WorldWideScience

Sample records for extremely high satisfaction

  1. Is Extremely High Life Satisfaction during Adolescence Advantageous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Huebner, E. Scott

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether extremely high life satisfaction was associated with adaptive functioning or maladaptive functioning. Six hundred ninety-eight secondary level students completed the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale [Huebner, 1991a, School Psychology International, 12, pp. 231-240], Youth Self-Report of the Child Behavior Checklist…

  2. Satisfaction with upper extremity surgery in individuals with tetraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Hanne; Lybæk, Mille; Lauge Johannesen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To supplement the scant information available regarding the satisfaction of patients with tetraplegia following upper extremity reconstructive surgery for such individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study with questionnaire follow-up. SETTING: The Danish...... questions (P satisfaction with upper extremity surgery is high. It can have a positive impact on life in general, ability to perform ADL, as well as supplying an increased level of independence....... to strongly disagree regarding satisfaction. Forty patients completed the questionnaire. RESULTS: Median time from first surgery was 13 years (2-36). Sixty-five percent of the sample had a C5-C6 SCI, with 64% experiencing complete injury. Initially, 76% of the sample expressed general satisfaction with life......OBJECTIVE: To supplement the scant information available regarding the satisfaction of patients with tetraplegia following upper extremity reconstructive surgery for such individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study with questionnaire follow-up. SETTING: The Danish...

  3. Implicit motives and basic need satisfaction in extreme endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Julia; Wegner, Mirko; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has shown that the effects of basic psychological needs on the flow experience in sports are moderated by implicit motives. However, so far, only leisure and health-oriented sports have been analyzed. In a pilot study and a main study (N = 29, 93), we tested whether the implicit achievement and affiliation motives interact with the need for competence and the need for social relatedness satisfaction, respectively, to predict flow experience and well-being in extreme endurance athletes. Results showed that highly achievement-motivated individuals benefited more from the need for competence satisfaction in terms of flow than individuals with a low achievement motive did. In addition, highly affiliation-motivated individuals whose need for social relatedness is satisfied reported higher positive affect and lower exercise addiction scores than athletes with a low motive. We discuss the differential effects of the interplay between the achievement and affiliation motives and basic needs on different outcome variables.

  4. Extreme sport participation as serious leisure : athletes' overall satisfaction with the event extreme sports week

    OpenAIRE

    Rumba, Maira

    2012-01-01

    This study is concentrating on the extreme sport athletes who have participated in the spectacular event Extreme Sport Week (Mykletun, 2009; Ekstremsportveko, 2012) in Voss, Norway 2011. In particular, it addresses the extreme sport athletes’ involvement with the sport, their career development, and their experiences during the event. The aim is to investigate extreme sport athletes satisfaction with the event based on Pine and Gilmore’s (1999) experience four-realm model and Getz’s and Ander...

  5. Job Satisfaction of High School Journalism Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Jack; Phillips, Kay D.

    Four research questions are posed to explore the job satisfaction of high school journalism educators. A national random sample of 669 respondents shows that journalism educators are generally satisfied with their jobs--more so than teachers in other disciplines. Multiple regression analysis using Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory as a…

  6. EUVE GO Survey: High Levels of User Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroozas, B. A.

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes the results of a detailed customer survey of Guest Observers (GOs) for NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) astronomy satellite observatory. The purpose of the research survey was to (1) measure the levels of GO customer satisfaction with respect to EUVE observing services, and (2) compare the observing experiences of EUVE GOs with their experiences using other satellite observatories. This survey was conducted as a business research project -- part of the author's graduate work as an MBA candidate. A total sample of 38 respondents, from a working population of 101 "active" EUVE GOs, participated in this survey. The results, which provided a profile of the "typical" EUVE GO, showed in a statistically significant fashion that these GOs were more than satisfied with the available EUVE observing services. In fact, the sample GOs generally rated their EUVE observing experiences to be better than average as compared to their experiences as GOs on other missions. These relatively high satisfaction results are particularly pleasing to the EUVE Project which, given its significantly reduced staffing environment at U.C. Berkeley, has continued to do more with less. This paper outlines the overall survey process: the relevant background and previous research, the survey design and methodology, and the final results and their interpretation. The paper also points out some general limitations and weaknesses of the study, along with some recommended actions for the EUVE Project and for NASA in general. This work was funded by NASA/UCB Cooperative Agreement NCC5-138.

  7. Characteristics of Adolescents Who Report Very High Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Rich; Huebner, E. Scott

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of adolescents who report high levels of life global satisfaction. A total of 485 adolescents completed the "Students' Life Satisfaction Scale" (SLSS) (Huebner, E. S. (1991). "Sch. Psychol. Int." 12: 231-240.) along with self-report measures of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and school-related…

  8. Relativistic QED Plasma at Extremely High Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina S

    2016-01-01

    Renormalization scheme of QED (Quantum Electrodynamics) at high temperatures is used to calculate the effective parameters of relativistic plasma in the early universe. Renormalization constants of QED play role of effective parameters of the theory and can be used to determine the collective behavior of the medium. We explicitly show that the dielectric constant, magnetic reluctivity, Debye length and the plasma frequency depend on temperature in the early universe. Propagation speed, refractive index, plasma frequency and Debye shielding length of a QED plasma are computed at extremely high temperatures in the early universe. We also found the favorable conditions for the relativistic plasma from this calculations.

  9. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  10. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  11. Narcissism as a moderator of satisfaction with body image in young women with extreme underweight and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lipowska

    Full Text Available Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight.The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72, severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI 22.7, n = 168. Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory.We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women.The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one's body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body.

  12. Narcissism as a Moderator of Satisfaction with Body Image in Young Women with Extreme Underweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Objective Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. Methods The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Principal Findings We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. Conclusion The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one’s body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body. PMID:25961302

  13. Narcissism as a moderator of satisfaction with body image in young women with extreme underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one's body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body.

  14. Extremely compliant and highly stretchable patterned graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shuze; Huang, Yinjun; Li, Teng, E-mail: LiT@umd.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Graphene is intrinsically ultra-stiff in its plane. Its huge mechanical mismatch when interfacing with ultra-compliant biological tissues and elastomers (7–9 orders of magnitude difference in stiffness) poses significant challenge in its application to functional devices such as epidermal electronics and sensing prosthesis. We offer a feasible and promising solution to this significant challenge by suitably patterning graphene into a nanomesh. Through systematic coarse-grained simulations, we show that graphene nanomesh can be made extremely compliant with nearly zero stiffness up to about 20% elongation and then remain highly compliant up to about 50% elongation.

  15. Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Peters-Lidard, Christa

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides; however, there remain large uncertainties in characterizing the distribution of these hazards and meteorological triggers at the global scale. Researchers have evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local and regional scale primarily using in situ data, yet few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This research uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurence of precipitation and rainfall-triggered landslides globally. The GLC, available from 2007 to the present, contains information on reported rainfall-triggered landslide events around the world using online media reports, disaster databases, etc. When evaluating this database, we observed that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This research also considers the sources for this extreme rainfall, citing

  16. Extreme Environment High Temperature Communication Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a communications system capable of operation at extreme temperatures and pressures in hostile and corrosive...

  17. High occupational stress and low career satisfaction of Korean surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang Hee; Boo, Yoon Jung; Lee, Ji Sung; Han, Hyung Joon; Jung, Cheol Woong; Kim, Chong Suk

    2015-02-01

    Surgery is a demanding and stressful field in Korea. Occupational stress can adversely affect the quality of care, decrease job satisfaction, and potentially increase medical errors. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational stress and career satisfaction of Korean surgeons. We have conducted an electronic survey of 621 Korean surgeons for the occupational stress. Sixty-five questions were used to assess practical and personal characteristics and occupational stress using the Korean occupational stress scale (KOSS). The mean KOSS score was 49.31, which was higher than the average of Korean occupational stress (45.86) or that of other specialized professions (46.03). Young age, female gender, long working hours, and frequent night duties were significantly related to the higher KOSS score. Having spouse, having hobby and regular exercise decreased the KOSS score. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that long working hours and regular exercise were the independent factors associated with the KOSS score. Less than 50% of surgeons answered that they would become a surgeon again. Most surgeons (82.5%) did not want to recommend their child follow their career. Korean Surgeons have high occupational stress and low level of career satisfaction.

  18. Research on Job Satisfaction of Elementary and High School Teachers and Strategies to Increase Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuming, Xu; Jiliang, Shen

    2007-01-01

    Job satisfaction is an important topic in teacher education research. Exploring the issue of teacher job satisfaction helps us gain a deeper understanding of teachers' mental state, such as their occupational attitudes, zeal for teaching, and work enthusiasm, which affects the quality of teaching and education. From an examination of teachers' job…

  19. The Study of Relations between Life Satisfaction, Burnout, Work Engagement and Hopelessness of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapri, Burhan; Gündüz, Bülent; Akbay, Sinem Evin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the relations between high school students' life satisfaction, burnout, work engagement and hopelessness scores and examine the contribution of their burnout, work engagement and hopelessness scores in the prediction of their life satisfaction scores. The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Maslach…

  20. Common lower extremity injuries in female high school soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common lower extremity injuries in female high school soccer players in ... and fitness and not wearing shin guards are risk factors for injury in female soccer ... do not differ from the studies done in male adolescent and adult soccer players.

  1. Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite (AEHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    High Frequency Satellite (AEHF) is a joint service satellite communications system that provides global , survivable, secure, protected, and jam...three satellites fully integrated into the Milstar constellation. October 2014: On October 16, 2014, the program received PEO certification for the...Combined Orbital Operation, Logistics Sustainment ( COOLS ) contract, it will be completed and coordinated in CY 2016. The AEHF system being sustained

  2. Extremely high Q-factor toroidal metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Basharin, Alexey A; Volsky, Nikita; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N; Ustinov, Alexey V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that, owing to the unique topology of the toroidal dipolar mode, its electric/magnetic field can be spatially confined within subwavelength, externally accessible regions of the metamolecules, which makes the toroidal planar metamaterials a viable platform for high Q-factor resonators due to interfering toroidal and other dipolar modes in metamolecules.

  3. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  4. High resolution spectroscopy of six new extreme helium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.; Jones, G.; Drilling, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution spectra of six newly discovered extreme helium stars are presented. LSS 5121 is shown to be a spectroscopical twin of the hot extreme helium star HD 160641. A preliminary LTE analysis of LSS 3184 yielded an effective temperature of 22,000 K and a surface gravity of log g = 3.2. Four stars form a new subgroup, classified by sharp-lined He I spectra and pronounced O II spectra, and it is conjectured that these lie close to the Eddington limit. The whole group of extreme helium stars apparently is inhomogeneous with respect to luminosity to mass ratio and chemical composition.

  5. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  6. Extremely High Q-factor metamaterials due to Anapole Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Basharin, Alexey A; Volsky, Nikita; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that ideal anapole metamaterials have infinite Q-factor. We have designed and fabricated a metamaterial consisting of planar metamolecules which exhibit anapole behavior in the sense that the electric dipole radiation is almost cancelled by the toroidal dipole one, producing thus an extremely high Q-factor at the resonance frequency. The size of the system, at the mm range, and the parasitic magnetic quadrupole radiation are the factors limiting the size of the Q-factor. In spite of the very low radiation losses the local fields at the metamolecules are extremely high, of the order of higher than the external incoming field.

  7. Mapping the Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Hong Kong Secondary Schools with High Ethnic Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Yuet Mui Celeste; Lee, Moosung

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to map the life satisfaction of adolescents from ethnic minority/immigrant backgrounds in schools with high concentrations of co-ethnic peers by comparing them with their mainstream counterparts in Hong Kong. The life satisfaction of 1,522 students was measured by the validated Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction…

  8. common lower extremity injuries in female high school soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies on soccer concentrate on male soccer players.5-7 Although participation ... the prevalence and injury profile of lower extremity injuries in female high school ... An extended duration of skills (p=0.0001) and fitness (p=0.02) training in this .... The results (Table V) show that shin guards were associated with a reduced ...

  9. Extreme high-head portables provide more pumping options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-10-15

    Three years ago, Godwin Pumps, one of the largest manufacturers of portable pumps, introduced its Extreme Duty High Lift (HL) series of pumps and more mines are finding unique applications for these pumps. The Extreme HL series is a range single-stage Dri-Prime pumps with heads up to 600 feet and flows up to 5,000 gallons per minute. The American Coal Co.'s Galatia mine, an underground longwall mine in southern Illinois, used an HL 160 to replace a multiple-staged centrifugal pump. It provided Galatia with 1,500 gpm at 465 ft. 3 photos.

  10. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  11. Extremely high Q -factor metamaterials due to anapole excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basharin, Alexey A.; Chuguevsky, Vitaly; Volsky, Nikita; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N.

    2017-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a metamaterial consisting of planar metamolecules which exhibit unusual, almost perfect anapole behavior in the sense that the electric dipole radiation is almost canceled by the toroidal dipole one, producing thus an extremely high Q -factor at the resonance frequency. Thus we have demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that metamaterials approaching ideal anapole behavior have very high Q -factor. The size of the system, at the millimeter range, and the parasitic magnetic quadrupole radiation are the factors limiting the size of the Q -factor. In spite of the very low radiation losses the estimated local fields at the metamolecules are extremely high, of the order of 104 higher than the external incoming field.

  12. Analysis of motivational profiles of satisfaction and importance of physical education in high school adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Pérez-Quero, Francisco J; Ortiz-Camacho, Maria M; Bracho-Amador, Clara

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the motivational profiles of satisfaction with and importance of physical education in high school students and its relation with gender and the practice of sport...

  13. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhardt, Martine M.; Mulder, Mascha C. Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L.; van der Woude, Luc H.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. Design: Clinical experimental st

  14. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhardt, Martine M; Mulder, Mascha C Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L; van der Woude, Lucas; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. DESIGN: Clinical experimental st

  15. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Grimes, Jacob T; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Segalov, Zvi; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren-Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  16. The effect of high performance HR practices on employees' job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRBÜZ, Sait

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate potential impacts of high performance HR (human resources) practices on employee's job satisfaction. The research hypotheses are tested using sample data collected from 480 blue-collar employees of 35 larger firms in Istanbul, Turkey. The proposed practices, which were participation, empowerment, job rotation, self-directed work teams, and contingent compensation, were positively correlated with employee's job satisfaction. Hierarchical re...

  17. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  18. High ratings of satisfaction with fertility treatment are common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J

    2003-01-01

    attending five fertility clinics. The response rate at the 12 month follow-up was 87.7% and included a total of 1934 patients. RESULTS: During the follow-up period about two-thirds had achieved a pregnancy and about a third became parents. The participants were satisfied with both the medical and patient......-centred (psychosocial) services. There were no sex differences in the evaluation of treatment except that women were more satisfied than men with how the staff had performed their medical examinations. Satisfaction with medical and patient-centred services was positively associated with a treatment-related pregnancy...

  19. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meco, Halim [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt

  20. Forecasting extreme wave events in moderate and high sea states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Anne Karin; Reistad, Magnar; Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta Maria

    2013-04-01

    Empirical studies on measurements have not yet come to conclusive relations between occurrence of rogue waves and - parameters which could be forecasted . Theoretical and tank experiments have demonstrated that high spectral peakedness and low spectral width combined (high Benjamin-Feir instability index, Onorato et al., 2006) give higher probability of rogue wave occurrence. Directional spread seems to reduce the probability of occurrence of rogue waves in these studies. Many years of experience with forecasting and discussions with people working in ocean environment indicate that rogue waves may as well occur in crossing seas. This was also indicated in a study in the Maxwave project (Toffoli et al., 2003) and the EXTREME SEAS project (Toffoli et al., 2011). We have here experimented with some indexes describing both high BFI and crossing seas and run the WAM model for some North Sea storm cases. Wave distributions measured at Ekofisk are analysed in the different cases. References • Onorato, M., Osborne, A., Serio, M., Cavaleri, L., Brandini, C., and Stansberg, C.: Extreme waves, modulational instability and second order theory: wave flume experiments on irregular waves,Europ. J. Mech. B/Fluids, 25, 586-601, 2006. • Toffoli, A., Lefevre, J.M., Monbaliu, J., Savina, H., and Bitner-Gregersen, E., "Freak Waves:Clues for Prediction in Ship Accidents?", Proc. ISOPE'2003 Conf. Hawai, USA, 2003. • Toffoli A., Bitner-Gregersen E. M., Osborne A. R., Serio M. Monbaliu J., Onorato M. (2011) Extreme Waves in Random Crossing Seas: Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 38, L06605, 5 pp. doi: 10.1029/2011.

  1. The Role of Life Satisfaction and Parenting Styles in Predicting Delinquent Behaviors among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Fulya Cenkseven; Yilmaz, Yasin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the parenting styles and life satisfaction predict delinquent behaviors frequently or not. Firstly the data were collected from 471 girls and 410 boys, a total of 881 high school students. Then the research was carried out with 502 students showing low (n = 262, 52.2%) and high level of delinquent…

  2. Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among Female High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Mahmmood Reza; Karimi, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job satisfaction among female high school teachers in Isfahan. It was a descriptive-correlation research. Population included all female high school teachers of Isfahan (2015) in academic year 2013-2014. Sample size calculated was 320 teachers by Krejcie and…

  3. Customer Satisfaction in a High-technology Business-to-Business Conext

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Einar W Aaby

    2011-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is a subject that has gained much attention. However, the focus has been on business-to-consumer (B2C) industries rather than business-to-business (B2B) industries. The author investigates the concept of customer satisfaction in a high-technology B2B context. A survey was sent out to industrial customers of a manufacturer of high-technology products. 205 responses were gathered from all levels of the customer organizations. The study investigates the effect of the role a...

  4. Treatment algorithms for high-energy traumas of lower extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Mladen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High-energy traumas are open or closed injuries caused by force (missile, traffic injuries, crush or blust injuries, falling from heights, affecting the body surface and transferring high amount of kinetic energy inducing great damage to the tissue. Management of such lower extremity injuries has evolved over past several decades, but still remains a difficult task for every surgical team. Specific anatomic and functional characteristics combined with extensive injuries demands specific treatment protocols. Multiple injuries In a multiple injured patient the first priority is management of life-threatening trauma. Despite other injuries, surgical treatment of limb-threatening injuries must start as soon as life-threatening condition has been managed. Treatment algorithms Algorithms are especially beneficial in management of severely injured, but salvageable extremities and in making decision on amputation. Insight into mechanisms of injury, as well as systematic examination of the affected limb, should help us understand the extensiveness of trauma and make an adequate management plan. Prevention of infection and surgical approach Prevention of wound infection and surgical approach to high- energy limb trauma, which includes wound extension, wound excision, skeletal stabilization and if necessary muscle compartment release, should be done in the first 6 hours after injury. Methods of soft tissue reconstruction Commonly used methods for soft tissue defects must provide wound coverage in less than five days following injury. Rehabilitation Early passive and active mobilization and verticalization of patients is very important for successful treatment. Conclusion Good and timely evaluation of the injured and collaboration between plastic and orthopedic surgeons from the beginning of treatment, are crucial for final outcome.

  5. Using a Mixed Model to Evaluate Job Satisfaction in High-Tech Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sang-Bing; Huang, Chih-Yao; Wang, Cheng-Kuang; Chen, Quan; Pan, Jingzhou; Wang, Ge; Wang, Jingan; Chin, Ta-Chia; Chang, Li-Chung

    2016-01-01

    R&D professionals are the impetus behind technological innovation, and their competitiveness and capability drive the growth of a company. However, high-tech industries have a chronic shortage of such indispensable professionals. Accordingly, reducing R&D personnel turnover has become a major human resource management challenge facing innovative companies. This study combined importance-performance analysis (IPA) with the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method to propose an IPA-DEMATEL model. Establishing this model involved three steps. First, an IPA was conducted to measure the importance of and satisfaction gained from job satisfaction criteria. Second, the DEMATEL method was used to determine the causal relationships of and interactive influence among the criteria. Third, a criteria model was constructed to evaluate job satisfaction of high-tech R&D personnel. On the basis of the findings, managerial suggestions are proposed.

  6. Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Bosheng; Seaberg, Matthew H; Shanblatt, Elisabeth R; Porter, Christina L; Karl,, Robert; Mancuso, Christopher A; Kapteyn, Henry C; Murnane, Margaret M; Adams, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a new scheme of spectromicroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range, where the spectral response of the sample at different wavelengths is imaged simultaneously. It is enabled by applying ptychographical information multiplexing (PIM) to a tabletop EUV source based on high harmonic generation, where four spectrally narrow harmonics near 30 nm form a spectral comb structure. Extending PIM from previously demonstrated visible wavelengths to the EUV/X-ray wavelengths promises much higher spatial resolution and more powerful spectral contrast mechanism, making PIM an attractive spectromicroscopy method in both the microscopy and the spectroscopy aspects. Besides the sample, the multicolor EUV beam is also imaged in situ, making our method a powerful beam characterization technique. No hardware is used to separate or narrow down the wavelengths, leading to efficient use of the EUV radiation.

  7. Attitudes of elementary, middle and high school teachers toward mainstreaming: implications for job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, E; Lombardo, V

    1987-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the job satisfaction experienced by human services personnel, including classroom teachers. This study examines teacher's response to postal questionnaires seeking information about job satisfaction and attitudes to the mainstreaming of children with special needs. Results suggest that teachers at secondary or high school level experience lower job satisfaction than those working in middle or elementary schools. Comparison between teachers with or without experiences of mainstreaming reveals further differences between these groups with regard to their attitude toward the value of special educator involvement in the classroom; the importance of special assessments; discipline; the role of mainstreaming in enhancing peer relationships; and appreciation of school administrators' awareness of the implications of mainstreaming.

  8. The Relationship of High School Teachers' Job Satisfaction to Principal Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between high school teacher job satisfaction, using an instrument that measures Herzberg's Two Factor Theory and principal support, using an adapted instrument from House's theory of administrative support. Data were collected by a team of researchers from 34 self-selected public…

  9. Role Conflict and Ambiguity as Predictors of Job Satisfaction in High School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervoni, Annemarie; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between role conflict and role ambiguity, and percentage of time spent on ASCA recommended duties (counseling, coordination, consultation, and large group guidance); and job satisfaction of high school counselors. The Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Scale and the Job Descriptive Index were…

  10. Communication Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Relationship to Student Achievement in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Gayle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a correlational design that allowed the researcher to examine the relationship among communication satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and student achievement. High school teachers were surveyed from a convenience sample of 12 school districts in Arizona. Established instruments were used to survey teachers'…

  11. Communication Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Relationship to Student Achievement in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Gayle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a correlational design that allowed the researcher to examine the relationship among communication satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and student achievement. High school teachers were surveyed from a convenience sample of 12 school districts in Arizona. Established instruments were used to survey…

  12. The Relationship of High School Teachers' Job Satisfaction to Principal Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between high school teacher job satisfaction, using an instrument that measures Herzberg's Two Factor Theory and principal support, using an adapted instrument from House's theory of administrative support. Data were collected by a team of researchers from 34 self-selected public Virginia…

  13. Examination of Job Satisfaction of the Medical Vocational High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Hatice Vatansever; Güney, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the job satisfaction level of Medical Vocational High School teachers and whether it differs according to different variables. The research was organized in accordance with the screening model. The population of the research was composed of vocational course teachers who worked in Medical Vocational High…

  14. The Influence of Competence, Motivation, and Organisational Culture to High School Teacher Job Satisfaction and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, H. Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to find out and analyze the influence of competence, motivation, and organizational competence to high school teacher job satisfaction and performance in Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia. The study was conducted on 117 respondents of 346 teachers by means of questionnaire. Data is analyzed by SEM analysis method in AMOS program.…

  15. High photon flux table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet source

    CERN Document Server

    Hädrich, Steffen; Rothhardt, Jan; Krebs, Manuel; Hoffmann, Armin; Pronin, Oleg; Pervak, Vladimir; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) enables extreme ultraviolet radiation with table-top setups. Its exceptional properties, such as coherence and (sub)-femtosecond pulse durations, have led to a diversity of applications. Some of these require a high photon flux and megahertz repetition rates, e.g. to avoid space charge effects in photoelectron spectroscopy. To date this has only been achieved with enhancement cavities. Here, we establish a novel route towards powerful HHG sources. By achieving phase-matched HHG of a megahertz fibre laser we generate a broad plateau (25 eV - 40 eV) of strong harmonics, each containing more than $10^{12}$ photons/s, which constitutes an increase by more than one order of magnitude in that wavelength range. The strongest harmonic (H25, 30 eV) has an average power of 143 $\\mu$W ($3\\cdot10^{13}$ photons/s). This concept will greatly advance and facilitate applications in photoelectron or coincidence spectroscopy, coherent diffractive imaging or (multidimensional) surface science.

