation of inorganic reaction mechanisms in ionic liquids: the important role of solvent donor and acceptor properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeisser, Matthias; van Eldik, Rudi

    2014-11-14

    In this article, we focus on the important role of solvent donor and acceptor properties of ionic liquids in the elucidation of inorganic reaction mechanisms. For this purpose, mechanistic and structural studies on typical inorganic reactions, performed in ionic liquids, have been conducted. The presented systems range from simple complex-formation and ligand-substitution reactions to the activation of small molecules by catalytically active complexes. The data obtained for the reactions in ionic liquids are compared with those for the same reactions carried out in conventional solvents, and are discussed with respect to the donor and acceptor properties of the applied ionic liquids. The intention of this perspective is to gain more insight into the role of ILs as solvents and their interaction with metal ions and complexes in solution.

  10. Modelling the decadal trend of ecosystem carbon fluxes demonstrates the important role of functional changes in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; Jansson, P.E.; van der Linden, Leon;

    2013-01-01

    Temperate forests are globally important carbon sinks and stocks. Trends in net ecosystem exchange have been observed in a Danish beech forest and this trend cannot be entirely attributed to changing climatic drivers. This study sought to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed trend......, the latent and sensible heat fluxes and the CO2 fluxes decreased the parameter uncertainty considerably compared to using CO2 fluxes as validation data alone. The fitted model was able to simulate the observed carbon fluxes well (R2=0.8, mean error=0.1gCm−2d−1) but did not reproduce the decadal (1997......–2009) trend in carbon uptake when global parameter estimates were used. Annual parameter estimates were able to reproduce the decadal scale trend; the yearly fitted posterior parameters (e.g. the light use efficiency) indicated a role for changes in the ecosystem functional properties. A possible role...

  11. Extreme events in gross primary production: a characterization across continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zscheischler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate extremes can affect the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, for instance via a reduction of the photosynthetic capacity or alterations of respiratory processes. Yet the dominant regional and seasonal effects of hydrometeorological extremes are still not well documented. Here we quantify and characterize the role of large spatiotemporal extreme events in gross primary production (GPP as triggers of continental anomalies. We also investigate seasonal dynamics of extreme impacts on continental GPP anomalies. We find that the 50 largest positive (increase in uptake and negative extremes (decrease in uptake on each continent can explain most of the continental variation in GPP, which is in line with previous results obtained at the global scale. We show that negative extremes are larger than positive ones and demonstrate that this asymmetry is particularly strong in South America and Europe. Most extremes in GPP start in early summer. Our analysis indicates that the overall impacts and the spatial extents of GPP extremes are power law distributed with exponents that vary little across continents. Moreover, we show that on all continents and for all data sets the spatial extents play a more important role than durations or maximal GPP anomaly when it comes to the overall impact of GPP extremes. An analysis of possible causes implies that across continents most extremes in GPP can best be explained by water scarcity rather than by extreme temperatures. However, for Europe, South America and Oceania we identify also fire as an important driver. Our findings are consistent with remote sensing products. An independent validation against a literature survey on specific extreme events supports our results to a large extent.

  12. China Performs an Important Role in the World Economy A Speech by Bo Xilai, the Minister of Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      By means of mutual trade and investment, China performs a more and more important role in the world economy.As the weekly magazine Economist said: Although the United States stock market bubble broke in 2000 to 2001,the world economy survived from depression due to the strong development of Chinese economy. Both China and the United States are depicted by UN Conference on Trade and Development as two growth engines of the world economy. China is quite different from20 years before.……

  13. Nano Structure Plays an Important Role in the Present and Future Anode Materials of Li-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsutomu; Takamura

    2007-01-01

    1 ResultsLi-ion batteries are the most promising secondary batteries for IT and EV applications, where it is required to increase the capacity and power capability to a great extent. In responding to the demand we have been studied on the anode materials especially paying attention on the improved graphite active materials and modified silicon. In both cases we realized that the nano-structured design plays an important role. In this paper the examples of nano-size structure working in the actual materi...

  14. The antimicrobial peptide hepcidin exerts an important role in the innate immunity against bacteria in the bony fish gilthead seabream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2008-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important mediators of the immune response against bacteria and hepcidin is a 20-25 residues member with known functions in iron regulation and the innate immune response. Most studies have focused on mammalian organisms but very little is known about other vertebrate groups including teleost fish. Thus, based on the sequence of an EST database, we have characterized hepcidin gene organization, gene expression, distribution and in vitro and in vivo regulation, as well as the biological activity of a synthetic peptide in the teleost fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). First, it was found that the seabream hep gene genomic organization is formed by 3 exons and 2 introns, while the mRNA transcript is constitutively detected in most of the fish tissues but mainly in peritoneal leucocytes, head-kidney, liver and skin. Moreover, we have identified for the first time that hep is much more highly expressed in acidophilic granulocytes than in monocyte-macrophages and lymphocytes. In vitro, hep expression is up-regulated by several mitogens, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and particulated antigens. Not surprisingly, intraperitoneal injection of bacteria or virus led to a significant gene up-regulation in the liver, head-kidney, peritoneal exudate or spleen. These observations suggest a major role for seabream hepcidin in the immune response to bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, the synthetic seabream Hep exerted an important antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains in vitro reducing their viability. To conclude, seabream hep gene expression, up-regulation after in vitro or in vivo treatment with mitogens, PAMPs or particulated antigens and the direct in vitro biological activity against bacteria demonstrate that it is an important antimicrobial peptide and probably plays an important role in the innate immune response of fish.

  15. The role and importance of theatre in raising social awareness and developing and understanding of aesthetic arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamile Akgul

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Theatre, which has served certain ends since it came into existence, mostly strives to make changes in the traditional structure through its effective power of expression. This branch of art has acquired a privilege with its educational priority in the realisation of smooth and natural flow of the social transition which takes place during the journey from the traditional to the universal with political, religious as well as economic concerns.From the ancient times to the present, attempts to educate society through theatre have assumed a considerably potential role as a means employed in circumstances where dominant systems of thought were intended to be disseminated into broad areas. However, in spite of its unifying role within the social life, theatre has not only undertaken the appropriate messages, but it has also served the ends to impose some tendencies aimed to meet interests, leading to social hesitations against arts. This artistic activity, which has been sacrificed for the sake of conflicts of interest, has been isolated from the social life by the minds that regard enlightenment of the society through awareness-raising as a threat.This study, through “The Model of Vital Quality Acquisition by Investing in Arts”, puts an emphasis on the social tendency to display sensitivity to arts as a result of the communication between educational awareness and investment in arts as well as the development of understanding on aesthetic arts, and dwells on the role and importance of theatre in raising social awareness.dissemine [disseminated

  16. Genetic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mutants Impaired in Plastid Lipid Import Reveals a Role of Membrane Lipids in Chloroplast Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J.; Xu, C.

    2011-03-01

    The biogenesis of photosynthetic membranes in plants relies largely on lipid import from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and this lipid transport process is mediated by TGD proteins in Arabidopsis. Such a dependency of chloroplast biogenesis on ER-to-plastid lipid transport was recently exemplified by analyzing double mutants between tgd1-1 or tgd4-3 and fad6 mutants. The fad6 mutants are defective in the desaturation of membrane lipids in chloroplasts and therefore dependent on import of polyunsaturated lipid precursors from the ER for constructing a competent thylakoid membrane system. In support of a critical role of TGD proteins in ER-to-plastid lipid trafficking, we showed that the introduction of the tgd mutations into fad6 mutant backgrounds led to drastic reductions in relative amounts of thylakoid lipids. Moreover, the tgd1-1 fad6 and tgd4-3 fad6 double mutants were deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids in chloroplast membrane lipids, and severely compromised in the biogenesis of photosynthetic membrane systems. Here we report that these double mutants are severely impaired in chloroplast division. The possible role of membrane lipids in chloroplast division is discussed.

  17. An active factor from tomato root exudates plays an important role in efficient establishment of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

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    Shubin Sun

    Full Text Available Root exudates play an important role in the early signal exchange between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. M161, a pre-mycorrhizal infection (pmi mutant of the tomoto (Solanum lycopersicum cultivar Micro-Tom, fails to establish normal arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses, and produces exudates that are unable to stimulate hyphal growth and branching of Glomus intraradices. Here, we report the identification of a purified active factor (AF that is present in the root exudates of wild-type tomato, but absent in those of M161. A complementation assay using the dual root organ culture system showed that the AF could induce fungal growth and branching at the pre-infection stage and, subsequently, the formation of viable new spores in the M161 background. Since the AF-mediated stimulation of hyphal growth and branching requires the presence of the M161 root, our data suggest that the AF is essential but not sufficient for hyphal growth and branching. We propose that the AF, which remains to be chemically determined, represents a plant signal molecule that plays an important role in the efficient establishment of mycorrhizal symbioses.

  18. An important role of interleukin-10 in counteracting excessive immune response in HT-29 cells exposed to Clostridium butyricum

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    Gao Quanxin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium butyricum has become increasingly important in preventing and treating intestinal inflammation. In the intestine it may increase the resistance of the gut to pathogen invasion via inducing the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin 10 (IL-10 plays a central role in preventing certain inflammatory diseases by down-regulating inflammatory cascades. In a previous study, we observed that the level of IL-10 mRNA was modulated by C. butyricum. The aim of this study was to investigate whether C. butyricum achieves its beneficial effects through IL-10. Results We treated HT-29 cells with anti-IL-10 (IL-10 antibody or siIL-10 (IL-10 small interfering RNA to disrupt IL-10. In both cases, the effects of C. butyricum-induced NF-κB activation and IL-8 expression were enhanced. We also found that neutralization or knockdown of IL-10 could induce apoptosis and necrosis of HT-29 cells treated with C. butyricum compared with control cells. Conclusions These findings show that IL-10 serves an important role in C. butyricum-mediated immune protection, and in host recognition of C. butyricum.

  19. "Importin" signaling roles for import proteins: the function of Drosophila importin-7 (DIM-7) in muscle-tendon signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze Cindy; Geisbrecht, Erika R

    2012-01-01

    The formation of a mature myotendinous junction (MTJ) between a muscle and its site of attachment is a highly regulated process that involves myofiber migration, cell-cell signaling, and culminates with the stable adhesion between the adjacent muscle-tendon cells. Improper establishment or maintenance of muscle-tendon attachment sites results in a decrease in force generation during muscle contraction and progressive muscular dystrophies in vertebrate models. Many studies have demonstrated the important role of the integrins and integrin-associated proteins in the formation and maintenance of the MTJ. We recently demonstrated that moleskin (msk), the gene that encodes for Drosophila importin-7 (DIM-7), is required for the proper formation of muscle-tendon adhesion sites in the developing embryo. Further studies demonstrated an enrichment of DIM-7 to the ends of muscles where the muscles attach to their target tendon cells. Genetic analysis supports a model whereby msk is required in the muscle and signals via the secreted epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) ligand Vein to regulate tendon cell maturation. These data demonstrate a novel role for the canonical nuclear import protein DIM-7 in establishment of the MTJ.

  20. The Proapoptotic Bcl-2 Protein Bax Plays an Important Role in the Pathogenesis of Reovirus Encephalitis ▿

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    Berens, Heather M.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2011-01-01

    Encephalitis induced by reovirus serotype 3 (T3) strains results from the apoptotic death of infected neurons. Extrinsic apoptotic signaling is activated in reovirus-infected neurons in vitro and in vivo, but the role of intrinsic apoptosis signaling during encephalitis is largely unknown. Bax plays a key role in intrinsic apoptotic signaling in neurons by allowing the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. We found Bax activation and cytochrome c release in neurons following infection of neonatal mice with T3 reoviruses. Bax−/− mice infected with T3 Abney (T3A) have reduced central nervous system (CNS) tissue injury and decreased apoptosis, despite viral replication that is similar to that in wild-type (WT) Bax+/+ mice. In contrast, in the heart, T3A-infected Bax−/− mice have viral growth, caspase activation, and injury comparable to those in WT mice, indicating that the role of Bax in pathogenesis is organ specific. Nonmyocarditic T3 Dearing (T3D)-infected Bax−/− mice had delayed disease and enhanced survival compared to WT mice. T3D-infected Bax−/− mice had significantly lower viral titers and levels of activated caspase 3 in the brain despite unaffected transneuronal spread of virus. Cytochrome c and Smac release occurred in some reovirus-infected neurons in the absence of Bax; however, this was clearly reduced compared to levels seen in Bax+/+ wild-type mice, indicating that Bax is necessary for efficient activation of proapoptotic mitochondrial signaling in infected neurons. Our studies suggest that Bax is important for reovirus growth and pathogenesis in neurons and that the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, mediated by Bax, is important for full expression of disease, CNS tissue injury, apoptosis, and viral growth in the CNS of reovirus-infected mice. PMID:21307199

  1. Mast cells play an important role in chlamydia pneumoniae lung infection by facilitating immune cell recruitment into the airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Norika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chen, Shuang; Jones, Heather D; Alsabeh, Randa; Slepenkin, Anatoly V; Peterson, Ellena; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2015-04-15

    Mast cells are known as central players in allergy and anaphylaxis, and they play a pivotal role in host defense against certain pathogens. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important human pathogen, but it is unclear what role mast cells play during C. pneumoniae infection. We infected C57BL/6 (wild-type [WT]) and mast cell-deficient mice (Kit(W-sh/W-sh) [Wsh]) with C. pneumoniae. Wsh mice showed improved survival compared with WT mice, with fewer cells in Wsh bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), despite similar levels of cytokines and chemokines. We also found a more rapid clearance of bacteria from the lungs of Wsh mice compared with WT mice. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizer, reduced BALF cells and bacterial burden similar to the levels seen in Wsh mice; conversely, Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulator, increased the number of BALF cells and bacterial burden. Histology showed that WT lungs had diffuse inflammation, whereas Wsh mice had patchy accumulations of neutrophils and perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes. Infected Wsh mice had reduced amounts of matrix metalloprotease-9 in BALF and were resistant to epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, suggesting that barrier integrity remains intact in Wsh mice. Mast cell reconstitution in Wsh mice led to enhanced bacterial growth and normal epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, highlighting the specific role of mast cells in this model. These data suggest that mast cells play a detrimental role during C. pneumoniae infection by facilitating immune cell infiltration into the airspace and providing a more favorable replicative environment for C. pneumoniae.

  2. The First Extracellular Domain Plays an Important Role in Unitary Channel Conductance of Cx50 Gap Junction Channels.

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    Xiaoling Tong

    Full Text Available Gap junction (GJ channels provide direct passage for ions and small molecules to be exchanged between neighbouring cells and are crucial for many physiological processes. GJ channels can be gated by transjunctional voltage (known as Vj-gating and display a wide range of unitary channel conductance (γj, yet the domains responsible for Vj-gating and γj are not fully clear. The first extracellular domain (E1 of several connexins has been shown to line part of their GJ channel pore and play important roles in Vj-gating properties and/or ion permeation selectivity. To test roles of the E1 of Cx50 GJ channels, we generated a chimera, Cx50Cx36E1, where the E1 domain of Cx50 was replaced with that of Cx36, a connexin showing quite distinct Vj-gating and γj from those of Cx50. Detailed characterizations of the chimera and three point mutants in E1 revealed that, although the E1 domain is important in determining γj, the E1 domain of Cx36 is able to effectively function within the context of the Cx50 channel with minor changes in Vj-gating properties, indicating that sequence differences between the E1 domains in Cx36 and Cx50 cannot account for their drastic differences in Vj-gating and γj. Our homology models of the chimera and the E1 mutants revealed that electrostatic properties of the pore-lining residues and their contribution to the electric field in the pore are important factors for the rate of ion permeation of Cx50 and possibly other GJ channels.

  3. Conditional simulations for fields of extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechler, Aurélien; Vrac, Mathieu; Bel, Liliane

    2014-05-01

    Many environmental models, such as hydrological models, require input data, e.g. precipitation values, correctly simulated and distributed, even at locations where no observation is available. This is particularly true for extreme events that may be of high importance for impact studies. The last decade has seen max-stable processes emerge as a powerful tool for the statistical modeling of spatial extremes. Recently, such processes have been used in climate context to perform simulations at ungauged sites based on empirical distributions of a spatial field conditioned by observed values in some locations. In this work conditional simulations of extremal t process are investigated, taking benefits of its spectral construction. The methodology of conditional simulations proposed by Dombry et al. [2013] for Brown-Resnick and Schlather models is adapted for the extremal t process with some improvements which enlarge the possible number of conditional points. A simulation study enables to highlight the role of the different parameters of the model and to emphasize the importance of the steps of the algorithm. In this work, we focus on the French Mediterranean basin, which is a key spot of occurrences of meteorological extremes such as heavy precipitation. Indeed, major extreme precipitation are regularly observed in this region near the 'cévenol" mountains. The modeling and the understanding of these extreme precipitation - the so-called 'cévenol events" - are of major importance for hydrological studies in this complex terrain since they often trigger major floods in this region. The application of our methodology on real data in this region shows that the model and the algorithm perform well provided the stationary assumptions are fulfilled.

  4. The role of N1 domain on the activity, stability, substrate specificity and raw starch binding of amylopullulanase of the extreme thermophile Geobacillus thermoleovorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, M; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-07-01

    In order to understand the role of N1 domain (1-257 aa) in the amylopullulanase (gt-apu) of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans NP33, N1 deletion construct (gt-apuΔN) has been generated and expressed in Escherichia coli. The truncated amylopullulanase (gt-apuΔN) exhibits similar pH and temperature optima like gt-apu, but enhanced thermostability. The gt-apuΔN has greater hydrolytic action and specific activity on pullulan than gt-apu. The k cat (starch and pullulan) and K m (starch) values of gt-apuΔN increased, while K m (pullulan) decreased. The enzyme upon N1 deletion hydrolyzed maltotetraose as the smallest substrate in contrast to maltopentaose of gt-apu. The role of N1 domain of gt-apu in raw starch binding has been confirmed, for the first time, based on deletion and Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Furthermore, N1 domain appears to exert a negative influence on the thermostability of gt-apu because N1 truncation significantly improves thermostability.

  5. The importance and role of the Central Bank in the creation of a healthy monetary and investment policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmigić-Miladinović Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper's starting point is finding an answer to the question: What kind of monetary policy should be followed by the Central bank in new market circumstances? As a major monetary institution, the Central bank should provide credibility for its monetary policy, which is particularly important during a macroeconomic stabilisation. In order to choose the most appropriate monetary policy, its creators should be familiar with the monetary policy's effects on economic activities, first of all on investment activities and the period in which they may occur. The Central bank uses its special status and authorisations to control monetary trends, to keep and handle foreign exchange reserves, to keep banks' required reserves, to manage the country's debt, to be the final creditor of the banking system, to take care of the banking system's liquidity. That is why the Central bank has become important for the functioning of the whole financial market, and especially the monetary market. The Central bank has both direct and indirect influence on the most important events on financial markets, financial system, as well as a wider influence - on a country's whole economy. In order to envisage the financial market's impact on monetary and investment policies, one should begin with the Central bank's role on the financial market, and at the same time analyse the financial market's instruments and institutions.

  6. [The effects of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency and low intensity on the growth rate of bacteria Escherichia coli and the role of medium pH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadevosian, A; Kalantarian, V; Trchunian, A

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that coherent electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of extremely high frequency (45-53 GHz) or millimeter waves (wavelength 5.6-6.7 mm) of low intensity (flux capacity 0.06 mW/cm2) of Escherichia coli K12, grown under anaerobic conditions during the fermentation of sugar (glucose) for 30 min or 1 h, caused a decrease in their growth rate, the maximum inhibitory effect being achieved at a frequency of 51.8 or 53 GHz. This effect depended on medium pH when the maximal action was determined at pH 7.5. In addition, separate 30-min of 1-h irradiation (frequency 51.8 or 53 GHz) of doubly distilled water or some inorganic ions contained in Tris-phosphate buffer where the cells were transferred induced oppositely directed changes in further growth of these bacteria under anaerobic conditions; irradiation of water caused a decrease in the growth rate of bacteria. A significant change in pH of water (0.5-1.5 unit) was induced by a 30-irradiation at a frequency of 49, 50.3, 51.8, or 53 GHz, when the initial pH value was 6.0 or 8.0, but not 7.5. These results indicate the changes in the properties of water and its role in the effects of EMI of extremely high frequency. The marked effect of EMI on bacteria disappeared upon repeated irradiation for 1 h at a frequency of 51.8 or 53 GHz with an interval of 2 hours. This result indicates some compensatory mechanisms in bacteria.

  7. Role of Acclimatization in Weather-Related Human Mortality During the Transition Seasons of Autumn and Spring in a Thermally Extreme Mid-Latitude Continental Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Christopher R; Grigorieva, Elena A

    2015-11-26

    Human mortality is closely related to natural climate-determined levels of thermal environmental stress and the resulting thermophysiological strain. Most climate-mortality research has focused on seasonal extremes during winter and summer when mortality is the highest, while relatively little attention has been paid to mortality during the transitional seasons of autumn and spring. The body acclimatizes to heat in the summer and cold in winter and readjusts through acclimatization during the transitions between the two during which time the body experiences the thermophysiological strain of readjustment. To better understand the influences of weather on mortality through the acclimatization process, the aim here is to examine the periods that link very cold and very warms seasons. The study uses the Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI), which is a comparative measure of short-term thermophysiological impact on the body. ATSI centers on heat exchange with the body’s core via the respiratory system, which cannot be protected. The analysis is based on data for a major city in the climatic region of the Russian Far East characterized by very hot summers and extremely cold winters. The results show that although mortality peaks in winter (January) and is at its lowest in summer (August), there is not a smooth rise through autumn nor a smooth decline through spring. A secondary peak occurs in autumn (October) with a smaller jump in May. This suggests the acclimatization from warm-to-cold produces more thermophysiological strain than the transition from cold-to-warm. The study shows that ATSI is a useful metric for quantifying the extent to which biophysical adaptation plays a role in increased strain on the body during re-acclimatization and for this reason is a more appropriate climatic indictor than air temperature alone. The work gives useful bioclimatic information on risks involved in transitional seasons in regions characterized by climatic extremes. This

  8. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  9. An important role of prostanoid receptor EP2 in host resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Vandana; Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Singh, Yogesh; Van Kaer, Luc; Peters-Golden, Marc; Bishai, William R; Das, Gobardhan

    2012-12-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, resides and replicates within susceptible hosts by inhibiting host antimicrobial mechanisms. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), produced by M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages, exerts a variety of immunomodulatory functions via 4 receptors (EP1-EP4), each mediating distinct PGE(2) functions. Here, we show that M. tuberculosis infection selectively upregulates EP2 messenger RNA expression in CD4(+) T cells. We found that EP2 deficiency in mice increases susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection, which correlated with reduced antigen-specific T-cell responses and increased levels of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T-regulatory cells. These findings have revealed an important role for EP2 in host immune defense against tuberculosis. As a G protein-coupled receptor, EP2 could serve as a target for immunotherapy of tuberculosis.

  10. Geographic location, sex and nutritional status play an important role in body image concerns among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Miranda, Valter Paulo Neves; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Braga Costa, Telma Maria; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2013-03-01

    This study compared body image concerns among adolescents from different geographic locations in Brazil, and the influence of sex and nutritional status. Seven hundred eighty-eight adolescents completed the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and had their weight and height measured. There were significant cross-regional differences in BSQ scores. Also, body image concerns were more prevalent among girls and among overweight adolescents. It is suggested that sex and nutritional status may play an important role in body image concerns, which is more common between adolescents from urban areas. Furthermore, our findings contribute to the literature by examining patterns of body image concerns within subgroups of adolescents who have received little research attention on these issues.

  11. The important role of food composition in policies and programmes for better public health: A South African case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeldt, Hettie C; Hall, Nicolette; Pretorius, B

    2018-01-01

    Most governments have committed to the set of Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations (UN) to be achieved by 2030. Subsequently the governments have drafted, or are in process of drafting, policies and programmes which aim to answer to these global requests. South Africa provides a unique case study: despite economic growth, undernutrition has not improved when compared to other industrialised nations, while at the same time, diet-related non-communicable diseases and obesity have exponentially increased. Access to healthy food is a constitutional right of all South Africans, and towards increasing food security and improving population health, various policies, programmes and regulations have been developed and implemented by the government to rectify the situation. The paper presents an overview of food composition within these public health policies, programmes and regulations and unpacks the important role of accurate food composition data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-10-03

    The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair.

  13. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

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    Xiaoxiao Chang

    Full Text Available Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO, and ABA (NCED biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29 was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold. Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  14. Importance of quality aspects of GP care among ethnic minorities: role of cultural attitudes, language and healthcare system of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkaddem, Majda; Spreeuwenberg, Peter M; Devillé, Walter L; Foets, Marleen M; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the mechanisms responsible for ethnic differences in perceived quality of care in The Netherlands. The specific role of cultural attitudes, language proficiency, and the health system in the country of origin was examined, taking socio-demographic characteristics into account. Interview data of 1339 respondents of Moroccan, Turkish, Surinamese and Antillean origin were combined with interview data of Dutch respondents (n = 405) and of Western immigrants (n = 102) in The Netherlands and of a random sample of Dutch privately or publicly insured persons (n = 9675). Data collection took place within the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2, 2001). Items from the QUality Of care Through the patient's Eyes (QUOTE) questionnaire were used to measure expectations, as well as items from the QUOTE-Mi (adapted version for migrant groups). Items on normative orientations were used to measure cultural attitudes. In contrast to our hypothesis, respondents with more egalitarian/modern attitudes attached less importance to quality aspects related to access and quality. Tests on the role of the health system of reference were generally conclusive, showing that respondents accustomed to (parts of) another system have different expectations regarding several aspects of general practitioner healthcare quality, e.g. access to specialist care. Besides socio-demographic characteristics, culture influences patients' expectations regarding general practitioner care quality. However, the role of culture can be more clearly ascribed to the characteristics of the health system which is held as the reference than to the general attitudes on normative orientations.

