WorldWideScience

Sample records for extremely important issue

  1. Important Issues in Ecotoxicological Investigations Using Earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra

    The importance and beneficial effects of earthworms on soil structure and quality is well-established. In addition, earthworms have proved to be important model organisms for investigation of pollutant effects on soil ecosystems. In ecotoxicological investigations effects of various pollutants on earthworms were assessed. But some important issues regarding the effects of pollutants on earthworms still need to be comprehensively addressed. In this review several issues relevant to soil ecotoxicological investigations using earthworms are emphasized and guidelines that should be adopted in ecotoxicological investigations using earthworms are given. The inclusion of these guidelines in ecotoxicological studies will contribute to the better quantification of impacts of pollutants and will allow more accurate prediction of the real field effects of pollutants to earthworms.

  2. The Extreme Right in Eastern Europe and Territorial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mareš

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses and compares the different territorial conceptions of the extreme right in Eastern Europe and their political impact, with a view to explaining how important the historical legacy of the supposed territorial and border claims and injustices is for the identity of the extreme right (or their parts in contemporary Eastern Europe. It analyses the historical roots of the territorial claims of the extreme right in the area, the current situation regarding their territorial claims and disputes, and the impact of these territorial claims on domestic politics, on the politics of the extreme right at the European level and on regional security in this area.

  3. System performance modeling of extreme ultraviolet lithographic thermal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, P. A.; Gianoulakis, S. E.; Moen, C. D.; Kanouff, M. P.; Fisher, A.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical simulation is used in the development of an extreme ultraviolet lithography Engineering Test Stand. Extensive modeling was applied to predict the impact of thermal loads on key lithographic parameters such as image placement error, focal shift, and loss of CD control. We show that thermal issues can be effectively managed to ensure that their impact on lithographic performance is maintained within design error budgets. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  4. Current status and issues of external event PSA for extreme natural hazards after Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Kil; Hahm, Daegi; Kim, Min Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Extreme external events is emerged as significant risk contributor to the nuclear power plants after Fukushima Daiichi accident due to the catastrophic earthquake followed by great tsunami greater than a design basis. This accident shows that the extreme external events have the potential to simultaneously affect redundant and diverse safety systems and thereby induce common cause failure or common cause initiators. The probabilistic risk assessment methodology has been used for the risk assessment and safety improvement against the extreme natural hazards. The earthquake and tsunami hazard is an important issue for the nuclear industry in Korea. In this paper, the role and application of probabilistic safety assessment for the post Fukushima action will be introduced. For the evaluation of the extreme natural hazard, probabilistic seismic and tsunami hazard analysis is being performed for the safety enhancement. The research activity on the external event PSA and its interim results will be introduced with the issues to be solved in the future for the reliability enhancement of the risk analysis results. (authors)

  5. The Importance of Studying Past Extreme Floods to Prepare for Uncertain Future Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Hoyt and Langbein, 1955 in their book `Floods' wrote: " ..meteorologic and hydrologic conditions will combine to produce superfloods of unprecedented magnitude. We have every reason to believe that in most rivers past floods may not be an accurate measure of ultimate flood potentialities. It is this superflood with which we are always most concerned". I provide several examples to offer some historical perspective on assessing extreme floods. In one example, flooding in the Miami Valley, OH in 1913 claimed 350 lives. The engineering and socio-economic challenges facing the Morgan Engineering Co in how to mitigate against future flood damage and loss of life when limited information was available provide guidance about ways to face an uncertain hydroclimate future, particularly one of a changed climate. A second example forces us to examine mixed flood populations and illustrates the huge uncertainty in assigning flood magnitude and exceedance probability to extreme floods in such cases. There is large uncertainty in flood frequency estimates; knowledge of the total flood hydrograph, not the peak flood flow rate alone, is what is needed for hazard mitigation assessment or design. Some challenges in estimating the complete flood hydrograph in an uncertain future climate, including demands on hydrologic models and their inputs, are addressed.

  6. Important issues for perioperative systemic antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Bhanu; van Assen, Sander; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prevention of surgical site infections is a key issue to patient safety and the success of surgical interventions. Systemic antimicrobial prophylaxis is one important component of a perioperative infection prevention bundle. This review focuses on selected recent developments and

  7. Privatisation electric power sector in Pakistan: some important issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, A.; Weiss, J.

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper highlights important issues relating to the privatisation of Pakistan's electric power sector. Salient features of the electric power sector in Pakistan, factors affecting the economic performance of this sector, the partial privatisation policy adopted by Pakistan, ongoing private power projects, and current privatisation policy are examined. The arguments for competition are raised, and alternative policy reforms the are considered

  8. Importance of resolution and model configuration when downscaling extreme precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J. Champion

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical downscaling is frequently used to investigate the dynamical variables of extra-tropical cyclones, for example, precipitation, using very high-resolution models nested within coarser resolution models to understand the processes that lead to intense precipitation. It is also used in climate change studies, using long timeseries to investigate trends in precipitation, or to look at the small-scale dynamical processes for specific case studies. This study investigates some of the problems associated with dynamical downscaling and looks at the optimum configuration to obtain the distribution and intensity of a precipitation field to match observations. This study uses the Met Office Unified Model run in limited area mode with grid spacings of 12, 4 and 1.5 km, driven by boundary conditions provided by the ECMWF Operational Analysis to produce high-resolution simulations for the Summer of 2007 UK flooding events. The numerical weather prediction model is initiated at varying times before the peak precipitation is observed to test the importance of the initialisation and boundary conditions, and how long the simulation can be run for. The results are compared to raingauge data as verification and show that the model intensities are most similar to observations when the model is initialised 12 hours before the peak precipitation is observed. It was also shown that using non-gridded datasets makes verification more difficult, with the density of observations also affecting the intensities observed. It is concluded that the simulations are able to produce realistic precipitation intensities when driven by the coarser resolution data.

  9. Imports/exports issues and options : discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Alberta marketplace is ideally located for connections to British Columbia, the Pacific Northwest, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and the Mid-Continental Area Power Pool (MAPP). Alignment with other markets becomes an important issue and provides challenges that must be overcome. It provides an opportunity for expanded trade in Alberta based loads and generation. The Real Time (RT) market for the trading of physical, dispatchable energy and the forwards markets (financial and intended to go to delivery through the RT market) are comprised in the Alberta marketplace. The development of a complete marketplace for electricity is fully supported by the Power Poll of Alberta. Developments in those two markets allow greater opportunity for a review of the interconnections in the Alberta electricity market. In this document, an attempt is made to identify issues relating to the imports and exports and develop alternative mechanisms to resolve these issues. Three main objectives were put forth: identify a better mechanism to meet the requirements of the Pool Price Deficiency Regulation (PPDR), identify a better mechanism to allow imports and exports to participate in the Alberta market that takes into consideration the impact of transmission constraints, and to better align with external markets. An hour ahead firm market for interconnections was one option that addresses the issues under consideration

  10. Introduction to the special issue: Observed and projected changes in weather and climate extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue documents not only the more recent progress made in detecting and attributing changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in the observational record, but also in projecting changes in such extremes at regional and local scales. It also deals with the impacts and other consequences and implications of both the historic and anticipated changes in extreme weather and climate events. Impact assessments using both dynamical downscaling and statistical modelling for two tropical cyclones are reported, as well as for storm surge and extreme wave changes. The Special Issue concludes with a consideration of some policy implications and practical applications arising from our relatively robust understanding of how the build up of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere affects weather and climate extremes.

  11. Some important issues in evaluating the availability of passive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.; Kelemen, I.; Krzykacz, B.

    1993-01-01

    In some countries new reactor concepts based on a broader use of passive safety features are under development. The term 'passive' as used here refers to systems which rely heavily on natural heat transfer process such as natural circulation to perform their function rather than on decidedly 'active' components like pumps. The paper deals with important issues in evaluating the availability of passive systems, e.g. the assessment of the active components, the assessment of passive components and structures and the probabilistic assessment of the physical function of the natural processes. Based on an outlined assessment process for the entire system and on an exercised simulation process for the assessment of passive components e.g. pipes insights and important issues are presented. A follow-up study will refine and expand the concept to a full scope assessment procedure of passive systems. (author)

  12. Neutrino physics today, important issues and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    The status and the most important issues in neutrino physics will be summarized as well as how the current, pressing questions will be addressed by future experiments. Since the discovery of neutrino flavor transitions by the SuperKamiokande experiment in 1998, which demonstrates that neutrinos change and hence their clocks tick, i.e. they are not traveling at the speed of light and hence are not massless, the field of neutrino physics has made remarkable progress in untangling the nature of the neutrino. However, there are still many important questions to answer.

  13. Performance testing of supercapacitors: Important issues and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Gao, Yinghan; Burke, Andrew F.

    2017-09-01

    Supercapacitors are a promising technology for high power energy storage, which have been used in some industrial and vehicles applications. Hence, it is important that information concerning the performance of supercapacitors be detailed and reliable so system designers can make rational decisions regarding the selection of the energy storage components. This paper is concerned with important issues and uncertainties regarding the performance testing of supercapacitors. The effect of different test procedures on the measured characteristics of both commercial and prototype supercapacitors including hybrid supercapacitors have been studied. It was found that the test procedure has a relatively minor effect on the capacitance of carbon/carbon devices and a more significant effect on the capacitance of hybrid supercapacitors. The device characteristic with the greatest uncertainty is the resistance and subsequently the claimed power capability of the device. The energy density should be measured by performing constant power discharges between appropriate voltage limits. This is particularly important in the case of hybrid supercapacitors for which the energy density is rate dependent and the simple relationship E = ½CV2 does not yield accurate estimates of the energy stored. In general, most of the important issues for testing carbon/carbon devices become more serious for hybrid supercapacitors.

  14. Important issues in disposal of L/ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.

    1987-01-01

    Today waste disposal is a challenging technical and political issue. In many countries the acceptance of nuclear power has been tied formally or informally to the convincing demonstration that we can dispose of all radioactive wastes with a very high degree of safety exceeding the expected for other toxic or hazardous wastes. The importance of the public acceptance aspects and the more obviously striking characteristics of high-level wastes (HLW) - in particular their high initial radiation, their heat emission and their long decay times - led to an early concentration of effort on planning and analyzing HLW disposal. On the other hand, the problems of disposing of low- and inter-mediate-level wastes (L/ILW) are in many ways more immediate. These wastes are arising today in quantities which can make continued storge troublesome; accordingly increased effort is being expended in many countries on organizing the safe, final disposal of L/ILW. Some of the technical issues of importance which arise in the corresponding planning and analysis of repository projects for L/ILW are discussed in this paper

  15. Preservation of Agricultural Land as an Issue of Societal Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Slätmo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on concerns about food security and food sovereignty, it is appropriate to scrutinise societal measures for protecting agricultural land from conversion to other uses. Changes from agricultural to urban land use are particularly problematic, as they are largely irreversible. By analysing relevant Swedish policy, the present study investigated how the protection of agricultural land is framed as an issue of societal importance. Protection of agricultural land is enshrined in Swedish law, but its use is still continually changing to housing and other constructions. In a structured policy analysis, two questions were examined: (1 what are the societal motives for protecting agricultural land in Sweden, and (2 how do these motives influence the governance of agricultural land? The meaning of ‘national importance’, ‘suitable for cultivation’ and ‘significant national interests’ in Swedish land-use law was also analysed. The results showed that formulations in the law reflect the ambivalent discourses on agricultural land preservation and that the Swedish authorities view other land uses as more important than agriculture. The Swedish governance system is currently built on trust that municipal institutions will make satisfactory decisions concerning land and water use. However, it has been shown that these decisions have not been satisfactory concerning the protection of agricultural land, and it is important to acknowledge that the sum of local decisions can be degrading for these life-supporting resources. The present analysis revealed a looming conflict between the preservation of soils for food production, on one hand, and local participation in decision making, on the other. This raises the question of whether it is more important to defend subsidiarity or to preserve certain resources which are important for food security, such as agricultural land.

  16. Socioscientific issues: topics and importance to the scientific education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Moreno, Naira;

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Socioscientific debates arise and become widespread concerning the most popular and innovative issues in our society: transgenics, homeopathy, the impact of mobile phone network and so on. For this reason we believe it is important to analyse the meaning of these debates and the relationship between information processing in newspapers and teaching literature and to determine their possible use in a school context. The common image of scientific news that tends to appear in the media hampers its use in the classroom. On analysing didactic literature, we have selected activities that can be used as a model to plan debates in the science classroom with the objective of developing a series of capacities in students related to scientific literacy, critical thinking and the promotion of a scientific culture.

  17. Consideration of important technical issues for advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thadani, A.C.; Perch, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Early in the design and review process of the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in recognition of the importance of defense-in-depth focused its attention on lessons learned from the operating experience, research and other studies as well as addressing the challenges from severe accidents. The Commission issued the Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operations of Nuclear Power Plants on August 4, 1986. This policy statement focused on the risks to the public from nuclear power plant operations with the objective of establishing goals that broadly define an acceptable level of radiological risk that might be imposed on the public as a result of nuclear power plant operation. The Commission recognizes the importance of mitigating the consequences of a core-melt accident and continues to emphasize features such as containment and siting in less populated areas as integral parts of the defense-in-depth concept associated with its accident prevention and mitigation philosophy. In its Severe Accident Policy statement, the Commission expressed its expectation that vendors engage in designing new standard plants should address severe accidents during the design stage to take full advantage of insights gained by providing design features to further reduce the likelihood of severe accidents from occurring and, in the unlikely occurrence of a severe accident, mitigating their consequences. Incorporating insights and design features during the design phase can be cost effective when compared to modifications to existing plants. The staff has used this guidance to apply defense-in-depth philosophy in focusing attention on severe accident considerations. This paper discusses some of the key prevention and mitigation issues the NRC has focused its efforts, including emerging technologies being applied to new reactor designs

  18. An approach to maintenance optimization where safety issues are important

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatn, Jorn, E-mail: jorn.vatn@ntnu.n [NTNU, Production and Quality Engineering, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Aven, Terje [University of Stavanger (Norway)

    2010-01-15

    The starting point for this paper is a traditional approach to maintenance optimization where an object function is used for optimizing maintenance intervals. The object function reflects maintenance cost, cost of loss of production/services, as well as safety costs, and is based on a classical cost-benefit analysis approach where a value of prevented fatality (VPF) is used to weight the importance of safety. However, the rationale for such an approach could be questioned. What is the meaning of such a VPF figure, and is it sufficient to reflect the importance of safety by calculating the expected fatality loss VPF and potential loss of lives (PLL) as being done in the cost-benefit analyses? Should the VPF be the same number for all type of accidents, or should it be increased in case of multiple fatality accidents to reflect gross accident aversion? In this paper, these issues are discussed. We conclude that we have to see beyond the expected values in situations with high safety impacts. A framework is presented which opens up for a broader decision basis, covering considerations on the potential for gross accidents, the type of uncertainties and lack of knowledge of important risk influencing factors. Decisions with a high safety impact are moved from the maintenance department to the 'Safety Board' for a broader discussion. In this way, we avoid that the object function is used in a mechanical way to optimize the maintenance and important safety-related decisions are made implicit and outside the normal arena for safety decisions, e.g. outside the traditional 'Safety Board'. A case study from the Norwegian railways is used to illustrate the discussions.

  19. An approach to maintenance optimization where safety issues are important

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatn, Jorn; Aven, Terje

    2010-01-01

    The starting point for this paper is a traditional approach to maintenance optimization where an object function is used for optimizing maintenance intervals. The object function reflects maintenance cost, cost of loss of production/services, as well as safety costs, and is based on a classical cost-benefit analysis approach where a value of prevented fatality (VPF) is used to weight the importance of safety. However, the rationale for such an approach could be questioned. What is the meaning of such a VPF figure, and is it sufficient to reflect the importance of safety by calculating the expected fatality loss VPF and potential loss of lives (PLL) as being done in the cost-benefit analyses? Should the VPF be the same number for all type of accidents, or should it be increased in case of multiple fatality accidents to reflect gross accident aversion? In this paper, these issues are discussed. We conclude that we have to see beyond the expected values in situations with high safety impacts. A framework is presented which opens up for a broader decision basis, covering considerations on the potential for gross accidents, the type of uncertainties and lack of knowledge of important risk influencing factors. Decisions with a high safety impact are moved from the maintenance department to the 'Safety Board' for a broader discussion. In this way, we avoid that the object function is used in a mechanical way to optimize the maintenance and important safety-related decisions are made implicit and outside the normal arena for safety decisions, e.g. outside the traditional 'Safety Board'. A case study from the Norwegian railways is used to illustrate the discussions.

  20. Communicating natural hazards. The case of marine extreme events and the importance of the forecast's errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Eduardo; Camargo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    possible to produce short and long term forecasts. While the statistic of extremes is useful for many stakeholders, short term forecasts could be of importance for the whole society. Whatever the case, the prediction errors have to be emphasizes even more than the forecasts. The most common forecast in terms of general public understanding is the weather prediction. Nowadays, general public knows it well enough to properly deal with the uncertainties, because after so many year of not perfect forecasts, society knows the limits. Other coastal hazards deserve to be presented more carefully, and some successful example of the use of the precautionary principle could be observed, for instance, on the Pacific Tsunami alert system. Nowadays, the preparedness of the coastal population is good enough (even in such big and diverse area) not to be bored to run up the hill, most of the times unnecessarily, because they know the uncertainty and accept it. The key issue we, scientists, have to work better at any level, is the need of properly estimate and communicate the uncertainties of our results, cause they are not obvious nor irrelevant.

  1. Deep vein thrombosis of lower extremity: What is the most important finding in duplex Doppler sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kwak, Jin Young [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The positive findings of deep vein thrombosis on duplex Doppler ultrasonography such as intraluminal clot,non-compressibility of the venous lumen and abnormal or absent Doppler shift signal are well known. However, relatively hypoechoic thrombus is not always seen in sonography, and the vein is frequently compressible in partial thrombosis. In order to evaluate the most common and important findings of deep vein thrombosis, we analysed the findings at duplex Doppler ultrasound in 19 patients and compared the results with those of contrast venography in 11 patients. Duplex Doppler ultrasound examination of the common femoral and popliteal veins was performed for one extremity in 14 patients, and for both extremities in 5 (total 24 extremities). Contrast venography was performed for one extremity in 7 patients, and for both sides in 4 (total 15 extremities).Thrombosis was seen in 45.8%, non-compressibility of lumen in 75%, absent or decreased Doppler signal from common femoral vein in 95.8%. Thrombosis was seen in 41.7%, non-compressibility of lumen in 70.8%, absent or decreased Doppler shift signal from popliteal vein in 95.8%. We conclude that abnormal or absent Doppler shift signal is the most sensitive and important finding of the deep vein thrombosis

  2. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  3. Important atomic physics issues for ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, Roger.

    1986-01-01

    The nearly endless variety of interesting and challenging problems makes physics research enjoyable. Most of us would choose to be physicists even if physics had no practical applications. However, physics does have practical applications. This workshop deals with one of those applications, namely ion beam fusion. Not all interesting and challenging atomic physics questions are important for ion beam fusion. This paper suggests some questions that may be important for ion beam fusion. It also suggests some criteria for determining if a question is only interesting, or both interesting and important. Importance is time dependent and, because of some restrictions on the flow of information, also country dependent. In the early days of ion beam fusion, it was important to determine if ion beam fusion made sense. Approximate answers and bounds on various parameters were required. Accurate, detailed answers were not needed. Because of the efforts of many people attending this workshop, we now know that ion beam fusion does make some sense. We must still determine if ion beam fusion truly makes good sense. If it does make good sense, we must determine how to make it work. Accurate detailed answers are becoming increasingly important. (author)

  4. Prenatal imprinting by environmental toxicants: really an important issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Ernst v. Mühlendahl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal imprinting of sexual behaviour and of other traits by environmental toxicants has been one important topic in the ongoing discussions in environmental medicine. This review of the literature shows that, so far, concrete data are sparse and, in part, contradictory.

  5. Important atomic physics issues for ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-01-01

    This paper suggests several current atomic physics questions important to ion beam fusion. Among the topics discussed are beam transport, beam-target interaction, and reactor design. The major part of the report is discussion concerning areas of research necessary to better understand beam-target interactions

  6. Some important issues on population and sustainable development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y

    1994-12-01

    A workshop was held in October 1993, at which time the Director of the Institute of Population Research at Peking University proposed that basic education for Chinese children be promoted, that the social, economic, and family status of Chinese women be improved, and that the social security of the elderly be improved. Sustainable development would be dependent upon the accomplishment of these three objectives. The evidence from 1982 and 1990 censuses showed that fertility was higher by as much as 2.4 times among women with no education compared to women with just a primary education. The education law should be strictly implemented. Rural families still disrupt their children's schooling in order to increase farming production. Theoretical support is insufficient. Many rural women still maintain son preference, which has increased fertility and contributed to an imbalanced sex ratio. In 1989 the male/female sex ratio was 113.8:100 compared to the normal ratio of 106:100. Undercounting of female births has accounted for 50% to 75% of the difference between the reported and the expected values. The high sex ratio of births delivered at hospitals is accounted for by prenatal selective screening and sex-selective abortion. A change in son preference ideology could be achieved by promoting the principle of equity between men and women and practicing economic policies that protect the rights of women and children. Regulations prohibiting sex-selective screening prenatally for nonmedical reasons should be enforced. Laws against infanticide and abandonment and neglect of females should be enforced. Family planning should emphasize good counseling and service delivery on a fully voluntary basis. The quality of data collection should be improved. The issues relating to prenatal sex determination should be researched and addressed with appropriate policy. China will continue to undergo rapid population aging. The old age security program currently operating in 700 counties

  7. Breast cancer in Mongolia: an increasingly important health policy issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchig D

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Delgermaa Demchig, Claudia Mello-Thoms, Patrick C Brennan Medical Image Optimization and Perception Group (MIOPeG, Faculty of Health Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death for women in both developed and developing countries. The incidence and mortality of breast cancer in Mongolia, while low compared with other counties, has been increasing on an annual basis. In addition, in Mongolia, approximately 90% of the patients are diagnosed at a late stage, resulting in high mortality, with the majority of individuals diagnosed with breast cancer dying within 5 years of diagnosis. Breast cancer screening plays an important role in reducing mortality in Western countries and has been adopted by a number of Asian countries; however, no such approach exists in Mongolia. In a country of limited resources, implementation of expensive health strategies such as screening requires effective allocations of resources and the identification of the most effective imaging methods. This requirement relies on recent accurate data; however, at this time, there is a paucity of information around breast cancer in Mongolia. Until data around features of the disease are available, effective strategies to diagnose breast cancer that recognize the economic climate in Mongolia cannot be implemented and the impact of breast cancer is likely to increase. Keywords: incidence, mortality, breast screening, Mongolia

  8. Selenium's importance in regulatory issues regarding mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Laura J.; Ralston, Nicholas V.C. [University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, 15 North 23rd Street, Stop 9018, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Current seafood safety and health risk assessment criteria use mercury concentrations as their sole basis. This unfortunate limitation omits consideration of selenium, an essential trace element that appears to be the primary molecular target of mercury toxicity. Although selenium has been recognized for decades as a means of counteracting mercury toxicity, its effects have often been overlooked or misunderstood. Experimental animal studies have demonstrated that increasing concentrations of selenium throughout the normal dietary range increasingly counteracts methylmercury toxicity. Dietary concentrations of selenium that are slightly less than the average amount present in ocean fish have been shown to completely prevent the onset of toxic symptoms of mercury toxicity, while animals fed lesser amounts of selenium rapidly sickened and died. Dietary selenium from a variety of sources including ocean fish such as tuna, swordfish, menhaden, and rockfish has been shown to counteract mercury toxicity. Since ocean fish are among the richest sources of dietary selenium, it is important to include selenium concentration measurements in future mercury risk assessments and seafood safety criteria. Mercury:selenium molar ratios in blood provide far more consistent and physiologically meaningful risk assessments. Comprehensive seafood safety criteria such as the Selenium Health Benefit Value enable clear differentiation between seafoods that are safe and those that are hazardous for human consumption. Use of parameters that integrate mercury-selenium relationships also make it easy to understand the differences between the findings of maternal mercury exposure studies that have been performed in New Zealand, the Faroes, the Seychelles, and the United Kingdom. Development of criteria for evaluating mercury-selenium interactions will enhance environmental protection and improve public safety. (author)

  9. The importance of extreme weight percentile in postoperative morbidity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stey, Anne M; Moss, R Lawrence; Kraemer, Kari; Cohen, Mark E; Ko, Clifford Y; Lee Hall, Bruce

    2014-05-01

    Anthropometric data are important indicators of child health. This study sought to determine whether anthropometric data of extreme weight were significant predictors of perioperative morbidity in pediatric surgery. This was a cohort study of children 29 days up to 18 years of age undergoing surgical procedures at participating American College of Surgeons' NSQIP Pediatric hospitals in 2011 and 2012. The primary outcomes were composite morbidity and surgical site infection. The primary predictor of interest was weight percentile, which was divided into the following categories: ≤5(th) percentile, 6(th) to 94(th), or ≥95(th) percentile. A hierarchical multivariate logistic model, adjusting for procedure case mix, demographic, and clinical patient characteristic variables, was used to quantify the relationship between weight percentile category and outcomes. Children in the ≤5th weight percentile had 1.19-fold higher odds of overall postoperative morbidity developing than children in the nonextreme range (95% CI, 1.10-1.30) when controlling for clinical variables. Yet these children did not have higher odds of surgical site infection developing. Children in the ≥95(th) weight percentile did not have a significant increase in overall postoperative morbidity. However, they were at 1.35-fold increased odds of surgical site infection compared with those in the nonextreme range when controlling for clinical variables (95% CI, 1.16-1.57). Both extremely high and extremely low weight percentile scores can be associated with increased postoperative complications after controlling for clinical variables. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 14 CFR 21.617 - Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: import appliances. 21.617 Section 21.617 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Order Authorizations § 21.617 Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances. (a) A letter of TSO design approval may be issued for an appliance that is manufactured in a foreign country with...

  11. The relative importance among anthropogenic forcings of land use/land cover change in affecting temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2018-05-01

    Land use/land cover change (LULCC) exerts significant influence on regional climate extremes, but its relative importance compared with other anthropogenic climate forcings has not been thoroughly investigated. This study compares land use forcing with other forcing agents in explaining the simulated historical temperature extreme changes since preindustrial times in the CESM-Last Millennium Ensemble (LME) project. CESM-LME suggests that the land use forcing has caused an overall cooling in both warm and cold extremes, and has significantly decreased diurnal temperature range (DTR). Due to the competing effects of the GHG and aerosol forcings, the spatial pattern of changes in 1850-2005 climatology of temperature extremes in CESM-LME can be largely explained by the land use forcing, especially for hot extremes and DTR. The dominance of land use forcing is particularly evident over Europe, eastern China, and the central and eastern US. Temporally, the land-use cooling is relatively stable throughout the historical period, while the warming of temperature extremes is mainly influenced by the enhanced GHG forcing, which has gradually dampened the local dominance of the land use effects. Results from the suite of CMIP5 experiments partially agree with the local dominance of the land use forcing in CESM-LME, but inter-model discrepancies exist in the distribution and sign of the LULCC-induced temperature changes. Our results underline the overall importance of LULCC in historical temperature extreme changes, implying land use forcing should be highlighted in future climate projections.

  12. On the importance of observational data properties when assessing regional climate model performance of extreme precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Christensen, Ole Bøssing

    2013-01-01

    datasets, the RCMs are ranked according to their performance using two different metrics. These are based on the error in representing the indices and the spatial correlation. In comparison to the mean, extreme precipitation indices are highly dependent on the spatial resolution of the observations...

  13. Topical issues of psychological research materials on matters related to extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekerazh T.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological support psychological and linguistic research "extremist" materials. Presents a comprehensive psycho-linguistic approach to the examination of information materials on matters related to combating extremism and terrorism, and certain provisions of the methodology developed by the Russian federal center of judicial examination of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation. Based on the analysis of the "verbal" crimes related to criminal legal interpretation of extremism and terrorism, highlighted the types of prohibited public expression of communicative action, corresponding to the seven types of "extremist" values. The article outlines the key features of psychological analysis "extremist" materials research stages. It is shown that the complex (psycho-linguistic approach to the study of materials of extremist orientation, is scientifically sound, methodically proven, appropriate to the needs of law enforcement, judicial and investigative practice.

  14. Issue on NPP-I and C important to safety-Data Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, I. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, J. W.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    1. Issue on CDV and FDIS of IEC61500 - Nuclear Power Plants - Instrumentation and control important to safety -Data communication - Activities on IEC TC45, SC45A/WGA3. 2. As issue the requirements for safety data communication which is essential part of digital I and C systems, the fundamental technology for IT based nuclear I and C is established. 3. Approval and circulation of IED61500 CDV and FDIS - Issue of the international standard, IEC 61500. 4. Issue one IEC61500, three interim documents, three presentations and five technical support to industry, and participation in IEC TC45 and SC45A plenary meeting and intermediate meeting on SC45A/WGA3. 5. Based on IEC61500, an new project on wireless technologyes application to NPP will be proceeded

  15. Cancerous patients and outbreak of Escherichia coli: an important issue in oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Joob, Beuy; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2014-01-01

    The widespread of the Escherichia coli outbreak in Europe becomes an important public concern at global level. The infection can be serious and might result in death. The retrospective literature review on this specific topic is performed. In this specific brief article, the author presented and discussed on the problem of Escherichia coli infection in the cancerous patients. This is an actual important issue in medical oncology for the scenario of Escherichia coli epidemic.

  16. Capital Buffers Based on Banks’ Domestic Systemic Importance:Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Skořepa, Michal; Seidler, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Regulators in many countries are currently considering ways to impose domestic systemic importance-based capital requirements on banks. Aiming to assist these considerations, this article discusses a number of issues concerning the calculation of a bank’s systemic importance to the domestic banking sector, such as the choice of indicators used and the pros and cons of focusing on an individual or consolidated level. Also, the “equal expected impact” procedure for determining adequate addition...

  17. Social sustainability of cod and haddock fisheries in the northeast Atlantic: what issues are important?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the sustainability of capture fisheries has focused more on environmental and economic sustainability than on social sustainability. To assess social sustainability, first relevant and important social sustainability issues need to be identified. The objective of this study was to

  18. On the Importance of the Flare's Late Phase for the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Frank; Jones, Andrew R.; Hock, Rachel; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Klimchuk, James A.; Didkovsky, Leonid; Judge, Darrell; Mariska, John; Bailey, Scott; hide

    2011-01-01

    The new solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have revealed a new class of solar flares that are referred to as late phase flares. These flares are characterized by the hot 2-5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI 33.5 nm) showing large secondary peaks that appear many minutes to hours after an eruptive flare event. In contrast, the cool 0.7-1.5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe IX 17.1 nm) usually dim immediately after the flare onset and do not recover until after the delayed second peak of the hot coronal emissions. We refer to this period of 1-5 hours after the fl amrea sin phase as the late phase, and this late phase is uniquely different than long duration flares associated with 2-ribbon flares or large filament eruptions. Our analysis of the late phase flare events indicates that the late phase involves hot coronal loops near the flaring region, not directly related to the original flaring loop system but rather with the higher post-eruption fields. Another finding is that space weather applications concerning Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere need to consider these late phase flares because they can enhance the total EUV irradiance flare variation by a factor of 2 when the late phase contribution is included.

  19. Measuring systemic importance of financial institutions: An extreme value theory approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gravelle, Toni; Li, Fuchun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we define a financial institution's contribution to financial systemic risk as the increase in financial systemic risk conditional on the crash of the financial institution. The higher the contribution is, the more systemically important is the institution for the system. Based on relevant but different measurements of systemic risk, we propose a set of market-based measures on the systemic importance of financial institutions, each designed to capture certain aspects of system...

  20. Baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: PCA parametrization and importance of extreme baryonic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Irshad [Fermilab; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Fermilab

    2017-07-07

    Baryonic effects are amongst the most severe systematics to the tomographic analysis of weak lensing data which is the principal probe in many future generations of cosmological surveys like LSST, Euclid etc.. Modeling or parameterizing these effects is essential in order to extract valuable constraints on cosmological parameters. In a recent paper, Eifler et al. (2015) suggested a reduction technique for baryonic effects by conducting a principal component analysis (PCA) and removing the largest baryonic eigenmodes from the data. In this article, we conducted the investigation further and addressed two critical aspects. Firstly, we performed the analysis by separating the simulations into training and test sets, computing a minimal set of principle components from the training set and examining the fits on the test set. We found that using only four parameters, corresponding to the four largest eigenmodes of the training set, the test sets can be fitted thoroughly with an RMS $\\sim 0.0011$. Secondly, we explored the significance of outliers, the most exotic/extreme baryonic scenarios, in this method. We found that excluding the outliers from the training set results in a relatively bad fit and degraded the RMS by nearly a factor of 3. Therefore, for a direct employment of this method to the tomographic analysis of the weak lensing data, the principle components should be derived from a training set that comprises adequately exotic but reasonable models such that the reality is included inside the parameter domain sampled by the training set. The baryonic effects can be parameterized as the coefficients of these principle components and should be marginalized over the cosmological parameter space.

  1. Summary of Research Issues in Behavior and Performance in Isolated and Confined Extreme (ICE) Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2000-01-01

    The papers presented in this section describe changes in behavior and performance in various isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments, including Antarctic expeditions and research stations, space simulators and isolation chambers, and submarines. Each of these environments possesses characteristics that are in some way analogous to those found on long-duration space missions. Despite differences in length of mission, characteristics of mission personnel or crew, and characteristics in the physical environment, the various ICE environments described in this collection of papers appear to produce similar changes in behavior and performance. These changes include increased disturbances of mood, increased rates of psychiatric disorder, increased interpersonal tension, and a disruption of circadian rhythms. However, these environments do not inherently produce decrements in performance. Palinkas and colleagues suggest that prolonged exposure to the isolation and confinement in the Antarctic can actually have positive or "salutogenic" effects as well, evidenced by a decrease in mood disturbances and increase in performance measures.

  2. Transcultural group performance in extreme environment: Issues, concepts and emerging theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Judith; Bouchard, Stéphane; Martin, Thibault; Perreault, Michel

    2009-06-01

    A simulation for flight of international crew on space station took place in Moscow from July 1999 to April 2000 (SFINCS) at the State Biomedical Institute of Russia (IBMP) isolation chambers. Objectives of this study were to identify concepts of psychosocial adaptation and of social interactions to develop an explanation of the transcultural group performance. Method: constructivist epistemology with grounded theory research and fourth generation evaluation were used. Data on processes and interactions were gathered during 110 days of confinement as a subject and extended to 240 days as an outside scientist. Results indicate that coping is influenced by usual coping strategies and coping behaviors inside. Several stresses and human factor issues were identified altering well being and performance inside the chambers. Enabling and limiting forces are discussed. A theory on transcultural group performance is proposed. Issues are raised that appear critical to selection, training and group performance.

  3. Conclusion to the special issue: Observed and projected changes in weather and climate extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hay

    2016-03-01

    The papers in this Special Issue have shown the nature of the scientific and related challenges, the progress made to date, and the challenges, opportunities and constraints yet to be addressed. They have contributed to increased understanding of where, how and why such events manifest themselves, now and into the future. Such insights increase the capacity to manage the risks associated with these events, and thereby reduce the consequences that society might otherwise have suffered.

  4. Important accounting issues for carbon dioxide capture and storage projects under the UNFCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefeli, S.; Bosi, M.; Philibert, C.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) provides options for making continued use of fossil fuels more compatible with pollution abatement policies. This paper evaluated policy issues related to CCS, with particular focus on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into geological storage sites. Before any carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) CCS activities can be included in the portfolio of climate change mitigation activities, several issues need to be resolved such as the development of appropriate accounting and baselines rules and monitoring modalities. Guidance and policies on baselines and the accounting of emission reductions are critical to ensure that CCS projects can benefit from CO 2 markets and are recognized under various mitigation schemes. This paper examined the major issues that should considered along with changes to current accounting approaches. Issues that need to be addressed in order to prepare national inventories for the inclusion of CCS under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and emission reduction schemes such as the European greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme were first presented, followed by an examination of CCS issues under project-based mechanisms such as the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism. The importance of clear definitions and monitoring guidelines for the proper accounting of CCS were also highlighted. 12 refs., 2 figs

  5. Interdependence, issue importance, and the 2009 Russia-Ukraine gas conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yusin

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to explain the 2009 Russia-Ukraine gas conflict. In particular, it attempts to identify the causal mechanisms between their interdependence in the gas sphere and the gas conflict. The paper first shows that existing theories in the study of international relations have limitations in accounting for that conflict. Therefore, a theoretical framework drawing insights from Armstrong's model on dependence-political compliance and Crescenzi's exit model is proposed to explain it. Relying on this framework, this paper demonstrates that the 2009 Russia-Ukraine gas conflict took place through two critical causal mechanisms. In the contexts of the 2008 global financial crisis and Ukraine's anti-Russian policy, Russia and Ukraine both considered issues involved in the gas trade such as debts, prices, transit tariffs, and Ukraine's pipeline system to be very important. Therefore, when Russia issued demands with economic threats, Ukraine refused to comply. - Highlights: • This paper explains the 2009 Russia-Ukraine gas conflict. • It shows the causal mechanisms between their interdependent gas relations and the conflict. • The conflict took place through two critical causal mechanisms. • Russia and Ukraine considered the issues involved in the gas trade to be critical. • Thus, when Russia issued demands with economic threats, Ukraine refused to comply.

  6. Concerning the Importance of Ontological Issues for Cultural Psychology: a Reply to Comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironenko, Irina A

    2017-09-01

    The paper continues the "ontological" discussion in IBPS, addressing the question of the importance of ontological issues for contemporary development of cultural psychology. The language psychological science speaks is considered as an ontological issue and a most topical one for cultural psychology, aiming at "constructing a psychology that is universal while being culture-inclusive" (Valsiner 2009, p.2). Ontological issues could stay implicit and neglected, as long as the 'etant, "the mode of being", "the particularities" were discussed within the circle of adherents of one and the same school, who implicitly had in mind the same 'entre. However, as soon as the discussion involves representatives of different schools, ontological issues become crucial for mutual understanding and meanings of the words have to be explicated. Same words like "psyche", "subjectivity", "social", "culture", etc., - often mean different things when they are pronounces or written by representatives of different theoretical trends. The discussion of the 'etant without clear indicating of the 'entre under consideration is likely to turn into a Babel. Global modernity requires constant efforts and insistent desire for mutual understanding across the diversified global scientific community. Thus, creative collaboration in epistemological developments has to ground on clear comprehension of the ontological stances of the debaters.

  7. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Five Important Issues We Aren’t Discussing (But Probably Should Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Cooney Horvath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulatory device often publicized for its ability to enhance cognitive and behavioral performance. These enhancement claims, however, are predicated upon electrophysiological evidence and descriptions which are far from conclusive. In fact, a review of the literature reveals a number of important experimental and technical issues inherent with this device that are simply not being discussed in any meaningful manner. In this paper, we will consider five of these topics. The first, inter-subject variability, explores the extensive between- and within-group differences found within the tDCS literature and highlights the need to properly examine stimulatory response at the individual level. The second, intra-subject reliability, reviews the lack of data concerning tDCS response reliability over time and emphasizes the importance of this knowledge for appropriate stimulatory application. The third, sham stimulation and blinding, draws attention to the importance (yet relative lack of proper control and blinding practices in the tDCS literature. The fourth, motor and cognitive interference, highlights the often overlooked body of research that suggests typical behaviors and cognitions undertaken during or following tDCS can impair or abolish the effects of stimulation. Finally, the fifth, electric current influences, underscores several largely ignored variables (such as hair thickness and electrode attachments methods influential to tDCS electric current density and flow.Through this paper, we hope to increase awareness and start an ongoing dialogue of these important issues which speak to the efficacy, reliability, and mechanistic foundations of tDCS.