  16. Small-scale characteristics of extremely high latitude aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cumnock

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine 14 cases of an interesting type of extremely high latitude aurora as identified in the precipitating particles measured by the DMSP F13 satellite. In particular we investigate structures within large-scale arcs for which the particle signatures are made up of a group of multiple distinct thin arcs. These cases are chosen without regard to IMF orientation and are part of a group of 87 events where DMSP F13 SSJ/4 measures emissions which occur near the noon-midnight meridian and are spatially separated from both the dawnside and duskside auroral ovals by wide regions with precipitating particles typical of the polar cap. For 73 of these events the high-latitude aurora consists of a continuous region of precipitating particles. We focus on the remaining 14 of these events where the particle signatures show multiple distinct thin arcs. These events occur during northward or weakly southward IMF conditions and follow a change in IMF By. Correlations are seen between the field-aligned currents and plasma flows associated with the arcs, implying local closure of the FACs. Strong correlations are seen only in the sunlit hemisphere. The convection associated with the multiple thin arcs is localized and has little influence on the large-scale convection. This also implies that the sunward flow along the arcs is unrelated to the overall ionospheric convection.

  17. Extremely high-frequency micro-Doppler measurements of humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Silvious, Jerry L.; Dietlein, Charles R.; Green, Jeremy A.; Wikner, David A.

    2014-05-01

    The development of sensors that are capable of penetrating smoke, dust, fog, clouds, and rain is critical for maintaining situational awareness in degraded visual environments and for providing support to the Warfighter. Atmospheric penetration properties, the ability to form high-resolution imagery with modest apertures, and available source power make the extremely high-frequency (EHF) portion of the spectrum promising for the development of radio frequency (RF) sensors capable of penetrating visual obscurants. Comprehensive phenomenology studies including polarization and backscatter properties of relevant targets are lacking at these frequencies. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing a fully-polarimetric frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) instrumentation radar to explore polarization and backscatter properties of in-situ rain, scattering from natural and man-made surfaces, and the radar cross section and micro-Doppler signatures of humans at EHF frequencies, specifically, around the 220 GHz atmospheric window. This work presents an overview of the design and construction of the radar system, hardware performance, data acquisition software, and initial results including an analysis of human micro-Doppler signatures.

  18. High Satisfaction and Return to Sports After Total Shoulder Arthroplasty in Patients Aged 55 Years and Younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Grant H; Liu, Joseph N; Sinatro, Alec; Wu, Hao-Hua; Dines, Joshua S; Warren, Russell F; Dines, David M; Gulotta, Lawrence V

    2017-06-01

    Young, active candidates for total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) are a unique group of patients. Not only do they demand longevity and improved function, but they also desire a return to physical activities. To determine the rate of return to sports in patients aged ≤55 years undergoing TSA. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent anatomic TSA at a single institution. Exclusion criteria included age at the time of surgery >55 years and 55 years). The average VAS score improved from 5.6 to 0.9 ( P 55/57) restarted at least 1 sport at an average of 6.7 months. Direct rates of return were as follows: fitness sports (97.2%), golf (93.3%), singles tennis (87.5%), swimming (77.7%), basketball (75.0%), and flag football (66.7%). Patients in 47 shoulders (82.4%) returned to a similar or higher level of sports; 90.3% returned to high-demand sports, and 83.8% returned to high upper extremity sports. There was no significant difference in rates of return to sports by body mass index, sex, age, preoperative diagnosis, revision status, and dominant extremity. In patients aged ≤55 years undergoing TSA, there was a 96.4% rate of return to ≥1 previous sports at an average of 6.7 months. Furthermore, at an average follow-up of 61.0 months, no patients needed revision of their glenoid component, despite an 83.8% rate of return to high upper extremity sports. While caution should still be advised in young, active patients undergoing TSA, these results demonstrate a high satisfaction rate and improved ability to return to most sports after surgery.

  19. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo

    2010-01-12

    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. Synoptic conditions leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García

    Full Text Available Extremely hot days (EHD in Madrid have been analysed to determine the synoptic patterns that produce EHDs during the period of 1955–1998. An EHD is defined as a day with maximum temperature higher than 36.5°C, a value which is the threshold for the intense effects on mortatility and it coincides with the 95 percentile of the series. Two different situations have been detected as being responsible for an EHD occurrence, one more dynamical, produced by southern fluxes, and another associated with a stagnation situation over Iberia of a longer duration. Both account for 92% of the total number of days, thus providing an efficient classification framework. A circulation index has been derived to characterise and forecast an EHD occurrence. This paper shows that EHD occur in Madrid during short duration events, and no long heat waves, like those recorded in other cities, are present. Additionally, no clear pattern can be detected in the EHD frequency; the occurrence is tied to changes in the summer location of the Azores high.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Climatology; synoptic-scale meteorology; general or miscellaneous

  1. Extremely high-intensity laser interactions with fundamental quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Piazza, A; Hatsagortsyan, K Z; Keitel, C H

    2011-01-01

    The field of laser-matter interaction traditionally deals with the response of atoms, molecules and plasmas to an external light wave. However, the recent sustained technological progress is opening the possibility of employing intense laser radiation to prompt or substantially influence physical processes beyond atomic-physics energy scales. Available optical laser intensities exceeding $10^{22}\\;\\text{W/cm$^2$}$ can push the fundamental light-electron interaction to the extreme limit where radiation-reaction effects dominate the electron dynamics, can shed light on the structure of the quantum vacuum and can prime the creation of particles like electrons, muons and pions and the corresponding antiparticles. Also, novel sources of intense coherent high-energy photons and laser-based particle colliders can pave the way to nuclear quantum optics and can even allow for potential discovery of new particles beyond the Standard Model. These are the main topics of the present article, which is devoted to a review o...

  2. Synoptic conditions leading to extremely high temperatures in Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R.; Prieto, L.; Hernandez, E.; Teso, T. del [Dept. Fisica de la Tierra II, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Univ. Camplutense de Madrid (Spain); Diaz, J. [Centro Universitario de Salud Publica, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-02-01

    Extremely hot days (EHD) in Madrid have been analysed to determine the synoptic patterns that produce EHDs during the period of 1955-1998. An EHD is defined as a day with maximum temperature higher than 36.5 C, a value which is the threshold for the intense effects on mortatility and it coincides with the 95 percentile of the series. Two different situations have been detected as being responsible for an EHD occurrence, one more dynamical, produced by southern fluxes, and another associated with a stagnation situation over Iberia of a longer duration. Both account for 92% of the total number of days, thus providing an efficient classification framework. A circulation index has been derived to characterise and forecast an EHD occurrence. This paper shows that EHD occur in Madrid during short duration events, and no long heat waves, like those recorded in other cities, are present. Additionally, no clear pattern can be detected in the EHD frequency; the occurrence is tied to changes in the summer location of the Azores high. (orig.)

  3. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.

  4. High resolution simulations of extreme weather event in south Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, C.

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade, like most region of Mediterranean Europe, Sardinia has experienced severe precipitation events generating flash floods resulting in loss of lives and large economic damage. A numerical meteorological operational set-up is applied in the local weather service with the aim to improve the operational short range weather forecast of the Service with particular attention to intense, mostly rare and potentially severe, events. On the early hours of 22 October 2008 an intense and almost stationary mesoscale convective system interested particularly the south of Sardinia, heavy precipitation caused a flash flood with fatalities and numerous property damages. The event was particularly intense: about 400 mm of rain in 12 hours (a peak of 150 mm in an hour) were misured by the regional network of weather stations and these values appear extremely meaningfulls since those are about seven times the climatological monthly rainfall for that area and nearly the climatological annual rainfall. With the aim to improve significantly quantitative precipitation forecasting, it was evaluated a different set-up of a high resolution convection resolving model (MM5) initialised with different initial and boundary conditions (ECMWF and NCAR). In this paper it is discussed the meteorological system related to the mentioned event by using different numerical weather models (GCM and LAM) combined with conventional data, radar Doppler and Meteosat images. Preliminary results say that a different set-up of a non hydrostatic model can forecast severe convection events in advance of about one day and produce more realistic rainfall than that current operational and also improve the weather forecasts to respect the ECMWF-GCM. So it could drive an operational alert system in order to limit the risks associated with heavy precipitation events.

  5. Modeling of Structural Equation Teachers’ Job satisfaction in Agricultural High School, Mazandaran Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alikhani Dadoukolaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is a positive or pleasant emotional state resulting from a person’s appreciation of his/her own job or experience. The study purpose was to model job satisfaction for teachers working in Agricultural institutes within Mazandaran province of Iran. The study used a descriptive-correlative design . The statistical population (including all instructors working for agricultural Institutes within Mazandaran Province of Iran was es 127 teachers. Using Cochran’s formula, the sample size was estimated at 85 teachers. To increase the viability of the study, the planned sample size was determined att 110 teachers from which 108 teachers completed the questionnaires. The study was conducted using questionnaire. The content validity of the questionnaire was assessed by a group of extension specialists. In order to measure the reliability of research questionnaires, 29 teachers who were randomly selected. completed some questionnaires. Cronbach's alpha, ordinal theta and combination reliability were calculated by 0.95, 0.92 and 0.87 respectively. The results indicate that the magnitude of job satisfaction for %85.2 of instructors working in Agricultural institutes within Mazandaran province was moderate and relatively high. Based on the estimated Structural equation model, the highest effect on the job satisfaction was related to the environmental factor with the path coefficient of 0.64. Motivational factor with the path coefficient of 0.26 had a significant effect on job satisfaction. In addition, the environmental factor with the path coefficient of 0.55 had a significant effect on the Motivational factor.

  6. High speed digital phonoscopy of selected extreme vocalization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Blanco, Matthew; Di Lorenzo, Enrico; Yan, Yuling

    2017-02-01

    We used HSDP (KayPENTAX Model 9710, NJ, USA) to capture the kinematics of vocal folds in the production of extreme vocalization used by heavy metal performers. The vibrations of the VF were captured at 4000 f/s using transoral rigid scope. Growl, scream and inhalatory phonations were recoded. Results showed that these extreme sounds are produced predominantly by supraglottic tissues rather than by the true vocal folds, which explains while these sounds do not injure the mucosa of the true vocal folds. In addition, the HSDI were processed using custom software (Vocalizer®) that clearly demonstrated the contribution of each vocal fold to the generation of the sound.

  7. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  8. Bone-anchored hearing aids are effective and associated with a high degree of satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardell, Ida Sofie Kristina; Andresen, Kathrine; Faber, Christian Emil;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA). METHODS: This study was retrospective and based on a postal questionnaire. The study sample consisted of patients undergoing surgery at Odense University Hospital in the 1992......-2013-period. The questionnaire was a combination of Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questions from the Hearing Aid Research Lab at the University of Memphis and questions used in a previous Danish study. We also used data from each patient's medical records. All information was collected...... in one-on-one conversations. CONCLUSION: BAHA is helpful in one-on-one conversations in quiet surroundings. Sound quality in group situations seems to be the main problem associated with BAHA. However, this study showed that BAHA is an effective hearing aid that is associated with a high degree...

  9. High-resolution circuit for the diagnosis of faecal incontinence. Patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Duyos, Arantxa; Lagares-Tena, Laura; Vargas-Pierolas, Harold; Rodón, Anna; Navarro-Luna, Albert

    2017-05-01

    Despite its high prevalence, faecal incontinence (FI) is still underrated and underdiagnosed. Moreover, diagnosis and subsequent treatment can be a challenge for the colorectal surgeon because of its associated social taboo and embarrassment, and the wide range of symptoms. The aim of the present study is to describe a new high-resolution circuit (HRC) for FI diagnosis, that was implemented at our center and to evaluate patient satisfaction. The structure and organization of the HRC are described. Demographic and clinical data of the patients included in the HRC between February 2014 and June 2016 were collected. Moreover, patients' satisfaction was measured through a structured survey. A total of 321 patients were evaluated in our pelvic floor outpatients clinic during the study period: 65% (210) of them had FI (81% women, median age 66 years). The mean time since FI onset was 24 (range 4-540) months. A total of 79% (165) of the patients were included in the HRC. 62% of them responded to the survey. Of these, only 32% (33) had consulted for FI before coming to our centre. The majority, 88% (90) considered that performing the 2diagnostic tests the same day of the visit was a very good option. And 94% (96) were satisfied with the information received on their FI, with a median satisfaction value of 10 (5-10). With the HRC, the patient spends about 2h in the outpatient clinic of the hospital, but leaves with the complete diagnostic process performed. The satisfaction survey confirms that most patients prefer this system. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  11. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  12. Small-incision lenticule extraction for moderate to high myopia: Predictability, safety, and patient satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anders; Ivarsen, Anders; Asp, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To present our initial clinical experience with ReLEx® smile for treatment of moderate to high myopia. Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital. Design: Prospective clinical study. Methods: In ReLEx smile an intrastromal lenticule is cut by a femtosecond laser.......00 D. Ninety-five percent of the patients would recommend ReLEx smile to others. Conclusion: ReLEx smile is a minimal invasive femtosecond laser refractive procedure. In this study, refractive predictability, safety, and patient satisfaction at 3 months seemed high and comparable to previous studies...

  13. Creep strength of iridium at extremely high temperatures; Zeitstandfestigkeit von Iridium bei extrem hohen Temperaturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, B. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachbereich Werkstofftechnik; Lupton, D. [Heraeus (W.C.) GmbH, Hanau (Germany). Produktbereich Materialtechnik; Braun, F. [Heraeus (W.C.) GmbH, Hanau (Germany). Produktbereich Materialtechnik; Merker, J. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Technisches Inst.; Helmich, R. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Technisches Inst.

    1994-12-31

    On iridium in the initial state and after carrying out creep tests, apart from metallographic and fractographic work, investigations on the distribution of trace impurities were done by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy and investigations of the crystal structure were carried out with the aid of Kossel technique, a special field of X-ray bending. Although iridium of high purity was used for the investigations, enrichment of hydrogen, carbon, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, nickel and chromium was proved by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy at the grain boundaries, where the average contents in iridium were only about 1 {mu}g/g. In the creep test, creep fracture lines were found in the range of 1800 to 2300 C and about 0.5 to 12 hours on iridium samples with a square cross section of 1 mm. It follows from the results that this noble metal has a considerable resistance to heat at these temperatures, which makes its use up to 2300 C possible. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Es erfolgten am Iridium im Ausgangszustand und nach Durchfuehrung der Zeitstandversuche neben metallographischen und fraktographischen Arbeiten Untersuchungen zur Verteilung der Spurenverunreinigungen mittels Sekundaerionen-Massenspektroskopie sowie Untersuchungen der Kristallstruktur mit Hilfe der Kossel-Technik, einem Spezialgebiet der Roentgenbeugung. Obwohl fuer die Untersuchungen hochreines Iridium verwendet wurde, konnten mittels Sekundaerionen-Massenspektroskopie in den Korngrenzen Anreicherungen von Wasserstoff, Kohlenstoff, Natrium, Kalium, Calcium, Magnesium, Silizium, Eisen, Nickel und Chrom nachgewiesen werden, wobei die durchschnittlichen Gehalte in Iridium nur um 1 {mu}g/g lagen. Im Zeitstandversuch wurden an Iridiumproben mit 1 mm Vierkantquerschnitt Zeitbruchlinien im Bereich von 1800 bis 2300 C und etwa 0,5 bis 12 Stunden aufgenommen. Aus den Ergebnissen folgt, dass das Edelmetall bei diesen Temperaturen noch eine beachtliche Warmfestigkeit besitzt, die

  14. Life Satisfaction of Elderly Individuals in Regular Community Housing, in Low-Cost Community Housing, and High and Low Self-Determination Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerand, Robert J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered life satisfaction questionnaire to 199 French-speaking older adults in Montreal, living in nursing homes and in the community. Found that elderly persons living in regular community housing, in low-cost community housing, and in high self-determination nursing homes had similar levels of life satisfaction, and more satisfaction than…

  15. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but i...

  16. DEPICT: A High-level Formal Language for Modeling Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdulwahed M. Abbas; Edward P. K. Tsang; Ahmad H. Nasri

    2008-01-01

    The past decade witnessed rapid development of constraint satisfaction technologies, where algorithms are now able to cope with larger and harder problems. However, owing to the fact that constraints are inherently declarative, attention is quickly turning toward developing high-level programming languages within which such problems can be modeled and also solved. Along these lines, this paper presents DEPICT, the language. Its use is illustrated through modeling a number of benchmark examples. The paper continues with a description of a prototype system within which such models may be interpreted. The paper concludes with a description of a sample run of this interpreter showing how a problem modeled as such is typically solved.

  17. High patient satisfaction in 445 patients who underwent fast-track hip or knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Kirsten; Kjaersgaard-Andersen, Per; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose - Patient satisfaction is important in fast-track total hip and knee replacement (THR, TKR). We assessed: (1) how satisfied patients were with the treatment; (2) factors related to overall satisfaction; and (3) whether there was a difference between THR and TKR regarding...... length of stay (LOS) and patient satisfaction. Patients and methods - In this follow-up study, a consecutive series of 445 patients undergoing THR and TKR completed a questionnaire 2 weeks after discharge. LOS and short-term patient satisfaction with the fast-track management were measured. Patient...... satisfaction was measured using a numerical rating scale (NRS; 0-10). Results - For THR, the median satisfaction score was 9-10 and for TKR it was 8.5-10 in all parameters. Older THR patients had higher overall satisfaction. No association was found between overall satisfaction following THR or TKR and sex...

  18. Effects of Perceived Discrimination on the School Satisfaction of Brazilian High School Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia R. Valente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the consequences of peer victimization for the satisfaction with schooling (“happiness” of college-bound high school graduates in Brazil.  Several types of victimization are explored including discrimination due to race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, and disability. We compare the satisfaction with their schooling of students planning to head to college straight from high school and older students applying for college later in life (“nontraditional students”. We conclude that students who perceived that they had been discriminated against were more dissatisfied with their school experience than those who did not, ceteris paribus, and we relate level of dissatisfaction to type of discrimination. The older student evidence reveals that this dissatisfaction wanes with time and age, however. Our conclusions are based upon ordered logistic analyses of data for 2.4 million current high school seniors and 78.7 thousand older students drawn from the Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio questionnaire (ENEM.

  19. Effects of Perceived Discrimination on the School Satisfaction of Brazilian High School Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia R. Valente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the consequences of peer victimization for the satisfaction with schooling (“happiness” of college-bound high school graduates in Brazil.  Several types of victimization are explored including discrimination due to race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, and disability. We compare the satisfaction with their schooling of students planning to head to college straight from high school and older students applying for college later in life (“nontraditional students”. We conclude that students who perceived that they had been discriminated against were more dissatisfied with their school experience than those who did not, ceteris paribus, and we relate level of dissatisfaction to type of discrimination. The older student evidence reveals that this dissatisfaction wanes with time and age, however. Our conclusions are based upon ordered logistic analyses of data for 2.4 million current high school seniors and 78.7 thousand older students drawn from the Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio questionnaire (ENEM.

  20. Understanding the differentiating impacts of the communication strategies of a high involvement service (investment advisory services) and a high involvement product (precious jewellery) on customer satisfaction and loyalty.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Gauri

    2009-01-01

    While marketing literature has largely focused on high and low involvement purchases and the positive relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty; the differentiating impacts of communication strategies for a high involvement service and a high involvement product on customer satisfaction and loyalty has received little academic attention. Consequently, this study examines the differentiating impacts of the communication strategies for investment advisory services and precious jewe...

  1. The effectiveness of and satisfaction with high-fidelity simulation to teach cardiac surgical resuscitation skills to nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Marion E; Chan, Alice; Hulett, Renee; Lee, Ai Jin; Coleman, Bernice

    2017-06-01

    There are few reports of the effectiveness or satisfaction with simulation to learn cardiac surgical resuscitation skills. To test the effect of simulation on the self-confidence of nurses to perform cardiac surgical resuscitation simulation and nurses' satisfaction with the simulation experience. A convenience sample of sixty nurses rated their self-confidence to perform cardiac surgical resuscitation skills before and after two simulations. Simulation performance was assessed. Subjects completed the Satisfaction with Simulation Experience scale and demographics. Self-confidence scores to perform all cardiac surgical skills as measured by paired t-tests were significantly increased after the simulation (d=-0.50 to 1.78). Self-confidence and cardiac surgical work experience were not correlated with time to performance. Total satisfaction scores were high (mean 80.2, SD 1.06) indicating satisfaction with the simulation. There was no correlation of the satisfaction scores with cardiac surgical work experience (τ=-0.05, ns). Self-confidence scores to perform cardiac surgical resuscitation procedures were higher after the simulation. Nurses were highly satisfied with the simulation experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Parental Satisfaction of Children's Spaces Within High Rise Apartment Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharghi Ali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the design process of open spaces within residential apartments, little attention is paid to children and their attitude to the environment is often ignored. Children, especially those who live in high-rise apartments, were found to have less connection with nature. Children supposedly need to engage in physical activities within outdoor areas, but urban planners, with the approval of managers or parents, must adequately design the open space for children. This paper initially reviews different research in this area. It consequently attempts to evaluate parental satisfaction regarding children's connectivity to open spaces as a dependent variable, and their preferences and perception of safety as independent variables. The research method is based on a questionnaire survey addressed to 261 parents and adults, in two localities in Tehran, Iran. The result of this research shows that parental attitude to open space has an effect on children's outdoor activities. Moreover, parents with young children express lower satisfaction to open spaces than those adults without young children. Families with children need open spaces in residential high-rise apartments for their siblings’ physical activities, and the designers should consider such an important need.