  15. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 3 Plays an Important Role in Protection against Acute Toxicity of Diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialis, Renato J; Csanaky, Iván L; Goedken, Michael J; Manautou, José E

    2015-07-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly prescribed to reduce pain in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. One of the main DCF metabolites is a reactive diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DCF-AG) that covalently binds to biologic targets and may contribute to adverse drug reactions arising from DCF use. Cellular efflux of DCF-AG is partially mediated by multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp). The importance of Mrp2 during DCF-induced toxicity has been established, yet the role of Mrp3 remains largely unexplored. In the present work, Mrp3-null (KO) mice were used to study the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of DCF and its metabolites. DCF-AG plasma concentrations were 90% lower in KO mice than in wild-type (WT) mice, indicating that Mrp3 mediates DCF-AG basolateral efflux. In contrast, there were no differences in DCF-AG biliary excretion between WT and KO, suggesting that only DCF-AG basolateral efflux is compromised by Mrp3 deletion. Susceptibility to toxicity was also evaluated after a single high DCF dose. No signs of injury were detected in livers and kidneys; however, ulcers were found in the small intestines. Furthermore, the observed intestinal injuries were consistently more severe in KO compared with WT. DCF covalent adducts were observed in liver and small intestines; however, staining intensity did not correlate with the severity of injuries, implying that tissues respond differently to covalent modification. Overall, the data provide strong evidence that (1) in vivo Mrp3 plays an important role in DCF-AG disposition and (2) compromised Mrp3 function can enhance injury in the gastrointestinal tract after DCF treatment.

  16. Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway play important roles in activating liver cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Sun, Qian; Wang, Peng; Liu, Man; Xiong, Si; Luo, Jing; Huang, Hai; Du, Qiang; Geller, David A.; Cheng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is driven and maintained by liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) that display stem cell properties. These LCSCs are promoted by the intersecting of Notch and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that LCSCs with markers CD90, CD24, CD13, and CD133 possess stem properties of self-renewal and tumorigenicity in NOD/SCID mice. The increased expression of these markers was correlated with advanced disease stage, larger tumors, and worse overall survival in 61 HCC cases. We also found that both Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways played important roles in increasing the stem-ness characteristics of LCSCs. Our data suggested that Notch1 was downstream of Wnt/β-catenin. The active form of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) expression depended on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. Moreover, Notch1 negatively contributed to Wnt/β-catenin signaling modulation. Knock down of Notch1 with lentivirus N1ShRNA up-regulated the active form of β-catenin. Ectopic expression of NICD with LV-Notch1 in LCSCs attenuated β-catenin/TCF dependent luciferase activity significantly. In addition, there was a non-proteasome mediated feedback loop between Notch1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LCSCs. The central role of Notch and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in LCSCs may provide an attractive therapeutic strategy against HCC. PMID:26735577

  17. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Fengxia [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Minjie [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Ye [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Genomic Stability, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, MA 02134 (United States); Price, Brendan, E-mail: Brendan_Price@dfci.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Genomic Stability, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, MA 02134 (United States); Sun, Yingli, E-mail: sunyl@big.ac.cn [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair.

  18. The importance of studying the role of establishing discourse connections in the comprehension of expository oral discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín Cevasco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to highlight the contribution of studies on the comprehension of expository written discourse, and expository and non-expository oral discourse to the facilitation of student learning. It also draws attention to the importance of conducting new studies to explore the role of the variables that facilitate expository written discourse and which have not been investigated in relation to expository oral discourse. Studies that have focused on the design of refutational texts and text revision procedures in the comprehension of expository written discourse are presented, as well as studies on the processing of disfluencies, prosodic cues, causal connections and discourse markers in the comprehension of non-expository oral discourse. Finally, studies on the role of discourse markers, speech rate and metacognitive strategy instruction are presented. It is suggested that these studies can contribute to deciding what revisions to make to written materials in order to improve reading comprehension, and what variables that facilitate the comprehension of expository and non-expository oral discourse to take into account when presenting a lecture.

  19. Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway play important roles in activating liver cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Sun, Qian; Wang, Peng; Liu, Man; Xiong, Si; Luo, Jing; Huang, Hai; Du, Qiang; Geller, David A; Cheng, Bin

    2016-02-02

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is driven and maintained by liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) that display stem cell properties. These LCSCs are promoted by the intersecting of Notch and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that LCSCs with markers CD90, CD24, CD13, and CD133 possess stem properties of self-renewal and tumorigenicity in NOD/SCID mice. The increased expression of these markers was correlated with advanced disease stage, larger tumors, and worse overall survival in 61 HCC cases. We also found that both Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways played important roles in increasing the stem-ness characteristics of LCSCs. Our data suggested that Notch1 was downstream of Wnt/β-catenin. The active form of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) expression depended on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. Moreover, Notch1 negatively contributed to Wnt/β-catenin signaling modulation. Knock down of Notch1 with lentivirus N1ShRNA up-regulated the active form of β-catenin. Ectopic expression of NICD with LV-Notch1 in LCSCs attenuated β-catenin/TCF dependent luciferase activity significantly. In addition, there was a non-proteasome mediated feedback loop between Notch1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LCSCs. The central role of Notch and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in LCSCs may provide an attractive therapeutic strategy against HCC.

  20. Silencing of the chalcone synthase gene in Casuarina glauca highlights the important role of flavonoids during nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Lateif, Khalid; Vaissayre, Virginie; Gherbi, Hassen; Verries, Clotilde; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Perrine-Walker, Francine; Cheynier, Véronique; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Franche, Claudine; Bogusz, Didier; Hocher, Valérie

    2013-09-01

    Nitrogen-fixing root nodulation is confined to four plant orders, including > 14,000 Leguminosae, one nonlegume genus Parasponia and c. 200 actinorhizal species that form symbioses with rhizobia and Frankia bacterial species, respectively. Flavonoids have been identified as plant signals and developmental regulators for nodulation in legumes and have long been hypothesized to play a critical role during actinorhizal nodulation. However, direct evidence of their involvement in actinorhizal symbiosis is lacking. Here, we used RNA interference to silence chalcone synthase, which is involved in the first committed step of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, in the actinorhizal tropical tree Casuarina glauca. Transformed flavonoid-deficient hairy roots were generated and used to study flavonoid accumulation and further nodulation. Knockdown of chalcone synthase expression reduced the level of specific flavonoids and resulted in severely impaired nodulation. Nodule formation was rescued by supplementing the plants with naringenin, which is an upstream intermediate in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results provide, for the first time, direct evidence of an important role for flavonoids during the early stages of actinorhizal nodulation. No claim to original French goverment works New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. NAC transcription factors play an important role in ethylene biosynthesis, reception and signaling of tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiaohong; Liu, Chen; Han, Lihua; Wang, Shuang; Xue, Zhaohui

    2016-06-01

    NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in diverse physiological processes during development. To explore the role of NAC transcription factors in the ripening of fruits, we predicted the secondary and tertiary structure as well as regulative function of the SNAC4 (SlNAC48, Accession number: NM 001279348.2) and SNAC9 (SlNAC19, Accession number: XM 004236996.2) transcription factors in tomato. We found that the tertiary structure of SNAC9 was similar to that of ATNAP, which played an important role in the fruit senescence and was required for ethylene stimulation. Likewise, the bio-function prediction results indicated that SNAC4 and SNAC9 participated in various plant hormone signaling and senescence processes. More information about SNACs was obtained by the application of VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing). The silencing of SNAC4 and SNAC9 dramatically repressed the LeACS2, LeACS4 and LeACO1 expression, which consequently led to the inhibition of the ripening process. The silencing of SNACs down-regulated the mRNA levels of the ethylene perception genes and, at the same time, suppressed the expression of ethylene signaling-related genes except for LeERF2 which was induced by the silencing of SNAC4. The expressions of LeRIN were different in two silenced fruits. In addition, the silencing of SNAC4 reduced its mRNA level, while the silencing of SNAC9 induced its expression. Furthermore, the silencing of LeACS4, LeACO1 and LeERF2 reduced the expression of SNAC4 and SNAC9, while the silencing of NR induced the expression of all of them. In particular, these results indicate that SNAC transcription factors bind to the promoter of the ethylene synthesis genes in vitro. This experimental evidence demonstrates that SNAC4 and SNAC9 could positively regulate the tomato fruit ripening process by functioning upstream of ethylene synthesis genes. These outcomes will be helpful to provide a theoretical foundation for further

  2. Molecular identification of three novel glutaredoxin genes that play important roles in antioxidant defense in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Dou; Shen, Zhong-Jian; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2016-08-01

    Glutaredoxins (Grxs), also known as thioltransferases, play key roles in maintaining intracellular redox balance and protecting cells from oxidative damage in plants and mammals. We tested whether Grxs play important roles in antioxidant defense in insects using the moth, Helicoverpa armigera. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequences of three novel Grx genes, named HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5. Sequence analysis indicated that HaGrx shared a high amino acid identity (58%-78%) and a CPYC motif of conserved redox activity with homologues from other selected insect species. In contrast, HaGrx3 and HaGrx5 both shared a CGF(S/G) motif, a conserved catalytic domain, with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 exhibited temporally- and spatially-dependent patterns of expression. The mRNA expression of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 was induced by various temperature stresses and H2O2 treatments. We further investigated the knockdown of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 in H. armigera larvae and found that most of the selected antioxidant genes were up regulated. However, Tpx was down regulated, and further interpretation of the complementary functions of these antioxidant genes is still required. We also determined the effect of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 knockdown on antioxidant enzymatic activity and metabolite content. The enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and POD, and the metabolite contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate, protein carbonyl, and total GSH increased after RNAi mediated knockdown of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5. These results supported our hypothesis that HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 play important roles in antioxidant defense of Helicoverpa armigera and provided a theoretical basis for further in-depth study of physiological function in the insect glutaredoxin family genes.

  3. Role of the Occupational Physician in Corporate Management of Health Risks: An Important Aspect of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    There are various risks involved in corporate activities conducted both within and outside the corporation. Among these, health risks are very important and should be managed effectively as an integral part of corporate social responsibility (CSR). A corporation is responsible for health impairments caused by its activities and suffers great moral and economic loss when they occur. It is essential that corporate management takes proper preventive measures against such risks. Occupational physicians possess substantial knowledge of health risks in corporations. In this study, we examine the role of occupational physicians in the management of corporate health risks. Information was obtained from articles in print and on the Internet. Health risks due to corporate activities involve not only the employees of the corporation but also individuals outside the corporation. Each corporation should effectively use available resources to manage health risks. Occupational physicians are one such valuable resource. However, many corporations do not actively involve occupational physicians in health risk management. According to a current Japanese law, health risks for employees in corporations are managed by occupational physicians, but in general, health risks outside corporations are not. The 1984 Bhopal Disaster in India is an example in which physicians of the corporation were only minimally, if at all, involved in assessing and treating impaired health outside the corporation. The role of occupational physicians should be expanded to include management of health risks outside the corporation. This places a greater burden on the physicians and they must make the effort to train in many academic fields in order to better understand the entire context of health risks due to corporate activities. Some occupational physicians may be hesitant to take on such added responsibilities. Some corporations may not recognize the overall health risks due to its activities and do not

  4. RIN1-Ras-ERK pathway plays an important role in carcinogenesis in colon cancer cell line LoVo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Goi, Takanori; Hirono, Yasuo; Katayama, Kanji; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2011-01-01

    The RIN1 protein has SH2, three domains, and H-Ras binding domains; thus, it is presumed to be an important molecule in an intracellular signaling pathway. We examined the effect of the introduction of a membrane protein-encoding, mutated (S351A)RIN1 gene into a colon cancer. In the LoVo colon cancer cell line, endogenous RIN1 protein was strongly expressed in the cytoplasmic fraction, and the RIN1 protein in the cytoplasmic fraction was strongly bound to the 14-3-3 protein. In the mutated (S351A)RIN1-transfected LoVo cells, the mutated (S351A)RIN1 protein was identified in the cell membrane, and was bound to HRas protein. Also, in vitro the proliferative capacity of the mutated (S351A)RIN1-transfected LoVo cells was significantly inhibited, compared with that of their empty vector-transfected counterparts. In the mutated (S351A)RIN1-transfected LoVo cells, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins downstream of the H-Ras molecule was inhibited, compared with the counterparts. This study is the first to show that the localization of RIN1 protein plays an important role in the carcinogenesis in colon cancer cells LoVo (i.e., signal transduction in the Ras-ERK pathway).

  5. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Turktas

    Full Text Available The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  6. Cyclic electron flow plays an important role in photoprotection for the resurrection plant Paraboea rufescens under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2012-04-01

    Resurrection plants could survive severe drought stress, but the underlying mechanism for protecting their photosynthetic apparatus against drought stress is unclear. Cyclic electron flow (CEF) has been documented as a crucial mechanism for photoprotection in Arabidopsis and tobacco. We hypothesized that CEF plays an important role in protecting photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) against drought stress for resurrection plants. To address this hypothesis, the effects of mild drought stress on light energy distribution in PSII and P700 redox state were examined in a resurrection plant Paraboea rufescens. Cyclic electron flow was not activated below the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 400 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹ in leaves without drought stress. However, CEF was activated under low light in leaves with mild drought stress, and the effective quantum yield of PSII significantly decreased. Meanwhile, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was significantly stimulated not only under high light but also under low light. Compared with the control, the fraction of overall P700 that cannot be oxidized in a given state (PSI acceptor side limitation) under high light was maintained at low level of 0.1 in leaves with water deficit, indicating that the over-reduction of the PSI acceptor side was prevented by the significant stimulation of CEF. Furthermore, methyl viologen could significantly increase the PSII photo-inhibition induced by high light compared with chloramphenicol. These results suggested that CEF is an important mechanism for protecting PSI and PSII from drought stress in resurrection plants.

  7. Geomorphic response to an extreme flood in two mountain rivers (northeastern Sardinia, Italy): the role of geomorphic and hydraulic controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini, Margherita; Surian, Nicola; Wohl, Ellen; Amponsah, William; Marchi, Lorenzo; Borga, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphic response to an extreme flood in two mountain rivers (northeastern Sardinia, Italy): the role of geomorphic and hydraulic controlling factors Margherita Righini (1), Nicola Surian (1), Ellen Wohl (2), William Amponsah (3, 4), Lorenzo Marchi (3), Marco Borga (4) (1) Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Italy, (2) Department of Geosciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, (3) CNR IRPI, Padova, Italy, (4) Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry, University of Padova, Italy. The investigation of geomorphic effectiveness of extreme floods is crucial to improve tools for assessing channel dynamics and our capability of forecasting geomorphological hazard. This work deals with geomorphic response of two mountain rivers in the Posada catchment (northeastern Sardinia, Italy), considering a range of morphological (i.e., lateral channel confinement, channel gradient, channel sinuosity, sediment sources, and vegetation) and hydraulic variables (i.e., cross-sectional stream power, unit stream power, flow duration and total energy expenditure) as possible controlling factors. On November 18th 2013, northeastern Sardinia was affected by an extreme meteorological event with hourly rainfall intensities up to 100 mm/h and a peak in rain accumulation up to 450 mm in 24 hours, with 18 casualties and damages to infrastructure and buildings. In the Posada and Mannu di Bitti Rivers, the geomorphic response (i.e., bank erosion, channel aggradation and incision, vegetation and wood dynamics, hillslope failure) was analyzed at different spatial scales. The observed dominant geomorphic change was channel widening. Therefore, channel width changes have been analyzed in detail by remote sensing and GIS tools integrated by field surveys. The study focuses on reaches (i.e., 22.5 km in the Posada River, upstream of Maccheronis dam; 18.2 km in the Mannu di Bitti River) affected by evident and significant geomorphic responses in terms

  8. Nod-Like Receptor Protein-3 Inflammasome Plays an Important Role during Early Stages of Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M.; Mirza, Rita E.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1β pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1β partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1β production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1β treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1β has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1β-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing. PMID:25793779

  9. Nod-like receptor protein-3 inflammasome plays an important role during early stages of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M; Mirza, Rita E; Koh, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1β pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1β partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1β production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1β treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1β has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1β-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing.

  10. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  11. New aspects of the role of histamine in cardiovascular function: identification, characterization, and potential pathophysiological importance of H3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göthert, M; Garbarg, M; Hey, J A; Schlicker, E; Schwartz, J C; Levi, R

    1995-05-01

    As a result of intensive research during several decades, the distribution, function, and pathophysiological role of cardiovascular H1 and H2 receptors are well known, whereas reports on the occurrence and function of H3 receptors in blood vessels and the heart have not become available before the last 7 years (i.e., 4 years after the first description of these receptors in the central nervous system in 1983). The development of selective and potent H3 receptor agonists and antagonists was a prerequisite for convenient investigations of cardiovascular H3 receptors, which like H1 and H2 receptors are G-protein coupled but unlike them have not yet been cloned. Both in blood vessels and the heart, H3 receptors are located on noradrenergic nerve endings and upon stimulation mediate an inhibition of noradrenaline release. Whereas it remains to be clarified under which conditions the vascular H3 receptors may be stimulated by endogenous histamine, those in the heart become activated in the early phases of myocardial ischemia characterized by an increased histamine spillover. The H3 receptors in the central nervous system also appear to be of importance for the control of vascular function. Inhibitory presynaptic H3 receptors occur on trigeminal sensory C fibres supplying blood vessels in the dura mater. Release of neuropeptides from these fibres induces a neurogenic inflammation, which has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of migraine. An interaction, involving presynaptic H3 receptors, between sensory C fibres and mast cells in close apposition to these fibres plays a role in the control of histamine synthesis in the dura mater.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Ruminal Prevotella spp. may play an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into human health beneficial antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L B Schogor

    Full Text Available Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL, the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM, or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis. Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO, with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen.

  13. Upper extremity amputations and prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Steven A; Askari, Morad

    2015-02-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions.

  14. Biological roles of the Podospora anserina mitochondrial Lon protease and the importance of its N-domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Adam

    Full Text Available Mitochondria have their own ATP-dependent proteases that maintain the functional state of the organelle. All multicellular eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi, possess the same set of mitochondrial proteases, unlike in unicellular yeasts, where ClpXP, one of the two matricial proteases, is absent. Despite the presence of ClpXP in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, deletion of the gene encoding the other matricial protease, PaLon1, leads to lethality at high and low temperatures, indicating that PaLON1 plays a main role in protein quality control. Under normal physiological conditions, the PaLon1 deletion is viable but decreases life span. PaLon1 deletion also leads to defects in two steps during development, ascospore germination and sexual reproduction, which suggests that PaLON1 ensures important regulatory functions during fungal development. Mitochondrial Lon proteases are composed of a central ATPase domain flanked by a large non-catalytic N-domain and a C-terminal protease domain. We found that three mutations in the N-domain of PaLON1 affected fungal life cycle, PaLON1 protein expression and mitochondrial proteolytic activity, which reveals the functional importance of the N-domain of the mitochondrial Lon protease. All PaLon1 mutations affected the C-terminal part of the N-domain. Considering that the C-terminal part is predicted to have an α helical arrangement in which the number, length and position of the helices are conserved with the solved structure of its bacterial homologs, we propose that this all-helical structure participates in Lon substrate interaction.

  15. Adhesive ability means inhibition activities for lactobacillus against pathogens and S-layer protein plays an important role in adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenming; Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Jianxin; Zhao, Yunhao; Gao, Kan; Zhang, Juan

    2013-08-01

    Eighty-five strains of lactobacillus were isolated from the pig intestine and identified by sequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, from which five lactobacillus strains with high adhesive ability were selected. The inhibition ability of the five lactobacillus strains with or without S-layer proteins against adherence of Escherichia coli K88 and Salmonella enteritidis 50335 to Caco-2 was evaluated in vitro with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain (LGG) as a positive control. In addition, tolerance of lactobacilli to heat, acid, bile, Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) were assessed. All five selected strains, Lactobacillus salivarius ZJ614 (JN981856), Lactobacillus reuteri ZJ616 (JN981858), L. reuteri ZJ617 (JN981859), L. reuteri ZJ621 (JN981863) and L. reuteri ZJ623 (JN981865), showed inhibition against the two pathogens, E. coli K88 and S. enteritidis 50335. L. reuteri ZJ621 showed higher inhibition ability than the others to S. enteritidis 50335 (P S-layer protein, the inhibition activities of the lactobacilli against pathogens decreased significantly (P S-layer proteins plays an important role.

  16. Importance of pH Homeostasis in Metabolic Health and Diseases: Crucial Role of Membrane Proton Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Aoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protons dissociated from organic acids in cells are partly buffered. If not, they are transported to the extracellular fluid through the plasma membrane and buffered in circulation or excreted in urine and expiration gas. Several transporters including monocarboxylate transporters and Na+/H+ exchanger play an important role in uptake and output of protons across plasma membranes in cells of metabolic tissues including skeletal muscle and the liver. They also contribute to maintenance of the physiological pH of body fluid. Therefore, impairment of these transporters causes dysfunction of cells, diseases, and a decrease in physical performance associated with abnormal pH. Additionally, it is known that fluid pH in the interstitial space of metabolic tissues is easily changed due to little pH buffering capacitance in interstitial fluids and a reduction in the interstitial fluid pH may mediate the onset of insulin resistance unlike blood containing pH buffers such as Hb (hemoglobin and albumin. In contrast, habitual exercise and dietary intervention regulate expression/activity of transporters and maintain body fluid pH, which could partly explain the positive effect of healthy lifestyle on disease prognosis.

  17. Effect on Public Policy from Macro to Nano Aspects of the Deadliest Illness of Mankind: Important Role of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Arjun

    2013-04-01

    The effect on public policy of macro to nano aspects of the deadliest Illness known to mankind is given. The focus is on the important role of physics which has been ignored so far to solve its problems. It is now acknowledged that the deadliest illness is actually a group of illnesses which are lumped together as mental illnesses. They are the most widespread and damaging illnesses in the world. Their impact on the entire society globally is huge because they afflict majority of the people irrespective of race, religion, sex, age, education and economic status. In USA alone, the number afflicted according to the official count is about 80 million (out of a total population of 315 million), and it is projected to increase to about 25 to 30% of the population within two decades. A model is given in this paper to address some of the key issues from macro to nano aspects of the deadliest illness. The information given in this paper is scientific though easy to understand. It will help the elected policy makers, public, physicists, neuroscientists, doctors, and care giving personnel world wide. The model explains the missing links in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Additional evidence from other recent studies shall also be given.

  18. Does arsenic play an important role in the soil microbial community around a typical arsenic mining area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Jun-Tao; Yang, Jun; Li, Jing; Zheng, Yuan-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic (As) can cause serious hazards to human health, especially in mining areas. Soil bacterial communities, which are critical parts of the soil ecosystem, were analyzed directly for soil environmental factors. As a consequence, it is of great significance to understand the ecological risk of arsenic contamination on bacteria, especially at the local scale. In this study, 33 pairs of soil and grain samples were collected from the corn and paddy fields around an arsenic mining area in Shimen County in Hunan Province, China. Significant differences were found between the soil nitrogen, As concentrations, and bacteria activities among these two types of land use. According to the structural equation model (SEM) analysis, compared with other environmental factors, soil As was not the key factor affecting the bacterial community, even when grain As was beyond the threshold of the national food hygiene standards of China. In the corn field, soil pH was the main factor dominating the bacterial richness, composition and grain As. Meanwhile, in the paddy field the soil total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC) were the main factors impacting the bacterial richness, and the bacterial community composition was mainly affected by pH. The interactions between grain As and soil As were weak in the corn field. The bacterial communities played important roles in the food chain risk of As. The local policy of transforming paddy soil to dry land could greatly reduce the health risk of As through the food chain.

  19. Physiological analyses indicate superoxide dismutase, catalase, and phytochelatins play important roles in Pb tolerance in Eremochloa ophiuroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Cen, Huameng; Chen, Youxiang; Xu, Siying; Peng, Lingli; Zhu, Hanmingyue; Li, Yiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation is considered to be a promising approach to restore or stabilize soil contaminated by lead (Pb). Turfgrasses, due to their high biomass yields, are considered to be suitable for use in phytoextraction of soil contaminated with heavy metal. It has been demonstrated that centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack., Poaceae) is a good turfgrass for restore of soil contaminated by Pb. However, the enhanced tolerant mechanisms in metallicolous (M) centipedegrass accessions remain unknown. In this study, we made a comparative study of growth performance, Pb accumulation, antioxidant levels, and phytochelatin concentrations in roots and shoots from M and nonmetallicolous (NM) centipedegrass accessions. Results showed that turf quality and growth rate were less repressed in M accessions than in NM accession. Pb stress caused generation of reactive oxygen species in centipedegrass with relatively lower levels in M accessions. Antioxidant activity analysis indicated that superoxide dismutase and catalase played important roles in Pb tolerance in M accessions. M accessions accumulated more Pb in roots and shoots. Greatly increased phytochelatins and less repressed sulfur contents in roots and shoots of M accessions indicated that they correlated with Pb accumulation and tolerance in centipedegrass.