  8. Human Resource Management in Sports: A Critical Review of its Importance and Pertaining Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerakoon Ranjan Kumara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will illustrate the meaning and importance of human resource management (HRM, human resource planning, and strategic human resource management, which are critically important for an organization’s effectiveness and must be effectively managed (Doherty, 1998. This study used the literature review method to acquire its final results. The relevant HRM literature review was done according to the purpose of the study. It used the purposive random sample method for selecting relevant literature. This study shows the current economic environment in the sports industry; the second part of the study critically analyzes the value of the strategic management of employees for the effective and efficient operation of sports organizations. It also critically evaluates human resource planning and other pertinent issues in terms of legislation, recruitment, selection, training, induction, and reward management from different international examples in sports management. Over the past few decades, increasing competition, globalization, and continuous changes in the market and in technology have emphasized the need to rethink the management of the organization and of human resources for the sake of overcoming significant challenges (Taylor et al., 2006. Therefore, managers should use strategic human resource management to overcome significant issues and to form well-planned strategies so that the organization may succeed.

  9. Importance of health care issues in 2005 presidential elections in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakula, Aleksandar; Polasek, Ozren; Sosic, Zvonko; Voncina, Luka; Pavleković, Gordana; Brborović, Ognjen

    2006-06-01

    Health and health care provision are among the most important and politically sensitive public service areas. Politicians carefully incorporate health care program changes in their political agendas to gain votes. However, knowing health care priorities of the electoral body is not useful only to politicians, but also to health policy makers, as it enables them to target the most problematic areas in health care. We conducted a telephone survey of representative sample of voters (n=643) immediately before the presidential elections in Croatia in 2005, to determine the possible differences in health care priorities between left-wing and right-wing voters, and found a high level of homogeneity in their opinions. Health care organization, corruption, and financing issues were identified as the top priorities by both left- and right-wing voters. This agreement in voters' expectations, probably caused by a similar frame of mind of Croatian citizens inherited from pre-democratic times of self-government, could be used by health policy makers to rationally invest the means and efforts in dealing with the most problematic health care issues.

  10. Important project financing by issue of bonds in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Dreč

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the development of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina based on the opening of infrastructure facilities for which funding is proposed to incorporate the issue of securities, primarily government bonds because there is a real basis for its demand deriving by banks, citizens and other organizations and institutions. The basic conditions for the functioning model of financing development and strategic projects by issuing securities herein include: a accelerate reforms and create the legal framework that will allow the establishment of important missing institutions for the business sector, b more efficient functioning of the executive and legislative bodies in Bosnia and Herzegovina on creating a favourable business environment, c the implementation of identified strategic commitment from all levels of government in relation to the creation of a single economic space, labour market, harmonization of entity policies and other policies that influence the overall business environment, d the development of infrastructure projects and power facilities, and e the inclusion of private funding and knowledge aimed at improving the construction and management of roads.

  11. Safety issues for LMFBR: important features drawn from the assessments of Superphenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natta, M.

    2002-01-01

    Superphenix, which is built on the site of Creys-Malville, is still the biggest LMFBR plant that has been in operation. It is a pool type reactor, as Phenix and the RNR 1 500 and EFR projects. After the analysis of the preliminary safety (1974-1975), the construction was authorised by decree of the Prime Minister in 1977, the authorization for fuel loading and star-up to 3% was given by the minister of industry in July 1985 and full power was achieved in December 1986. The plant was operated until the end of December 1996, producing the equivalent of 320 EFPD, corresponding to half of the maximum barn-up of the first core. The plant was definitively stopped on the 20. of April 1998 by a decision of the French government. During this period of 25 years of licensing, construction and operation of Superphenix, others discussions and preliminary licensing procedures were started for new projects, mainly the RNR 1500 French project and the EFR European project. The operation of Superphenix was also marked by several incidents, which led to additional licensing procedures and important modifications. This period was also marked by an important work of research and development in the safety field, mostly related to the issues concerning hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDA) and sodium fires; further, this period was marked by the Three Mile Island accident in 1979 and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The purpose of this paper is to present some items which were discussed during this period of 25 years and which should be of interest for future LMFBRs. In this presentation, we shall discuss the key issues concerning the safety criteria and options taken with respect to severe accidents, i.e. core melt accidents, giving details on some specific which are less known since they were assessed only lately for Superphenix, sometimes in connection with the on-going safety researches. (author)

  12. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alexander; Rose, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada's CanMEDS competency framework. A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  13. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Poulton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s CanMEDS competency framework. Method: A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. Results:  The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Conclusions: Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  14. Colostomy Irrigation: Issues Most Important to Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Nancy J; Cobb, Martha D; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher S; Colwell, Janice; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Krouse, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe issues that WOC nurses find most important related to colostomy irrigation (CI). This is an additional analysis of a study focusing on qualitative responses to a survey querying WOC nurses about CI practices. The target population was members of the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society. Of the 985 nurses who responded to the survey, 338 (34.3%) answered the optional open-ended question asking for additional comments. A 1-time online survey was conducted. In addition to demographic, educational information, and forced-choice questions about CI, an open-ended question asked for any additional comments about their experience with irrigation and WOC practice. Content analysis was used to identify common themes identified by WOC nurses. Three hundred thirty-eight out of 985 WOC nurses (34.3%) answered the optional open-ended question asking for additional comments; analysis for this study is based on these responses. WOC nurses who responded to the open-ended question had similar characteristics to those who responded to the entire survey but were significantly more experienced (15.1 vs 11.0 years; P irrigation techniques are recommended.

  15. Which issue is important for nuclear energy: sustainability, competition, climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, Octavian

    2003-01-01

    This paper tries to explore the implications of three important energy policy issues: sustainability, global climate change, and competition in electricity markets. We know that nuclear energy is another way to generate electricity, so it is impossible to discuss the outlook for nuclear without understanding the need for electricity. The issue for society is how to produce electricity at reasonable costs without damaging the environment. Unfortunately, there are no perfect alternatives. Key considerations include the capital and operating costs of electrical generating facilities, reliability, safety, environmental impact as well as assumptions on future economic growth. Nuclear energy offers good solution. Nuclear power energy scores very well against the three criteria for electricity generation, which matter most to our society - availability, affordability and sustainability. Nuclear power has proven to be highly reliable as shown by the performance of more than 400 reactors now operating in the world. These reactors compete with coal or gas- generated electricity and often offer a significant cost advantage. New reactor designs will be faster to build, safer and competitive with the best clean coal or gas-burning technologies now available. Nuclear power is also sustainable, not only because it contains all the waste it generates but also because the safety of the technology is now well established. The disposal of used fuel, despite the claims of those who are ideologically opposed to nuclear energy, is in my opinion not a problem without solution. The public should have confidence in the feasibility of long-term storage and the eventual safe disposal of radioactive wastes. What are the views for short- and for long-term? Reactor owners are seeking increased power output and plant life extensions, encouraged by the competitive cost of electricity produced and improving operational performance. However, while the lifetime for present reactors is extended and

  16. From extreme pH to extreme temperature: An issue in honor of the geochemical contributions of Kirk Nordstrom, USGS hydrogeochemist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Verplanck, Philip L.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Alpers, Charles N.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Applied Geochemistry honors Dr. D. Kirk Nordstrom, and his influential career spent primarily at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This issue does not herald his retirement or other significant career milestone, but serves as a recognition of the impact his work has had on the field of geochemistry in general. This special issue grew from a symposium in Kirk’s honor (affectionately dubbed “Kirkfest”) at the Geological Society of America’s annual meeting in Denver, Colorado, USA, during October 2013. At GSA, 27 talks and 35 posters showed how Kirk’s work has influenced a wide range of current hydrogeochemical research, from geothermal processes to acid mine drainage to geochemical modeling. The breadth of his knowledge and his many contributions to the published literature have left an indelible mark on the field of geochemistry, and this special issue is a tribute to his experience and contributions.

  17. Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in solving the most important issues of globalization process' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Present collection comprises of materials of Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in solving the most important issues of globalization process'. Present collection is intended for scientific and technical staff, postgraduates, and students of institutes of higher education.

  18. Exploration of Important Issues for the Safety of SFR 1 using Performance Assessment Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; Robinson, P.C.

    2002-06-01

    SKB has produced a revised safety case for the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes at Forsmark: project SAFE. This assessment includes a Performance Assessment (PA) for the long term post-closure safety of the facility. SKI has a responsibility to scrutinise SKB's safety case that is shared with SSI. Quintessa has undertaken a review of SKB's case for the long term safety of SFR 1 to assist SKI's evaluation of SAFE, and this is given in SKI-R--02-61, henceforth referred to as the Quintessa Review. The current report describes the independent PA calculations that provided an input to that review. Since 1999 SKI has been developing a PA capability for SFR 1 using the AMBER software. Two key features of the approach taken have been: To represent the whole system in a single model; and To allow the time-dependency of all key features, events and processes to be represented. These capabilities allow a better understanding of the key features of the system to be obtained for different future evolutions (scenarios). This report presents a summary of the work undertaken to provide SKI with a PA capability for SFR 1 and the calculations undertaken with it. Calculations have been undertaken for radionuclides transported in groundwater and gas, but not for direct intrusion by humans into the wastes. It should be emphasised that the purpose of the Performance Assessment calculations described in this report is not to provide an alternative assessment of potential radiological impacts to that produced by SKB. The aim is to use the models that have been developed to investigate the important features of the system and to help SKI scrutinise the case put to them by SKB. The PA calculations that have been undertaken are by no means comprehensive, and various issues could be investigated further if required. The key issues that have been identified can be summarised as follows: 1. The SFR 1 system has a number of different timescales that can

  19. Current issues in dental practice management. Part 1. The importance of shared values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Philip R H

    2003-04-01

    /1997 when NHS fees stood at 1.6 billion Pounds (71%) and private fees at 0.6 billion Pounds (29%) and it can be seen that while the size of the whole market has grown NHS fees have risen by around 18% while private sector fees have gone up by 64% during the same period. It cannot be said therefore that NHS dentistry has disappeared although it is clear that access to NHS dentistry has been and may still be difficult in some parts of the country. The Department of Health in England has responded by developing 'access centres' and in the recently published Options for Change sets out sweeping proposals to revitalise NHS dentistry and delegate decisions over funding to a local level. It is far from clear what the consequences of these changes will be. However, one possible scenario is that in many parts of the UK, although relief of pain, prevention and restoration of function will be funded by the NHS, other than in 'special circumstances' such as after trauma and inherited conditions 'cosmetic embellishment' will not be funded. In which case, ever increasing public interest in personal appearance may well lead to further growth in private dentistry. Against a background of change and uncertainty, this series of articles explores some of the issues facing dentists coming to terms with working in this brave new world. This first part examines an aspect of dental practice that is seldom discussed openly and yet is of such fundamental importance that it is the cornerstone of all successful practices and the main fault line in unsuccessful ones, namely the nature and strength of practice values.

  20. A Detailed Analysis over Some Important Issues towards Using Computer Technology into the EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein

    2014-01-01

    Computer technology has changed the ways we work, learn, interact and spend our leisure time. Computer technology has changed every aspect of our daily life--how and where we get our news, how we order goods and services, and how we communicate. This study investigates some of the significant issues concerning the use of computer technology…

  1. Rational use of medicines--an important issue in pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2005-01-01

    to adapt its way of thinking to include the issue of context. They point out that clinical pharmacists today already adapt their decisons to each patient and patient group. Policy-makers are encouraged to adopt a similar approach because populations as well as particular market situations vary...

  2. Discussing Ethical Issues in the Classroom: Leveraging Pedagogical Moments that May Otherwise Undermine Important Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Douglas J.; Hull, William J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The authors identify, examine, and clarify three kinds of hindrances (dismissive/evasive tactics, logical stoppers, and ad hominem arguments) to teaching about ethical issues in P-12 schools. In discussing these three types of obstacles, they stress that the barriers themselves provide both challenges and opportunities for teachers. Indeed, they…

  3. Journal of Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies : Special Issue on The Importance of Local Knowledge and Interdisciplinary Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For this special issue of TES we have selected four articles on constraints and options for managing trees in Africa. The articles have been produced within a larger multidisciplinary research programme on People, Trees and Agriculture in Africa (Petrea) funded by the Danish Development Research ...

  4. Single window for issuing licenses for export and import of ionizing radiation sources and transit of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandev, T.; Stamenov, R.; Misevska, A.; Georgievska-Dimitrevski, B.; Angelovski, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the electronic system for application and issuing licenses for export, import and transit of goods (EXIM), particularly for ionizing radiation sources, in the Republic of Macedonia. This system is a modern and helpful tool for simple issuing licenses, for establishing a unique database and it represents a harmonized system for exchanging information between the governmental, public and private legal persons in the Republic of Macedonia. (author)

  5. Important Issues to Quality of Life Among Norwegian Older Adults: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kalfoss, Mary; Halvorsrud, Liv

    2009-01-01

    The increasing numbers of older people and higher expectations of a ?good life? within societies, has lead to international interest in the enhancement of quality of life (QoL) among older adults. Understanding whether the same aspects of life are equally important to the life quality of subgroups of older people is important in helping health professionals plan social and health care policy and caring strategies. The purpose of this study was to describe the importance given to 38 areas of Q...

  6. International legal and political issues associated with the export/import of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning Muntzing, L.

    1978-01-01

    The benefits of nuclear power can be achieved by most nations only through international commerce that has been shaped by political considerations and implemented through legal instruments. The end product is a structure of legal agreements designed to implement the basic political and commercial decisions that are required for any nation to enter the nuclear power arena. The IAEA Statute, the Non-Proliferation Treaty and regional nuclear agreements have reflected the international political consensus concerning nuclear power. In recent years, however, events have occurred that in all probability will result in additional international arrangements. It is expected that the increase in terrorist activities will result in greater physical protection commitments, that concern for weapons proliferation will result in further definition of sanctions, and that such troublesome issues as double labelling of materials will be discussed by the international community. In areas such as bilateral agreements between nations, commercial arrangements and export licences, this is a period of rethinking, renegotiating, and readjusting. The result is a degree of uncertainty and lack of stability that could so jeopardize the potential for nuclear transfers that the nuclear energy option may not vest. While there always will be questions and issues, it is essential to settle some of the key problems without delay so that nuclear benefits can be realized. (author)

  7. ON THE ISSUE OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION OF DEEP PROCESSING PRODUCTS FROM GRAIN AND POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Andreev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The analysis of structure of starch containing raw materials processing in Russia Federation is provided in the article. There was noted an increase in volumes of corn and wheat processing, however the share of processed potato is still low (below 4%. It was established that Russian starch products and starch sweeteners are on the same level on quality as best European samples and they are very competitive. Market demand in crystalline glucose for food and medical purposes (over 30 thous. tons is fully covered by import. The volume of import of modified starches exceeds 80 % of total consumption. The biggest volume of import among native starches belongs to potato starch – over 60 %. The article provides suggestions on import substitution of mentioned starch products. The growth of starch production in Russia was accompanied by concentration of production at large enterprises. So, in 2013 over 90 % of glucose syrup was produced at six enterprises, over 80 % of dry starch – at five enterprises. Efficiency of corn and wheat processing into starch and starch products is achieved by production and selling of co-products (dry gluten, gluten, corn germ or corn oil, corn extract, feed products.Development of starch sweeteners production from starch could be achieved by expanding the consumption areas of different kinds of glucose syrup and production of glucose-fructose syrups as full substitute of sugar, providing import substitution of sugar, crystalline glucose of food and medicine purpose, deep processing of glucose into polyols (sorbit, maltit, polylactites, aminoacids.

  8. 75 FR 71415 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Wall Rocket Leaves From the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0027] Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Wall Rocket Leaves From the United Kingdom Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  9. Importance of Quality of Life Issues: A Pilot Comparison of Teachers and Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Frederick, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) issues for parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are important to investigate. Independence, social functioning, school functioning and participating in leisure activities are some of the quality of life indicators that parents and teachers must agree upon to ensure effective communication and…

  10. 76 FR 8997 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...] Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into the... continental United States of fresh strawberries from Jordan. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis... strawberries from Jordan. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Donna...

  11. Grid connectivity issues and the importance of GCC. [GCC - Grid Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, A.; Schwartz, M.-K. [GL Renewable Certification, Malleswaram, Bangalore (India)

    2012-07-01

    In India, the wind energy is concentrated in rural areas with a very high penetration. In these cases, the wind power has an increasing influence on the power quality on the grids. Another aspect is the influence of weak grids on the operation of wind turbines. Hence it becomes very much essential to introduce such a strong grid code which is particularly applicable to wind sector and suitable for Indian environmental grid conditions. This paper focuses on different international grid codes and their requirement with regard to the connection of wind farms to the electric power systems to mitigate the grid connectivity issues. The requirements include the ways to achieve voltage and frequency stability in the grid-tied wind power system. In this paper, comparative overview and analysis of the main grid connecting requirements will be conducted, comprising several national and regional codes from many countries where high wind penetration levels have been achieved or are expected in the future. The objective of these requirements is to provide wind farms with the control and regulation capabilities encountered in conventional power plants and are necessary for the safe, reliable and economic operation of the power system. This paper also provides a brief idea on the Grid Code Compliance (GCC) certification procedure implemented by the leading accredited certifying body like Germanischer Lloyd Renewables Certification (GL RC), who checks the conformity of the wind turbines as per region specific grid codes. (Author)

  12. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-08-01

    Among other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses) and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word). A significant number of names (61.3%) failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words) and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words) contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  13. Women and addiction: the importance of gender issues in substance abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Ellen

    2010-04-01

    Substance use was considered to be primarily a male problem, and many substance abuse studies are conducted with a predominance of male participants. However, recent substance abuse research indicates significant gender differences in the substance-related epidemiology, social factors and characteristics, biological responses, progressions to dependence, medical consequences, co-occurring psychiatric disorders, and barriers to treatment entry, retention, and completion. The epidemiology of women's drug use presents challenges separate from those raised by men's drug use. A convergence of evidence suggests that women with substance use disorders are more likely than men to face multiple barriers affecting access and entry to substance abuse treatment. Gender-specific medical problems as a result of the interplay of gender-specific drug use patterns and sex-related risk behaviors create an environment in which women are more vulnerable than men to human immunodeficiency virus. Individual characteristics and treatment approaches can differentially affect outcomes by gender. All of these differences have important clinical, treatment, and research implications.

  14. Coronary angiography after successful thrombolysis - Is the recommended time interval of 24h an important issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cátia; Durão, David; Belo, Adriana; Domingues, Kevin; Santos, Beatriz; Leal, Margarida

    2016-11-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is currently considered the gold-standard treatment of acute coronary syndromes with ST-segment elevation (STEMI). However, this is not the reality of many European centers, where thrombolysis is performed as primary therapy. To determine, in a STEMI population that performed successful fibrinolytic treatment, if the performance of coronary angiography after the first 24h was associated with more hospital complications, including higher mortality, compared with its performance in the recommended time. Retrospective study, including 1065 patients with STEMI, who performed successful thrombolysis. The population was divided in three groups: A, patients who didn't undergo coronary angiography after successful thrombolysis (n=278; 26.1%); B, patients who underwent coronary angiography in the first 24h after successful thrombolysis (n=127; 11.9%); and C, patients who underwent angiography after the first 24h (n=660; 62.0%). Groups were compared regarding their characteristics and in-hospital complications. Groups B and C had more male patients and had younger patients than group A. Group A presented higher Killip classes at admission, more severe left ventricle dysfunction and a higher number of complications during hospitalization. Logistic regression revealed that: 1) the non-performance of coronary angiography after thrombolysis was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality; and 2) the performance of angiography after the recommended time wasn't associated with higher mortality. Coronary angiography after thrombolysis constitutes an important strategy, whose non-performance carries worse prognosis. The time interval currently recommended of 24h seems clinically acceptable; however, its realization outside the recommended time doesn't seem to lead to higher mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Organizational culture, team climate, and quality management in an important patient safety issue: nosocomial pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marije; Halfens, Ruud J G; van der Weijden, Trudy; Wensing, Michel; Akkermans, Reinier; Grol, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Increasingly, policy reform in health care is discussed in terms of changing organizational culture, creating practice teams, and organizational quality management. Yet, the evidence for these suggested determinants of high-quality care is inconsistent. To determine if the type of organizational culture (Competing Values Framework), team climate (Team Climate Inventory), and preventive pressure ulcer quality management at ward level were related to the prevalence of pressure ulcers. Also, we wanted to determine if the type of organizational culture, team climate, or the institutional quality management related to preventive quality management at the ward level. In this cross-sectional observational study multivariate (logistic) regression analyses were performed, adjusting for potential confounders and institution-level clustering. Data from 1274 patients and 460 health care professionals in 37 general hospital wards and 67 nursing home wards in the Netherlands were analyzed. The main outcome measures were nosocomial pressure ulcers in patients at risk for pressure ulcers (Braden score ≤ 18) and preventive quality management at ward level. No associations were found between organizational culture, team climate, or preventive quality management at the ward level and the prevalence of nosocomial pressure ulcers. Institutional quality management was positively correlated with preventive quality management at ward level (adj. β 0.32; p organizational culture, team climate, or preventive quality management at the ward level. These results would therefore not subscribe the widely suggested importance of these factors in improving health care. However, different designs and research methods (that go beyond the cross-sectional design) may be more informative in studying relations between such complex factors and outcomes in a more meaningful way. Copyright ©2010 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Extreme conditions synthesis, processing and characterization of metal-nitrides and alloys of mechanical and optoelectronic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serghiou, G; McGaff, A J; Russell, N; Morniroli, J P; Frost, D J; Odling, N; Boehler, R; Troadec, D; Lathe, C

    2010-01-01

    High density nitrides and group IV alloys are of growing importance for both ceramic and optoelectronic applications. We present here new data and processes in our ongoing preparation of alkaline earth and transition metal nitrides as well as group IV alloys, here, up to 25 GPa and 2300 K. We employ large volume and laser-heated diamond anvil cell techniques for synthesis, processing tools including focused ion beam, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for characterization.

  17. The Importance of Environment for the Tourism Sector Of Trnc Within The Context of Environmental Issues of the Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Okan SAFAKLI

    2001-01-01

    The basic aim of this study is to emphasize the importance and necessity of the environment for the tourism sector of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) within the context of environmental. issues of the Mediterranean region. There are many types of tourism such as sea tourism (sea-sand-sun), ‘congress tourism‘, ‘health tourism‘, ‘yacht tourism‘, ‘cave tourism‘, ‘mountain tourism‘, ‘farm touris’, ‘hunting touris’, ‘golf touris’, ‘caravan touris’, ‘religion tourism’ and ‘history to...

  18. The development of a concise questionnaire designed to measure perceived outcomes on the issues of greatest importance to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, M; Burke, F J T; Matthews, R; Cyrta, J; Mullins, A

    2012-04-01

    To develop a concise patient feedback audit instrument designed to inform practice development on those issues of greatest importance to patients. A literature review was used to establish the issues which were of greatest importance to patients. Ten core questions were then designed with the help of an experienced survey and polling organisation. A challenging grading of patient responses was utilised in an attempt to differentiate perceived performance within a practice on the different aspects and between practices. A feasibility study was conducted using the interactive voice response mode with seven volunteer practices in 2009. The instrument was then used in the later part of 2010 by 61 practices mostly in paper-based format. Practices received feedback which is primarily based on a bar chart plotting their percentage of top grades received against a national reference sample (NRS) compiled from the results of other participating practices. A statistical analysis was conducted to establish the level at which an individual practice result becomes statistically significant against the NRS. The 61 participating practices each received an average of 121 responses (total 7,381 responses). Seventy-four percent of responses across all ten questions received the top grade, 'ideal'. Statistical analysis indicated that at the level of 121 responses, a score of around 4-9% difference to the National Reference Sample, depending on the specific question, was statistically significant. In keeping with international experience with dental patient feedback surveys this audit suggests high levels of patient satisfaction with their dental service. Nevertheless, by focusing results on the proportion of highest grades received, this instrument is capable of indicating when perceived performance falls significantly below the average. It can therefore inform practice development.

  19. Mothers' problem-solving skill and use of help with infant-related issues: the role of importance and need for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridham, K F; Chang, A S; Hansen, M F

    1987-08-01

    Examination was made of the relationship of mothers' appraisal of the importance of and need for action around infant-related issues to maternal experience (parity and time since birth), use of help, and perceived problem-solving competence. Sixty-two mothers (38 primiparae and 24 multiparae) kept for 90 days post-birth a daily log of issues, rated for importance and for need for action, and of help used. Mothers also reported perceived problem-solving competence on an 11-item scale. Findings indicated tentativeness in ratings of importance and action. Ratings of importance were associated with action ratings, except for temperament issues. Action ratings for baby care and illness issues decreased significantly with time. Otherwise, maternal experience had no effect on ratings. More of the variance in perceived competence than use of help was explained by action and importance ratings.

  20. The importance of moral construal: moral versus non-moral construal elicits faster, more extreme, universal evaluations of the same actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay J Van Bavel

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, intuitionist models of morality have challenged the view that moral reasoning is the sole or even primary means by which moral judgments are made. Rather, intuitionist models posit that certain situations automatically elicit moral intuitions, which guide moral judgments. We present three experiments showing that evaluations are also susceptible to the influence of moral versus non-moral construal. We had participants make moral evaluations (rating whether actions were morally good or bad or non-moral evaluations (rating whether actions were pragmatically or hedonically good or bad of a wide variety of actions. As predicted, moral evaluations were faster, more extreme, and more strongly associated with universal prescriptions-the belief that absolutely nobody or everybody should engage in an action-than non-moral (pragmatic or hedonic evaluations of the same actions. Further, we show that people are capable of flexibly shifting from moral to non-moral evaluations on a trial-by-trial basis. Taken together, these experiments provide evidence that moral versus non-moral construal has an important influence on evaluation and suggests that effects of construal are highly flexible. We discuss the implications of these experiments for models of moral judgment and decision-making.

  1. The genomes of three Bradyrhizobium sp. isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albescens grown in extremely poor soils display important genes for resistance to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granada, Camille E; Vargas, Luciano K; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Balsanelli, Eduardo; Baura, Valter Antonio de; Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio de; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Falcon, Tiago; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2018-05-17

    Lupinus albescens is a resistant cover plant that establishes symbiotic relationships with bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus. This symbiosis helps the development of these plants in adverse environmental conditions, such as the ones found in arenized areas of Southern Brazil. This work studied three Bradyrhizobium sp. (AS23, NAS80 and NAS96) isolated from L. albescens plants that grow in extremely poor soils (arenized areas and adjacent grasslands). The genomes of these three strains were sequenced in the Ion Torrent platform using the IonXpress library preparation kit, and presented a total number of bases of 1,230,460,823 for AS23, 1,320,104,022 for NAS80, and 1,236,105,093 for NAS96. The genome comparison with closest strains Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA6 and Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110 showed important variable regions (with less than 80% of similarity). Genes encoding for factors for resistance/tolerance to heavy metal, flagellar motility, response to osmotic and oxidative stresses, heat shock proteins (present only in the three sequenced genomes) could be responsible for the ability of these microorganisms to survive in inhospitable environments. Knowledge about these genomes will provide a foundation for future development of an inoculant bioproduct that should optimize the recovery of degraded soils using cover crops.

  2. Importância dos minerais na alimentação do pré-termo extremo Minerals in the nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide E. P. Trindade

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão crítica da literatura sobre os minerais cálcio, fósforo e microelementos na nutrição do pré-termo extremo, considerando a importância no crescimento, mineralização óssea e como componente de dietas. FONTES DOS DADOS: Utilizamos o banco de dados MEDLINE e o Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, de 1994 a 2004. Selecionamos artigos com enfoques originais, artigos de revisão e livros específicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: As dificuldades na nutrição de prematuros extremos aumentam a freqüência de prematuros com restrição de crescimento, cujas conseqüências futuras estão para serem determinadas. Todavia, há pouca literatura sobre minerais, especialmente sobre micronutrientes na nutrição do pré-termo extremo, considerando-se o deficiente armazenamento e a importância destes em nutrição. O principal enfoque desta revisão foi sobre o cálcio e o fósforo na mineralização óssea e na suplementação em nutrição parenteral e enteral, bem como a avaliação crítica da nutrição pós-alta sobre a mineralização óssea. São abordadas as necessidades de micronutrientes, principalmente selênio e zinco, e a função antioxidante do selênio na provável prevenção de doenças do prematuro com atuação de radicais livres. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando os baixos estoques de minerais em prematuros extremos, há necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre minerais na nutrição destes prematuros para definir suas reais necessidades, os aspectos metabólicos, bem como aplicar os conhecimentos na formulação de dietas que permitam prevenir quadros de deficiência e conseqüências a longo prazo. Ainda há controvérsias sobre a influência de fórmulas pós-alta sobre a evolução da doença óssea da prematuridade.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the role of calcium, phosphorus and trace elements in the nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants, considering their importance for metabolism, bone mineralization

  3. 78 FR 13304 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... continental United States of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis... importation of commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis (PRA), can be safely imported... risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh...

  4. 77 FR 29588 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Celery, Arugula, and Spinach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ..., arugula, and spinach from Colombia. Based on the findings of three pest risk analyses, which we made..., based on the findings of a pest risk analysis (PRA), can be safely imported subject to one or more of... or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh celery, arugula, and...

  5. Assessing the importance of spatio-temporal RCM resolution when estimating sub-daily extreme precipitation under current and future climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Luchner, J.; Onof, C.

    2017-01-01

    extreme precipitation over Denmark generated by the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM-ECEARTH at different spatial resolutions (8, 12, 25 and 50km), three RCM from the RiskChange project at 8km resolution and three RCMs from ENSEMBLES at 25km resolution at temporal aggregations from 1 to 48h...... are more skewed than the observational dataset, which leads to an overestimation by the higher spatial resolution simulations. Nevertheless, in general, under current conditions RCM simulations at high spatial resolution represent extreme events and high-order moments better. The changes projected...

  6. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 06: Important considerations for communicating about hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Effective public education and communication campaigns about wildland fire and fuels management should have clear objectives, and use the right techniques to achieve these objectives. This fact sheet lists seven important considerations for planning or implementing a hazard communication effort.

  7. The prospects for large-scale import of biomass and biofuels to Sweden - A review of critical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Julia; Berndes, Goeran; Boerjesson, Paal

    2006-01-01

    Sweden is one of the biggest consumers of both domestic and imported biofuels in the EU. This paper evaluates the prospects for an increased and large-scale import of biofuels to Sweden in the future. The parameters included are prospective Swedish and global biofuel supply and demand, the cost, energy input and environmental impact of long-distance biofuel transport as well as the capacity of global freight and of Swedish ports to handle increased biofuel flows. The Swedish bioenergy potential seems large enough to accommodate a substantial increase in the domestic use of biofuels. However, an extensive import of biofuel feedstock would be needed for a prospective Swedish biofuel industry to be able to export substantial volumes of biofuels. The costs, including transport, of imported biofuels from regions, where the assessed potential supply of biomass are higher than the estimated future regional demand, are estimated to be equivalent to or lower than current costs of domestic biofuels. But the price is dependent on future competition for biofuels as well as freight and port capacity. Current specialization at Swedish ports may in the short term be an obstacle to a rapid increase in biofuel import. The energy input in long-distance biofuel transport is estimated to be low. However, to make large-scale biofuel trade flows acceptable special attention needs to be paid, e.g., to the impact on biodiversity and socioeconomic conditions in the exporting countries

  8. 76 FR 18511 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Figs From Chile into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... United States of fresh figs from Chile. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made... the findings of a pest risk analysis, can be safely imported subject to one or more of the designated... the Federal Register announcing the availability of the pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks...

  9. 75 FR 29309 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash Flowers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made available to the public for review and comment through a... announcing the availability of a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation... identified in the pest risk analysis if: (1) No comments were received on the pest risk analysis; (2) the...

  10. 75 FR 52712 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... continental United States of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis..., based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, can be safely imported subject to one or more of the... publishes a notice in the Federal Register announcing the availability of the pest risk analysis that...

  11. 75 FR 34687 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh False Coriander From Panama Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... continental United States of fresh false coriander from Panama. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis..., based on the findings of a pest- risk analysis, can be safely imported subject to one or more of the... publishes a notice in the Federal Register announcing the availability of the pest risk analysis that...

  12. 75 FR 26707 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Pomegranates and Baby Kiwi from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, can be safely imported subject to one or more..., APHIS publishes a notice in the Federal Register announcing the availability of the pest risk analysis... pest risk analysis; (2) the comments on the pest risk analysis revealed that no changes to the pest...

  13. Variation in Anatomical Position of Vermiform Appendix among Iranian Population: An Old Issue Which Has Not Lost Its Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermiform appendix has diverse anatomical positions, lengths, and conditions of mesoappendix. Knowing the exact anatomical position of vermiform appendix is important in view of surgeons for on-time diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis. The aim of present study is determination of these characteristics of vermiform appendix among Iranian population. The present study was conducted on 200 bodies, selected from the dead bodies that had been referred to local bureau of legal medicine, Zenjan province, Iran, for medicolegal autopsy since 21 Mar 2010 to 21 Mar 2011. According to the results, the anatomical positions of the appendix were pelvic, subcecal, retroileal, retrocecal, ectopic, and preileal in 55.8%, 19%, 12.5%, 7%, 4.2%, and 1.5% of the bodies, respectively. The mean length of vermiform appendix was 91.2 mm and 80.3 mm in men and women, respectively. Mesoappendix was complete in 79.5% of the bodies. No association was found between sex and anatomical position of vermiform appendix. Anterior anatomical position was the most common position for vermiform appendix. It is inconsistent with most related reports from western countries. It might be possible that some factors, such as race, geographical changes, and dietary habits, play roles in determining the position of vermiform appendix.

  14. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  15. Moving in extreme environments: what's extreme and who decides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, James David; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Humans work, rest and play in immensely varied extreme environments. The term 'extreme' typically refers to insufficiency or excess of one or more stressors, such as thermal energy or gravity. Individuals' behavioural and physiological capacity to endure and enjoy such environments varies immensely. Adverse effects of acute exposure to these environments are readily identifiable (e.g. heat stroke or bone fracture), whereas adverse effects of chronic exposure (e.g. stress fractures or osteoporosis) may be as important but much less discernable. Modern societies have increasingly sought to protect people from such stressors and, in that way, minimise their adverse effects. Regulations are thus established, and advice is provided on what is 'acceptable' exposure. Examples include work/rest cycles in the heat, hydration regimes, rates of ascent to and duration of stay at altitude and diving depth. While usually valuable and well intentioned, it is important to realise the breadth and importance of limitations associated with such guidelines. Regulations and advisories leave less room for self-determination, learning and perhaps adaptation. Regulations based on stress (e.g. work/rest cycles relative to WBGT) are more practical but less direct than those based on strain (e.g. core temperature), but even the latter can be substantively limited (e.g. by lack of criterion validation and allowance for behavioural regulation in the research on which they are based). Extreme Physiology & Medicine is publishing a series of reviews aimed at critically examining the issues involved with self- versus regulation-controlled human movement acutely and chronically in extreme environments. These papers, arising from a research symposium in 2013, are about the impact of people engaging in such environments and the effect of rules and guidelines on their safety, enjoyment, autonomy and productivity. The reviews will cover occupational heat stress, sporting heat stress, hydration, diving

  16. Ascribing beliefs to ingroup and outgroup political candidates: neural correlates of perspective-taking, issue importance and days until the election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Spunt, Robert P; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2012-03-05

    We used the five weeks leading up to the 2008 presidential election as a backdrop to examine the ways that the brain processes attitudes and beliefs under different circumstances. We examined individual differences in personal issue importance and trait perspective-taking, as well as the temporal context in which attitude representation took place (i.e. number of days until the election). Finally, we examined the extent to which similar or dissimilar processes were recruited when considering the attitudes of political ingroup and outgroup candidates. Brain regions involved in social cognition and theory of mind, and to a lesser extent the limbic system, were modulated by these factors. Higher issue importance led to greater recruitment of neural regions involved in social cognition, across target perspectives. Higher trait perspective-taking was also associated with greater recruitment of several regions involved in social cognition, but differed depending on target perspective; greater activity was observed in prefrontal regions associated with social cognition when considering the perspective of one's own candidate compared with the opponent, and this effect was amplified closer to the election. Taken together, these results highlight ways in which ability and motivational relevance modulate socio-affective processing of the attitudes of others.

  17. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  18. Communicating adaptation with emotions : the role of intense experiences for concern about extreme weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadou, E.; Botzen, W.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to extreme weather is often considered as having a low urgency and being a low priority governance option, even though the intensity of extreme weather events is expected to increase as a result of climate change. An important issue is how to raise an adequate level of concern among

  19. Issues about Human Resources Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Manolescu

    2008-01-01

    As to ensure its success or even for surviving, organizations must settle accordingly some issues regarding the human resources enlistment, presented in great details within the article, whose success settlement ensure, concomitantly, the success of the entire assurance process with personnel, process extremely important, if there are taken into consideration, especially, the effects of some possible errors or hire errors. Therefore, the human resources recruitment tends to become a complex a...