  3. Effects of high-involvement work systems on employee satisfaction and service costs in veterans healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Joel; Scotti, Dennis J; Behson, Scott; Farias, Gerard; Petzel, Robert; Neuman, Joel H; Keashly, Loraleigh

    2003-01-01

    Two strong imperatives for healthcare managers are reducing costs of service and attracting and retaining highly dedicated and competent patient care and support employees. Is there a trade-off or are there organizational practices that can further both objectives at the same time? High-involvement work systems (HIWS) represent a holistic work design that includes interrelated core features such as involvement, empowerment, development, trust, openness, teamwork, and performance-based rewards. HIWS have been linked to higher productivity, quality, employee and customer satisfaction, and market and financial performance in Fortune 1000 firms. Apparently, few prior studies have looked at the impacts of this holistic design within the healthcare sector. This research found that HIWS were associated with both greater employee satisfaction and lower patient service costs in 146 Veterans Health Administration centers, indicating that such practices pay off in both humanistic and financial terms. This suggests that managers implementing HIWS will incur real expenses that are likely to be more than offset by more satisfied employees, less organizational turmoil, and lower service delivery costs, which, in this study, amounted to over $1.2 million in savings for an average VHA facility.

  4. ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES OF SATISFACTION AND IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN HIGH SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Granero-Gallegos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available he purpose of this study was to analyze the motivational profiles of satisfaction with and importance of physical education in high school students and its relation with gender and the practice of sport. The sample comprised 2002 students aged from 12 to 19 who completed the Sport Motivation Scale (Núñez et al., 2006, the Perception of Success Scale (Martínez et al., 2006, the Sport Satisfaction Instrument (Baena-Extremera et al., 2012 and the Importance of Physical Education Scale (Moreno et al., 2009. Descriptive analyzes, correlations between the scales, a cluster analysis for profiles, and a MANOVA were conducted to examine differences by gender. Three clusters (profiles were identified. The first profile identified was "moderate" motivation (n = 463 and was associated with boys who practice physical activity for less than 3 hours per week. The second profile identified was "low" motivation (n = 545 and was associated mainly with girls who practice physical activity for less than 3 hours per week. And lastly the third profile identified was "high" motivation (n = 910, which was found to be greater in boys who practiced physical exercise for more than 3 hours a week

  5. Extremely High Suction Performance Inducers for Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced pump inducer design technology that uses high inlet diffusion blades, operates at a very low flow coefficient, and employs a cavitation control and...

  6. Effect of low-intensity extremely high frequency radiation on reproductive function in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, T I; Tereshkina, O V; Khadartsev, A A; Yashin, A A

    2006-08-01

    The exposure to low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation during spermatogenesis was accompanied by pathological changes, which resulted in degeneration and polymorphism of spermatozoa. The number of newborn rats increased in the progeny of irradiated animals.

  7. Extreme Environment Circuit Blocks for Spacecraft Power & Propulsion System & Other High Reliability Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chronos Technology (DIv of FMI, Inc.) proposes to design, fabricate, and deliver a performance proven, and commercially available set of extreme high operating...

  8. Extremely high-power tongue projection in plethodontid salamanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deban, S.M.; O'Reilly, J.C.; Dicke, U.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Many plethodontid salamanders project their tongues ballistically at high speed and for relatively great distances. Capturing evasive prey relies on the tongue reaching the target in minimum time, therefore it is expected that power production, or the rate of energy release, is maximized during tong

  9. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-14

    was used instead. This code makes the assumption that the background ion and electron behaviour can be approximated with a fluid model whilst...electron behaviour occurring from this aperture was also published in High Power Laser Science and Engineering [4]. A significant breakthrough was also...acceleration to transparency. This was published in Physics of Plasmas [12]. Through one- dimensional modelling of the interaction, it was also

  10. The extremely high stability of carbofuran pesticide in acidic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Anđelka V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment friendly iron catalysts were applied in the decomposition reactions of some toxic compounds like phenol, methomyl and corbofuran pesticide. The applied catalytic processes belong to photo-Fenton reactions. Heterogeneous iron catalysts showed significant activity in phenol and methomyl conversion, however, these catalysts were completely inactive in destruction of carbofuran molecule, even in the catalytic reaction promoted with UV light at high temperature.

  11. Small-incision lenticule extraction for moderate to high myopia: Predictability, safety, and patient satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anders; Ivarsen, Anders; Asp, Sven

    2012-01-01

    .00 D. Ninety-five percent of the patients would recommend ReLEx smile to others. Conclusion: ReLEx smile is a minimal invasive femtosecond laser refractive procedure. In this study, refractive predictability, safety, and patient satisfaction at 3 months seemed high and comparable to previous studies......Purpose: To present our initial clinical experience with ReLEx® smile for treatment of moderate to high myopia. Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital. Design: Prospective clinical study. Methods: In ReLEx smile an intrastromal lenticule is cut by a femtosecond laser...... and manually extracted without creation of a flap. In this study, 144 patients were treated with ReLEx smile and followed for 3 months. Only one randomly chosen eye of each subject was used in the statistical analyses. Results: Preoperative SE averaged -7.18 D ±1.57 D. In total, 127 patients (= eyes) completed...

  12. Adaptation potential of naturally ventilated barns to high temperature extremes: The OptiBarn project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Climate change interferes with various aspects of the socio-economic system. One important aspect is its influence on animal husbandry, especially dairy faming. Dairy cows are usually kept in naturally ventilated barns (NVBs) which are particular vulnerable to extreme events due to their low adaptation capabilities. An effective adaptation to high outdoor temperatures for example, is only possible under certain wind and humidity conditions. High temperature extremes are expected to increase in number and strength under climate change. To assess the impact of this change on NVBs and dairy cows also the changes in wind and humidity needs to be considered. Hence we need to consider the multivariate structure of future temperature extremes. The OptiBarn project aims to develop sustainable adaptation strategies for dairy housings under climate change for Europe, by considering the multivariate structure of high temperature extremes. In a first step we identify various multivariate high temperature extremes for three core regions in Europe. With respect to dairy cows in NVBs we will focus on the wind and humidity field during high temperature events. In a second step we will use the CORDEX-EUR-11 ensemble to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to model such events and assess their future change potential. By transferring the outdoor conditions to indoor climate and animal wellbeing the results of this assessment can be used to develop technical, architectural and animal specific adaptation strategies for high temperature extremes.

  13. High Performance Multivariate Visual Data Exploration for Extremely Large Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver; Wu, Kesheng; Childs, Hank; Meredith, Jeremy; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Ahern, Sean; Weber, Gunther H.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat,

    2008-08-22

    One of the central challenges in modern science is the need to quickly derive knowledge and understanding from large, complex collections of data. We present a new approach that deals with this challenge by combining and extending techniques from high performance visual data analysis and scientific data management. This approach is demonstrated within the context of gaining insight from complex, time-varying datasets produced by a laser wakefield accelerator simulation. Our approach leverages histogram-based parallel coordinates for both visual information display as well as a vehicle for guiding a data mining operation. Data extraction and subsetting are implemented with state-of-the-art index/query technology. This approach, while applied here to accelerator science, is generally applicable to a broad set of science applications, and is implemented in a production-quality visual data analysis infrastructure. We conduct a detailed performance analysis and demonstrate good scalability on a distributed memory Cray XT4 system.

  14. An extremely high altitude plume seen at Mars morning terminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia-Muñoz, Antonio; Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Gomez-Forrellad, Josep M.; Pellier, Christophe; Delcroix, Marc; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Jaeschke, Wayne; Parker, Donald C.; Phillips, James H.; Peach, Damian

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence in March and April 2012 of two bright very high altitude plumes at the Martian terminator at 250 km or more above the surface, thus well into the ionosphere and bordering on the exosphere. They were located at about 195 deg West longitude and -45 deg latitude (at Terra Cimmeria) and lasted for about 10 days. The features showed day-to-day variability, and were seen at the morning terminator but not at the evening limb, which indicates rapid evolution in less than 10 hours and a cyclic behavior. Photometric measurements are used to explore two possible scenarios to explain their nature. If the phenomenon is due to suspended particles (dust, CO2 or H2O ice clouds) reflecting solar radiation, the mean size is about 0.1 microns with a nadir optical depth > 0.06. Alternatively, the plume could be auroral emission above a region with a strong magnetic anomaly and where aurora has previously been detected. Importantly, both explanations defy our current understanding of the Mars upper atmosphere.AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the Spanish MINECO projects AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, CONSOLIDER program ASTROMOL CSD2009-00038 and AYA2011-30613-CO2-1. Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55.

  15. Satisfaction of Needs and Determining of Life Goals: A Model of Subjective Well-Being for Adolescents in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test a subjective well-being model for adolescents in high school. A total of 326 adolescents in high school (176 female and 150 male) participated in this study. The data was collected by using the general needs satisfaction questionnaire, which is for the adolescents' subjective well-being, and determining…

  16. Prospects of hydroacoustic detection of ultra-high and extremely high energy cosmic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Karlik, Ya. S.; Learned, J. G.; Svet, V. D.; Zheleznykh, I. M.

    2001-07-01

    The prospects of construction of deep underwater neutrino telescopes in the world's oceans for the goals of ultra-high and super-high energy neutrino astrophysics (astronomy) using acoustic technologies are reviewed. The effective detection volume of the acoustic neutrino telescopes can be far greater than a cubic kilometer for extreme energies. In recent years, it was proposed that an existing hydroacoustic array of 2400 hydrophones in the Pacific Ocean near Kamchatka Peninsula could be used as a test base for an acoustic neutrino telescope SADCO (Sea-based Acoustic Detector of Cosmic Objects) which should be capable of detecting acoustic signals produced in water by the cosmic neutrinos with energies 1019-21 eV (e.g., topological defect neutrinos). We report on simulations of super-high energy electron-hadron and electron-photon cascades with the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect taken into account. Acoustic signals emitted by neutrino-induced cascades with energies 1020-21 eV were calculated. The possibilities of using a converted hydroacoustic station MG-10 (MG-10M) of 132 hydrophones as a basic module for a deep water acoustic neutrino detector with the threshold detection energy 1015 eV in the Mediterranean Sea are analyzed (with the aim of searching for neutrinos with energies 1015-16 eV from Active Galactic Nuclei). .

  17. Affective profiles in Italian high school students: life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Meaningful Life Measure were administered to the participants. In the second study, the PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test-revised were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles.

  18. Affective profiles in Italian high school students: life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria eDi Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect, high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect, low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect, and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect. The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS, and the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM were administered to the participants. In the second study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale (SES, the Life Orientation Test - revised (LOT-r were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles.

  19. The Influence of Learning Styles on Student Perception and Satisfaction in a Highly Collaborative Team Taught Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel; Colburn, Michael; Fox, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Team teaching an undergraduate business capstone course has the potential of providing students with an enhanced learning experience in a number of ways. This study examines the relationship between faculty and student learning styles and their impact on student perception and satisfaction in a highly collaborative team taught undergraduate…

  20. Evaluation of the Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness Scales with Mexican American High School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lerma, Eunice; Ikonomopoulos, James

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the psychometric properties of two meaningful measures of subjective well-being among Mexican American high school and college students. Participants completed the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) or Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) as measures of subjective well-being. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)…

  1. Developing a Best Practice Guide for Increasing High School Student Participation and Satisfaction in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Castillo, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this project was to identify and confirm best practices for increasing high school student participation and satisfaction in school nutrition (SN) programs operating under the regulations of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Methods: Using a modified best practices research model (BPRM; Mold & Gregory,…

  2. Evaluation of the Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness Scales with Mexican American High School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lerma, Eunice; Ikonomopoulos, James

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the psychometric properties of two meaningful measures of subjective well-being among Mexican American high school and college students. Participants completed the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) or Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) as measures of subjective well-being. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)…

  3. Pharmacy students' learning and satisfaction with high-fidelity simulation to teach drug-induced dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Cleopatra

    2013-03-12

    To assess second-year pharmacy students' acquisition of pharmacotherapy knowledge and clinical competence from participation in a high-fidelity simulation, and to determine the impact on the simulation experience of implementing feedback from previous students. A high-fidelity simulation was used to present a patient case scenario of drug-induced dyspepsia with gastrointestinal bleeding. The simulation was revised based on feedback from a previous class of students to include a smaller group size, provision of session material to students in advance, and an improved learning environment. Student performance on pre- and post-simulation knowledge and clinical competence tests documented significant improvements in students' knowledge of dyspepsia and associated symptoms, with the greatest improvement on questions relating to the hemodynamic effects of gastrointestinal bleeding. Students were more satisfied with the simulation experience compared to students in the earlier study. Participation in a high-fidelity simulation allowed pharmacy students to apply knowledge and skills learned in the classroom. Improved student satisfaction with the simulation suggests that implementing feedback obtained through student course evaluations can be an effective means of improving the curriculum.

  4. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  5. Generation of bright circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics for magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kfir, Ofer; Turgut, Emrah; Knut, Ronny; Zusin, Dmitriy; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Nembach, Hans; Shaw, Justin M; Fleicher, Avner; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Cohen, Oren

    2014-01-01

    Circularly-polarized extreme UV and X-ray radiation provides valuable access to the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of materials. To date, such experiments have been possible only using large-scale free-electron lasers or synchrotrons. Here we demonstrate the first bright extreme UV circularly-polarized high harmonics and use this new light source for magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the M-shell absorption edges of cobalt. This work paves the way towards element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatio-temporal resolution, all on a tabletop.

  6. High aspect ratio tungsten grating on ultrathin Si membranes for extreme UV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinsheng; Ying, Yulong

    2016-09-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography is one of the modern lithography tools for high-volume manufacturing with 22 nm resolution and beyond. But critical challenges exist to the design and fabrication of large-scale and highly efficient diffraction transmission gratings, significantly reducing the feature sizes down to 22 nm and beyond. To achieve such a grating, the surface flatness, the line edge roughness, the transmission efficiency and aspect ratio should be improved significantly. Delachat et al (2015 Nanotechnology 26 108262) develop a full process to fabricate a tungsten diffraction grating on an ultrathin silicon membrane with higher aspect ratio up to 8.75 that met all the aforementioned requirements for extreme ultraviolet lithography. This process is fully compatible with standard industrial extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  7. High aspect ratio tungsten grating on ultrathin Si membranes for extreme UV lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinsheng; Ying, Yulong

    2016-09-02

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography is one of the modern lithography tools for high-volume manufacturing with 22 nm resolution and beyond. But critical challenges exist to the design and fabrication of large-scale and highly efficient diffraction transmission gratings, significantly reducing the feature sizes down to 22 nm and beyond. To achieve such a grating, the surface flatness, the line edge roughness, the transmission efficiency and aspect ratio should be improved significantly. Delachat et al (2015 Nanotechnology 26 108262) develop a full process to fabricate a tungsten diffraction grating on an ultrathin silicon membrane with higher aspect ratio up to 8.75 that met all the aforementioned requirements for extreme ultraviolet lithography. This process is fully compatible with standard industrial extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  8. Probability modeling of high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed, the upper reaches of Heihe River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanling; Li, Zhanjie; Li, Chengcheng

    2014-05-01

    Probability modeling of hydrological extremes is one of the major research areas in hydrological science. Most basins in humid and semi-humid south and east of China are concerned for probability modeling analysis of high flow extremes. While, for the inland river basin which occupies about 35% of the country area, there is a limited presence of such studies partly due to the limited data availability and a relatively low mean annual flow. The objective of this study is to carry out probability modeling of high flow extremes in the upper reach of Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in China, by using the peak over threshold (POT) method and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD), in which the selection of threshold and inherent assumptions for POT series are elaborated in details. For comparison, other widely used probability distributions including generalized extreme value (GEV), Lognormal, Log-logistic and Gamma are employed as well. Maximum likelihood estimate is used for parameter estimations. Daily flow data at Yingluoxia station from 1978 to 2008 are used. Results show that, synthesizing the approaches of mean excess plot, stability features of model parameters, return level plot and the inherent independence assumption of POT series, an optimum threshold of 340m3/s is finally determined for high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed. The resulting POT series is proved to be stationary and independent based on Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test and autocorrelation test. In terms of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test and several graphical diagnostics such as quantile and cumulative density function plots, GPD provides the best fit to high flow extremes in the study area. The estimated high flows for long return periods demonstrate that, as the return period increasing, the return level estimates are probably more uncertain. The frequency of high flow extremes exhibits a very slight but not significant decreasing trend from 1978 to

  9. A genome-wide analysis of putative functional and exonic variation associated with extremely high intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, S L; Pedroso, I; Kadeva, N; Miller, M B; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Stergiakouli, E; Smith, G D; Putallaz, M; Lubinski, D; Meaburn, E L; Plomin, R; Simpson, M A

    2016-08-01

    Although individual differences in intelligence (general cognitive ability) are highly heritable, molecular genetic analyses to date have had limited success in identifying specific loci responsible for its heritability. This study is the first to investigate exome variation in individuals of extremely high intelligence. Under the quantitative genetic model, sampling from the high extreme of the distribution should provide increased power to detect associations. We therefore performed a case-control association analysis with 1409 individuals drawn from the top 0.0003 (IQ >170) of the population distribution of intelligence and 3253 unselected population-based controls. Our analysis focused on putative functional exonic variants assayed on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We did not observe any individual protein-altering variants that are reproducibly associated with extremely high intelligence and within the entire distribution of intelligence. Moreover, no significant associations were found for multiple rare alleles within individual genes. However, analyses using genome-wide similarity between unrelated individuals (genome-wide complex trait analysis) indicate that the genotyped functional protein-altering variation yields a heritability estimate of 17.4% (s.e. 1.7%) based on a liability model. In addition, investigation of nominally significant associations revealed fewer rare alleles associated with extremely high intelligence than would be expected under the null hypothesis. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that rare functional alleles are more frequently detrimental than beneficial to intelligence.

  10. High-resolution analysis of 1 day extreme precipitation in Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, M.; Brunetti, M.; Garzoglio, M.; Simolo, C.

    2015-04-01

    Sicily, the major Mediterranean island, experienced several exceptional precipitation episodes and floods during the last century, with dramatic consequences on human life and environment. A long term, rational planning of urban development is mandatory for protecting population and avoiding huge economic losses in the future. This requires a deep knowledge of the distributional features of extreme precipitation over the complex territory of Sicily. In the present study, we address this issue, and attempt a detailed investigation of observed 1-day precipitation extremes and their frequency distribution, based on a dense data-set of high-quality, homogenized station records in 1921-2005. We extrapolate very high quantiles (return levels) corresponding to 10-, 50- and 100-year return periods, as predicted by a generalized extreme value distribution. Return level estimates are produced on a regular high-resolution grid (30 arcsec) using a variant of regional frequency analysis combined with regression techniques. Results clearly reflect the complexity of this region, and make evident the high vulnerability of its eastern and northeastern parts as those prone to the most intense and potentially damaging events. This analysis thus provides an operational tool for extreme precipitation risk assessment and, at the same time, is an useful basis for validation and downscaling of regional climate models.

  11. High ratings of satisfaction with fertility treatment are common: findings from the Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility (COMPI) Research Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J

    2003-01-01

    /delivery and the report of marital benefits resulting from the infertility experience. Lower social class was a significant predictor for satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Both men and women in fertility treatment had high ratings on medical and patient-centred care. It seemed that satisfaction with the psychosocial services...

  12. Life Satisfaction among Highly Achieving Students in Hong Kong: Do Gratitude and the "Good-Enough Mindset" Add to the Contribution of Perfectionism in Prediction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether gratitude and the "good-enough mindset" added to the contribution of perfectionism in predicting life satisfaction in 245 Chinese highly achieving students in Hong Kong. Participants completed self-report questionnaires that included scales on life satisfaction, positive and negative perfectionism…

  13. Life Satisfaction among Highly Achieving Students in Hong Kong: Do Gratitude and the "Good-Enough Mindset" Add to the Contribution of Perfectionism in Prediction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether gratitude and the "good-enough mindset" added to the contribution of perfectionism in predicting life satisfaction in 245 Chinese highly achieving students in Hong Kong. Participants completed self-report questionnaires that included scales on life satisfaction, positive and negative perfectionism…

  14. Links among high-performance work environment, service quality, and customer satisfaction: an extension to the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Dennis J; Harmon, Joel; Behson, Scott J

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare managers must deliver high-quality patient services that generate highly satisfied and loyal customers. In this article, we examine how a high-involvement approach to the work environment of healthcare employees may lead to exceptional service quality, satisfied patients, and ultimately to loyal customers. Specifically, we investigate the chain of events through which high-performance work systems (HPWS) and customer orientation influence employee and customer perceptions of service quality and patient satisfaction in a national sample of 113 Veterans Health Administration ambulatory care centers. We present a conceptual model for linking work environment to customer satisfaction and test this model using structural equations modeling. The results suggest that (1) HPWS is linked to employee perceptions of their ability to deliver high-quality customer service, both directly and through their perceptions of customer orientation; (2) employee perceptions of customer service are linked to customer perceptions of high-quality service; and (3) perceived service quality is linked with customer satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings, including suggestions of how healthcare managers can implement changes to their work environments, are discussed.

  15. High self-assessment of disability and the surgeon's recommendation against surgical intervention may negatively impact satisfaction scores in patients with spinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Marcus D; McEvoy, Sara; Schmidt, Meic H; Bisson, Erica F

    2015-06-01

    .0059). CONCLUSIONS High self-assessment of disability and a surgeon's recommendation against surgical intervention are associated with lower satisfaction scores in patients with spinal disorders.

  16. Extreme deformations and clusterization at high spin in the A ~ 40 mass region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Debisree; Afanasjev, Anatoli

    2015-10-01

    Recent revival of the interest to the study of superdeformation and clusterization in light nuclei has motivated us to undertake the study of extreme deformations in the A ~ 32 - 50 N ~ Z nuclei. Unfortunately, at spin zero the predicted structures with extreme deformation are located at high excitation energies which prevents their experimental observation. On the other hand, the rotation brings such structures closer to the yrast line and, in principle, makes their observation possible with future generation of facilities such as GRETA. Thus, the systematic study of the extremely deformed structures and clusterization has been performed in the framework of cranked relativistic mean field theory. The major features of such structures, the spins at which they become yrast and the possiblities of their experimental observation will be discussed in this presentation. This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Grant DE-FG02-07ER41459.

  17. Marriage Preparation: Factors Associated with Consumer Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mary N.; Lyster, Rosanne Farnden

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated marriage preparation program to determine overall consumer satisfaction with the program, satisfaction with specific content areas, and extent to which consumer characteristics affected satisfaction ratings. Results of survey of 196 couples revealed high overall satisfaction levels, variability in satisfaction by content area, and…

  18. Extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoji Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that double-walled carbon nanotubes can possess an extremely high anisotropy ratio of radial to axial thermal conductivities. The mechanism is basically the same as that for the high thermal conductivity anisotropy of graphene layers - the in-plane strong sp2 bonds lead to a very high intralayer thermal conductivity while the weak van der Waals interactions to a very low interlayer thermal conductivity. However, different from flat graphene layers, the tubular structures of carbon nanotubes result in a diameter dependent thermal conductivity. The smaller the diameter, the larger the axial thermal conductivity but the smaller the radial thermal conductivity. As a result, a DWCNT with a small diameter may have an anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity significantly higher than that for graphene layers. The extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy allows DWCNTs to be a promising candidate for thermal management materials.