  20. Methylome analysis reveals an important role for epigenetic changes in the regulation of the Arabidopsis response to phosphate starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Villalobos, Lenin; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Gutiérrez-Alanis, Dolores; Cervantes-Peréz, Sergio Alan; Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Martínez, Octavio; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2015-12-29

    Phosphate (Pi) availability is a significant limiting factor for plant growth and productivity in both natural and agricultural systems. To cope with such limiting conditions, plants have evolved a myriad of developmental and biochemical strategies to enhance the efficiency of Pi acquisition and assimilation to avoid nutrient starvation. In the past decade, these responses have been studied in detail at the level of gene expression; however, the possible epigenetic components modulating plant Pi starvation responses have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we report that an extensive remodeling of global DNA methylation occurs in Arabidopsis plants exposed to low Pi availability, and in many instances, this effect is related to changes in gene expression. Modifications in methylation patterns within genic regions were often associated with transcriptional activation or repression, revealing the important role of dynamic methylation changes in modulating the expression of genes in response to Pi starvation. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants affected in DNA methylation showed that changes in DNA methylation patterns are required for the accurate regulation of a number of Pi-starvation-responsive genes and that DNA methylation is necessary to establish proper morphological and physiological phosphate starvation responses.

  1. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea have more important role than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in ammonia oxidation of strongly acidic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Hu, Hang-Wei; Shen, Ju-Pei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2012-05-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrated the involvement of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global nitrogen cycle, but the relative contributions of AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to ammonia oxidation are still in debate. Previous studies suggest that AOA would be more adapted to ammonia-limited oligotrophic conditions, which seems to be favored by protonation of ammonia, turning into ammonium in low-pH environments. Here, we investigated the autotrophic nitrification activity of AOA and AOB in five strongly acidic soils (pHnitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) completely inhibited the nitrification activity and CO(2) fixation by AOA, accompanied by decreasing thaumarchaeal amoA gene abundance. Bacterial amoA gene abundance decreased in all microcosms irrespective of DCD addition, and mostly showed no correlation with nitrate concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis of thaumarchaeal amoA gene and 16S rRNA gene revealed active (13)CO(2)-labeled AOA belonged to groups 1.1a-associated and 1.1b. Taken together, these results provided strong evidence that AOA have a more important role than AOB in autotrophic ammonia oxidation in strongly acidic soils.

  2. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF RADIUS OF GYRATION OF CHAINS IN THE MELT IN THE CRYSTALIZATION OF POLY(1-BUTENE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Fu; G.Strobl

    2002-01-01

    Crystallization in polymer systems actually is a process that transfers the entangled melts into a semi-crystalline layered structure. Whether or not a chain disentangles may result in different crystallization mechanism. When compared to the crystal thickness (dc), the volume occupied by the chain in the melt, i.e., the radius of gyration (Rg), plays a very important role in polymer crystallization. When dc ≤ Rg, crystallization does not necessitate a chain disentangling. The entanglements are just shifted into the amorphous regions. However, as dc>Rg, i.e., as the crystal thickness gets larger than the radius of gyration of the chain in the melt, it becomes necessary for a chain to disentangle. Then a change of crystallization mechanism occurs. Such change has been experimentally observed in the crystallization of poly(1-butene). A change in the crystal morphologies from spherulite to quadrangle, is seen via PLM, as crystallization temperatures increase.Even more, such a change is molecular weight dependent, and shifts to lower temperature as molecular weight decreases. There exists a jump of crystal thickness and crystallinity associated with morphological change, as seen via SAXS. A change of crystallization kinetics and crystallinity is further evidenced via dilatometry. The unique feature of P1b crystallization has been discussed based on the radius of gyration of chain in the melt (Rg), and very good agreement is obtained.

  3. Bacillus subtilis SbcC protein plays an important role in DNA inter-strand cross-link repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisnamurthy Mahalakshmi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several distinct pathways for the repair of damaged DNA exist in all cells. DNA modifications are repaired by base excision or nucleotide excision repair, while DNA double strand breaks (DSBs can be repaired through direct joining of broken ends (non homologous end joining, NHEJ or through recombination with the non broken sister chromosome (homologous recombination, HR. Rad50 protein plays an important role in repair of DNA damage in eukaryotic cells, and forms a complex with the Mre11 nuclease. The prokaryotic ortholog of Rad50, SbcC, also forms a complex with a nuclease, SbcD, in Escherichia coli, and has been implicated in the removal of hairpin structures that can arise during DNA replication. Ku protein is a component of the NHEJ pathway in pro- and eukaryotic cells. Results A deletion of the sbcC gene rendered Bacillus subtilis cells sensitive to DNA damage caused by Mitomycin C (MMC or by gamma irradiation. The deletion of the sbcC gene in a recN mutant background increased the sensitivity of the single recN mutant strain. SbcC was also non-epistatic with AddAB (analog of Escherichia coli RecBCD, but epistatic with RecA. A deletion of the ykoV gene encoding the B. subtilis Ku protein in a sbcC mutant strain did not resulted in an increase in sensitivity towards MMC and gamma irradiation, but exacerbated the phenotype of a recN or a recA mutant strain. In exponentially growing cells, SbcC-GFP was present throughout the cells, or as a central focus in rare cases. Upon induction of DNA damage, SbcC formed 1, rarely 2, foci on the nucleoids. Different to RecN protein, which forms repair centers at any location on the nucleoids, SbcC foci mostly co-localized with the DNA polymerase complex. In contrast to this, AddA-GFP or AddB-GFP did not form detectable foci upon addition of MMC. Conclusion Our experiments show that SbcC plays an important role in the repair of DNA inter-strand cross-links (induced by MMC, most likely

  4. Extreme Starbursts in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, R M Gonzalez; Perez, E; Alonso-Herrero, A; Tadhunter, C; Veilleux, S; Heckman, T; Overzier, R; Goncalves, T S; Alberdi, A; Torres, M A Perez; Pasquali, A; Monreal-Ibero, A; Diaz-Santos, T; Garcia-Burillo, S; Caballero, D Miralles; Di Matteo, P; Kewley, L; Almeida, C Ramos; Weiner, B; Rothberg, B; Tan, J C; Jogee, S; Fernandes, R Cid; Rodrigues, M; Delgado-Serrano, R; Spoon, H; Hopkins, P; Rupke, D; Bellocchi, E; Cortijo, C; Lopez, J Piqueras; Canalizo, G; Imanishi, M; Lazarova, M; Villar-Martin, M; Brotherton, M; Wild, V; Swinbank, M; Menendez-Delmestre, K; Hammer, F; Perez-Gonz?alez, P; Turner, J; Fischer, J; Sanchez, S F; Colina, L; Gardini, A

    2010-01-01

    The "Extreme starbursts in the local universe" workshop was held at the Insituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia in Granada, Spain on 21-25 June 2010. Bearing in mind the advent of a new generation of facilities such as JWST, Herschel, ALMA, eVLA and eMerlin, the aim of the workshop was to bring together observers and theorists to review the latest results. The purpose of the workshop was to address the following issues: what are the main modes of triggering extreme starbursts in the local Universe? How efficiently are stars formed in extreme starbursts? What are the star formation histories of local starburst galaxies? How well do the theoretical simulations model the observations? What can we learn about starbursts in the distant Universe through studies of their local counterparts? How important is the role of extreme starbursts in the hierarchical assembly of galaxies? How are extreme starbursts related to the triggering of AGN in the nuclei of galaxies? Overall, 41 talks and 4 posters with their correspondin...

  5. Can Brazil play a more important role in global tuberculosis drug production? An assessment of current capacity and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemal, Andre; Keravec, Joel; Menezes, Alexandre; Trajman, Anete

    2013-03-27

    Despite the existence of effective treatment, tuberculosis is still a global public health issue. The World Health Organization recommends a six-month four-drug regimen in fixed-dose combination formulation to treat drug sensitive tuberculosis, and long course regimens with several second-line drugs to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. To achieve the projected tuberculosis elimination goal by 2050, it will be essential to ensure a non-interrupted supply of quality-assured tuberculosis drugs. However, quality and affordable tuberculosis drug supply is still a significant challenge for National Tuberculosis Programs. Quality drug production requires a combination of complex steps. The first challenge is to guarantee the quality of tuberculosis active pharmaceutical ingredients, then ensure an adequate manufacturing process, according to international standards, to guarantee final product's safety, efficacy and quality. Good practices for storage, transport, distribution and quality control procedures must follow. In contrast to other high-burden countries, Brazil produces tuberculosis drugs through a strong network of public sector drug manufacturers regulated by a World Health Organization-certified national sanitary authority. The installed capacity for production surpasses the 71,000 needed treatments in the country. However, in order to be prepared to act as a global supplier, important bottlenecks are to be overcome. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the current status of production of tuberculosis drugs in Brazil and the bottlenecks and opportunities for the country to sustain national demand and play a role as a potential global supplier. Raw material and drug production, quality control, international certification and pre-qualification, political commitment and regulatory aspects are discussed, as well recommendations for tackling these bottlenecks. This discussion becomes more important as new drugs and regimens to treat tuberculosis are

  6. Orexin receptor-1 in the locus coeruleus plays an important role in cue-dependent fear memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soya, Shingo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hasegawa, Emi; Hondo, Mari; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Mieda, Michihiro; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2013-09-01

    The noradrenergic (NA) projections arising from the locus ceruleus (LC) to the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis have been implicated in the formation of emotional memory. Since NA neurons in the LC (LC-NA neurons) abundantly express orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) and receive prominent innervation by orexin-producing neurons, we hypothesized that an OX1R-mediated pathway is involved in the physiological fear learning process via regulation of LC-NA neurons. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined the phenotype of Ox1r(-/-) mice in the classic cued and contextual fear-conditioning test. We found that Ox1r(-/-) mice showed impaired freezing responses in both cued and contextual fear-conditioning paradigms. In contrast, Ox2r(-/-) mice showed normal freezing behavior in the cued fear-conditioning test, while they exhibited shorter freezing time in the contextual fear-conditioning test. Double immunolabeling of Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase showed that double-positive LC-NA neurons after test sessions of both cued and contextual stimuli were significantly fewer in Ox1r(-/-) mice. AAV-mediated expression of OX1R in LC-NA neurons in Ox1r(-/-) mice restored the freezing behavior to the auditory cue to a comparable level to that in wild-type mice in the test session. Decreased freezing time during the contextual fear test was not affected by restoring OX1R expression in LC-NA neurons. These observations support the hypothesis that the orexin system modulates the formation and expression of fear memory via OX1R in multiple pathways. Especially, OX1R in LC-NA neurons plays an important role in cue-dependent fear memory formation and/or retrieval.

  7. Important role of PLC-γ1 in hypoxic increase in intracellular calcium in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vishal R; Song, Tengyao; Joseph, Leroy; Mei, Lin; Zheng, Yun-Min; Wang, Yong-Xiao

    2013-02-01

    An increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) induces hypoxic cellular responses in the lungs; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We report, for the first time, that acute hypoxia significantly enhances phospholipase C (PLC) activity in mouse resistance pulmonary arteries (PAs), but not in mesenteric arteries. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining reveal the expression of PLC-γ1 protein in PAs and PASMCs, respectively. The activity of PLC-γ1 is also augmented in PASMCs following hypoxia. Lentiviral shRNA-mediated gene knockdown of mitochondrial complex III Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production prevents hypoxia from increasing PLC-γ1 activity in PASMCs. Myxothiazol, a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor, reduces the hypoxic response as well. The PLC inhibitor U73122, but not its inactive analog U73433, attenuates the hypoxic vasoconstriction in PAs and hypoxic increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs. PLC-γ1 knockdown suppresses its protein expression and the hypoxic increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Hypoxia remarkably increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) production, which is blocked by U73122. The IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R) antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) or xestospongin-C inhibits the hypoxic increase in [Ca(2+)](i). PLC-γ1 knockdown or U73122 reduces H(2)O(2)-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs and contraction in PAs. 2-APB and xestospongin-C produce similar inhibitory effects. In conclusion, our findings provide novel evidence that hypoxia activates PLC-γ1 by increasing RISP-dependent mitochondrial ROS production in the complex III, which causes IP(3) production, IP(3)R opening, and Ca(2+) release, playing an important role in hypoxic Ca(2+) and contractile responses in PASMCs.

  8. The novel zinc cluster regulator Tog1 plays important roles in oleate utilization and oxidative stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thepnok, Piyasuda; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Soontorngun, Nitnipa, E-mail: nitnipa.soo@kmutt.ac.th

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • TOG1 deletion results in defective growth on non-fermentable carbon sources. • Removal of TOG1 sensitizes cells to oxidative stress. • Tog1 directly binds and activates expression of oleate utilizing genes. • The Δtog1 cells display reduced peroxisomal content in oleate culture. • S. cerevisiae zinc cluster Tog1 is a novel activator of oleate utilization. - Abstract: Many zinc cluster proteins have been shown to play a role in the transcriptional regulation of glucose-repressible genes during glucose exhaustion and diauxic shift. Here, we studied an additional member of this family called Yer184c (herein called Tog1) for transcriptional regulator of oleate. Our results showed that a Δtog1 strain displays impaired growth with several non-fermentable carbons. Tog1 is also implicated in oxidative stress tolerance. Importantly, during the glucose–oleate shift, combined results from quantitative real time-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments showed that Tog1 acts as a direct activator of oleate utilizing genes, encoded key enzymes in β-Oxidation and NADPH regeneration (POX1, FOX2, POT1 and IDP2), the glyoxylate shunt (MLS1 and ICL1), and gluconeogenesis (PCK1 and FBP1). A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the Δtog1 strain assayed with oleate also revealed a substantial decrease in peroxisome abundance that is vital for fatty acid oxidation. Overall, our results clearly demonstrated that Tog1 is a newly characterized zinc cluster regulator that functions in the complex network of non-fermentable carbon metabolism in Saccharomycescerevisiae.

  9. Reach Envelope of Human Extremities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jingzhou(杨景周); ZHANG Yunqing(张云清); CHEN Liping(陈立平); ABDEL-MALEK Karim

    2004-01-01

    Significant attention in recent years has been given to obtain a better understanding of human joint ranges, measurement, and functionality, especially in conjunction with commands issued by the central nervous system. While researchers have studied motor commands needed to drive a limb to follow a path trajectory, various computer algorithms have been reported that provide adequate analysis of limb modeling and motion. This paper uses a rigorous mathematical formulation to model human limbs, understand their reach envelope, delineate barriers therein where a trajectory becomes difficult to control, and help visualize these barriers. Workspaces of a typical forearm with 9 degrees of freedom, a typical finger modeled as a 4- degree-of-freedom system, and a lower extremity with 4 degrees of freedom are discussed. The results show that using the proposed formulation, joint limits play an important role in distinguishing the barriers.

  10. How Important Is the Role of the Chancellor in the Appointment of Australian Vice-Chancellors and University Governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Bernard; Petzall, Stanley

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to investigate the role of the university chancellor in the appointment of Australian vice-chancellors. Design/methodology/approach: Prior to this research it was evident that little research had been undertaken on the role of the chancellor. While the chancellor chairs Council, the incumbent also presides over quite a…

  11. Attribution of importance to life roles and their implications for mental health among Filipino American working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, Linda; Mo, Wenbin

    2010-02-01

    Our purpose was to determine levels of role commitment, role conflict, depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction among a community-based sample of working Filipino women. The convenience sample consisted of 87 Filipino working women, ranging in age from 18 to 59 years. Participants completed instruments assessing self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, and role conflict. Our analyses revealed that participants who were equally or more committed to work than relationships had significantly higher depression scores, self-esteem scores, and levels of education than participants who were committed primarily to relationships. There were no significant differences among role commitment type on role conflict and life satisfaction. We found significant interactions between experiences of depression, self-esteem, and the perceptions of self. From our study findings our knowledge of working Filipina American's psychological well-being has increased and provided a foundation for future research.

  12. Harvesting organic carbon by landslides in mountain forest: Establishing decadal rates of carbon transfer and the role of extreme events (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, R. G.; Meunier, P.; Hovius, N.; Bellingham, P.; Galy, A.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquakes and storms can initiate widespread mass-wasting in active mountain belts. Landslides triggered by the highest magnitude events may disturb more than 5% of the surface area across numerous river catchments. In forested mountains, landslides clear entire sections of biomass and soil. This mobilises modern organic carbon (OCmodern), recently fixed from atmospheric-CO2 during photosynthesis. Landslides can therefore contribute to the cycle of organic carbon in mountains and a wider erosion-related OCmodern transfer, burial and carbon sequestration. In addition, the rate of landsliding can set the disturbance regime of the forest, potentially influencing ecosystem productivity and nutrient status. As such, extreme climatic or geomorphic events which trigger pervasive landsliding may impact regional or global biogeochemical cycles. Here, we assess their likely importance in natural, forested catchments of the western Southern Alps, New Zealand. Using remote sensing and measurements of standing biomass density, we derive a model to account for variations in biomass density and carbon stock with altitude. This is combined with the probability distribution of landslide area as a function of elevation over the last four decades. We quantify the erosion rate of OCmodern by landslides and find it represents a significant natural carbon transfer. Notable gradients in the rate of landscape turnover are found, which are linked to the geomorphic and climatic setting. Finally, our analysis allows us to assess the likely impact of a future Alpine Fault earthquake, which would generate a very large, transient yield of OCmodern from the hillslopes to river channels, the fate of which requires further investigation.

  13. Proteomic Analysis Revealed the Important Role of Vimentin in Human Cervical Carcinoma HeLa Cells Treated With Gambogic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qingxi; Feng, Lixing; Cao, Biyin; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Dongmei; Wu, Wanying; Jiang, Baohong; Yang, Min; Liu, Xuan; Guo, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Gambogic acid (GA) is an anticancer agent in phase IIb clinical trial in China. In HeLa cells, GA inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis, as showed by results of MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Possible target-related proteins of GA were searched using comparative proteomic analysis (2-DE) and nine proteins at early (3 h) stage together with nine proteins at late (24 h) stage were found. Vimentin was the only target-related protein found at both early and late stage. Results of both 2-DE analysis and Western blotting assay suggested cleavage of vimentin induced by GA. MS/MS analysis of cleaved vimentin peptides indicated possible cleavage sites of vimentin at or near ser51 and glu425. Results of targeted proteomic analysis showed that GA induced change in phosphorylation state of the vimentin head domain (aa51-64). Caspase inhibitors could not abrogate GA-induced cleavage of vimentin. Over-expression of vimentin ameliorated cytotoxicity of GA in HeLa cells. The GA-activated signal transduction, from p38 MAPK, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), vimentin, dysfunction of cytoskeleton, to cell death, was predicted and then confirmed. Results of animal study showed that GA treatment inhibited tumor growth in HeLa tumor-bearing mice and cleavage of vimentin could be observed in tumor xenografts of GA-treated animals. Results of immunohistochemical staining also showed down-regulated vimentin level in tumor xenografts of GA-treated animals. Furthermore, compared with cytotoxicity of GA in HeLa cells, cytotoxicity of GA in MCF-7 cells with low level of vimentin was weaker whereas cytotoxicity of GA in MG-63 cells with high level of vimentin was stronger. These results indicated the important role of vimentin in the cytotoxicity of GA. The effects of GA on vimentin and other epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers provided suggestion for better usage of GA in clinic.

  14. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T

    2007-01-01

    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  15. Hydrological extremes and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  16. Memory for medication side effects in younger and older adults: The role of subjective and objective importance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friedman, Michael C; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    .... In the present experiments, we investigated the degrees to which younger and healthy older adults remembered medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember...

  17. Detection and attribution of extreme weather disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Single disasters related to extreme weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of extreme weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the extreme event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain important challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the extreme weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of extreme weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an extreme weather event, and the associated consequences

  18. The roles of neuropeptides in Caenorhabditis elegans including their importance in the regulation of feeding and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J

    2013-06-01

    C. elegans has 302 neurons (in the adult hermaphrodite) and this simple nervous system harbours over 250 neuropeptides. Neuropeptides are a class of signalling molecule implicated in key physiological roles and thus confer a surprising level of complexity to signalling in this nematode. Indeed, it is probable that most, if not all, sensory, motor and interneurons, in C. elegans synthesise and release at least one neuropeptide but that many neurons synthesise an array of neuropeptides. In this review neuropeptides and their receptors with specific roles in feeding, metabolism, reproduction and locomotion are discussed. It is noted that the majority of C. elegans neuropeptides do not yet have defined roles and their cognate receptors have not yet been identified. Future studies will serve to provide further fundamental insight into how neuropeptide signalling can underpin animal behaviour.

  19. Practicing Engineers Talk about the Importance of Talk: A Report on the Role of Oral Communication in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Ann L.; Dannels, Deanna P.

    2003-01-01

    Reports the results of practicing engineers' descriptions of the importance of oral communication. Suggests that engineering practice takes place in an intensely oral culture and while formal presentations are important to practicing engineers, daily work is characterized more by interpersonal and small group experiences. Notes that communication…

  20. When Are Teachers Motivated to Work beyond Retirement Age? The Importance of Support, Change of Work Role and Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Visser, Michel S.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the factors influencing the motivation to continue working after retirement among a sample of Dutch teachers. Based on previous research, it was proposed that teachers will be motivated to work after their legal retirement age when organizational support, possibilities to change work roles and financial needs are high.…

  1. mTOR plays an important role in cow's milk allergy-associated behavioral and immunological deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jiangbo; de Theije, Caroline G M; da Silva, Sofia Lopes; van der Horst, Hilma; Reinders, Margot T M; Broersen, Laus M; Willemsen, Linette E M; Kas, Martien J H; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is multifactorial, with both genetic as well as environmental factors working in concert to develop the autistic phenotype. Immunological disturbances in autistic individuals have been reported and a role for food allergy has been suggested in ASD. Single gene mutation

  2. Patterns of tree dieback in Queensland, Australia: the importance of drought stress and the role of resistance to cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin J; Matzner, Steven L; Byer, William; Brown, Joel R

    2004-04-01

    During the extreme 1992-1997 El Niño drought event, widespread stem mortality, or tree "dieback", of both mature and juvenile eucalypts occurred within the tropical savannas of northeast Australia. Most of the dieback occurred in individuals of the ironbark species complex ( Eucalyptus crebra- E. xanthoclada) while individuals of the bloodwood species Corymbia erythrophloia, exhibited significantly less stem mortality. Indicative of greater water stress, predawn and midday xylem water potentials of ironbark adults and saplings were significantly more negative than predawn values of bloodwoods. The very negative xylem water potentials in ironbarks suggest that stem mortality in both adult and juvenile ironbarks results from drought-induced embolism and that ironbarks perhaps have a shallower and less extensive root system than bloodwoods. Although predawn and midday water potentials for ironbark adults and saplings were similar, a census of mature and juvenile ironbark trees indicated that mortality was higher in adult trees. Cavitation vulnerability curves indicated that ironbark saplings may be better buffered against cavitation than adult trees. If they possess smaller root systems, saplings are more likely than adults to experience low xylem water potentials, even in non-drought years. Xylem conduits produced in adult trees during periods of normal rainfall, although perhaps more efficient in water conduction, may be more vulnerable to cavitation during infrequent severe droughts.

  3. The Role of Logistics Service Providers in the Distribution Channel of Imported Perishable and Processed Food Product to Java Island, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanuputri, Megita Ryanjani; Chaveesuk, Ravipim; Guritno, Adi Djoko

    2017-01-01

    Today fierce competition has highly enforced the company to focus more on their core competency and has encouraged them to strengthen competitive advantage. This condition reinforces the role of logistics service providers (LSP) to help company run their supporting activities. This research aims to identify the characteristics of LSP and to analyze their role in the distribution channel of imported perishable and processed food products in Indonesia. Convenience sampling was employed as sampl...

  4. Modeling extreme risks in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, Mark; Franklin, James; Hayes, Keith R; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Peters, Gareth W; Sisson, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    Extreme risks in ecology are typified by circumstances in which data are sporadic or unavailable, understanding is poor, and decisions are urgently needed. Expert judgments are pervasive and disagreements among experts are commonplace. We outline approaches to evaluating extreme risks in ecology that rely on stochastic simulation, with a particular focus on methods to evaluate the likelihood of extinction and quasi-extinction of threatened species, and the likelihood of establishment and spread of invasive pests. We evaluate the importance of assumptions in these assessments and the potential of some new approaches to account for these uncertainties, including hierarchical estimation procedures and generalized extreme value distributions. We conclude by examining the treatment of consequences in extreme risk analysis in ecology and how expert judgment may better be harnessed to evaluate extreme risks.

  5. Propagation of precipitation extremes into discharge extremes in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Monica; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Deidda, Roberto; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-04-01

    sub-basins with loamy soils. Hence, both soil properties and topography play an important role in the basin response to extreme events.

  6. Quantitative risk assessment of the effects of drought on extreme temperature in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zengchao; Hao, Fanghua; Singh, Vijay P.; Ouyang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Hot extremes may lead to disastrous impacts on human health and agricultural production. Previous studies have revealed the feedback between drought and hot extremes in large regions of eastern China, while quantifying the impact of antecedent drought on hot extremes has been limited. This study aims at quantitatively assessing the risk of extreme temperature conditioned on the antecedent drought condition represented by Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) during summer time in eastern China. A copula-based model is proposed to construct the joint probability distribution of extreme temperature and drought based on 6 month SPI (SPI6). Accordingly, the conditional probability distribution is employed to quantify impacts of antecedent dry (and wet) conditions on the exceedance probability of extreme temperature. Results show that the likelihood of extreme temperature exceeding high quantiles is higher given antecedent dry conditions than that given antecedent wet conditions in large regions from southwestern to northeastern China. Specifically, the conditional probability difference of temperature exceeding 80th percentile given SPI6 lower than or equal to -0.5 and SPI6 higher than 0.5 is around 0.2-0.3. The case study of the 2006 summer hot extremes and drought in Sichuan and Chongqing region shows that the conditional return period of extreme temperature conditioned on antecedent drought is around 5-50 years shorter than univariate return period. These results quantify the impact of antecedent drought on subsequent extreme temperature and highlight the important role of antecedent drought in intensifying hot extremes in these regions.