  20. Climate change, climatic variation and extreme biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Georgina; Platts, Philip J; Brereton, Tom; Chapman, Jason W; Dytham, Calvin; Fox, Richard; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Roy, David B; Hill, Jane K; Thomas, Chris D

    2017-06-19

    Extreme climatic events could be major drivers of biodiversity change, but it is unclear whether extreme biological changes are (i) individualistic (species- or group-specific), (ii) commonly associated with unusual climatic events and/or (iii) important determinants of long-term population trends. Using population time series for 238 widespread species (207 Lepidoptera and 31 birds) in England since 1968, we found that population 'crashes' (outliers in terms of species' year-to-year population changes) were 46% more frequent than population 'explosions'. (i) Every year, at least three species experienced extreme changes in population size, and in 41 of the 44 years considered, some species experienced population crashes while others simultaneously experienced population explosions. This suggests that, even within the same broad taxonomic groups, species are exhibiting individualistic dynamics, most probably driven by their responses to different, short-term events associated with climatic variability. (ii) Six out of 44 years showed a significant excess of species experiencing extreme population changes (5 years for Lepidoptera, 1 for birds). These 'consensus years' were associated with climatically extreme years, consistent with a link between extreme population responses and climatic variability, although not all climatically extreme years generated excess numbers of extreme population responses. (iii) Links between extreme population changes and long-term population trends were absent in Lepidoptera and modest (but significant) in birds. We conclude that extreme biological responses are individualistic, in the sense that the extreme population changes of most species are taking place in different years, and that long-term trends of widespread species have not, to date, been dominated by these extreme changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. The importance of working capital management for hospital profitability: evidence from bond-issuing, not-for-profit U.S. hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Simone; Wheeler, John R C

    2012-01-01

    Increased financial pressures on hospitals have elevated the importance of working capital management, that is, the management of current assets and current liabilities, for hospitals' profitability. Efficient working capital management allows hospitals to reduce their holdings of current assets, such as inventory and accounts receivable, which earn no interest income and require financing with short-term debt. The resulting cash inflows can be reinvested in interest-bearing financial instruments or used to reduce short-term borrowing, thus improving the profitability of the organization. This study examines the relationship between hospitals' profitability and their performance at managing two components of working capital: accounts receivable, measured in terms of hospitals' average collection periods, and accounts payable, measured in terms of hospitals' average payment periods. Panel data derived from audited financial statements for 1,397 bond-issuing, not-for-profit U.S. hospitals for 2000-2007 were analyzed using hospital-level fixed-effects regression analysis. The results show a negative relationship between hospitals' average collection period and profitability. That is, hospitals that collected on their patient revenue faster reported higher profit margins than did hospitals that have larger balances of accounts receivable outstanding. We also found a negative relationship between hospitals' average payment period and their profitability. Hospital managers did not appear to delay paying their vendors. Rather, the findings indicated that more profitable hospitals paid their suppliers faster, possibly to avoid high effective interest rates on outstanding accounts payable, whereas less profitable hospitals waited longer to pay their bills. The findings of this study suggest that working capital management indeed matters for hospitals' profitability. Efforts aimed at reducing large balances in both accounts receivable and accounts payable may frequently be

  2. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  3. High levels of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife--an important and under-recognised road safety issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H; Macdonald, S; Richardson, P

    1997-03-01

    To pilot data collection instruments and to make a preliminary estimate of the level of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife, Scotland. Cross sectional survey of cars containing adults and children at a number of public sites across Fife in 1995 to assess use of car occupant restraints. Trained road safety officers assessed whether seat restraints were appropriate for the age of the passengers and whether restraints were used correctly. These assessments were based on standards published by the Child Accident Prevention Trust. The survey gathered data from 596 occupants in 180 cars: 327 adults and 269 children. Ten per cent of drivers who were approached refused to participate. Car occupant restraint was assessed in 180 drivers, 151 front seat passengers, and 265 rear seat passengers. Three hundred and sixty one occupants wore seat belts, 68 were restrained by a seat belt and booster cushion, 63 in toddler seats, 25 in two way seats, and 18 in rear facing infant carriers. Ninety seven per cent of drivers, 95% of front seat passengers, and 77% of rear seat passengers were restrained. However, in 98 (52%) vehicles at least one passenger was restrained by a device that was used incorrectly. Seven per cent of adults and 28% of children were secured incorrectly. The commonest errors were loose seat belts and restraint devices not adequately secured to the seat. Rates of incorrect use were highest in child seat restraints, reaching 60% with two way seats and 44% with rear facing infant seats. The incorrect use of car occupant restraints is an under-recognised problem, both by health professionals, and the general public. Incorrect use has been shown to reduce the effectiveness of restraints, can itself result in injury, and is likely to be an important factor in child passenger injuries. The correct use of car seat restraints merits greater attention in strategies aiming to reduce road traffic casualties. Areas of intervention that could be

  4. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  5. Issues about Human Resources Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Manolescu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As to ensure its success or even for surviving, organizations must settle accordingly some issues regarding the human resources enlistment, presented in great details within the article, whose success settlement ensure, concomitantly, the success of the entire assurance process with personnel, process extremely important, if there are taken into consideration, especially, the effects of some possible errors or hire errors. Therefore, the human resources recruitment tends to become a complex and expensive activity and, concomitantly, an independent activity, sustained both through the necessary work volume as well as through its importance for the organization.

  6. Detection and attribution of extreme weather disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Single disasters related to extreme weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of extreme weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the extreme event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain important challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the extreme weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of extreme weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an extreme weather event, and the associated consequences

  7. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T

    2007-01-01

    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  8. Issues and Importance of "Good" Starting Points for Nonlinear Regression for Mathematical Modeling with Maple: Basic Model Fitting to Make Predictions with Oscillating Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our modeling effort is to predict future outcomes. We assume the data collected are both accurate and relatively precise. For our oscillating data, we examined several mathematical modeling forms for predictions. We also examined both ignoring the oscillations as an important feature and including the oscillations as an important…

  9. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  10. Evolution caused by extreme events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Huey, Raymond B; Johnson, Marc T J; Knoll, Andrew H; Schmitt, Johanna

    2017-06-19

    Extreme events can be a major driver of evolutionary change over geological and contemporary timescales. Outstanding examples are evolutionary diversification following mass extinctions caused by extreme volcanism or asteroid impact. The evolution of organisms in contemporary time is typically viewed as a gradual and incremental process that results from genetic change, environmental perturbation or both. However, contemporary environments occasionally experience strong perturbations such as heat waves, floods, hurricanes, droughts and pest outbreaks. These extreme events set up strong selection pressures on organisms, and are small-scale analogues of the dramatic changes documented in the fossil record. Because extreme events are rare, almost by definition, they are difficult to study. So far most attention has been given to their ecological rather than to their evolutionary consequences. We review several case studies of contemporary evolution in response to two types of extreme environmental perturbations, episodic (pulse) or prolonged (press). Evolution is most likely to occur when extreme events alter community composition. We encourage investigators to be prepared for evolutionary change in response to rare events during long-term field studies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. A systematic review of methodology applied during preclinical anesthetic neurotoxicity studies: important issues and lessons relevant to the design of future clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disma, Nicola; Mondardini, Maria C; Terrando, Niccolò; Absalom, Anthony R; Bilotta, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical evidence suggests that anesthetic agents harm the developing brain thereby causing long-term neurocognitive impairments. It is not clear if these findings apply to humans, and retrospective epidemiological studies thus far have failed to show definitive evidence that anesthetic agents are harmful to the developing human brain. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the preclinical studies published over the past decade, with a focus on methodological issues, to facilitate the comparison between different preclinical studies and inform better design of future trials. The literature search identified 941 articles related to the topic of neurotoxicity. As the primary aim of this systematic review was to compare methodologies applied in animal studies to inform future trials, we excluded a priori all articles focused on putative mechanism of neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective agents. Forty-seven preclinical studies were finally included in this review. Methods used in these studies were highly heterogeneous-animals were exposed to anesthetic agents at different developmental stages, in various doses and in various combinations with other drugs, and overall showed diverse toxicity profiles. Physiological monitoring and maintenance of physiological homeostasis was variable and the use of cognitive tests was generally limited to assessment of specific brain areas, with restricted translational relevance to humans. Comparison between studies is thus complicated by this heterogeneous methodology and the relevance of the combined body of literature to humans remains uncertain. Future preclinical studies should use better standardized methodologies to facilitate transferability of findings from preclinical into clinical science. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Towards Homo Digitalis: Important Research Issues for Psychology and the Neurosciences at the Dawn of the Internet of Things and the Digital Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Montag

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article gives an overview on central challenges humans face at the dawn of complex digital societies and the Internet of Things (IoT, i.e., a world completely connected to the Internet. Among the many challenges to be handled in digital societies is a growing fragmented life style leading to loss of productivity as well as moments for self-reflection. In all this, it is of tremendous importance to understand the impact of digital worlds on our brains and psyches and to reveal possible unintended side-effects of technology use. Does human nature change due to constant interactions with virtual realities? In this context, we also face the challenge to design digital worlds according to our mammalian-emotional heritage deeply anchored in subcortical areas of the human brain. Here, we refer to emotional needs as carved out by Panksepp’s Affective Neuroscience Theory and how they can or cannot be fulfilled in digital worlds. Aside from a review of several key studies dealing with the raised challenges, some first solutions to successfully meet the mentioned problems are provided to achieve sustainable and healthy digital worlds, with whom humans can interact carefree on a daily basis.

  13. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  14. Effects of extreme natural events on the provision of ecosystem services in a mountain environment: The importance of trail design in delivering system resilience and ecosystem service co-benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra M; White, Piran C L; Ewertowski, Marek W

    2016-01-15

    A continued supply of ecosystem services (ES) from a system depends on the resilience of that system to withstand shocks and perturbations. In many parts of the world, climate change is leading to an increased frequency of extreme weather events, potentially influencing ES provision. Our study of the effects of an intense rainfall event in Gorce National Park, Poland, shows: (1) the intense rainfall event impacted heavily on the supply of ES by limiting potential recreation opportunities and reducing erosion prevention; (2) these negative impacts were not only restricted to the period of the extreme event but persisted for up to several years, depending on the pre-event trail conditions and post-event management activities; (3) to restore the pre-event supply of ES, economic investments were required in the form of active repairs to trails, which, in Gorce National Park, were an order of magnitude higher than the costs of normal trail maintenance; and (4) when recreational trails were left to natural restoration, loss of biodiversity was observed, and recovery rates of ES (recreation opportunities and soil erosion prevention) were reduced in comparison to their pre-event state. We conclude that proper trail design and construction provides a good solution to avoid some of the negative impacts of extreme events on recreation, as well as offering co-benefits in terms of protecting biodiversity and enhancing the supply of regulating services such as erosion prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  16. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  17. Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A number of Western countries are currently adding exit programs targeting militant Islamists to their counterterrorism efforts. Drawing on research into voluntary exit from violent extremism, this article identifies themes and issues that seem to cause doubt, leading to exit. It then provides a ...... the influence attempt as subtle as possible, use narratives and self-affirmatory strategies to reduce resistance to persuasion, and consider the possibility to promote attitudinal change via behavioral change as an alternative to seek to influence beliefs directly....

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. In megacities, exposure to high concentrations of air pollution, as a major concern on public health, is being felt worldwide problem. The issue of particulate matter especially the PM2.5 has become extremely crucial in Tehran, due to industrialization and population growth. Therefore, it.

  19. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  20. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  1. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  2. Legacies from extreme drought increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. D.; Knapp, A.; Hoover, D. L.; Avolio, M. L.; Felton, A. J.; Wilcox, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    Climate extremes, such as drought, are increasing in frequency and intensity, and the ecological consequences of these extreme events can be substantial and widespread. Although there is still much to be learned about how ecosystems will respond to an intensification of drought, even less is known about the factors that determine post-drought recovery of ecosystem function. Such knowledge is particularly important because post-drought recovery periods can be protracted depending on the extent to which key plant populations, community structure and biogeochemical processes are affected. These drought legacies may alter ecosystem function for many years post-drought and may impact future sensitivity to climate extremes. We experimentally imposed two extreme growing season droughts in a central US grassland to assess the impacts of repeated droughts on ecosystem resistance (response) and resilience (recovery). We found that this grassland was not resistant to the first extreme drought due to reduced productivity and differential sensitivity of the co-dominant C4 grass (Andropogon gerardii) and C3 forb (Solidago canadensis) species. This differential sensitivity led to a reordering of species abundances within the plant community. Yet, despite this large shift in plant community composition, which persisted post-drought, the grassland was highly resilient post-drought, due to increased abundance of the dominant C4 grass. Because of this shift to increased C4 grass dominance, we expected that previously-droughted grassland would be more resistant to a second extreme drought. However, contrary to these expectations, previously droughted grassland was more sensitive to drought than grassland that had not experienced drought. Thus, our result suggest that legacies of drought (shift in community composition) may increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extreme events.

  3. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  4. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...

  5. The importance of interpersonal communication in poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, B I; Thomas, K C; Rothwell, E; Planalp, S; Ellington, L; Teemant, K

    2013-11-01

    Poison control center (PCC) personnel face many challenges in communicating with callers and with each other. The purpose of this study was to identify interpersonal communication issues that affect the work environment within PCCs. As part of a larger questionnaire study distributed electronically to members of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) to assess communication training needs for PCCs, three questions were included to assess interpersonal communication within the work environment: (1) How important is interpersonal communication within your center to a positive work environment? (not at all to extremely important, 1-7); (2) How disruptive is interpersonal communication to your work? (not at all to extremely disruptive, 1-7); and (3) What communication issues do you find most disruptive to your work? (free-text response). Descriptive and qualitative content analyses were used to identify themes in responses. A total of 537 responses were received from SPIs, directors, medical directors, and other PCC staff. Interpersonal communication within the PCC was rated as extremely important to a positive work environment (median = 7 and IQR = 6-7; 62.3% rated as extremely important). Interpersonal communication was rated as less than moderately disruptive on average (median = 3 and IQR = 2-4). Free-text responses were received from 335 (62%) respondents. Free-text comments were broadly categorized as relating to PCC personnel and work environment and issues related to PCC callers. Categories that emerged from the PCC personnel and work environment category included the following: poor interpersonal communication (n = 104; 31%); background noise (n = 96; 29%); poor work procedures (n = 51; 15%); and poor management communication (n = 38; 11%). Interpersonal communication within PCCs was considered to be important for a positive work environment. Although not found to be strongly disruptive by most respondents, several specific interpersonal

  6. Optimization with Extremal Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Percus, Allon G.

    2001-01-01

    We explore a new general-purpose heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to hard discrete optimization problems. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively updates extremely undesirable variables of a single suboptimal solution, assigning them new, random values. Large fluctuations ensue, efficiently exploring many local optima. We use extremal optimization to elucidate the phase transition in the 3-coloring problem, and we provide independent confirmation of previously reported extrapolations for the ground-state energy of ±J spin glasses in d=3 and 4

  7. Controlling extreme events on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network ``mobile'' can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed.

  8. Privacy issues in mobile advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... becomes an important part of marketing strategies. The development of mobile advertising, however, will be dependent on acceptance and usability issues in order to ensure permission-based advertising. Growing concerns about the protection of the users' privacy have been raised since mobile advertising may...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...

  9. Nutrition security under extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrition security under extreme events. Zero hunger being one of the Sustainable Development Goal from the United Nations, food security has become a trending research topic. However extreme events impact on global food security is not yet 100% understood and there is a lack of comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of global food trade and nutrition security to improve countries resilience to extreme events. In a globalized world, food is still a highly regulated commodity and a strategic resource. A drought happening in a net food-exporter will have little to no effect on its own population but the repercussion on net food-importers can be extreme. In this project, we propose a methodology to describe and quantify the impact of a local drought to human health at a global scale. For this purpose, nutrition supply and global trade data from FAOSTAT have been used with domestic food production from national agencies and FAOSTAT, global precipitation from the Climate Research Unit and health data from the World Health Organization. A modified Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) has been developed to measure the level of resilience of one country to a drought happening in another country. This index describes how a country is dependent of importation and how diverse are its importation. Losses of production and exportation due to extreme events have been calculated using yield data and a simple food balance at country scale. Results show that countries the most affected by global droughts are the one with the highest dependency to one exporting country. Changes induced by droughts also disturbed their domestic proteins, fat and calories supply resulting most of the time in a higher intake of calories or fat over proteins.

  10. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper

  11. Infection in the ischemic lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D E; Marek, J M; Langsfeld, M

    1998-06-01

    Infections in the lower extremity of the patient with ischemia can cover a broad spectrum of different diseases. An understanding of the particular pathophysiologic circumstances in the ischemic extremity can be of great value in understanding the natural history of the disease and the potential complications that may occur. Optimizing blood flow to the extremity by using revascularization techniques is important for any patient with an ischemic lower extremity complicated by infection or ulceration. Infections in the ischemic lower extremity require local débridement and systemic antibiotics. For severe infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis or the fetid foot, more extensive local débridement and even amputation may be required. Fundamentals of managing prosthetic graft infection require removing the infected prosthesis, local wound débridement, and systemic antibiotics while attempting to preserve viability of the lower extremity using autogenous graft reconstruction.

  12. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  13. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  14. Mathematical Analysis of Extremity Immersion Cooling for Brain Temperature Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Santee, William; Berglund, Larry; Gonzalez, Richard

    2004-01-01

    .... As blood flow rates and surface-to-volume ratios are generally high in the extremities, heat exchange between the body and the environment through the extremities is an important path for heat exchange...

  15. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    ‘‘Extreme Ocean Waves’’ is a collection of ten papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif that followed the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, includ- ing deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (alternatively termed freak waves), storm surges from cyclones, and internal waves. Other types of waves such as tsunamis or rissaga (meteotsunamis) are not discussed in this volume. It is generally implied that ‘‘extreme’’ has a statistical connotation relative to the average or significant wave height specific to each type of wave. Throughout the book, in fact, the reader will find a combination of theoretical and statistical/ empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting several dramatic instances of damaging extreme waves that occurred in 2007. 

  16. Extremal surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  17. What Is Important During the Selection of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in a Health Care Reimbursement or Insurance System?" Critical Issues of Assessment from the Perspective of TCM Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xie, Jing-Min; Zhang, Yi-Ye; Kong, Lin-Lin; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2013-05-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has gained increasing popularity over the last several decades internationally, leading to an increasing interest from decision makers and researchers as to how to assess the effectiveness of CAM. The attempts, however, have been unsatisfactory. The most important reason is a lack of attention to the theoretical characteristics of CAM, which are completely different from those of allopathic medicine or biomedicine. This study attempted to survey expert Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners in China to elucidate critical issues when assessing the effectiveness of TCM. A questionnaire (with 20 close-ended and 2 open-ended questions) about the influencing factors of measuring the cost and effectiveness of TCM was distributed to TCM practitioners who had been working in the field of research for at least 5 years and had published at least one related scientific article in the last 5 years. Internal consistency test was performed for all questions to verify the reliability of the questionnaire. Principal-component analysis was performed for remaining items after Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) index and Bartlett's test of sphericity. A linear combination model was then built to evaluate the contribution of various factors involved for the selection of TCM into the health care reimbursement or insurance system. Of 429 questionnaires issued, 137 were returned from respondents from 31 medical and research institutions, giving a recovery rate of 31.93%. Internal consistency coefficient obtained was 0.745, indicating good reliability of this measurement scale, and the data passed the KMO test and Bartlett's test of sphericity (KMO index = 0.691). In addition, eight common factors were extracted after the rotation of principal-component analysis with a cumulative variance of 70.92%. Our findings suggested that factors to be considered during the selection of TCM in health care reimbursement or insurance system include patient

  18. Surviving at Any Cost: Guilt Expression Following Extreme Ethical Conflicts in a Virtual Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Cristofari, Cécile; Guitton, Matthieu J.

    2014-01-01

    Studying human behavior in response to large-scale catastrophic events, particularly how moral challenges would be undertaken under extreme conditions, is an important preoccupation for contemporary scientists and decision leaders. However, researching this issue was hindered by the lack of readily available models. Immersive virtual worlds could represent a solution, by providing ways to test human behavior in controlled life-threatening situations. Using a massively multi-player zombie apoc...

  19. Performance testing of extremity dosimeters, Study 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.; Reece, W.D.; Hooker, C.D.

    1990-04-01

    The Health Physics Society Standards Committee (HPSSC) Working Group on Performance Testing of Extremity Dosimeters has issued a draft of a proposed standard for extremity dosimeters. The draft standard proposes methods to be used for testing dosimetry systems that determine occupational radiation dose to the extremities and the performance criterion used to determine compliance with the standard. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted two separate evaluations of the performance of extremity dosimeter processors to determine the appropriateness of the draft standard, as well as to obtain information regarding the performance of extremity dosimeters. Based on the information obtained during the facility visits and the results obtained from the performance testing, it was recommended that changes be made to ensure that the draft standard is appropriate for extremity dosimeters. The changes include: subdividing the mixture category and the beta particle category; eliminating the neutron category until appropriate flux-to-dose equivalent conversion factors are derived; and changing the tolerance level for the performance criterion to provide consistency with the performance criterion for whole body dosimeters, and to avoid making the draft standard overly difficult for processors of extremity dosimeters to pass. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.; Huser, Raphaë l

    2015-01-01

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event

  1. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  2. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute lower extremity ischaemia. Acute lower limb ischaemia is a surgical emergency. ... is ~1.5 cases per 10 000 persons per year. Acute ischaemia ... Table 2. Clinical features discriminating embolic from thrombotic ALEXI. Clinical features.

  3. Sensitivity of European wheat to extreme weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkinen, H; Kaseva, J; Trnka, M

    2018-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of extreme weather is increasing concomitant with changes in the global climate change. Although wheat is the most important food crop in Europe, there is currently no comprehensive empirical information available regarding the sensitivity of European wheat to extreme...... weather. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity of European wheat yields to extreme weather related to phenology (sowing, heading) in cultivar trials across Europe (latitudes 37.21° to 61.34° and longitudes −6.02° to 26.24°) during the period 1991–2014. All the observed agro-climatic extremes (≥31 °C...... wheat cultivars that responded positively (+10%) to drought after sowing, or frost during winter (−15 °C and −20 °C). Positive responses to extremes were often shown by cultivars associated with specific regions, such as good performance under high temperatures by southern-origin cultivars. Consequently...

  4. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  5. Nuclear safety - Topical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The following topical issues related to nuclear safety are discussed: steam generators; maintenance strategies; control rod drive nozzle cracks; core shrouds cracks; sump strainer blockage; fire protection; computer software important for safety; safety during shutdown; operational safety experience; external hazards and other site related issues. 5 figs, 5 tabs

  6. Economics of extreme weather events: Terminology and regional impact models

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Malte

    2015-01-01

    Impacts of extreme weather events are relevant for regional (in the sense of subnational) economies and in particular cities in many aspects. Cities are the cores of economic activity and the amount of people and assets endangered by extreme weather events is large, even under the current climate. A changing climate with changing extreme weather patterns and the process of urbanization will make the whole issue even more relevant in the future. In this paper, definitions and terminology in th...

  7. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...

  8. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... One of the important issues in the field of human education is the method of ... Encouragement and punishment method in Islamic management has been ... Concept of education refers to the cultivating human talent, this.

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... Voltage decay is an important issue in the power system community. ... of voltage profile, the total real power loss in the system is also determined to ..... Kumar A. Optimal placement of DG in radial distribution systems based.

  11. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  12. Detecting impacts of extreme events with ecological in situ monitoring networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Mahecha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme hydrometeorological conditions typically impact ecophysiological processes on land. Satellite-based observations of the terrestrial biosphere provide an important reference for detecting and describing the spatiotemporal development of such events. However, in-depth investigations of ecological processes during extreme events require additional in situ observations. The question is whether the density of existing ecological in situ networks is sufficient for analysing the impact of extreme events, and what are expected event detection rates of ecological in situ networks of a given size. To assess these issues, we build a baseline of extreme reductions in the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR, identified by a new event detection method tailored to identify extremes of regional relevance. We then investigate the event detection success rates of hypothetical networks of varying sizes. Our results show that large extremes can be reliably detected with relatively small networks, but also reveal a linear decay of detection probabilities towards smaller extreme events in log–log space. For instance, networks with  ≈  100 randomly placed sites in Europe yield a  ≥  90 % chance of detecting the eight largest (typically very large extreme events; but only a  ≥  50 % chance of capturing the 39 largest events. These findings are consistent with probability-theoretic considerations, but the slopes of the decay rates deviate due to temporal autocorrelation and the exact implementation of the extreme event detection algorithm. Using the examples of AmeriFlux and NEON, we then investigate to what degree ecological in situ networks can capture extreme events of a given size. Consistent with our theoretical considerations, we find that today's systematically designed networks (i.e. NEON reliably detect the largest extremes, but that the extreme event detection rates are not higher than would

  13. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  14. On the limit distribution of lower extreme generalized order statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In a wide subclass of generalized order statistics (gOs), which contains most of the known and important models of ordered random variables, weak conver- gence of lower extremes are developed. A recent result of extreme value theory of m−gOs (as well as the classical extreme value theory of ordinary order ...

  15. On the Limit Distribution of Lower Extreme Generalized Order Statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a wide subclass of generalized order statistics ( g O s ) , which contains most of the known and important models of ordered random variables, weak convergence of lower extremes are developed. A recent result of extreme value theory of m − g O s (as well as the classical extreme value theory of ordinary order statistics) ...

  16. Detection of trends in precipitation extremes in Zhejiang, east China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, Ye; Xu, YuePing; Booij, Martijn J.; Lin, Shengji; Zhang, Qingqing; Lou, Zhanghua

    2012-01-01

    Extreme weather exerts a huge impact on human beings and it is of vital importance to study the regular pattern of meteorological and hydrological factors. In this paper, a selection of seven extreme indices is used to analyze the trend of precipitation extremes of 18 meteorological stations located

  17. Editorial, Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Archuleta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy! In this issue, four scholarly papers are presented along with two profiles and a book review. These four papers address very important issues, such as mental health therapists’ competency in working with financial issues, financial stress of college students, parental messages about money, and financial advice media.

  18. An overview on extremity dosimetry in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Carinou, E.; Donadille, L.; Ginjaume, M.; Jankowski, J.; Rimpler, A.; Sans Merce, M.

    2008-01-01

    Some activities of EURADOS Working Group 9 (WG9) are presently funded by the European Commission (CONRAD project). The objective of WG9 is to promote and co-ordinate research activities for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff at workplaces in interventional radiology (IR) and nuclear medicine. For some of these applications, the skin of the fingers is the limiting organ for individual monitoring of external radiation. Therefore, sub-group 1 of WG9 deals with the use of extremity dosemeters in medical radiation fields. The wide variety of radiation field characteristics present in a medical environment together with the difficulties in measuring a local dose that is representative for the maximum skin dose, usually with one single detector, makes it difficult to perform accurate extremity dosimetry. Sub-group 1 worked out a thorough literature review on extremity dosimetry issues in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography, interventional radiology and interventional cardiology and brachytherapy. Some studies showed that the annual dose limits could be exceeded if the required protection measures are not taken, especially in nuclear medicine. The continuous progress in new applications and techniques requires an important effort in radiation protection and training. (authors)

  19. Acclimatization to extreme heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, M. E.; Ganguly, A. R.; Bhatia, U.

    2017-12-01

    Heat extremes throughout the globe, as well as in the United States, are expected to increase. These heat extremes have been shown to impact human health, resulting in some of the highest levels of lives lost as compared with similar natural disasters. But in order to inform decision makers and best understand future mortality and morbidity, adaptation and mitigation must be considered. Defined as the ability for individuals or society to change behavior and/or adapt physiologically, acclimatization encompasses the gradual adaptation that occurs over time. Therefore, this research aims to account for acclimatization to extreme heat by using a hybrid methodology that incorporates future air conditioning use and installation patterns with future temperature-related time series data. While previous studies have not accounted for energy usage patterns and market saturation scenarios, we integrate such factors to compare the impact of air conditioning as a tool for acclimatization, with a particular emphasis on mortality within vulnerable communities.

  20. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  1. Typologies of extreme longevity myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980-2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  2. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance, Shangri-La Myth (geographic, Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.

  3. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  5. Study of community leaders in a nuclear host community: local issues, expectations and support and opposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronfman, B.H.

    1977-08-01

    A study of community leaders was undertaken in Hartsville, Tennessee, site of the TVA Hartsville Nuclear Power Plant currently under construction. Leaders were found to be extremely supportive of the plant and of TVA's efforts to mitigate impacts expected to result from construction. Like their citizen counterparts, leaders expect economic benefits and some growth-related disruption to occur as a result of the plant, while environmental impacts are seen as extremely unlikely to occur. Plant-related issues, such as housing availability and traffic congestion, dominate leaders' thinking about current issues. These issues are expected to continue to be important in the future, and new issues dealing with growth and planning, employment and taxation are expected to arise

  6. Stellar extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, W.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The design, calibration, and launch of a rocket-borne imaging telescope for extreme ultraviolet astronomy are described. The telescope, which employed diamond-turned grazing incidence optics and a ranicon detector, was launched November 19, 1976, from the White Sands Missile Range. The telescope performed well and returned data on several potential stellar sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation. Upper limits ten to twenty times more sensitive than previously available were obtained for the extreme ultraviolet flux from the white dwarf Sirius B. These limits fall a factor of seven below the flux predicted for the star and demonstrate that the temperature of Sirius B is not 32,000 K as previously measured, but is below 30,000 K. The new upper limits also rule out the photosphere of the white dwarf as the source of the recently reported soft x-rays from Sirius. Two other white dwarf stars, Feige 24 and G191-B2B, were observed. Upper limits on the flux at 300 A were interpreted as lower limits on the interstellar hydrogen column densities to these stars. The lower limits indicate interstellar hydrogen densitites of greater than .02 cm -3 . Four nearby stars (Sirius, Procyon, Capella, and Mirzam) were observed in a search for intense low temperature coronae or extended chromospheres. No extreme ultraviolet radiation from these stars was detected, and upper limits to their coronal emisson measures are derived

  7. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  8. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  9. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2003-01-01

    . A theoretical expression for the probability density function associated with local extremes of a stochasticprocess is presented. The expression is basically based on the lower four statistical moments and a bandwidth parameter. The theoretical expression is subsequently verified by comparison with simulated...

  10. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  11. Probabilistic analysis of extreme wind events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaviaropoulos, P.K. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), Pikermi Attikis (Greece)

    1997-12-31

    A vital task in wind engineering and meterology is to understand, measure, analyse and forecast extreme wind conditions, due to their significant effects on human activities and installations like buildings, bridges or wind turbines. The latest version of the IEC standard (1996) pays particular attention to the extreme wind events that have to be taken into account when designing or certifying a wind generator. Actually, the extreme wind events within a 50 year period are those which determine the ``static`` design of most of the wind turbine components. The extremes which are important for the safety of wind generators are those associated with the so-called ``survival wind speed``, the extreme operating gusts and the extreme wind direction changes. A probabilistic approach for the analysis of these events is proposed in this paper. Emphasis is put on establishing the relation between extreme values and physically meaningful ``site calibration`` parameters, like probability distribution of the annual wind speed, turbulence intensity and power spectra properties. (Author)

  12. Early warnings of extreme winds using the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petroliagis, Thomas I.; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The European FP7 SafeWind Project aims at developing research towards a European vision of wind power forecasting, which requires advanced meteorological support concerning extreme wind events. This study is focused mainly on early warnings of extreme winds in the early medium-range. Three synoptic...... regimes. Overall, it becomes clear that the first indications of an extreme wind event might come from the ECMWF deterministic and/or probabilistic components capturing very intense weather systems (possible windstorms) in the medium term. For early warnings, all available EPS Extreme Forecast Index (EFI......) formulations were used, by linking daily maximum wind speeds to EFI values for different forecast horizons. From all possible EFI schemes deployed for issuing early warnings, the highest skill was found for the Gust Factor formulation (EFI-10FGI). Using EFI-10FGI, the corresponding 99% threshold could provide...

  13. An Incremental Type-2 Meta-Cognitive Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Mahardhika; Zhang, Guangquan; Er, Meng Joo; Anavatti, Sreenatha

    2017-02-01

    Existing extreme learning algorithm have not taken into account four issues: 1) complexity; 2) uncertainty; 3) concept drift; and 4) high dimensionality. A novel incremental type-2 meta-cognitive extreme learning machine (ELM) called evolving type-2 ELM (eT2ELM) is proposed to cope with the four issues in this paper. The eT2ELM presents three main pillars of human meta-cognition: 1) what-to-learn; 2) how-to-learn; and 3) when-to-learn. The what-to-learn component selects important training samples for model updates by virtue of the online certainty-based active learning method, which renders eT2ELM as a semi-supervised classifier. The how-to-learn element develops a synergy between extreme learning theory and the evolving concept, whereby the hidden nodes can be generated and pruned automatically from data streams with no tuning of hidden nodes. The when-to-learn constituent makes use of the standard sample reserved strategy. A generalized interval type-2 fuzzy neural network is also put forward as a cognitive component, in which a hidden node is built upon the interval type-2 multivariate Gaussian function while exploiting a subset of Chebyshev series in the output node. The efficacy of the proposed eT2ELM is numerically validated in 12 data streams containing various concept drifts. The numerical results are confirmed by thorough statistical tests, where the eT2ELM demonstrates the most encouraging numerical results in delivering reliable prediction, while sustaining low complexity.

  14. Prospect for extreme field science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, T. [Ludwig Maximilian Univ. and Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto and KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    The kind of laser extreme light infrastructure (ELI) provides will usher in a class of experiments we have only dreamed of for years. The characteristics that ELI brings in include: the highest intensity ever, large fluence, and relatively high repetition rate. A personal view of the author on the prospect of harnessing this unprecedented opportunity for advancing science of extreme fields is presented. The first characteristic of ELI, its intensity, will allow us to access, as many have stressed already, extreme fields that hover around the Schwinger field or at the very least the neighboring fields in which vacuum begins to behave as a nonlinear medium. In this sense, we are seriously probing the 'material' property of vacuum and thus the property that theory of relativity itself described and will entail. We will probe both special theory and general theory of relativity in regimes that have been never tested so far. We may see a glimpse into the reach of relativity or even its breakdown in some extreme regimes. We will learn Einstein and may even go beyond Einstein, if our journey is led. Laser-driven acceleration both by the laser field itself and by the wakefield that is triggered in a plasma is huge. Energies, if not luminosity, we can access, may be unprecedented going far beyond TeV. The nice thing about ELI is that it has relatively high repetition rate and average fluence as compared with other extreme lasers. This high fluence can be a key element that leads to applications to high energy physics, such as gamma-gamma collider driver experiment, and some gamma ray experiments that may be relevant in the frontier of photo-nuclear physics, and atomic energy applications. Needless to say, high fluence is one of most important features that industrial and medical applications may need. If we are lucky, we may see a door opens at the frontier of novel physics that may not be available by any other means. (authors)

  15. Important plasma problems in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example, there are ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron stars, relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynolds numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. The author will describe one of the more exciting examples and will attempt to convey the excitement he felt when he was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics that have not been so easily resolved. In fact, a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. The author will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma--astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) dynamos

  16. IMPORTANT NOTIFICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments

  17. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Bhaskar N

    1997-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma accounting for almost 55%. These tumors arise from unsegmented mesoderm or primitive mesenchyma, which have the capacity to differentiate into muscle. Less than 5% occur in the first year of life. Extremity rhabdomyosarcoma are mainly seen in the adolescent years. The most common histologic subtype is the alveolar variant. Other characteristics of extremity rhabdomyosarcoma include a predilection for lymph node metastasis, a high local failure, and a relatively low survival rate. They often present as slow painless masses; however, lesions in the hand and foot often present as painful masses and imaging studies may show invasion of the bone. Initial diagnostic approaches include needle biopsy or incisional biopsy for larger lesions. Excisional biopsy is indicated preferably for lesions less than 2.5 cm. following this in most instances therapy is initiated with multi agent chemotherapy depending upon response, the next modality may be either surgery with intent to cure or radiation therapy. Amputation of an extremity for local control is not considered in most instances. Prognostic factors that have been determined over the years to be of significance by multi variant analysis have included age, tumor size, invasiveness, presence of either nodal or distant metastasis, and complete excision whenever feasible, with supplemental radiation therapy for local control

  18. AWAKENING TO THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL STUDIES ONCE AGAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Öztürk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dear Colleagues and Friends:While it is with our great pleasure to welcome and greet you with a new issue of JSSER, we have been deeply saddened by the earthquake news from Van and terrorist attacks in Çukurca (of HakkariProvince over the past few weeks. Since our organization Association for Social Studies Education Research (ASSE and journal (JSSER focus on social issues such as citizenship, poverty, social and economic equality and justice, we see extreme poverty as an important issue in the developing world. Sadly, scenes like those in Van remind us of the impoverishment and dramatic inequalities that remain in the developed countries. We as Social Studies educators need to take more action and responsibility to educate and advocate people in our community and in the world to make poverty history

  19. How does public opinion become extreme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D S; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A

    2015-05-19

    We investigate the emergence of extreme opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of extreme views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain extreme view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are "very conservative" versus "moderate to very conservative" ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual "stubbornness" that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of extreme views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to extreme views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people's ties.

  20. How does public opinion become extreme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S.; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the emergence of extreme opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of extreme views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain extreme view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are “very conservative” versus “moderate to very conservative” ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual “stubbornness” that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of extreme views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to extreme views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people’s ties.

  1. Workforce Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…

  2. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the…

  3. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  4. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  5. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  6. Extreme Programming Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chromatic

    2003-01-01

    Extreme Programming (XP) is a radical new approach to software development that has been accepted quickly because its core practices--the need for constant testing, programming in pairs, inviting customer input, and the communal ownership of code--resonate with developers everywhere. Although many developers feel that XP is rooted in commonsense, its vastly different approach can bring challenges, frustrations, and constant demands on your patience. Unless you've got unlimited time (and who does these days?), you can't always stop to thumb through hundreds of pages to find the piece of info

  7. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  8. Importance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Kobayashi, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    Conventionally, the design of a nuclear reactor has been performed from a viewpoint of a safety function and the importance on earthquake-proof on the basis of not giving off the mainly included radioactivity outside. In this Niigataken-Chuetsuoki earthquake, there is almost no damage to the system, components and structure on safe also in the earthquake beyond assumption, and the validity of the design was checked. But, the situation peculiar to a big earthquake was also generated. The emergency plan room which should serve as a connection center with the exterior was not able to open a door and use at the beginning. Fire-extinguishing system piping fractured and self-defense fire fighting was not made. And so on. Discussion from the following three viewpoints was performed. 1st: The importance from a viewpoint which should maintain a function also with the disaster in case of an earthquake like an emergency plan room etc. 2nd: In the earthquake, since the safe system and un-safe system was influenced, the importance from a viewpoint which may have influence safely inquired when the un-safe system broke down. 3rd: Although it was not directly related safely, discussion from a viewpoint which influences fear of insecurity, such as taking out smoke, for example, was performed (author)

  9. Shocking matter to extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Y.M.; Sharma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    A good understanding of the thermodynamic response of matter at high compression and high energy densities is important to several areas of physics. Shock-wave experiments are uniquely suited for obtaining data at extreme conditions, and a shock-compressed matter can be viewed as a condensed system with or without dissociation or as a strongly coupled plasma. This article reviews work by Da Silva et al. in which irradiances ranging from 5x10 superscript 12 to 2x10 superscript 14 W/cm 2 were used to generate 8- to 10-ns square pulses in liquid deuterium. The authors demonstrated negligible pre-heating of the sample, steady propagation of the shock wave, and direct determination of the shock wave velocity along with particle velocity and density in the shocked state. Da Silva et al. results are compared with models and other experimental information, and the usefulness of the data in other areas is assessed. 11 refs., 1 fig

  10. "Extreme Programming" in a Bioinformatics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott; Alger, Christianna; Deutschman, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The importance of Bioinformatics tools and methodology in modern biological research underscores the need for robust and effective courses at the college level. This paper describes such a course designed on the principles of cooperative learning based on a computer software industry production model called "Extreme Programming" (EP).…

  11. To the limit of extreme malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Jacob; Buskbjerg, Camilla Viola; Støving, Rene K

    2016-01-01

    Extreme malnutrition with body mass index (BMI) as low as 10 kg/m(2) is not uncommon in anorexia nervosa, with survival enabled through complex metabolic adaptations. In contrast, outcomes from hunger strikes and famines are usually fatal after weight loss to about 40% below expected body weight...... malnutrition has not previously been reported. The present case emphasizes the importance of adherence...