  19. Extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhaoji; Guo, Zhengrong; Zhang, Hongwei; Chang, Tienchong

    2017-06-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that double-walled carbon nanotubes can possess an extremely high anisotropy ratio of radial to axial thermal conductivities. The mechanism is basically the same as that for the high thermal conductivity anisotropy of graphene layers - the in-plane strong sp2 bonds lead to a very high intralayer thermal conductivity while the weak van der Waals interactions to a very low interlayer thermal conductivity. However, different from flat graphene layers, the tubular structures of carbon nanotubes result in a diameter dependent thermal conductivity. The smaller the diameter, the larger the axial thermal conductivity but the smaller the radial thermal conductivity. As a result, a DWCNT with a small diameter may have an anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity significantly higher than that for graphene layers. The extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy allows DWCNTs to be a promising candidate for thermal management materials.

  20. [Job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2010-05-20

    Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.

  1. A Survey of the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Social Happiness among High-schools Teachers of Giroft City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Zareshahabadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Human resources are among the most valuable sources of getting to the targets of any organization or system and are deemed as among the most prominent assets of any organization. Thus the better quality this asset has, the more probable success, prosperity and promotion the organization will enjoy (Tazhibi et al, 1389: 650. Job satisfaction is a combination of sensations and beliefs which people hold about their current job. Job satisfaction is one of the most important factors involved in job success, the factor which causes an increase in efficiency and self-satisfaction. It also guarantees physical and psychological health leading to life satisfaction which, in turn, causes a person to learn the job skills swiftly. Social happiness has also been discussed as an important offshoot of job satisfaction, which not only influences our personal life but also our social life including our interactions and communications with other people ( Van praag et al, 2004 Happiness or happiness is a word that includes such connotations as immediate pleasure, long term pleasure and pleasure of all life courses. This study is an attempt to assess the degree of job satisfaction, and social happiness among high school teachers in Jiroft, and to investigate the reciprocal relationships between job satisfaction and social happiness and to find their relationships between the variables of gender, marital status, field of instruction, level of income and educational level of the teachers.     Materials & Methods   This is a survey study. The population includes of all the high school teachers working in Giroft. According to Cochran’s formula and with the method of simple random sampling 105 participants (56 males and 49 females were selected as the sample of the study.   Materials for data collection were Smith et al’s (1969 questionnaire on job satisfaction which included components of job satisfaction, headmaster satisfaction, satisfaction

  2. Detection and Attribution of Simulated Climatic Extreme Events and Impacts: High Sensitivity to Bias Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, S.; Otto, F. E. L.; Forkel, M.; Allen, M. R.; Guillod, B. P.; Heimann, M.; Reichstein, M.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Kirsten, T.; Mahecha, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding, quantifying and attributing the impacts of climatic extreme events and variability is crucial for societal adaptation in a changing climate. However, climate model simulations generated for this purpose typically exhibit pronounced biases in their output that hinders any straightforward assessment of impacts. To overcome this issue, various bias correction strategies are routinely used to alleviate climate model deficiencies most of which have been criticized for physical inconsistency and the non-preservation of the multivariate correlation structure. We assess how biases and their correction affect the quantification and attribution of simulated extremes and variability in i) climatological variables and ii) impacts on ecosystem functioning as simulated by a terrestrial biosphere model. Our study demonstrates that assessments of simulated climatic extreme events and impacts in the terrestrial biosphere are highly sensitive to bias correction schemes with major implications for the detection and attribution of these events. We introduce a novel ensemble-based resampling scheme based on a large regional climate model ensemble generated by the distributed weather@home setup[1], which fully preserves the physical consistency and multivariate correlation structure of the model output. We use extreme value statistics to show that this procedure considerably improves the representation of climatic extremes and variability. Subsequently, biosphere-atmosphere carbon fluxes are simulated using a terrestrial ecosystem model (LPJ-GSI) to further demonstrate the sensitivity of ecosystem impacts to the methodology of bias correcting climate model output. We find that uncertainties arising from bias correction schemes are comparable in magnitude to model structural and parameter uncertainties. The present study consists of a first attempt to alleviate climate model biases in a physically consistent way and demonstrates that this yields improved simulations of

  3. Physical Exam Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in High School Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A; Everhart, Joshua S; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James R; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2016-11-01

    A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5-6.1; P < 0.05) and physical maturation status (P < 0.05) were predictive of overall injury risk, knee hyperextension was predictive of anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2-18.4; P < 0.05), hip external:internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = -0.339, P = 0.008). Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury.

  4. Physical Exam Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in High School Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A.; Everhart, Joshua S.; Clifton, Daniel R.; Best, Thomas M.; Borchers, James R.; Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. Data Sources A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Main Results Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5–6.1; P anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2–18.4; P < 0.05), hip external: internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = −0.339, P = 0.008). Conclusions Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury. PMID:26978166

  5. Life satisfaction and work-related satisfaction among anesthesiologists in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaszynska, Ewelina; Stankiewicz-Rudnicki, Michal; Szatko, Franciszek; Wieczorek, Andrzej; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the level of life and job satisfaction of Polish anesthesiologists and to explore the impact of extrinsic-hygiene and intrinsic-motivating determinants. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among consultant anesthesiologists in Lodz region. The questionnaire concerned patient care, burden, income, personal rewards, professional relations, job satisfaction in general, and life satisfaction. Respondents were asked to rate their level of satisfaction for each item on a seven-point Likert scale (1: extremely dissatisfied; 7: extremely satisfied). 86.03% of anesthesiologists were satisfied with their economic status, 77.94% found their health status satisfactory, and 52.21% viewed their personal future optimistically. In general, 71.32% of anesthesiologists were satisfied with their current job situation. Among the less satisfying job aspects were work-related stress (2.49; SD = 1.23), administrative burden (2.85; SD = 1.47), workload (3.63; SD = 1.56), and leisure time (3.09; SD = 1.44). Considerable work-related stress leads to job dissatisfaction among anesthesiologists. There is an association between job satisfaction and health status, social life, and economic status. Working for long hours by anesthesiologists results in a high risk of burnout.

  6. Life Satisfaction and Work-Related Satisfaction among Anesthesiologists in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszynska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the level of life and job satisfaction of Polish anesthesiologists and to explore the impact of extrinsic-hygiene and intrinsic-motivating determinants. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among consultant anesthesiologists in Lodz region. The questionnaire concerned patient care, burden, income, personal rewards, professional relations, job satisfaction in general, and life satisfaction. Respondents were asked to rate their level of satisfaction for each item on a seven-point Likert scale (1: extremely dissatisfied; 7: extremely satisfied. Results. 86.03% of anesthesiologists were satisfied with their economic status, 77.94% found their health status satisfactory, and 52.21% viewed their personal future optimistically. In general, 71.32% of anesthesiologists were satisfied with their current job situation. Among the less satisfying job aspects were work-related stress (2.49; SD = 1.23, administrative burden (2.85; SD = 1.47, workload (3.63; SD = 1.56, and leisure time (3.09; SD = 1.44. Conclusions. Considerable work-related stress leads to job dissatisfaction among anesthesiologists. There is an association between job satisfaction and health status, social life, and economic status. Working for long hours by anesthesiologists results in a high risk of burnout.

  7. How Instant Messaging Affects the Satisfaction of Virtual Interpersonal Behavior of Taiwan Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Sun, Ya-Chung; Lee, Yueh-Chiang; Wu, Shih-Chia

    2007-01-01

    Although Instant Messaging (IM) has established itself as one of the most popular modes of communication, little empirical research has explored how adolescents are affected by its use to satisfy their virtual interpersonal relationships. This research investigates cause and effect in the satisfaction of these relationships among adolescents in…

  8. Unravelling public transport customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction dynamics in the high-end middle class market

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available the requirements and satisfaction criteria of choice users, in order to enable the design of services that are able to attract and retain them. Qualitative and quantitative surveys were conducted on users and non-users of the upmarket Tshwane Business Express...

  9. Patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient satisfaction is an important and commonly used indicator for measuring the quality in health care. Patient satisfaction affects clinical outcomes, patient retention, and medical malpractice claims. It affects the timely, efficient, and patient-centered delivery of quality health care. Patient satisfaction is thus a proxy but a very effective indicator to measure the success of doctors and hospitals. This article discusses as to how to ensure patient satisfaction in dermatological practice.

  10. Job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Podroužková, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with job satisfaction. It is often given to a context with the attitude to work which is very much connected to job satisfaction. Thesis summarises all the pieces of information about job satisfacion, factors that affect it negatively and positively, interconnection of work satisfaction and work motivation, work behaviour and performance of workers, relationship of a man and work and at last general job satisfaction and its individual aspects. In the thesis I shortly pay...

  11. Large Differences in Bacterial Community Composition among Three Nearby Extreme Waterbodies of the High Andean Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Pablo; Acosta, Eduardo; Dorador, Cristina; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    The high Andean plateau or Altiplano contains different waterbodies that are subjected to extreme fluctuations in abiotic conditions on a daily and an annual scale. The bacterial diversity and community composition of those shallow waterbodies is largely unexplored, particularly, of the ponds embedded within the peatland landscape (i.e., Bofedales). Here we compare the small-scale spatial variability (Altiplano peatland ponds represent a hitherto unknown source of microbial diversity.

  12. B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-224 B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1) As of FY...10 Track to Budget 11 Cost and Funding 13 Low Rate Initial Production 19 Foreign Military Sales 20 Nuclear Costs 20 Unit Cost...Document CLIN - Contract Line Item Number CPD - Capability Production Document CY - Calendar Year DAB - Defense Acquisition Board DAE - Defense

  13. Environmental Assessment for the Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite Beddown and Deployment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Fish and Wildlife Service Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite Final Environmental Assessment v VIF Vehicle Integration Facility WMO World...Vehicle Mate Operations Upon arrival on CCAFS, the transporter would take the encapsulated payload to the Vehicle Integration Facility ( VIF ), which...is located just south of LC-41 (Figure 2-2). At the VIF , the encapsulated payload would be mated to the Atlas V Launch Vehicle (LV) using a mobile

  14. Limits to the thermal tolerance of corals adapted to a highly fluctuating, naturally extreme temperature environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Stat, Michael; Falter, James L.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally extreme temperature environments can provide important insights into the processes underlying coral thermal tolerance. We determined the bleaching resistance of Acropora aspera and Dipsastraea sp. from both intertidal and subtidal environments of the naturally extreme Kimberley region in northwest Australia. Here tides of up to 10 m can cause aerial exposure of corals and temperatures as high as 37 °C that fluctuate daily by up to 7 °C. Control corals were maintained at ambient nearshore temperatures which varied diurnally by 4-5 °C, while treatment corals were exposed to similar diurnal variations and heat stress corresponding to ~20 degree heating days. All corals hosted Symbiodinium clade C independent of treatment or origin. Detailed physiological measurements showed that these corals were nevertheless highly sensitive to daily average temperatures exceeding their maximum monthly mean of ~31 °C by 1 °C for only a few days. Generally, Acropora was much more susceptible to bleaching than Dipsastraea and experienced up to 75% mortality, whereas all Dipsastraea survived. Furthermore, subtidal corals, which originated from a more thermally stable environment compared to intertidal corals, were more susceptible to bleaching. This demonstrates that while highly fluctuating temperatures enhance coral resilience to thermal stress, they do not provide immunity to extreme heat stress events.

  15. [Membranotropic effects of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency on Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trchunian, A; Ogandzhanian, E; Sarkisian, E; Gonian, S; Oganesian, A; Oganesian, S

    2001-01-01

    It was found that "sound" electromagnetic radiations of extremely high frequencies (53.5-68 GHz) or millimeter waves (wavelength range of 4.2-5.6 mm) of low intensity (power density 0.01 mW) have a bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli bacteria. It was shown that exposure to irradiation of extremely high frequencies increases the electrokinetic potential and surface change density of bacteria and decreases of membrane potential. The total secretion of hydrogen ions was suppressed, the H+ flux from the cytoplasm to medium decreased, and the flux of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-sensitive potassium ions increased, which was accompanied by changes in the stoichiometry of these fluxes and an increase in the sensitivity of H+ ions to N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The effects depended on duration of exposure: as the time of exposure increased, the bactericidal effect increased, whereas the membranotropic effects decreased. The effects also depended on growth phase of bacteria: the irradiation affected the cells in the stationary but not in the logarithmic phase. It is assumed that the H(+)-ATPase complex F0F1 is involved in membranotropic effects of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies. Presumably, there are some compensatory mechanisms that eliminate the membranotropic effects.

  16. Limits to the thermal tolerance of corals adapted to a highly fluctuating, naturally extreme temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Stat, Michael; Falter, James L; McCulloch, Malcolm T

    2015-12-02

    Naturally extreme temperature environments can provide important insights into the processes underlying coral thermal tolerance. We determined the bleaching resistance of Acropora aspera and Dipsastraea sp. from both intertidal and subtidal environments of the naturally extreme Kimberley region in northwest Australia. Here tides of up to 10 m can cause aerial exposure of corals and temperatures as high as 37 °C that fluctuate daily by up to 7 °C. Control corals were maintained at ambient nearshore temperatures which varied diurnally by 4-5 °C, while treatment corals were exposed to similar diurnal variations and heat stress corresponding to ~20 degree heating days. All corals hosted Symbiodinium clade C independent of treatment or origin. Detailed physiological measurements showed that these corals were nevertheless highly sensitive to daily average temperatures exceeding their maximum monthly mean of ~31 °C by 1 °C for only a few days. Generally, Acropora was much more susceptible to bleaching than Dipsastraea and experienced up to 75% mortality, whereas all Dipsastraea survived. Furthermore, subtidal corals, which originated from a more thermally stable environment compared to intertidal corals, were more susceptible to bleaching. This demonstrates that while highly fluctuating temperatures enhance coral resilience to thermal stress, they do not provide immunity to extreme heat stress events.

  17. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sonal; Blaud, Aimeric; Osborn, A Mark; Press, Malcolm C; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem (15)N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g Nm(-2)yr(-1), applied as (15)NH4(15)NO3 in Svalbard (79(°)N), during the summer. Separate applications of (15)NO3(-) and (15)NH4(+) were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total (15)N applied was recovered after one growing season (~90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants>vascular plants>organic soil>litter>mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of (15)N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater (15)NO3(-) than (15)NH4(+), suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events may represent a major source of eutrophication.

  18. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Sonal, E-mail: S.Choudhary@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Management School, University of Sheffield, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom); Blaud, Aimeric [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Osborn, A. Mark [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Press, Malcolm C. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M15 6BH (United Kingdom); Phoenix, Gareth K. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem {sup 15}N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m{sup −2} yr{sup −1}, applied as {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup 15}NO{sub 3} in Svalbard (79{sup °}N), during the summer. Separate applications of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total {sup 15}N applied was recovered after one growing season (~ 90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants > vascular plants > organic soil > litter > mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of {sup 15}N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events

  19. High-resolution projections of mean and extreme precipitations over China through PRECIS under RCPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinxin; Huang, Gordon; Wang, Xiuquan; Cheng, Guanhui; Wu, Yinghui

    2017-08-01

    The impact of global warming on the characteristics of mean and extreme precipitations over China is investigated by using the Providing REgional Climate Impacts for Studies (PRECIS) model. The PRECIS model was driven by the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2 with Earth System components and coupling (HadGEM2-ES). The results of both models are analyzed in terms of mean precipitation and indices of precipitation extremes (R95p, R99p, SDII, WDF, and CWD) over China at the resolution of 25 km under the Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5 (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios for the baseline period (1976-2005) and two future periods (2036-2065 and 2070-2099). With improved resolution, the PRECIS model is able to better represent the fine-scale physical process than HadGEM2-ES. It can provide reliable spatial patterns of precipitation and its related extremes with high correlations to observations. Moreover, there is a notable improvement in temporal patterns simulation through the PRECIS model. The PRECIS model better reproduces the regional annual cycle and frequencies of daily precipitation intensity than its driving GCM. Under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, both the HadGEM2-ES and the precis project increasing annual precipitation over the entire country for two future periods. Precipitation increase in winter is greater than the increase in summer. The results suggest that increased radiative forcing from RCP4.5 to RCP8.5 would further intensify the magnitude of projected precipitation changes by both PRECIS and HadGEM2-ES. For example, some parts of south China with decreased precipitation under RCP4.5 would expect even less precipitation under RCP8.5; regions (northwest, northcentral and northeast China) with increased precipitation under RCP4.5 would expect more precipitation under RCP8.5. Apart from the projected increase in annual total precipitation, the results also suggest that there will be an increase in the days with precipitation higher than

  20. Visual, aberrometric, photic phenomena, and patient satisfaction after myopic wavefront-guided LASIK using a high-resolution aberrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Moussa, Alois K Dexl, Eva M Krall, Eva M Arlt, Günther Grabner, Josef Ruckhofer Department of Ophthalmology, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual, refractive, and aberrometric outcomes as well as the level of patient satisfaction and photic phenomena after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK surgery using wavefront-guided (WFG ablations based on measurements obtained with a high-resolution aberrometer. Patients and methods: This study was a prospective analysis including 253 eyes of 127 patients (aged between 19 years and 54 years undergoing WFG LASIK using the STAR S4 IR Excimer Laser System combined with the iDesign System and iFS Femtosecond Laser. Visual, refractive, and aberrometric outcomes during a 2-month follow-up as well as patient satisfaction and photic phenomena were evaluated by means of a questionnaire. Results: A total of 85% (215/253 and 99% (251/253 of eyes achieved a postoperative (Postop uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/16 and 20/20, respectively, and all eyes achieved an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/25. Postop spherical equivalent values were within ±0.25 D and ±0.50 D in 97% and 100% of eyes, respectively. Likewise, manifest cylinder was <0.25 D in 97% (245/253 of eyes. A statistically significant reduction was found in the total root mean square (P<0.001 and in the level of primary spherical aberration (P=0.001. Postop difficulties related to vision were graded as minimal, with low levels of photic phenomena and high levels of patient satisfaction. The level of difficulty to perform daily activities and the level of glare perceived by patients while driving car were significantly decreased (P<0.001. Conclusion: WFG LASIK surgery using the technology evaluated is predictable and effective for the correction of myopia and leads to high levels of patient satisfaction. Keywords: LASIK, patient

  1. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Tsuneo; Shojo, Hideki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Adachi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs), which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP) method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10−13 g (100 fg) of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp), this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. PMID:27355212

  2. Impact of the extreme 2009 wildfire Victoria the wettability of naturally highly water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Stefan H.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Sheridan, Gary J.; Lane, Patrick Nj; Smith, Hugh G.; Bell, Tina; Blake, William H.

    2010-05-01

    The recent catastrophic wildfires near Melbourne, which peaked on Feb. 7 2009, burned ca 400,000 ha and caused the tragic loss of 173 people. They occurred during unprecedented extreme fire weather where dry northerly winds gusting up to 100 km/h coincided with the highest temperatures ever recorded in this region. These conditions, combined with the very high biomass of mature eucalypt forests, very low fuel moisture conditions and steep slopes, generated extreme burning conditions. A rapid response project was launched under the NERC Urgency Scheme aimed at determining the effects of this extreme event on soil properties. Three replicate sites each were sampled for extremely high burn severity, high burn severity and unburnt control terrain, within mature mixed-species eucalypt forests near Marysville in April 2009. Ash and surface soil (0-2.5 cm and 2.5-5 cm) were collected at 20 sample grid points at each site. Here we report on outcomes from Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) tests carried out on soil samples to determine the impact of this extreme event on the wettability of a naturally highly water repellent soil. Field assessment suggested that the impact of this extreme wildfire on the soil was less than might be supposed given the extreme burn severity (indicated by the complete elimination of the ground vegetation). This was confirmed by the laboratory results. No major difference in WDPT was detected between (i) burned and control samples, and (ii) between surface and subsurface WDPT patterns, indicating that soil temperatures in the top 0-2.5 cm did not exceed ~200° C. Seedling germination in burned soil was reduced by at least 2/3 compared to the control samples, however, this reduction is indicative an only modest heat input into the soil. The limited heat input into the soil stands in stark contrast to the extreme burn severity (based on vegetation destruction parameters). We speculate that limited soil heating resulted perhaps from the unusually

  3. Carbon dioxide laser ablation of dermatosis papulosa nigra: high satisfaction and few complications in patients with pigmented skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faisal R; Bakkour, Waseem; Ferguson, Janice E; Madan, Vishal

    2016-04-01

    Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a common condition of pigmented skin. Whilst lesions are benign, they may be symptomatic or cosmetically disfiguring. Ablative lasers have previously been reported as a useful therapeutic modality in DPN. We report the largest case series to date of patients with DPN ablated with the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. A retrospective case note review was conducted of all patients with DPN treated in our laser clinic in the last five years, and a post-treatment telephone survey was undertaken to assess patient satisfaction. Forty-five patients were identified, with a median age of 41 years (range 25-74 years), of whom 37 (82%) were female. The median number of treatments undertaken was three (range 1-10). Of the 18 respondents to the telephone survey, when asked to grade their satisfaction with the procedure out of 10, median response was 9.5 (range 6-10) with nine patients citing the maximum score of 10. All patients replied that their confidence had improved following the procedure and that they would recommend the treatment to other patients. Five respondents (28%) reported recurrence of a few lesions following CO2 laser ablation; the remaining 13 respondents (72%) reported no recurrence of DPN. No respondents reported any other post-procedural complications (including scarring, hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation). We advocate use of the CO2 laser as a safe, convenient means of treating DPN, with a high degree of patient satisfaction, low recurrence rate and few complications.

  4. Extreme risk taker who wants to continue taking part in high risk sports after serious injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, M; Kerr, J H

    2004-06-01

    The case is reported of a 40 year old male high risk sport athlete who had seriously injured himself several times and as a result was partially physically disabled and had trouble with mental tasks requiring concentration such as spelling, reading numbers, and writing. The athlete was referred to a sports psychologist. In consultations, it became clear that he was having difficulty reconciling the difference between his life as it used to be and as it would be in the future. Part of his difficulty was dealing with the frustration and anger "outbursts" which resulted from not being able to perform straightforward everyday motor skills. In spite of his injuries and disability, the patient badly wanted to continue participating in extreme sports. Reversal theory is used in the discussion to provide theoretical explanations of the motivation for his extreme risk taking behaviour.

  5. Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coraggia, S.; Frassetto, F. [CNR-Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Laboratory for UV and X-Ray Optical Research, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Aznarez, J.A.; Larruquert, J.I.; Mendez, J.A. [GOLD-Instituto de Optica-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 144, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Negro, M.; Stagira, S.; Vozzi, C. [Department of Physics-Politecnico of Milano and CNR-Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Poletto, L., E-mail: poletto@dei.unipd.i [CNR-Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Laboratory for UV and X-Ray Optical Research, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-04-11

    The experimental study of the optical properties of thin carbon films to be used as grazing-incidence coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics is presented. The carbon samples were deposited on plane glass substrates by the electron beam evaporation technique. The optical constants (real and imaginary parts of the refraction index) have been calculated through reflectivity measurements. The results are in good agreement with what reported in the literature, and confirm that carbon-coated optics operated at grazing incidence have a remarkable gain over conventional metallic coatings in the extreme ultraviolet. Since the harmonics co-propagate with the intense infrared laser generating beam, the carbon damage threshold when exposed to ultrashort infrared laser pulses has been measured.