  7. Role models and professional development in dentistry: an important resource: The views of early career stage dentists at one academic health science centre in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Osama, O; Gallagher, J E

    2017-02-08

    The importance of role models, and their differing influence in early, mid- and late careers, has been identified in the process of professional development of medical doctors. There is a paucity of evidence within dentistry on role models and their attributes. To explore the views of early career dentists on positive and negative role models across key phases of professional development, together with role models' attributes and perceived influence. This is a phenomenological study collecting qualitative data through semi-structured interviews based on a topic guide. Dentists in junior (core training) hospital posts in one academic health science centre were all invited to participate. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Twelve early career stage dentists, 10 of whom were female, reported having role models, mainly positive, in their undergraduate and early career phases. Participants defined role models' attributes in relation to three distinct domains: clinical attributes, personal qualities and teaching skills. Positive role models were described as "prioritising the patient's best interests", "delivering learner-centred teaching and training" and "exhibiting a positive personality", whilst negative role models demonstrated the converse. Early career dentists reported having largely positive dentist role models during- and post-dental school and report their impact on professional values and aspirations, learning outcomes and career choice. The findings suggest that these early career dentists in junior hospital posts have largely experienced and benefitted from positive role models, notably dentists, perceived as playing an important and creative influence promoting professionalism and shaping the career choices of early career stage dentists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The cellular immune response plays an important role in protecting against dengue virus in the mouse encephalitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Lázaro; López, Carlos; Blanco, Aracelys; Lazo, Laura; Martín, Jorge; Valdés, Iris; Romero, Yaremis; Figueroa, Yassel; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2009-02-01

    For several years, researchers have known that the generation of neutralizing antibodies is a prerequisite for attaining adequate protection against dengue virus. Nevertheless, the cellular immune response is the principal arm of the adaptive immune system against non-cytopathic viruses such as dengue, as once the virus enters into the cell it is necessary to destroy it to eliminate the virus. To define the role of the cellular immune response in the protection against dengue, we selected the mouse encephalitis model. Mice were immunized with a single dose of infective dengue 2 virus and different markers of both branches of the induced adaptive immunity were measured. Animals elicited a broad antibody response against the four dengue virus serotypes, but neutralizing activity was only detected against the homologous serotype. On the other hand, the splenocytes of the infected animals strongly proliferated after in vitro stimulation with the homologous virus, and specifically the CD8 T-cell subset was responsible for the secretion of the cytokine IFN-gamma. Finally, to define the role of T cells in in vivo protection, groups of animals were inoculated with the depleting monoclonal antibodies anti-CD4 or anti-CD8. Only depletion with anti-CD8 decreased to 50% the level of protection reached in the non-depleted mice. The present work constitutes the first report defining the role of the cellular immune response in protection against dengue virus in the mouse model.

  9. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and its Important Role in Lung Fibrosis by Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Wang, Meiying; Liao, Yu-Pei; Chang, Chong Hyun; Li, Ruibin; Zhang, Haiyuan; Nel, André E; Xia, Tian

    2015-05-06

    The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the key role of NADPH oxidase in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and generation of pulmonary fibrosis by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Although it is known that oxidative stress plays a role in pulmonary fibrosis by single-walled CNTs, the role of specific sources of reactive oxygen species, including NADPH oxidase, in inflammasome activation remains to be clarified. In this study, three long aspect ratio (LAR) materials (MWCNTs, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and silver nanowires) are used to compare with spherical carbon black and silver nanoparticles for their ability to trigger oxygen burst activity and NLRP3 assembly. All LAR materials but not spherical nanoparticles induce robust NADPH oxidase activation and respiratory burst activity in THP-1 cells, which are blunted in p22(phox) -deficient cells. The NADPH oxidase is directly involved in lysosomal damage by LAR materials, as demonstrated by decreased cathepsin B release and IL-1β production in p22(phox) -deficient cells. Reduced respiratory burst activity and inflammasome activation are also observed in bone marrow-derived macrophages from p47(phox) -deficient mice. Moreover, p47(phox) -deficient mice have reduced IL-1β production and lung collagen deposition in response to MWCNTs. Lung fibrosis is also suppressed by N-acetyl-cysteine in wild-type animals exposed to MWCNTs.

  10. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  11. GhDET2,a Steroid 5alpha-reductase,Plays an Important Role in Cotton Fiber Cell Initiation and Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming; XIAO Yue-hua; LI Xian-bi; LI De-mou; HOU Lei; HU Ming-yu; PEI Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers,one of the most important natural raw materials for the textile industry,are highly elongated trichomes from epidermal cells of cotton ovules.Among the longest plant cells ever characterized,cotton fiber is an ideal system for studying plant cell elongation.Brassinosteroids (BRs),a class of steroidal phytohormone,play an important role in plant cell division and elongation.

  12. Effects of extreme natural events on the provision of ecosystem services in a mountain environment: The importance of trail design in delivering system resilience and ecosystem service co-benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra M; White, Piran C L; Ewertowski, Marek W

    2016-01-15

    A continued supply of ecosystem services (ES) from a system depends on the resilience of that system to withstand shocks and perturbations. In many parts of the world, climate change is leading to an increased frequency of extreme weather events, potentially influencing ES provision. Our study of the effects of an intense rainfall event in Gorce National Park, Poland, shows: (1) the intense rainfall event impacted heavily on the supply of ES by limiting potential recreation opportunities and reducing erosion prevention; (2) these negative impacts were not only restricted to the period of the extreme event but persisted for up to several years, depending on the pre-event trail conditions and post-event management activities; (3) to restore the pre-event supply of ES, economic investments were required in the form of active repairs to trails, which, in Gorce National Park, were an order of magnitude higher than the costs of normal trail maintenance; and (4) when recreational trails were left to natural restoration, loss of biodiversity was observed, and recovery rates of ES (recreation opportunities and soil erosion prevention) were reduced in comparison to their pre-event state. We conclude that proper trail design and construction provides a good solution to avoid some of the negative impacts of extreme events on recreation, as well as offering co-benefits in terms of protecting biodiversity and enhancing the supply of regulating services such as erosion prevention.

  13. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  14. Specific Subunits of Heterotrimeric G Proteins Play Important Roles during Nodulation in Soybean1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Pandey, Sona

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins comprising Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits regulate many fundamental growth and development processes in all eukaryotes. Plants possess a relatively limited number of G-protein components compared with mammalian systems, and their detailed functional characterization has been performed mostly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the presence of single Gα and Gβ proteins in both these species has significantly undermined the complexity and specificity of response regulation in plant G-protein signaling. There is ample pharmacological evidence for the role of G proteins in regulation of legume-specific processes such as nodulation, but the lack of genetic data from a leguminous species has restricted its direct assessment. Our recent identification and characterization of an elaborate G-protein family in soybean (Glycine max) and the availability of appropriate molecular-genetic resources have allowed us to directly evaluate the role of G-protein subunits during nodulation. We demonstrate that all G-protein genes are expressed in nodules and exhibit significant changes in their expression in response to Bradyrhizobium japonicum infection and in representative supernodulating and nonnodulating soybean mutants. RNA interference suppression and overexpression of specific G-protein components results in lower and higher nodule numbers, respectively, validating their roles as positive regulators of nodule formation. Our data further show preferential usage of distinct G-protein subunits in the presence of an additional signal during nodulation. Interestingly, the Gα proteins directly interact with the soybean nodulation factor receptors NFR1α and NFR1β, suggesting that the plant G proteins may couple with receptors other than the canonical heptahelical receptors common in metazoans to modulate signaling. PMID:23569109

  15. Does infertility history affect the emotional adjustment of couples undergoing assisted reproduction? the mediating role of the importance of parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Gameiro, Sofia; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Soares, Isabel; Almeida-Santos, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    The emotional adjustment of couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments has been widely studied; however, it remains unclear whether infertility history contributes to couples' adjustment. This study examined the impact of infertility history (duration of infertility and number of previous ART treatment cycles) on the emotional adjustment of couples undergoing an ART cycle and the mediating effect of importance of parenthood on that association. In this cross-sectional study, 70 infertile couples (70 women and 70 men) completed self-report questionnaires assessing emotional adjustment and infertility stress during the hormonal stimulation phase of an ART cycle. Path models accounting for the dyadic nature of the data examined the direct and indirect effects (by affecting representations about parenthood and childlessness) of infertility history on emotional adjustment. The number of previous cycles affected men's, but not women's, emotional adjustment by affecting the representations on the importance of parenthood and of childlessness. Duration of infertility had the opposite effect, as couples with longer infertility reported heightened importance of parenthood, which negatively affected their emotional adjustment. Infertility history was associated with emotional adjustment in men and women, although these associations were complex. The results suggest that progression through treatment is harder for those men and women who attribute higher importance to being parents, which is aggravated by longer infertility. What is already known about the subject? Infertility is an unexpected and stressful life event Assisted reproductive treatments (ART) are emotionally demanding What does this study add? The influence of infertility history on adjustment is mediated by the importance of parenthood Men and women are affected by their past history of infertility differently. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Health Psychology published by John

  16. Negative Correlation between miR-200c and Decorin Plays an Important Role in the Pathogenesis of Colorectal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ren-Yi; Wang, Zun; Chen, Hong-Qi; Zhu, Si-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To demonstrate the regulatory role of miRNA in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and reveal the transcript markers that may be associated with CRC clinical outcomes. Method. Herein, we analyzed both mRNA and miRNA gene expression profiles of 255 CRC tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas project to reveal the regulatory association between miRNA and mRNA. Also, the potential role of gene coexpression network in CRC has been explored. Results. The negative correlation between miR-200c and DCN (Decorin) was calculated in CRC, indicating that DCN could be a potential target of miR-200c. Clinical features indicated that colon polyp history and overall survival were significantly related to the expression level of miR-200c. Three coexpression networks have been constructed, and genes involved in the networks are related to cell cycle, NOTCH, and mTOR signaling pathways. Conclusion. Our result provides a new insight into cancer related mRNA coexpression network in CRC research.

  17. Fine needle biopsy with cytology in paediatrics: the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and the role of ancillary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroca, H; Bom-Sucesso, M

    2014-02-01

    Fine needle biopsy (FNB) with cytology has long been regarded as an excellent technique as the first choice for diagnosing adult tumours. Being an inexpensive minimally invasive technique with high accuracy and diagnostic immediacy through rapid on-site evaluation, it is also ideal for implementation in the paediatric setting, particularly in developing countries. Furthermore, it allows complementary and advanced procedures such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), among others, which enhances the diagnostic capacity of this technique and gives it a key role in risk stratification and therapeutic decision-making for several tumours. The advantages of FNB are optimized in the setting of a multidisciplinary team where cytologist, clinician and radiologist play leading roles. Paediatric tumours are rare and most ancillary techniques are cost-effective but complex to be implemented in small centres with limited experience in paediatric pathology. Therefore reference centres are essential, in order to establish teams with extensive experience and expertise. Hence, any child with a suspected malignancy should be directly referred to a paediatric oncology unit. Focusing on a practical approach to the assessment of paediatric lymphadenopathies and non-central nervous system solid tumours we review the effectiveness of FNB as applied concurrently with ancillary techniques in a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic decisions of paediatric tumours and tumour-like lesions.

  18. Do Search and Selection Operators Play Important Roles in Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms:A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhen-yu; Kang Li-shan; Lin Guang-ming; He Mei

    2003-01-01

    Multi objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) is be coming a hot research area and quite a few aspects of MOEAs have been studied and discussed. However there are still few literatures discussing the roles of search and selection operators in MOEAs. This paper studied their roles by solving a case of discrete Multi-objective Optimization Problem (MOP): Multi-objective TSP with a new MOEA. In the new MOEA, We adopt an efficient search operator, which has the properties of both crossover and mutation, to generate the new individuals and chose two selection operators: Family Competition and Population Competition with probabilities to realize selection. The simulation experiments showed that this new MOEA could get good uniform solutions representing the Pareto Front and outperformed SPEA in almost every simulation run on this problem. Furthermore, we analyzed its convergence property using finite Markov chain and proved that it could converge to Pareto Front with probabili ty 1. We also find that the convergence property of MOEAs has much relationship with search and selection operators.

  19. Repetitive sequences and epigenetic modification: inseparable partners play important roles in the evolution of plant sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-05-01

    The present review discusses the roles of repetitive sequences played in plant sex chromosome evolution, and highlights epigenetic modification as potential mechanism of repetitive sequences involved in sex chromosome evolution. Sex determination in plants is mostly based on sex chromosomes. Classic theory proposes that sex chromosomes evolve from a specific pair of autosomes with emergence of a sex-determining gene(s). Subsequently, the newly formed sex chromosomes stop recombination in a small region around the sex-determining locus, and over time, the non-recombining region expands to almost all parts of the sex chromosomes. Accumulation of repetitive sequences, mostly transposable elements and tandem repeats, is a conspicuous feature of the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome, even in primitive one. Repetitive sequences may play multiple roles in sex chromosome evolution, such as triggering heterochromatization and causing recombination suppression, leading to structural and morphological differentiation of sex chromosomes, and promoting Y chromosome degeneration and X chromosome dosage compensation. In this article, we review the current status of this field, and based on preliminary evidence, we posit that repetitive sequences are involved in sex chromosome evolution probably via epigenetic modification, such as DNA and histone methylation, with small interfering RNAs as the mediator.

  20. The importance of familia for Latina/o college students: examining the role of familial support in intragroup marginalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Jasmín D; Morgan Consoli, Melissa

    2012-10-01

    Intragroup marginalization refers to the perceived interpersonal distancing by members of the heritage culture when an individual exhibits cultural characteristics of the dominant group. This study expands understanding of the college experience of Latina/o students by examining relationships between intragroup marginalization, college adjustment, resilience, and thriving in a sample of 181 Latina/o college students, ranging from freshman to graduate students. In addition, the role of familial social support is explored to determine any possible mediating effects on the relationship between intragroup marginalization, college adjustment, resilience, and thriving. Findings revealed that intragroup marginalization predicted college adjustment, resilience, and thriving. Familial social support was found to mediate the relationship between intragroup marginalization and thriving. This research highlights the negative impact of intragroup marginalization for Latina/o students, as well as the role of familial support in thriving. The results also shed light on the Latina/o college experience as a means to improving Latina/o students' college outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The role of crown architecture for light harvesting and carbon gain in extreme light environments assessed with a structurally realistic 3-D model

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Main results from different studies of crown architecture adaptation to extreme light environments are presented. Light capture and carbon gain by plants from low (forest understory) and high (open Mediterranean-type ecosystems) light environments were simulated with a 3-D model (YPLANT), which was developed specifically to analyse the structural features that determine light interception and photosynthesis at the whole plant level. Distantly related taxa with contrasting architectures exhibi...

  2. On the Beneficial Role of Silicon to Organisms: A Case Study on the Importance of Silicon Chemistry to Metal Accumulation in Yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, H.J.; Krijger, G.C.; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon is involved in numerous important structural and functional roles in a wide range of organisms, including diatoms, plants, and humans, but clear mechanisms have been discovered only in diatoms and sponges. Silicate availability influences metal concentrations within various cell- and tissue-

  3. Beyond Parents and Peers: The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in Adolescent Development in China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Farruggia, Susan; Bush, Kevin; Dong, Qi

    2003-01-01

    To understand cross-cultural differences and similarities in the social contexts for adolescent development, American and Chinese 11th graders were surveyed about a non-parental adult who had played an important role in their lives (VIPs). Results showed that adolescents' VIPs in Chinese were more likely to be teachers, to provide support in…

  4. The importance of the global oils and fats supply and the role that palm oil plays in meeting the demand for oils and fats worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, James; Fitton, Claire

    2010-06-01

    This article highlights the importance of the role that palm oil plays in meeting the demand for oils and fats worldwide for food. On top of this food demand, the demand for vegetable oils for biofuels, which now absorb over 10% of world oil and fat supplies, has rapidly increased.

  5. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in entrapment and compressive neuropathy - what, where, and how to see the peripheral nerves on the musculoskeletal magnetic resonance image: part 1. Overview and lower extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungjun [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Hanyang University, Kuri Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Kuri City, Kyunggi-do (Korea); Choi, Jin-Young; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Seung Min [Yonsei University, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Suh, Jin-Suck [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University, Research Institute of Radiological Science, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-01-15

    The diagnosis of nerve entrapment and compressive neuropathy has been traditionally based on the clinical and electrodiagnostic examinations. As a result of improvements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modality, it plays not only a fundamental role in the detection of space-occupying lesions but also a compensatory role in clinically and electrodiagnostically inconclusive cases. Although ultrasound has undergone further development in the past decades and shows high resolution capabilities, it has inherent limitations due to its operator dependency. We review the general concepts that should be known to evaluate the entrapment and compressive neuropathy in MR imaging. We also review the course of normal peripheral nerves, as well as various clinical demonstrations and pathological features of compressed and entrapped nerves in the lower extremities on MR imaging, according to the nerves involved. The common sites of nerve entrapment of the lower extremity are as follows: sciatic nerve around the piriformis muscle; tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa and tarsal tunnel, common peroneal nerve around the fibular neck, and digital nerve near the metatarsal head. Although MR imaging can depict the peripheral nerves in the extremities effectively, radiologists should be familiar with nerve pathways, common sites of nerve compression, and common space-occupying lesions resulting in nerve compression in MR imaging. (orig.)

  6. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in entrapment and compressive neuropathy - what, where, and how to see the peripheral nerves on the musculoskeletal magnetic resonance image: Part 2. Upper extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungjun [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Hanyang University, Kuri Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Kuri City, Kyunggi-do (Korea); Choi, Jin-Young; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Seung Min [Yonsei University, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Suh, Jin-Suck [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University, Research Institute of Radiological Science, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-02-15

    The diagnosis of nerve entrapment and compressive neuropathy has been traditionally based on the clinical and electrodiagnostic examinations. As a result of improvements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modality, it plays not only a fundamental role in the detection of space-occupying lesions, but also a compensatory role in clinically and electrodiagnostically inconclusive cases. Although ultrasound has undergone further development in the past decades and shows high resolution capabilities, it has inherent limitations due to its operator dependency. We review the course of normal peripheral nerves, as well as various clinical demonstrations and pathological features of compressed and entrapped nerves in the upper extremities on MR imaging, according to the nerves involved. The common sites of nerve entrapment of the upper extremity are as follows: the brachial plexus of the thoracic outlet; axillary nerve of the quadrilateral space; radial nerve of the radial tunnel; ulnar nerve of the cubital tunnel and Guyon's canal; median nerve of the pronator syndrome, anterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Although MR imaging can depict the peripheral nerves in the extremities effectively, radiologists should be familiar with nerve pathways, common sites of nerve compression, and common space-occupying lesions resulting in nerve compression in MR imaging. (orig.)

  7. [Hormonal changes in response to extreme environment factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubassov, R V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper presented current state about hormonal changes in sympathetic-adrenal, hypophysis-adrenal, hypophysis-gonads and thyroid levels from extreme environment factors. It's shown that hypophysis gonads and thyroid endocrine links along with sympathetic adrenal, hypophysis adrenal axes are very important relevance in response to extreme environment factors and organism adaptation. In this time a hormonal secretion changes corresponds as interrelated reactions cascade in mechanisms of homeostasis maintenance. A studying of this mechanisms and revealing of its role in stress pathogenesis is fundamental biomedical investigation task. A problem solving allow to perfect prophylactic and treatment methods against stress diseases.

  8. Biological significance of 5S rRNA import into human mitochondria: role of ribosomal protein MRP-L18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Alexandre; Entelis, Nina; Martin, Robert P; Tarassov, Ivan

    2011-06-15

    5S rRNA is an essential component of ribosomes of all living organisms, the only known exceptions being mitochondrial ribosomes of fungi, animals, and some protists. An intriguing situation distinguishes mammalian cells: Although the mitochondrial genome contains no 5S rRNA genes, abundant import of the nuclear DNA-encoded 5S rRNA into mitochondria was reported. Neither the detailed mechanism of this pathway nor its rationale was clarified to date. In this study, we describe an elegant molecular conveyor composed of a previously identified human 5S rRNA import factor, rhodanese, and mitochondrial ribosomal protein L18, thanks to which 5S rRNA molecules can be specifically withdrawn from the cytosolic pool and redirected to mitochondria, bypassing the classic nucleolar reimport pathway. Inside mitochondria, the cytosolic 5S rRNA is shown to be associated with mitochondrial ribosomes.

  9. Investigating the role of two types of understanding in relationship well-being: understanding is more important than knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, Monique M H; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2009-11-01

    Understanding is at the heart of intimate relationships. It is unclear, however, whether understanding-partners' subjective feeling that they understand each other-or knowledge-partners' accurate knowledge of each other-is more important for relationship well-being. The present article pits these two types of understanding against each other and investigates their effects on relationship well-being. In a prospective study among 199 newlywed couples, partners' self-reported and perceived understanding and their knowledge in different domains were assessed. Understanding was independent of knowledge. Self-reported and perceived understanding predicted relationship well-being but neither type of knowledge did. Thus, subjectively feeling that one understands and is understood by one's partner appears to be more important to relationship well-being than actually knowing and being known by one's partner.

  10. The diet of Great Tit Parus major nestlings in a Mediterranean Iberian forest: the important role of spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagani–Núñez, E.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the Great Tit Parus major when rearing chicks has been described in many studies. However, data from the Mediterranean area is scarce. Here we describe the diet of nestlings in a population of Great Tits in a Mediterranean forest in Barcelona (north–east Spain during two breeding seasons using two methods: neck–collars and video recording. The main prey were caterpillars (44% from neck–collar data and 62% from video–recorded data, but in our latitudes spiders also seemed to be an important food resource (24% from neck–collar data and 42% from video–recorded data. We did not find any significant differences in the quantity of spiders collected by parents in relation to stage of chick development, main vegetation surrounding nest boxes, size of the brood, or year. Our results stress the importance of spiders as a food source in Mediterranean habitats.

  11. Important role of surface fluoride in nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Jonathan I; Szulczewski, Greg

    2014-12-11

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sol-gel methods and subsequently fluorinated at room temperature by aging in acidic solutions of NaF. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis, and IR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. After aging at room temperature in NaF solutions, the Ti-OH groups on the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles were replaced by Ti-F bonds, which resulted in a decrease of the point of zero charge from pH 5.4 to 2.8. Most importantly, the nitrogen dopants were retained after the fluorination process, and the amorphous nanoparticles were partially converted into the anatase phase. Annealing the photocatalysts resulted in a decrease of both the nitrogen and fluoride atomic concentration. Diffuse reflectance spectra show an increase in absorbance above 400 nm after annealing the F,N-doped TiO2, which suggests the formation of color centers. The photoactivity of the F,N-doped and N-doped TiO2 catalysts were evaluated by monitoring by the decolorization of methylene blue with visible light. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that methylene blue undergoes successive demethylation, and more importantly, the rate of decolorization depends on the fluoride concentration. These results show the importance of a two-step synthesis method to independently control the nitrogen and fluoride concentration.

  12. The role and importance of veterinary laboratories in the prevention and control of infectious diseases of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszczyński, M J

    1998-08-01

    Veterinary laboratories which deal with infectious diseases form three groups according to the tasks for which they are responsible. The first group includes central or national veterinary laboratories, national or international reference laboratories, high-security laboratories, district regional or state veterinary diagnostic laboratories. The major role of these laboratories is to assist national Veterinary Services in diagnosing infectious animal diseases. The second group comprises laboratories that produce veterinary diagnostic kits and those that produce veterinary vaccines. The third group is composed of veterinary research laboratories, which generally concentrate on basic research and do not contribute directly to the diagnosis and control of infectious animal diseases. The author describes the objectives of each of the three groups of laboratories.