  12. Temperature Extremes, Health, and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivin, Joshua Graff; Shrader, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The extreme temperatures expected under climate change may be especially harmful to children. Children are more vulnerable to heat partly because of their physiological features, but, perhaps more important, because they behave and respond differently than adults do. Children are less likely to manage their own heat risk and may have fewer ways to…

  13. Value-at-Risk and Extreme Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Daníelsson (Jón); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAccurate prediction of the frequency of extreme events is of primary importance in many financial applications such as Value-at-Risk (VaR) analysis. We propose a semi-parametric method for VaR evaluation. The largest risks are modelled parametrically, while smaller risks are captured by

  14. Capturing spatial and temporal patterns of widespread, extreme flooding across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Kathryn; Raven, Emma; Liu, Ye

    2013-04-01

    Statistical characterisation of physical hazards is an integral part of probabilistic catastrophe models used by the reinsurance industry to estimate losses from large scale events. Extreme flood events are not restricted by country boundaries which poses an issue for reinsurance companies as their exposures often extend beyond them. We discuss challenges and solutions that allow us to appropriately capture the spatial and temporal dependence of extreme hydrological events on a continental-scale, which in turn enables us to generate an industry-standard stochastic event set for estimating financial losses for widespread flooding. By presenting our event set methodology, we focus on explaining how extreme value theory (EVT) and dependence modelling are used to account for short, inconsistent hydrological data from different countries, and how to make appropriate statistical decisions that best characterise the nature of flooding across Europe. The consistency of input data is of vital importance when identifying historical flood patterns. Collating data from numerous sources inherently causes inconsistencies and we demonstrate our robust approach to assessing the data and refining it to compile a single consistent dataset. This dataset is then extrapolated using a parameterised EVT distribution to estimate extremes. Our method then captures the dependence of flood events across countries using an advanced multivariate extreme value model. Throughout, important statistical decisions are explored including: (1) distribution choice; (2) the threshold to apply for extracting extreme data points; (3) a regional analysis; (4) the definition of a flood event, which is often linked with reinsurance industry's hour's clause; and (5) handling of missing values. Finally, having modelled the historical patterns of flooding across Europe, we sample from this model to generate our stochastic event set comprising of thousands of events over thousands of years. We then briefly

  15. Liability Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donoghue, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)

  16. Unconventional imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on bitumens and bitumen products from Canadian oil sands and explores how they will affect the Canadian oil industry and the US refining industry. The falling production of crude, the growing demand for it, and the stagnating refining capacity in the US are reported, and Canadian and Mexican exports to the US, the definition of bitumens and bitumen quality, and the position of Canada as world leader in bitumen resources are considered. Bitumen production techniques, sales of bitumens and synthetic crude, the production outlook, and the quality and refining of bitumen and synthetic crude are examined. Plots illustrating North American crude refining capacity, production and demand for 1980-2000; US crude imports from Canada and Mexico (1981-2000), world proven oil reserves (2001), world bitumen resources, and Canadian oil production (1998-2000) are provided. Details of the composition of crudes and bitumens, and recent synthetic crude production are tabulated

  17. Investigating NARCCAP Precipitation Extremes via Bivariate Extreme Value Theory (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, G. B.; Cooley, D. S.; Sain, S. R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce methodology from statistical extreme value theory to examine the ability of reanalysis-drive regional climate models to simulate past daily precipitation extremes. Going beyond a comparison of summary statistics such as 20-year return values, we study whether the most extreme precipitation events produced by climate model simulations exhibit correspondence to the most extreme events seen in observational records. The extent of this correspondence is formulated via the statistical concept of tail dependence. We examine several case studies of extreme precipitation events simulated by the six models of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) driven by NCEP reanalysis. It is found that the NARCCAP models generally reproduce daily winter precipitation extremes along the Pacific coast quite well; in contrast, simulation of past daily summer precipitation extremes in a central US region is poor. Some differences in the strength of extremal correspondence are seen in the central region between models which employ spectral nudging and those which do not. We demonstrate how these techniques may be used to draw a link between extreme precipitation events and large-scale atmospheric drivers, as well as to downscale extreme precipitation simulated by a future run of a regional climate model. Specifically, we examine potential future changes in the nature of extreme precipitation along the Pacific coast produced by the pineapple express (PE) phenomenon. A link between extreme precipitation events and a "PE Index" derived from North Pacific sea-surface pressure fields is found. This link is used to study PE-influenced extreme precipitation produced by a future-scenario climate model run.

  18. Management and outcome of extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Papageorgiou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW and extremely premature (EP infants has shown consistent improvement thanks to advances and innovations in perinatal and neonatal care. Regionalization, with high-risk deliveries in a tertiary perinatal center, offers the coordinated, collaborative, expert and specialized care needed by these mothers and their infants. Despite decreasing rates of the major neonatal morbidities observed in recent years, these continue still to be significant for ELBW/EP infants, impacting their overall prognosis. After NICU discharge and in the first years of life, issues with health, growth and development are common. In school age and adolescence, problems with behavior, socialization and cognition are prevalent. Adult outcomes of ELBW/EP need further clarity, emphasizing the importance for consistent long-term follow-up for this special cohort. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  19. Ethica ex machina: issues in roboethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushiaki, Shigeru

    2013-12-01

    Is "roboethics" the "ethics of humans" or the "ethics of robots"? According to the Roboethics Roadmap (Gianmarco Veruggio), it is the human ethics of robot designers, manufacturers, and users. And ifroboethics roots deeply in society, artificial ethics (ethics of robots) might be put on the agenda some day. At the 1st International Symposium on Roboethics in San Remo, Ronald C. Arkin gave the presentation "Bombs, Bonding, and Bondage: Human-Robot Interaction and Related Ethical Issues" (2004). "Bondage" is the issue of enslavement and possible rebellion of robots. "Bombs" is the issue of military use of robots. And "bonding" is the issue of affective, emotional attachment of humans to robots. I contrast two extreme attitudes towards the issue of "bonding" and propose a middle ground. "Anthropomorphism" has two meanings. First, it means "human-shaped-ness." Second, it means "attribution of human characteristics or feelings to a nonhuman being (god, animal, or object)" (personification, empathy). Some say that Japanese (or East Asians) hold "animism," which makes it easy for them to treat robots like animated beings (to anthropomorphize robots); hence "Robot Kingdom Japan." Cosima Wagner criticizes such exaggeration and oversimplification as "invented tradition". I reinforce her argument with neuroscientific findings and argue that such "animism" is neither Shintoistic nor Buddhistic, but a universal tendency. Roboticists, especially Japanese roboticists emphasize that robotics is "anthropology." It is true that through the construction of humanoid robots we can better understand human beings (so-called "constructive approach"). But at the same time, we must not forget that robotic technology, like any other technology, changes our way of living and being--deeply: it can bring about our ontological transformation. In this sense, the governance of robotic technology is "governed governance." The interdisciplinary research area of technology assessment studies (TAS

  20. CULTURAL ISSUES IN ECONOMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Meyer

    2012-01-01

    This article has been written with the purpose of attracting attention to the cultural issues, or rather lack of them, in economics. This topic has not been taken frequently into theoretical considerations due to some difficulties, although its practical implications are of great importance. The meaning of institutions which are a part of cultures has been given more coverage in the literature. The following hypothesis is proposed: culture is an important but underestimated component of the e...

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... Labor deployment issues play an important role in analyzing their use at the country or regional level .... The growth of employment in the service sector since the 50s, as a result of the rapid ... Hotels and restaurants. 23,0 ..... for the better, its number decreases and the quality of labor resources deteriorates.

  2. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: Anatomy and basic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ahn, Kyung Sik; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography.

  3. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: Anatomy and basic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ahn, Kyung Sik; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography

  4. Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating Extreme Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the importance of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting extreme events. Extreme earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the extreme events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of extreme seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying extreme events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).

  5. In This Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    extremely useful to anyone who wants to adopt this approach. Maier (page 643) describes a pilot program in polymer science designed to interest minority students in polymer science and chemistry. This is a modular program that could be incorporated into a variety of curricula. A different approach to curriculum and outreach is the combined biology/chemistry van program described by Craney, Mazzeo, and Lord (page 646). And yet more outreach for younger children is described by Nolan and Gish (page 651). Information technology can support and aid curriculum reform. The abstract from JCE: Software is for a CD-ROM that summarizes the work of an NSF-supported materials science curriculum development project carried out by Lisensky and Ellis (page 667). The Computer Series includes a proposed addition to the typical physical chemistry curriculum by Williams, Minarik, and Nibler (page 608); it is possible because microcomputers can now do ab initio molecular orbital calculations with reasonable speed. Demonstrations have long been a part of the curriculum. They are always popular and usually instructive. Beall (page 641) reports on a conference that considered the pros and cons of demonstrations as a teaching tool. Tested Demonstrations includes a means for estimating equilibrium constants based on the odor of a solution by Anderson, Buckley, and Niewahner (page 639) as well as a way of making ion exchange visible devised by Driscoll and Villaescuesa (page 640). A very important and time consuming aspect of curriculum development is incorporation of new laboratory experiences for students. Mabrouk (page A 149) describes a laboratory that brings biochemistry to the fore. Sundback (page 669) shows how high school students can test for lead in the environment, and Rees (page 670) shows how homeowners can easily test for lead in paint. Elderd, Kildahy, and Berka (page 675) provide a way to use modern GC equipment to show students how to determine whether a fire may have been arson. In

  6. Transitional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue

  7. Surviving at any cost: guilt expression following extreme ethical conflicts in a virtual setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofari, Cécile; Guitton, Matthieu J

    2014-01-01

    Studying human behavior in response to large-scale catastrophic events, particularly how moral challenges would be undertaken under extreme conditions, is an important preoccupation for contemporary scientists and decision leaders. However, researching this issue was hindered by the lack of readily available models. Immersive virtual worlds could represent a solution, by providing ways to test human behavior in controlled life-threatening situations. Using a massively multi-player zombie apocalypse setting, we analysed spontaneously reported feelings of guilt following ethically questionable actions related to survival. The occurrence and magnitude of guilt depended on the nature of the consequences of the action. Furthermore, feelings of guilt predicted long-lasting changes in behavior, displayed as compensatory actions. Finally, actions inflicting immediate harm to others appeared mostly prompted by panic and were more commonly regretted. Thus, extreme conditions trigger a reduction of the impact of ethical norms in decision making, although awareness of ethicality is retained to a surprising extent.

  8. Surviving at any cost: guilt expression following extreme ethical conflicts in a virtual setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Cristofari

    Full Text Available Studying human behavior in response to large-scale catastrophic events, particularly how moral challenges would be undertaken under extreme conditions, is an important preoccupation for contemporary scientists and decision leaders. However, researching this issue was hindered by the lack of readily available models. Immersive virtual worlds could represent a solution, by providing ways to test human behavior in controlled life-threatening situations. Using a massively multi-player zombie apocalypse setting, we analysed spontaneously reported feelings of guilt following ethically questionable actions related to survival. The occurrence and magnitude of guilt depended on the nature of the consequences of the action. Furthermore, feelings of guilt predicted long-lasting changes in behavior, displayed as compensatory actions. Finally, actions inflicting immediate harm to others appeared mostly prompted by panic and were more commonly regretted. Thus, extreme conditions trigger a reduction of the impact of ethical norms in decision making, although awareness of ethicality is retained to a surprising extent.

  9. Are BALQSOs extreme accretors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, M. J.; Wills, B. J.

    2002-12-01

    Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSOs are QSOs with massive absorbing outflows up to 0.2c. Two hypothesis have been suggested in the past about the nature of BALQSOs: Every QSO might have BAL outflow with some covering factor. BALQSOs are those which happen to have outflow along our line of sight. BALQSOs have intrinsically different physical properties than non-BALQSOs. Based on BALQSO's optical emission properties and a large set of correlations linking many general QSO emission line and continuum properties, it has been suggested that BALQSOs might accrete at near Eddington limit with abundant of fuel supplies. With new BALQSO Hβ region spectroscopic observation conducted at UKIRT and re-analysis of literature data for low and high redshift non-BALQSOs, We confirm that BALQSOs have extreme Fe II and [O III] emission line properties. Using results derived from the latest QSO Hβ region reverberation mapping, we calculated Eddington ratios (˙ {M}/˙ {M}Edd) for our BAL and non-BALQSOs. The Fe II and [O III] strengths are strongly correlated with Eddington ratios. Those correlations link Eddington ratio to a large set of general QSO properties through the Boroson & Green Eigenvector 1. We find that BALQSOs have Eddington ratios close to 1. However, all high redshift, high luminosity QSOs have rather high Eddington ratios. We argue that this is a side effect from selecting the brightest objects. In fact, our high redshift sample might constitute BALQSO's high Eddington ratio orientation parent population.

  10. Legal and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Leaving aside the natural desire to avoid the difficulties imposed by the enormously complex siting and certification process, a utility might decide to forego adding new capacity because of a variety of legal and institutional disincentives. Some of these are discussed in this chapter. The addition of new lines to support a competitive generating market also raises unique institutional issues. Perhaps the most important of these is the question of who should pay for the necessary capital expenditures. This issue also is discussed in this section

  11. A note on extreme sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Cymer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In decomposition theory, extreme sets have been studied extensively due to its connection to perfect matchings in a graph. In this paper, we first define extreme sets with respect to degree-matchings and next investigate some of their properties. In particular, we prove the generalized Decomposition Theorem and give a characterization for the set of all extreme vertices in a graph.

  12. Changes in extreme regional sea level under global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunnabend, S. E.; Dijkstra, H. A.; Kliphuis, Michael; Bal, Henri E.; Seinstra, Frank J.; van Werkhoven, Ben; Maassen, J.; van Meersbergen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    An important contribution to future changes in regional sea level extremes is due to the changes in intrinsic ocean variability, in particular ocean eddies. Here, we study a scenario of future dynamic sea level (DSL) extremes using a high-resolution version of the Parallel Ocean Program and

  13. Policy issues in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, DRF

    1998-01-01

    Policy Issues in Modern Cartography contains the views of national mapping agencies, legal scholars, the library community, the private sector and academia on these and many other important issues. The book begins with perspectives from national mapping agencies in Britain, Canada and the United States followed by a survey of the situation in Asia. The next three chapters deal primarily with legal issues such as copyright and intellectual property from both North American and European perspectives. Chapter 8 presents an important perspective on the key issues by a representative of the privat

  14. Analysis of extreme drinking in patients with alcohol dependence using Pareto regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourish; Harel, Ofer; Dey, Dipak K; Covault, Jonathan; Kranzler, Henry R

    2010-05-20

    We developed a novel Pareto regression model with an unknown shape parameter to analyze extreme drinking in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD). We used the generalized linear model (GLM) framework and the log-link to include the covariate information through the scale parameter of the generalized Pareto distribution. We proposed a Bayesian method based on Ridge prior and Zellner's g-prior for the regression coefficients. Simulation study indicated that the proposed Bayesian method performs better than the existing likelihood-based inference for the Pareto regression.We examined two issues of importance in the study of AD. First, we tested whether a single nucleotide polymorphism within GABRA2 gene, which encodes a subunit of the GABA(A) receptor, and that has been associated with AD, influences 'extreme' alcohol intake and second, the efficacy of three psychotherapies for alcoholism in treating extreme drinking behavior. We found an association between extreme drinking behavior and GABRA2. We also found that, at baseline, men with a high-risk GABRA2 allele had a significantly higher probability of extreme drinking than men with no high-risk allele. However, men with a high-risk allele responded to the therapy better than those with two copies of the low-risk allele. Women with high-risk alleles also responded to the therapy better than those with two copies of the low-risk allele, while women who received the cognitive behavioral therapy had better outcomes than those receiving either of the other two therapies. Among men, motivational enhancement therapy was the best for the treatment of the extreme drinking behavior. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaë l; Davison, Anthony C.; Genton, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  16. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2015-11-17

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  17. Countering Internet Extremism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Timothy L

    2009-01-01

    ... that. Extremists' use of the Internet has developed rapidly since the Chechen-Russian conflict. Now they are more creative, and more importantly, more persuasive in their methods to recruit members, gain financial support, and provide proof of success...

  18. Early neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Elizabeth E; Hintz, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Infants born at extreme preterm gestation are at risk for both death and disability. Although rates of survival have improved for this population, and some evidence suggests a trend toward decreased neuromotor impairment over the past decades, a significant improvement in overall early neurodevelopmental outcome has not yet been realized. This review will examine the rates and types of neurodevelopmental impairment seen after extremely preterm birth, including neurosensory, motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. We focus on early outcomes in the first 18-36 months of life, as the majority of large neonatal studies examining neurodevelopmental outcomes stop at this age. However, this early age is clearly just a first glimpse into lifetime outcomes; the neurodevelopmental effects of extreme prematurity may last through school age, adolescence, and beyond. Importantly, prematurity appears to be an independent risk factor for adverse development, but this population demonstrates considerable variability in the types and severity of impairments. Understanding both the nature and prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairment among extremely preterm infants is important because it can lead to targeted interventions that in turn may lead to improved outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  20. Wireless Sensor Applications in Extreme Aeronautical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA aeronautical programs require rigorous ground and flight testing. Many of the testing environments can be extremely harsh. These environments include cryogenic temperatures and high temperatures (greater than 1500 C). Temperature, pressure, vibration, ionizing radiation, and chemical exposure may all be part of the harsh environment found in testing. This paper presents a survey of research opportunities for universities and industry to develop new wireless sensors that address anticipated structural health monitoring (SHM) and testing needs for aeronautical vehicles. Potential applications of passive wireless sensors for ground testing and high altitude aircraft operations are presented. Some of the challenges and issues of the technology are also presented.

  1. Further outlooks: extremely uncomfortable; Die weiteren Aussichten: extrem ungemuetlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resenhoeft, T.

    2006-07-01

    Climate is changing extremely in the last decades. Scientists dealing with extreme weather, should not only stare at computer simulations. They have also to turn towards psyche, seriously personal experiences, knowing statistics, relativise supposed sensational reports and last not least collecting more data. (GL)

  2. Assessing Climate Variability using Extreme Rainfall and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    extreme frequency); the average intensity of rainfall from extreme events ... frequency and extreme intensity indices, suggesting that extreme events are more frequent and intense during years with high rainfall. The proportion of total rainfall from ...

  3. Management of the mangled extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prasarn, Mark L.; Helfet, David L.; Kloen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The management of a mangled extremity continues to be a matter of debate. With modern advances in trauma resuscitation, microvascular tissue transfer, and fracture fixation, severe traumatic extremity injuries that would historically have been amputated are often salvaged. Even if preserving a

  4. A decade of weather extremes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Dim; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    The ostensibly large number of recent extreme weather events has triggered intensive discussions, both in- and outside the scientific community, on whether they are related to global warming. Here, we review the evidence and argue that for some types of extreme - notably heatwaves, but also

  5. Attitude extremity, consensus and diagnosticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait

  6. Introduction to the special issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Elordieta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past few years there has been an intense and increasing collaboration effort between researchers working on the Iberian languages, and this is particularly true in the realm of phonetics and phonology. The 'Journal of Portuguese Linguistics 'has played a role in contributing to stimulate such a collaborative research focusing on the Iberian languages: first with a Special Issue on 'Variation and Change in the Iberian Languages: the Peninsula and Beyond', and now with a Special Issue on the 'Prosody of Ibero-Romance and Related Languages'. In fact, to broaden its scope of coverage to the Iberian languages has become an explicit goal of the journal. As guest-editors of this issue, we are very pleased to be able to contribute to this objective, which we find an extremely fruitful one.

  7. Extremely secure identification documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolk, K.M.; Bell, M.

    1997-09-01

    The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office

  8. Exploration of Extreme Terrain Using a Polyhedral Rover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exploring celestial bodies with extreme terrains in our solar system, like Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and asteroids, are of great importance to NASA because these...

  9. The Importance of Marine Observatories and of RAIA in Particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Bastos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal and Oceanic Observatories are important tools to provide information on ocean state, phenomena and processes. They meet the need for a better understanding of coastal and ocean dynamics, revealing regional characteristics and vulnerabilities. These observatories are extremely useful to guide human actions in response to natural events and potential climate change impacts, anticipating the occurrence of extreme weather and oceanic events and helping to minimize consequent personal and material damages and costs.International organizations and local governments have shown an increasing interest in operational oceanography and coastal, marine and oceanic observations, which resulted in substantial investments in these areas. A variety of physical, chemical and biological data have been collected to better understand the specific characteristics of each ocean area and its importance in the global context. Also the general public’s interest in marine issues and observatories has been raised, mainly in relation to vulnerability, sustainability and climate change issues. Data and products obtained by an observatory are hence useful to a broad range of stakeholders, from national and local authorities to the population in general.An introduction to Ocean Observatories, including their national and regional importance, and a brief analysis of the societal interest in these observatories and related issues are presented. The potential of a Coastal and Ocean Observatory is then demonstrated using the RAIA observatory as example. This modern and comprehensive observatory is dedicated to improve operational oceanography, technology and marine science for the North Western Iberian coast, and to provide services to a large range of stakeholders.

  10. Wireless ATM : handover issues

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Fan; Käkölä, Timo

    1998-01-01

    Basic aspects of cellular systems and the ATM transmission technology are introduced. Wireless ATM is presented as a combination of radio ATM and mobile ATM. Radio ATM is a wireless extension of an ATM connection while mobile ATM contains the necessary extensions to ATM to support mobility. Because the current ATM technology does not support mobility, handover becomes one of the most important research issues for wireless ATM. Wireless ATM handover requirements are thus analysed. A handover s...

  11. New Zealand; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper conducts a comparative analysis of the main determinants of GDP per capita growth in New Zealand and in other OECD countries to assess the relative importance of macroeconomic factors, institutional settings, and geographical location in New Zealand’s growth performance during the last 30 years. The estimation results find strong support for the view that geographical isolation has significantly hampered growth in New Zealand. The paper also reviews the internationa...

  12. Software challenges in extreme scale systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Vivek; Harrod, William; Snavely, Allan E

    2009-01-01

    Computer systems anticipated in the 2015 - 2020 timeframe are referred to as Extreme Scale because they will be built using massive multi-core processors with 100's of cores per chip. The largest capability Extreme Scale system is expected to deliver Exascale performance of the order of 10 18 operations per second. These systems pose new critical challenges for software in the areas of concurrency, energy efficiency and resiliency. In this paper, we discuss the implications of the concurrency and energy efficiency challenges on future software for Extreme Scale Systems. From an application viewpoint, the concurrency and energy challenges boil down to the ability to express and manage parallelism and locality by exploring a range of strong scaling and new-era weak scaling techniques. For expressing parallelism and locality, the key challenges are the ability to expose all of the intrinsic parallelism and locality in a programming model, while ensuring that this expression of parallelism and locality is portable across a range of systems. For managing parallelism and locality, the OS-related challenges include parallel scalability, spatial partitioning of OS and application functionality, direct hardware access for inter-processor communication, and asynchronous rather than interrupt-driven events, which are accompanied by runtime system challenges for scheduling, synchronization, memory management, communication, performance monitoring, and power management. We conclude by discussing the importance of software-hardware co-design in addressing the fundamental challenges for application enablement on Extreme Scale systems.

  13. Anders Breivik: Extreme Beliefs Mistaken for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tahir; Resnick, Phillip J; Harry, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    The case of Anders Breivik, who committed mass murder in Norway in 2011, stirred controversy among forensic mental health experts. His bizarrely composed compendium and references to himself as the "Knights Templar" raised concerns that he had a psychotic mental illness. Beliefs such as Mr. Breivik's that precede odd, unusual, or extremely violent behavior present a unique challenge to the forensic evaluator, who sometimes struggles to understand those beliefs. Psychotic disorder frequently is invoked to characterize odd, unusual, or extreme beliefs, with a classification that has evolved over time. However, the important concept of overvalued idea, largely ignored in American psychiatry, may better characterize these beliefs in some cases. We discuss the definitions of delusion and overvalued ideas in the context of Anders Breivik's rigidly held extreme beliefs. We also review the British definition of overvalued idea and discuss McHugh's construct, to introduce the term "extreme overvalued belief" as an aid in sharpening the forensic evaluator's conceptualization of these and similar beliefs. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  14. [Psychologic management of extreme prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granboulan, V; Danan, C; Dassieu, G; Janaud, J C; Durand, B

    1995-05-01

    The ongoing progress in neonatal intensive care is modifying the psychic context of prematurity for all the partners, infants as well as parents and physicians. Comfort and prognosis of preterm infants have much improved. Since newborns under 24 weeks of gestational age are now surviving, they spend approximately half the duration of pregnancy out of the maternal uterus. All the psychological issues of such an early separation have to be considered, including the developmental outcome of a sensorial environment which is quite different from the intra-uterine one. Research has been developing in this field. The cooperation between neonatalogists and psychologists has been profitable to parents. Problems linked to the separation, such as difficulty in representing the infant, are no more frequent owing to the attention paid to the mother-child bond and subsequent early contacts. What is forward now is the impact of an hyper technical world of intensive care on the parents, and of the strange aspect of the tiny baby surrounded by engines and tubes. Such an overpresence of reality often results in a reaction of traumatic daziness among parents. The cooperation of the whole staff is necessary for the resumption of an imaginary process of psychic functioning. Finally, the survival of very-low-birth-weight infants confronts the neonatalogists with some delicate ethical questions. Psychiatrists and psychologists might have an important part to play in aiding the profession in its sorting out of these ethical issues.

  15. The role of extreme drought events in modelling the distribution of beech at its xeric limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasztovits, Ervin; Berki, Imre; Eredics, Attila; Móricz, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    Context: Projections of species distribution models (SDMs) for future climate conditions are based on long term mean climate data. For management and conservation issues SDMs have been extensively used, but it is not tested whether models that are successful in predicting current distributions are equally powerful in predicting distributions under future climates. Methods: Observations after 2003 confirms that extreme drought events played an important role in driving beech mortality at low-elevation xeric limits. The objective of this study was (1) to set up a simple extreme drought event based vitality model (EDM) using sanitary logging information as a proxy of vitality response of beech and (2) to compare the spatial pattern of the predicted vitality loss provided by the EDM with the distribution limits of the SDMs for three terms (2025, 2050 and 2100) in Hungary to assess model performance. Results: Prediction for vitality loss for 2025 obtained from the EDM was in agreement with those of the SDM, but for the end of the century the EDM predicted a more serious decline in almost all regions of Hungary. Conclusion: The result of the comparison suggests that the increasing frequency and severity of extremes might play a more important role in limiting the distribution of beech in the future near to the xeric limit than long-term means.

  16. Extreme Rainfall In A City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemdirim, Lawrence

    industrialization. The development of small cloud droplets into larger particles requires time. A single thunderstorm cell has a mean development time of about 20 minutes and a life time of around 45 minutes with a mean mind of 10m/s, an air parcel would travel 12 km from the beginning of droplet formation to the first precipitation. That means that the precipitation field is shifted downwind of settlements. It could also explain the the higher frequency of the trace to small amounts observed in Calgary since those events occur under relatively calm weather. Whereas the majority of studies have focused on summer convectional type events, little appears to have been done on the extreme rainfall events on which most structural designs are based. Is there a detectable urban bias in these events? Do urban areas intensify them? What are the implications of point distribution of extreme rainfall events on flood frequency across a city. This paper examines the spatial distribution of the mean annual maximum rainfall event in Calgary, Canada, with a view to determining the relative contribution of geographical setting and urbanisation to point patterns. The data are subsequently maximized to produce maps of probable maximum precipitation for the city. The major results are as follows: (a) position along storm path is the most important variable determining maximum rainfall hazard, (b) higher grounds receive up to seventy percent more maximum rainfall than values based on spatial trend, (c) urban structure and geometry correlate negatively with maximum rainfall intensity, however, (d) zones of maximum flood peaks are found down slope of areas of maximum precipitation increasing flood hazard in the inner city in spite of its lower precipitation. Drainage networks based on point rainfall patterns have proved grossly inadequate for flood mitigation. The new design based on this study recognizes the strong moisture gradients caused by rapid movement of water and other elements down slope. Snow

  17. Driving and Epilepsy: a Review of Important Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joon Y; Mintzer, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Driving restrictions in people with epilepsy (PWE) is a highly contentious topic. The fundamental difficulty lies in achieving a balance between safety and practicality. The aim of this review is to provide an overview, history, and rationale behind current laws regarding driving restriction in PWE. We also discuss recent findings that may be helpful to practitioners during individual discussions with PWE including seizure recurrence risk after first seizure, recurrent seizure, and anticonvulsant with drawl and driving restrictions in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES).

  18. Equity crowdfunding in China : Current practice and important legal issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    By studying two leading Chinese equity crowdfunding portals, namely, Renrentou and Zhongou8, this paper provides the very first empirical evidence on the practice and regulation of equity crowdfunding in China. In the case of Renrentou, I examine a hand-collected sample consisting of the investment

  19. College Student Social Networking: Its Importance and Its Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihbey, Jean A.

    2010-01-01

    Most traditional age college students communicate regularly on social networking sites such as, MySpace, Facebook, Friendster, Bebo, and LiveJournal. These are member-based internet communities that allow users to create a username, enter personal profile information, post photographs and communicate with others in innovative ways. Since Facebook…

  20. Colostomy irrigation: an important issue for Muslim individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ayise; Baykara, Zehra Göçmen

    2009-01-01

    Colostomy irrigation (CI) is a bowel management method in individuals with permanent colostomy, as an alternative to pouch use, which may provide continence. CI helps the individuals with an artificial stoma to adjust to the stoma and may increase their quality of life (QOL). An uncontrolled intestinal gas discharge invalidates ablution, and noisy gas discharge and smell prevents congregational prayers, which cause problems to Muslims with stomas. Therefore, CI may be an appropriate solution for this patient group. Using the example of one affected individual we discuss how the praying problem can be resolved with teaching to self-perform CI and emphasize the beneficial effects on QOL.

  1. Feasibility: An important but neglected issue in patient hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, Shanina C; McDowell, Cherese; Rai, Herleen; Higgins, Patricia; Burant, Christopher; Donskey, Curtis J

    2017-06-01

    Patient hand hygiene may be a useful strategy to prevent acquisition of pathogens and to reduce the risk for transmission by colonized patients. Several studies demonstrate that patients and long-term-care facility (LTCF) residents may have difficulty using hand hygiene products that are provided; however, none of them measure feasibility for patients to use different hand hygiene products. A convenience sample of 42 hospitalized patients and 46 LTCF residents was assessed for their ability to use 3 hand sanitizer products (8-oz pushdown pump bottle, 2-oz pocket-sized bottle with a reclosable lid, and alcohol-impregnated hand wipes). The time (seconds) required for accessing each product was compared among acute-care patients and LTCF residents. Participants provided feedback on which product they preferred and found easiest to use. Of 88 participants, 86 (97.7%) preferred the pushdown pump, 2 (2.3%) preferred the bottle with the reclosable lid, and none preferred the hand wipes. For both hospitalized patients and LTCF residents, the average time required to access the pushdown pump was significantly less than the time required to access the other products (pushdown pump, 0.45 seconds; bottle with reclosable lid, 3.86 seconds; and wipes, 5.66 seconds; P hand hygiene products for patients and LTCF residents. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reconstruction of Lower Extremity Primary Malignant and Metastatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Lower extremity tumors and endoprosthesis. 1130. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ¦ Volume 20 ¦ Issue 9 ¦ September 2017 renal failure, and the other patients died due to advanced metastatic disease. None of our patients who received radiotherapy and chemotherapy died due to oncologic treatment.

  3. Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption among College Students on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Wagenaar, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and the related consequences associated with college football games are a serious public health issue for university communities. Objective: Examining "Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption" (ERAC), defined as consuming 10 or more drinks on game day for a male, and 8 or more drinks for a female, is the focus of this study.…

  4. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    -centric boundary (Filippelli 2008, Handoh and Lenton 2003). However, human alteration of the P cycle has multiple potential boundaries (figure 1), including P-driven freshwater eutrophication (Smith and Schindler 2009), the potential for world P supply to place an ultimate limit on food production (Smil 2000, Childers et al 2011), and depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions (MacDonald et al 2011). Carpenter and Bennett revisit the P boundary from the freshwater eutrophication perspective. Given the extraordinary variation in freshwater ecosystems across the globe, this is a challenging task, but the authors strengthen their analysis by using three different boundaries with relevance to eutrophication, along with two water quality targets and a range of estimates of P flow to the sea. In doing so, they make a compelling case that if freshwater eutrophication is indeed a Rubicon, we have already crossed it. Importantly, Carpenter and Bennett go beyond the calculation of new boundaries to make broader points about humanity's relationship with the P cycle. Disruptions of both the P and N cycles are mostly about our need for food (Galloway et al 2008, Cordell et al 2009), but unlike N, P supplies are finite and irreplaceable. Environmental concerns aside, we can fix all the N2 from the atmosphere we want—but deplete our economically viable P reserves and we're in trouble. Figure 1 Figure 1. Human alteration of the global P cycle has multiple possible boundaries. These include the environmental risks posed by freshwater eutrophication and marine anoxic events, and the food security risks that come from depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions, as well as finite global supplies of high-value mineral P reserves. Photo credits beyond authors: upper left, Shelby Riskin; upper right, Pedro Sanchez. In effect, Carpenter and Bennett argue that among P's multiple boundaries, the one for freshwaters is less forgiving of our current activities (but no less important) than is

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-04-16

    Apr 16, 2018 ... This paper aims to statistically clarify extreme cases in tourism demands connecting ... relating to the SOA medical large claims database. ..... Interestingly, to sustainably secure the benefits from extreme cases, information and.

  6. Habitability in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre

    A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than important to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to provide variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most important. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to important conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success

  7. The transportation issue management system: A tool for issue resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.M.; Boryczka, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    During the last decade, issue management programs have been developed and used by a number of large corporations in the United States. These systems have generally been designed to help senior program managers identify issues, develop strategic plans, and resolve issues. These systems involve scanning and abstracting literature to create a database that is then used for 1) issue identification, 2) issue analysis, 3) priority assessment, 4) development of corporate position/strategic options, and 5) action planning and implementation. Most of the existing systems rely on staff to identify trends in the computerized output, analyze the importance of the issue to the company, and assist in developing corporate responses. The Department of Energy has recently developed an issue management system for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) transportation program. This system is designed to help DOE identify institutional issues related to radioactive waste transportation, analyze the issues, and resolve them in a manner that is responsive to interested parties. The system will contain pertinent information from DOE technical reports, other federal documents, correspondence, professional journals, popular literature, newsclips, legislation and testimony. The program is designed around a number of institutional issues including: prenotification, physical protection procedures; highway, rail, and barge routing; inspections and enforcement of shipments; emergency response; liability, cask design and testing; overweight trucks; rail service; modal mix; infrastructure improvements; training standards, and operational procedures

  8. Multifractal Conceptualisation of Hydro-Meteorological Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrology and more generally sciences involved in water resources management, technological or operational developments face a fundamental difficulty: the extreme variability of hydro-meteorological fields. It clearly appears today that this variability is a function of the observation scale and yield hydro-meteorological hazards. Throughout the world, the development of multifractal theory offers new techniques for handling such non-classical variability over wide ranges of time and space scales. The resulting stochastic simulations with a very limited number of parameters well reproduce the long range dependencies and the clustering of rainfall extremes often yielding fat tailed (i.e., an algebraic type) probability distributions. The goal of this work was to investigate the ability of using very short or incomplete data records for reliable statistical predictions of the extremes. In particular we discuss how to evaluate the uncertainty in the empirical or semi-analytical multifractal outcomes. We consider three main aspects of the evaluation, such as the scaling adequacy, the multifractal parameter estimation error and the quantile estimation error. We first use the multiplicative cascade model to generate long series of multifractal data. The simulated samples had to cover the range of the universal multifractal parameters widely available in the scientific literature for the rainfall and river discharges. Using these long multifractal series and their sub-samples, we defined a metric for parameter estimation error. Then using the sets of estimated parameters, we obtained the quantile values for a range of excedance probabilities from 5% to 0.01%. Plotting the error bars on a quantile plot enable an approximation of confidence intervals that would be particularly important for the predictions of multifractal extremes. We finally illustrate the efficiency of such concept on its application to a large database (more than 16000 selected stations over USA and

  9. Racial Extremism in the Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudson, Walter M

    1998-01-01

    ... modem phenomenon of "skinheads." I then discuss the history of white supremacist extremism in the Army, culminating in the December, 1995 murders of two black civilians by soldiers assigned to the 82d Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina...

  10. Evaluating the MSG satellite Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimate for extreme rainfall monitoring over northern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Dhib

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and evaluation of extreme precipitation is important for water resources and flood risk management, soil and land degradation, and other environmental issues. Due to the high potential threat to local infrastructure, such as buildings, roads and power supplies, heavy precipitation can have an important social and economic impact on society. At present, satellite derived precipitation estimates are becoming more readily available. This paper aims to investigate the potential use of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimate (MPE for extreme rainfall assessment in Tunisia. The MSGMPE data combine microwave rain rate estimations with SEVIRI thermal infrared channel data, using an EUMETSAT production chain in near real time mode. The MPE data can therefore be used in a now-casting mode, and are potentially useful for extreme weather early warning and monitoring. Daily precipitation observed across an in situ gauge network in the north of Tunisia were used during the period 2007–2009 for validation of the MPE extreme event data. As a first test of the MSGMPE product's performance, very light to moderate rainfall classes, occurring between January and October 2007, were evaluated. Extreme rainfall events were then selected, using a threshold criterion for large rainfall depth (>50 mm/day occurring at least at one ground station. Spatial interpolation methods were applied to generate rainfall maps for the drier summer season (from May to October and the wet winter season (from November to April. Interpolated gauge rainfall maps were then compared to MSGMPE data available from the EUMETSAT UMARF archive or from the GEONETCast direct dissemination system. The summation of the MPE data at 5 and/or 15 min time intervals over a 24 h period, provided a basis for comparison. The MSGMPE product was not very effective in the detection of very light and light rain events. Better results were obtained for the slightly

  11. Estudo Transcultural sobre Liderança em Relações Públicas e Gestão da Comunicação: análise quantitativa dos temas de maior importância para os brasileiros / Transcultural Study on Leadership in Public Relations and Communication Management: quantitative analysis of the issues of greatest importance to the Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Athaydes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o relato parcial de uma investigação realizada em âmbito internacional, sob coordenação da Universidade do Alabama e do The Plank Center Institute (EUA, a fim de compreender como as constantes e rápidas mudanças políticas, econômicas e sociais impactam nas rotinas e no desempenho dos gestores em RP e Comunicação. As impressões foram obtidas através de questionário online e entrevistas em profundidade com gestores de RP e Comunicação de diferentes organizações. Aqui, são detalhados os dados quantitativos referentes à primeira seção do questionário online, que buscou conhecer, entre 10 temas pré-definidos, quais os de maior importância para os participantes. Estar preparado para lidar eficazmente com as crises, lidar com a velocidade e volume do fluxo de informação e melhorar os indicadores de comunicação para demonstrar o valor do trabalho realizado são as principais preocupações dos gestores. / This article presents part of an investigation into an international, coordinated by the University of Alabama and The Plank Center Institute (USA in order to understand how the constant and rapidly changing political, economic and social impact in the routines and performance of managers in PR and Communications. The prints were obtained through online questionnaire and in-depth interviews with managers of PR and Communication of different organizations. Here are detailed quantitative data relating to the first section of the online questionnaire, which sought to know from 10 predefined themes, which are the most important to the participants. Be prepared to deal effectively with crises, handle the speed and volume of information flow and improve communication indicators to demonstrate the value of the work performed are the main concerns of managers.