  6. Phase Quantization Study of Spatial Light Modulator for Extreme High contrast Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dou, Jiangpei

    2016-01-01

    Direct imaging of exoplanets by reflected starlight is extremely challenging due to the large luminosity ratio to the primary star. Wave front control is a critical technique to attenuate the speckle noise in order to achieve an extreme high contrast. We present the phase quantization study of spatial light modulator for wave front control to meet the contrast requirement of detection of a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. We perform the numerical simulation by employing the SLM with different phase accuracy and actuator numbers, which are related to the achievable contrast. We use an optimization algorithm to solve the quantization problems that is matched to the controllable phase step of the SLM. Two optical configurations are discussed with the SLM located before and after the coronagraph focal plane mask, respectively. The simulation result has constrained the specification for phase accuracy of SLM in above two optical configurations. Finally, we have demonstrated that the S...

  7. Warmer and wetter winters: characteristics and implications of an extreme weather event in the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Brage B.; Isaksen, Ketil; Benestad, Rasmus E.; Kohler, Jack; Pedersen, Åshild Ø.; Loe, Leif E.; Coulson, Stephen J.; Larsen, Jan Otto; Varpe, Øystein

    2014-11-01

    One predicted consequence of global warming is an increased frequency of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts, or heavy rainfalls. In parts of the Arctic, extreme warm spells and heavy rain-on-snow (ROS) events in winter are already more frequent. How these weather events impact snow-pack and permafrost characteristics is rarely documented empirically, and the implications for wildlife and society are hence far from understood. Here we characterize and document the effects of an extreme warm spell and ROS event that occurred in High Arctic Svalbard in January-February 2012, during the polar night. In this normally cold semi-desert environment, we recorded above-zero temperatures (up to 7 °C) across the entire archipelago and record-breaking precipitation, with up to 98 mm rainfall in one day (return period of >500 years prior to this event) and 272 mm over the two-week long warm spell. These precipitation amounts are equivalent to 25 and 70% respectively of the mean annual total precipitation. The extreme event caused significant increase in permafrost temperatures down to at least 5 m depth, induced slush avalanches with resultant damage to infrastructure, and left a significant ground-ice cover (˜5-20 cm thick basal ice). The ground-ice not only affected inhabitants by closing roads and airports as well as reducing mobility and thereby tourism income, but it also led to high starvation-induced mortality in all monitored populations of the wild reindeer by blocking access to the winter food source. Based on empirical-statistical downscaling of global climate models run under the moderate RCP4.5 emission scenario, we predict strong future warming with average mid-winter temperatures even approaching 0 °C, suggesting increased frequency of ROS. This will have far-reaching implications for Arctic ecosystems and societies through the changes in snow-pack and permafrost properties.

  8. Bone-anchored hearing aids are effective and associated with a high degree of satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardell, Ida Sofie Kristina; Andresen, Kathrine; Faber, Christian Emil

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA). METHODS: This study was retrospective and based on a postal questionnaire. The study sample consisted of patients undergoing surgery at Odense University Hospital in the 1992......-2013-period. The questionnaire was a combination of Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questions from the Hearing Aid Research Lab at the University of Memphis and questions used in a previous Danish study. We also used data from each patient's medical records. All information was collected...... in a database. RESULTS: The response rate was 80% and the user percentage 88. The majority of the patients used their BAHA seven days a week and most of the day. 88% reported that it was in their best interest that they had received a BAHA. 80% of the respondents were able to communicate better using their BAHA...

  9. Lower Extremity Function following Partial Calcanectomy in High-Risk Limb Salvage Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah G. Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial calcanectomy (PC is an established limb salvage procedure for treatment of deep heel ulceration with concomitant calcaneal osteomyelitis. The purpose of this study is to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of calcaneus removed during PC and the resulting lower extremity function and limb salvage outcomes. Consecutive PC patients were retrospectively divided into two cohorts defined by the amount of calcaneus resected before wound closure: patients in cohort 1 retained = 50% of calcaneus, while patients in cohort 2 underwent resection of >50% of the calcaneus. The Lower Extremity Function Scale (LEFS was used to assess postoperative lower extremity function. The average amount of calcaneus resected was 13% ± 9.2 (1–39% and 74% ± 19.5 (51–100 in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively (P<0.0001. Below knee amputation was performed in 7 (28% and 5 (29% of subjects in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively (P=1.0. The average LEFS score was 33.9 ± 15.0 for subjects in cohort 1 and 36.2 ± 19.9 for the subjects cohort 2 (P=0.8257 which correlates to “moderate to quite a bit of difficulty.” Our study suggests that regardless of the amount of calcaneus resected, PC provides a viable treatment option for high-risk patients with calcaneal osteomyelitis.

  10. Performance of High Temperature Operational Amplifier, Type LM2904WH, under Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Operation of electronic parts and circuits under extreme temperatures is anticipated in NASA space exploration missions as well as terrestrial applications. Exposure of electronics to extreme temperatures and wide-range thermal swings greatly affects their performance via induced changes in the semiconductor material properties, packaging and interconnects, or due to incompatibility issues between interfaces that result from thermal expansion/contraction mismatch. Electronics that are designed to withstand operation and perform efficiently in extreme temperatures would mitigate risks for failure due to thermal stresses and, therefore, improve system reliability. In addition, they contribute to reducing system size and weight, simplifying its design, and reducing development cost through the elimination of otherwise required thermal control elements for proper ambient operation. A large DC voltage gain (100 dB) operational amplifier with a maximum junction temperature of 150 C was recently introduced by STMicroelectronics [1]. This LM2904WH chip comes in a plastic package and is designed specifically for automotive and industrial control systems. It operates from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages, and it consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specifications.

  11. A Stable, Extreme Temperature, High Radiation, Compact. Low Power Clock Oscillator for Space, Geothermal, Down-Hole & other High Reliability Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient and stable clock signal generation requirements at extreme temperatures and high radiation are not met with the current solutions. Chronos Technology...

  12. Life satisfaction decreases during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, Lutz; Schmitz, Tim G; Besier, Tanja; Herschbach, Peter; Henrich, Gerhard

    2007-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental phase associated with significant somatic and psychosocial changes. So far there are few studies on developmental aspects of life satisfaction. This cross-sectional study examines the effects of age and gender on adolescent's life satisfaction. 1,274 German adolescents (aged 11-16 years) participated in a school-based survey study. They completed the adolescent version of the Questions on Life Satisfaction (FLZ(M) - Fragen zur Lebenszufriedenheit), a multidimensional instrument measuring the subjective importance and satisfaction with eight domains of general and eight domains of health-related life satisfaction. Effects of gender and age were analysed using ANOVAs. Girls reported significantly lower general (F = 5.0; p = .025) and health-related life satisfaction (F = 25.3; p life domains, there was a significant decrease in general (F = 14.8; p life satisfaction (F = 8.0; p Satisfaction with friends remained on a high level, whereas satisfaction with family relations decreased. Only satisfaction with partnership/sexuality increased slightly, however this effect cannot compensate the general loss of satisfaction. Decreasing life satisfaction has to be considered as a developmental phenomenon. Associations with the increasing prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation during adolescence are discussed. Life satisfaction should be considered a relevant aspect of adolescent's well-being and functioning.

  13. Fabrication of surfaces with extremely high contact angle hysteresis from polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Wei, Jingjing; Su, Zhaohui

    2011-12-20

    High contact angle hysteresis on polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) ion-paired with hydrophobic perfluorooctanoate anions is reported. Both the bilayer number of PEMs and the ionic strength of deposition solutions have significant influence on contact angle hysteresis: higher ionic strength and greater bilayer number cause increased contact angle hysteresis values. The hysteresis values of ~100° were observed on smooth PEMs and pinning of the receding contact line on hydrophilic defects is implicated as the cause of hysteresis. Surface roughness can be used to further tune the contact angle hysteresis on the PEMs. A surface with extremely high contact angle hysteresis of 156° was fabricated when a PEM was deposited on a rough substrate coated with submicrometer scale silica spheres. It was demonstrated that this extremely high value of contact angle hysteresis resulted from the penetration of water into the rough asperities on the substrate. The same substrate hydrophobized by chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane exhibits high advancing contact angle and low hysteresis.

  14. In situ observation and measurement of composites subjected to extremely high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xufei; Yu, Helong; Zhang, Guobing; Su, Hengqiang; Tang, Hongxiang; Feng, Xue

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we develop an instrument to study the ablation and oxidation process of materials such as C/SiC (carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites) and ultra-high temperature ceramic in extremely high temperature environment. The instrument is integrated with high speed cameras with filtering lens, infrared thermometers and water vapor generator for image capture, temperature measurement, and humid atmosphere, respectively. The ablation process and thermal shock as well as the temperature on both sides of the specimen can be in situ monitored. The results show clearly the dynamic ablation and liquid oxide flowing. In addition, we develop an algorithm for the post-processing of the captured images to obtain the deformation of the specimens, in order to better understand the behavior of the specimen subjected to high temperature.

  15. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  16. Poly(acrylamide-MWNTs hybrid hydrogel with extremely high mechanical strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Huanhuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(acrylamide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PAAm-MWNTs hybrid hydrogels were prepared through the radiation-induced polymerization and crosslinking of the aqueous solution of acrylamide and well-dispersed MWNTs for the first time. The PAAm gels obtained by the radiation-induced polymerization and cosslinking showed very high mechanical strengths, and the PAAm-MWNTs hybrid hydrogels had improved mechanical properties compared with the PAAm gels, and hence the PAAm-MWNTs hybrid hydrogels showed extremely high compressive and tensile strengths. The hybrid hydrogels with water contents more than 80 wt.% usually did not fracture even at compressive strengths close to or even more than 60 MPa and strains more than 97%. And the hybrid hydrogels had very high elongations (more than 2000% in some cases, especially when the water content was high. The tensile strengths were in sub-MPa. The hybrid PAAm-MWNTs hydrogel is one of the strongest hydrogel even made.

  17. Table-Top Milliwatt-Class Extreme Ultraviolet High Harmonic Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Klas, Robert; Tschernajew, Maxim; Hädrich, Steffen; Shamir, Yariv; Tünnermann, Andreas; Rothhardt, Jan; Limpert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) lasers are essential for the investigation of fundamental physics. Especially high repetition rate, high photon flux sources are of major interest for reducing acquisition times and improving signal to noise ratios in a plethora of applications. Here, an XUV source based on cascaded frequency conversion is presented, which delivers due to the drastic better single atom response for short wavelength drivers, an average output power of (832 +- 204) {\\mu}W at 21.7 eV. This is the highest average power produced by any HHG source in this spectral range surpassing precious demonstrations by more than a factor of four. Furthermore, a narrow-band harmonic at 26.6 eV with a relative energy bandwidth of only {\\Delta}E/E= 1.8 x 10E-3 has been generated, which is of high interest for high precision spectroscopy experiments.

  18. EEE - Extreme Energy Events: an astroparticle physics experiment in Italian High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Fattibene, E.; Ferrarov, A.; Forster, R.; Frolov, V.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Grazzi, S.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; La Rocca, P.; Maggiora, A.; Maron, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Miozzi, S.; Noferini, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Panareo, M.; Panetta, M. P.; Paoletti, R.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Schioppa, M.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Squarcia, S.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Vistoli, M. C.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zani, S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project (EEE) is aimed to study Extensive Air Showers (EAS) from primary cosmic rays of more than 1018 eV energy detecting the ground secondary muon component using an array of telescopes with high spatial and time resolution. The second goal of the EEE project is to involve High School teachers and students in this advanced research work and to initiate them in scientific culture: to reach both purposes the telescopes are located inside High School buildings and the detector construction, assembling and monitoring - together with data taking and analysis - are done by researchers from scientific institutions in close collaboration with them. At present there are 42 telescopes in just as many High Schools scattered all over Italy, islands included, plus two at CERN and three in INFN units. We report here some preliminary physics results from the first two common data taking periods together with the outreach impact of the project.

  19. Image-based motion compensation for high-resolution extremities cone-beam CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisniega, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Cao, Q.; Yorkston, J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Zbijewski, W.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) of the extremities provides high spatial resolution, but its quantitative accuracy may be challenged by involuntary sub-mm patient motion that cannot be eliminated with simple means of external immobilization. We investigate a two-step iterative motion compensation based on a multi-component metric of image sharpness. Methods: Motion is considered with respect to locally rigid motion within a particular region of interest, and the method supports application to multiple locally rigid regions. Motion is estimated by maximizing a cost function with three components: a gradient metric encouraging image sharpness, an entropy term that favors high contrast and penalizes streaks, and a penalty term encouraging smooth motion. Motion compensation involved initial coarse estimation of gross motion followed by estimation of fine-scale displacements using high resolution reconstructions. The method was evaluated in simulations with synthetic motion (1-4 mm) applied to a wrist volume obtained on a CMOS-based CBCT testbench. Structural similarity index (SSIM) quantified the agreement between motion-compensated and static data. The algorithm was also tested on a motion contaminated patient scan from dedicated extremities CBCT. Results: Excellent correction was achieved for the investigated range of displacements, indicated by good visual agreement with the static data. 10-15% improvement in SSIM was attained for 2-4 mm motions. The compensation was robust against increasing motion (4% decrease in SSIM across the investigated range, compared to 14% with no compensation). Consistent performance was achieved across a range of noise levels. Significant mitigation of artifacts was shown in patient data. Conclusion: The results indicate feasibility of image-based motion correction in extremities CBCT without the need for a priori motion models, external trackers, or fiducials.

  20. High yield simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production under extreme-thermophilic (70 C) mixed culture environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chenxi [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Patthalung 93110 (Thailand); Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The effect of pH and medium composition on extreme-thermophilic (70 C) dark fermentative simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (process performance and microbial ecology) was investigated. Hydrogen and ethanol yields were optimized with respect to glucose, peptone, FeSO{sub 4}, NaHCO{sub 3}, yeast extract, trace mineral salts, vitamins, and phosphate buffer concentrations as well as initial pH as independent variables. A combination of low levels of both glucose ({<=}2 g/L) and vitamin solutions ({<=}1 mL/L) and high levels of initial pH ({>=}7), mineral salts solution ({>=}5 mL/L) and FeSO{sub 4} ({>=}100 mg/L) stimulated the hydrogen production, while high level of glucose ({>=}5 g/L) and low levels of both initial pH ({<=}5.5) and mineral salts solution ({<=}1 mL/L) enhanced the ethanol production. High yield of simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (1.58 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose combined with an ethanol yield of 0.90 mol ethanol/mol glucose) was achieved under extreme-thermophilic mixed culture environment. Results obtained showed that the shift of the metabolic pathways favouring either hydrogen or ethanol production was affected by the change in cultivation conditions (pH and medium composition). The mixed culture in this study demonstrated flexible ability for simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production, depending on pH and nutrients formulation. The microorganisms involved could be regarded as simultaneous hydrogen/ethanol producers, as hydrogen and ethanol fermentation under all conditions was carried out by a group of extreme-thermophilic bacterial species related to Thermoanaerobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium and Caldanaerobacter. (author)

  1. Prospects of extreme ultraviolet radiation sources based on microwave discharge for high-resolution lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, I. S.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Shalashov, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, inspired by the success of recent experiments, we discuss a new possible type of sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation for the semiconductor industry, based on the radiating plasma with multiply charged ions supported in a mirror magnetic trap by high-power microwaves. We propose a simple theory that describes the main features of such source, perform modeling for a wide range of plasma parameters and magnetic configurations, compare the results to the existing experimental data, and study the prospects of the new scheme in present technological circumstances.

  2. Extremely high reflection of solar wind protons as neutral hydrogen atoms from regolith in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wieser, Martin; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Holmström, Mats; Bhardwaj, Anil; Sridharan, R; Dhanya, MB; Wurz, Peter; Schaufelberger, Audrey; Asamura, Kazushi; 10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.012

    2010-01-01

    We report on measurements of extremely high reflection rates of solar wind particles from regolith-covered lunar surfaces. Measurements by the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft in orbit around the Moon show that up to 20% of the impinging solar wind protons are reflected from the lunar surface back to space as neutral hydrogen atoms. This finding, generally applicable to regolith-covered atmosphereless bodies, invalidates the widely accepted assumption that regolith almost completely absorbs the impinging solar wind.

  3. CLASH: Extreme Emission Line Galaxies and Their Implication on Selection of High-Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron; Moustakas, John; Shu, Xinwen; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zitrin, Adi; Frye, Brenda L; Postman, Marc; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benitez, Narciso; Bradley, Larry; Broadhurst, Tom; Coe, Dan; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo; Kelson, Daniel; Koekemoer, Anton; Lahav, Ofer; Medezinski, Elinor; Moustakas, Leonidas; Rosati, Piero; Seitz, Stella; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    We utilize the CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble) observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y105) and F125W (J125), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] 4959, 5007 at redshift of about 0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multi-band observations help to constrain the equivalent widths of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] 4959,5007 equivalent width of about 3737 angstrom. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high equivalent width can be only found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic the dropout feature similar to that of high redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high redshift galaxies when the S/N ratio is limited ...

  4. CLASH: EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON SELECTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xingxing; Wang, Junxian; Shu, Xinwen [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland; Lemze, Doron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Frye, Brenda L. [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Bartelmann, Matthias [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P. O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Benítez, Narciso [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huétor 24, Granada E-18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU E-Bilbao (Spain); Donahue, Megan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo, E-mail: hxx@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Departamento de Astronoía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, V. Mackenna 4860 Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

    2015-03-01

    We utilize the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble observations of 25 clusters to search for extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs). The selections are carried out in two central bands: F105W (Y {sub 105}) and F125W (J {sub 125}), as the flux of the central bands could be enhanced by the presence of [O III] λλ4959, 5007 at redshifts of ∼0.93-1.14 and 1.57-1.79, respectively. The multiband observations help to constrain the equivalent widths (EWs) of emission lines. Thanks to cluster lensing, we are able to identify 52 candidates down to an intrinsic limiting magnitude of 28.5 and to a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 EW of ≅ 3700 Å. Our samples include a number of EELGs at lower luminosities that are missed in other surveys, and the extremely high EW can only be found in such faint galaxies. These EELGs can mimic a dropout feature similar to that of high-redshift galaxies and contaminate the color-color selection of high-redshift galaxies when the signal-to-noise ratio is limited or the band coverage is incomplete.

  5. Laboratory measurements of materials in extreme conditions; The use of high energy radiation sources for high pressure studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1998-06-01

    High energy lasers can be used to study material conditions that are appropriate fort inertial confinement fusion: that is, materials at high densities, temperatures, and pressures. Pulsed power devices can offer similar opportunities. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be a high energy multi-beam laser designed to achieve the thermonuclear ignition of a mm-scale DT-filled target in the laboratory. At the same time, NE will provide the physics community with a unique tool for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers and pulsed power tools can contribute to investigations of high energy density matter in the areas of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  6. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  7. The role of cortisol suppression on craving for and satisfaction from nicotine in high and low impulsive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, M; Netter, P; Rogausch, A; Sander, P; Kaltschmidt, M; Dörr, A; Hennig, J

    2002-07-01

    The rewarding properties of drug self-administration have been shown to depend on mesolimbic dopamine release but also on the availability of corticosterone, as shown in rats. Since this became particularly evident when tested in rat strains bred for high (HR) and low (LR) reactivity to novel stimuli, the role of cortisol and personality in drug craving was investigated in 60 male nicotine-deprived smokers divided according to questionnaire scores into high and low impulsives, a dimension considered to represent HR/LR rats. They either received the peripheral cortisol blocker metyrapone (MET) or the centrally blocking substance dexamethasone (DEX) or placebo (n=20 each) and were then allowed to smoke. MET more than DEX reduced craving for cigarettes during deprivation. This was only observed in low impulsives while high impulsives developed low craving unmodified by blockade of cortisol. Satisfaction from smoking was less achieved with DEX than with MET and not modified by impulsivity. Differences between MET and DEX in influencing craving during deprivation and satisfaction from smoking were discussed on the basis of different glucocorticoid receptors. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) seems to be the 'turn on switch' and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) the 'turn off switch' in mediating the rewarding properties of dopamine in drug self-administration.

  8. High patient-parent satisfaction with magnetically controlled growing rod treatment in EOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Simon Toftgaard; Bünger, Cody

    was to investigate the stress experienced by the patients and their families, and the patient satisfaction. Methods: A consecutive series of patients receiving MCGR treatment between Sept. 2014 and June 2016 for EOS, receiving 3-month interval distraction. All the patients had prior unsedated MCGR......-lengthening procedure(s). The parents answered a 7 question non-validated questionnaire before lengthening at the day of the procedure. The answers were in a 0-10 numeric scale score. Results: Thirteen patients, median age 11 years (range 6-18) at MCGR treatment. Around the procedure, the physical strain on the patient...... was rated to a mean 0.2 (range 0-1), the psychological strain on the patient was rated to a mean 1.7 (range 0-7), pain was rated to a mean 0.8 (range 0-2), and the anxiety level of the parents was rated to a mean 0.8 (range 0-5) (0 none, 10 highest imaginable). The overall patient/parent satisfaction...

  9. Design, performance, and early results from extremely high Doppler precision instruments in a global network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Groot, John; Chang, Liang; Varosi, Frank; Wan, Xiaoke; Powell, Scott; Jiang, Peng; Hanna, Kevin; Wang, Ji; Pais, Rohan; Liu, Jian; Dou, Liming; Schofield, Sidney; McDowell, Shaun; Costello, Erin; Delgado-Navarro, Adriana; Fleming, Scott; Lee, Brian; Bollampally, Sandeep R.; Bosman, Troy; Jakeman, Hali; Fletcher, Adam; Marquez, Gabriel

    2010-07-01

    We report design, performance and early results from two of the Extremely High Precision Extrasolar Planet Tracker Instruments (EXPERT) as part of a global network for hunting for low mass planets in the next decade. EXPERT is a combination of a thermally compensated monolithic Michelson interferometer and a cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph for extremely high precision Doppler measurements for nearby bright stars (e.g., 1m/s for a V=8 solar type star in 15 min exposure). It has R=18,000 with a 72 micron slit and a simultaneous coverage of 390-694 nm. The commissioning results show that the instrument has already produced a Doppler precision of about 1 m/s for a solar type star with S/N~100 per pixel. The instrument has reached ~4 mK (P-V) temperature stability, ~1 mpsi pressure stability over a week and a total instrument throughput of ~30% at 550 nm from the fiber input to the detector. EXPERT also has a direct cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy mode fed with 50 micron fibers. It has spectral resolution of R=27,000 and a simultaneous wavelength coverage of 390-1000 nm.

  10. Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Adler, David; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides worldwide. While research has evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local or regional scales using in situ data, few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This study uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from TRMM data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurrence of precipitation and landslides globally. Evaluation of the GLC indicates that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This study characterizes the variability of satellite precipitation data and reported landslide activity at the globally scale in order to improve landslide cataloging, forecasting and quantify potential triggering sources at daily, monthly and yearly time scales.

  11. Extreme Learning Machines on High Dimensional and Large Data Applications: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuwen Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme learning machine (ELM has been developed for single hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFNs. In ELM algorithm, the connections between the input layer and the hidden neurons are randomly assigned and remain unchanged during the learning process. The output connections are then tuned via minimizing the cost function through a linear system. The computational burden of ELM has been significantly reduced as the only cost is solving a linear system. The low computational complexity attracted a great deal of attention from the research community, especially for high dimensional and large data applications. This paper provides an up-to-date survey on the recent developments of ELM and its applications in high dimensional and large data. Comprehensive reviews on image processing, video processing, medical signal processing, and other popular large data applications with ELM are presented in the paper.