  13. Casuarina in Africa: distribution, role and importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal, ectomycorrhizal fungi and Frankia on plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, Nathalie; Diouf, Diegane; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Kane, Aboubacry; Noba, Kandioura; Franche, Claudine; Bogusz, Didier; Duponnois, Robin

    2013-10-15

    Exotic trees were introduced in Africa to rehabilitate degraded ecosystems. Introduced species included several Australian species belonging to the Casuarinaceae family. Casuarinas trees grow very fast and are resistant to drought and high salinity. They are particularly well adapted to poor and disturbed soils thanks to their capacity to establish symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi -both arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal- and with the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Frankia. These trees are now widely distributed in more than 20 African countries. Casuarina are mainly used in forestation programs to rehabilitate degraded or polluted sites, to stabilise sand dunes and to provide fuelwood and charcoal and thus contribute considerably to improving livelihoods and local economies. In this paper, we describe the geographical distribution of Casuarina in Africa, their economic and ecological value and the role of the symbiotic interactions between Casuarina, mycorrhizal fungi and Frankia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A DN-mda5 transgenic zebrafish model demonstrates that Mda5 plays an important role in snakehead rhabdovirus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, K A; Charette, J R; Pietraszewski, M J; Wingfield, D J; Shim, J S; Millard, P J; Kim, C H

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5) is a member of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family, which is a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that detects viral nucleic acids. Here we show an Mda5-dependent response to rhabdovirus infection in vivo using a dominant-negative mda5 transgenic zebrafish. Dominant-negative mda5 zebrafish embryos displayed an impaired antiviral immune response compared to wild-type counterparts that can be rescued by recombinant full-length Mda5. To our knowledge, we have generated the first dominant-negative mda5 transgenic zebrafish and demonstrated a critical role for Mda5 in the antiviral response to rhabdovirus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon nanotubes play an important role in the spatial arrangement of calcium deposits in hydrogels for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Giulia; Tozzi, Gianluca; Hussain, Amirul Ashraf Bin; De Mori, Arianna; Roldo, Marta

    2016-08-01

    Age related bone diseases such as osteoporosis are considered among the main causes of reduced bone mechanical stability and bone fractures. In order to restore both biological and mechanical function of diseased/fractured bones, novel bioactive scaffolds that mimic the bone structure are constantly under development in tissue engineering applications. Among the possible candidates, chitosan-based thermosensitive hydrogel scaffolds represent ideal systems due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, enhanced antibacterial properties, promotion of osteoblast formation and ease of injection, which makes them suitable for less invasive surgical procedures. As a main drawback, these chitosan systems present poor mechanical performance that could not support load-bearing applications. In order to produce more mechanically-competent biomaterials, the combined addition of hydroxyapatite and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is proposed in this study. Specifically, the aim of this work is to develop thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels containing stabilised single-walled and multi-walled CNTs, where their effect on the mechanical/physiochemical properties, calcium deposition patterns and ability to provide a platform for the controlled release of protein drugs was investigated. It was found that the addition of CNTs had a significant effect on the sol-gel transition time and significantly increased the resistance to compression for the hydrogels. Moreover, in vitro calcification studies revealed that CNTs played a major role in the spatial arrangements of newly formed calcium deposits in the composite materials studied, suggesting that they may have a role in the way the repair of fragile and/or fractured bones occurs in vivo.

  16. Inquiry-Driven Field-Based (IDFB) Ocean Science Classes: an Important Role in College Students' Development as Scientists, and Student Retention in the Geo-science Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, N. L.

    2004-12-01

    Experiential learning, engaging students in the process of science, can not only teach students important skills and knowledge, it can also help them become connected with the process on a personal level. This study investigates the role that Inquiry-Driven Field-Based (IDFB) experiences (primarily field classes) in ocean science have on undergraduate science students' development as ocean scientists. Both cognitive (knowledge-based) and affective (motivation and attitude) measures most important to students were used as indicators of development. Major themes will be presented to illustrate how IDFB science experiences can enhance the academic and personal development of students of science. Through their active engagement in the process of science, students gain important skills and knowledge as well as increased confidence, motivation, and ability to plan for their future (in particular their career and educational pathways). This growth is an important part of their development as scientists; the IDFB experience provides them a way to build a relationship with the world of science, and to better understand what science is, what scientists do, and their own future role as scientists. IDFB experiences have a particularly important role in affective measures of development: students develop an important personal connection to science. By doing science, students learn to be scientists and to understand science and science concepts in context. Many underrepresented students do not have the opportunity to take IDFB classes, and addressing this access issue could be an important step towards engaging more underrepresented students in the field. The nature of IDFB experiences and their impact on students makes them a potentially important mechanism for retaining students in the geo-science `pipeline'.

  17. The mitochondrial protein Mcu1 plays important roles in carbon source utilization, filamentation, and virulence in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guobo; Wang, Haitao; Liang, Weihong; Cao, Chengjun; Tao, Li; Naseem, Shamoon; Konopka, James B; Wang, Yue; Huang, Guanghua

    2015-08-01

    The fungus Candida albicans is both a pathogen and a commensal in humans. The ability to utilize different carbon sources available in diverse host niches is vital for both commensalism and pathogenicity. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is an important signaling molecule as well as a carbon source in C. albicans. Here, we report the discovery of a novel gene MCU1 essential for GlcNAc utilization. Mcu1 is located in mitochondria and associated with multiple energy- and metabolism-related proteins including Por1, Atp1, Pet9, and Mdh1. Consistently, inactivating Por1 impaired GlcNAc utilization as well. Deletion of MCU1 also caused defects in utilizing non-fermentable carbon sources and amino acids. Furthermore, MCU1 is required for filamentation in several inducing conditions and virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. We also deleted TGL99 and GUP1, two genes adjacent to MCU1, and found that the gup1/gup1 mutant exhibited mild defects in the utilization of several carbon sources including GlcNAc, maltose, galactose, amino acids, and ethanol. Our results indicate that MCU1 exists in a cluster of genes involved in the metabolism of carbon sources. Given its importance in metabolism and lack of a homolog in humans, Mcu1 could be a potential target for developing antifungal agents.

  18. Traveling planetary wave ionospheric disturbances and their role in the generation of equatorial spread-F and GPS phase fluctuations during the last extreme low solar activity and comparison with high solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, A. J.; Fagundes, P. R.; Bolzan, M. J. A.; Gende, M.; Brunini, C.; de Jesus, R.; Pillat, V. G.; Abalde, J. R.; Lima, W. L. C.

    2014-09-01

    This investigation studies traveling planetary wave ionospheric disturbance (TPWID) type oscillations on the modulation of the F region virtual height rise during the E×B electric field pre-reversal enhancement (PRE), near sunset hours. We also studied their role in the generation of equatorial spread F (ESF) and GPS phase fluctuations during periods of the last extreme low solar activity (LSA) of January 2009 to April 2010 (F10.7bar=73). A comparison is made with periods of high solar activity (HSA) in 2003 and 2004 near equatorial region. The ionospheric irregularities investigated are medium (bottom-side) and large (plasma bubble) scales. Ionospheric F region oscillations with period of days are due to the TPWIDs, which play an important role in producing favorable or unfavorable conditions for equatorial ionospheric irregularities, changing the electron vertical profile and F region height. In this paper, we present simultaneous ionospheric sounding (ionosonde) and GPS vertical total electron content (vTEC) observations carried out near equatorial region (Palmas 10.2°S, 48.2°W) and low latitude region (São José dos Campos 23.2°S, 45.9°W; located under the southern crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly), Brazil. Observations show that the occurrence of fresh ESF during LSA and HSA and fresh GPS phase fluctuations at equatorial region follow the trend of day-to-day variations in the F region virtual height, which are due to electric field PRE modulated by TPWID wave like oscillations. During LSA, the altitude of 250 km acts as a threshold height for the generation of fresh ionospheric irregularities, whereas during HSA, the threshold height is 300 km. The observations also found a strong increase in the generation of fresh ionospheric irregularities from October 2009 to March 2010 during LSA and from September 2003 to March 2004 during the HSA. Furthermore, in LSA, the period of fresh ionospheric irregularities was less than during HSA, though both

  19. Passive mechanical properties of rat abdominal wall muscles suggest an important role of the extracellular connective tissue matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M; Carr, John Austin; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-08-01

    Abdominal wall muscles have a unique morphology suggesting a complex role in generating and transferring force to the spinal column. Studying passive mechanical properties of these muscles may provide insights into their ability to transfer force among structures. Biopsies from rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and single muscle fibers and fiber bundles (4-8 fibers ensheathed in their connective tissue matrix) were isolated and mechanically stretched in a passive state. Slack sarcomere lengths were measured and elastic moduli were calculated from stress-strain data. Titin molecular mass was also measured from single muscle fibers. No significant differences were found among the four abdominal wall muscles in terms of slack sarcomere length or elastic modulus. Interestingly, across all four muscles, slack sarcomere lengths were quite long in individual muscle fibers (>2.4 µm), and demonstrated a significantly longer slack length in comparison to fiber bundles (p muscle lengths. Titin molecular mass was significantly less in TrA compared to each of the other three muscles (p < 0.0009), but this difference did not correspond to hypothesized differences in stiffness.

  20. Isolation of Chromatin from Dysfunctional Telomeres Reveals an Important Role for Ring1b in NHEJ-Mediated Chromosome Fusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bartocci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When telomeres become critically short, DNA damage response factors are recruited at chromosome ends, initiating a cellular response to DNA damage. We performed proteomic isolation of chromatin fragments (PICh in order to define changes in chromatin composition that occur upon onset of acute telomere dysfunction triggered by depletion of the telomere-associated factor TRF2. This unbiased purification of telomere-associated proteins in functional or dysfunctional conditions revealed the dynamic changes in chromatin composition that take place at telomeres upon DNA damage induction. On the basis of our results, we describe a critical role for the polycomb group protein Ring1b in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ-mediated end-to-end chromosome fusions. We show that cells with reduced levels of Ring1b have a reduced ability to repair uncapped telomeric chromatin. Our data represent an unbiased isolation of chromatin undergoing DNA damage and are a valuable resource to map the changes in chromatin composition in response to DNA damage activation.

  1. Disruption of Arabidopsis CHY1 Reveals an Important Role of Metabolic Status in Plant Cold Stress Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hai Dong; Bethany K. Zolman; Bonnie Bartel; Byeong-ha Lee; Becky Stevenson; Manu Agarwal; Jian-Kang Zhu

    2009-01-01

    To study cold signaling, we screened for Arabidopsis mutants with altered cold-induced transcription of a firefly luciferase reporter gene driven by the CBF3 promoter (CBF3-LUC). One mutant, chyl-10, displayed reduced cold-induction of CBF3-LUC luminescence. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that expression of endogenous CBFs also was reduced in the chy1 mutant, chyl-10 mutant plants are more sensitive to freezing treatment than wild-type after cold acclimation. Both the wild-type and chy1 mutant plants are sensitive to darkness-induced starvation at warm temperatures, although chy1 plants are slightly more sensitive. This dark-sensitivity is suppressed by cold temperature in the wildtype but not in chy1. Constitutive CBF3 expression partially rescues the sensitivity of chy1-10 plants to dark treatment in the cold. The chy1 mutant accumulates higher levels of reactive oxygen species, and application of hydrogen peroxide can reduce cold-induction of CBF3-LUC in wild-type. Map-based cloning of the gene defective in the mutant revealed a nonsense mutation in CHY1, which encodes a peroxisomal β-hydroxyisobutyryl (HIBYL)-CoA hydrolase needed for valine catabolism and fatty acid β-oxidation. Our results suggest a role for peroxisomal metabolism in cold stress signaling, and plant tolerance to cold stress and darkness-induced starvation.

  2. Coral calcification under daily oxygen saturation and pH dynamics reveals the important role of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Wijgerde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are essential to many nations, and are currently in global decline. Although climate models predict decreases in seawater pH (∼0.3 units and oxygen saturation (∼5 percentage points, these are exceeded by the current daily pH and oxygen fluctuations on many reefs (pH 7.8–8.7 and 27–241% O2 saturation. We investigated the effect of oxygen and pH fluctuations on coral calcification in the laboratory using the model species Acropora millepora. Light calcification rates were greatly enhanced (+178% by increased seawater pH, but only at normoxia; hyperoxia completely negated this positive effect. Dark calcification rates were significantly inhibited (51–75% at hypoxia, whereas pH had no effect. Our preliminary results suggest that within the current oxygen and pH range, oxygen has substantial control over coral growth, whereas the role of pH is limited. This has implications for reef formation in this era of rapid climate change, which is accompanied by a decrease in seawater oxygen saturation owing to higher water temperatures and coastal eutrophication.

  3. DNA repair enzymes: an important role in skin cancer prevention and reversal of photodamage--a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Yasmeen; Seidel, Rachel; Mcknight, Braden; Moy, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase annually despite preventative measures. Non-melanoma skin cancer affects more than 1,000,000 people in the United States every year.1 The current preventative measures, such as sunscreens and topical antioxidants, have not shown to be effective in blocking the effects of UV radiation based on these statistics. The level of antioxidants contained in the majority of skin creams is not sufficient to majorly impact free radical damage. Sunscreens absorb only a portion of UV radiation and often are not photostable. In this review article, we present the novel use of exogenous DNA repair enzymes and describe their role in combating photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Topical application of these enzymes serves to supplement intrinsic DNA repair mechanisms. The direct repair of DNA damage by endogenous repair enzymes lessens rates of mutagenesis and strengthens the immune response to tumor cells. However, these innate mechanisms are not 100% efficient. The use of exogenous DNA repair enzymes presents a novel way to supplement intrinsic mechanisms and improve their efficacy. Several DNA repair enzymes critical to the prevention of cutaneous malignancies have been isolated and added to topical preparations designed for skin cancer prevention. These DNA repair enzymes maximize the rate of DNA repair and provide a more efficient response to carcinogenesis.

  4. Physiological and proteomic changes suggest an important role of cell walls in the high tolerance to metals of Elodea nuttallii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larras, Floriane; Regier, Nicole; Planchon, Sébastien; Poté, John; Renaut, Jenny; Cosio, Claudia

    2013-12-15

    Macrophytes bioaccumulate metals, the suggestion being made that they be considered for phytoremediation. However, a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of metal tolerance in these plants is necessary to allow full optimization of this approach. The present study was undertaken to gain insight into Hg and Cd accumulation and their effects in a representative macrophyte, Elodea nuttallii. Exposure to methyl-Hg (23 ng dm(-3)) had no significant effect while inorganic Hg (70 ng dm(-3)) and Cd (281 μg dm(-3)) affected root growth but did not affect shoots growth, photosynthesis, or antioxidant enzymes. Phytochelatins were confirmed as having a role in Cd tolerance in this plant while Hg tolerance seems to rely on different mechanisms. Histology and subcellular distribution revealed a localized increase in lignification, and an increased proportion of metal accumulation in cell wall over time. Proteomics further suggested that E. nuttallii was able to efficiently adapt its energy sources and the structure of its cells during Hg and Cd exposure. Storage in cell walls to protect cellular machinery is certainly predominant at environmental concentrations of metals in this plant resulting in a high tolerance highlighted by the absence of toxicity symptoms in shoots despite the significant accumulation of metals.

  5. Fission yeast ATF/CREB family protein Atf21 plays important roles in production of normal spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomohiko; Yamada, Takatomi; Yamada, Shintaro; Matsumoto, Kouji; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2011-02-01

    Activating transcription factor/cAMP response element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family transcription factors play central roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis. They are activated in response to environmental stimuli, bind to CRE sequences in the promoters of stress-response genes and regulate transcription. Although ATF/CREB proteins are widely conserved among most eukaryotes, their characteristics are highly diverse. Here, we investigated the functions of a fission yeast ATF/CREB protein Atf21 to find out its unique properties. We show that Atf21 is dispensable for the adaptive response to several stresses such as nitrogen starvation and for meiotic events including nuclear divisions. However, spores derived from atf21Δ mutants are not as mature as wild-type ones and are unable to form colonies under nutrition-rich conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Atf21 protein, which is scarce in early meiosis, gradually accumulates as meiosis proceeds; it reaches maximum levels approximately 8 h after nitrogen starvation and is present during germination. These results suggest that Atf21 is expressed and functions long after nitrogen starvation. Given that other well-characterized fission yeast ATF/CREB proteins Atf1 and Pcr1 accumulate and function promptly upon exposure to environmental stresses, we propose that Atf21 is a distinct member of the ATF/CREB family in fission yeast. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The Important Role of Effective Communication in PICU%有效沟通在PICU中的重要作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金丽; 韩莹

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨有效沟通在PICU中的作用,本研究根据Zung焦虑自量表(SAS)对85名患儿家属利用问卷形式进行调查,并根据结果进行及时、有效的沟通,从而得出结论:通过有效沟通可以减少家属的焦虑情绪,明显提高家属的信任感,提高治愈率,减少纠纷的发生。%In order to explore the ef ective communication in the role of PICU,according to the Zung anxiety self assessment scale (SAS)of 85children with their families were investigated with questionnaire,and timely,ef ective communication according to the results,thus the conclusion is drawn:the PICU family of mental burden and psychological health level was significantly lower than that of ordinary families,through ef ective communication can reduce the anxiety of relatives,significantly improve the family trust,improve the cure rate,reduce the occur ence ofdisputes.

  7. An important role for cholecystokinin, a CLOCK target gene, in the development and treatment of manic-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arey, R N; Enwright, J F; Spencer, S M; Falcon, E; Ozburn, A R; Ghose, S; Tamminga, C; McClung, C A

    2014-03-01

    Mice with a mutation in the Clock gene (ClockΔ19) have been identified as a model of mania; however, the mechanisms that underlie this phenotype, and the changes in the brain that are necessary for lithium's effectiveness on these mice remain unclear. Here, we find that cholecystokinin (Cck) is a direct transcriptional target of CLOCK and levels of Cck are reduced in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of ClockΔ19 mice. Selective knockdown of Cck expression via RNA interference in the VTA of wild-type mice produces a manic-like phenotype. Moreover, chronic treatment with lithium restores Cck expression to near wild-type and this increase is necessary for the therapeutic actions of lithium. The decrease in Cck expression in the ClockΔ19 mice appears to be due to a lack of interaction with the histone methyltransferase, MLL1, resulting in decreased histone H3K4me3 and gene transcription, an effect reversed by lithium. Human postmortem tissue from bipolar subjects reveals a similar increase in Cck expression in the VTA with mood stabilizer treatment. These studies identify a key role for Cck in the development and treatment of mania, and describe some of the molecular mechanisms by which lithium may act as an effective antimanic agent.

  8. Chemical engineering of the peptidyl transferase center reveals an important role of the 2'-hydroxyl group of A2451.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher, Matthias D; Lang, Kathrin; Shankaran, Nisha; Wotzel, Brigitte; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Micura, Ronald; Mankin, Alexander S; Polacek, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    The main enzymatic reaction of the large ribosomal subunit is peptide bond formation. Ribosome crystallography showed that A2451 of 23S rRNA makes the closest approach to the attacking amino group of aminoacyl-tRNA. Mutations of A2451 had relatively small effects on transpeptidation and failed to unequivocally identify the crucial functional group(s). Here, we employed an in vitro reconstitution system for chemical engineering the peptidyl transferase center by introducing non-natural nucleosides at position A2451. This allowed us to investigate the peptidyl transfer reaction performed by a ribosome that contained a modified nucleoside at the active site. The main finding is that ribosomes carrying a 2'-deoxyribose at A2451 showed a compromised peptidyl transferase activity. In variance, adenine base modifications and even the removal of the entire nucleobase at A2451 had only little impact on peptide bond formation, as long as the 2'-hydroxyl was present. This implicates a functional or structural role of the 2'-hydroxyl group at A2451 for transpeptidation.

  9. The importance and role of correspondence in researching the personality and work of Milenko Paunović

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The correspondence of the composer and writer Milenko Paunović (1889-1924 has a great role in revealing different aspects of his life, work and mind. Nearly 100 letters are preserved, most of which belong to his correspondence with his family and particularly with his sister Jelena Paunović, a pianist. One part of Jelena's correspondence with other persons gives us also diverse information about her brother. All the saved letters are kept in the holdings of the Institute of Musicology and the Serbian Archive. Paunović's correspondence is discussed from several viewpoints. In the introduction of the article is given a brief survey and description of the correspondence (according to the list enclosed at the end of the text. This is followed by analysis of some of Jelena's letters that clarify certain facts about the posthumous fate of Paunović's works. In the two central parts of the article the correspondence is observed as a source rich with information concerning Paunović's biography, dating and chronological systematization of his works as well as his (unrealized plans for performance. The concluding discussing is devoted to Paunović's personality, his ambitions, aspirations, relations to the others: it is possible to determine and explain his artistic creation like a specific autobiography and his correspondence speaks in favor of this thesis.

  10. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  11. 'Serious thigh muscle strains': beware the intramuscular tendon which plays an important role in difficult hamstring and quadriceps muscle strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Peter; Connell, David

    2016-02-01

    Why do some hamstring and quadriceps strains take much longer to repair than others? Which injuries are more prone to recurrence? Intramuscular tendon injuries have received little attention as an element in 'muscle strain'. In thigh muscles, such as rectus femoris and biceps femoris, the attached tendon extends for a significant distance within the muscle belly. While the pathology of most muscle injures occurs at a musculotendinous junction, at first glance the athlete appears to report pain within a muscle belly. In addition to the musculotendinous injury being a site of pathology, the intramuscular tendon itself is occasionally injured. These injuries have a variety of appearances on MRIs. There is some evidence that these injuries require a prolonged rehabilitation time and may have higher recurrence rates. Therefore, it is important to recognise the tendon component of a thigh 'muscle strain'.

  12. The importance of considering animal body mass in IPCC greenhouse inventories and the underappreciated role of wild herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Felisa A; Lyons, S Kathleen; Wagner, Peter J; Elliott, Scott M

    2015-10-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas, but characterizing production by source sector has proven difficult. Current estimates suggest herbivores produce ~20% (~76-189 Tg yr(-1) ) of methane globally, with wildlife contributions uncertain. We develop a simple and accurate method to estimate methane emissions and reevaluate production by wildlife. We find a strikingly robust relationship between body mass and methane output exceeding the scaling expected by differences in metabolic rate. Our allometric model gives a significantly better fit to empirical data than IPCC Tier 1 and 2 calculations. Our analysis suggests that (i) the allometric model provides an easier and more robust estimate of methane production than IPCC models currently in use; (ii) output from wildlife is much higher than previously considered; and (iii) because of the allometric scaling of methane output with body mass, national emissions could be reduced if countries favored more, smaller livestock, over fewer, larger ones. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Multidimensional extremal dependence coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Extreme values modeling has attracting the attention of researchers in diverse areas such as the environment, engineering, or finance. Multivariate extreme value distributions are particularly suitable to model the tails of multidimensional phenomena. The analysis of the dependence among multivariate maxima is useful to evaluate risk. Here we present new multivariate extreme value models, as well as, coefficients to assess multivariate extremal dependence.

  14. Mechanistic insights into a novel exporter-importer system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis unravel its role in trafficking of iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Farhana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elucidation of the basic mechanistic and biochemical principles underlying siderophore mediated iron uptake in mycobacteria is crucial for targeting this principal survival strategy vis-à-vis virulence determinants of the pathogen. Although, an understanding of siderophore biosynthesis is known, the mechanism of their secretion and uptake still remains elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we demonstrate an interplay among three iron regulated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb proteins, namely, Rv1348 (IrtA, Rv1349 (IrtB and Rv2895c in export and import of M.tb siderophores across the membrane and the consequent iron uptake. IrtA, interestingly, has a fused N-terminal substrate binding domain (SBD, representing an atypical subset of ABC transporters, unlike IrtB that harbors only the permease and ATPase domain. SBD selectively binds to non-ferrated siderophores whereas Rv2895c exhibits relatively higher affinity towards ferrated siderophores. An interaction between the permease domain of IrtB and Rv2895c is evident from GST pull-down assay. In vitro liposome reconstitution experiments further demonstrate that IrtA is indeed a siderophore exporter and the two-component IrtB-Rv2895c system is an importer of ferrated siderophores. Knockout of msmeg_6554, the irtA homologue in Mycobacterium smegmatis, resulted in an impaired M.tb siderophore export that is restored upon complementation with M.tb irtA. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the interplay of three proteins, namely IrtA, IrtB and Rv2895c in synergizing the balance of siderophores and thus iron inside the mycobacterial cell.

  15. Localizing transcripts to single cells suggests an important role of uncultured deltaproteobacteria in the termite gut hydrogen economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Adam Z; Zhang, Xinning; Lucey, Kaitlyn S; Ottesen, Elizabeth A; Trivedi, Vikas; Choi, Harry M T; Pierce, Niles A; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2013-10-01

    Identifying microbes responsible for particular environmental functions is challenging, given that most environments contain an uncultivated microbial diversity. Here we combined approaches to identify bacteria expressing genes relevant to catabolite flow and to locate these genes within their environment, in this case the gut of a "lower," wood-feeding termite. First, environmental transcriptomics revealed that 2 of the 23 formate dehydrogenase (FDH) genes known in the system accounted for slightly more than one-half of environmental transcripts. FDH is an essential enzyme of H2 metabolism that is ultimately important for the assimilation of lignocellulose-derived energy by the insect. Second, single-cell PCR analysis revealed that two different bacterial types expressed these two transcripts. The most commonly transcribed FDH in situ is encoded by a previously unappreciated deltaproteobacterium, whereas the other FDH is spirochetal. Third, PCR analysis of fractionated gut contents demonstrated that these bacteria reside in different spatial niches; the spirochete is free-swimming, whereas the deltaproteobacterium associates with particulates. Fourth, the deltaproteobacteria expressing FDH were localized to protozoa via hybridization chain reaction-FISH, an approach for multiplexed, spatial mapping of mRNA and rRNA targets. These results underscore the importance of making direct vs. inference-based gene-species associations, and have implications in higher termites, the most successful termite lineage, in which protozoa have been lost from the gut community. Contrary to expectations, in higher termites, FDH genes related to those from the protozoan symbiont dominate, whereas most others were absent, suggesting that a successful gene variant can persist and flourish after a gut perturbation alters a major environmental niche.