  12. Psychosocial Issues in Geriatric Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo M

    2017-11-01

    Geriatric patients present multiple age-related challenges and needs that must be taken into account during the rehabilitation process to achieve expected goals. This article examines the importance of identifying and managing psychosocial issues commonly observed in older adults and presents strategies to optimize their rehabilitation process. Depression, anxiety, fear of falling, adjustment issues, neurocognitive disorders, and caregiver support are discussed as a selection of factors that are relevant for geriatric patients undergoing rehabilitation. An argument is made for the importance of comprehensive geriatric assessment in older adults to identify salient issues that may impact rehabilitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Issues in energy finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokher, Zeigham Islam

    As opposed to the well developed and understood equity markets, the energy markets are still in their infancy. The explosion of contracts, of both the primary and derivative types, are testament both to the existing size and the untapped growth potential of this exciting industry. However, because of its relative youth many basic issues in the energy markets remain unresolved. This thesis introduces some interesting questions and provides insights into these issues. Thematically, the chapters of this thesis are linked by an emphasis on valuation and risk management decisions. A contribution of this thesis is to show that subtle differences between the endogenous price process in our general equilibrium setting and the exogenous processes considered in earlier papers can generate significant differences in both financial and real option values. In addition to these valuation concerns there has been much debate about the corporate risk management function. Finance theory suggests that a value maximizing corporation should either be indifferent to hedging or, in the presence of certain imperfections, it should completely hedge all exposures. Both these extremes contradict empirical evidence. We show that existing corporate hedging behaviour is best explained in light of both physical market imperfections and directional predictions on future prices. While these speculative motives may arise from corporate hubris or genuine informational advantages, we argue that it would be difficult to implement private information in the absence of noise traders. Related to the risk management decision is the existence of futures risk premia. These premia have been thought to be cause by covariance with priced factors or due to the hedging demands of consumers and producers. This thesis argues that inventories serve as a signal of available quantity, which coupled with consumers fears regarding stockouts can induce a positive relationship between premia and inventories. In

  14. Sarcophagidae (Diptera de importancia forense en la puna de Catamarca, Argentina: a ovoviviparidad como ventaja en condiciones de extrema aridez Sarcophagidae (Diptera of forensic importance at a high altitude desert in Catamarca, Argentina: ovoviviparity as an advantage under extreme arid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando H. Aballay

    2011-12-01

    pig carcasses, one located in the shade and the other in the sun, and a third carcass of a lama located in the sun, were used. We collected 597 individuals belonging to five Sarcophagidae species: Microcerella antofagastensis Mulieri, Mariluis & Aballay (n=347, M. quimaliensis (Lopes (n=117, M. rusca (Hall (n=32, M. penai (Lopes (n=5 and M. aulacophyto Pape (n=96. Both M. antofagastensis and M. quimaliensis were the effective colonizers and represented 78% of the total adults collected. Microcerella antofagastensis was the primary colonizer. Both species had a similar response against microenvironmental conditions and both preferred the pig carcass. We discuss the importance of these two species as forensic indicators and the advantages of ovoviviparity against other oviparous species under extreme arid conditions.

  15. Global predictability of temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van Aalst, Maarten; Bischiniotis, Konstantinos; Mason, Simon; Nissan, Hannah; Pappenberger, Florian; Stephens, Elisabeth; Zsoter, Ervin; van den Hurk, Bart

    2018-05-01

    Extreme temperatures are one of the leading causes of death and disease in both developed and developing countries, and heat extremes are projected to rise in many regions. To reduce risk, heatwave plans and cold weather plans have been effectively implemented around the world. However, much of the world’s population is not yet protected by such systems, including many data-scarce but also highly vulnerable regions. In this study, we assess at a global level where such systems have the potential to be effective at reducing risk from temperature extremes, characterizing (1) long-term average occurrence of heatwaves and coldwaves, (2) seasonality of these extremes, and (3) short-term predictability of these extreme events three to ten days in advance. Using both the NOAA and ECMWF weather forecast models, we develop global maps indicating a first approximation of the locations that are likely to benefit from the development of seasonal preparedness plans and/or short-term early warning systems for extreme temperature. The extratropics generally show both short-term skill as well as strong seasonality; in the tropics, most locations do also demonstrate one or both. In fact, almost 5 billion people live in regions that have seasonality and predictability of heatwaves and/or coldwaves. Climate adaptation investments in these regions can take advantage of seasonality and predictability to reduce risks to vulnerable populations.

  16. Energy issues in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhandi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The topic of the energy sector-and the petroleum sector in particular-in sub-Saharan Africa might well be considered an insignificant issue compared with many of the energy concerns which now command international attention. However, the World Bank believes that it is important for all those in international energy not to forget about the crucial problems facing Africa. They should become informed and concerned about these problems, and, hopefully, work together to bring about a satisfactory solution for an ongoing development dilemma. Simply put, the cost of imported energy to the African economy is exorbitantly high, sapping the resources needed to produce economic growth and social progress. This paper reports that, to address this issue, the World Bank is about to undertake a major initiative-two ground-breaking studies in the field of energy for sub-Saharan Africa. Both of these proposed studies are designed to find ways to reduce the burden of the cost of energy imports, mainly petroleum products, to this continent. One study will examine the design (and, subsequently, the implementation) of a rationalization scheme for the supply and distribution of petroleum products throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The other will consider the feasibility of transporting Nigeria's natural gas to neighbors to the west, all of which presently are importers of energy

  17. Mitigation Efforts in Rural Communities after Extreme Weather Events - New Insights for Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Radovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes are undoubtedly course of the increasing frequency of extreme whether events all over the world. Rural communities belong to the “group of victims” which is greatly jeopardized by consequences of the extreme weather events. Having in mind limited capacities for the preparedness, response and recovery after any kind of emergency it is clear that the rural community mostly needs external help. That is the point of this paper: to make new insights about this important issue, and to discuss: “how to provide adequate help in the rural communities and build adequate adaptive and response capacities”. In many countries agriculture and rural tourism are main economic activities in the rural area and its interruption could be the obstacle for implementation of sustainable development. Various stakeholders omit to be aware of this issue. Emergency agencies and many others have to make the comprehensive plan for rural communities (having in mind all its limitations. In the Republic of Serbia rural communities do not have enough capacity for recovery and usually it takes many years after an event. A minimum of an economic recovery standard has to be created for the rural community. It also has to be a specific contingency plan in the future reorganizations of emergency services in Serbia and at the Western Balkan region. It should be one of the priority issues for stakeholders in the near future in disaster risk reduction. Providing equal access to resources to population in the rural community after the extreme weather event has to be the priority task for policy makers and all actors in emergency management.

  18. Extreme Energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cai, Lixue [China Petrochemical Corporations (China)

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, China has focused its policies simultaneously on moderating the rapid energy demand growth that has been driven by three decades of rapid economic growth and industrialization and on increasing its energy supply. In spite of these concerted efforts, however, China continues to face growing energy supply challenges, particularly with accelerating demand for oil and natural gas, both of which are now heavily dependent on imports. On the supply side, the recent 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have emphasized accelerating conventional and nonconventional oil and gas exploration and development through pricing reforms, pipeline infrastructure expansions and 2015 production targets for shale gas and coal seam methane. This study will analyze China’s new and nonconventional oil and gas resources base, possible development paths and outlook, and the potential role for these nonconventional resources in meeting oil and gas demand. The nonconventional resources currently being considered by China and included in this study include: shale gas, coal seam methane (coal mine methane and coal bed methane), tight gas, in-situ coal gasification, tight oil and oil shale, and gas hydrates.

  19. Issues in Value-at-Risk Modeling and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Daníelsson (Jón); C.G. de Vries (Casper); B.N. Jorgensen (Bjørn); P.F. Christoffersen (Peter); F.X. Diebold (Francis); T. Schuermann (Til); J.A. Lopez (Jose); B. Hirtle (Beverly)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDiscusses the issues in value-at-risk modeling and evaluation. Value of value at risk; Horizon problems and extreme events in financial risk management; Methods of evaluating value-at-risk estimates.

  20. Transmission issues in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levson, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlined the major issues and concerns facing users of the transmission system in Alberta. They include congestion management issues that make investors uncertain about power generation. It is necessary to know the difference between which transmission price signals will be faced by low cost cogeneration at Fort McMurray and Cold Lake coal-fired generation near Edmonton compared to combined cycle gas generation near Calgary. Import and export policy tariffs are another concern. Most new generation opportunities in Alberta require access to export markets, but transmission facilities for export need policy support and appropriate tariffs. It was noted that the past actions of Alberta's Transmission Administrator and balancing pool may be distorting market signals for ancillary service markets, and that loss studies and calculations need upgrading

  1. Teaching nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is based on the assumption that the nuclear debate, both globally and within Britain, is one of critical importance in the late twentieth century and that it should therefore, at some juncture, be explored as part of the school curriculum. An essential part of 'good education' in a democratic society is to teach young people how to think about such an issue, but not what to think about it. This paper attempts to set out some of the key issues and dilemmas in relation to what we may call 'nuclear education'. It perhaps asks more questions than it gives answers, but they are all essential questions which teachers must ask themselves if they are to teach sensitively about these matters. Some of these questions are given as examples. (author)

  2. Low-defect reflective mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, S C; Cerjarn, C; Kearney, P; Mirkarimi, P; Ray-Chaudhuri, A; Walton, C.

    1999-01-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithgraphy (EUVL) is an emerging technology for fabrication of sub-100 nm feature sizes on silicon, following the SIA road map well into the 21st century. The specific EUVL system described is a scanned, projection lithography system with a 4:1 reduction, using a laser plasma EUV source. The mask and all of the system optics are reflective, multilayer mirrors which function in the extreme ultraviolet at 13.4 nm wavelength. Since the masks are imaged to the wafer exposure plane, mask defects greater than 80% of the exposure plane CD (for 4:1 reduction) will in many cases render the mask useless, whereas intervening optics can have defects which are not a printing problem. For the 100 nm node, we must reduce defects to less than 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; at sign 80nm or larger to obtain acceptable mask production yields. We have succeeded in reducing the defects to less than 0.1/cm ampersand sup2; for defects larger than 130 nm detected by visible light inspection tools, however our program goal is to achieve 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; in the near future. More importantly though, we plan to have a detailed understanding of defect origination and the effect on multilayer growth in order to mitigate defects below the 10 -2 /cm ampersand sup2; level on the next generation of mask blank deposition systems. In this paper we will discuss issues and results from the ion-beam multilayer deposition tool, details of the defect detection and characterization facility, and progress on defect printability modeling

  3. Nuclear standards: current issues and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of the important issues that currently face the nuclear standards field is presented and a discussion of how each of these issues is being resolved is given. The economic benefits that properly developed standards produce are listed

  4. Ideologies and Discourses: Extreme Narratives in Extreme Metal Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Radovanović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Historically speaking, metal music has always been about provoking a strong reaction. Depending on the characteristics of different sub-genres, one can focus on the sound, technique, visual appearance, and furthermore, the ideologies and ideas that are the foundation for each of the sub-genres. Although the majority of the metal community rejects accusations of being racially intolerant, some ideologies of extreme sub-genres (such as black metal are in fact formed around the ideas of self-conscious elitism expressed through interest in pagan mythology, racism, Nazism and fascism. There has been much interest in the Nazi era within the extreme metal scene thus influencing other sub-genres and artists. The aim of this paper is to examine various appearances of extreme narratives such as Nazism and racism in  different sub-genres of metal, bearing in mind variations dependent on geographical, political, and other factors.

  5. Disaster Risks Reduction for Extreme Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, H.; Jules-Plag, S.

    2013-12-01

    . Integration of these low-probability, high-impact events in DRR requires an approach focused on resilience and antifragility, as well as the ability to cope with, and recover from failure of infrastructure and social systems. Resilience does not primarily result from the robustness of infrastructure but mainly is a function of the social capital. While it is important to understand the hazards (the contribution of geosciences), it is equally important to understand the processes that let us cope with the hazards, or lead to failure (the contribution of social sciences and engineering). For the latter, we need a joint effort of social sciences and engineering and a revised science-policy relationship. Democratizing knowledge about extreme geohazards is very important in order to inform deliberations of DRR through increased resilience and reduced fragility. The current science-society dialog is not fully capable of supporting deliberative governance. Most scientific knowledge is created independent of those who could put it to use, and a transition to co-design and co-development of knowledge involving a broad stakeholder base is necessary for DRR, particularly for extreme events. This transition may have the consequence of more responsibility and even liability for science.

  6. Is southwestern China experiencing more frequent precipitation extremes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Meixian; Xu, Xianli; Wang, Kelin; Sun, Alexander Y; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Climate extremes have and will continue to cause severe damages to buildings and natural environments around the world. A full knowledge of the probability of the climate extremes is important for the management and mitigation of natural hazards. Based on Mann–Kendall trend test and copulas, this study investigated the characteristics of precipitation extremes as well as their implications in southwestern China (Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou Province), through analyzing the changing trends and probabilistic characteristics of six indices, including the consecutive dry days, consecutive wet days, annual total wet day precipitation, heavy precipitation days (R25), max 5 day precipitation amount (Rx5) and the rainy days (RDs). Results showed that the study area had generally become drier (regional mean annual precipitation decreased by 11.4 mm per decade) and experienced enhanced precipitation extremes in the past 60 years. Relatively higher risk of drought in Yuanan and flood in Guangxi was observed, respectively. However, the changing trends of the precipitation extremes were not spatially uniform: increasing risk of extreme wet events for Guangxi and Guizhou, and increasing probability of concurrent extreme wet and dry events for Yunnan. Meanwhile, trend analyses of the 10 year return levels of the selected indices implied that the severity of droughts decreased in Yunnan but increased significantly in Guangxi and Guizhou, and the severity of floods increased in Yunnan and Guangxi in the past decades. Hence, the policy-makers need to be aware of the different characterizations and the spatial heterogeneity of the precipitation extremes. (letters)

  7. Alternative measures of risk of extreme events in decision trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohwein, H.I.; Lambert, J.H.; Haimes, Y.Y.

    1999-01-01

    A need for a methodology to control the extreme events, defined as low-probability, high-consequence incidents, in sequential decisions is identified. A variety of alternative and complementary measures of the risk of extreme events are examined for their usability as objective functions in sequential decisions, represented as single- or multiple-objective decision trees. Earlier work had addressed difficulties, related to non-separability, with the minimization of some measures of the risk of extreme events in sequential decisions. In an extension of these results, it is shown how some non-separable measures of the risk of extreme events can be interpreted in terms of separable constituents of risk, thereby enabling a wider class of measures of the risk of extreme events to be handled in a straightforward manner in a decision tree. Also for extreme events, results are given to enable minimax- and Hurwicz-criterion analyses in decision trees. An example demonstrates the incorporation of different measures of the risk of extreme events in a multi-objective decision tree. Conceptual formulations for optimizing non-separable measures of the risk of extreme events are identified as an important area for future investigation

  8. Extreme heat and cultural and linguistic minorities in Australia: perceptions of stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite acclimatisation to hot weather, many individuals in Australia are adversely affected by extreme heat each summer, placing added pressure on the health sector. In terms of public health, it is therefore important to identify vulnerable groups, particularly in the face of a warming climate. International evidence points to a disparity in heat-susceptibility in certain minority groups, although it is unknown if this occurs in Australia. With cultural diversity increasing, the aim of this study was to explore how migrants from different cultural backgrounds and climate experiences manage periods of extreme heat in Australia. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken across three Australian cities, involving interviews and focus groups with key informants including stakeholders involved in multicultural service provision and community members. Thematic analysis and a framework approach were used to analyse the data. Results Whilst migrants and refugees generally adapt well upon resettlement, there are sociocultural barriers encountered by some that hinder environmental adaptation to periods of extreme heat in Australia. These barriers include socioeconomic disadvantage and poor housing, language barriers to the access of information, isolation, health issues, cultural factors and lack of acclimatisation. Most often mentioned as being at risk were new arrivals, people in new and emerging communities, and older migrants. Conclusions With increasing diversity within populations, it is important that the health sector is aware that during periods of extreme heat there may be disparities in the adaptive capacity of minority groups, underpinned by sociocultural and language-based vulnerabilities in migrants and refugees. These factors need to be considered by policymakers when formulating and disseminating heat health strategies. PMID:24889099

  9. Extreme heat and cultural and linguistic minorities in Australia: perceptions of stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Alana; Nitschke, Monika; Saniotis, Arthur; Benson, Jill; Tan, Yan; Smyth, Val; Wilson, Leigh; Han, Gil-Soo; Mwanri, Lillian; Bi, Peng

    2014-06-03

    Despite acclimatisation to hot weather, many individuals in Australia are adversely affected by extreme heat each summer, placing added pressure on the health sector. In terms of public health, it is therefore important to identify vulnerable groups, particularly in the face of a warming climate. International evidence points to a disparity in heat-susceptibility in certain minority groups, although it is unknown if this occurs in Australia. With cultural diversity increasing, the aim of this study was to explore how migrants from different cultural backgrounds and climate experiences manage periods of extreme heat in Australia. A qualitative study was undertaken across three Australian cities, involving interviews and focus groups with key informants including stakeholders involved in multicultural service provision and community members. Thematic analysis and a framework approach were used to analyse the data. Whilst migrants and refugees generally adapt well upon resettlement, there are sociocultural barriers encountered by some that hinder environmental adaptation to periods of extreme heat in Australia. These barriers include socioeconomic disadvantage and poor housing, language barriers to the access of information, isolation, health issues, cultural factors and lack of acclimatisation. Most often mentioned as being at risk were new arrivals, people in new and emerging communities, and older migrants. With increasing diversity within populations, it is important that the health sector is aware that during periods of extreme heat there may be disparities in the adaptive capacity of minority groups, underpinned by sociocultural and language-based vulnerabilities in migrants and refugees. These factors need to be considered by policymakers when formulating and disseminating heat health strategies.

  10. Bayesian analysis applied to statistical uncertainties of extreme response distributions of offshore wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, P.W.; Kuik, van G.A.M.; Bussel, van G.J.W.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Extreme response is an important design variable for wind turbines. The statistical uncertainties concerning the extreme response distribution are simulated here with data concerning physical characteristics obtained from measurements. The extreme responses are the flap moment at the blade root and

  11. Carbohydrate utilization patterns for the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus reveal broad growth substrate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanfossen, A.L.; Verhaart, M.R.A.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Kelly, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Co-utilization of hexoses and pentoses derived from lignocellulose is an attractive trait in microorganisms considered for consolidated biomass processing to biofuels. This issue was examined for the H2-producing, extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus growing on

  12. Saudi Arabia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Saudi Arabia assesses Saudi Arabia’s role in the oil market and global economy. Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, has long played a systemically important role in the global oil market. Short-term fluctuations in Saudi Arabia’s oil production have partially reflected attempts to stabilize the global oil market. Saudi Arabia has on several occasions used its systemic role to raise production to fill global demand gaps created by large...

  13. Extremely Severe Space Weather and Geomagnetically Induced Currents in Regions with Locally Heterogeneous Ground Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shigeru; Kataoka, Ryuho; Pulkkinen, Antti; Watari, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Large geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) triggered by extreme space weather events are now regarded as one of the serious natural threats to the modern electrified society. The risk is described in detail in High-Impact, Low-Frequency Event Risk, A Jointly-Commissioned Summary Report of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation and the US Department of Energy's November 2009 Workshop, June 2010. For example, the March 13-14,1989 storm caused a large-scale blackout affecting about 6 million people in Quebec, Canada, and resulting in substantial economic losses in Canada and the USA (Bolduc 2002). Therefore, European and North American nations have invested in GIC research such as the Solar Shield project in the USA (Pulkkinen et al. 2009, 2015a). In 2015, the Japanese government (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, METI) acknowledged the importance of GIC research in Japan. After reviewing the serious damages caused by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, METI recognized the potential risk to the electric power grid posed by extreme space weather. During extreme events, GICs can be concerning even in mid- and low-latitude countries and have become a global issue.

  14. Populist Extreme-Right Parties in the European Parliament – A March on Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarja Protner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Populist extreme right parties (PERPs have become an important part of politics, not only at the national level but also in the European Union. With the 2014 elections, the number of PERPs MEPs increased, extreme parties have won the elections in France and Denmark, and for the first time there will be openly neo-Nazi parties in the parliament. The overview of election results, formation of alliances, and data on the activity of PERPs in the previous EP mandate enables us to recognize the influence of these parties on European politics. The analysis shows that, as in the previous EP mandate, the PERPs in the new one are not going to have a strong influence on the policies of the EP due to the variety of ideologies and consequent inability to form strong alliances and act cohesively as parliamentary groups. The PERPs are going to have representatives mostly in the group of non-attached MEPs, which means they are entitled to less public funds and have smaller influence. However, their increase in number could enable them to delay decision-making processes and express their extreme worldviews even more effectively. Their populism based on the exclusion of the Other is the reason these parties focus on immigration and ethnic minority issues and express anti-Islamic views. Racist discourses, which are not condemned or are even reproduced by mainstream parties, represent a threat to the European democracy.

  15. Psychological and Physical Impacts of Extreme Events on Older Adults: Implications for Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Erin; Amlôt, Richard; Rogers, M Brooke; Rubin, G James; Tesh, John; Pearce, Julia M

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, a series of large-scale, high-profile natural disasters and terrorist attacks have demonstrated the need for thorough and effective disaster preparedness. While these extreme events affect communities and societies as a whole, they also carry specific risks for particular population groups. Crises such as Hurricane Katrina and the 2011 earthquake and tsunami disaster in Japan have illustrated the risk of significant and disproportionate morbidity and mortality among older adults during disasters. Age does not necessarily equate to vulnerability, but many physical and psychological consequences of the aging process can increase the risk of adverse outcomes. As the older population grows, so too does the need to ensure that adequate, practical, and appropriate measures exist to offset the specific risks from extreme events associated with this subpopulation. Effective risk and crisis communication plays a key role in mitigating the extent to which older adults are differentially affected during extreme events. By identifying the specific issues affecting older adults, this review highlights important areas for action for practitioners and policy-makers, particularly in the realm of crisis communication. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:127-134).

  16. Seasonal temperature extremes in Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew; Huang, Shaochun

    2010-12-01

    The awareness of global warming is well established and results from the observations made on thousands of stations. This paper complements the large-scale results by examining a long time-series of high-quality temperature data from the Secular Meteorological Station in Potsdam, where observation records over the last 117 years, i.e., from January 1893 are available. Tendencies of change in seasonal temperature-related climate extremes are demonstrated. "Cold" extremes have become less frequent and less severe than in the past, while "warm" extremes have become more frequent and more severe. Moreover, the interval of the occurrence of frost has been decreasing, while the interval of the occurrence of hot days has been increasing. However, many changes are not statistically significant, since the variability of temperature indices at the Potsdam station has been very strong.

  17. Lymphoscintigraphy of the lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, N.Z.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty one lower extremities of 26 normal healthy volunteers and 26 extremities of 13 patients with oedema have been studied. Dynamic quantitative lymphoscintigraphy using 99Tc-m antimony sulphide colloid during passive exercise as well as before and after active exercise was performed. parameters of lymphatic function including percentage of radioactivity cleared from the injection site, the percentage uptake by the inguinal lymph nodes, the time of arrival of activity at the regional lymph nodes and the lymphatic reserve index have been evaluated. The percentage clearance of activity from the injection site was found technically difficult to standardize and proved to be an unreliable parameter of lymphatic function. However, the quantitation of nodal uptake, the lymphatic transit time and the lymphatic reserve capacity accurately depicted the lymphatic functional status of an individual. The physiologic parameters of lymphatic function of the contralateral lower extremities were compared and a physiologic difference in the lymphatic capacity of the two limbs was scintigraphically documented. (author)

  18. Report from the 4th Workshop on Extremely Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Becla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Academic and industrial users are increasingly facing the challenge of petabytes of data, but managing and analyzing such large data sets still remains a daunting task. The 4th Extremely Large Databases workshop was organized to examine the needs of communities under-represented at the past workshops facing these issues. Approaches to big data statistical analytics as well as emerging opportunities related to emerging hardware technologies were also debated. Writable extreme scale databases and the science benchmark were discussed. This paper is the final report of the discussions and activities at this workshop.

  19. Meteorological Drivers of Extreme Air Pollution Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D. E.; Schnell, J.; Callahan, C. W.; Suo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The accumulation of pollutants in the near-surface atmosphere has been shown to have deleterious consequences for public health, agricultural productivity, and economic vitality. Natural and anthropogenic emissions of ozone and particulate matter can accumulate to hazardous concentrations when atmospheric conditions are favorable, and can reach extreme levels when such conditions persist. Favorable atmospheric conditions for pollutant accumulation include optimal temperatures for photochemical reaction rates, circulation patterns conducive to pollutant advection, and a lack of ventilation, dispersion, and scavenging in the local environment. Given our changing climate system and the dual ingredients of poor air quality - pollutants and the atmospheric conditions favorable to their accumulation - it is important to characterize recent changes in favorable meteorological conditions, and quantify their potential contribution to recent extreme air pollution events. To facilitate our characterization, this study employs the recently updated Schnell et al (2015) 1°×1° gridded observed surface ozone and particulate matter datasets for the period of 1998 to 2015, in conjunction with reanalysis and climate model simulation data. We identify extreme air pollution episodes in the observational record and assess the meteorological factors of primary support at local and synoptic scales. We then assess (i) the contribution of observed meteorological trends (if extant) to the magnitude of the event, (ii) the return interval of the meteorological event in the observational record, simulated historical climate, and simulated pre-industrial climate, as well as (iii) the probability of the observed meteorological trend in historical and pre-industrial climates.

  20. Frameworks for visualization at the extreme scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, Kenneth I; Miller, Mark; Childs, Hank; Bethel, E Wes; Clyne, John; Ostrouchov, George; Ahern, Sean

    2007-01-01

    The challenges of visualization at the extreme scale involve issues of scale, complexity, temporal exploration and uncertainty. The Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) focuses on leveraging scientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enabling technology to increased scientific discovery and insight. In this paper, we introduce new uses of visualization frameworks through the introduction of Equivalence Class Functions (ECFs). These functions give a new class of derived quantities designed to greatly expand the ability of the end user to explore and visualize data. ECFs are defined over equivalence classes (i.e., groupings) of elements from an original mesh, and produce summary values for the classes as output. ECFs can be used in the visualization process to directly analyze data, or can be used to synthesize new derived quantities on the original mesh. The design of ECFs enable a parallel implementation that allows the use of these techniques on massive data sets that require parallel processing

  1. Optimal security investments and extreme risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Hamid; Agiwal, Swati

    2012-08-01

    In the aftermath of 9/11, concern over security increased dramatically in both the public and the private sector. Yet, no clear algorithm exists to inform firms on the amount and the timing of security investments to mitigate the impact of catastrophic risks. The goal of this article is to devise an optimum investment strategy for firms to mitigate exposure to catastrophic risks, focusing on how much to invest and when to invest. The latter question addresses the issue of whether postponing a risk mitigating decision is an optimal strategy or not. Accordingly, we develop and estimate both a one-period model and a multiperiod model within the framework of extreme value theory (EVT). We calibrate these models using probability measures for catastrophic terrorism risks associated with attacks on the food sector. We then compare our findings with the purchase of catastrophic risk insurance. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Changes in Extreme Events and the Potential Impacts on National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme weather and climate events affect human health by causing death, injury, and illness, as well as having large socio-economic impacts. Climate change has caused changes in extreme event frequency, intensity and geographic distribution, and will continue to be a driver for changes in the future. Some of the extreme events that have already changed are heat waves, droughts, wildfires, flooding rains, coastal flooding, storm surge, and hurricanes. The pathways connecting extreme events to health outcomes and economic losses can be diverse and complex. The difficulty in predicting these relationships comes from the local intricacies of societal and environmental factors that influences the level of exposure. The goal of this presentation is to discuss the national security implications of changes in extreme weather events and demonstrate how changes in extremes can lead to a host cascading issues. To illustrate this point, this presentation will provide examples of the various pathways that extreme events can increase disease burden and cause economic stress.

  3. Automation Rover for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan; Hilgemann, Evan; Johnson, Michael; Parness, Aaron; Hall, Jeffrey; Kawata, Jessie; Stack, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Almost 2,300 years ago the ancient Greeks built the Antikythera automaton. This purely mechanical computer accurately predicted past and future astronomical events long before electronics existed1. Automata have been credibly used for hundreds of years as computers, art pieces, and clocks. However, in the past several decades automata have become less popular as the capabilities of electronics increased, leaving them an unexplored solution for robotic spacecraft. The Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments (AREE) proposes an exciting paradigm shift from electronics to a fully mechanical system, enabling longitudinal exploration of the most extreme environments within the solar system.

  4. Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronov, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Review for book by M.P. Zakharchenko, S.A. Lopatin, G.N. Novozhilov, V.I. Zakharov Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions is presented discussing the problem of people health preservation under extreme conditions. Hygienic diagnosis is considered illustrated by cases of hostilities (Afghan War), earthquake response in Armenia (1988) and Chernobyl accident response. Attention is paid to the estimation of radiation doses to people and characteristics of main types of dosimeters. The high scientific level of the book is marked

  5. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  6. Extreme Physics and Informational/Computational Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Sia, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.disia@univr.it, E-mail: 10alla33@virgilio.it [Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Verona University, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy) and Faculty of Computer Science, Free University of Bozen, Piazza Domenicani 3, I-39100 Bozen-Bolzano (Italy)

    2011-07-08

    A sector of the current theoretical physics, even called 'extreme physics', deals with topics concerning superstring theories, multiverse, quantum teleportation, negative energy, and more, that only few years ago were considered scientific imaginations or purely speculative physics. Present experimental lines of evidence and implications of cosmological observations seem on the contrary support such theories. These new physical developments lead to informational limits, as the quantity of information, that a physical system can record, and computational limits, resulting from considerations regarding black holes and space-time fluctuations. In this paper I consider important limits for information and computation resulting in particular from string theories and its foundations.

  7. Extreme Physics and Informational/Computational Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sia, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A sector of the current theoretical physics, even called 'extreme physics', deals with topics concerning superstring theories, multiverse, quantum teleportation, negative energy, and more, that only few years ago were considered scientific imaginations or purely speculative physics. Present experimental lines of evidence and implications of cosmological observations seem on the contrary support such theories. These new physical developments lead to informational limits, as the quantity of information, that a physical system can record, and computational limits, resulting from considerations regarding black holes and space-time fluctuations. In this paper I consider important limits for information and computation resulting in particular from string theories and its foundations.

  8. Dynamical structure of extreme ultraviolet macrospicules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; Habbal, Shadia Rifai

    1994-01-01

    We describe the substructures forming the macrospicules and their temporal evolution, as revealed by the application of an image enhancement algorithm to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations of macrospicules. The enhanced images uncover, for the first time, the substructures forming the column-like structures within the macrospicules and the low-lying arches at their base. The spatial and temporal evolution of macrospicules clearly show continuous interaction between these substructures with occasional ejection of plasma following a ballistic trajectory. We comment on the importance of these results for planning near future space observations of macrospicules with better temporal and spatial resolution.

  9. Physics of condensed matter at extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1988-01-01

    The study of matter under extreme conditions is a highly interdisciplinary subject with broad applications to materials science, geophysics and astrophysics. High-pressure properties are studied in the laboratory using static and dynamic techniques. The two differ drastically in the methods of generating and measuring pressure and in the fundamentally different nature of the final compressed state. This article covers a very broad range of conditions, intended to present an overview of important recent developments and to emphasize the behavior of materials and the kinds of properties now being studied

  10. Augmented kludge waveforms for detecting extreme-mass-ratio inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.; Moore, Christopher J.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2017-08-01

    The extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes are an important class of source for the future space-based gravitational-wave detector LISA. Detecting signals from EMRIs will require waveform models that are both accurate and computationally efficient. In this paper, we present the latest implementation of an augmented analytic kludge (AAK) model, publicly available at https://github.com/alvincjk/EMRI_Kludge_Suite as part of an EMRI waveform software suite. This version of the AAK model has improved accuracy compared to its predecessors, with two-month waveform overlaps against a more accurate fiducial model exceeding 0.97 for a generic range of sources; it also generates waveforms 5-15 times faster than the fiducial model. The AAK model is well suited for scoping out data analysis issues in the upcoming round of mock LISA data challenges. A simple analytic argument shows that it might even be viable for detecting EMRIs with LISA through a semicoherent template bank method, while the use of the original analytic kludge in the same approach will result in around 90% fewer detections.

  11. Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa : policy and trade issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Thomson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated ; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs, extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1 implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2 amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE] so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for southern African countries and enable conservation and livestock production to be more effectively integrated, to the benefit of both.

  12. Professional Emergence on Transnational Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    Addressing complex transnational problems requires coordination from different professionals. The emergence of new actors and issues has been addressed by those interested in studies of organizations through concepts and methods that highlight the importance of communities, fields, and networks...... they are conceptually linked by actors and organizations. A linked ecologies approach asks us to displace locating known actors within structures and instead pays attention to professional interactions on how ‘issue distinctions’ are made, the relationship between issue distinctions and professional tasks, and who...

  13. Angiography of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis provides a description of the technical and medical aspects of arteriography of the upper extremity and an extensive analysis of the angiographic anatomy and pathology of 750 selective studies performed in more than 500 patients. A short historical review is provided of angiography as a whole and of arteriography of the hand in particular. The method of percutaneous transfemoral catheterization of the arteries of the upper extremity and particularly the arteries of the hand is considered, discussing the problems the angiographer encounters frequently, describing the angiographic complications which may occur and emphasizing the measures to keep them to a minimum. The use of vasodilators in hand angiography is discussed. A short description of the embryological patterns persisting in the arteries of the arm is included in order to understand the congenital variations of the arteries of the upper extremity. The angiographic patterns and clinical aspects of the most common pathological processes involving the arteries of the upper extremities are presented. Special attention is paid to the correlation between angiography and pathology. (Auth.)

  14. Extreme conditions (p, T, H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesot, J [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the sample environment which will be accessible at the SINQ. In order to illustrate the type of experiments which will be feasible under extreme conditions of temperature, magnetic field and pressure at the SINQ a few selected examples are also given. (author) 7 figs., 14 refs.

  15. Extreme Energy Events Monitoring report

    CERN Document Server

    Baimukhamedova, Nigina

    2015-01-01

    Following paper reflects the progress I made on Summer Student Program within Extreme Energy Events Monitor project I was working on. During 8 week period I managed to build a simple detector system that is capable of triggering events similar to explosions (sudden change in sound levels) and measuring approximate location of the event. Source codes are available upon request and settings described further.

  16. Extreme value modeling for the analysis and prediction of time series of extreme tropospheric ozone levels: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarela, Gabriel

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of tropospheric ozone is considered as one of the most important issues of air management programs. The prediction of dangerous ozone levels for the public health and the environment, along with the assessment of air quality control programs aimed at reducing their severity, is of considerable interest to the scientific community and to policy makers. The chemical mechanisms of tropospheric ozone formation are complex, and highly variable meteorological conditions contribute additionally to difficulties in accurate study and prediction of high levels of ozone. Statistical methods offer an effective approach to understand the problem and eventually improve the ability to predict maximum levels of ozone. In this paper an extreme value model is developed to study data sets that consist of periodically collected maxima of tropospheric ozone concentrations and meteorological variables. The methods are applied to daily tropospheric ozone maxima in Guadalajara City, Mexico, for the period January 1997 to December 2006. The model adjusts the daily rate of change in ozone for concurrent impacts of seasonality and present and past meteorological conditions, which include surface temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and ozone. The results indicate that trend, annual effects, and key meteorological variables along with some interactions explain the variation in daily ozone maxima. Prediction performance assessments yield reasonably good results.

  17. Regional estimation of extreme suspended sediment concentrations using watershed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramblay, Yves; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; St-Hilaire, André; Poulin, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    SummaryThe number of stations monitoring daily suspended sediment concentration (SSC) has been decreasing since the 1980s in North America while suspended sediment is considered as a key variable for water quality. The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of regionalising extreme SSC, i.e. estimating SSC extremes values for ungauged basins. Annual maximum SSC for 72 rivers in Canada and USA were modelled with probability distributions in order to estimate quantiles corresponding to different return periods. Regionalisation techniques, originally developed for flood prediction in ungauged basins, were tested using the climatic, topographic, land cover and soils attributes of the watersheds. Two approaches were compared, using either physiographic characteristics or seasonality of extreme SSC to delineate the regions. Multiple regression models to estimate SSC quantiles as a function of watershed characteristics were built in each region, and compared to a global model including all sites. Regional estimates of SSC quantiles were compared with the local values. Results show that regional estimation of extreme SSC is more efficient than a global regression model including all sites. Groups/regions of stations have been identified, using either the watershed characteristics or the seasonality of occurrence for extreme SSC values providing a method to better describe the extreme events of SSC. The most important variables for predicting extreme SSC are the percentage of clay in the soils, precipitation intensity and forest cover.

  18. Cardiovascular consequences of extreme prematurity: the EPICure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniery, Carmel M; Bolton, Charlotte E; Fawke, Joseph; Hennessy, Enid; Stocks, Janet; Wilkinson, Ian B; Cockcroft, John R; Marlow, Neil

    2011-07-01

    The long-term consequences of extreme prematurity are becoming increasingly important, given recent improvements in neonatal intensive care. The aim of the current study was to examine the cardiovascular consequences of extreme prematurity in 11-year-olds born at or before 25 completed weeks of gestation. Age and sex-matched classmates were recruited as controls. Information concerning perinatal and maternal history was collected, and current anthropometric characteristics were measured in 219 children born extremely preterm and 153 classmates. A subset of the extremely preterm children (n = 68) and classmates (n = 90) then underwent detailed haemodynamic investigations, including measurement of supine blood pressure (BP), aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV, a measure of aortic stiffness) and augmentation index (AIx, a measure of arterial pressure wave reflections). Seated brachial systolic and diastolic BP were not different between extremely preterm children and classmates (P = 0.3 for both), although there was a small, significant elevation in supine mean and diastolic BP in the extremely preterm children (P prematurity is associated with altered arterial haemodynamics in children, not evident from the examination of brachial BP alone. Moreover, the smaller, preresistance and resistance vessels rather than large elastic arteries appear to be most affected. Children born extremely preterm may be at increased future cardiovascular risk.

  19. Top-Ten IT Issues: 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Anne Scrivener; Yang, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the top-ten IT-related issues in terms of strategic importance to the institution, as revealed by the tenth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. These IT-related issues include: (1) Funding IT; (2) Administrative/ERP Information Systems; (3) Security; (4) Infrastructure/Cyberinfrastructure; (5) Teaching and Learning with…

  20. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  1. Issues in the representation of time and structure in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the issues in the design of a representational system for music. Following decisions as to the primitives of such a system, their time structure and general structuring is discussed. Most of the issues are presented as controversies, using extremes to clarify the underlying

  2. Risk communication importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail: raqueldalledonesiqueira@gmail.com, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)

  3. Risk communication importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2013-01-01

    Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)

  4. Climate extremes, land-climate feedbacks and land-use forcing at 1.5°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sonia I; Wartenburger, Richard; Guillod, Benoit P; Hirsch, Annette L; Vogel, Martha M; Brovkin, Victor; van Vuuren, Detlef P; Schaller, Nathalie; Boysen, Lena; Calvin, Katherine V; Doelman, Jonathan; Greve, Peter; Havlik, Petr; Humpenöder, Florian; Krisztin, Tamas; Mitchell, Daniel; Popp, Alexander; Riahi, Keywan; Rogelj, Joeri; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Sillmann, Jana; Stehfest, Elke

    2018-05-13

    This article investigates projected changes in temperature and water cycle extremes at 1.5°C of global warming, and highlights the role of land processes and land-use changes (LUCs) for these projections. We provide new comparisons of changes in climate at 1.5°C versus 2°C based on empirical sampling analyses of transient simulations versus simulations from the 'Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts' (HAPPI) multi-model experiment. The two approaches yield similar overall results regarding changes in climate extremes on land, and reveal a substantial difference in the occurrence of regional extremes at 1.5°C versus 2°C. Land processes mediated through soil moisture feedbacks and land-use forcing play a major role for projected changes in extremes at 1.5°C in most mid-latitude regions, including densely populated areas in North America, Europe and Asia. This has important implications for low-emissions scenarios derived from integrated assessment models (IAMs), which include major LUCs in ambitious mitigation pathways (e.g. associated with increased bioenergy use), but are also shown to differ in the simulated LUC patterns. Biogeophysical effects from LUCs are not considered in the development of IAM scenarios, but play an important role for projected regional changes in climate extremes, and are thus of high relevance for sustainable development pathways.This article is part of the theme issue 'The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'. © 2018 The Authors.