  12. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and atomic models of highly charged heavy ions in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, C.; Murakami, I.; Koike, F.; Tamura, N.; Sakaue, H. A.; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Kato, D.; Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Sudo, S.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2017-01-01

    We report recent results of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions in plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The LHD is an ideal source of experimental databases of EUV spectra because of high brightness and low opacity, combined with the availability of pellet injection systems and reliable diagnostic tools. The measured heavy elements include tungsten, tin, lanthanides and bismuth, which are motivated by ITER as well as a variety of plasma applications such as EUV lithography and biological microscopy. The observed spectral features drastically change between quasicontinuum and discrete depending on the plasma temperature, which leads to some new experimental identifications of spectral lines. We have developed collisional-radiative models for some of these ions based on the measurements. The atomic number dependence of the spectral feature is also discussed.

  13. Extreme Energy Events Project: Construction of the detectors and installation in Italian High Schools

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; An, S; Antolini, R; Badalà, A; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Blanco, F; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Chiri, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Coccia, E; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D’Incecco, M; Fabbri, F L; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadou, D; Imponente, G; Kim, J; La Rocca, P; Librizzi, F; Maggiora, A; Menghetti, H; Miozzi, S; Moro, R; Panareo, M; Pappalardo, G S; Piragino, G; Riggi, F; Romano, F; Sartorelli, G; Sbarra, C; Selvi, M; Serci, S; Williams, C; Zuyeuski, R

    2008-01-01

    The EEE Project, conceived by its leader Antonino Zichichi, aims to detect Extreme Energy Events of cosmic rays with an array of muon telescopes distributed over the Italian territory. The Project involves Italian High Schools in order to introduce young people to Physics, also countervailing the recent crisis of university scientific classes inscriptions. The detectors for the EEE telescopes are Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) and have been constructed by teams of High School students who went in shift at the CERN laboratories. The mechanics and the electronics were developed by groups of researchers from CERN, the Italian Centro Fermi and INFN. The first group of schools of the EEE Project has inaugurated their telescopes recently. A status report of the Project and the preliminary results are presented.

  14. The physiology of extremes: Ancel Keys and the International High Altitude Expedition of 1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the International High Altitude Expedition of 1935 and its significance in the life and science of Ancel Keys. Both the expedition and Keys's story afford excellent opportunities to explore the growing reach of interwar physiology into extreme climates-whether built or natural. As IHAE scientists assessed human performance and adaptation to hypoxia, low barometric pressure, and cold, they not only illuminated the physiological and psychological processes of high altitude acclimatization, but they also drew borderlines between the normal and the pathological, paved the way for the neocolonial exploitation of natural and human resources in Latin America, and pioneered field methods in physiology that were adapted and adopted by the Allied Forces during the Second World War. This case study in the physiology of place reveals the power and persistence of environmental determinism within biomedicine well into the twentieth century.

  15. Feasibility of High-Repetition, Task-Specific Training for Individuals With Upper-Extremity Paresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kimberly J.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Hornby, T. George

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We investigated the feasibility of delivering an individualized, progressive, high-repetition upper-extremity (UE) task-specific training protocol for people with stroke in the inpatient rehabilitation setting. METHOD. Fifteen patients with UE paresis participated in this study. Task-specific UE training was scheduled for 60 min/day, 4 days/wk, during occupational therapy for the duration of a participant’s inpatient stay. During each session, participants were challenged to complete ≥300 repetitions of various tasks. RESULTS. Participants averaged 289 repetitions/session, spending 47 of 60 min in active training. Participants improved on impairment and activity level outcome measures. CONCLUSION. People with stroke in an inpatient setting can achieve hundreds of repetitions of task-specific training in 1-hr sessions. As expected, all participants improved on functional outcome measures. Future studies are needed to determine whether this high-repetition training program results in better outcomes than current UE interventions. PMID:25005508

  16. Beyond Extreme Ultra Violet (BEUV) Radiation from Spherically symmetrical High-Z plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Ugomori, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Masato; Suzuki, Yuhei; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Hirose, Ryouichi; Eshima, Takeo; Ohashi, Hayato; Nishikino, Masaharu; Scally, Enda; Nshimura, Hiroaki; Azechi, Hiroshi; O'Sullivan, Gerard

    2016-03-01

    Photo-lithography is a key technology for volume manufacture of high performance and compact semiconductor devices. Smaller and more complex structures can be fabricated by using shorter wavelength light in the photolithography. One of the most critical issues in development of the next generation photo-lithography is to increase energy conversion efficiency (CE) from laser to shorter wavelength light. Experimental database of beyond extreme ultraviolet (BEUV) radiation was obtained by using spherically symmetrical high-Z plasmas generated with spherically allocated laser beams. Absolute energy and spectra of BEUV light emitted from Tb, Gd, and Mo plasmas were measured with a absolutely calibrated BEUV calorimeter and a transmission grating spectrometer. 1.0 x 1012 W/cm2 is the optimal laser intensity to produced efficient BEUV light source plasmas with Tb and Gd targets. Maximum CE is achieved at 0.8% that is two times higher than the published CEs obtained with planar targets.

  17. 我市高中生生活满意度的现状调查%Survey on High School Students' Life Satisfaction in Our City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查我市高中生的生活满意度现状,为高中心理健康教育提供参考依据。方法:采用《青少年学生生活满意度量表》,对柳州市1606名高中生进行问卷调查。结果:我市高中生的生活满意度处于中等水平,不同家庭所在地、是否为独生子女、年级之间的高中生满意度存在显著差异,不同性别高中生的生活满意度差异不显著。%Objective:Investigation of the city's high school life satisfaction, and provide reference for school mental hea-lth education. Methods:"Youth Students' Life Satisfaction Scale", Liuzhou 1606 high school questionnaire. Result:The city's high school students at the middle level of life satisfaction, different family seat, whether there are significant dif-ferences in satisfaction with one child for high school students, grades between life satisfaction high school sex differences were not significant.

  18. A Smartphone Application Significantly Improved Diabetes Self-Care Activities with High User Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe developed for the first time a smartphone application designed for diabetes self-management in Korea and registered a patent for the relevant algorithm. We also investigated the user satisfaction with the application and the change in diabetes related self-care activities after using the application.MethodsWe conducted a questionnaire survey on volunteers with diabetes who were using the application. Ninety subjects responded to the questionnaire between June 2012 and March 2013. A modified version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA was used in this study.ResultsThe survey results exhibited a mean subject age of 44.0 years old, and males accounted for 78.9% of the subjects. Fifty percent of the subjects had diabetes for less than 3 years. The majority of respondents experienced positive changes in their clinical course after using the application (83.1% and were satisfied with the structure and completeness of the application (86.7%. Additionally, the respondents' answers indicated that the application was easy to use (96.7% and recommendable to others (97.7% and that they would continue using the application to manage their diabetes (96.7%. After using the Diabetes Notepad application, diabetes related self-care activities assessed by SDSCA displayed statistically significant improvements (P<0.05, except for the number of days of drinking.ConclusionThis smartphone-based application can be a useful tool leading to positive changes in diabetes related self-care activities and increase user satisfaction.

  19. Phthalocyanine dye as an extremely photostable and highly fluorescent near-infrared labeling reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinzhan; Draney, Daniel R.; Volcheck, William M.; Bashford, Gregory R.; Lamb, Donald T.; Grone, Daniel L.; Zhang, Yonghong; Johnson, Craig M.

    2006-02-01

    Current organic fluorophores used as labeling reagents for biomolecule conjugation have significant limitations in photostability. This compromises their performance in applications that require a photostable fluorescent reporting group. For example, in molecular imaging and single molecule microscopy, photostable fluorescent labels are important for observing and tracking individual molecular events over extended period of time. We report in this paper an extremely photostable and highly fluorescent phthalocyanine dye, IRDye TM 700DX, as a near-infrared fluorescence labeling reagent to conjugate with biomolecules. This novel water-soluble silicon phthalocyanine dye has an isomericly pure chemical structure. The dye is about 45 to 128 times more photostable than current near-IR fluorophores, e.g. Alexa Fluor"R"680, Cy TM 5.5, Cy TM 7 and IRDye TM 800CW dyes; and about 27 times more photostable than tetramethylrhodamine (TMR), one of the most photostable organic dyes. This dye also meets all the other stringent requirements as an ideal fluorophore for biomolecules labeling such as excellent water solubility, no aggregation in high ionic strength buffer, large extinction coefficient and high fluorescent quantum yield. Antibodies conjugated with IRDye TM 700DX at high D/P ratio exist as monomeric species in high ionic buffer and have bright fluorescence. The IRDye TM 700DX conjugated antibodies generate sensitive, highly specific detection with very low background in Western blot and cytoblot assays.

  20. Environmental extremes versus ecological extremes: impact of a massive iceberg on the population dynamics of a high-level Antarctic marine predator†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J.; Garrott, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme events have been suggested to play a disproportionate role in shaping ecological processes, but our understanding of the types of environmental conditions that elicit extreme consequences in natural ecosystems is limited. Here, we investigated the impact of a massive iceberg on the dynamics of a population of Weddell seals. Reproductive rates of females were reduced, but survival appeared unaffected. We also found suggestive evidence for a prolonged shift towards higher variability in reproductive rates. The annual number of females attending colonies showed unusual swings during the iceberg period, a pattern that was apparently the consequence of changes in sea-ice conditions. In contrast to the dramatic effects that were recorded in nearby populations of emperor penguins, our results suggest that this unusual environmental event did not have an extreme impact on the population of seals in the short-term, as they managed to avoid survival costs and were able to rapidly re-achieve high levels of reproduction by the end of the perturbation. Nevertheless, population projections suggest that even this modest impact on reproductive rates could negatively affect the population in the long run if such events were to occur more frequently, as is predicted by models of climate change. PMID:23015628

  1. The Relationship of Children Connectivity and Physical Activities with Satisfaction of Open Spaces in High Rise Apartments in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sharghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increase of urbanization has pressure on the urban children's lives and physical activities. While in designing of residential apartments’ open spaces, there is little attention to the children. The children, who live in the high-rise apartments found to have less physical activities. However, supposedly, children need to engage in the physical activity in the outdoor areas as WHO recommend that children take part in at least one hour of moderate physical activity in every day. This paper firstly, reviews different researches in this area. Then, it attempts to find children’s satisfaction regarding connectivity to open spaces as a dependent variable and their preferred activities, perceived safety, and familiarity about connectivity to open spaces as independent variables. The method of study is a semi-interview survey with 80 children between 6 and 12 years old (primary school ages in two cases in Tehran. The result of this research shows that children satisfaction from open space has an effect on their outdoor activities. Therefore, the designers should be considering children physical activities needs in open spaces.

  2. Measurements and identifications of extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly-charged Sm and Er

    CERN Document Server

    Podpaly, Y A; Reader, J; Ralchenko, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We report spectroscopic measurements of highly charged samarium and erbium performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). These measurements are in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range, and span electron beam energies from 0.98 keV to 3.00 keV. We observed 71 lines from Kr-like Sm$^{26+}$ to Ni-like Sm$^{34+}$, connecting 83 energy levels, and 64 lines from Rb-like Er$^{32+}$ to Ni-like Er$^{40+}$, connecting 78 energy levels. Of these lines, 64 in Sm and 60 in Er are new. Line identifications are performed using collisional-radiative modeling of the EBIT plasma. All spectral lines are assigned individual uncertainties, most in the $\\sim$0.001 nm range. Energy levels are derived from the wavelength measurements.

  3. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the Extreme Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Cruddace, R G; Yentis, D J; Brown, C M; Gursky, H; Barstow, M A; Bannister, N P; Fraser, G W; Spragg, J E; Lapington, J S; Tandy, J A; Sanderson, B; Culhane, J L; Barbee, T W; Kordas, J F; Goldstein, W H; Fritz, G G

    2001-01-01

    We report a high-resolution (R=3000-4000) spectroscopic observation of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet band 220-245 A. A low- density ionised He component is clearly present along the line-of-sight, which if completely interstellar implies a He ionisation fraction considerably higher than is typical of the local interstellar medium. However, some of this material may be associated with circumstellar gas, which has been detected by analysis of the C IV absorption line doublet in an HST STIS spectrum. A stellar atmosphere model assuming a uniform element distribution yields a best fit to the data which includes a significant abundance of photospheric He. The 99-percent confidence contour for the fit parameters excludes solutions in which photospheric He is absent, but this result needs to be tested using models allowing abundance gradients.

  4. Nano-materials for adhesive-free adsorbers for bakable extreme high vacuum cryopump surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzman, Marcy; Jordan, Kevin; Whitney, Roy R.

    2016-10-11

    A cryosorber panel having nanomaterials used for the cryosorption material, with nanomaterial either grown directly on the cryopanel or freestanding nanomaterials attached to the cryopanel mechanically without the use of adhesives. Such nanomaterial cryosorber materials can be used in place of conventional charcoals that are attached to cryosorber panels with special low outgassing, low temperature capable adhesives. Carbon nanotubes and other nanomaterials could serve the same purpose as conventional charcoal cryosorbers, providing a large surface area for cryosorption without the need for adhesive since the nanomaterials can be grown directly on a metallic substrate or mechanically attached. The nanomaterials would be capable of being fully baked by heating above 100.degree. C., thereby eliminating water vapor from the system, eliminating adhesives from the system, and allowing a full bake of the system to reduce hydrogen outgassing, with the goal of obtaining extreme high vacuum where the pump can produce pressures below 1.times.10.sup.-12 Torr.

  5. First search for extremely high energy cosmogenic neutrinos with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Davis, J. C.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Knops, S.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Lehmann, R.; Lennarz, D.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Matusik, M.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; IceCube Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    We report on the results of the search for extremely-high energy neutrinos with energies above 107GeV obtained with the partially (˜30%) constructed IceCube in 2007. From the absence of signal events in the sample of 242.1 days of effective live time, we derive a 90% C.L. model independent differential upper limit based on the number of signal events per energy decade at E2ϕνe+νμ+ντ≃1.4×10-6GeVcm-2sec⁡-1sr-1 for neutrinos in the energy range from 3×107 to 3×109GeV.

  6. Acclimation to extremely high ammonia levels in continuous biomethanation process and the associated microbial community dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis; Mancini, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Acclimatized anaerobic communities to high ammonia levels can offer a solution to the ammonia toxicity problem in biogas reactors. In the current study, a stepwise acclimation strategy up to 10 g NH4+-N L−1, was performed in mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) continuously stirred tank reactors. The reactors...... were co-digesting (20/80 based on volatile solid) cattle slurry and microalgae, a protein-rich, 3rd generation biomass. Throughout the acclimation period, methane production was stable with more than 95% of the uninhibited yield. Next generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a dramatic microbiome...... change throughout the ammonia acclimation process. Clostridium ultunense, a syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria, increased significantly alongside with hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanoculleus spp., indicating strong hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity at extreme ammonia levels (>7 g NH4+-N L−1...

  7. High current density ion beam obtained by a transition to a highly focused state in extremely low-energy region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Y; Kiyama, S; Fujiwara, Y; Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H

    2015-11-01

    A high current density (≈3 mA/cm(2)) hydrogen ion beam source operating in an extremely low-energy region (E(ib) ≈ 150-200 eV) has been realized by using a transition to a highly focused state, where the beam is extracted from the ion source chamber through three concave electrodes with nominal focal lengths of ≈350 mm. The transition occurs when the beam energy exceeds a threshold value between 145 and 170 eV. Low-level hysteresis is observed in the transition when E(ib) is being reduced. The radial profiles of the ion beam current density and the low temperature ion current density can be obtained separately using a Faraday cup with a grid in front. The measured profiles confirm that more than a half of the extracted beam ions reaches the target plate with a good focusing profile with a full width at half maximum of ≈3 cm. Estimation of the particle balances in beam ions, the slow ions, and the electrons indicates the possibility that the secondary electron emission from the target plate and electron impact ionization of hydrogen may play roles as particle sources in this extremely low-energy beam after the compensation of beam ion space charge.

  8. Multiresolution iterative reconstruction in high-resolution extremity cone-beam CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Sisniega, Alejandro; Yorkston, John; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Webster Stayman, J.

    2016-10-01

    Application of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) to high resolution cone-beam CT (CBCT) is computationally challenging because of the very fine discretization (voxel size  <100 µm) of the reconstructed volume. Moreover, standard MBIR techniques require that the complete transaxial support for the acquired projections is reconstructed, thus precluding acceleration by restricting the reconstruction to a region-of-interest. To reduce the computational burden of high resolution MBIR, we propose a multiresolution penalized-weighted least squares (PWLS) algorithm, where the volume is parameterized as a union of fine and coarse voxel grids as well as selective binning of detector pixels. We introduce a penalty function designed to regularize across the boundaries between the two grids. The algorithm was evaluated in simulation studies emulating an extremity CBCT system and in a physical study on a test-bench. Artifacts arising from the mismatched discretization of the fine and coarse sub-volumes were investigated. The fine grid region was parameterized using 0.15 mm voxels and the voxel size in the coarse grid region was varied by changing a downsampling factor. No significant artifacts were found in either of the regions for downsampling factors of up to 4×. For a typical extremities CBCT volume size, this downsampling corresponds to an acceleration of the reconstruction that is more than five times faster than a brute force solution that applies fine voxel parameterization to the entire volume. For certain configurations of the coarse and fine grid regions, in particular when the boundary between the regions does not cross high attenuation gradients, downsampling factors as high as 10×  can be used without introducing artifacts, yielding a ~50×  speedup in PWLS. The proposed multiresolution algorithm significantly reduces the computational burden of high resolution iterative CBCT reconstruction and can be extended to other applications of

  9. Droplet-based, high-brightness extreme ultraviolet laser plasma source for metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodov, A. Yu.; Krivokorytov, M. S.; Sidelnikov, Yu. V.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Medvedev, V. V.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the development of a high brightness source of extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV) with a working wavelength of 13.5 nm. The source is based on a laser-produced plasma driven by pulsed radiation of a Nd:YAG laser system. Liquid droplets of Sn-In eutectic alloy were used as the source fuel. The droplets were created by a droplet generator operating in the jet break-up regime. The EUV emission properties of the plasma, including the emission spectrum, time profile, and conversion efficiency of laser radiation into useful 13.5 nm photons, have been characterized. Using the shadowgraphy technique, we demonstrated the production of corpuscular debris by the plasma source and the influence of the plasma on the neighboring droplet targets. The high-frequency laser operation was simulated by usage of the dual pulse regime. Based on the experimental results, we discuss the physical phenomena that could affect the source operation at high repetition rates. Finally, we estimate that an average source brightness of 1.2 kW/mm2 sr is feasible at a high repetition rate.

  10. Benchmark analysis on diabetics at high risk for lower extremity amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzur, M S; Stuck, R; Sage, R; Pocius, L; Trout, B; Wolf, B; Vrbos, L

    1996-11-01

    After the 1990 establishment of a multidisciplinary foot salvage clinic, 1346 diabetic patients, at high risk for the development of foot ulcers and eventual lower limb amputation, were followed for 4 years. Of the 224 high-risk patients admitted to the hospital, 74 amputations (5.5%) of all or part of a lower limb were performed. Patients undergoing amputation were younger, more severely ill, and required more frequent hospitalizations because of greater organ system involvement. They were also more likely to be institutionalized after discharge. Overall, patients with long-standing adult-onset diabetes, identified as at high risk for foot ulcer development, have a substantially increased risk for lower limb amputation, multiple organ system failure, hospitalization, and institutionalization than do diabetic patients as a whole. Clinical benchmarking facilitates the identification and reduction of unnecessary variations in patient care practices. Here, a formal benchmark analysis provides the current outcome expectations for amputation rates and co-morbidities in patients with diabetes who are classified as at high risk for lower extremity amputation. Management of these patients in a structured, multidisciplinary foot salvage clinic, augmentation of baseline services, and preliminary benchmark data may provide a standard for the measurement of therapeutic interventions that improve patient care.

  11. High diversity and suggested endemicity of culturable Actinobacteria in an extremely oligotrophic desert oasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Fernando Arocha-Garza

    2017-05-01

    shows that our isolation effort produced 38 unique OTUs in six new monophyletic clades. This high biodiversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in an extreme oligotrophic environment, which has previously been reported for its diversity and endemicity, is a suggestive sign of microbial biogeography of Actinobacteria and it also represents an invaluable source of biological material for future ecological and bioprospecting studies.

  12. High diversity and suggested endemicity of culturable Actinobacteria in an extremely oligotrophic desert oasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocha-Garza, Hector Fernando; Canales-Del Castillo, Ricardo; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria; De la Torre-Zavala, Susana

    2017-01-01

    isolation effort produced 38 unique OTUs in six new monophyletic clades. This high biodiversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in an extreme oligotrophic environment, which has previously been reported for its diversity and endemicity, is a suggestive sign of microbial biogeography of Actinobacteria and it also represents an invaluable source of biological material for future ecological and bioprospecting studies.

  13. Quantifying imaging performance bounds of extreme dipole illumination in high NA optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungjun; Smith, Mark D.; Biafore, John; Graves, Trey; Levy, Ady

    2016-10-01

    We present a framework to analyze the performance of optical imaging in a hyper numerical aperture (NA) immersion lithography scanner. We investigate the method to quantify imaging performance by computing upperand lower-bounds on the threshold normalized image log-slope (NILS) and the depth of focus (DOF) in conjunction with the traditional image quality metrics such as the mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) and the linearity for various different pitches and line to space (LS) duty cycles. The effects of the interaction between the light illumination and the feature size are extensively characterized based on the aerial image (AI) behavior in particular for the extreme dipole illumination that is one of the commonly used off-axis illuminations for sub-100nm logic and memory devices, providing resolution near the physical limit of an optical single patterning step. The proposed aerial imaging-based DOF bounds are compared to the results obtained from an experimentally calibrated resist model, and we observed good agreement. In general, the extreme dipole illumination is only optimal for a single particular pitch, therefore understanding the through-pitch imaging performance bound, which depends on the illumination shape, pattern size, and process conditions, is critically important. We find that overall imaging performance varies depending upon the number of diffracted beams passing through the scanner optics. An even number of beams provides very different trends compared to the results from an odd-number of beams. This significant non-linear behavior occurs in certain pitch regions corresponding to 3 beam interference imaging. In this region the imaging performance and the pattern printability become extremely sensitive to the LS duty cycle. In addition, there is a notable tradeoff between the DOF and the NILS that is observed in the problematic 3-beam region and this tradeoff eventually affects the achievable process window (PW). Given the practical real

  14. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D.C.; Frappell, P.B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W.K.; Newman, S.H.; Prosser, D.J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G.R.; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M.J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima.