  16. The European Extreme Right and Religious Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Camus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideology of the Extreme Right in Western Europe is rooted in Catholic fundamentalism and Counter-Revolutionary ideas. However, the Extreme Right, like all other political families, has had to adjust to an increasingly secular society. The old link between religion and the Extreme Right has thus been broken and in fact already was when Fascism overtook Europe: Fascism was secular, sometimes even anti-religious, in its essence. Although Catholic fundamentalists still retain strong positions within the apparatus of several Extreme Right parties (Front National, the vote for the Extreme Right is generally weak among regular churchgoers and strong among non-believers. In several countries, the vote for the Extreme Right is stronger among Protestant voters than among Catholics, since while Catholics may support Christian-Democratic parties, there are very few political parties linked to Protestant churches. Presently, it also seems that Paganism is becoming the dominant religious creed within the Extreme Right. In a multicultural Europe, non-Christian forms of religious fundamentalism such as Islamism also exist with ideological similarities to the Extreme Right, but this is not sufficient to categorize Islamism as a form of Fascism. Some Islamist groups seek alliances with the Extreme Right on the basis of their common dislike for Israel and the West, globalization and individual freedom of thought.

  17. The role of extreme events in the impacts of selective tropical forestry on erosion during harvesting and recovery phases at Danum Valley, Sabah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, I; Bidin, K; Balamurugan, G; Chappell, N A; Walsh, R P; Greer, T; Sinun, W

    1999-11-29

    Ten years' hydrological investigations at Danum have provided strong evidence of the effects of extremes of drought, as in the April 1992 El Niño southern oscillation event, and flood, as in January 1996. The 1.5 km2 undisturbed forest control catchment experienced a complete drying out of the stream for the whole 1.5 km of defined channel above the gauging station in 1992, but concentrated surface flow along every declivity from within a few metres of the catchment divide after the exceptional rains of 19 January 1996. Under these natural conditions, erosion is episodic. Sediment is discharged in pulses caused by storm events, collapse of debris dams and occasional landslips. Disturbance by logging accentuates this irregular regime. In the first few months following disturbance, a wave of sediment is moved by each storm, but over subsequent years, rare events scour sediment from bare areas, gullies and channel deposits. The spatial distribution of sediment sources changes with time after logging, as bare areas on slopes are revegetated and small gullies are filled with debris. Extreme storm events, as in January 1996, cause logging roads to collapse, with landslides leading to surges of sediment into channels, reactivating the pulsed sediment delivery by every storm that happened immediately after logging. These effects are not dampened out with increasing catchment scale. Even the 721 km2 Sungai Segama has a sediment yield regime dominated by extreme events, the sediment yield in that single day on 19 January 1996 exceeding the annual sediment load in several previous years. In a large disturbed catchment, such road failures and logging-activity-induced mass movements increase the mud and silt in floodwaters affecting settlements downstream. Management systems require long-term sediment reduction strategies. This implies careful road design and good water movement regulation and erosion control throughout the logging process.

  18. Genome wide association (GWA study for early onset extreme obesity supports the role of fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Hinney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem. Although heritability is substantial, genetic mechanisms predisposing to obesity are not very well understood. We have performed a genome wide association study (GWA for early onset (extreme obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: a GWA (Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 5.0 comprising 440,794 single nucleotide polymorphisms for early onset extreme obesity based on 487 extremely obese young German individuals and 442 healthy lean German controls; b confirmatory analyses on 644 independent families with at least one obese offspring and both parents. We aimed to identify and subsequently confirm the 15 SNPs (minor allele frequency > or =10% with the lowest p-values of the GWA by four genetic models: additive, recessive, dominant and allelic. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene within one linkage disequilibrium (LD block including the GWA SNP rendering the lowest p-value (rs1121980; log-additive model: nominal p = 1.13 x 10(-7, corrected p = 0.0494; odds ratio (OR(CT 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.22-2.27; OR(TT 2.76, 95% CI 1.88-4.03 belonged to the 15 SNPs showing the strongest evidence for association with obesity. For confirmation we genotyped 11 of these in the 644 independent families (of the six FTO SNPs we chose only two representing the LD bock. For both FTO SNPs the initial association was confirmed (both Bonferroni corrected p<0.01. However, none of the nine non-FTO SNPs revealed significant transmission disequilibrium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our GWA for extreme early onset obesity substantiates that variation in FTO strongly contributes to early onset obesity. This is a further proof of concept for GWA to detect genes relevant for highly complex phenotypes. We concurrently show that nine additional SNPs with initially low p-values in the GWA were not confirmed in our family study, thus suggesting that of the best 15 SNPs in the GWA only

  19. Potential role of specific antibodies as important vaccine induced protective mechanism against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout.

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    Kasper Rømer Villumsen

    Full Text Available Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known threat to aquaculture for more than a century. Efficient prophylactic approaches against this disease are essential for continued growth of salmonid aquaculture. Since the introduction of successful oil-adjuvanted vaccines in the early 1990's, a number of studies have been published on the protective as well as adverse effects of these vaccines. Most studies focus on vaccination of salmon (Salmo salar. However, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are also very susceptible to infection and are vaccinated accordingly. In this study we have examined the protection against infection with a Danish strain of A. salmonicida in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout. A commercial and an experimental auto-vaccine were tested. The protective effects of the vaccines were evaluated through an A. salmonicida challenge 18 weeks post vaccination. Both vaccines resulted in a significantly increased survival in the vaccinated fish during a 28 day challenge period relative to non-vaccinated fish (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001 for the commercial and experimental vaccine, respectively. Throughout the entire experiment, the presence of specific antibodies in plasma was monitored using ELISA. A significant increase in specific antibody levels was seen in fish vaccinated with both vaccines during the 18 weeks between vaccination and challenge. Within 3 days post challenge, a significant decrease in specific antibodies occurred in vaccinated fish. A positive correlation was found between mean levels of specific antibodies pre challenge and overall survival. This correlation, along with the observed depletion of antibodies during the initial phase of infection, suggests that specific antibodies play an essential role in vaccine mediated protection against A. salmonicida in rainbow trout.

  20. The current and continuing important role of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy in evaluating patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Leonard M; Stein, Evan G; Sprayregen, Seymour; Chamarthy, Murthy; Haramati, Linda B

    2008-11-01

    After the publication of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study in 1990, there was considerable controversy concerning the ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) study in regard to its low sensitivity and high number of nondiagnostic examinations when used in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Many lessons have been learned from the PIOPED database that have greatly improved our interpretive skills in the 2 decades since the study was performed. One of the key problems negatively impacting interpretation was the predominantly inpatient population that was studied. Inpatients generally are sicker patients with abnormal chest x-rays. This factor significantly degrades V/Q interpretation. A normal chest x-ray greatly facilitates accurate interpretation of the lung scan. The emergence of computed tomography angiography (CTA) in the early to mid-1990s provided a superb new means of imaging patients with suspected PE. As this technology became more sophisticated with multidetector units, it became the procedure of choice in the great majority of medical centers. CT scanners located in or proximal to many emergency departments as well as its 24/7 availability supported this preference. Within the past 2 to 3 years, the publication of the PIOPED II study as well as some other prospective and retrospective studies have confirmed similar diagnostic accuracy for CTA and V/Q studies. Additionally, there have been several recent publications cautioning physicians about the large radiation dose associated with CTA, particularly to the female breast. Considering the great benefits of both techniques as well as their limitations, it is prudent for both clinicians and imaging physicians to develop an appropriate approach to studying patients with suspected PE. Considerations such as objective clinical assessment, D-dimer assay and the chest x-ray appearance all play significant roles in this decision-making process.

  1. Induction of C-Mip by IL-17 Plays an Important Role in Adriamycin-Induced Podocyte Damage

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    Yanbo Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although the disturbance of T lymphocyte and glomerular podocyte exerts a crucial function in the pathogenesis of proteinuria, the potential link is still unclear. Methods: The balance of Treg and Th17 cells, and the expression of IL-17/IL-17R and c-mip were investigated in adrimycin-induced nephropathy (AN mice. The effect and mechanism of IL-17 on podocyte were explored in cultured podocytes. Results: The proportion of Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the amount of IL-17 in serum and kidney cortical homogenates, and the expression of IL-17R and c-mip in glomerular podocyte were increased obviously in AN mice. In cultured podocytes, recombinant IL-17 led to an induction of apoptosis and cytoskeletal disorganization, an overproduction of c-mip while down-regulation of phosphor-nephrin, and an increased binding of c-mip to NF-κB/RelA. Silence of c-mip prevented podocyte apoptosis and reduction of phosphor-nephrin by prompting nuclear translocation of NF-κB/RelA in IL-17 treated cells. Persistent activation of NF-κB up-regulated pro-survival protein Bcl-2 and decreased podocyte apoptosis, but had no effect on phosphor-nephrin level. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that induction of IL-17 released by Th17 cells plays a key role in podocytopathy most likely through down-regulation of phosphor-nephrin and Bcl-2 level via overproduction of c-mip.

  2. ERK1/2 signaling plays an important role in topoisomerase II poison-induced G2/M checkpoint activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Ryan H; Greer, Patrick M; Cao, Phu T; Cowan, Kenneth H; Yan, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Topo II poisons, which target topoisomerase II (topo II) to generate enzyme mediated DNA damage, have been commonly used for anti-cancer treatment. While clinical evidence demonstrate a capability of topo II poisons in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, accumulating evidence also show that topo II poison treatment frequently results in cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, which was associated with subsequent resistance to these treatments. Results in this report indicate that treatment of MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells with topo II poisons resulted in an increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and an subsequent induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation using specific inhibitors markedly attenuated the topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest and diminished the topo II poison-induced activation of ATR and Chk1 kinases. Moreover, decreased expression of ATR by specific shRNA diminished topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest but had no effect on topo II poison-induced ERK1/2 activation. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling had little, if any, effect on topo II poison-induced ATM activation. In addition, ATM inhibition by either incubation of cells with ATM specific inhibitor or transfection of cells with ATM specific siRNA did not block topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest. Ultimately, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling greatly enhanced topo II poison-induced apoptosis. These results implicate a critical role for ERK1/2 signaling in the activation of G2/M checkpoint response following topo II poison treatment, which protects cells from topo II poison-induced apoptosis.

  3. Checkpoint kinase1 (CHK1) is an important biomarker in breast cancer having a role in chemotherapy response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-kaabi, M M; Alshareeda, A T; Jerjees, D A; Muftah, A A; Green, A R; Alsubhi, N H; Nolan, C C; Chan, S; Cornford, E; Madhusudan, S; Ellis, I O; Rakha, E A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Checkpoint kinase1 (CHK1), which is a key component of DNA-damage-activated checkpoint signalling response, may have a role in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis and influence response to chemotherapy. This study investigated the clinicopathological significance of phosphorylated CHK1 (pCHK1) protein in BC. Method: pCHK1 protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry in a large, well-characterized annotated series of early-stage primary operable invasive BC prepared as tissue microarray (n=1200). Result: pCHK1 showed nuclear and/or cytoplasmic expression. Tumours with nuclear expression showed positive associations with favourable prognostic features such as lower grade, lower mitotic activity, expression of hormone receptor and lack of expression of KI67 and PI3K (P<0.001). On the other hand, cytoplasmic expression was associated with features of poor prognosis such as higher grade, triple-negative phenotype and expression of KI67, p53, AKT and PI3K. pCHK1 expression showed an association with DNA damage response (ATM, RAD51, BRCA1, KU70/KU80, DNA-PKCα and BARD1) and sumoylation (UBC9 and PIASγ) biomarkers. Subcellular localisation of pCHK1 was associated with the expression of the nuclear transport protein KPNA2. Positive nuclear expression predicted better survival outcome in patients who did not receive chemotherapy in the whole series and in ER-positive tumours. In ER-negative and triple-negative subgroups, nuclear pCHK1 predicted shorter survival in patients who received cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-florouracil chemotherapy. Conclusions: Our data suggest that pCHK1 may have prognostic and predictive significance in BC. Subcellular localisation of pCHK1 protein is related to its function. PMID:25688741

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF WATER BODIES: A CASE STUDY CONCERNING THE STRUCTURE AND ROLE OF BIOINDICATORS IN WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Nicolae GLAVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of macrozoobentos communities is frequently used in conservation studies of water bodies biodiversity, beside the role as bioindicators, larvae belonging to Trichoptera order are an important link of the aquatic food chain. This study draws attention over water bodies continuous degree, among the caddisflies role to insure their stability. Samples were qualitative type, at sampling it was used an entomological net. 10 species of caddisflies belonging at 2 families were identified in analyzed samples. Limnephilus affinis, L. flavicornis and L. rhombicus recorded the highest values regarding frequency, in abundance case this situation was characterized by one specie (L. flavicornis.

  5. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  6. Surface texture and priming play important roles in predator recognition by the red-backed shrike in field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Michal; Syrová, Michaela; Dokoupilová, Lenka; Veselý, Petr; Šmilauer, Petr; Landová, Eva; Lišková, Silvie; Fuchs, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We compared the responses of the nesting red-backed shrikes (Lanius collurio) to three dummies of a common nest predator, the Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius), each made from a different material (stuffed, plush, and silicone). The shrikes performed defensive behaviour including attacks on all three dummies. Nevertheless, the number of attacks significantly decreased from the stuffed dummy through the plush dummy and finally to the silicone dummy. Our results show that wild birds use not only colours but also other surface features as important cues for recognition and categorization of other bird species. Moreover, the silicone dummy was attacked only when presented after the stuffed or plush dummy. Thus, we concluded that the shrikes recognized the jay only the stuffed (with feathered surface) and plush (with hairy surface) dummies during the first encounter. Recognition of the silicon dummy (with glossy surface) was facilitated by previous encounters with the more accurate model. This process resembles the effect of perceptual priming, which is widely described in the literature on humans.

  7. The low importance of marriage in eastern Germany - social norms and the role of peoples' perceptions of the past

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    Andreas Klärner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern Germany is a region with one of the world's highest percentages of non-marital births. Marriage and childbearing seem to be decoupled. This brings into question people's views on the institution of marriage. Objective: This paper examines eastern Germans' views on cohabitation, marriage, and childbearing. It argues that historical, social, and political contexts shape the social norms of marriage and non-marital childbearing. Methods: This paper presents data from eight qualitative focus group interviews with 74 women and men aged 25-40 in Rostock, a medium-sized city in eastern Germany. Results: The respondents often compared their own motives and incentives for marriage with those which existed in the socialist German Democratic Republic (GDR and held true for their parents. Many of them stated that having children was important for them as individuals and for their partnership. However, they treated the decision to get married and the decision to have children as two separate issues. Respondents often referred to the past and said that the strong legal and financial incentives to marry in the past regime in the socialist GDR no longer exist. Today's incentives were seen as minor, or as irrelevant to their personal situations.

  8. The heat shock response plays an important role in TDP-43 clearance: evidence for dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Jou; Mitchell, Jacqueline C; Novoselov, Sergey; Miller, Jack; Nishimura, Agnes L; Scotter, Emma L; Vance, Caroline A; Cheetham, Michael E; Shaw, Christopher E

    2016-05-01

    Detergent-resistant, ubiquitinated and hyperphosphorylated Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions are the pathological hallmark in ∼95% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and ∼60% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration cases. We sought to explore the role for the heat shock response in the clearance of insoluble TDP-43 in a cellular model of disease and to validate our findings in transgenic mice and human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis tissues. The heat shock response is a stress-responsive protective mechanism regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which increases the expression of chaperones that refold damaged misfolded proteins or facilitate their degradation. Here we show that manipulation of the heat shock response by expression of dominant active HSF1 results in a dramatic reduction of insoluble and hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 that enhances cell survival, whereas expression of dominant negative HSF1 leads to enhanced TDP-43 aggregation and hyperphosphorylation. To determine which chaperones were mediating TDP-43 clearance we over-expressed a range of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and identified DNAJB2a (encoded by DNAJB2, and also known as HSJ1a) as a potent anti-aggregation chaperone for TDP-43. DNAJB2a has a J domain, allowing it to interact with HSP70, and ubiquitin interacting motifs, which enable it to engage the degradation of its client proteins. Using functionally deleted DNAJB2a constructs we demonstrated that TDP-43 clearance was J domain-dependent and was not affected by ubiquitin interacting motif deletion or proteasome inhibition. This indicates that TDP-43 is maintained in a soluble state by DNAJB2a, leaving the total levels of TDP-43 unchanged. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the levels of HSF1 and heat shock proteins are significantly reduced in affected neuronal tissues from a TDP-43 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and patients with

  9. Scientific Grand Challenges: Discovery In Basic Energy Sciences: The Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale - August 13-15, 2009, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, Giulia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Workshop Chair; Dunning, Thom [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Workshop Chair

    2009-08-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) and Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) workshop in August 2009 on extreme-scale computing provided a forum for more than 130 researchers to explore the needs and opportunities that will arise due to expected dramatic advances in computing power over the next decade. This scientific community firmly believes that the development of advanced theoretical tools within chemistry, physics, and materials science—combined with the development of efficient computational techniques and algorithms—has the potential to revolutionize the discovery process for materials and molecules with desirable properties. Doing so is necessary to meet the energy and environmental challenges of the 21st century as described in various DOE BES Basic Research Needs reports. Furthermore, computational modeling and simulation are a crucial complement to experimental studies, particularly when quantum mechanical processes controlling energy production, transformations, and storage are not directly observable and/or controllable. Many processes related to the Earth’s climate and subsurface need better modeling capabilities at the molecular level, which will be enabled by extreme-scale computing.

  10. An important role for the activation peptide domain in controlling factor IX levels in the blood of haemophilia B mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begbie, Megan E; Mamdani, Asif; Gataiance, Sharon; Eltringham-Smith, Louise J; Bhakta, Varsha; Hortelano, Gonzalo; Sheffield, William P

    2005-12-01

    The factors responsible for the removal of injected factor IX (fIX) from the blood of individuals with haemophilia B are only partly understood, and may include binding to endothelial or subendothelial sites, passive extravasation related to size or charge, or interactions requiring fIX activation. To investigate these issues, we have produced and characterised recombinant fIX proteins with amino acid changes: delta155-177, an internal deletion which removes most of the activation peptide while retaining the activation cleavage sites; S365A, which inactivates the serine protease activity of fIXa; and K5A, previously shown to eliminate fIX binding of endothelial/subendothelial collagen IV. All proteins were expressed in stably transfected HEK 293 cells, purified by immunoaffinity chromatography, and compared to the wild type HEK 293-derived protein (fIX (WT)). Mutant fIX proteins K5A and delta155-177 exhibited 72 and 202% of the specific activity of fIX (WT), respectively; S365A was without activity. Following intravenous injection in haemophilia B (fIX knockout) mice, recoveries did not differ for fIX (WT) and delta155-177, but were higher for K5A and S365A. The terminal catabolic half-life of delta155-177, alone among the mutants, was increased, by 45% versus fIX (WT). Nine hours post-injection, the observed areas under the clearance curve (AUCs) of delta155-177 and K5, but not S365A, were elevated 2-fold. delta155-177 was equally effective as fIX (WT) in reducing blood loss following tail vein transection in haemophilia B mice. Our results suggest that deletion of the multiple sites of fIX post-translational modification found within the activation peptide eliminated important fIX clearance motifs.

  11. RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3 synergistically play an important role in restriction of dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M A Nasirudeen

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DV infection is one of the most common mosquito-borne viral diseases in the world. The innate immune system is important for the early detection of virus and for mounting a cascade of defense measures which include the production of type 1 interferon (IFN. Hence, a thorough understanding of the innate immune response during DV infection would be essential for our understanding of the DV pathogenesis. A recent application of the microarray to dengue virus type 1 (DV1 infected lung carcinoma cells revealed the increased expression of both extracellular and cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors; retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I, melanoma differentiation associated gene-5 (MDA-5 and Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3. These intracellular RNA sensors were previously reported to sense DV infection in different cells. In this study, we show that they are collectively involved in initiating an effective IFN production against DV. Cells silenced for these genes were highly susceptible to DV infection. RIG-I and MDA5 knockdown HUH-7 cells and TLR3 knockout macrophages were highly susceptible to DV infection. When cells were silenced for only RIG-I and MDA5 (but not TLR3, substantial production of IFN-β was observed upon virus infection and vice versa. High susceptibility to virus infection led to ER-stress induced apoptosis in HUH-7 cells. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the intracellular RNA virus sensors (RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3 are activated upon DV infection and are essential for host defense against the virus.

  12. Plant volatiles in extreme terrestrial and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Steinke, Michael; McGenity, Terry; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes the current understanding on plant and algal volatile organic compound (VOC) production and emission in extreme environments, where temperature, water availability, salinity or other environmental factors pose stress on vegetation. Here, the extreme environments include terrestrial systems, such as arctic tundra, deserts, CO₂ springs and wetlands, and marine systems such as sea ice, tidal rock pools and hypersaline environments, with mangroves and salt marshes at the land-sea interface. The emission potentials at fixed temperature and light level or actual emission rates for phototrophs in extreme environments are frequently higher than for organisms from less stressful environments. For example, plants from the arctic tundra appear to have higher emission potentials for isoprenoids than temperate species, and hypersaline marine habitats contribute to global dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in significant amounts. DMS emissions are more widespread than previously considered, for example, in salt marshes and some desert plants. The reason for widespread VOC, especially isoprenoid, emissions from different extreme environments deserves further attention, as these compounds may have important roles in stress resistance and adaptation to extremes. Climate warming is likely to significantly increase VOC emissions from extreme environments both by direct effects on VOC production and volatility, and indirectly by altering the composition of the vegetation.

  13. Unit cost of healthcare services at 200-bed public hospitals in Myanmar: what plays an important role of hospital budgeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Thet Mon; Saw, Yu Mon; Khaing, Moe; Win, Ei Mon; Cho, Su Myat; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Eiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-19

    Cost information is important for efficient allocation of healthcare expenditure, estimating future budget allocation, and setting user fees to start new financing systems. Myanmar is in political transition, and trying to achieve universal health coverage by 2030. This study assessed the unit cost of healthcare services at two public hospitals in the country from the provider perspective. The study also analyzed the cost structure of the hospitals to allocate and manage the budgets appropriately. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at 200-bed Magway Teaching Hospital (MTH) and Pyinmanar General Hospital (PMN GH), in Myanmar, for the financial year 2015-2016. The step-down costing method was applied to calculate unit cost per inpatient day and per outpatient visit. The costs were calculated by using Microsoft Excel 2010. The unit costs per inpatient day varied largely from unit to unit in both hospitals. At PMN GH, unit cost per inpatient day was 28,374 Kyats (27.60 USD) for pediatric unit and 1,961,806 Kyats (1908.37 USD) for ear, nose, and throat unit. At MTH, the unit costs per inpatient day were 19,704 Kyats (19.17 USD) for medicine unit and 168,835 Kyats (164.24 USD) for eye unit. The unit cost of outpatient visit was 14,882 Kyats (14.48 USD) at PMN GH, while 23,059 Kyats (22.43 USD) at MTH. Regarding cost structure, medicines and medical supplies was the largest component at MTH, and the equipment was the largest component at PMN GH. The surgery unit of MTH and the eye unit of PMN GH consumed most of the total cost of the hospitals. The unit costs were influenced by the utilization of hospital services by the patients, the efficiency of available resources, type of medical services provided, and medical practice of the physicians. The cost structures variation was also found between MTH and PMN GH. The findings provided the basic information regarding the healthcare cost of public hospitals which can apply the efficient utilization of the

  14. Repression of ARF10 by microRNA160 plays an important role in the mediation of leaf water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Dong, Xiufen; Liu, Zihan; Shi, Zihang; Jiang, Yun; Qi, Mingfang; Xu, Tao; Li, Tianlai

    2016-10-01

    -regulated ABI5 in tomato leaves demonstrated that ARF10 is the direct factor for inducing the water loss in 35S:mSlARF10-6. Here, we show that although SlARF10 increased the ABA synthesis/signal response by regulating stomatal aperture to mitigate water loss, SlARF10 also influenced stomatal development and AQP expression to affect water transport, and both act cooperatively to control the loss of leaf water in tomato. Therefore, this study uncovers a previously unrecognized leaf water loss regulatory factor and a network for coordinating auxin and ABA signalling in this important process. In an evolutionary context, miR160 regulates ARF10 to maintain the water balance in the leaf, thus ensuring normal plant development and environmental adaptation.

  15. Have We Overlooked the Importance of Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatases in Pancreatic Beta-Cells? Role Played by Protein Phosphatase 2A in Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esser V

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic predisposition and environmental influences insidiously converge to cause glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Beta-cell compensates by secreting more insulin and when it fails, overt diabetes mellitus ensues. The need to understand the mechanisms involved in insulin secretion cannot be stressed enough. Phosphorylation of proteins plays an important role in regulating insulin secretion. In order to understand how a particular cellular process is regulated by protein phosphorylation the nature of the protein kinases and protein phosphatases involved and the mechanisms that determine when and where these enzymes are active should be investigated. While the actions of protein kinases have been intensely studied within the beta-cell, less emphasis has been placed on protein phosphatases even though they play an important regulatory role. This review focuses on the importance of protein phosphatase 2A in insulin secretion. Most of the present knowledge on protein phosphatase 2A originates from protein phosphatase inhibitor studies on islets and beta-cell lines. The ability of protein phosphatase 2A to change its activity in the presence of glucose and inhibitors provides clues to its role in regulating insulin secretion. An aggressive approach to elucidate the substrates and mechanisms of action of protein phosphatases is crucial to the understanding of phosphorylation events within the beta-cell. Characterizing protein phosphatase 2A within the beta-cell will certainly help us in understanding the mechanisms involved in insulin secretion and provide valuable information for drug development.