  5. Assessment of the Long Term Trends in Extreme Heat Events and the Associated Health Impacts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.; Rennie, J.; Kunkel, K.; Herring, S.; Cullen, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface air temperature products have been essential for monitoring the evolution of the climate system. Before a temperature dataset is included in such reports, it is important that non-climatic influences be removed or changed so the dataset is considered homogenous. These inhomogeneities include changes in station location, instrumentation and observing practices. While many homogenized products exist on the monthly time scale, few daily products exist, due to the complication of removing breakpoints that are truly inhomogeneous rather than solely by chance (for example, sharp changes due to synoptic conditions). Recently, a sub monthly homogenized dataset has been developed using data and software provided by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). Homogeneous daily data are useful for identification and attribution of extreme heat events over a period of time. Projections of increasing temperatures are expected to result in corresponding increases in the frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme heat events. It is also established that extreme heat events can have significant public health impacts, including short-term increases in mortality and morbidity. In addition, it can exacerbate chronic health conditions in vulnerable populations, including renal and cardiovascular issues. To understand how heat events impact a specific population, it will be important to connect observations on the duration and intensity of extreme heat events with health impacts data including insurance claims and hospital admissions data. This presentation will explain the methodology to identify extreme heat events, provide a climatology of heat event onset, length and severity, and explore a case study of an anomalous heat event with available health data.

  6. Climate extremes, land–climate feedbacks and land-use forcing at 1.5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenburger, Richard; Guillod, Benoit P.; Hirsch, Annette L.; Vogel, Martha M.; Brovkin, Victor; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Schaller, Nathalie; Boysen, Lena; Calvin, Katherine V.; Doelman, Jonathan; Greve, Peter; Havlik, Petr; Humpenöder, Florian; Krisztin, Tamas; Mitchell, Daniel; Popp, Alexander; Riahi, Keywan; Rogelj, Joeri; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Sillmann, Jana; Stehfest, Elke

    2018-01-01

    This article investigates projected changes in temperature and water cycle extremes at 1.5°C of global warming, and highlights the role of land processes and land-use changes (LUCs) for these projections. We provide new comparisons of changes in climate at 1.5°C versus 2°C based on empirical sampling analyses of transient simulations versus simulations from the ‘Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts’ (HAPPI) multi-model experiment. The two approaches yield similar overall results regarding changes in climate extremes on land, and reveal a substantial difference in the occurrence of regional extremes at 1.5°C versus 2°C. Land processes mediated through soil moisture feedbacks and land-use forcing play a major role for projected changes in extremes at 1.5°C in most mid-latitude regions, including densely populated areas in North America, Europe and Asia. This has important implications for low-emissions scenarios derived from integrated assessment models (IAMs), which include major LUCs in ambitious mitigation pathways (e.g. associated with increased bioenergy use), but are also shown to differ in the simulated LUC patterns. Biogeophysical effects from LUCs are not considered in the development of IAM scenarios, but play an important role for projected regional changes in climate extremes, and are thus of high relevance for sustainable development pathways. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'. PMID:29610382

  7. Climate extremes, land-climate feedbacks and land-use forcing at 1.5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Wartenburger, Richard; Guillod, Benoit P.; Hirsch, Annette L.; Vogel, Martha M.; Brovkin, Victor; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Schaller, Nathalie; Boysen, Lena; Calvin, Katherine V.; Doelman, Jonathan; Greve, Peter; Havlik, Petr; Humpenöder, Florian; Krisztin, Tamas; Mitchell, Daniel; Popp, Alexander; Riahi, Keywan; Rogelj, Joeri; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Sillmann, Jana; Stehfest, Elke

    2018-05-01

    This article investigates projected changes in temperature and water cycle extremes at 1.5°C of global warming, and highlights the role of land processes and land-use changes (LUCs) for these projections. We provide new comparisons of changes in climate at 1.5°C versus 2°C based on empirical sampling analyses of transient simulations versus simulations from the `Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts' (HAPPI) multi-model experiment. The two approaches yield similar overall results regarding changes in climate extremes on land, and reveal a substantial difference in the occurrence of regional extremes at 1.5°C versus 2°C. Land processes mediated through soil moisture feedbacks and land-use forcing play a major role for projected changes in extremes at 1.5°C in most mid-latitude regions, including densely populated areas in North America, Europe and Asia. This has important implications for low-emissions scenarios derived from integrated assessment models (IAMs), which include major LUCs in ambitious mitigation pathways (e.g. associated with increased bioenergy use), but are also shown to differ in the simulated LUC patterns. Biogeophysical effects from LUCs are not considered in the development of IAM scenarios, but play an important role for projected regional changes in climate extremes, and are thus of high relevance for sustainable development pathways. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  8. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: clinical governance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, P A; Goldstone, A H

    2002-09-01

    Every patient in every part of the world has the right to expect the best possible quality of care from health care providers. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are an extremely heterogeneous group of conditions which require important decisions to be taken at many points along the treatment pathway. To get this right every time requires that high-quality standards are instituted and adhered to, so that the best possible outcome is achieved. In the past this has not always been the case because of the failure of clinicians sometimes to adhere to an optimal management plan. In 1995, the UK government commissioned an inquiry into the running of cancer services in the United Kingdom, which culminated in a series of recommendations to improve them. Subsequently, these recommendations were implemented as objectives of the NHS Cancer Plan which is the framework by which the UK government wishes to improve cancer services. Concurrently another general concept has emerged which is designed to ensure that the highest quality standards may be achieved for all patients across the whole National Health Service (NHS). This concept, termed 'clinical governance', brings together a corporate responsibility of all health care workers to deliver high quality standards, in the hope that this will translate into better long-term survival of patients with malignant disease. This chapter focuses on the issues surrounding clinical governance and how the principles of this concept relate to non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

  9. Report from the 3rd Workshop on Extremely Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Becla

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Academic and industrial users are increasingly facing the challenge of petabytes of data, but managing and analyzing such large data sets still remains a daunting task. Both the database and the map/reduce communities worldwide are working on addressing these issues. The 3rdExtremely Large Databases workshop was organized to examine the needs of scientific communities beginning to face these issues, to reach out to European communities working on extremely large scale data challenges, and to brainstorm possible solutions. The science benchmark that emerged from the 2nd workshop in this series was also debated. This paper is the final report of the discussions and activities at this workshop.

  10. In This Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Coda This issue of the Journal, the last to be produced by the editorial staff in Austin, is remarkable only in the sense that each issue of this Journal is remarkable. In it teachers of chemistry share information, advice, and ideas that encompass a range as wide as chemistry itself. The Journal has always been a venue where the only important thread of commonalty was the goal of helping teachers--providing a "living textbook of chemistry", as it was dubbed by its founders. This textbook is different, however--it is written by its own readers and it has a new "edition" each month. This month's edition typifies the range of topics and issues found important by our readers (and authors): information about new ideas and research advances, new ways to look at and present the information we have, experiments and demonstrations to give students a first-hand exposure to chemistry, computer exercises to introduce those things that cannot be (or are too dangerous to be) presented first-hand, and ideas for better teaching techniques and classroom organization. With such a purview, it is no wonder that the articles in this issue range from the second law of thermodynamics (Frohlich, page 716) to building a Tesla coil from a car coil (Hall and Battino, page 817) and touch on such consequential topics as mimicking nature (Dennison and Harrowven, page 697) and the search for a silicon-based LED (Swisher, Richmond, and Sercel, page 738). New information about research is represented by part III of the series on electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (Hop and Bakhtiar, page A162). Senozan and Devore (page 767) look at data already long known about carbon monoxide poisoning and present a more subtle and complex explanation of the process than is usually seen in introductory texts. A really new way of looking at what we already know is the unique approach that Ginebreda (page 708) takes to waste recovery, applying the formalisms of thermodynamics to economic considerations

  11. Pediatric lower extremity mower injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sean M; Elwood, Eric T

    2011-09-01

    Lawn mower injuries in children represent an unfortunate common problem to the plastic reconstructive surgeon. There are approximately 68,000 per year reported in the United States. Compounding this problem is the fact that a standard treatment algorithm does not exist. This study follows a series of 7 pediatric patients treated for lower extremity mower injuries by a single plastic surgeon. The extent of soft tissue injury varied. All patients were treated with negative pressure wound therapy as a bridge to definitive closure. Of the 7 patients, 4 required skin grafts, 1 required primary closure, 1 underwent a lower extremity amputation secondary to wounds, and 1 was repaired using a cross-leg flap. Function limitations were minimal for all of our patients after reconstruction. Our basic treatment algorithm is presented with initial debridement followed by the simplest method possible for wound closure using negative pressure wound therapy, if necessary.

  12. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawon, Michael J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  13. Extreme project. Progress report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyrolle, F.; Masson, O.; Charmasson, S.

    2007-01-01

    The E.X.T.R.E.M.E. project introduced in 2005 to the S.E.S.U.R.E. / L.E.R.C.M. has for objectives to acquire data on the consequences of the extreme climatic meteorological episodes on the distribution of the artificial radioisotopes within the various compartments of the geosphere. This report presents the synthesis of the actions developed in 2006 in positioning and in co financing of the project by means of regional or national research programs (C.A.R.M.A., E.X.T.R.E.M.A., E.C.C.O.R.E.V.I.), of data acquisition, valuation and scientific collaboration. (N.C.)

  14. On causality of extreme events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zanin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available.

  15. Extreme Nonlinear Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Wegener, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Following the birth of the laser in 1960, the field of "nonlinear optics" rapidly emerged. Today, laser intensities and pulse durations are readily available, for which the concepts and approximations of traditional nonlinear optics no longer apply. In this regime of "extreme nonlinear optics," a large variety of novel and unusual effects arise, for example frequency doubling in inversion symmetric materials or high-harmonic generation in gases, which can lead to attosecond electromagnetic pulses or pulse trains. Other examples of "extreme nonlinear optics" cover diverse areas such as solid-state physics, atomic physics, relativistic free electrons in a vacuum and even the vacuum itself. This book starts with an introduction to the field based primarily on extensions of two famous textbook examples, namely the Lorentz oscillator model and the Drude model. Here the level of sophistication should be accessible to any undergraduate physics student. Many graphical illustrations and examples are given. The followi...

  16. Racial Extremism in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    of Deference ...................................................................................................... 46 1. The Separation of Powers Doctrine...to the military. This deference has a two-fold basis. First, the separation of powers in the U.S. Constitution gives authority to the executive (and...Why should there be judicial deference to the Army’s policy on extremism? There are two principal reasons. First, the Constitution’s separation of powers doctrine

  17. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    LM, de Crombrugghe B. Some recent advances in the chemistry and biology of trans- forming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol 1987;105:1039e45. 12. Hao Y...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In current war trauma, 20-30% of all extremity injuries and >80% of penetrating injuries being associated with peripheral nerve...through both axonal advance and in revascularization of the graft following placement. We are confident that this technology may allow us to

  18. Telemedicine: licensing and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. THE IMPACT OF REFORMING WHEAT IMPORTING STATE-TRADING ENTERPRISES ON THE QUALITY OF WHEAT IMPORTED

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Recent surveys of wheat importers indicate that countries that import wheat via a state trader are less sensitive to quality issues in import decision making than countries that import wheat through private traders. This study examines conceptually and empirically the impact of the deregulation of wheat imports on the quality and source of wheat imports.

  20. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelmaboud, M O

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

  2. Attribution of climate extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Shepherd, Theodore G.

    2015-08-01

    There is a tremendous desire to attribute causes to weather and climate events that is often challenging from a physical standpoint. Headlines attributing an event solely to either human-induced climate change or natural variability can be misleading when both are invariably in play. The conventional attribution framework struggles with dynamically driven extremes because of the small signal-to-noise ratios and often uncertain nature of the forced changes. Here, we suggest that a different framing is desirable, which asks why such extremes unfold the way they do. Specifically, we suggest that it is more useful to regard the extreme circulation regime or weather event as being largely unaffected by climate change, and question whether known changes in the climate system's thermodynamic state affected the impact of the particular event. Some examples briefly illustrated include 'snowmaggedon' in February 2010, superstorm Sandy in October 2012 and supertyphoon Haiyan in November 2013, and, in more detail, the Boulder floods of September 2013, all of which were influenced by high sea surface temperatures that had a discernible human component.

  3. Editorial HPJ Special Issue Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.

    2011-01-01

    Radioecology is the study of the fate and transport and potential effects of radionuclides and associated contaminants in the environment. In short, it is the science that describes the fundamental connection between environmental health and human health risks. As such, radioecology can and has provided the credible, consistent and defensible basis for the successful and cost-effective environmental cleanup and closure of nuclear production and waste sites. In addition, radioecology also provides the technical basis for making timely and reliable decisions on cleanup in the aftermath of nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. The 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident resulted in catastrophic health, social, and economic consequences in many countries, predominantly, Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The extent of radioactive contamination, levels and forms of contamination, and diversity of the ecosystems affected by the accident did not have any precedent and provided unique opportunities for environmental scientists around the world. Following the natural course of their development, populations of species and their communities found themselves in conditions of chronic radiation exposure that exceeded the natural background by factors of hundreds and thousands. Anything similar would have been extremely difficult if not impossible to recreate in a scientific laboratory. Consequently, since the first few years after the accident, many teams of scientists have visited the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ). The knowledge gained by studying the consequences of this accident has tremendous importance. The concept of an international research and technical center to address the problems involving nuclear and radiological accidents became a reality with the establishment of the International Chernobyl Center (ICC). In May 1995, the US and Ukraine signed a Protocol of Intent on establishment of the ICC, and the government of Ukraine appealed to the

  4. Issues Management Process Course # 38401

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binion, Ula Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this training it to advise Issues Management Coordinators (IMCs) on the revised Contractor Assurance System (CAS) Issues Management (IM) process. Terminal Objectives: Understand the Laboratory’s IM process; Understand your role in the Laboratory’s IM process. Learning Objectives: Describe the IM process within the context of the CAS; Describe the importance of implementing an institutional IM process at LANL; Describe the process flow for the Laboratory’s IM process; Apply the definition of an issue; Use available resources to determine initial screening risk levels for issues; Describe the required major process steps for each risk level; Describe the personnel responsibilities for IM process implementation; Access available resources to support IM process implementation.

  5. Validity and interobserver agreement of lower extremity local tissue water measurements in healthy women using tissue dielectric constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads R; Birkballe, Susanne; Nørregaard, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurement may become an important tool in the clinical evaluation of chronic lower extremity swelling in women; however, several factors are known to influence TDC measurements, and comparative data on healthy lower extremities are few.......Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurement may become an important tool in the clinical evaluation of chronic lower extremity swelling in women; however, several factors are known to influence TDC measurements, and comparative data on healthy lower extremities are few....

  6. Earth's portfolio of extreme sediment transport events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korup, Oliver

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative estimates of sediment flux and the global cycling of sediments from hillslopes to rivers, estuaries, deltas, continental shelves, and deep-sea basins have a long research tradition. In this context, extremely large and commensurately rare sediment transport events have so far eluded a systematic analysis. To start filling this knowledge gap I review some of the highest reported sediment yields in mountain rivers impacted by volcanic eruptions, earthquake- and storm-triggered landslide episodes, and catastrophic dam breaks. Extreme specific yields, defined here as those exceeding the 95th percentile of compiled data, are ~ 104 t km- 2 yr- 1 if averaged over 1 yr. These extreme yields vary by eight orders of magnitude, but systematically decay with reference intervals from minutes to millennia such that yields vary by three orders of magnitude for a given reference interval. Sediment delivery from natural dam breaks and pyroclastic eruptions dominate these yields for a given reference interval. Even if averaged over 102-103 yr, the contribution of individual disturbances may remain elevated above corresponding catchment denudation rates. I further estimate rates of sediment (re-)mobilisation by individual giant terrestrial and submarine mass movements. Less than 50 postglacial submarine mass movements have involved an equivalent of ~ 10% of the contemporary annual global flux of fluvial sediment to Earth's oceans, while mobilisation rates by individual events rival the decadal-scale sediment discharge from tectonically active orogens such as Taiwan or New Zealand. Sediment flushing associated with catastrophic natural dam breaks is non-stationary and shows a distinct kink at the last glacial-interglacial transition, owing to the drainage of very large late Pleistocene ice-marginal lakes. Besides emphasising the contribution of high-magnitude and low-frequency events to the global sediment cascade, these findings stress the importance of sediment storage

  7. [Ethical issues in transfusion medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, J-D; Danic, B; Cabaud, J-J; Garraud, O

    2016-09-01

    Ethics is on the cross road of off values that are present along the ways of transfusion medicine. This is an important tool to afford opinions as well as debates that always emerge when discussing transfusion medicine. The wording is particularly important; this was one among several others that characterized the soul of Jean-Jacques Lefrère when he opened the doors of the ethical issues of transfusion medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Special Issue: War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This special double issue of NORMA explore the mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities, the forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts and the implications for masculinity research. The issues cover a range of historical and current topics, cases and analyt......This special double issue of NORMA explore the mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities, the forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts and the implications for masculinity research. The issues cover a range of historical and current topics, cases...... and analytical approaches. The contributions fall into the following four themes: violent masculine rituals and how contemporary societies cope with extreme violence against women; popular written and visual fiction about war and masculine rationalities; gender relations in social movements of rebellions...

  9. Conventional shell model: some issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallieres, M.; Pan, X.W.; Feng, D.H.; Novoselsky, A.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss some important issues in shell-model calculations related to the effective interactions used in different regions of the periodic table; in particular the quality of different interactions is discussed, as well as the mass dependence of the interactions. Mention is made of the recently developed Drexel University shell-model (DUSM). (orig.)

  10. Extreme interplanetary rotational discontinuities at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.-C.

    2005-11-01

    This study is concerned with the identification and description of a special subset of four Wind interplanetary rotational discontinuities (from an earlier study of 134 directional discontinuities by Lepping et al. (2003)) with some "extreme" characteristics, in the sense that every case has (1) an almost planar current sheet surface, (2) a very large discontinuity angle (ω), (3) at least moderately strong normal field components (>0.8 nT), and (4) the overall set has a very broad range of transition layer thicknesses, with one being as thick as 50 RE and another at the other extreme being 1.6 RE, most being much thicker than are usually studied. Each example has a well-determined surface normal (n) according to minimum variance analysis and corroborated via time delay checking of the discontinuity with observations at IMP 8 by employing the local surface planarity. From the variance analyses, most of these cases had unusually large ratios of intermediate-to-minimum eigenvalues (λI/λmin), being on average 32 for three cases (with a fourth being much larger), indicating compact current sheet transition zones, another (the fifth) extreme property. For many years there has been a controversy as to the relative distribution of rotational (RDs) to tangential discontinuities (TDs) in the solar wind at 1 AU (and elsewhere, such as between the Sun and Earth), even to the point where some authors have suggested that RDs with large ∣Bn∣s are probably not generated or, if generated, are unstable and therefore very rare. Some of this disagreement apparently has been due to the different selection criteria used, e.g., some allowed eigenvalue ratios (λI/λmin) to be almost an order of magnitude lower than 32 in estimating n, usually introducing unacceptable error in n and therefore also in ∣Bn∣. However, we suggest that RDs may not be so rare at 1 AU, but good quality cases (where ∣Bn∣ confidently exceeds the error in ∣Bn∣) appear to be uncommon, and further

  11. Editorial of the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Francolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The special issue “Antimicrobial Polymers” includes research and review papers concerning the recent advances on preparation of antimicrobial polymers and their relevance to industrial settings and biomedical field. Antimicrobial polymers have recently emerged as promising candidates to fight microbial contamination onto surfaces thanks to their interesting properties. In this special issue, the main strategies pursued for developing antimicrobial polymers, including polymer impregnation with antimicrobial agents or synthesis of polymers bearing antimicrobial moieties, were discussed. The future application of these polymers either in industrial or healthcare settings could result in an extremely positive impact not only at the economic level but also for the improvement of quality of life.

  12. Safety and licensing issues for Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.R.; Das, M.

    1997-01-01

    India has achieved competency in design, construction, commissioning and operation of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor based Nuclear Power Plants and has completed more than 120 reactor operating years with an extremely satisfactory safety record. In this paper, the safety management in NPCIL and operational safety aspects are discussed, licensing and regulatory approach is described and some of the main safety issues for Indian PHWRs are brought out. (author)

  13. Minor rheumatology: Nonsystemic rheumatic disease of juxta-articular soft tissues of the upper extremity. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Karateev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatic diseases of juxta-articular soft tissues (RDJAST (tendinitis, tenosynovitis, bursitis, etc. are one of the most common causes of disability and one the most common reasons for seeking medical advice. To manage patients with RDJAST is an important part of practising rheumatologists’ work. But unfortunately, the issues of diagnosis and therapy of this pathology have been relatively rarely discussed on the pages of Russian medical journals and at the scientific congresses and conferences of rheumatologists in recent years. This review is to refresh physicians’interest in this problem. Part 1 of this review briefly considers the general issues relating to the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of RDJAST of the upper extremity, such as rotator cuff tendinitis, lateral and medial epicondylitis, stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, de Quervain’s syndrome, and carpal tunnel syndrome.

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... However, this step takes for a long time, for example, over time, including 20 years in ... subject memory recall obscure it extremely difficult. ... rules; specific rules have been observed in the deficit deadlines. For example, 6 ...

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... behavior of the structure due to the load of intermediate rate domain, which is extremely difficult to ... t physical phenomena in the real world process into a low ..... concrete filled steel tubes under transverse impact loading.

  16. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  17. Plant volatiles in extreme terrestrial and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Steinke, Michael; McGenity, Terry; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes the current understanding on plant and algal volatile organic compound (VOC) production and emission in extreme environments, where temperature, water availability, salinity or other environmental factors pose stress on vegetation. Here, the extreme environments include terrestrial systems, such as arctic tundra, deserts, CO₂ springs and wetlands, and marine systems such as sea ice, tidal rock pools and hypersaline environments, with mangroves and salt marshes at the land-sea interface. The emission potentials at fixed temperature and light level or actual emission rates for phototrophs in extreme environments are frequently higher than for organisms from less stressful environments. For example, plants from the arctic tundra appear to have higher emission potentials for isoprenoids than temperate species, and hypersaline marine habitats contribute to global dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in significant amounts. DMS emissions are more widespread than previously considered, for example, in salt marshes and some desert plants. The reason for widespread VOC, especially isoprenoid, emissions from different extreme environments deserves further attention, as these compounds may have important roles in stress resistance and adaptation to extremes. Climate warming is likely to significantly increase VOC emissions from extreme environments both by direct effects on VOC production and volatility, and indirectly by altering the composition of the vegetation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Gravo-Aeroelastic Scaling for Extreme-Scale Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingersh, Lee J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Loth, Eric [University of Virginia; Kaminski, Meghan [University of Virginia; Qin, Chao [University of Virginia; Griffith, D. Todd [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-06-09

    A scaling methodology is described in the present paper for extreme-scale wind turbines (rated at 10 MW or more) that allow their sub-scale turbines to capture their key blade dynamics and aeroelastic deflections. For extreme-scale turbines, such deflections and dynamics can be substantial and are primarily driven by centrifugal, thrust and gravity forces as well as the net torque. Each of these are in turn a function of various wind conditions, including turbulence levels that cause shear, veer, and gust loads. The 13.2 MW rated SNL100-03 rotor design, having a blade length of 100-meters, is herein scaled to the CART3 wind turbine at NREL using 25% geometric scaling and blade mass and wind speed scaled by gravo-aeroelastic constraints. In order to mimic the ultralight structure on the advanced concept extreme-scale design the scaling results indicate that the gravo-aeroelastically scaled blades for the CART3 are be three times lighter and 25% longer than the current CART3 blades. A benefit of this scaling approach is that the scaled wind speeds needed for testing are reduced (in this case by a factor of two), allowing testing under extreme gust conditions to be much more easily achieved. Most importantly, this scaling approach can investigate extreme-scale concepts including dynamic behaviors and aeroelastic deflections (including flutter) at an extremely small fraction of the full-scale cost.

  19. Compound summer temperature and precipitation extremes over central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmeier, Katrin; Feldmann, H.; Schädler, G.

    2018-02-01

    Reliable knowledge of the near-future climate change signal of extremes is important for adaptation and mitigation strategies. Especially compound extremes, like heat and drought occurring simultaneously, may have a greater impact on society than their univariate counterparts and have recently become an active field of study. In this paper, we use a 12-member ensemble of high-resolution (7 km) regional climate simulations with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM over central Europe to analyze the climate change signal and its uncertainty for compound heat and drought extremes in summer by two different measures: one describing absolute (i.e., number of exceedances of absolute thresholds like hot days), the other relative (i.e., number of exceedances of time series intrinsic thresholds) compound extreme events. Changes are assessed between a reference period (1971-2000) and a projection period (2021-2050). Our findings show an increase in the number of absolute compound events for the whole investigation area. The change signal of relative extremes is more region-dependent, but there is a strong signal change in the southern and eastern parts of Germany and the neighboring countries. Especially the Czech Republic shows strong change in absolute and relative extreme events.

  20. A twenty-first century California observing network for monitoring extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.B.; Anderson, M.L.; Dettinger, M.D.; Ralph, F.M.; Hinojosa, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Hartman, R.K.; Reynolds, D.W.; Johnson, L.E.; Schneider, T.L.; Cifelli, R.; Toth, Z.; Gutman, S.I.; King, C.W.; Gehrke, F.; Johnston, P.E.; Walls, C.; Mann, Dorte; Gottas, D.J.; Coleman, T.

    2013-01-01

    During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. In order to improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, is required. Here we describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue – water management – in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

  1. Extreme low temperature tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Richard Strimbeck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Woody plants in boreal to arctic environments and high mountains survive prolonged exposure to temperatures below -40˚C and minimum temperatures below -60˚C, and laboratory tests show that many of these species can also survive immersion in liquid nitrogen at -196˚C. Studies of biochemical changes that occur during acclimation, including recent proteomic and metabolomic studies, have identified changes in carbohydrate and compatible solute concentrations, membrane lipid composition, and proteins, notably dehydrins, that may have important roles in survival at extreme low temperature. Consideration of the biophysical mechanisms of membrane stress and strain lead to the following hypotheses for cellular and molecular mechanisms of survival at extreme low temperature: 1. Changes in lipid composition stabilize membranes at temperatures above the lipid phase transition temperature (-20 to 30˚C, preventing phase changes that result in irreversible injury. 2. High concentrations of oligosaccharides promote vitrification or high viscosity in the cytoplasm in freeze-dehydrated cells, which would prevent deleterious interactions between membranes. 3. Dehydrins bind membranes and further promote vitrification or act stearically to prevent membrane-membrane interactions.

  2. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Haug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages, alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages. These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world 1928-30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially differing in their shield morphologies. The shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults.

  3. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and

  4. Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX mission will be the first mission to catalogue the X-ray polarisation of many astrophysical objects including black-holes and pulsars. This first of its kind mission is enabled by the novel use of a time projection chamber as an X-ray polarimeter. The detector has been developed over the last 5 years, with the current effort charged toward a demonstration of it's technical readiness to be at level 6 prior to the preliminary design review. This talk will describe the design GEMS polarimeter and the results to date from the engineering test unit.

  5. Extreme weather: Subtropical floods and tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.

    Extreme weather events have a large effect on society. As such, it is important to understand these events and to project how they may change in a future, warmer climate. The aim of this thesis is to develop a deeper understanding of two types of extreme weather events: subtropical floods and tropical cyclones (TCs). In the subtropics, the latitude is high enough that quasi-geostrophic dynamics are at least qualitatively relevant, while low enough that moisture may be abundant and convection strong. Extratropical extreme precipitation events are usually associated with large-scale flow disturbances, strong ascent, and large latent heat release. In the first part of this thesis, I examine the possible triggering of convection by the large-scale dynamics and investigate the coupling between the two. Specifically two examples of extreme precipitation events in the subtropics are analyzed, the 2010 and 2014 floods of India and Pakistan and the 2015 flood of Texas and Oklahoma. I invert the quasi-geostrophic omega equation to decompose the large-scale vertical motion profile to components due to synoptic forcing and diabatic heating. Additionally, I present model results from within the Column Quasi-Geostrophic framework. A single column model and cloud-revolving model are forced with the large-scale forcings (other than large-scale vertical motion) computed from the quasi-geostrophic omega equation with input data from a reanalysis data set, and the large-scale vertical motion is diagnosed interactively with the simulated convection. It is found that convection was triggered primarily by mechanically forced orographic ascent over the Himalayas during the India/Pakistan flood and by upper-level Potential Vorticity disturbances during the Texas/Oklahoma flood. Furthermore, a climate attribution analysis was conducted for the Texas/Oklahoma flood and it is found that anthropogenic climate change was responsible for a small amount of rainfall during the event but the

  6. Structure of personality and motivation of extreme sports athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mahnič

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research was to define the eventual differences between personal and motivational structure among extreme sports athletes and non-athletes. Beside personal and motivational structure of both mentioned groups, we also examined state and trait anxiety as significant factors of success. We used a medium lengthy version of FPI inventory, Costell's questionnaire of achievement motivation and Spielberg's questionnaire STAI – X1 and STAI – X2. The pattern included 66 extreme sports athletes. We concluded that extreme sports athletes are significantly less suppressed and sincere, whereas they are more extrovert and masculine in comparison with the group of non-athletes. A trend that individuals, who reach for extreme sports, are more sociable, and less neurotic is pointed out, but it is not of significant importance. We found out that there is also a tendency that extreme sports athletes express more positive achievement motivation than non-athletes, who on the other hand express significantly higher negative achievement motivation. The analysis of anxiety differences on the other hand showed that extreme sports athletes have significantly lower state of anxiety and the anxiety itself as atrait is far less visible, but the difference did not appear as significant. The results however did not confirme previous studies' findings. Nevertheless they serve as a contribution to some earlier findings and suggest that extreme sports athletes are a special group, which differs from non-athlete population in both personal and motivational structure and relatively well suits to the profile of a top athlete. At the same time, the present research offers a possibility of shaping an extreme sports athlete's profile.

  7. Current concepts in repair of extremity venous injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy K; Clouse, W Darrin

    2016-04-01

    Extremity venous injury management remains controversial. The purpose of this communication is to offer perspective as well as experiential and technical insight into extremity venous injury repair. Available literature is reviewed and discussed. Historical context is provided. Indication, the decision process for repair, including technical conduct, is delineated. In particular, the authors' experiences in both civilian and wartime injury are used for perspective. Extremity venous injury repair was championed within data from the Vietnam Vascular Registry. However, patterns of extremity venous injury differ between combat and civilian settings. Since Vietnam, civilian descriptive series opine the benefits and potential complications associated with both venous injury repair and ligation. These surround extremity edema, chronic venous insufficiency, thromboembolism, and limb loss. Whereas no clear superiority in either approach has been identified to date, there appears to be no increased risk of pulmonary embolism or chronic venous changes with repair. Newer data from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and meta-analysis have reinforced this and also have suggested limb salvage benefit for extremity venous repair in combined arterial and venous injuries in modern settings. The patient's physiologic state and associated injury drive five triage categories suggesting vein injury management. Vein repair thrombosis occurs in a significant proportion, yet many recanalize and possibly have a positive impact on limb venous return. Further, early decompression favors reduced blood loss, acute edema, and inflammation, supporting collateral development. Large soft tissue injury minimizing collateral capacity increases the importance of repair. Constructs of repair are varied with modest differences in patency. Venous shunting is feasible, but specific roles remain nebulous. An aggressive posture toward extremity venous injury repair seems justified today because of the likely

  8. A Metastatistical Approach to Satellite Estimates of Extreme Rainfall Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzetto, E.; Marani, M.

    2017-12-01

    The estimation of the average recurrence interval of intense rainfall events is a central issue for both hydrologic modeling and engineering design. These estimates require the inference of the properties of the right tail of the statistical distribution of precipitation, a task often performed using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, estimated either from a samples of annual maxima (AM) or with a peaks over threshold (POT) approach. However, these approaches require long and homogeneous rainfall records, which often are not available, especially in the case of remote-sensed rainfall datasets. We use here, and tailor it to remotely-sensed rainfall estimates, an alternative approach, based on the metastatistical extreme value distribution (MEVD), which produces estimates of rainfall extreme values based on the probability distribution function (pdf) of all measured `ordinary' rainfall event. This methodology also accounts for the interannual variations observed in the pdf of daily rainfall by integrating over the sample space of its random parameters. We illustrate the application of this framework to the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis rainfall dataset, where MEVD optimally exploits the relatively short datasets of satellite-sensed rainfall, while taking full advantage of its high spatial resolution and quasi-global coverage. Accuracy of TRMM precipitation estimates and scale issues are here investigated for a case study located in the Little Washita watershed, Oklahoma, using a dense network of rain gauges for independent ground validation. The methodology contributes to our understanding of the risk of extreme rainfall events, as it allows i) an optimal use of the TRMM datasets in estimating the tail of the probability distribution of daily rainfall, and ii) a global mapping of daily rainfall extremes and distributional tail properties, bridging the existing gaps in rain gauges networks.

  9. Climate change & extreme weather vulnerability assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability : Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability : to climate change and extreme weather event...

  10. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Near-fault earthquake issue is almost a new issue in earthquake engineering. ... although those countries had advanced regulations for seismic design of ... allocating the plastic joints according to development guideline and ...

  12. Future accelerators: physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1977-11-01

    High energy physics of the future using future accelerators is discussed. The proposed machines and instruments, physics issues and opportunities including brief sketches of outstanding recent results, and the way the proposed machines address these issues are considered. 42 references

  13. Medical Issues: Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > orthopedics Orthopedics In SMA, muscle weakness can cause ...

  14. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a ...

  15. Health Issues and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Health Issues & Treatments Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... people with spina bifida are exactly alike. Health issues and treatments for people with spina bifida will ...

  16. Medical Issues: Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...

  17. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  18. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  19. Seven Issues, Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Jim; De Bra, Paul; Grønbæk, Kaj; Larsen, Deena; Legget, John; schraefel, monica m.c.

    2002-01-01

    It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are: Search and Query Composites Virtual Structures Computation in/over hypertext network Versioning Collaborative Work Extensibility and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited ...

  20. Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, N.E.; Yoccoz, N.G.; Edwards, T.C.; Meier, E.S.; Thuiller, W.; Guisan, Antoine; Schmatz, D.R.; Pearman, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding niche evolution, dynamics, and the response of species to climate change requires knowledge of the determinants of the environmental niche and species range limits. Mean values of climatic variables are often used in such analyses. In contrast, the increasing frequency of climate extremes suggests the importance of understanding their additional influence on range limits. Here, we assess how measures representing climate extremes (i.e., interannual variability in climate parameters) explain and predict spatial patterns of 11 tree species in Switzerland. We find clear, although comparably small, improvement (+20% in adjusted D2, +8% and +3% in cross-validated True Skill Statistic and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve values) in models that use measures of extremes in addition to means. The primary effect of including information on climate extremes is a correction of local overprediction and underprediction. Our results demonstrate that measures of climate extremes are important for understanding the climatic limits of tree species and assessing species niche characteristics. The inclusion of climate variability likely will improve models of species range limits under future conditions, where changes in mean climate and increased variability are expected.

  1. The greenhouse effect and extreme weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern; Kvamstoe, Nils Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    The article asserts that an anthropogenic global warming is occurring. This greenhouse effect is expected to cause more occurrences of extreme weather. It is extremely difficult, however, to relate specific weather catastrophes to global warming with certainty, since such extreme weather conditions are rare historically. The subject is controversial. The article also discusses the public debate and the risk of floods

  2. Uranium and nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This seminar focussed on the major issues affecting the future of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. In particular it covered issues bearing on the formation of public policy in relation to the use of uranium as an energy source: economic risk, industrial risks, health effects, site selection, environmental issues, and public acceptance

  3. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  4. Limitations of Extreme Nonlinear Ultrafast Nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kern Christian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-harmonic generation (HHG has been established as an indispensable tool in optical spectroscopy. This effect arises for instance upon illumination of a noble gas with sub-picosecond laser pulses at focussed intensities significantly greater than 1012W/cm2. HHG provides a coherent light source in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV spectral region, which is of importance in inner shell photo ionization of many atoms and molecules. Additionally, it intrinsically features light fields with unique temporal properties. Even in its simplest realization, XUV bursts of sub-femtosecond pulse lengths are released. More sophisticated schemes open the path to attosecond physics by offering single pulses of less than 100 attoseconds duration.

  5. Extreme-Scale De Novo Genome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georganas, Evangelos [Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Hofmeyr, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint Genome Inst.; Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Buluc, Aydin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint Genome Inst.; Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint Genome Inst.; Rokhsar, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Yelick, Katherine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint Genome Inst.

    2017-09-26

    De novo whole genome assembly reconstructs genomic sequence from short, overlapping, and potentially erroneous DNA segments and is one of the most important computations in modern genomics. This work presents HipMER, a high-quality end-to-end de novo assembler designed for extreme scale analysis, via efficient parallelization of the Meraculous code. Genome assembly software has many components, each of which stresses different components of a computer system. This chapter explains the computational challenges involved in each step of the HipMer pipeline, the key distributed data structures, and communication costs in detail. We present performance results of assembling the human genome and the large hexaploid wheat genome on large supercomputers up to tens of thousands of cores.

  6. ECOPHARMACOVIGILANCE: ITS IMPORTANCE AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Bhavana Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients represent a group of emerging environmental contamination. Even in trace amounts, they are of great concern due to then continuous introduction into the environment, their impact an ecosystem and human and vetenery health is of great importance. This has given birth to the science of Ecopharmacovigilance (EPV). It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified and managed appropriately. ...

  7. Directional Considerations for Extreme Wind Climatic Events in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes a look at the importance and role of probability concepts structural design of transmission line. The reliability of transmission structure is clearly a function of the maximum loads that may be imposed over the useful life of the structure. These loads are, more often than not, caused by the extreme atmospheric ...