  15. The Sedentary Survey of Extreme High Energy Peaked BL Lacs. II. The Catalog and Spectral Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, P; Perri, M; Padovani, P

    2004-01-01

    The multi-frequency `Sedentary Survey' is a deep, statistically complete, radio flux limited sample comprising 150 BL Lacertae objects distinguished by their extremely high X-ray to radio flux ratio, ranging from five hundred to over five thousand times that of typical BL Lacs discovered in radio surveys. This paper presents the final, 100% identified, catalog together with the optical, X-ray and broad-band SEDs constructed combining literature multi-frequency data with non-simultaneous optical observations and BeppoSAX X-ray data, when available. The SEDs confirm that the peak of the synchrotron power in these objects is located at very high energies. BeppoSAX wide band X-ray observations show that, in most cases, the X-ray spectra are convex and well described by a logarithmic parabola model peaking (in a E f(E) vs E representation) between 0.02 to several keV. Owing to the high synchrotron energies involved most of the sources in the catalog are likely to be TeV emitters, with the closest and brightest one...

  16. Atmospheric and Fog Effects on Ultra-Wide Band Radar Operating at Extremely High Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balal, Nezah; Pinhasi, Gad A; Pinhasi, Yosef

    2016-05-23

    The wide band at extremely high frequencies (EHF) above 30 GHz is applicable for high resolution directive radars, resolving the lack of free frequency bands within the lower part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Utilization of ultra-wideband signals in this EHF band is of interest, since it covers a relatively large spectrum, which is free of users, resulting in better resolution in both the longitudinal and transverse dimensions. Noting that frequencies in the millimeter band are subjected to high atmospheric attenuation and dispersion effects, a study of the degradation in the accuracy and resolution is presented. The fact that solid-state millimeter and sub-millimeter radiation sources are producing low power, the method of continuous-wave wideband frequency modulation becomes the natural technique for remote sensing and detection. Millimeter wave radars are used as complementary sensors for the detection of small radar cross-section objects under bad weather conditions, when small objects cannot be seen by optical cameras and infrared detectors. Theoretical analysis for the propagation of a wide "chirped" Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FMCW) radar signal in a dielectric medium is presented. It is shown that the frequency-dependent (complex) refractivity of the atmospheric medium causes distortions in the phase of the reflected signal, introducing noticeable errors in the longitudinal distance estimations, and at some frequencies may also degrade the resolution.

  17. A method of batch-purifying microalgae with multiple antibiotics at extremely high concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jichang; Wang, Song; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Zhao, Lu; Pan, Kehou

    2016-01-01

    Axenic microalgal strains are highly valued in diverse microalgal studies and applications. Antibiotics, alone or in combination, are often used to avoid bacterial contamination during microalgal isolation and culture. In our preliminary trials, we found that many microalgae ceased growing in antibiotics at extremely high concentrations but could resume growth quickly when returned to an antibiotics-free liquid medium and formed colonies when spread on a solid medium. We developed a simple and highly efficient method of obtaining axenic microalgal cultures based on this observation. First, microalgal strains of different species or strains were treated with a mixture of ampicillin, gentamycin sulfate, kanamycin, neomycin and streptomycin (each at a concentration of 600 mg/L) for 3 days; they were then transferred to antibiotics-free medium for 5 days; and finally they were spread on solid f/2 media to allow algal colonies to form. With this method, five strains of Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), two strains of Cylindrotheca sp. (Bacillariophyceae), two strains of Tetraselmis sp. (Chlorodendrophyceae) and one strain of Amphikrikos sp. (Trebouxiophyceae) were purified successfully. The method shows promise for batch-purifying microalgal cultures.

  18. A Novel Gravity Compensation Method for High Precision Free-INS Based on "Extreme Learning Machine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Cai, Qingzhong; Wang, Jing

    2016-11-29

    In recent years, with the emergency of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros), gravity compensation has become a major source influencing the navigation accuracy in inertial navigation systems (INS), especially for high-precision INS. This paper presents preliminary results concerning the effect of gravity disturbance on INS. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a novel gravity compensation method for high-precision INS, which estimates the gravity disturbance on the track using the extreme learning machine (ELM) method based on measured gravity data on the geoid and processes the gravity disturbance to the height where INS has an upward continuation, then compensates the obtained gravity disturbance into the error equations of INS to restrain the INS error propagation. The estimation accuracy of the gravity disturbance data is verified by numerical tests. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the ELM estimation method can be improved by 23% and 44% compared with the bilinear interpolation method in plain and mountain areas, respectively. To further validate the proposed gravity compensation method, field experiments with an experimental vehicle were carried out in two regions. Test 1 was carried out in a plain area and Test 2 in a mountain area. The field experiment results also prove that the proposed gravity compensation method can significantly improve the positioning accuracy. During the 2-h field experiments, the positioning accuracy can be improved by 13% and 29% respectively, in Tests 1 and 2, when the navigation scheme is compensated by the proposed gravity compensation method.

  19. The Life Satisfaction Chart: Perceptions of the Course of Subjective Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, William McKinley

    1980-01-01

    Data from 45 men and 46 women explored early adolescence satisfaction, high school satisfaction and physical attractiveness, and social mobility and satisfaction. Subjects rated high on the use of denial reported higher levels of retrospective life satisfaction. (Author/NRB)

  20. Customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukmir, Rade B

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to present an analysis of the literature examining objective information concerning the subject of customer service, as it applies to the current medical practice. Hopefully, this information will be synthesized to generate a cogent approach to correlate customer service with quality. Articles were obtained by an English language search of MEDLINE from January 1976 to July 2005. This computerized search was supplemented with literature from the author's personal collection of peer-reviewed articles on customer service in a medical setting. This information was presented in a qualitative fashion. There is a significant lack of objective data correlating customer service objectives, patient satisfaction and quality of care. Patients present predominantly for the convenience of emergency department care. Specifics of satisfaction are directed to the timing, and amount of "caring". Demographic correlates including symptom presentation, practice style, location and physician issues directly impact on satisfaction. It is most helpful to develop a productive plan for the "difficult patient", emphasizing communication and empathy. Profiling of the customer satisfaction experience is best accomplished by examining the specifics of satisfaction, nature of the ED patient, demographic profile, symptom presentation and physician interventions emphasizing communication--especially with the difficult patient. The current emergency medicine customer service dilemmas are a complex interaction of both patient and physician factors specifically targeting both efficiency and patient satisfaction. Awareness of these issues particular to the emergency patient can help to maximize efficiency, minimize subsequent medicolegal risk and improve patient care if a tailored management plan is formulated.

  1. Use of High-Definition Audiovisual Technology in a Gross Anatomy Laboratory: Effect on Dental Students' Learning Outcomes and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maha; Sleiman, Naama H; Thomas, Maureen; Kashani, Nahid; Ditmyer, Marcia M

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory cadaver dissection is essential for three-dimensional understanding of anatomical structures and variability, but there are many challenges to teaching gross anatomy in medical and dental schools, including a lack of available space and qualified anatomy faculty. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of high-definition audiovisual educational technology in the gross anatomy laboratory in improving dental students' learning outcomes and satisfaction. Exam scores were compared for two classes of first-year students at one U.S. dental school: 2012-13 (no audiovisual technology) and 2013-14 (audiovisual technology), and section exams were used to compare differences between semesters. Additionally, an online survey was used to assess the satisfaction of students who used the technology. All 284 first-year students in the two years (2012-13 N=144; 2013-14 N=140) participated in the exams. Of the 140 students in the 2013-14 class, 63 completed the survey (45% response rate). The results showed that those students who used the technology had higher scores on the laboratory exams than those who did not use it, and students in the winter semester scored higher (90.17±0.56) than in the fall semester (82.10±0.68). More than 87% of those surveyed strongly agreed or agreed that the audiovisual devices represented anatomical structures clearly in the gross anatomy laboratory. These students reported an improved experience in learning and understanding anatomical structures, found the laboratory to be less overwhelming, and said they were better able to follow dissection instructions and understand details of anatomical structures with the new technology. Based on these results, the study concluded that the ability to provide the students a clear view of anatomical structures and high-quality imaging had improved their learning experience.

  2. Scaling and Intensification of Extreme Precipitation in High-Resolution Climate Change Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Lüthi, Daniel; Schär, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Climate change projections of extreme precipitation are of great interest due to hydrological impacts such as droughts, floods, erosion, landslides and debris flows. Despite the trend towards dryer conditions over Europe, many climate simulations project increases of heavy precipitation events, while some theoretical studies have raised the possibility of dramatic increases in hourly events (by up to 14% per degree warming). However, conventional climate models are not suited to assess short-term heavy events due to the need to parameterize deep convection. High-resolution climate models with kilometer-scale grid spacing at which parameterization of convection can be switched off, significantly improve the simulation of heavy precipitation and can alter the climate change signal (e.g., Ban et al., 2015). Here we present decade-long high-resolution climate change simulations at horizontal resolution of 2.2 km over Europe on a computational domain with 1536x1536x60 grid points. These simulations have become feasible with a new version of the COSMO model that runs entirely on Graphics Processing Units. We compare a present-day climate simulation, driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis (Leutwyler at al., 2016), with a Pseudo-Global Warming (PGW) simulation The PGW simulation is driven by the slowly evolving mean seasonal cycle of the climate changes (derived from the CMIP5 model), superimposed on the ERA-Interim reanalysis. With this approach, the resulting changes are due to large scale warming of the atmosphere and due to slow-varying circulation changes. We will present the differences in climate change signal between conventional and high-resolution climate models, and discuss the thermodynamic effects on intensification of extreme precipitation. Ban N., J. Schmidli and C. Schär, 2015: Heavy precipitation in a changing climate: Does short-term summer precipitation increase faster? Geophys. Res. Lett., 42 (4), 1165-1172 Leutwyler, D., D. Lüthi, N. Ban, O. Fuhrer and C

  3. Characterizing the Chemical Stability of High Temperature Materials for Application in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The chemical stability of high temperature materials must be known for use in the extreme environments of combustion applications. The characterization techniques available at NASA Glenn Research Center vary from fundamental thermodynamic property determination to material durability testing in actual engine environments. In this paper some of the unique techniques and facilities available at NASA Glenn will be reviewed. Multiple cell Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry is used to determine thermodynamic data by sampling gas species formed by reaction or equilibration in a Knudsen cell held in a vacuum. The transpiration technique can also be used to determine thermodynamic data of volatile species but at atmospheric pressures. Thermodynamic data in the Si-O-H(g) system were determined with this technique. Free Jet Sampling Mass Spectrometry can be used to study gas-solid interactions at a pressure of one atmosphere. Volatile Si(OH)4(g) was identified by this mass spectrometry technique. A High Pressure Burner Rig is used to expose high temperature materials in hydrocarbon-fueled combustion environments. Silicon carbide (SiC) volatility rates were measured in the burner rig as a function of total pressure, gas velocity and temperature. Finally, the Research Combustion Lab Rocket Test Cell is used to expose high temperature materials in hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine environments to assess material durability. SiC recession due to rocket engine exposures was measured as a function of oxidant/fuel ratio, temperature, and total pressure. The emphasis of the discussion for all techniques will be placed on experimental factors that must be controlled for accurate acquisition of results and reliable prediction of high temperature material chemical stability.

  4. Quantification of climate change effects on extreme precipitation used for high resolution hydrologic design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Design of urban drainage structures should include the climatic changes anticipated over the technical lifetime of the system. In Northern Europe climate changes implies increasing occurrences of extreme rainfall. Three approaches to quantify the impact of climate changes on extreme rainfall are ...

  5. Critical Thinking, Transfer, and Student Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne R. Reid

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A pedagogical treatment was developed to teach critical thinking knowledge, skills, and strategies to college students. This treatment was implemented at a Midwestern University for a three-year period. Graduates were surveyed to determine the extent to which the treatment affected their personal, academic, and professional lives. Graduates reported that they had transferred the critical thinking knowledge, skills, and strategies they had acquired, and were using it in their personal, academic, or professional lives. The graduates also reported that this transfer was extremely beneficial to them in all aspects of their personal, academic, or professional lives, leading to high levels of satisfaction in their undergraduate education.

  6. The age of extremely red and massive galaxies at very high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Castro-Rodriguez, N

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We present a determination of the intrinsic colors and ages of galaxies at very high redshift, in particular old galaxies (OGs) within extremely red objects (EROs). To date, the definition of EROs has been restricted to objects with z2.5). We therefore, refer to these objects as very high-redshift EROs (Z-EROS, herein). Methods. We analyze 63,550 galaxies selected in the XMM-LSS field. To obtain a reasonably sized sample of EROs, it is essential to consider a very wide area surveys. We identify targets within an area of 0.77 square degrees for which optical to mid-infrared data are available from SUBARU, UKIDSS, and Spitzer. We select Z-EROs based on their colors, and then perform a selection of only OGs. One of our novel innovations is to adapt the traditional method of EROs selection based on the filters I and K, to higher redshifts. Using our method, we identify 20 objects that satisfy the conditions required to be Z-EROs/OGs at redshifts 2.5~4.7. After including additional galaxies with z<2.5 ana...

  7. The use of bone allografts for limb salvage in high-grade extremity osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, M C; Flugstad, D I; Springfield, D S; Mankin, H J

    1991-09-01

    Limb preservation is increasingly being employed in the local treatment of high-grade extremity osteosarcoma. Bone allografts used to reconstruct the bony defects following tumor resection offer many advantages, including joint reconstruction and incorporation of the graft to the host bone in these relatively young patients. The results of 53 patients 30 years of age or younger were assessed to determine functional outcome. Fresh-frozen allografts were employed as osteoarticular grafts, allograft-arthrodeses, allograft-prosthesis composites, or intercalary grafts. Follow-up intervals averaged 25 months (range, two to 63 months). Life-table analysis showed that the probability of a satisfactory functional result was 73% if local tumor recurrences were excluded. Complications included 16 infections, six fractures, 12 nonunions, and six unstable joints. There were five local recurrences. Eighteen grafts ultimately failed, and in six patients, this resulted in an above-knee amputation. An additional five received a second graft. The functional "end results" of the 38 patients with two or more years of follow-up examinations were 70% satisfactory in those without a local recurrence. There was no statistically significant difference in functional outcome or local or distant relapse in those patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy. The authors conclude that allografts can be used for limb reconstruction in patients with high-grade osteosarcoma who receive aggressive adjuvant chemotherapy. The functional results are comparable to other methods of reconstruction, and once incorporated by the host, offer the advantage of longevity, compared with metallic implants.

  8. Microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation with associated extremely low photon flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, A.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation in extremely low flux density conditions. With wide deployment in mind, potential applications range from nuclear non-proliferation, to hospital radiation-safety. The daunting challenge is the low level of photon flux densities - emerging from a Scintillation Crystal (SC) on to a ~1 mm-square detector, which are a factor of 10000 or so lower than those acceptable to recently reported photonic chips (including `single-photon detection' chips), due to a combination of low Lux, small detector size, and short duration SC output pulses - on the order of 1 μs. These challenges are attempted to be overcome by the design of an innovative `System on a Chip' type microchip, with high detector sensitivity, and effective coupling from the SC to the photodetector. The microchip houses a tiny n+ diff p-epi photodiode (PD) as well as the associated analog amplification and other related circuitry, all fabricated in 0.5micron, 3-metal 2-poly CMOS technology. The amplification, together with pulse-shaping of the photocurrent-induced voltage signal, is achieved through a tandem of two capacitively coupled, double-cascode amplifiers. Included in the paper are theoretical estimates and experimental results.

  9. Significant mobility enhancement in extremely thin highly doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Look, David C., E-mail: david.look@wright.edu [Semiconductor Research Center, Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy., Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Wyle Laboratories, Inc., 2601 Mission Point Blvd., Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Heller, Eric R. [Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Yao, Yu-Feng; Yang, C. C., E-mail: ccycc@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-13

    Highly Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films of thicknesses d = 5, 25, 50, and 300 nm, grown on 160-nm ZnO buffer layers by molecular beam epitaxy, had 294-K Hall-effect mobilities μ{sub H} of 64.1, 43.4, 37.0, and 34.2 cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. This extremely unusual ordering of μ{sub H} vs d is explained by the existence of a very high-mobility Debye tail in the ZnO, arising from the large Fermi-level mismatch between the GZO and the ZnO. Scattering theory in conjunction with Poisson analysis predicts a Debye-tail mobility of 206 cm{sup 2}/V-s at the interface (z = d), falling to 58 cm{sup 2}/V-s at z = d + 2 nm. Excellent fits to μ{sub H} vs d and sheet concentration n{sub s} vs d are obtained with no adjustable parameters.

  10. Potential therapeutic mechanism of extremely low-frequency high-voltage electric fields in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ka-Eun; Park, Soon-Kwon; Nam, Sang-Yun; Han, Tae-Jong; Cho, Il-Young

    2016-05-18

    The aim of this survey was to provide background theory based on previous research to elucidate the potential pathway by which medical devices using extremely low-frequency high-voltage electric fields (ELF-HVEF) exert therapeutic effects on the human body, and to increase understanding of the AC high-voltage electrotherapeutic apparatus for consumers and suppliers of the relevant devices. Our review revealed that an ELF field as weak as 1-10 μ V/m can induce diverse alterations of membrane proteins such as transporters and channel proteins, including changes in Ca + + binding to a specific site of the cell surface, changes in ion (e.g., Ca + + ) influx or efflux, and alterations in the ligand-receptor interaction. These alterations then induce cytoplasmic responses within cells (Ca + + , cAMP, kinases, etc.) that can have impacts on cell growth, differentiation, and other functional properties by promoting the synthesis of macromolecules. Moreover, increased cytoplasmic Ca + + involves calmodulin-dependent signaling and consequent Ca + + /calmodulin-dependent stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis. This event in turn induces the nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G pathway, which may be an essential factor in the observed physiological and therapeutic responses.

  11. User characteristics and effect profile of Butane Hash Oil: An extremely high-potency cannabis concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gary C K; Hall, Wayne; Freeman, Tom P; Ferris, Jason; Kelly, Adrian B; Winstock, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Recent reports suggest an increase in use of extremely potent cannabis concentrates such as Butane Hash Oil (BHO) in some developed countries. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of BHO users and the effect profiles of BHO. Anonymous online survey in over 20 countries in 2014 and 2015. Participants aged 18 years or older were recruited through onward promotion and online social networks. The overall sample size was 181,870. In this sample, 46% (N=83,867) reported using some form of cannabis in the past year, and 3% reported BHO use (n=5922). Participants reported their use of 7 types of cannabis in the past 12 months, the source of their cannabis, reasons for use, use of other illegal substances, and lifetime diagnosis for depression, anxiety and psychosis. Participants were asked to rate subjective effects of BHO and high potency herbal cannabis. Participants who reported a lifetime diagnosis of depression (OR=1.15, p=0.003), anxiety (OR=1.72, pcannabis. BHO users also reported stronger negative effects and less positive effects when using BHO than high potency herbal cannabis (pcannabis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Yolk-shelled cathode materials with extremely high electrochemical performances prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2013-08-01

    A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000th high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g-1 at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g-1 at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg-1. The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles.A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000th high discharge capacity of 108 m

  13. Effect of Female Principal's Management Styles on Teacher's Job Satisfaction in Isfahan-Iran, Girls High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Rajaeepour; Azizollah, Arbabisarjou; Zahra, Amiri; Abdolghayoum, Nematiniya; Zaman, Ajdai; Peyman, Yarmohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Assuring job satisfaction, over a long-term, requires managers' styles, careful planning and effort both by management and by workers. Job satisfaction is influenced by the employee's personal characteristics, the manager's personal characteristics and management style, and the nature of the work itself. The aim of this study was to determine the…

  14. Future Projection of Summer Extreme Precipitation from High Resolution Multi-RCMs over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gayoung; Park, Changyong; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Min, Seung-Ki; Hong, Song-You; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the frequency and intensity of natural hazards have been increasing due to human-induced climate change. Because most damages of natural hazards over East Asia have been related to extreme precipitation events, it is important to estimate future change in extreme precipitation characteristics caused by climate change. We investigate future changes in extremal values of summer precipitation simulated by five regional climate models participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project (i.e., HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, MM5, WRF, and GRIMs) over East Asia. 100-year return value calculated from the generalized extreme value (GEV) parameters is analysed as an indicator of extreme intensity. In the future climate, the mean values as well as the extreme values of daily precipitation tend to increase over land region. The increase of 100-year return value can be significantly associated with the changes in the location (intensity) and scale (variability) GEV parameters for extreme precipitation. It is expected that the results of this study can be used as fruitful references when making the policy of disaster management. Acknowledgements The research was supported by the Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government and Development program under grant MPSS-NH-2013-63 and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of Korea (NRF-2016M3C4A7952637) for its support and assistant in completion of the study.

  15. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A H

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  16. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cottrell Greg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but it is unknown whether HIT has the capacity to improve insulin action and hence glycemic control. Methods Sixteen young men (age: 21 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.7 ± 3.1 kg·m-2; VO2peak: 48 ± 9 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed 2 weeks of supervised HIT comprising of a total of 15 min of exercise (6 sessions; 4–6 × 30-s cycle sprints per session. Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial, and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT were determined before and after training. Results Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose, insulin and NEFA concentration-time curves were all reduced (12%, 37%, 26% respectively, all P -1, P = 0.058. Insulin sensitivity, as measured by the Cederholm index, was improved by 23% (P Conclusion The efficacy of a high intensity exercise protocol, involving only ~250 kcal of work each week, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise regimes.

  17. Extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation enforces bacterial effects of inhibitors and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadevosyan, Hasmik; Kalantaryan, Vitaly; Trchounian, Armen

    2008-01-01

    The coherent electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of the frequency of 51.8 and 53 GHz with low intensity (the power flux density of 0.06 mW/cm(2)) affected the growth of Escherichia coli K12(lambda) under fermentation conditions: the lowering of the growth specific rate was considerably (approximately 2-fold) increased with exposure duration of 30-60 min; a significant decrease in the number of viable cells was also shown. Moreover, the enforced effects of the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), inhibitor of H(+)-transporting F(0)F(1)-ATPase, on energy-dependent H(+) efflux by whole cells and of antibiotics like tetracycline and chloramphenicol on the following bacterial growth and survival were also determined after radiation. In addition, the lowering in DCCD-inhibited ATPase activity of membrane vesicles from exposed cells was defined. The results confirmed the input of membranous changes in bacterial action of low intensity extremely high frequency EMR, when the F(0)F(1)-ATPase is probably playing a key role. The radiation of bacteria might lead to changed metabolic pathways and to antibiotic resistance. It may also give bacteria with a specific role in biosphere.

  18. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Reddish, Paul; Tok, Penny; Konvalinka, Ivana; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers). We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  19. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Fischer

    Full Text Available How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers, low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers. We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  20. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization II: High angular resolution parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ramió, Héctor Vázquez; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesús J; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lambas, Diego García; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the Design Study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mountain in Morocco, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) in Spain, Mac\\'on range in Argentina, and Cerro Ventarrones in Chile. The same techniques, instruments and acquisition procedures were taken on each site. A Multiple Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) and a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) were installed at each site. Global statistics of the integrated seeing, the free atmosphere seeing, the boundary layer seeing and the isoplanatic angle were studied for each site, and the results are presented here. In order to e...