  16. Rescue procedures in the major trauma of upper extremities – The role of the polish medical air rescue in the therapeutic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gałązkowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the growing use of various types of industrial and agricultural machinery, occupational accidents are among the most serious ones and quite frequently result in the permanent posttraumatic disability of the injured person. In Poland, a replantation service has been operating since 2010. Each day, one out of six centres provides emergency replantation service accepting amputation calls from across the country. Patients qualified for replantation often need to be transported from places located even several hundred kilometres from the target hospital. Material and Methods: The analysis covered 174 Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS missions and 112 interhospital transports. The data were obtained as a result of a retrospective analysis of the air and medical documentation of 23 460 missions carried out by the Polish Medical Air Rescue (Samodzielny Publiczny Zakład Opieki Zdrowotnej Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe – SP ZOZ LPR aircrafts in the years 2011–2013. Results: In the period under study, the Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopters dressed 135 patients with upper extremity amputations at the scene and transported them to hospitals as part of HEMS missions. At the same time, SP ZOZ LPR aircrafts made 102 interhospital transports. Ninety patients were qualified for treatment in replantation service centres. The average air transport time was 76 min, while the total transport time was 172.3 min. With transport exceeding 300 km, the average time advantage over the ground transport was approximately 1.5 h. Conclusions: In justified cases, the use of helicopters and airplanes is an optimal method of transporting patients with the major trauma to upper extremities. Med. Pr. 2014;65(6:765–776

  17. An important role for syndecan-1 in herpes simplex virus type-1 induced cell-to-cell fusion and virus spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadah A Karasneh

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1 is a common human pathogen that relies heavily on cell-to-cell spread for establishing a lifelong latent infection. Molecular aspects of HSV-1 entry into host cells have been well studied; however, the molecular details of the spread of the virus from cell-to-cell remain poorly understood. In the past, the role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG during HSV-1 infection has focused solely on the role of HS chains as an attachment receptor for the virus, while the core protein has been assumed to perform a passive role of only carrying the HS chains. Likewise, very little is known about the involvement of any specific HSPGs in HSV-1 lifecycle. Here we demonstrate that a HSPG, syndecan-1, plays an important role in HSV-1 induced membrane fusion and cell-to-cell spread. Interestingly, the functions of syndecan-1 in fusion and spread are independent of the presence of HS on the core protein. Using a mutant CHO-K1 cell line that lacks all glycosaminoglycans (GAGs on its surface (CHO-745 we demonstrate that the core protein of syndecan-1 possesses the ability to modulate membrane fusion and viral spread. Altogether, we identify a new role for syndecan-1 in HSV-1 pathogenesis and demonstrate HS-independent functions of its core protein in viral spread.

  18. Transcription factor σB plays an important role in the production of extracellular membrane-derived vesicles in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hwa Lee

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria produce extracellular outer membrane vesicles (OMVs that interact with host cells. Unlike Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about the production and role of extracellular membrane vesicles (MVs in Gram-positive bacteria. The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can survive under extreme environmental and energy stress conditions and the transcription factor σ(B is involved in this survival ability. Here, we first determined the production of MVs from L. monocytogenes and evaluated whether general stress transcription factor σ(B affected production of MVs in L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes secreted MVs during in vitro broth culture. The wild-type strain actively produced MVs approximately nine times more and also produced more intact shapes of MVs than those of the isogenic ΔsigB mutant. A proteomic analysis showed that 130 and 89 MV proteins were identified in the wild-type and ΔsigB mutant strains, respectively. Wild-type strain-derived MVs contained proteins regulated by σ(B such as transporters (OpuCA and OpuCC, stress response (Kat, metabolism (LacD, translation (InfC, and cell division protein (FtsZ. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis showed that wild-type-derived MV proteins corresponded to several GO terms, including response to stress (heat, acid, and bile resistance and extracellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process, but not the ΔsigB mutant. Internalin B (InlB was almost three times more contained in MVs derived from the wild-type strain than in MVs derived from the ΔsigB mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that σ(B plays a pivotal role in the production of MVs and protein profiles contained in MVs. L. monocytogenes MVs may contribute to host infection and survival ability under various stressful conditions.

  19. Irrigation mitigates against heat extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Fischer, Erich; Visser, Auke; Hirsch, Annette L.; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use gridded observations and ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on hot extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Finally we find that present-day irrigation is partly masking GHG-induced warming of extreme temperatures, with particularly strong effects in South Asia. Our results overall underline that irrigation substantially reduces our exposure to hot temperature extremes and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.

  20. Change in molecular weight due to important pfatp6 and pfmdr1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to antimalarial drug: Possible role of epigenetic phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an important tropical mosquito borne infection. It is still the present global public health issue. The management of malaria requires antimalarial drugs. The resistance to antimalarial drugs is a very big problem. The genetic variant is proposed to be an important factor affecting susceptibility to antimalarial drug. Here, the authors studied the change in molecular weight due to important pfatp6 and pfmdr1 polymorphisms and further implied the interrelationship with susceptibility to antimalarial drug. The greatest change can be seen in case of G639D (of pfatp6 polymorphism while the least change can be seen in the case of N1042D (of pfmdr1 polymorphism. The results from some studies imply that there must be other factors that affect the susceptibility to antimalarial drugs. Those factors might be protein conformation factors, epigenetic factors or environmental factors. Further studies on these aspects should be carried out. It is concluded for possible role of epigenetic phenomenon.

  1. Hubble space telescope grism spectroscopy of extreme starbursts across cosmic time: The role of dwarf galaxies in the star formation history of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, EPFL, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Malkan, Matthew; Ross, Nathaniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Charlot, Stephane; Lehnert, Matthew [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Lee, Janice [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bedregal, Alejandro [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bunker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, OX13RH (United Kingdom); Colbert, James W.; Rafelski, Marc [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Hathi, Nimish [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Siana, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    Near infrared slitless spectroscopy with the Wide Field Camera 3, on board the Hubble Space Telescope, offers a unique opportunity to study low-mass galaxy populations at high redshift (z ∼ 1-2). While most high-z surveys are biased toward massive galaxies, we are able to select sources via their emission lines that have very faint continua. We investigate the star formation rate (SFR)-stellar mass (M{sub *}) relation for about 1000 emission line galaxies identified over a wide redshift range of 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 2.3. We use the Hα emission as an accurate SFR indicator and correct the broadband photometry for the strong nebular contribution to derive accurate stellar masses down to M{sub *} ∼10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}. We focus here on a subsample of galaxies that show extremely strong emission lines (EELGs) with rest-frame equivalent widths ranging from 200 to 1500 Å. This population consists of outliers to the normal SFR-M{sub *} sequence with much higher specific SFRs (>10 Gyr{sup –1}). While on-sequence galaxies follow continuous star formation processes, EELGs are thought to be caught during an extreme burst of star formation that can double their stellar mass in a period of less than 100 Myr. The contribution of the starburst population to the total star formation density appears to be larger than what has been reported for more massive galaxies in previous studies. In the complete mass range 8.2 < log(M{sub *}/M{sub ☉}) <10 and a SFR lower completeness limit of about 2 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (10 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) at z ∼ 1 (z ∼ 2), we find that starbursts having EW{sub rest}(Hα) > 300, 200, and 100 Å contribute up to ∼13%, 18%, and 34%, respectively, to the total SFR of emission-line-selected sample at z ∼ 1-2. The comparison with samples of massive galaxies shows an increase in the contribution of starbursts toward lower masses.

  2. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  3. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Kuipers, T.; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  4. Increasing climate extremes under global warming - What is the driving force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2017-04-01

    More climate extreme events have occurred in recent years, including the continual development of extreme drought in California, the severe cold winters in the eastern U.S. since 2014, 2015 Washington drought, and excessive wildfire events over Alaska in 2015. These have been casually attributed to global warming. However, a need for further understanding of mechanisms responsible for climate extremes is growing. In this presentation, we'll use sets of climate model simulation that designed to identify the role of the oceanic feedback in increasing climate extremes under global warming. One is with a fully coupled climate model forced by 1% ramping CO2, and the other is with an atmosphere only model forced by the same CO2 forcing. By contrasting these two, an importance of the oceanic feedback in increasing climate extremes under global warming can be diagnosed.

  5. Sensitivity of precipitation extremes to radiative forcing of greenhouse gases and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lei; Wang, Zhili; Xu, Yangyang; Fu, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols are the two most important anthropogenic forcing agents in the 21st century. The expected declines of anthropogenic aerosols in the 21st century from present-day levels would cause an additional warming of the Earth's climate system, which would aggravate the climate extremes caused by GHG warming. We examine the increased rate of precipitation extremes with global mean surface warming in the 21st century caused by anthropogenic GHGs and aerosols, using an Earth system model ensemble simulation. Similar to mean precipitation, the increased rate of precipitation extremes caused by aerosol forcing is significantly larger than that caused by GHG forcing. The aerosol forcing in the coming decades can play a critical role in inducing change in precipitation extremes if a lower GHG emission pathway is adopted. Our results have implications for policy-making on climate adaptation to extreme precipitation events.

  6. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  7. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  8. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy of Extreme Starbursts Across Cosmic Time: The Role of Dwarf Galaxies in the Star Formation History of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Atek, Hakim; Pacifici, Camilla; Malkan, Matthew; Charlot, Stephane; Lee, Janice; Bedregal, Alejandro; Bunker, Andrew J; Colbert, James W; Dressler, Alan; Hathi, Nimish; Lehnert, Matthew; Martin, Crystal L; McCarthy, Patrick; Rafelski, Marc; Ross, Nathaniel; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared slitless spectroscopy with the Wide Field Camera 3, onboard the Hubble Space Telescope, offers a unique opportunity to study low-mass galaxy populations at high-redshift ($z\\sim$1-2). While most high$-z$ surveys are biased towards massive galaxies, we are able to select sources via their emission lines that have very-faint continua. We investigate the star formation rate (SFR)-stellar mass ($M_{\\star}$) relation for about 1000 emission-line galaxies identified over a wide redshift range of $0.3 \\lesssim z \\lesssim 2.3$. We use the H$_{\\alpha}$ emission as an accurate SFR indicator and correct the broadband photometry for the strong nebular contribution to derive accurate stellar masses down to $M_{\\star} \\sim 10^{7} M_{\\odot}$. We focus here on a subsample of galaxies that show extremely strong emission lines (EELGs) with rest-frame equivalent widths ranging from 200 to 1500 \\AA. This population consists of outliers to the normal SFR-$M_{\\star}$ sequence with much higher specific SFRs ($> 10$ Gy...

  10. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  11. Sensitivity of UK butterflies to local climatic extremes: which life stages are most at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott Long, Osgur; Warren, Rachel; Price, Jeff; Brereton, Tom M; Botham, Marc S; Franco, Aldina M A

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition as to the importance of extreme climatic events (ECEs) in determining changes in species populations. In fact, it is often the extent of climate variability that determines a population's ability to persist at a given site. This study examined the impact of ECEs on the resident UK butterfly species (n = 41) over a 37-year period. The study investigated the sensitivity of butterflies to four extremes (drought, extreme precipitation, extreme heat and extreme cold), identified at the site level, across each species' life stages. Variations in the vulnerability of butterflies at the site level were also compared based on three life-history traits (voltinism, habitat requirement and range). This is the first study to examine the effects of ECEs at the site level across all life stages of a butterfly, identifying sensitive life stages and unravelling the role life-history traits play in species sensitivity to ECEs. Butterfly population changes were found to be primarily driven by temperature extremes. Extreme heat was detrimental during overwintering periods and beneficial during adult periods and extreme cold had opposite impacts on both of these life stages. Previously undocumented detrimental effects were identified for extreme precipitation during the pupal life stage for univoltine species. Generalists were found to have significantly more negative associations with ECEs than specialists. With future projections of warmer, wetter winters and more severe weather events, UK butterflies could come under severe pressure given the findings of this study.

  12. Loss of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase induces glycolysis and promotes apoptosis resistance of cancer stem-like cells: an important role in hexavalent chromium-induced carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jin; Ji, Yanli; Wang, Wei; Kim, Donghern; Fai, Leonard Yenwong; Wang, Lei; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Zhuo

    2017-09-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are confirmed human carcinogens for lung cancer. Our previous studies has demonstrated that chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low dose of Cr(VI) causes malignant cell transformation. The acquisition of cancer stem cell-like properties is involved in the initiation of cancers. The present study has observed that a small population of cancer stem-like cells (BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC) exists in the Cr(VI)-transformed cells (BEAS-2B-Cr). Those BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC exhibit extremely reduced capability of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis resistance. BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC are metabolic inactive as evidenced by reductions in oxygen consumption, glucose uptake, ATP production, and lactate production. Most importantly, BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC are more tumorigenic with high levels of cell self-renewal genes, Notch1 and p21. Further study has found that fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1), an rate-limiting enzyme driving glyconeogenesis, was lost in BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC. Forced expression of FBP1 in BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC restored ROS generation, resulting in increased apoptosis, leading to inhibition of tumorigenesis. In summary, the present study suggests that loss of FBP1 is a critical event in tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The miR-17/92 cluster: a comprehensive update on its genomics, genetics, functions and increasingly important and numerous roles in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilyansky, E; Rigoutsos, I

    2013-12-01

    The miR-17/92 cluster is among the best-studied microRNA clusters. Interest in the cluster and its members has been increasing steadily and the number of publications has grown exponentially since its discovery with more than 1000 articles published in 2012 alone. Originally found to be involved in tumorigenesis, research work in recent years has uncovered unexpected roles for its members in a wide variety of settings that include normal development, immune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and aging. In light of its ever-increasing importance and ever-widening regulatory roles, we review here the latest body of knowledge on the cluster's involvement in health and disease as well as provide a novel perspective on the full spectrum of protein-coding and non-coding transcripts that are likely regulated by its members.

  14. Mães adolescentes: adaptação aos múltiplos papéis e a importância da vinculação Adolescent mothers: adjustment to multiple roles and the importance of attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tornar-se mãe na adolescência obriga a profundos realinhamentos na trajetória desenvolvimental individual. Partindo de uma amostra de trinta e oito mães adolescentes do Norte de Portugal, pretendeu-se com este estudo explorar o impacto da qualidade da organização de vinculação das adolescentes, avaliada durante a gravidez, na adaptação às mudanças de papéis decorrentes da maternidade. Seguindo uma perspetiva ecológica, foram igualmente contempladas medidas sociodemográficas e de suporte social. Os resultados revelam que a maioria das adolescentes evidencia um nível inferior de adaptação à nova configuração de papéis, verificando-se uma associação significativa entre o nível de adaptação conseguido e a qualidade da organização de vinculação da adolescente.Becoming a mother during adolescence implies huge rearrangements in terms of individual developmental pathway. Using a sample of 38 adolescent mothers from the north region of Portugal, this study aims at examining the importance of adolescent mothers' attachment organizations, assessed during pregnancy, in the adjustment to role changes imposed by motherhood. Following an ecological perspective on adolescent motherhood, sociodemographic and social support measures were also considered. Our results show that most adolescent mothers exhibit a lower level of adjustment towards the new configuration of roles. A statistically significant association between adolescent mothers' attachment and quality of adjustment was found.

  15. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  16. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...

  17. The importance of CELF control: molecular and biological roles of the CUG-BP, Elav-like family of RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Twishasri; Ladd, Andrea N

    2012-01-01

    RNA processing is important for generating protein diversity and modulating levels of protein expression. The CUG-BP, Elav-like family (CELF) of RNA-binding proteins regulate several steps of RNA processing in the nucleus and cytoplasm, including pre-mRNA alternative splicing, C to U RNA editing, deadenylation, mRNA decay, and translation. In vivo, CELF proteins have been shown to play roles in gametogenesis and early embryonic development, heart and skeletal muscle function, and neurosynaptic transmission. Dysregulation of CELF-mediated programs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human diseases affecting the heart, skeletal muscles, and nervous system.

  18. Genetic manipulation of the ApoF/Stat2 locus supports an important role for type I interferon signaling in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagor, William R; Fields, David W; Bauer, Robert C; Crawford, Alison; Abt, Michael C; Artis, David; Wherry, E John; Rader, Daniel J

    2014-03-01

    Apolipoprotein F (ApoF) is a sialoglycoprotein that is a component of the HDL and LDL fractions of human serum. We sought to test the hypothesis that ApoF plays an important role in atherosclerosis in mice by modulating lipoprotein function. Atherosclerosis was assessed in male low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr KO) and ApoF/Ldlr double knockout (DKO) mice fed a Western diet for 16 weeks. ApoF/Ldlr DKO mice showed a 39% reduction in lesional area by en face analysis of aortas (p atherosclerosis, and support the growing evidence that the Type I IFN pathway may contribute to this complex disease.

  19. Extreme Programming in a Research Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the applicability of Extreme Programming in a scientific research context. The cultural environment at a government research center differs from the customer-centric business view. The chief theoretical difficulty lies in defining the customer to developer relationship. Specifically, can Extreme Programming be utilized when the developer and customer are the same person? Eight of Extreme Programming's 12 practices are perceived to be incompatible with the existing research culture. Further, six of the nine 'environments that I know don't do well with XP' apply. A pilot project explores the use of Extreme Programming in scientific research. The applicability issues are addressed and it is concluded that Extreme Programming can function successfully in situations for which it appears to be ill-suited. A strong discipline for mentally separating the customer and developer roles is found to be key for applying Extreme Programming in a field that lacks a clear distinction between the customer and the developer.

  20. The role and importance of glycosylation of acute phase proteins with focus on alpha-1 antitrypsin in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Cormac; Saldova, Radka; Wormald, Mark R; Rudd, Pauline M; McElvaney, Noel G; Reeves, Emer P

    2014-07-03

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) are a group of circulating plasma proteins which undergo changes quantitatively or qualitatively at the time of inflammation. Many of these APPs are glycosylated, and it has been shown that alterations in glycosylation may occur in inflammatory and malignant conditions. Changes in glycosylation have been studied as potential biomarkers in cancer and also in chronic inflammatory conditions and have been shown to correlate with disease severity in certain conditions. Serine protease inhibitors (serpins), many of which are also APPs, are proteins involved in the control of proteases in numerous pathways. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) is the most abundant serpin within the circulation and is an APP which has been shown to increase in response to inflammation. The primary role of AAT is maintaining the protease/antiprotease balance in the lung, but it also possesses important anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. Several glycoforms of AAT exist, and they possess differing properties in regard to plasma half-life and stability. Glycosylation may also be important in determining the immune modulatory properties of AAT. The review will focus on the role and importance of glycosylation in acute phase proteins with particular attention to AAT and its use as a biomarker of disease. The review describes the processes involved in glycosylation, how glycosylation changes in differing disease states, and the alterations that occur to glycans of APPs with disease and inflammation. Finally, the review explores the importance of changes in glycosylation of AAT at times of inflammation and in malignant conditions and how this may impact upon the functions of AAT.

  1. Characterising the relationship between weather extremes in Europe and synoptic circulation features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pfahl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather events in Europe are closely linked to anomalies of the atmospheric circulation and in particular to circulation features like cyclones and atmospheric blocking. In this study, this linkage is systematically characterised with the help of conditional cyclone and blocking frequencies during precipitation, wind gust and temperature extremes at various locations in Europe. Such conditional frequency fields can serve as a dynamical fingerprint of the extreme events and yield insights into their most important physical driving mechanisms. Precipitation extremes over the ocean and over flat terrain are shown to be closely related to cyclones in the vicinity and the associated dynamical lifting. For extreme precipitation over complex terrain, cyclone anomalies are found at more remote locations, favouring the flow of moist air towards the topography. Wind gust extremes are associated with cyclone and blocking anomalies in opposite directions, with the cyclones occurring mostly over the North and Baltic Seas for extreme events in central Europe. This setting is associated with pronounced surface pressure gradients and thus high near-surface wind velocities. Hot temperature extremes in northern and central Europe typically occur in the vicinity of a blocking anticyclone, where subsidence and radiative forcing are strong. Over southern Europe, blocking anomalies are shifted more to the north or northeast, indicating a more important role of warm air advection. Large-scale flow conditions for cold extremes are similar at many locations in Europe, with blocking anomalies over the North Atlantic and northern Europe and cyclone anomalies southeast of the cold extreme, both contributing to the advection of cold air masses. This characterisation of synoptic-scale forcing mechanisms can be helpful for better understanding and anticipating weather extremes and their long-term changes.

  2. The role of crown architecture for light harvesting and carbon gain in extreme light environments assessed with a structurally realistic 3-D model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valladares, Fernando

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Main results from different studies of crown architecture adaptation to extreme light environments are presented. Light capture and carbon gain by plants from low (forest understory and high (open Mediterranean-type ecosystems light environments were simulated with a 3-D model (YPLANT, which was developed specifically to analyse the structural features that determine light interception and photosynthesis at the whole plant level. Distantly related taxa with contrasting architectures exhibited similar efficiencies of light interception (functional convergence. Between habitats large differences in architecture existed depending on whether light capture must be maximised or whether excess photon flux density must be avoided. These differences are realised both at the species level and within a species because of plastic adjustments of crown architecture to the external light environment. Realistic, 3-D architectural models are indispensable tools in this kind of comparative studies due to the intrinsic complexity of plant architecture. Their efficient development requires a fluid exchange of ideas between botanists, ecologists and plant modellers.Se presentan los resultados principales de varios estudios sobre las adaptaciones del follaje a ambientes lumínicos extremos. Plantas de ambientes oscuros (sotobosques de bosques templados y tropicales y de ambientes muy luminosos (ecosistemas abiertos de tipo Mediterráneo han sido estudiadas mediante un modelo (YPLANT que permite la reconstrucción tridimensional de la parte aérea de las plantas e identificar los rasgos estructurales que determinan la interceptación de luz y la fotosíntesis y transpiraci6n potencial a nivel de toda la copa. Taxones no relacionados y con arquitecturas muy diferentes mostraron una eficiencia en la interceptaci6n de luz similar (convergencia funcional. La comparación entre hábitat revelo grandes diferencias arquitecturales dependiendo de si la absorción de luz deb

  3. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme Ocean Waves”, edited by E. Pelinovsky and C. Kharif, second edition, Springer International Publishing, 2016; ISBN: 978-3-319-21574-7, ISBN (eBook): 978-3-319-21575-4The second edition of “Extreme Ocean Waves” published by Springer is an update of a collection of 12 papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif following the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. In this edition, three new papers have been added and three more have been substantially revised. Color figures are now included, which greatly aids in reading several of the papers, and is especially helpful in visualizing graphs as in the paper on symbolic computation of nonlinear wave resonance (Tobisch et al.). A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, including deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (which are alternatively termed freak waves), and internal waves. One new paper on tsunamis (Viroulet et al.) is now included in the second edition of this volume. Throughout the book, the reader will find a combination of laboratory, theoretical, and statistical/empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the Introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting a dramatic instance of damaging extreme waves that recently occurred in 2014.

  4. Extreme lattices: symmetries and decorrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreanov, A.; Scardicchio, A.; Torquato, S.

    2016-11-01

    We study statistical and structural properties of extreme lattices, which are the local minima in the density landscape of lattice sphere packings in d-dimensional Euclidean space {{{R}}d} . Specifically, we ascertain statistics of the densities and kissing numbers as well as the numbers of distinct symmetries of the packings for dimensions 8 through 13 using the stochastic Voronoi algorithm. The extreme lattices in a fixed dimension of space d (d≥slant 8 ) are dominated by typical lattices that have similar packing properties, such as packing densities and kissing numbers, while the best and the worst packers are in the long tails of the distribution of the extreme lattices. We also study the validity of the recently proposed decorrelation principle, which has important implications for sphere packings in general. The degree to which extreme-lattice packings decorrelate as well as how decorrelation is related to the packing density and symmetry of the lattices as the space dimension increases is also investigated. We find that the extreme lattices decorrelate with increasing dimension, while the least symmetric lattices decorrelate faster.

  5. Increased expression of the major cysteine proteinases by stable episomal transfection underlines the important role of EhCP5 for the pathogenicity of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillack, Manuela; Nowak, Nicolas; Lotter, Hannelore; Bracha, Rivka; Mirelman, David; Tannich, Egbert; Bruchhaus, Iris

    2006-09-01

    The protozoan Entamoeba histolytica causes intestinal inflammation and liver abscess. Cysteine proteinases (CPs) have been proposed as important virulence factors for amoebiasis. To test the role of the various CPs for amoeba induced pathology, the three major enzymes of the parasite, namely EhCP1, EhCP2 and EhCP5 accounting for about 90% of total proteinase activity, were overexpressed by stable episomal transfection. Total CP activity of recombinant amoebae increased by three- to six-fold depending on the gene transfected. Interestingly, overexpression of the genes for EhCP1 or EhCP2 increased the activity of the corresponding enzyme only, whereas overexpression of the gene for EhCP5 increased the activity of all three enzymes, which is consistent with enzyme-converting activity of EhCP5. Cytopathic activity, measured by in vitro monolayer disruption, was dramatically increased in ehcp5-transfectants (five-fold) but showed only a modest increase in ehcp1- or ehcp2-transfectants (1.5-2-fold). In addition, overexpression of ehcp5 but not of ehcp1 or ehcp2 significantly increased amoebic liver abscess formation in laboratory animals. Moreover, transfection and overexpression of ehcp5 was able to compensate the reduction of in vivo pathogenicity in parasites, which have been silenced for the gene encoding the pore-forming protein amoebapore A. In summary, these results further support the important role of EhCP5 in E. histolytica pathogenicity.