  8. Reproductive issues in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of menstrual irregularities, women with anorexia nervosa are becoming pregnant. The physical and psychological demands of pregnancy and motherhood can represent an immense challenge for women already struggling with the medical and psychological stress of an eating disorder. This article summarizes key issues related to reproduction in women with anorexia nervosa, highlighting the importance of preconception counseling, adequate gestational weight gain, and sufficient pre- and post-natal nutrition. Postpartum issues including eating disorder symptom relapse, weight loss, breastfeeding, and risk of perinatal depression and anxiety are also discussed. PMID:22003362

  9. Issues in Canadian LLRW management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the issues which are of concern in Canada are similar to those being discussed in the US because Canadian low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) production is similar in quantity and characteristics to that which will be handled by some state compacts. This paper gives a Canadian viewpoint of: the choice between interim storage and permanent disposal; the importance of considering inadvertent intrusion; the role of waste categorization and stability; and the concerns in assessing disposal performance. The discussion is related to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's LLRW disposal program, and its approach to resolving these issues

  10. Severe accident issue resolution -- definition and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.T.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this discussion is to introduce the session on the Progress on the Resolution of Severe Accident Issues. There has been much work in the area of resolution of severe accident issues over the past few years. This work has been focused on those issues most important to risk as assessed by comprehensive studies such as NUREG-1150. In particular, issues associated with early containment failure have been analyzed. These efforts to resolve issues have been hampered by the fact that open-quotes issue resolutionclose quotes has not always been well defined. The term open-quotes issue resolutionclose quotes conjures tip different images for the regulator, the accident analyst, the physicist, and the probabalist. In fact it is common to have as many different images of issue resolution as there are people in the room. This issue is complicated by the fact that the uncertainty in severe accident issues is enormous. (When convolved, the quantitative uncertainty in an integrated analysis due to severe accident issues can span several orders of magnitude.) In this summary, hierarchy is presented in an attempt to add some perspective to the resolution of issues in the face of large uncertainties. Recommendations are also made for analysts communicating in the area of issue resolution

  11. Two centuries of extreme events over the Baltic Sea and North Sea regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, Martin; den Besselaar Else, van; Abdel, Hannachi; Jaak, Jaagus; Elizabeth, Kent; Christiana, Lefebvre; Gudrun, Rosenhagen; Anna, Rutgersson; Frederik, Schenk; der Schrier Gerard, van; Tim, Woolings

    2017-04-01

    Two centuries of extreme events over the Baltic Sea and North Sea regions In the framework of the BACC 2 (for the Baltic Sea) and NOSCCA projects (for the North Sea region), studies of past and present variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period (roughly the past 200 years) have been investigated. Findings on trends in temperature and precipitation have already been presented. Here we focus on data homogeneity issues and examine how reliable reanalyses are in this context. Unlike most other regions in the world, there is a wealth of old observations available for the Baltic and North Sea regions, most of it in handwritten form in meteorological journals and other publications. These datasets need to be carefully digitised and homogenized. For this, a thorough quality control must be applied; otherwise the digitised datasets may prove useless or even counterproductive. We present evidence that this step cannot be conducted without human interference and thus cannot be fully automated. Furthermore, inhomogeneities due to e.g. instrumentation and station relocations need to be addressed. A wealth of reanalysis products is available, which can help detect such inhomogeneities in observed time series, but at the same time are prone to biases and/or spurious trends themselves e.g. introduced by changes in the availability and quality of the underlying assimilated data. It therefore in general remains unclear in how far we can simulate the pre-satellite era with respect to homogeneity with reanalyses based only on parts of the observing system. Extreme events and changes in extreme situations are more important and of greater (societal) significance than changes in mean climate. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess not only because they are, per definition, rare events, but also due to the homogeneity issues outlined above. Taking these into account, we present evidence for changes

  12. Integration of generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples

  13. Extremity doses to interventional radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wihtby, M.; Martin, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    Radiologists performing interventional procedures are often required to stand close to the patient's side when carrying out manipulations under fluoroscopic control. This can result in their extremities receiving a high radiation dose, due to scattered radiation. These doses are sometimes high enough to warrant that the radiologist in question be designated a classified radiation worker. Classification in the UK is a result of any worker receiving or likely to receive in the course of their duties in excess of 3/10ths of any annual dose limit (500mSv to extremities, skin). The doses to the legs of radiologists have received less attention than those to the hands, however the doses may be high, due to the proximity of the legs and feet to scattered radiation. The legs can be exposed to a relatively high level of scattered radiation as the radiation in produced from scatter of the un attenuated beam from the bottom of the patient couch. The routine monitoring of extremity doses in interventional radiology is difficult due to several factors. Firstly a wide range of interventional procedures in undertaken in every radiology department, and these procedures require many different techniques, equipment and skills. This means that the position the radiologist adopts in relation to scattering medium and therefore their exposure, depends heavily on the type of procedure. As the hands which manipulate the catheters within the patient are often located close to the patients side and to the area under irradiation, the distribution of dose across the hands can be variable, with very high localised doses, making routine monitoring difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of dose to the hands and legs of interventional radiologists carrying out a wide range of both diagnostic and therapeutic interventional procedures. To ascertain the most effective method of monitoring the highest dose in accordance with the Basic safety standards

  14. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  15. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas....... Especially in the initial phase of floating foundation concept development, site specific metocean data are usually not available. As the areas of interest are furthermore not covered by any design standard, in terms of design sea states, generic and in engineering terms applicable environmental background...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...

  16. Pneumatic tourniquets in extremity surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    Pneumatic tourniquets maintain a relatively bloodless field during extremity surgery, minimize blood loss, aid identification of vital structures, and expedite the procedure. However, they may induce an ischemia-reperfusion injury with potentially harmful local and systemic consequences. Modern pneumatic tourniquets are designed with mechanisms to regulate and maintain pressure. Routine maintenance helps ensure that these systems are working properly. The complications of tourniquet use include postoperative swelling, delay of recovery of muscle power, compression neurapraxia, wound hematoma with the potential for infection, vascular injury, tissue necrosis, and compartment syndrome. Systemic complications can also occur. The incidence of complications can be minimized by use of wider tourniquets, careful preoperative patient evaluation, and adherence to accepted principles of tourniquet use.

  17. Extreme Space Weather Events: From Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Pete; Baker, Dan; Liu, Ying D.; Verronen, Pekka; Singer, Howard; Güdel, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Extreme space weather events, while rare, can have a substantial impact on our technologically-dependent society. And, although such events have only occasionally been observed, through careful analysis of a wealth of space-based and ground-based observations, historical records, and extrapolations from more moderate events, we have developed a basic picture of the components required to produce them. Several key issues, however, remain unresolved. For example, what limits are imposed on the maximum size of such events? What are the likely societal consequences of a so-called "100-year" solar storm? In this review, we summarize our current scientific understanding about extreme space weather events as we follow several examples from the Sun, through the solar corona and inner heliosphere, across the magnetospheric boundary, into the ionosphere and atmosphere, into the Earth's lithosphere, and, finally, its impact on man-made structures and activities, such as spacecraft, GPS signals, radio communication, and the electric power grid. We describe preliminary attempts to provide probabilistic forecasts of extreme space weather phenomena, and we conclude by identifying several key areas that must be addressed if we are better able to understand, and, ultimately, predict extreme space weather events.

  18. Automatic residue removal for high-NA extreme illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James; Nam, Byong-Sub; Jeong, Joo-Hong; Kong, Dong-Ho; Nam, Byung-Ho; Yim, Dong Gyu

    2007-10-01

    An epidemic for smaller node has been that, as the device architecture shrinks, lithography process requires high Numerical Aperture (NA), and extreme illumination system. This, in turn, creates many lithography problems such as low lithography process margin (Depth of Focus, Exposure Latitude), unstable Critical Dimension (CD) uniformity and restricted guideline for device design rule and so on. Especially for high NA, extreme illumination such as immersion illumination systems, above all the related problems, restricted design rule due to forbidden pitch is critical and crucial issue. This forbidden pitch is composed of numerous optical effects but majority of these forbidden pitch compose of photo resist residue and these residue must be removed to relieve some room for already tight design rule. In this study, we propose automated algorithm to remove photo resist residue due to high NA and extreme illumination condition. This algorithm automatically self assembles assist patterns based on the original design layout, therefore insuring the safety and simplicity of the generated assist pattern to the original design and removes any resist residue created by extreme illumination condition. Also we tested our automated algorithm on full chip FLASH memory device and showed the residue removal effect by using commercial verification tools as well as on actual test wafer.

  19. A Case Report on Upper Extremity Pain of Cardiac Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Altınbilek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Upper extremity pain can originate from the musculoskeletal system, or be a reflection of problems originating from various organs. Therefore, it is highly important to perform a detailed clinical evaluation on patients during differential diagnosis. In this case report, we present a 61 year-old male patient who was admitted with pain in both upper extremities and the upper back that presumed to be of cardiac origin following our clinical evaluations. The patient was referred to the cardiology department, where he was diagnosed with coronary heart disease. The patient’s complaints of pain were fully resolved through the application of an intracoronary stent.

  20. Imaging extrasolar planets with the European Extremely Large Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolissaint L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT is the most ambitious of the ELTs being planned. With a diameter of 42 m and being fully adaptive from the start, the E-ELT will be more than one hundred times more sensitive than the present-day largest optical telescopes. Discovering and characterising planets around other stars will be one of the most important aspects of the E-ELT science programme. We model an extreme adaptive optics instrument on the E-ELT. The resulting contrast curves translate to the detectability of exoplanets.

  1. Mitigating the Risk of Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: The Case of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep F. Schyns

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jordan faces great internal water scarcity and pollution, conflict over trans-boundary waters, and strong dependency on external water resources through trade. This paper analyzes these issues and subsequently reviews options to reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. Based on estimates of water footprint, water availability, and virtual water trade, we find that groundwater consumption is nearly double the groundwater availability, water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity, and Jordan’s external virtual water import dependency is 86%. The review of response options yields 10 ingredients for a strategy for Jordan to mitigate the risks of extreme water scarcity and dependency. With respect to these ingredients, Jordan’s current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Actual implementation of the plans in the national water strategy (against existing oppositions would be a first step. However, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption pattern of Jordanian consumers. Moreover, unsustainable exploitation of the fossil Disi aquifer should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful consideration regarding the sustainability of their energy supply.

  2. Preface: Impacts of extreme climate events and disturbances on carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Liu, Shuguang; Stoy, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of extreme climate events and disturbances (ECE&D) on the carbon cycle have received growing attention in recent years. This special issue showcases a collection of recent advances in understanding the impacts of ECE&D on carbon cycling. Notable advances include quantifying how harvesting activities impact forest structure, carbon pool dynamics, and recovery processes; observed drastic increases of the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved methane in thermokarst lakes in western Siberia during a summer warming event; disentangling the roles of herbivores and fire on forest carbon dioxide flux; direct and indirect impacts of fire on the global carbon balance; and improved atmospheric inversion of regional carbon sources and sinks by incorporating disturbances. Combined, studies herein indicate several major research needs. First, disturbances and extreme events can interact with one another, and it is important to understand their overall impacts and also disentangle their effects on the carbon cycle. Second, current ecosystem models are not skillful enough to correctly simulate the underlying processes and impacts of ECE&D (e.g., tree mortality and carbon consequences). Third, benchmark data characterizing the timing, location, type, and magnitude of disturbances must be systematically created to improve our ability to quantify carbon dynamics over large areas. Finally, improving the representation of ECE&D in regional climate/earth system models and accounting for the resulting feedbacks to climate are essential for understanding the interactions between climate and ecosystem dynamics.

  3. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer The Importance of Early Detection Past Issues / Summer ... Cancer of the colon or rectum is called colorectal cancer. The colon and the rectum are part of ...

  4. Understanding the Impact of Extreme Temperature on Crop Production in Karnataka in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, S.; Murari, K. K.; Jayaraman, T.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of extreme temperature on crop yield is seldom explored in work around climate change impact on agriculture. Further, these studies are restricted mainly to crops such as wheat and maize. Since different agro-climatic zones bear different crops and cropping patterns, it is important to explore the nature of the impact of changes in climate variables in agricultural systems under differential conditions. The study explores the effects of temperature rise on the major crops paddy, jowar, ragi and tur in the state of Karnataka of southern India. The choice of the unit of study to understand impact of climate variability on crop yields is largely restricted to availability of data for the unit. While, previous studies have dealt with this issue by replacing yield with NDVI at finer resolution, the use of an index in place of yield data has its limitations and may not reflect the true estimates. For this study, the unit considered is taluk, i.e. sub-district level. The crop yield for taluk is obtained between the year the 1995 to 2011 by aggregating point yield data from crop cutting experiments for each year across the taluks. The long term temperature data shows significantly increasing trend that ranges between 0.6 to 0.75 C across Karnataka. Further, the analysis suggests a warming trend in seasonal average temperature for Kharif and Rabi seasons across districts. The study also found that many districts exhibit the tendency of occurrence of extreme temperature days, which is of particular concern in terms of crop yield, since exposure of crops to extreme temperature has negative consequences for crop production and productivity. Using growing degree days GDD, extreme degree days EDD and total season rainfall as predictor variables, the fixed effect model shows that EDD is a more influential parameter as compared to GDD and rainfall. Also it has a statistically significant negative effect in most cases. Further, quantile regression was used to evaluate

  5. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  6. Safety culture issues and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren Persson, K.

    1999-01-01

    Strong economic performance in the nuclear business must be driven by excellence in nuclear operation and uncompromising safety. If this balance is not maintained then the ability of the utility to manage this technology safely will justifiably be challenged by the public and the nuclear safety regulator. Experience has shown that once nuclear installation performance has deteriorated to a level at which there are serious regulatory concerns about the adequacy of nuclear safety, then the magnitude and difficulty of the effort required to recover performance are such that continued viability of the organisation comes into question. Thus from both the perspective of individual utilities and the nuclear industry as a whole, it is extremely important to be able to detect shortcomings and deterioration in safety management performance before it becomes a serious concern, and to put effective corrective actions in place to restore and maintain performance at high levels. Following this theme and stimulated by the Canadian Government, senior representatives of utilities and regulators from Canada, United States, Sweden and Agency staff discussed common factors from recent cases involving safety management problems and subsequent recovery processes with a view to determining the need for further work to help prevent such difficulties in the future. From the working group discussion it was concluded that in most cases considered, the utility senior executives from, in some cases the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer, to senior nuclear site executives, did not have the nuclear business acumen or provide the leadership necessary for the management of a successful nuclear programme. Nuclear business acumen is the insight, knowledge and ability to manage the unique interaction between the technology, economics, human factors and safety in a changing nuclear generation environment. Senior utility management failed to recognize, within their suite of performance

  7. Interevent Time Distribution of Renewal Point Process, Case Study: Extreme Rainfall in South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunusi, Nurtiti

    2018-03-01

    The study of time distribution of occurrences of extreme rain phenomena plays a very important role in the analysis and weather forecast in an area. The timing of extreme rainfall is difficult to predict because its occurrence is random. This paper aims to determine the inter event time distribution of extreme rain events and minimum waiting time until the occurrence of next extreme event through a point process approach. The phenomenon of extreme rain events over a given period of time is following a renewal process in which the time for events is a random variable τ. The distribution of random variable τ is assumed to be a Pareto, Log Normal, and Gamma. To estimate model parameters, a moment method is used. Consider Rt as the time of the last extreme rain event at one location is the time difference since the last extreme rainfall event. if there are no extreme rain events up to t 0, there will be an opportunity for extreme rainfall events at (t 0, t 0 + δt 0). Furthermore from the three models reviewed, the minimum waiting time until the next extreme rainfall will be determined. The result shows that Log Nrmal model is better than Pareto and Gamma model for predicting the next extreme rainfall in South Sulawesi while the Pareto model can not be used.

  8. Permutation importance: a corrected feature importance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, André; Toloşi, Laura; Sander, Oliver; Lengauer, Thomas

    2010-05-15

    In life sciences, interpretability of machine learning models is as important as their prediction accuracy. Linear models are probably the most frequently used methods for assessing feature relevance, despite their relative inflexibility. However, in the past years effective estimators of feature relevance have been derived for highly complex or non-parametric models such as support vector machines and RandomForest (RF) models. Recently, it has been observed that RF models are biased in such a way that categorical variables with a large number of categories are preferred. In this work, we introduce a heuristic for normalizing feature importance measures that can correct the feature importance bias. The method is based on repeated permutations of the outcome vector for estimating the distribution of measured importance for each variable in a non-informative setting. The P-value of the observed importance provides a corrected measure of feature importance. We apply our method to simulated data and demonstrate that (i) non-informative predictors do not receive significant P-values, (ii) informative variables can successfully be recovered among non-informative variables and (iii) P-values computed with permutation importance (PIMP) are very helpful for deciding the significance of variables, and therefore improve model interpretability. Furthermore, PIMP was used to correct RF-based importance measures for two real-world case studies. We propose an improved RF model that uses the significant variables with respect to the PIMP measure and show that its prediction accuracy is superior to that of other existing models. R code for the method presented in this article is available at http://www.mpi-inf.mpg.de/ approximately altmann/download/PIMP.R CONTACT: altmann@mpi-inf.mpg.de, laura.tolosi@mpi-inf.mpg.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Survey of upper extremity injuries among martial arts participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesselhorst, Matthew M; Rayan, Ghazi M; Pasque, Charles B; Peyton Holder, R

    2013-01-01

    To survey participants at various experience levels of different martial arts (MA) about upper extremity injuries sustained during training and fighting. A 21-s question survey was designed and utilised. The survey was divided into four groups (Demographics, Injury Description, Injury Mechanism, and Miscellaneous information) to gain knowledge about upper extremity injuries sustained during martial arts participation. Chi-square testing was utilised to assess for significant associations. Males comprised 81% of respondents. Involvement in multiple forms of MA was the most prevalent (38%). The hand/wrist was the most common area injured (53%), followed by the shoulder/upper arm (27%) and the forearm/elbow (19%). Joint sprains/muscle strains were the most frequent injuries reported overall (47%), followed by abrasions/bruises (26%). Dislocations of the upper extremity were reported by 47% of participants while fractures occurred in 39%. Surgeries were required for 30% of participants. Females were less likely to require surgery and more likely to have shoulder and elbow injuries. Males were more likely to have hand injuries. Participants of Karate and Tae Kwon Do were more likely to have injuries to their hands, while participants of multiple forms were more likely to sustain injuries to their shoulders/upper arms and more likely to develop chronic upper extremity symptoms. With advanced level of training the likelihood of developing chronic upper extremity symptoms increases, and multiple surgeries were required. Hand protection was associated with a lower risk of hand injuries. Martial arts can be associated with substantial upper extremity injuries that may require surgery and extended time away from participation. Injuries may result in chronic upper extremity symptoms. Hand protection is important for reducing injuries to the hand and wrist.

  10. Modeling the Pineapple Express phenomenon via Multivariate Extreme Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, G.; Cooley, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    The pineapple express (PE) phenomenon is responsible for producing extreme winter precipitation events in the coastal and mountainous regions of the western United States. Because the PE phenomenon is also associated with warm temperatures, the heavy precipitation and associated snowmelt can cause destructive flooding. In order to study impacts, it is important that regional climate models from NARCCAP are able to reproduce extreme precipitation events produced by PE. We define a daily precipitation quantity which captures the spatial extent and intensity of precipitation events produced by the PE phenomenon. We then use statistical extreme value theory to model the tail dependence of this quantity as seen in an observational data set and each of the six NARCCAP regional models driven by NCEP reanalysis. We find that most NCEP-driven NARCCAP models do exhibit tail dependence between daily model output and observations. Furthermore, we find that not all extreme precipitation events are pineapple express events, as identified by Dettinger et al. (2011). The synoptic-scale atmospheric processes that drive extreme precipitation events produced by PE have only recently begun to be examined. Much of the current work has focused on pattern recognition, rather than quantitative analysis. We use daily mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) fields from NCEP to develop a "pineapple express index" for extreme precipitation, which exhibits tail dependence with our observed precipitation quantity for pineapple express events. We build a statistical model that connects daily precipitation output from the WRFG model, daily MSLP fields from NCEP, and daily observed precipitation in the western US. Finally, we use this model to simulate future observed precipitation based on WRFG output driven by the CCSM model, and our pineapple express index derived from future CCSM output. Our aim is to use this model to develop a better understanding of the frequency and intensity of extreme

  11. A European precipitation index for extreme rain-storm and flash flood early warning

    OpenAIRE

    ALFIERI LORENZO; THIELEN DEL POZO Jutta

    2012-01-01

    Extreme rain-storms are known for triggering devastating flash floods in various regions of Europe and particularly along the Mediterranean coasts. Despite recent notable advances in weather forecasting, most operational early warning systems for extreme rainstorms and flash floods are based on rainfall estimation, rather than on forecasts. As a result, warning lead times are bounded to few hours and warnings are usually issued when the event is already taking place. This work proposes a n...

  12. Rehabilitation Trends After Lower Extremity Amputations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayssi, Ahmed; Dilkas, Steven; Dance, Derry L; de Mestral, Charles; Forbes, Thomas L; Roche-Nagle, Graham

    2017-05-01

    , undergoing surgery in the province of Manitoba, and having a history of ischemic heart disease or congestive heart failure predict a longer rehabilitation stay. A shorter perioperative hospitalization period (<7 days) predicts a shorter rehabilitation duration. Future studies are needed to explore these issues and to optimize the delivery of rehabilitation services to Canadians after lower extremity amputation. II. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  14. Flood protection diversification to reduce probabilities of extreme losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Lambert, James H; Karvetski, Christopher W; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Linkov, Igor

    2012-11-01

    Recent catastrophic losses because of floods require developing resilient approaches to flood risk protection. This article assesses how diversification of a system of coastal protections might decrease the probabilities of extreme flood losses. The study compares the performance of portfolios each consisting of four types of flood protection assets in a large region of dike rings. A parametric analysis suggests conditions in which diversifications of the types of included flood protection assets decrease extreme flood losses. Increased return periods of extreme losses are associated with portfolios where the asset types have low correlations of economic risk. The effort highlights the importance of understanding correlations across asset types in planning for large-scale flood protection. It allows explicit integration of climate change scenarios in developing flood mitigation strategy. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. E.X.T.R.E.M.E. project. Launch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyrolle, F.; Charmasson, S.; Masson, O.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the drastic decrease in artificial radioactivity levels from primary sources such as atmospheric fallout or industrial releases, radioactive storages constituted in the past within several environmental compartments act today as non negligible secondary sources. These delayed sources are particularly active during extreme weather or climatic events such as rainfalls or atmospheric deposits, floods, storms, etc...that may remove important mass, generate activity levels higher than the predicted ones from modeling based on mean transfer process, and produce in a couple of hours or days fluxes similar to those accrued over several month or years. Extreme aims at assessing the consequences on man and its environment of natural events that generate extreme radioactive stocks and/or fluxes within several environmental compartments (atmosphere, soils, rivers, coastal marine environment and deep sea areas). (authors)

  16. Extremely confined gap surface-plasmon modes excited by electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Stenger, Nicolas; Pors, Anders Lambertus

    2014-01-01

    High-spatial and energy resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be used for detailed characterization of localized and propagating surface-plasmon excitations in metal nanostructures, giving insight into fundamental physical phenomena and various plasmonic effects. Here, applying...... EELS to ultra-sharp convex grooves in gold, we directly probe extremely confined gap surface-plasmon (GSP) modes excited by swift electrons in nanometre-wide gaps. We reveal the resonance behaviour associated with the excitation of the antisymmetric GSP mode for extremely small gap widths, down to ~5...... mode exploited in plasmonic waveguides with extreme light confinement is a very important factor that should be taken into account in the design of nanoplasmonic circuits and devices....

  17. Evolution of extreme rainfall in France with a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Veysseire, Jean-Michel; Gouget, Viviane; Neppel, Luc; Tramblay, Yves; Carreau, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses a synthesis of the works led within the framework of the French project ANR/Extraflo on the evolution of the daily (and infra daily) extreme rainfall in France. An important dataset of more than 900 series was used. It was shown that a majority of series presented a not significant upward trend in particular in Mediterranean area, in relation with various recent exceptional extreme events. An interesting way to characterize this evolution consists in identifying climatic co-variables associated to heavy rainfall events (weather patterns, average temperatures, flow of humidity) and in taking into account them with a non stationary POT model. The application of this method with climatic projections under scenario A2 from IPCC could lead to a possible increase on extreme precipitation quantiles on the horizon 2070. (authors)

  18. Issues of environmental (irresponsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dundelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author reflects the questions of humans’ relationship to the environment and of their ecological behaviour that becomes together with the development of modern technologies increasingly relevant just as the question whether humans are able to affect fundamentally the environment on the Earth by their activities. According to some authors (e.g. Ehrlich, 1968; Gore, 2006; Wilson, 1995; Winter, Koger, 2009; Šmajs, 2005 human survival is directly connected with people’s relationship to the nature; but other influential authors have contradictory opinions or they are at least afraid of overestimation of ecological activities that can lead to neglecting of other important problems (e.g. Simon, 1981; Goklany, 2007; Lomborg, 2007; Klaus, 2007, 2009.These issues are dealt in this article mainly from the perspective of psychological theories and concepts – the Freud’s concept of unconsciousness is discussed as well as groupthink, theory of dissonance, contingency trap, Milgram’s theory of autonomous and agentic state of consciousness, group and intergroup behaviour, social dilemma – tragedy of the commons. Achieving a sustainable way of life depends on the equilibrium between consumption of individuals and regenerative abilities of the natural environment. However, people still behave as if they were separated from the nature. The linking axis of this article is the question of psychic powers causing individual and collective ecological (irresponsibility and the resulting consequences.

  19. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  20. Importance of Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  1. Progress on resolution of major surety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, C.R.; Boudreau, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the major surety issues (safety, environmental protection, sageguards, reliability, quality assurance) that have been identified during Phase I of the SP-100 Program and the progress that has been made in analyzing the most important of these issues in the context of the conceptual design effort. These issues have been identified as inadvertent criticality, toxic material release and dispersion, radiation exposure following end-of-life reentry, potential diversion of special nuclear material, failure to achieve end-of-life neutronic shutdown, and structural predictability for end-of-life re-entry or boost. Because of the complexity of these issues, a simplified conservative approach was taken during Phase I. Progress on these issues has been mainly in the area of increased understanding of the issues, identification of design features to resolve the issues, and quantitative evaluations of the surety characteristics of the various design concepts

  2. Development of a real-time extremity dose monitor for personnel in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Nobuhiko; Kusama, Tomoko; Adachi, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    Protection of personnel in interventional radiology is one of the most important issues of radiological protection in medicine. Fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures require the operation near X-ray beam, which brings a considerable hand exposure to the operators. For the purpose of effectual control of their extremity doses, we have developed a real-time extremity dose monitor which is worn on a strap around the wrist. The monitor consists of a silicon semiconductor detector, thin lithium battery and a waterproof frame with a four-digit LED display. Experiment was carried out to examine a response of the monitor to diagnostic X-rays. A practical test was also performed to evaluate usability in the actual interventional procedures. In the experiment, the extremity dose monitor was placed on an arm phantom and exposed to diagnostic X-rays. Readings of the monitor were compared to those of Capintec PS-033 shallow chamber. The monitor was highly sensitive to diagnostic X-rays. It showed a linear response down to doses of a few tens of microsieverts. For high dose-rate exposure, however, a slight decrease in the response was observed, about 10% of counting loss for 80 kV, 40 mA X-ray at one meter from the focus. With regard to energy dependence, variation was within 20% for 60 to 100 kV X-rays. The monitor showed a good angular response in general, except lateral geometry facing the far side from a detector center. In the practical test, hand exposures of medical staff were measured with the extremity dose monitor. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding size and weight of the monitor, clarity of the display and usefulness. The subjects consisted of physicians, technicians and nurses who engaged in angiography, PTCD, CT-biopsy, barium enema and so on. The readings of the monitor were less than 1 mSv in most cases while 93 mSv was recorded in an extreme case due to direct-beam exposure. In some cases, TLD rings were used together with the

  3. Development of a real-time extremity dose monitor for personnel in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Nobuhiko; Kusama, Tomoko [Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita (Japan); Adachi, Akiko [Oita Medical University, Oita (JP)] [and others

    2000-05-01

    Protection of personnel in interventional radiology is one of the most important issues of radiological protection in medicine. Fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures require the operation near X-ray beam, which brings a considerable hand exposure to the operators. For the purpose of effectual control of their extremity doses, we have developed a real-time extremity dose monitor which is worn on a strap around the wrist. The monitor consists of a silicon semiconductor detector, thin lithium battery and a waterproof frame with a four-digit LED display. Experiment was carried out to examine a response of the monitor to diagnostic X-rays. A practical test was also performed to evaluate usability in the actual interventional procedures. In the experiment, the extremity dose monitor was placed on an arm phantom and exposed to diagnostic X-rays. Readings of the monitor were compared to those of Capintec PS-033 shallow chamber. The monitor was highly sensitive to diagnostic X-rays. It showed a linear response down to doses of a few tens of microsieverts. For high dose-rate exposure, however, a slight decrease in the response was observed, about 10% of counting loss for 80 kV, 40 mA X-ray at one meter from the focus. With regard to energy dependence, variation was within 20% for 60 to 100 kV X-rays. The monitor showed a good angular response in general, except lateral geometry facing the far side from a detector center. In the practical test, hand exposures of medical staff were measured with the extremity dose monitor. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding size and weight of the monitor, clarity of the display and usefulness. The subjects consisted of physicians, technicians and nurses who engaged in angiography, PTCD, CT-biopsy, barium enema and so on. The readings of the monitor were less than 1 mSv in most cases while 93 mSv was recorded in an extreme case due to direct-beam exposure. In some cases, TLD rings were used together with the

  4. Towards constraining extreme temperature projections of the CMIP5 ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Martha-Marie; Orth, René; Isabelle Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    The frequency and intensity of heat waves is expected to change in future in response to global warming. Given the severe impacts of heat waves on ecosystems and society it is important to understand how and where they will intensify. Projections of extreme hot temperatures in the IPCC AR5 model ensemble show large uncertainties for projected changes of extreme temperatures in particular in Central Europe. In this region land-atmosphere coupling can contribute substantially to the development of heat waves. This coupling is also subject to change in future, while model projections display considerable spread. In this work we link projections of changes in extreme temperatures and of changes in land-atmosphere interactions with a particular focus on Central Europe. Uncertainties in projected extreme temperatures can be partly explained by different projected changes of the interplay between latent heat and temperature as well as soil moisture. Given the considerable uncertainty in land-atmosphere coupling representation already in the current climate, we furthermore employ observational data sets to constrain the model ensemble, and consequently the extreme temperature projections.

  5. The attitudes of neonatal nurses towards extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Katie; Marlow, Neil; Edgley, Alison; Porock, Davina

    2012-08-01

    The paper is a report of a study of the attitudes of neonatal nurses towards extremely preterm infants. Alongside advancing survival at extremely preterm gestational ages, ethical debates concerning the provision of invasive care have proliferated in light of the high morbidity. Despite nurses being the healthcare professionals who work closest with the infant and their family, their potential influence is usually ignored when determining how parents come to decisions about future care for their extremely premature infant. A Q methodology was employed to explore the attitudes of neonatal nurses towards caring for extremely preterm infants. Data were collected between 2007 and 2008 and analysed using PQMethod and Card Content Analysis. Thirty-six nurses from six neonatal units in the United Kingdom participated. Although there was consensus around the professional role of the nurse, when faced with the complexities of neonatal nursing three distinguishing factors emerged: the importance of parental choice in decision-making, the belief that technology should be used to assess response to treatment, and the belief that healthcare professionals should undertake difficult decisions. Neonatal nurses report unexpected difficulties in upholding their professionally defined role through highly complex and ever varied decision-making processes. Recognition of individual attitudes to the care of extremely preterm infants and the role of the family in the face of difficult decisions should facilitate more open communication between the nurse and the parents and improve the experience of both the nurse and the family during these emotional situations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Operational early warning platform for extreme meteorological events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Operational early warning platform for extreme meteorological events Most natural disasters are related to extreme weather events (e.g. typhoons); weather conditions, however, are also highly relevant for humanitarian and disaster relief operations during and after other natural disaster like earthquakes. The internet service "Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung" (WF) provides various information on extreme weather events, especially when these events are associated with a high potential for large damage. The main focus of the platform is on Central Europe, but major events are also monitored worldwide on a daily routine. WF provides high-resolution forecast maps for many weather parameters which allow detailed and reliable predictions about weather conditions during the next days in the affected areas. The WF service became operational in February 2004 and is part of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) since 2007. At the end of 2011, CEDIM embarked a new type of interdisciplinary disaster research termed as forensic disaster analysis (FDA) in near real time. In case of an imminent extreme weather event WF plays an important role in CEDIM's FDA group. It provides early and precise information which are always available and updated several times during a day and gives advice and assists with articles and reports on extreme events.

  7. Transcriptome and network changes in climbers at extreme altitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Extreme altitude can induce a range of cellular and systemic responses. Although it is known that hypoxia underlies the major changes and that the physiological responses include hemodynamic changes and erythropoiesis, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating such changes are largely unknown. To obtain a more complete picture of the transcriptional regulatory landscape and networks involved in extreme altitude response, we followed four climbers on an expedition up Mount Xixiabangma (8,012 m, and collected blood samples at four stages during the climb for mRNA and miRNA expression assays. By analyzing dynamic changes of gene networks in response to extreme altitudes, we uncovered a highly modular network with 7 modules of various functions that changed in response to extreme altitudes. The erythrocyte differentiation module is the most prominently up-regulated, reflecting increased erythrocyte differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells, probably at the expense of differentiation into other cell lineages. These changes are accompanied by coordinated down-regulation of general translation. Network topology and flow analyses also uncovered regulators known to modulate hypoxia responses and erythrocyte development, as well as unknown regulators, such as the OCT4 gene, an important regulator in stem cells and assumed to only function in stem cells. We predicted computationally and validated experimentally that increased OCT4 expression at extreme altitude can directly elevate the expression of hemoglobin genes. Our approach established a new framework for analyzing the transcriptional regulatory network from a very limited number of samples.

  8. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  9. Current issues and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed

  10. (When and where) Do extreme climate events trigger extreme ecosystem responses? - Development and initial results of a holistic analysis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Eva K.; Donner, Reik V.

    2015-04-01

    In the context of ongoing climate change, extremes are likely to increase in magnitude and frequency. One of the most important consequences of these changes is that the associated ecological risks and impacts are potentially rising as well. In order to better anticipate and understand these impacts, it therefore becomes more and more crucial to understand the general connection between climate extremes and the response and functionality of ecosystems. Among other region of the world, Europe presents an excellent test case for studies concerning the interaction between climate and biosphere, since it lies in the transition region between cold polar and warm tropical air masses and thus covers a great variety of different climatic zones and associated terrestrial ecosystems. The large temperature differences across the continent make this region particularly interesting for investigating the effects of climate change on biosphere-climate interactions. However, previously used methods for defining an extreme event typically disregard the necessity of taking seasonality as well as seasonal variance appropriately into account. Furthermore, most studies have focused on the impacts of individual extreme events instead of considering a whole inventory of extremes with their respective spatio-temporal extents. In order to overcome the aforementioned research gaps, this work introduces a new approach to studying climate-biosphere interactions associated with extreme events, which comprises three consecutive steps: (1) Since Europe exhibits climatic conditions characterized by marked seasonality, a novel method is developed to define extreme events taking into account the seasonality in all quantiles of the probability distribution of the respective variable of interest. This is achieved by considering kernel density estimates individually for each observation date during the year, including the properly weighted information from adjacent dates. By this procedure, we obtain

  11. Environmental issues and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Banba, Tsunetaka; Maeda, Toshikatsu; Ishiyama, Takashi

    1999-08-01

    All countries in the world are concerned about environmental issues because of their global effects. Developed industrial nations are also confronted with waste issues accompanied by mass production, mass consumption, and mass dump. We have reviewed books and reports to obtain a preliminary knowledge and to understand the trend of technology development before we start R and D for 'environmental monitoring, and environmental remediation and protection'. We lay great emphasis on municipal and industrial wastes in environmental issues and summarize the history of the earth, innovative environmental approaches in advanced nations, waste issues in Japan, and examples of technology development for environmental remediation and protection. (author)

  12. Is extremity monitoring recommended for interventional cardiologists?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Ana Luiza S.; Rodrigues, Barbara Beatriz D.; Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Canevaro, Lucia V.

    2009-01-01

    Interventional Cardiology procedures are normally associated with long exposure times and high doses in patients and cardiologists. The aim of this study is to estimate the personal dose equivalent at several points on the staff's body to verify the places on the body that receive the highest doses and to evaluate the necessity of extremity additional monitoring. The dosimetric measurements have been carried out in a hemodynamic room during procedures of Coronary Angiography (CA) and Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA). The dosimetry was done using LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters at different points on the medical staff's body (left and right wrists and above and under the lead apron). To CA procedures, the highest doses measured were 0.52 mSv for the left wrist of main doctors and 0.38 mSv above the lead apron of assistant cardiologist. To PTCA procedures, the highest doses obtained were 1.19 mSv above the lead apron of main doctors and 2.81 mSv for the left wrist of assistant doctor. Doses at PTCA procedures were higher than CA procedures. For main cardiologists, the dose in the left wrist was higher than in the right one, which are sometimes higher than the dose on the chest above the lead apron. This indicates the recommendation of additional extremity monitoring of hemodynamic main doctor. To assistant cardiologists the use of only one individual monitor at this position is enough. Besides the measurement of doses, to apply the concepts of radiation protection is important to reduce the doses received by staff and patients. (author)

  13. Sovereign Default Analysis through Extreme Events Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile George MARICA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates contagion in international credit markets through the use of a novel jump detection technique proposed by Chan and Maheuin (2002. This econometrical methodology is preferred because it is non-linear by definition and not a subject to volatility bias. Also, the identified jumps in CDS premiums are considered as outliers positioned beyond any stochastic movement that can and is already modelled through well-known linear analysis. Though contagion is hard to define, we show that extreme discrete movements in default probabilities inferred from CDS premiums can lead to sound economic conclusions about the risk profile of sovereign nations in international bond markets. We find evidence of investor sentiment clustering for countries with unstable political regimes or that are engaged in armed conflict. Countries that have in their recent history faced currency or financial crises are less vulnerable to external unexpected shocks. First we present a brief history of sovereign defaults with an emphasis on their increased frequency and geographical reach, as financial markets become more and more integrated. We then pass to a literature review of the most important definitions for contagion, and discuss what quantitative methods are available to detect the presence of contagion. The paper continues with the details for the methodology of jump detection through non-linear modelling and its use in the field of contagion identification. In the last sections we present the estimation results for simultaneous jumps between emerging markets CDS and draw conclusions on the difference of behavior in times of extreme movement versus tranquil periods.

  14. Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events: challenges and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Visser, Marcel E

    2017-06-19

    More extreme climatic events (ECEs) are among the most prominent consequences of climate change. Despite a long-standing recognition of the importance of ECEs by paleo-ecologists and macro-evolutionary biologists, ECEs have only recently received a strong interest in the wider ecological and evolutionary community. However, as with many rapidly expanding fields, it lacks structure and cohesiveness, which strongly limits scientific progress. Furthermore, due to the descriptive and anecdotal nature of many ECE studies it is still unclear what the most relevant questions and long-term consequences are of ECEs. To improve synthesis, we first discuss ways to define ECEs that facilitate comparison among studies. We then argue that biologists should adhere to more rigorous attribution and mechanistic methods to assess ECE impacts. Subsequently, we discuss conceptual and methodological links with climatology and disturbance-, tipping point- and paleo-ecology. These research fields have close linkages with ECE research, but differ in the identity and/or the relative severity of environmental factors. By summarizing the contributions to this theme issue we draw parallels between behavioural, ecological and evolutionary ECE studies, and suggest that an overarching challenge is that most empirical and theoretical evidence points towards responses being highly idiosyncratic, and thus predictability being low. Finally, we suggest a roadmap based on the proposition that an increased focus on the mechanisms behind the biological response function will be crucial for increased understanding and predictability of the impacts of ECE.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. [DEONTOLOGICAL ISSUES IN RAILWAY HYGIENE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptsov, V A

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the main ethical and deontological problems encountered in practice and research activities of the hygienist in transport. There is shown the importance of strict compliance with hygienic standards, disregard for the principle of "technical attainability", the necessity of continuous training, improvement of skills of sanitary-educational activity and readiness to solve emerging ethical issues in connection with the development of scientific and technical progress.

  16. Reproductive issues in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of menstrual irregularities, women with anorexia nervosa are becoming pregnant. The physical and psychological demands of pregnancy and motherhood can represent an immense challenge for women already struggling with the medical and psychological stress of an eating disorder. This article summarizes key issues related to reproduction in women with anorexia nervosa, highlighting the importance of preconception counseling, adequate gestational weight gain, and sufficien...

  17. Preterm birth, an unresolved issue

    OpenAIRE

    Beliz?n, Jose M; Hofmeyr, Justus; Buekens, Pierre; Salaria, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Premature birth is the world?s leading cause of neonatal mortality with worldwide estimates indicating 11.1% of all live births were preterm in 2010. Preterm birth rates are increasing in most countries with continual differences in survival rates amongst rich and poor countries. Preterm birth is currently an important unresolved global issue with research efforts focusing on uterine quiescence and activation, the ?omics? approaches and implementation science in order to reduce the incidence ...