  6. Medical physics in radiotherapy: The importance of preserving clinical responsibilities and expanding the profession's role in research, education, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Medical physicists have long had an integral role in radiotherapy. In recent decades, medical physicists have slowly but surely stepped back from direct clinical responsibilities in planning radiotherapy treatments while medical dosimetrists have assumed more responsibility. In this article, I argue against this gradual withdrawal from routine therapy planning. It is essential that physicists be involved, at least to some extent, in treatment planning and clinical dosimetry for each and every patient; otherwise, physicists can no longer be considered clinical specialists. More importantly, this withdrawal could negatively impact treatment quality and patient safety. Medical physicists must have a sound understanding of human anatomy and physiology in order to be competent partners to radiation oncologists. In addition, they must possess a thorough knowledge of the physics of radiation as it interacts with body tissues, and also understand the limitations of the algorithms used in radiotherapy. Medical physicists should also take the lead in evaluating emerging challenges in quality and safety of radiotherapy. In this sense, the input of physicists in clinical audits and risk assessment is crucial. The way forward is to proactively take the necessary steps to maintain and advance our important role in clinical medicine. PMID:25949219

  7. Medical physics in radiotherapy: The importance of preserving clinical responsibilities and expanding the profession's role in research, education, and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Medical physicists have long had an integral role in radiotherapy. In recent decades, medical physicists have slowly but surely stepped back from direct clinical responsibilities in planning radiotherapy treatments while medical dosimetrists have assumed more responsibility. In this article, I argue against this gradual withdrawal from routine therapy planning. It is essential that physicists be involved, at least to some extent, in treatment planning and clinical dosimetry for each and every patient; otherwise, physicists can no longer be considered clinical specialists. More importantly, this withdrawal could negatively impact treatment quality and patient safety. Medical physicists must have a sound understanding of human anatomy and physiology in order to be competent partners to radiation oncologists. In addition, they must possess a thorough knowledge of the physics of radiation as it interacts with body tissues, and also understand the limitations of the algorithms used in radiotherapy. Medical physicists should also take the lead in evaluating emerging challenges in quality and safety of radiotherapy. In this sense, the input of physicists in clinical audits and risk assessment is crucial. The way forward is to proactively take the necessary steps to maintain and advance our important role in clinical medicine.

  8. Colonic miRNA expression/secretion, regulated by intestinal epithelial PepT1, plays an important role in cell-to-cell communication during colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Ayyadurai

    Full Text Available PepT1 is a member of the proton-oligopeptide cotransporter family SLC15, which mediates the transport of di/tripeptides from intestinal lumen into epithelial cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a small noncoding RNAs (21-23 nucleotides, post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs of their target mRNAs. Although the role of most miRNAs remains elusive, they have been implicated in vital cellular functions such as intestinal epithelial cells differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of intestinal epithelial PepT1 expression on microRNA (miRNA expression/secretion in the colons of control mice and in mice with experimentally induced colonic inflammation (colitis. The colonic miRNA expression was deregulated in both colitis and control mice but the deregulation of miRNA expression/secretion was specific to colonic tissue and did not affect other tissues such as spleen and liver. Intestinal epithelial PepT1-dependent deregulation of colonic miRNA expression not only affects epithelial cells but also other cell types, such as intestinal macrophages. Importantly, we found the miRNA 23b which was known to be involved in inflammatory bowel disease was secreted and transported between cells to impose a gene-silencing effect on recipient intestinal macrophages. Based on our data, we may conclude that the expression of a specific protein, PepT1, in the intestine affects local miRNA expression/secretion in the colon on a tissue specific manner and may play an important role during the induction and progression of colitis. Colonic miRNA expression/secretion, regulated by intestinal epithelial PepT1, could play a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication during colitis.

  9. Mutations in Mtr4 Structural Domains Reveal Their Important Role in Regulating tRNAiMet Turnover in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Mtr4p Enzymatic Activities In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Burclaff, Joseph; Anderson, James T

    2016-01-01

    RNA processing and turnover play important roles in the maturation, metabolism and quality control of a large variety of RNAs thereby contributing to gene expression and cellular health. The TRAMP complex, composed of Air2p, Trf4p and Mtr4p, stimulates nuclear exosome-dependent RNA processing and degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Mtr4 protein structure is composed of a helicase core and a novel so-called arch domain, which protrudes from the core. The helicase core contains highly conserved helicase domains RecA-1 and 2, and two structural domains of unclear functions, winged helix domain (WH) and ratchet domain. How the structural domains (arch, WH and ratchet domain) coordinate with the helicase domains and what roles they are playing in regulating Mtr4p helicase activity are unknown. We created a library of Mtr4p structural domain mutants for the first time and screened for those defective in the turnover of TRAMP and exosome substrate, hypomodified tRNAiMet. We found these domains regulate Mtr4p enzymatic activities differently through characterizing the arch domain mutants K700N and P731S, WH mutant K904N, and ratchet domain mutant R1030G. Arch domain mutants greatly reduced Mtr4p RNA binding, which surprisingly did not lead to significant defects on either in vivo tRNAiMet turnover, or in vitro unwinding activities. WH mutant K904N and Ratchet domain mutant R1030G showed decreased tRNAiMet turnover in vivo, as well as reduced RNA binding, ATPase and unwinding activities of Mtr4p in vitro. Particularly, K904 was found to be very important for steady protein levels in vivo. Overall, we conclude that arch domain plays a role in RNA binding but is largely dispensable for Mtr4p enzymatic activities, however the structural domains in the helicase core significantly contribute to Mtr4p ATPase and unwinding activities.

  10. Neurons in the amygdala play an important role in the neuronal network mediating a clonic form of audiogenic seizures both before and after audiogenic kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisinghani, Manish; Faingold, Carl L

    2005-01-25

    Previous studies showed that neuronal network nuclei for behaviorally different forms of audiogenic seizure (AGS) exhibit similarities and important differences. The amygdala is involved differentially in tonic AGS as compared to clonic AGS networks. The role of the lateral amygdala (LAMG) undergoes major changes after AGS repetition (AGS kindling) in tonic forms of AGS. The present study examined the role of LAMG in a clonic form of AGS [genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-3s)] before and after AGS kindling using bilateral microinjection and chronic neuronal recordings. AGS kindling in GEPR-3s results in facial and forelimb (F&F) clonus, and this behavior could be blocked following bilateral microinjection of a NMDA antagonist (2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate) without affecting generalized clonus. Higher AP7 doses blocked both generalized clonus and F&F clonus. LAMG neurons in GEPR-3s exhibited only onset type neuronal responses both before and after AGS kindling, unlike LAMG neurons in normal rats and a tonic form of AGS. A significantly greater LAMG neuronal firing rate occurred after AGS kindling at high acoustic intensities. The latency of LAMG neuronal firing increased significantly after AGS kindling. Burst firing occurred during wild running and generalized clonic behaviors before and after AGS kindling. Burst firing also occurred during F&F clonus after AGS kindling. These findings indicate that LAMG neurons play a critical role in the neuronal network for generalized clonus as well as F&F clonus in GEPR-3s, both before and after AGS kindling, which contrasts markedly with the role of LAMG in tonic AGS.

  11. Causes of extreme rainfall in May 2013 over Henan Province: the role of the southwest vortex and low-level jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinmin; Liu, Yong

    2017-02-01

    The present work investigated the large-scale background and possible causes of the rainstorm in Henan Province on 25-26 May 2013 using observational and numerical studies. The results indicated that this rainstorm was accompanied by widespread rainfall in China, especially Central China. The storm was caused by the eastward movement of the southwest vortex (SWV) and a strong low-level southwesterly jet, which brought adequate moisture from the Bay of Bengal and triggered a strong ascending motion. The main features of the daily rain belt and large-scale atmospheric circulation were well captured by the numerical simulation. Both observational and numerical results confirmed the essential role of the low-level southwesterly jet and its warm advection in the development and propagation of the SWV. Low-level warm advection guiding SWV propagation may provide a reference for forecasting rainfall induced by the SWV.

  12. Rod-shaped carbon isotopes at extreme spin and isopin

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, P W; Meng, J

    2014-01-01

    The anomalously deformed rod shape has been investigated in the framework of the cranking covariant density functional theory, and two mechanisms to stabilize such state with respect to the bending motion, extreme spin and isospin, are simultaneously discussed for the first time in a self-consistent and microscopic way. It has been known that adding valence neutrons and rotating the system play very important roles in the stability of the rod shape, and we have found their coherent effect; the sigma-orbitals (parallel to the symmetry axis) of the valence neutrons, important for the rod shape, are lowered by the rotation due to the Coriolis term. This provides a further strong hint that a rod shape could be realized in nuclei towards extreme spin and isopin.

  13. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  14. A longitudinal investigation of the mediating role of self-esteem and body importance in the relationship between stress and body dissatisfaction in adolescent females and males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don

    2013-09-01

    Body dissatisfaction is particularly prevalent during adolescence and has recently been linked to stress in females and males. However, prospective studies are needed to better understand the relationship between stress and body dissatisfaction. The present study investigates the direction of this association and the mediating role of self-esteem and body image importance. A sample of 298 adolescent females and males in Grades 7 to 10 (ages 12 to 17 years) were surveyed at two time points over a one-year period. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that stress significantly predicted body dissatisfaction one year later. Furthermore, a multiple mediation analysis controlling for gender revealed a significant indirect effect in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, indicating that stress predicts reductions in self-esteem and increases in body importance, which in turn predict body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that stress, self-esteem, and body importance should be included in programmes aimed at improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of important non-parental adults (VIPs) in the lives of older adolescents: a comparison of three ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17-19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs' psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents' self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. Indicadores de qualidade de vida e sua importância na Ortodontia Quality of life instruments and their role in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Feu

    2010-12-01

    of quality of life and the methodology used in the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The use of quality of life indicators in dental research and clinical orthodontics are extremely important and helpful in diagnosis and planning but do not replace standard indexes and should be used in a strictly complementary manne

  17. Why are some galaxy disks extremely thin?

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Arunima

    2012-01-01

    Some low surface brightness galaxies are known to have extremely thin stellar disks with the vertical to planar axes ratio 0.1 or less, often referred to as superthin disks. Although their existence is known for over three decades, the physical origin for the thin distribution is not understood. We model the stellar thickness for a two-component (gravitationally coupled stars and gas) disk embedded in a dark matter halo, for a superthin galaxy UGC 7321 which has a dense, compact halo, and compare with a typical dwarf galaxy HoII which has a non-compact halo. We show that while the presence of gas does constrain the disk thickness, it is the compact dark matter halo which plays the decisive role in determining the superthin disk distribution in low-mass disks. Thus the compact dark matter halo significantly affects the disk structure and this could be important for the early evolution of galaxies.

  18. Should We Stop Looking for a Better Scoring Algorithm for Handling Implicit Association Test Data? Test of the Role of Errors, Extreme Latencies Treatment, Scoring Formula, and Practice Trials on Reliability and Validity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Richetin

    Full Text Available Since the development of D scores for the Implicit Association Test, few studies have examined whether there is a better scoring method. In this contribution, we tested the effect of four relevant parameters for IAT data that are the treatment of extreme latencies, the error treatment, the method for computing the IAT difference, and the distinction between practice and test critical trials. For some options of these different parameters, we included robust statistic methods that can provide viable alternative metrics to existing scoring algorithms, especially given the specificity of reaction time data. We thus elaborated 420 algorithms that result from the combination of all the different options and test the main effect of the four parameters with robust statistical analyses as well as their interaction with the type of IAT (i.e., with or without built-in penalty included in the IAT procedure. From the results, we can elaborate some recommendations. A treatment of extreme latencies is preferable but only if it consists in replacing rather than eliminating them. Errors contain important information and should not be discarded. The D score seems to be still a good way to compute the difference although the G score could be a good alternative, and finally it seems better to not compute the IAT difference separately for practice and test critical trials. From this recommendation, we propose to improve the traditional D scores with small yet effective modifications.

  19. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C-1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  20. THE ROLE AND THE IMPORTANCE IN CHOOSING THE PROPER MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING CONCEPTS REGARDING THE NEED FOR INFORMATION ON THE DECISION MAKING FACTORS WITHIN THE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia David

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both the theory and modern practice of the management accounting took over two general concepts regarding its organizational process, structuring accounting in either an integrated system or a dualist one. We aim at emphasizing the characteristics, the role and the importance of these concepts in regards to the calculation process and the accounting entries of the costs generated by economic entities with an eye at gaining profit. Choosing one of the previously mentioned concepts must be done taking into consideration the specific of the company in question as well as the information necessary to the manager who needs to find out the optimum solution in order to achieve the rehabilitation and efficiency of the activity which is supposed to be carried out. The subject of this work is approached both theoretically and practically, relying on the following research methods: the comparison method, the observation method and the case study method.

  1. Analytic Hierarchy Process to Define the Most Important Factors and Related Technologies for Empowering Elderly People in Taking an Active Role in their Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fico, G; Gaeta, E; Arredondo, M T; Pecchia, L

    2015-09-01

    Successful management of health conditions in older population is determined by strategic involvement of a professional team of careers and by empowering patients and their caregivers to take over a central role and responsibility in the daily management of condition. Identifying, structuring and ranking the most important needs related to these aspects could pave the way for improved strategies in designing systems and technological solutions supporting user empowerment. This paper presents the preliminary results of a study aiming to elicit these needs. Healthcare professionals, working together in the European and Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP-AHA) initiative, have defined a set of needs and factors that have been organized in two hierarchies around the concepts of patient activation and proactive and prepared care team, defined in the Chronic Care Model. The two hierarchies have been mapped, by a team of experts in computer science, with technologies and solutions that could facilitate the achievement of the identified needs.

  2. Women in extreme poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  3. 海水养殖水体硅藻的多样性与作用%Diversity of diatoms and its important role in marine aquaculture waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亚辉; 李雪松; 吴文忠

    2012-01-01

    Diatom is a main component of phytoplankton and benthic algae in marine aquaculture areas and is important food organisms of marine fish, shellfish and shrimps, which plays a very important ecological role in element cycle and energy flow in marine aquaculture waters. In the present paper, a review is made on the study progress focusing on the diatoms in the marine aquaculture waters including the following aspects: diatom species diversity, nano - diatom and its role, taxonomy of diatom, nutrition value of diatom cells as animal food. This review is made aiming on increasing our knowledge on diatom taxonomy, species diversity, and their relationship with aquaculture capacity and aquaculture environment changes.%硅藻是海水养殖水体浮游植物和底栖藻类中的最主要类群,也是鱼类、贝类和虾类的重要饵料生物,在养殖水体的物质循环和能量流动中起着极其重要的生态作用。本文对海水养殖水体硅藻的种类多样性、微型硅藻的分布与作用、硅藻的分类研究、硅藻的营养价值与饵料作用等进行了综述,为丰富硅藻的分类学和多样性研究、优化养殖环境、提高养殖动物生产力等提供参考资料。

  4. Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases: important roles in the metabolism of naturally occurring sulfur and selenium-containing compounds, xenobiotics and anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Arthur J L; Krasnikov, Boris F; Niatsetskaya, Zoya V; Pinto, John T; Callery, Patrick S; Villar, Maria T; Artigues, Antonio; Bruschi, Sam A

    2011-06-01

    Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-containing enzymes that catalyze β-elimination reactions with cysteine S-conjugates that possess a good leaving group in the β-position. The end products are aminoacrylate and a sulfur-containing fragment. The aminoacrylate tautomerizes and hydrolyzes to pyruvate and ammonia. The mammalian cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases thus far identified are enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism that catalyze β-lyase reactions as non-physiological side reactions. Most are aminotransferases. In some cases the lyase is inactivated by reaction products. The cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are of much interest to toxicologists because they play an important key role in the bioactivation (toxication) of halogenated alkenes, some of which are produced on an industrial scale and are environmental contaminants. The cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases have been reviewed in this journal previously (Cooper and Pinto in Amino Acids 30:1-15, 2006). Here, we focus on more recent findings regarding: (1) the identification of enzymes associated with high-M(r) cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases in the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of rat liver and kidney; (2) the mechanism of syncatalytic inactivation of rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase by the nephrotoxic β-lyase substrate S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine (the cysteine S-conjugate of tetrafluoroethylene); (3) toxicant channeling of reactive fragments from the active site of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase to susceptible proteins in the mitochondria; (4) the involvement of cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases in the metabolism/bioactivation of drugs and natural products; and (5) the role of cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases in the metabolism of selenocysteine Se-conjugates. This review emphasizes the fact that the cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are biologically more important than hitherto appreciated.

  5. Arabidopsis NIP3;1 Plays an Important Role in Arsenic Uptake and Root-to-Shoot Translocation under Arsenite Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenzhong; Dai, Wentao; Yan, Huili; Li, Sheng; Shen, Hongling; Chen, Yanshan; Xu, Hua; Sun, Yangyang; He, Zhenyan; Ma, Mi

    2015-05-01

    In Arabidopsis, the nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily of aquaporin proteins consists of nine members, five of which (NIP1;1, NIP1;2, NIP5;1, NIP6;1, and NIP7;1) were previously identified to be permeable to arsenite. However, the roles of NIPs in the root-to-shoot translocation of arsenite in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, using reverse genetic strategies, Arabidopsis NIP3;1 was identified to play an important role in both the arsenic uptake and root-to-shoot distribution under arsenite stress conditions. The nip3;1 loss-of-function mutants displayed obvious improvements in arsenite tolerance for aboveground growth and accumulated less arsenic in shoots than those of the wild-type plants, whereas the nip3;1 nip1;1 double mutant showed strong arsenite tolerance and improved growth of both roots and shoots under arsenite stress conditions. A promoter-β-glucuronidase analysis revealed that NIP3;1 was expressed almost exclusively in roots (with the exception of the root tips), and heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated that NIP3;1 was able to mediate arsenite transport. Taken together, our results suggest that NIP3;1 is involved in arsenite uptake and root-to-shoot translocation in Arabidopsis, probably as a passive and bidirectional arsenite transporter.

  6. A genome-wide scan reveals important roles of DNA methylation in human longevity by regulating age-related disease genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hui Xiao

    Full Text Available It is recognized that genetic factors contribute to human longevity. Besides the hypothesis of existence of longevity genes, another suggests that a lower frequency of risk alleles decreases the incidence of age-related diseases in the long-lived people. However, the latter finds no support from recent genetic studies. Considering the crucial role of epigenetic modification in gene regulation, we then hypothesize that suppressing disease-related genes in longevity individuals is likely achieved by epigenetic modification, e.g. DNA methylation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the genome-wide methylation profile in 4 Chinese female centenarians and 4 middle-aged controls using methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. 626 differentially methylated regions (DMRs were observed between both groups. Interestingly, genes with these DMRs were enriched in age-related diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. This pattern remains rather stable after including methylomes of two white individuals. Further analyses suggest that the observed DMRs likely have functional roles in regulating disease-associated gene expressions, with some genes [e.g. caspase 3 (CASP3] being down-regulated whereas the others [i.e. interleukin 1 receptor, type 2 (IL1R2] up-regulated. Therefore, our study suggests that suppressing the disease-related genes via epigenetic modification is an important contributor to human longevity.

  7. Mast cells and histamine play an important role in edema and leukocyte recruitment induced by Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Louise F; Prezotto-Neto, José Pedro; Távora, Bianca C L F; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L; Pereira, Nicole A; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Jared, Simone G S; Teixeira, Catarina F P; Santoro, Marcelo L; Barbaro, Katia C

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to investigate mechanisms underlying the inflammatory response caused by Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom (PmV) in mouse paws. Pre-treatment of animals with a mast cell degranulation inhibitor (cromolyn) diminished edema (62% of inhibition) and leukocyte influx into the site of PmV injection. Promethazine (histamine type 1 receptor antagonist) or thioperamide (histamine type 3 and 4 receptor antagonist) also decreased edema (up to 30%) and leukocyte numbers, mainly neutrophils (40-50 %). Cimetidine (histamine type 2 receptor antagonist) had no effect on PmV-induced inflammation. In the RBL-2H3 lineage of mast cells, PmV caused proper cell activation, in a dose-dependent manner, with release of PGD2 and PGE2. In addition, the role of COXs products on PmV inflammatory response was evaluated. Indomethacin (COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor) or etoricoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) partially diminished edema (around 20%) in PmV-injected mice. Indomethacin, but not etoricoxib, modulated neutrophil influx into the site of venom injection. In conclusion, mast cell degranulation and histamine, besides COXs products, play an important role in PmV-induced reaction. Since PmV mechanism of action remains unknown, hindering accurate treatment, clinical studies can be performed to validate the prescription of antihistaminic drugs, besides NSAIDs, to patients injured by freshwater stingrays.

  8. Mig-14 plays an important role in influencing gene expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, which contributes to cell invasion under hyperosmotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiumei; Zhang, Hong; Xia, Qiufeng; Xu, Shungao; Xu, Huaxi; Huang, Xinxiang

    2013-11-01

    mig-14 is a horizontally acquired host-induced virulence gene in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The molecular function of mig-14 is still unknown; sequence analysis showed that mig-14 shared homology with the helix-loop-helix motif of the AraC family of transcriptional regulatory proteins. In our previous microarray-based studies, mig-14 was upregulated at the early stage of high osmotic stress, indicating a potential role under this condition. Therefore, we compared growth and the global transcriptional difference between wild-type and mig-14 mutant strains to identify the role of Mig-14. The results showed that growth of mig-14 mutant strain was clearly slower than that of the wild-type strain, and 148 genes showed significant differences in expression between these two strains under upshift high osmotic treatment for 30 min. In total, 77 genes and 71 genes in the mig-14 mutant strain were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Genes involved in invasion, virulence, flagellation, motility and chemotaxis of Salmonella were downregulated. Thus, cell invasion abilities of these two strains were further analyzed. The results confirmed that activities of mig-14 were important for cell invasion.

  9. Isoleucine at position 150 of Cyt2Aa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis plays an important role during membrane binding and oligomerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwarang Pathaichindachote

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyt2Aa2 is a mosquito larvicidal and cytolytic toxin producedby Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis. The toxin becomesinactive when isoleucine at position 150 was replacedby alanine. To investigate the functional role of this position,Ile150 was substituted with Leu, Phe, Glu and Lys. All mutantproteins were produced at high level, solubilized in carbonatebuffer and yielded protease activated product similar to thoseof the wild type. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra analysis suggestedthat these mutants retain similar folding to the wildtype. However, mosquito larvicidal and hemolytic activitiesdramatically decreased for the I150K and were completelyabolished for I150A and I150F mutants. Membrane bindingand oligomerization assays demonstrated that only I150E andI150L could bind and form oligomers on lipid membrane similarto that of the wild type. Our results suggest that amino acidat position 150 plays an important role during membranebinding and oligomerization of Cyt2Aa2 toxin. [BMB Reports2013; 46(3: 175-180

  10. DJ-1 plays an important role in caffeic acid-mediated protection of the gastrointestinal mucosa against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Jhang, Jhih-Jia; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2014-10-01

    Ketoprofen is widely used to alleviate pain and inflammation in clinical medicine; however, this drug may cause oxidative stress and lead to gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers. We previously reported that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in protecting cells against reactive oxygen species, and it facilitates the prevention of ketoprofen-induced GI mucosal ulcers. Recent reports suggested that Nrf2 becomes unstable in the absence of DJ-1/PARK7, attenuating the activity of Nrf2-regulated downstream antioxidant enzymes. Thus, increasing Nrf2 translocation by DJ-1 may represent a novel means for GI protection. In vitro, caffeic acid increases the nuclear/cytosolic Nrf2 ratio and the mRNA expression of the downstream antioxidant enzymes, ϒ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and heme oxygenase-1, by activating the JNK/p38 pathway in Int-407 cells. Moreover, knockdown of DJ-1 also reversed caffeic acid-induced nuclear Nrf2 protein expression in a JNK/p38-dependent manner. Our results also indicated that treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with caffeic acid prior to the administration of ketoprofen inhibited oxidative damage and reversed the inhibitory effects of ketoprofen on the antioxidant system and DJ-1 protein expression in the GI mucosa. Our observations suggest that DJ-1 plays an important role in caffeic acid-mediated protection against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage in the GI mucosa.

  11. ENU-induced mutation in the DNA-binding domain of KLF3 reveals important roles for KLF3 in cardiovascular development and function in mice.

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    Lois Kelsey

    Full Text Available KLF3 is a Krüppel family zinc finger transcription factor with widespread tissue expression and no previously known role in heart development. In a screen for dominant mutations affecting cardiovascular function in N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenized mice, we identified a missense mutation in the Klf3 gene that caused aortic valvular stenosis and partially penetrant perinatal lethality in heterozygotes. All homozygotes died as embryos. In the first of three zinc fingers, a point mutation changed a highly conserved histidine at amino acid 275 to arginine (Klf3(H275R . This change impaired binding of the mutant protein to KLF3's canonical DNA binding sequence. Heterozygous Klf3(H275R mutants that died as neonates had marked biventricular cardiac hypertrophy with diminished cardiac chambers. Adult survivors exhibited hypotension, cardiac hypertrophy with enlarged cardiac chambers, and aortic valvular stenosis. A dominant negative effect on protein function was inferred by the similarity in phenotype between heterozygous Klf3(H275R mutants and homozygous Klf3 null mice. However, the existence of divergent traits suggested the involvement of additional interactions. We conclude that KLF3 plays diverse and important roles in cardiovascular development and function in mice, and that amino acid 275 is critical for normal KLF3 protein function. Future exploration of the KLF3 pathway provides a new avenue for investigating causative factors contributing to cardiovascular disorders in humans.

  12. Pili play an important role in enhancing the bacterial clearance from the middle ear in a mouse model of acute otitis media with Moraxella catarrhalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Toshiaki; Hirano, Takashi; Kodama, Satoru; Mitsui, Marcelo Takahiro; Ahmed,