  18. Extreme heat and runoff extremes in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zappa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of Swiss river basins to the 2003 European summer heatwave was evaluated by a combined analysis of historical discharge records and specific applications of distributed hydrological modeling. In the summer of 2003, the discharge from headwater streams of the Swiss Central Plateau was only 40%–60% of the long-term average. For alpine basins runoff was about 60%–80% of the average. Glacierized basins showed the opposite behavior. According to the degree of glacierization, the average summer runoff was close or even above average. The hydrological model PREVAH was applied for the period 1982–2005. Even if the model was not calibrated for such extreme meteorological conditions, it was well able to simulate the hydrological responses of three basins. The aridity index φ describes feedbacks between hydrological and meteorological anomalies, and was adopted as an indicator of hydrological drought. The anomalies of φ and temperature in the summer of 2003 exceeded the 1982–2005 mean by more than 2 standard deviations. Catchments without glaciers showed negative correlations between φ and discharge R. In basins with about 15% glacierization, φ and R were not correlated. River basins with higher glacier percentages showed a positive correlation between φ and R. Icemelt was positively correlated with φ and reduced the variability of discharge with larger amounts of meltwater. Runoff generation from the non-glaciated sub-areas was limited by high evapotranspiration and reduced precipitation. The 2003 summer heatwave could be a precursor to similar events in the near future. Hydrological models and further data analysis will allow the identification of the most sensitive regions where heatwaves may become a recurrent natural hazard with large environmental, social and economical impacts.

  19. Conflict management: importance and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie

    2017-01-26

    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  20. Introduction: Special issue on Global Lesbian Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a brief introduction to this special issue on Global Lesbian Cinema. This issue particularly highlights the importance of recognizing lesbian discourse as a separate, related piece of the discourse of queer transnational and global cinema. Subsequently, brief summaries of the eight articles of this collection are provided.

  1. More Issues in Observed-Score Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a response to the commentaries on the position paper on observed-score equating by van der Linden (this issue). The response focuses on the more general issues in these commentaries, such as the nature of the observed scores that are equated, the importance of test-theory assumptions in equating, the necessity to use multiple…

  2. BELM: Bayesian extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Olivas, Emilio; Gómez-Sanchis, Juan; Martín, José D; Vila-Francés, Joan; Martínez, Marcelino; Magdalena, José R; Serrano, Antonio J

    2011-03-01

    The theory of extreme learning machine (ELM) has become very popular on the last few years. ELM is a new approach for learning the parameters of the hidden layers of a multilayer neural network (as the multilayer perceptron or the radial basis function neural network). Its main advantage is the lower computational cost, which is especially relevant when dealing with many patterns defined in a high-dimensional space. This brief proposes a bayesian approach to ELM, which presents some advantages over other approaches: it allows the introduction of a priori knowledge; obtains the confidence intervals (CIs) without the need of applying methods that are computationally intensive, e.g., bootstrap; and presents high generalization capabilities. Bayesian ELM is benchmarked against classical ELM in several artificial and real datasets that are widely used for the evaluation of machine learning algorithms. Achieved results show that the proposed approach produces a competitive accuracy with some additional advantages, namely, automatic production of CIs, reduction of probability of model overfitting, and use of a priori knowledge.

  3. Driving Extreme Efficiency to Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbesi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    The rapid development of extremely energy efficient appliances and equipment is essential to curtail catastrophic climate disruption. This will require the on-going development of products that apply all best-practices and that take advantage of the synergies of hybridization and building integration. Beyond that, it requires the development of new disruptive technologies and concepts. To facilitate these goals, in 2011 the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy launched the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for Ultra-Low-Energy-Use Appliances and Equipment. Now in its third year, the competition supports faculty-lead student design teams at U.S. universities to develop and test new technology prototypes. This talk describes what the competition and the Max Tech Program are doing to drive such rapid technology progress and to facilitate the entry to the market of successful Max Tech prototypes. The talk also initiates a discussion of physicists' unique role in driving that technology progress faster and farther. Emerging Technologies, Building Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y.

    1998-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed

  5. Gene adaptation to extreme environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlaire, P.; Rodriguez, V.; Kerner, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This work is oriented to the study of gene adaptation to extreme conditions, such as the hydrothermal system located in Copahue, Neuquen, Argentina. The organisms living there develop under two pressure selection conditions: the high temperature of thermal water and the strong impact of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Several microorganisms found in this region were isolated and different colonies resistant to UV radiation were selected, a Geobacillus thermoleovorans strain identified through 16S RNA sequence, being the most remarkable. A gene library was prepared out of this strain with UV sensitive bacteria BH200 (uvrA::Tn10). A number of clones were isolated by means of UV selection, the most outstanding being a gene carrier able to codify for the guanosine monophosphate synthetase enzyme (GMPs). The suitability of said enzyme was proved by means of additional assays performed on ght 1 bacteria (guaA26::Tn 10) which lacked the enzyme. A transcript of 1100 pb was detected through Northern Blot. The result was consistent with that obtained for the mapping of the starting transcription site. The cloned GMPs produces an increase in growth speed and a greater biomass in BH200 bacteria. (author)

  6. Scientific issues in fuel behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The current limits on discharge burnup in today's nuclear power stations have proven the fuel to be very reliable in its performance, with a negligibly small rate of failure. However, for reasons of economy, there are moves to increase the fuel enrichment in order to extend both the cycle time and the discharge burnup. But, longer periods of irradiation cause increased microstructural changes in the fuel and cladding, implying a larger degradation of physical and mechanical properties. This degradation may well limit the plant life, hence the NSC concluded that it is of importance to develop a predictive capability of fuel behaviour at extended burnup. This can only be achieved through an improved understanding of the basic underlying phenomena of fuel behaviour. The Task Force on Scientific Issues Related to Fuel Behaviour of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee has identified the most important scientific issues on the subject and has assigned priorities. Modelling aspects are listed in Appendix A and discussed in Part II. In addition, quality assurance process for performing and evaluating new integral experiments is considered of special importance. Main activities on fuel behaviour modelling, as carried out in OECD Member countries and international organisations, are listed in Part III. The aim is to identify common interests, to establish current coverage of selected issues, and to avoid any duplication of efforts between international agencies. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  7. [People with stomas - issues and responses in critical periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kazue; Ishiguro, Miho

    2014-01-01

    People with stomas who have either been cured of cancer or are living with cancer have achieved good interrelationships among the three issues of"establishing self-care","dealing with stoma complications", and"accepting stomas", and they are maintaining stable physical and mental states.However, self-care may become difficult due to stoma complications and adverse events caused by chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the cancer treatment period, and in advanced phases of cancer serious stoma complications may occur due to deterioration of general condition and advancing cancer. Therefore, there is a risk that those stable physical and mental states will collapse.In order to deal with this critical state, in the cancer treatment period, stoma skin care is used for handling skin problems around the stoma, and for adverse events such as hand-and-foot syndrome, braces that are easy to operate are chosen from among various types of stoma braces in order to cover impediments.During advanced phases of cancer, care is conducted with the main priority placed on physical stability in order to ensure that the three major complications of stoma varicose veins, stoma prolapse, and parastomal hernia do not worsen and significantly affect general condition and daily life.Stoma outpatient treatment that provides lifelong support for such issues, and the existence of skin- and excretion-care certified nurses who provided highly specialized selfcare support, are extremely important for cancer survivors with stomas.

  8. Extreme weather and climate events with ecological relevance: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C; Meehl, Gerald A

    2017-06-19

    Robust evidence exists that certain extreme weather and climate events, especially daily temperature and precipitation extremes, have changed in regard to intensity and frequency over recent decades. These changes have been linked to human-induced climate change, while the degree to which climate change impacts an individual extreme climate event (ECE) is more difficult to quantify. Rapid progress in event attribution has recently been made through improved understanding of observed and simulated climate variability, methods for event attribution and advances in numerical modelling. Attribution for extreme temperature events is stronger compared with other event types, notably those related to the hydrological cycle. Recent advances in the understanding of ECEs, both in observations and their representation in state-of-the-art climate models, open new opportunities for assessing their effect on human and natural systems. Improved spatial resolution in global climate models and advances in statistical and dynamical downscaling now provide climatic information at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Together with the continued development of Earth System Models that simulate biogeochemical cycles and interactions with the biosphere at increasing complexity, these make it possible to develop a mechanistic understanding of how ECEs affect biological processes, ecosystem functioning and adaptation capabilities. Limitations in the observational network, both for physical climate system parameters and even more so for long-term ecological monitoring, have hampered progress in understanding bio-physical interactions across a range of scales. New opportunities for assessing how ECEs modulate ecosystem structure and functioning arise from better scientific understanding of ECEs coupled with technological advances in observing systems and instrumentation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events

  9. Securities issues in reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Securities issues in oil and gas reserves reporting were discussed. Alberta requires specific information regarding important oil and gas properties, plants, facilities and installations. When preparing the reserves report, the following elements are important to consider: (1) the author of the report must be a registered professional engineer or registered professional geologist, (2) the report itself must be an engineering document, (3) the content of the report must be extensive, (4) it should be prepared in accordance with petroleum engineering and evaluation practices, and must include a summary of estimated net reserves

  10. On the Extreme Wave Height Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the design wave height is usually based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurements. After an introduction to the procedure of the extreme wave height analysis, the paper presents new development concerning various aspects of the extreme wave...... height analysis. Finally, the paper gives a practical example based on a data set of the hindcasted wave heights for a deep water location in the Mediterranean Sea....

  11. Analyzing phenological extreme events over the past five decades in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleip, Christoph; Menzel, Annette; Estrella, Nicole; Graeser, Philipp

    2010-05-01

    , 1990 and 2007 whereas exceptionally extreme late events are seen in the year 1970. Summer phases such as fruit ripening exhibit stronger shifts to early extremes than spring phases. Leaf colouring phases reveal increasing probability for late extremes. The with GEV estimated 100-year event of Picea, Pinus and Larix amount to extreme early events of about -27, -31.48 and -32.79 days, respectively. If we assume non-stationary minimum data we get a more extreme 100-year event of about -35.40 for Picea but associated with wider confidence intervals. The GEV is simply another probability distribution but for purposes of extreme analysis in phenology it should be considered as equally important as (if not more important than) the Gaussian PDF approach.

  12. Survival in extreme environments – on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2011-01-01

    of mechanisms explaining this phenomenon is lacking. Importantly, recent research has shown that tardigrades even in their active states may be extremely tolerant to environmental stress, handling extreme levels of ionizing radiation, large fluctuation in external salinity and avoiding freezing by supercooling...

  13. Which Screening Tools Can Predict Injury to the Lower Extremities in Team Sports? A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is

  14. Detailed Analysis of Solar Data Related to Historical Extreme Geomagnetic Storms: 1868 – 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefèvre, Laure; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Dumbović, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of historical Sun–Earth connection events in the context of the most extreme space weather events of the last ∼ 150 years is presented. To identify the key factors leading to these extreme events, a sample of the most important geomagnetic storms was selected based mainly on the well-...

  15. Navigating "Thorny" Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Kashema; Gilbert, Aderinsola; Malyukova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In their article "Mindfulness and discussing 'thorny' issues in the classroom" Konstantinos Alexakos et al. ("Cult Stud Sci Educ," 2016. doi: 10.1007/s11422-015-9718-0) describe "thorny" issues as "difficult topics to discuss because they are more personal to some perhaps even cause pain and violence." As…

  16. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  17. 19 (Special Issue)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mwakagugu

    19 (Special Issue). Tanzania Dental Journal 2017. 1. PRESIDENTS SPEECH AT THE OPENING CEREMONY OF THE TANZANIA DENTAL. ASSOCIATION 31ST SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE AND .... awareness on oral health issues, high tooth decay, gum diseases and predominant tooth extraction as consistently reported ...

  18. Extreme Events in Nature and Society

    CERN Document Server

    Albeverio, Sergio; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Significant, and usually unwelcome, surprises, such as floods, financial crisis, epileptic seizures, or material rupture, are the topics of Extreme Events in Nature and Society. The book, authored by foremost experts in these fields, reveals unifying and distinguishing features of extreme events, including problems of understanding and modelling their origin, spatial and temporal extension, and potential impact. The chapters converge towards the difficult problem of anticipation: forecasting the event and proposing measures to moderate or prevent it. Extreme Events in Nature and Society will interest not only specialists, but also the general reader eager to learn how the multifaceted field of extreme events can be viewed as a coherent whole.

  19. Health Issues for Gay Men: Prevention First

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Adult health Understand important health issues for gay men and men who have sex with men — ... Staff All men face certain health risks. However, gay men and men who have sex with men ...

  20. Volume 8 Issue 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nelson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue is our third Students, Transitions, Achievement, Retention and Success (STARS Conference special issue held in July this year in Adelaide, Australia.   As is customary, this issue of the journal publishes the top research papers selected via a peer review process and the top Emerging Initiatives selected by the Conference Committee.    We are delighted to feature in this special  issue —Reflections on Student Persistence—prepared by Advisory Board member Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, USA.  Vincent is a long-time friend and supporter of STARS and its predecessor FYHE Conferences and Journal.   In his article, Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue.

  1. Report from the 2nd Workshop on Extremely Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Becla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The complexity and sophistication of large scale analytics in science and industry have advanced dramatically in recent years. Analysts are struggling to use complex techniques such as time series analysis and classification algorithms because their familiar, powerful tools are not scalable and cannot effectively use scalable database systems. The 2nd Extremely Large Databases (XLDB workshop was organized to understand these issues, examine their implications, and brainstorm possible solutions. The design of a new open source science database, SciDB that emerged from the first workshop in this series was also debated. This paper is the final report of the discussions and activities at this workshop.

  2. The Importance of Selecting Suitable Components and Apparatus in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 1. The Importance of Selecting Suitable Components and Apparatus in Physics Laboratories. Vijay H Raybagkar. Classroom Volume 15 Issue 1 January 2010 pp 76-82 ...

  3. Importance of Engineering History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Fumio

    It is needless to cite the importance of education for succeed of engineering. IEEJ called for the establishment of ICEE in 1994, where the education is thought highly of, though its discussion has not been well working. Generally speaking, education has been one of the most important national strategies particularly at a time of its political and economical development. The science and technology education is, of course, not the exemption. But in these days around 2000 it seems that the public pays little attention on the science and technology, as they are quite day to day matters. As the results, for instance, such engineering as power systems and electric heavy machines are referred to as “endangered”. So fur, many engineers have tried not to be involved in social issues. But currently they can not help facing with risks of social issues like patent rights, troubles and accidents due to application of high technology, information security in the use of computers and engineering ethics. One of the most appropriate ways for the risk management is to learn lessons in the past, that is, history, so that the idea suggested in it could be made full use for the risk management. The author cited the global importance of education, particularly of engineering history education for engineering ethics, in the ICEE 2010 held in Bussan, Korea, as the 16th anniversary.

  4. CEPF strategy for climate change issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    With its strategy for climate change issues CEPF points out the importance of sustainable forest management and the renewable material wood in the context of future climate change policies. Reflecting the view of 16 Million Family forest owners of 23 countries in Europe, on how to combat climate change, this strategy should assist the EU Commission in identifying important issues for consideration in preparing its report for the spring 2005 European Council

  5. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Lefèvre

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4 or greigite (Fe3S4 and cause cells to align along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic–anoxic interface (OAI in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0.

  6. Cultural and Gender Issues in Long-Duration Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA5 includes short reports concerning: (1) Psychological Issues During Long-Duration International Space Missions; (2) Psychosocial Issues in Crew Selection: Finding the Right Mix of the Right Stuff; (3) Culture, Gender and Mission Accomplishment: Operational Experience; (4) Interpersonal Tension in Multicultural Crews; (5) Personality and Coping in Extreme Environments; and (6) Application of Expedition and Polar Work Group Findings for Enhancing Performance in Space.

  7. Importance of Pharmaceutical Training and Clinical Research at Medical Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myotoku, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    To respond to advancements in medical techniques, and to address the separation of medical and dispensary practices, clinical professors are required to educate human resource staff to become highly-skilled pharmacists. For this purpose, it is extremely important for these professors to learn about cutting-edge practical skills and knowledge, as well as to advance their expertise. In addition, they need to conduct clinical research in cooperation with relevant facilities. As our university does not have its own hospital or pharmacy, it is important to provide training for clinical professors in clinical facilities. Such training mainly involves medical teams' in-hospital rounds and participation in conferences (nutrition support team; NST), operation of the pharmacy department, and intervention targeting improvement in the department's duties. We have conducted collaborative studies, provided research instructions, implemented studies aimed at improving the department's work (pharmacists appointed on wards at all times to ensure medical safety) as well as studies regarding team medical care (nutritional evaluation during outpatient chemotherapy), and resolved issues regarding this work (drug solution mixability in a hand-held constant infusion pump, and a safe pump-filling methods). Thus, it has become possible to keep track of the current state of a pharmacists' work within team medical care, to access information about novel drugs, to view clinical and prescription-claim data, to cooperate with other professionals (e.g., doctors and nurses), to promote pharmacists' self-awareness of their roles in cooperative medical practice, and to effectively maintain the hospital's clinical settings.

  8. An influence of extremal edges on boundary extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Ralph G; Brown, James M; McDunn, Benjamin A; Siddiqui, Aisha P

    2015-08-01

    Studies have shown that people consistently remember seeing more of a studied scene than was physically present (e.g., Intraub & Richardson Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 179-187, 1989). This scene memory error, known as boundary extension, has been suggested to occur due to an observer's failure to differentiate between the contributing sources of information, including the sensory input, amodal continuation beyond the view boundaries, and contextual associations with the main objects and depicted scene locations (Intraub, 2010). Here, "scenes" made of abstract shapes on random-dot backgrounds, previously shown to elicit boundary extension (McDunn, Siddiqui, & Brown Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 370-375, 2014), were compared with versions made with extremal edges (Palmer & Ghose Psychological Science, 19, 77-84, 2008) added to their borders, in order to examine how boundary extension is influenced when amodal continuation at the borders' view boundaries is manipulated in this way. Extremal edges were expected to reduce boundary extension as compared to the same scenes without them, because extremal edge boundaries explicitly indicate an image's end (i.e., they do not continue past the view boundary). A large and a small difference (16 % and 40 %) between the close and wide-angle views shown during the experiment were tested to examine the effects of both boundary extension and normalization with and without extremal edges. Images without extremal edges elicited typical boundary extension for the 16 % size change condition, whereas the 40 % condition showed signs of normalization. With extremal edges, a reduced amount of boundary extension occurred for the 16 % condition, and only normalization was found for the 40 % condition. Our findings support and highlight the importance of amodal continuation at the view boundaries as a component of boundary extension.

  9. Climate services for an urban area (Baia Mare City, Romania) with a focus on climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Dana; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Mihalache, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    undertaken with key institutions focusing on environmental, health and urban development issues. The survey was conducted in order to identify the local authorities' perception and needs on climate change information and the importance of climate services for the city and institution's activity. Generally, the results suggest that the selected institutions are poorly aware of the potential impacts of climate change and associated extremes in the area, but they showed a real interest for future climate estimations necessary to undertake reliable adaptation measures. At institutional level, do not exist specialized departments (job positions) to tackle or manage climate information and climate-related aspects, this not being a pressing or priority issue for the city. The climate services aspects are seen with interest mainly in supplying climate scenarios and models for a relatively short term (next 10 or 15 years), the climate information being in this way included in the local planning strategies.

  10. Special Issue to publish

    OpenAIRE

    Kllogjeri, Pellumb

    2015-01-01

    SciencePG has offered an email poster to help collect papers for our Special Issue and I have uploaded it for you. Please visit http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/specialissue/149002  to see our Special Issue announcement. Now, you can do the followings to personally contribute and promote our Special Issue:1. Submit your paper related to the topics of interest 2. Upload it to your personal websites.3. Upload it to the public websites of some universities and academic institutions...

  11. Strategic importance of collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.A. [NB Power, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    In the nuclear industry there is a need to collaborate because of aging equipment, aging people that contribute to dilution of expertise, obsolesce and advances in codes and standards. In the longer term there is a need to focus on operational issues, sustain our suppliers and expertise as well as improve and sustain performance.

  12. Strategic importance of collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the nuclear industry there is a need to collaborate because of aging equipment, aging people that contribute to dilution of expertise, obsolesce and advances in codes and standards. In the longer term there is a need to focus on operational issues, sustain our suppliers and expertise as well as improve and sustain performance.

  13. Thermodynamics of extremal rotating thin shells in an extremal BTZ spacetime and the extremal black hole entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Minamitsuji, Masato; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2017-02-01

    In a (2 +1 )-dimensional spacetime with a negative cosmological constant, the thermodynamics and the entropy of an extremal rotating thin shell, i.e., an extremal rotating ring, are investigated. The outer and inner regions with respect to the shell are taken to be the Bañados-Teitelbom-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime and the vacuum ground state anti-de Sitter spacetime, respectively. By applying the first law of thermodynamics to the extremal thin shell, one shows that the entropy of the shell is an arbitrary well-behaved function of the gravitational area A+ alone, S =S (A+). When the thin shell approaches its own gravitational radius r+ and turns into an extremal rotating BTZ black hole, it is found that the entropy of the spacetime remains such a function of A+, both when the local temperature of the shell at the gravitational radius is zero and nonzero. It is thus vindicated by this analysis that extremal black holes, here extremal BTZ black holes, have different properties from the corresponding nonextremal black holes, which have a definite entropy, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S (A+)=A/+4G , where G is the gravitational constant. It is argued that for extremal black holes, in particular for extremal BTZ black holes, one should set 0 ≤S (A+)≤A/+4G;i.e., the extremal black hole entropy has values in between zero and the maximum Bekenstein-Hawking entropy A/+4 G . Thus, rather than having just two entropies for extremal black holes, as previous results have debated, namely, 0 and A/+4 G , it is shown here that extremal black holes, in particular extremal BTZ black holes, may have a continuous range of entropies, limited by precisely those two entropies. Surely, the entropy that a particular extremal black hole picks must depend on past processes, notably on how it was formed. A remarkable relation between the third law of thermodynamics and the impossibility for a massive body to reach the velocity of light is also found. In addition, in the procedure, it

  14. Area spectra of near extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Deyou; Yang, Haitang; Zu, Xiaotao

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by Maggiore's new interpretation of quasinormal modes, we investigate area spectra of a near extremal Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole and a higher-dimensional near extremal Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole. The result shows that the area spectra are equally spaced and irrelevant to the parameters of the black holes. (orig.)

  15. Meaning and Forms of Political Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Backes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to contribute to the conceptualisation of political extremism and to lay a foundation for further theoretical studies which are explanatory in nature. A sketch of the history of the concepts follows a discussion of structural characteristics and then a typological examination of forms of extremism, particularly those of the 20th and 21st century.

  16. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  17. SIZE AND SHAPE FACTOR EXTREMES OF SPHEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hlubinka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we consider random prolate (oblate spheroids and their random profiles. The limiting distribution of the extremal characteristics of the spheroids is related to the limiting distribution of the corresponding extremal characteristics of the profiles. The difference between the analysis of the prolate and oblate spheroids is discussed. We propose the possible application of the theoretical results.

  18. Complex Plasma Research Under Extreme Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Complex plasma research under extreme conditions is described. The extreme conditions include low-dimensionality for self-organized structures of dust particles, dust magnetization in high magnetic field, criticality in phase transition, and cryogenic environment for Coulomb crystals and dust dynamics.

  19. A Fourier analysis of extremal events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yuwei

    is the extremal periodogram. The extremal periodogram shares numerous asymptotic properties with the periodogram of a linear process in classical time series analysis: the asymptotic distribution of the periodogram ordinates at the Fourier frequencies have a similar form and smoothed versions of the periodogram...

  20. Roentgenological findings in muscular alterations of extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvoelgyi, R.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of roentgenological findings in muscular alterations of extremities based on the author's experiences and on the literature is presented. Following a description of the normal roentgen anatomy, the alterations in different diseases of interstitial lipomatosis are demonstrated. By roentgenological examinations differt muscular lesions of the extremities can be differentiated and the clinical follow-up verified. (orig.) [de

  1. Extremal vectors and rectifiability | Enflo | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extremal vectors and rectifiability. ... The concept of extremal vectors of a linear operator with a dense range but not onto on a Hilbert space was introduced by P. Enflo in 1996 as a new approach to study invariant subspaces ... We show that in general curves that map numbers to backward minimal vectors are not rectifiable.

  2. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  3. Heavy fermions and extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheikine, Ilia

    2000-01-01

    Three heavy electron systems, CeCu 2 Si 2 , CePd 2 Si 2 and UGe 2 , were investigated by transport, quantum oscillations (CePd 2 Si 2 ) and neutron diffraction (UGe 2 ) measurements. The experiments were performed under extreme conditions of very low temperature, high magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure. In the case of CeCu 2 Si 2 , we followed the evolution of the magnetic A-phase that is found to collapse rapidly under pressure. We found evidence for a relation between the A-phase and the presence of a maximum in the temperature dependence of H c2 . Our analysis showed that at low pressure, the sign of the exchange integral should be negative, thus superconductivity is enhanced by an increase in the paramagnetic susceptibility as in the Jaccarino-Peter effect. The anisotropy of the initial slope of H c2 and therefore that of the effective mass was found to change under pressure. For CePd 2 Si 2 , both the de Haas-van Alphen effect at ambient pressure and the electrical resistivity under pressure were studied. The latter reveals a non-Fermi liquid behavior in the vicinity of the antiferromagnetic quantum critical point, P c ∼ kbar. The analysis of H c2 at P c shows that the superconducting state is well described by a weak coupling, clean limit model with a slightly anisotropic orbital limit and a strongly anisotropic paramagnetic one. UGe 2 is shown to demonstrate the coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity that develops just below the ferromagnetic quantum critical point, P c ∼16 kbar. The measurements of the resistivity under pressure point to a possible existence of another phase boundary and thus another quantum critical point, P x ∼ 12 kbar, within the ferromagnetic state. The P-T phase diagram containing both P c and P x was sketched, and a possible relation between P x and the development of superconductivity was discussed. The temperature dependence of H c2 demonstrates a variety of novel behaviors, which cannot be understood within

  4. The personal dispositions of violent extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydov D.G.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the differences in the nature of extremism and radicalism, and the necessity of introducing the concept of "violent extremism." It is shown that the ideology is the explanation of extremist behavior, rather than its cause. The ideology of extremism often eclectic, contradictory and can easily be transformed by changing the object of hostility, depending on the situation. For the description of the psychological causes of extremism it is proposed to use the concept of personal disposition. Disposition is the preferred way to subjective interpretation of reality and reflects both the specific needs of a person as well the typical social situations where it realized and personal experience. Considered the following dispositions of violent extremism: the Cult of force and aggression, Intolerance, Out-group hostility Conventional coercion, Social pessimism and destructiveness, Mystical, Fighting and overcoming, Nihilism to law, Anti-subjectivism. It is proposed to use these dispositions as diagnostic criteria and for preventing and correcting.

  5. [Crossing borders. The motivation of extreme sportsmen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaschowski, H W

    2005-08-01

    In his article "Crossing borders -- the motivation of extreme sportsmen" the author gets systematically to the bottom of the question of why extreme sportsmen voluntarily take risks and endanger themselves. Within the scope of a representative sampling 217 extreme sportsmen -- from the fields of mountain biking, trekking and free climbing, canoyning, river rafting and deep sea diving, paragliding, parachuting, bungee jumping and survival training -- give information about their personal motives. What fascinates them? The attraction of risk? The search for sensation? Or the drop out of everyday life? And what comes afterwards? Does in the end the whole life become an extreme sport? Fact is: they live extremely, because they want to move beyond well-trodden paths. To escape the boredom of everyday life they are searching for the kick, the thrill, the no-limit experience. It's about calculated risk between altitude flight and deep sea adventure.

  6. Mortality impact of extreme winter temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Julio; García, Ricardo; López, César; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio; Prieto, Luis

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years great attention has been paid to the evaluation of the impact of extreme temperatures on human health. This paper examines the effect of extreme winter temperature on mortality in Madrid for people older than 65, using ARIMA and GAM models. Data correspond to 1,815 winter days over the period 1986 1997, during which time a total of 133,000 deaths occurred. The daily maximum temperature (Tmax) was shown to be the best thermal indicator of the impact of climate on mortality. When total mortality was considered, the maximum impact occured 7 8 days after a temperature extreme; for circulatory diseases the lag was between 7 and 14 days. When respiratory causes were considered, two mortality peaks were evident at 4 5 and 11 days. When the impact of winter extreme temperatures was compared with that associated with summer extremes, it was found to occur over a longer term, and appeared to be more indirect.

  7. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  8. Strategic Issues for Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, David, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Contains precis of 18 articles on strategic management issues, including management development, on-the-job training, corporate scholarship, educational technology, coaching, investing in intellectual capital, and knowledge management. (SK)

  9. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-16

    May 16, 2018 ... This paper discusses the issues and challenges faced during .... provision of this AELF's office is costly and need permission from the university's management. .... This is to deduct weeks for the assignment and tests because ...

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... rameter of computation time and convergence rate. The two scheme have shown ... matrix and its inversion repeatedly for every iteration. This issue causes long ..... Some New Findings on Gauss-Seidel. Technique for Load ...

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... The main goal of this article is to analyze methodological issues in .... methodology and theory and historiology (theory of historic process) whose goal is to .... internal branches of sociology and interdisciplinary links of ...

  13. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta \\ Introduction The respiratory system’s job is to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of breathing. Because oxygen is the fuel ...

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-04-16

    Apr 16, 2018 ... The dimensions to business process strategy factors are .... Investigation pains directed at further exploring these issues are very ... relationship management, material flow management, corporate culture in SMEs' Customer.

  15. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  16. Fusion Canada issue 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on operation at Tokamak de Varennes, CRITIC irradiations at AECL, Tritium systems at TFTR, physics contribution at ITER. 4 figs.

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... 1Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan ... face obesity issues because of several factors such as changes in diet intake, lifestyle, physical ...... and its implications for policy and intervention strategies.

  18. Fusion Canada issue 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs.

  19. Sleep Issues and Sundowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  20. Fusion Canada issue 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue ITER reactor siting, a major upgrade for TdeV tokamak, Ceramic Breeders: new tritium mapping technique and Joint Fusion Symposium. 2 figs

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Research Article. Special Issue ... In myriad studies implemented, the quality of life has been defined in different ways among which the .... service and trading users in living area. ... market, bakery, barber shop, restaurant, etc.

  2. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  3. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  4. Issues in Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadow, Charles T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses issues related to electronic publishing. Topics include writing; reading; production, distribution, and commerce; copyright and ownership of intellectual property; archival storage; technical obsolescence; control of content; equality of access; and cultural changes. (Author/LRW)

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Assistant professor, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran ... Discussing the issue of knowledge leads inevitably to the problem of beliefs because .... the level of definition from truth at the level of examples.

  6. Male Fertility Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  7. Fusion Canada issue 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-02-24

    Feb 24, 2018 ... ABSTRACT. Electronic Records and Information Management (e-RIM) framework is paramount for ..... RIM issues and problems that led to information crisis. On the other .... Malaysia: A case study in one government agency”.

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... investigated and analyzed from various library and documentary ... It is therefore evident that applied research on issues related to ...... [29] Cutter-SL., Burton-CG., Emrich-CT., Disaster resilience indicators for benchmarking.

  10. Fusion Canada issue 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Fusion Materials Research, ITER physics research, fusion performance record at JET, and design options for reactor building. 4 figs

  11. Fusion Canada issue 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a funding report for CFFTP, a technical update for Tokamak de Varennes and a network for university research by the National Fusion Program. 4 figs

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-04-18

    Apr 18, 2018 ... selectivity of possible lead compounds prior to clinical trials and ... These computational algorithms had resolved previous issues and .... In similarity with the spatial space degree of the universe, these descriptors are running ...

  13. Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in western central Africa, Guinea Conakry, and Zimbabwe, 1955-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, E.; Aziz Barry, A.; Brunet, M.; Ekang, L.; Fernandes, A.; Massoukina, M.; Mbah, J.; Mhanda, A.; Do Nascimento, D. J.; Peterson, T. C.; Thamba Umba, O.; Tomou, M.; Zhang, X.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how extremes are changing globally, regionally, and locally is an important first step for planning appropriate adaptation measures, as changes in extremes have major impacts. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's synthesis of global extremes was not able to say anything about western central Africa, as no analysis of the region was available nor was there an adequate internationally exchanged long-term daily data set available to use for analysis of extremes. This paper presents the first analysis of extremes in this climatically important region along with analysis of Guinea Conakry and Zimbabwe. As per many other parts of the world, the analysis shows a decrease in cold extremes and an increase in warm extremes. However, while the majority of the analyzed world has shown an increase in heavy precipitation over the last half century, central Africa showed a decrease. Furthermore, the companion analysis of Guinea Conakry and Zimbabwe showed no significant increases.

  14. Current Issues in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shi; Martinez, Larry R.; Hubert, Van Hoof; Tews, Michael; Torres, Leonardo; Farfán, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Ram (2015 Ram, Y. (2015). Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364 [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar] . Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364) posits that violence and harassment are areas of concern...

  15. Impact of soil moisture on extreme maximum temperatures in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirien Whan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Land-atmosphere interactions play an important role for hot temperature extremes in Europe. Dry soils may amplify such extremes through feedbacks with evapotranspiration. While previous observational studies generally focused on the relationship between precipitation deficits and the number of hot days, we investigate here the influence of soil moisture (SM on summer monthly maximum temperatures (TXx using water balance model-based SM estimates (driven with observations and temperature observations. Generalized extreme value distributions are fitted to TXx using SM as a covariate. We identify a negative relationship between SM and TXx, whereby a 100 mm decrease in model-based SM is associated with a 1.6 °C increase in TXx in Southern-Central and Southeastern Europe. Dry SM conditions result in a 2–4 °C increase in the 20-year return value of TXx compared to wet conditions in these two regions. In contrast with SM impacts on the number of hot days (NHD, where low and high surface-moisture conditions lead to different variability, we find a mostly linear dependency of the 20-year return value on surface-moisture conditions. We attribute this difference to the non-linear relationship between TXx and NHD that stems from the threshold-based calculation of NHD. Furthermore the employed SM data and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI are only weakly correlated in the investigated regions, highlighting the importance of evapotranspiration and runoff for resulting SM. Finally, in a case study for the hot 2003 summer we illustrate that if 2003 spring conditions in Southern-Central Europe had been as dry as in the more recent 2011 event, temperature extremes in summer would have been higher by about 1 °C, further enhancing the already extreme conditions which prevailed in that year.

  16. Smart homes design, implementation and issues

    CERN Document Server

    Suryadevara, Nagender Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses issues towards the design and development of Wireless Sensor Network based Smart Home and fusion of Real-Time Data for Wellness Determination of an elderly person living alone in a Smart Home. The fundamentals of selection of sensor, fusion of sensor data, system design, modelling, characterizations, experimental investigations and analyses have been covered. This book will be extremely useful for the engineers and researchers especially higher undergraduate, postgraduate students as well as practitioners working on the development of Wireless Sensor Networks, Internet of Things and Data Mining.

  17. Extreme Weather and Climate: Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Adam; Camargo, Suzana; Debucquoy, Wim; Deodatis, George; Gerrard, Michael; Hall, Timothy; Hallman, Robert; Keenan, Jesse; Lall, Upmanu; Levy, Marc; hide

    2016-01-01

    Extreme events are the aspects of climate to which human society is most sensitive. Due to both their severity and their rarity, extreme events can challenge the capacity of physical, social, economic and political infrastructures, turning natural events into human disasters. Yet, because they are low frequency events, the science of extreme events is very challenging. Among the challenges is the difficulty of connecting extreme events to longer-term, large-scale variability and trends in the climate system, including anthropogenic climate change. How can we best quantify the risks posed by extreme weather events, both in the current climate and in the warmer and different climates to come? How can we better predict them? What can we do to reduce the harm done by such events? In response to these questions, the Initiative on Extreme Weather and Climate has been created at Columbia University in New York City (extreme weather.columbia.edu). This Initiative is a University-wide activity focused on understanding the risks to human life, property, infrastructure, communities, institutions, ecosystems, and landscapes from extreme weather events, both in the present and future climates, and on developing solutions to mitigate those risks. In May 2015,the Initiative held its first science workshop, entitled Extreme Weather and Climate: Hazards, Impacts, Actions. The purpose of the workshop was to define the scope of the Initiative and tremendously broad intellectual footprint of the topic indicated by the titles of the presentations (see Table 1). The intent of the workshop was to stimulate thought across disciplinary lines by juxtaposing talks whose subjects differed dramatically. Each session concluded with question and answer panel sessions. Approximately, 150 people were in attendance throughout the day. Below is a brief synopsis of each presentation. The synopses collectively reflect the variety and richness of the emerging extreme event research agenda.

  18. Bivariate generalized Pareto distribution for extreme atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2015-02-01

    The high particulate matter (PM10) level is the prominent issue causing various impacts to human health and seriously affecting the economics. The asymptotic theory of extreme value is apply for analyzing the relation of extreme PM10 data from two nearby air quality monitoring stations. The series of daily maxima PM10 for Johor Bahru and Pasir Gudang stations are consider for year 2001 to 2010 databases. The 85% and 95% marginal quantile apply to determine the threshold values and hence construct the series of exceedances over the chosen threshold. The logistic, asymmetric logistic, negative logistic and asymmetric negative logistic models areconsidered as the dependence function to the joint distribution of a bivariate observation. Maximum likelihood estimation is employed for parameter estimations. The best fitted model is chosen based on the Akaike Information Criterion and the quantile plots. It is found that the asymmetric logistic model gives the best fitted model for bivariate extreme PM10 data and shows the weak dependence between two stations.

  19. Extreme climatic events constrain space use and survival of a ground-nesting bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Evan P; Elmore, R Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Davis, Craig A; Dahlgren, David K; Orange, Jeremy P

    2017-05-01

    Two fundamental issues in ecology are understanding what influences the distribution and abundance of organisms through space and time. While it is well established that broad-scale patterns of abiotic and biotic conditions affect organisms' distributions and population fluctuations, discrete events may be important drivers of space use, survival, and persistence. These discrete extreme climatic events can constrain populations and space use at fine scales beyond that which is typically measured in ecological studies. Recently, a growing body of literature has identified thermal stress as a potential mechanism in determining space use and survival. We sought to determine how ambient temperature at fine temporal scales affected survival and space use for a ground-nesting quail species (Colinus virginianus; northern bobwhite). We modeled space use across an ambient temperature gradient (ranging from -20 to 38 °C) through a maxent algorithm. We also used Andersen-Gill proportional hazard models to assess the influence of ambient temperature-related variables on survival through time. Estimated available useable space ranged from 18.6% to 57.1% of the landscape depending on ambient temperature. The lowest and highest ambient temperature categories (35 °C, respectively) were associated with the least amount of estimated useable space (18.6% and 24.6%, respectively). Range overlap analysis indicated dissimilarity in areas where Colinus virginianus were restricted during times of thermal extremes (range overlap = 0.38). This suggests that habitat under a given condition is not necessarily a habitat under alternative conditions. Further, we found survival was most influenced by weekly minimum ambient temperatures. Our results demonstrate that ecological constraints can occur along a thermal gradient and that understanding the effects of these discrete events and how they change over time may be more important to conservation of organisms than are average and broad

  20. Foreword: Biomonitoring Equivalents special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, M E; Sonawane, B; Becker, R A

    2008-08-01

    The challenge of interpreting results of biomonitoring for environmental chemicals in humans is highlighted in this Foreword to the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) special issue of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. There is a pressing need to develop risk-based tools in order to empower scientists and health professionals to interpret and communicate the significance of human biomonitoring data. The BE approach, which integrates dosimetry and risk assessment methods, represents an important advancement on the path toward achieving this objective. The articles in this issue, developed as a result of an expert panel meeting, present guidelines for derivation of BEs, guidelines for communication using BEs and several case studies illustrating application of the BE approach for specific substances.