  1. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization. II. High Angular Resolution Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Ramió, Héctor; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M.; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesús J.; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; García Lambas, Diego; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M.; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2012-08-01

    This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the design study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mountain in Morocco, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) in Spain, Macón range in Argentina, and Cerro Ventarrones in Chile. The same techniques, instruments, and acquisition procedures were taken on each site. A multiple aperture scintillation sensor (MASS) and a differential image motion monitor (DIMM) were installed at each site. Global statistics of the integrated seeing, the free atmosphere seeing, the boundary layer seeing, and the isoplanatic angle were studied for each site, and the results are presented here. In order to estimate other important parameters, such as the coherence time of the wavefront and the overall parameter “coherence étendue,” additional information of vertical profiles of the wind speed was needed. Data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) archive. Ground wind speed was measured by automatic weather stations (AWS). More aspects of the turbulence parameters, such as their seasonal trend, their nightly evolution, and their temporal stability, were also obtained and analyzed.

  2. Probing neutrino dark energy with extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, A.; Schrempp, L.

    2006-06-15

    Recently, a new non-Standard Model neutrino interaction mediated by a light scalar field was proposed, which renders the big-bang relic neutrinos of the cosmic neutrino background a natural dark energy candidate, the so-called Neutrino Dark Energy. As a further consequence of this interaction, the neutrino masses become functions of the neutrino energy densities and are thus promoted to dynamical, time/redshift dependent quantities. Such a possible neutrino mass variation introduces a redshift dependence into the resonance energies associated with the annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on relic anti-neutrinos and vice versa into Z-bosons. In general, this annihilation process is expected to lead to sizeable absorption dips in the spectra to be observed on earth by neutrino observatories operating in the relevant energy region above 10{sup 13} GeV. In our analysis, we contrast the characteristic absorption features produced by constant and varying neutrino masses, including all thermal background effects caused by the relic neutrino motion. We firstly consider neutrinos from astrophysical sources and secondly neutrinos originating from the decomposition of topological defects using the appropriate fragmentation functions. On the one hand, independent of the nature of neutrino masses, our results illustrate the discovery potential for the cosmic neutrino background by means of relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy. On the other hand, they allow to estimate the prospects for testing its possible interpretation as source of Neutrino Dark Energy within the next decade by the neutrino observatories ANITA and LOFAR. (Orig.)

  3. Stable droplet generator for a high brightness laser produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodov, A.; Krivokorytov, M.; Sidelnikov, Yu.; Krivtsun, V.; Medvedev, V.; Bushuev, V.; Koshelev, K.; Glushkov, D.; Ellwi, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of the low-melting liquid metal droplets generation based on excited Rayleigh jet breakup. We discuss on the operation of the industrial and in-house designed and manufactured dispensing devices for the droplets generation. Droplet diameter can be varied in the range of 30-90 μm. The working frequency of the droplets, velocity, and the operating temperature were in the ranges of 20-150 kHz, 4-15 m/s, and up to 250 °C, respectively. The standard deviations for the droplet center of mass position both their diameter σ < 1 μm at the distance of 45 mm from the nozzle. Stable operation in the long-term (over 1.5 h) was demonstrated for a wide range of the droplet parameters: diameters, frequencies, and velocities. Physical factors affecting the stability of the generator operation have been identified. The technique for droplet synchronization, allowing using the droplet as a target for laser produced plasma, has been created; in particular, the generator has been successfully used in a high brightness extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light source. The operation with frequency up to 8 kHz was demonstrated as a result of the experimental simulation, which can provide an average brightness of the EUV source up to ˜1.2 kW/mm2 sr.

  4. Cry me a river: identifying the behavioral consequences of extremely high-stakes interpersonal deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Porter, Stephen

    2012-12-01

    Deception evolved as a fundamental aspect of human social interaction. Numerous studies have examined behavioral cues to deception, but most have involved inconsequential lies and unmotivated liars in a laboratory context. We conducted the most comprehensive study to date of the behavioral consequences of extremely high-stakes, real-life deception--relative to comparable real-life sincere displays--via 3 communication channels: speech, body language, and emotional facial expressions. Televised footage of a large international sample of individuals (N = 78) emotionally pleading to the public for the return of a missing relative was meticulously coded frame-by-frame (30 frames/s for a total of 74,731 frames). About half of the pleaders eventually were convicted of killing the missing person on the basis of overwhelming evidence. Failed attempts to simulate sadness and leakage of happiness revealed deceptive pleaders' covert emotions. Liars used fewer words but more tentative words than truth-tellers, likely relating to increased cognitive load and psychological distancing. Further, each of these cues explained unique variance in predicting pleader sincerity.

  5. Identification and Plasma Diagnostics Study of Extreme Ultraviolet Transitions in Highly Charged Yttrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshani Silwal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme ultraviolet spectra of the L-shell ions of highly charged yttrium (Y 26 + –Y 36 + were observed in the electron beam ion trap of the National Institute of Standards and Technology using a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer in the wavelength range of 4 nm-20 nm. The electron beam energy was systematically varied from 2.3 keV–6.0 keV to selectively produce different ionization stages. Fifty-nine spectral lines corresponding to Δ n = 0 transitions within the n = 2 and n = 3 shells have been identified using detailed collisional-radiative (CR modeling of the non-Maxwellian plasma. The uncertainties of the wavelength determinations ranged between 0.0004 nm and 0.0020 nm. Li-like resonance lines, 2s– 2 p 1 / 2 and 2s–2 p 3 / 2 , and the Na-like D lines, 3s– 3 p 1 / 2 and 3s– 3 p 3 / 2 , have been measured and compared with previous measurements and calculations. Forbidden magnetic dipole (M1 transitions were identified and analyzed for their potential applicability in plasma diagnostics using large-scale CR calculations including approximately 1.5 million transitions. Several line ratios were found to show strong dependence on electron density and, hence, may be implemented in the diagnostics of hot plasmas, in particular in fusion devices.

  6. Ionized sputter deposition using an extremely high plasma density pulsed magnetron discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macak, Karol [Department of Physics, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping, (Sweden); Kouznetsov, Vladimir [Department of Physics, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping, (Sweden); Schneider, Jochen [Department of Physics, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping, (Sweden); Helmersson, Ulf [Department of Physics, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping, (Sweden); Petrov, Ivan [Materials Science Department and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Time resolved plasma probe measurements of a novel high power density pulsed plasma discharge are presented. Extreme peak power densities in the pulse (on the order of several kW cm{sup -2}) result in a very dense plasma with substrate ionic flux densities of up to 1 A cm{sup -2} at source-to-substrate distances of several cm and at a pressure of 0.13 Pa (1 mTorr). The pulse duration was {approx}100 {mu}s with a pulse repetition frequency of 50 Hz. The plasma consists of metallic and inert gas ions, as determined from time resolved Langmuir probe measurements and in situ optical emission spectroscopy data. It was found that the plasma composition at the beginning of the pulse was dominated by Ar ions. As time elapsed metal ions were detected and finally dominated the ion composition. The effect of the process parameters on the temporal development of the ionic fluxes is discussed. The ionized portion of the sputtered metal flux was found to have an average velocity of 2500 m s{sup -1} at 6 cm distance from the source, which conforms to the collisional cascade sputtering theory. The degree of ionization of the sputtered metal flux at a pressure of 0.13 Pa was found to be 40%{+-}20% by comparing the total flux of deposited atoms with the charge measured for the metal ions in the pulse. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society.

  7. Mesoscale high-resolution modeling of extreme wind speeds over western water areas of the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, Vladimir S.; Kislov, Alexander V.

    2016-11-01

    A statistical analysis of extreme weather events over coastal areas of the Russian Arctic based on observational data has revealed many interesting features of wind velocity distributions. It has been shown that the extremes contain data belonging to two different statistical populations. Each of them is reliably described by a Weibull distribution. According to the standard terminology, these sets of extremes are named ‘black swans’ and ‘dragons’. The ‘dragons’ are responsible for most extremes, surpassing the ‘black swans’ by 10 - 30 %. Since the data of the global climate model INM-CM4 do not contain ‘dragons’, the wind speed extremes are investigated on the mesoscale using the COSMO-CLM model. The modelling results reveal no differences between the ‘swans’ and ‘dragons’ situations. It could be associated with the poor sample data used. However, according to many case studies and modeling results we assume that it is caused by a rare superposition of large-scale synoptic factors and many local meso- and microscale factors (surface, coastline configuration, etc.). Further studies of extreme wind speeds in the Arctic, such as ‘black swans’ and ‘dragons’, are necessary to focus on non-hydrostatic high-resolution atmospheric modelling using downscaling techniques.

  8. The Relationship of Dominance, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction to Selected Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Donald Martin; Heritage, Jeannette G.

    In U.S. society dominance appears extremely desirable. The purpose of this study was an attempt to measure the relationship between dominance, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Research questions were: "Do the people who score high on the Dominance scale of the California Psychological Inventory have higher self-esteem scores as measured by…

  9. Free-fillet flap harvested in 'severe, high-energy landmine explosion' injuries of lower extremity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keklikçi, Kenan; Uygur, Fatih; Cengiz Bayram, Fazli; Cilli, Feridun

    2010-01-01

    Fillet flaps harvested from the non-replantable or unsalvageable amputated segment can be used to cover tissue defects. We discuss the case of a patient who had suffered a severe high-energy landmine injury, including severe leg damage, resulting in a below-knee amputation and soft-tissue defect around the forearm region. We successfully harvested the fillet from the amputated part of the extremity to the forearm region. We conclude that harvesting of a fillet flap from severely injured lower extremity, resulting from a high-energy landmine explosion, is technically feasible.

  10. Probing the origin of cosmic-rays with extremely high energy neutrinos using the IceCube Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.

    2013-01-01

    We have searched for extremely high energy neutrinos using data taken with the IceCube detector between May 2010 andMay 2012. Two neutrino-induced particle shower events with energies around 1 PeV were observed, as reported previously. In this work, we investigate whether these events could...... originate from cosmogenic neutrinos produced in the interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with ambient photons while propagating through intergalactic space. Exploiting IceCube’s large exposure for extremely high energy neutrinos and the lack of observed events above 100 PeV, we can rule out...

  11. Multi-scenario-based hazard analysis of high temperature extremes experienced in China during 1951-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhan'e; YIN Jie; ZHANG Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    China is physically and socio-economically susceptible to global warming-derived high temperature extremes because of its vast area and high urban population density.This article presents a scenario-based analysis method for high temperature extremes aimed at illustrating the latter's hazardous potential and exposure across China.Based on probability analysis,high temperature extreme scenarios with return periods of 5,10,20,and 50 years were designed,with a high temperature hazard index calculated by integrating two differentially-weighted extreme temperature indices (maximum temperature and high temperature days).To perform the exposure analysis,a land use map was employed to determine the spatial distribution of susceptible human activities under the different scenarios.The results indicate that there are two heat-prone regions and a sub-hotspot occupying a relatively small land area.However,the societal and economic consequences of such an environmental impact upon the North China Plain and middle/lower Yangtze River Basin would be substantial due to the concentration of human activities in these areas.

  12. Radiation-damped profiles of extremely high column density neutral hydrogen: implications of cosmic reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Kiehunn

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating the time-dependent second-order perturbation theory for the Lyman scattering cross-section, we investigate the intergalactic absorption profiles of extremely high column density systems near the end of cosmic reionization. Assuming a representative set of the redshift distribution of neutral hydrogen, we quantitatively examined the impact of inhomogeneous density on the intrinsic absorption profiles. The cumulative absorption by neutral patches in the line of sight mainly affects the far off-centre region of the red damping wing, but the effect is not significant. The shape of the line centre can be modified by the near-zone distribution due to high opacities of the near-resonance scattering. On the other hand, the HWHM (half width at half-maximum) as an effective line width is relatively less sensitive to the local inhomogeneity. Specifically, when the two local damping wings of Lyα and Lyβ are close in spectra of the strongly damped systems, accurate profiles of both lines are required. In the case of N_{H I}≲ 10^{21} { cm^{-2}}, the two-level approximation is marginally applicable for the damping wing fit within 5 - 7 per cent errors. However, as the local column density reaches N_{H I}˜ 10^{22.3} { cm^{-2}}, this classical approximation yields a relative error of a 10 per cent overestimation in the red wing and a 20 per cent underestimation in the blue wing of Lyα. If severe extinction by the Lyα forests is carefully subtracted, the intrinsic absorption profile will provide a better constraint on the local ionized states. For practical applications, an analytic fitting function for the Lyβ scattering is derived.

  13. THE HIGH-RESOLUTION EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM OF N{sub 2} BY ELECTRON IMPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heays, A. N. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ajello, J. M.; Aguilar, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T., E-mail: heays@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution (FWHM = 0.2 Å) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV, 800-1350 Å) laboratory emission spectra of molecular nitrogen excited by an electron impact at 20 and 100 eV under (mostly) optically thin, single-scattering experimental conditions. A total of 491 emission features were observed from N{sub 2} electronic-vibrational transitions and atomic N I and N II multiplets and their emission cross sections were measured. Molecular emission was observed at vibrationally excited ground-state levels as high as v'' = 17, from the a {sup 1}Π {sub g} , b {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and b'{sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +} excited valence states and the Rydberg series c'{sub n} {sub +1} {sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +}, c{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and o{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} for n between 3 and 9. The frequently blended molecular emission bands were disentangled with the aid of a sophisticated and predictive quantum-mechanical model of excited states that includes the strong coupling between valence and Rydberg electronic states and the effects of predissociation. Improved model parameters describing electronic transition moments were obtained from the experiment and allowed for a reliable prediction of the vibrationally summed electronic emission cross section, including an extrapolation to unobserved emission bands and those that are optically thick in the experimental spectra. Vibrationally dependent electronic excitation functions were inferred from a comparison of emission features following 20 and 100 eV electron-impact collisional excitation. The electron-impact-induced fluorescence measurements are compared with Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph observations of emissions from Titan's upper atmosphere.

  14. Parasitic slow extraction of extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ye; Tang, Jingyu; Yang, Zheng; Jing, Hantao

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to extract extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) in the parasitic mode, while maintaining the normal fast extraction. The usual slow extraction method from a synchrotron by employing third-order resonance cannot be applied in a high-intensity RCS due to a very short flat-top at the extraction energy and the strict control on beam loss. The proposed parasitic slow extraction method moves the beam to scrape a scattering foil prior to the fast beam extraction by employing either a local orbit bump or momentum deviation or their combination, so that the halo part of the beam will be scattered. A part of the scattered particles will be extracted from the RCS and guided to the experimental area. The slow extraction process can last about a few milliseconds before the beam is extracted by the fast extraction system. The method has been applied to the RCS of China Spallation Neutron Source. With 1.6 GeV in the extraction energy, 62.5 μA in the average current and 25 Hz in the repetition rate for the RCS, the proton intensity by the slow extraction method can be up to 2×104 protons per cycle or 5×105 protons per second. The extracted beam has also a good time structure of approximately uniform in a spill which is required for many applications such as detector tests. Detailed studies including the scattering effect in the foil, the local orbit bump by the bump magnets and dispersive orbit bump by modifying the RF pattern, the multi-particle simulations by ORBIT and TURTLE codes, and some technical features for the extraction magnets are presented.

  15. Radiation Damped Profiles of Extremely High Column Density Neutral Hydrogen : Implications of Cosmic Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Kiehunn

    2016-09-01

    Incorporating the time-dependent second-order perturbation theory for the Lyman scattering cross-section, we investigate the intergalactic absorption profiles of extremely high column density systems near the end of cosmic reionization. Assuming a representative set of the redshift distribution of neutral hydrogen, we quantitatively examined the impact of inhomogeneous density on the intrinsic absorption profiles. The cumulative absorption by neutral patches in the line-of-sight mainly affects the far off-center region of the red damping wing, but the effect is not significant. The shape of the line-center can be modified by the near-zone distribution due to high opacities of the near-resonance scattering. On the other hand, the HWHM (half width at half maximum) as an effective line-width is relatively less sensitive to the local inhomogeneity. Specifically, when the two local damping wings of Lyα and Lyβ are close in spectra of the strongly damped systems, accurate profiles of both lines are required. In the case of N HI ≲ 1021 cm-2, the two-level approximation is marginally applicable for the damping wing fit within 5 - 7% errors. However, as the local column density reaches N HI ˜ 1022.3 cm-2, this classical approximation yields a relative error of a 10% overestimation in the red wing and a 20% underestimation in the blue wing of Lyα. If severe extinction by the Lyα forests is carefully subtracted, the intrinsic absorption profile will provide a better constraint on the local ionized states. For practical applications, an analytic fitting function for the Lyβ scattering is derived.

  16. Crossing historical and sedimentary archives to reconstruct an extreme flood event calendar in high alpine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, B.; Giguet-Covex, C.; Arnaud, F.; Allignol, F.; Legaz, A.; Melo, A.

    2010-09-01

    to reconstruct a high-resolution flood calendar to assess a reliable frequency of extreme flood events which can be compared with precise climatic parameters as the instrumental and reconstructed temperature. Finally it was equally possible to compare the recorded intensity of flood events between the both archives and thus estimate the hazard perception and vulnerability of local people throughout the last three centuries.

  17. Customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    & Westlund, 2003) as well as the structure of the framework (Eskildsen et al., 2004). We know however very little about how the structure of the individual markets with respect to, for instance, how the transparency of products and services affects customer satisfaction. The aim of this article is to analyze...... the effect of the transparency of products and services on customer satisfaction with respect to Danish mobile phone companies, banks and supermarkets from 2004 based on the authors' experiences from the various analyses conducted within the EPSI rating initiative....

  18. [Alumni of medical sciences and their life satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockenbauch, K; Meister, U; Schmutzer, G; Alfermann, D

    2006-03-01

    Medical doctors are especially burdened with psychological and social aspects of their occupation. These circumstances may lead to low life satisfaction and substance abusing behaviour and burn out symptoms are probable. In this paper we investigate, if alumni of medical sciences show lower life satisfaction compared to their peers. If so, we want to know, which factors influence this result. This survey is based on n = 671 alumni of medicine in seven German universities. The life satisfaction of alumni differs significantly from the peer sample. Outstanding are the highly significant and powerful differences to the scale "leisure". It was evident by an iterative regression that the variables "extreme input at work", "instrumentality/masculinity", "effort-reward imbalance", "expressivity/femininity" as well as "career self-efficacy-expectation", clarify 43 % of the variance in the group of alumni working by the time of enquiry. The results point out, that already alumni of medical science are in the "circle of burn-out". Their life satisfaction is more affected, if the workload is perceived high and the perceived benefits are low. Individual as well as external aspects influence life satisfaction and can be a starting-point for prevention.

  19. Weak-Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-Line Regions?

    CERN Document Server

    Shemmer, Ohad; Anderson, Scott F; Brandt, W N; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Fan, Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Plotkin, Richard M; Richards, Gordon T; Schneider, Donald P; Strauss, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z=3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z=3.49. In both sources we detect an unusually weak broad H_beta line and we place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, H_beta-based black-hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L_Edd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Gamma=1.91^{+0.24}_{-0.22} which supports the virial L/L_Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad-emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad-emission line region proper...

  20. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsam, Tayebeh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Ghotbi, Mohammad Reza; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang

    2012-11-30

    This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV) in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24-57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24-50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615). Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415) ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min) was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min) (P-value=0.002). Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours). Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed.

  1. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsam Tayebeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on sleep quality in high voltage substations (132, 230 and 400 KV in Kerman city and the suburbs. For this purpose, the electric field intensity and magnetic flux density were measured in different parts of substations, and then the occupational exposure was estimated by averaging electric field intensity and magnetic flux density in a shift work. The cases comprised 67 workers who had been exposed to electromagnetic fields in age range of 24–57 and the controls were 110 persons the age ranged 24–50 years. Sleep quality of both groups was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI. Finally, these data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that 90.5% of cases and 85.3% of controls had the poor quality sleep according to PSQI (P-value=0.615. Total sleep quality score mean for the case and control groups were 10.22 ± 3.4 and 9.74 ± 3.62 (P-value=0.415 ,respectively. Meantime to fall asleep for cases(35.68 ± 26.25 min was significantly higher than for controls (28.89 ± 20.18 min (P-value=0.002. Cases had average sleep duration of 5.49 ± 1.31 hours, which was lower ascompared with control subjects (5.90 ± 1.67hours. Although there was a higher percentage for the case group with poor sleep quality than the control group, but no statistically significant difference was observed.

  2. Extremely high ferritin level after an acute myocardial infarction in an end stage renal disease patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gagangeet; Mankal, Pavan; Gupta, Isha; Tagani, Adrian; Ranade, Aditi; Jones, James; Bansal, Anip

    2014-07-01

    We present here a case of an asymptomatic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient, who had an unexplained persistent mild leukocytosis in the setting of an extremely high ferritin level (8,997 ng/ml; reference range: 12 - 300 ng/ml) 3 weeks after she suffered from a myocardial infarction (MI). Infection as the cause of these laboratory abnormalities was ruled out. A week later, the patient was noted to have asymptomatic hypotension (100/60 mmHg; her baseline blood pressure was 120/70 mmHg) during a maintenance hemodialysis session. An echocardiography revealed an interval development of moderate pericardial effusion when compared to her previous echocardiography 4 weeks before. In the setting of a recent MI with other laboratory markers suggesting an ongoing inflammatory process, a tentative diagnosis of Dressler's syndrome was made. A pericardial tap yielded exudative (bloody) fluid, thus, confirming our suspicion. Dressler's syndrome results from an inflammation of the pericardium as a consequence of an underlying autoimmune process few weeks to months after a myocardial infarction or post-cardiac surgery. Although it typically presents with pleuritic chest pain, fever, leukocytosis, and a friction rub; our case illustrates that the initial presentation may be asymptomatic in ESRD patients. For the same reason, it is likely an under-recognized entity in such patients. An unexplained elevated ferritin in an ESRD patient with recent history of MI should prompt an investigation for Dressler's syndrome. In those with associated significant pericardial effusion, daily HD should be initiated and anticoagulation should be avoided. Unlike other ESRD associated pericarditis, steroids and NSAIDs should be avoided in Dressler's syndrome as they may hamper cardiac remodeling in the immediate post-MI period. Colchicine may offer some benefit in patients with associated chest pain. For those failing medical management or manifesting overt signs of tamponade, surgical drainage

  3. Extreme climatic events: impacts of drought and high temperature on physiological processes in agronomically important plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs eFeller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate models predict more frequent and more severe extreme events (e.g. heat waves, extended drought periods, flooding in many regions for the next decades. The impact of adverse environmental conditions on crop plants is ecologically and economically relevant. This review is focused on drought and heat effects on physiological status and productivity of agronomically important plants. Stomatal opening represents an important regulatory mechanism during drought and heat stress since it influences simultaneously water loss via transpiration and CO2 diffusion into the leaf apoplast which further is utilized in photosynthesis. Along with the reversible short-term control of stomatal opening, stomata and leaf epidermis may produce waxy deposits and irreversibly down-regulate the stomatal conductance and non-stomatal transpiration. As a consequence photosynthesis will be negatively affected. Rubisco activase - a key enzyme in keeping the Calvin cycle functional – is heat-sensitive and may become a limiting factor at elevated temperature. The accumulated reactive oxygen species during stress represent an additional challenge under unfavorable conditions. Drought and heat cause accumulation of free amino acids which are partially converted into compatible solutes such as proline. This is accompanied by lower rates of both nitrate reduction and de novo amino acid biosynthesis. Protective proteins (e.g. dehydrins, chaperones, antioxidant enzymes or the key enzyme for proline biosynthesis play an important role in leaves and may be present at higher levels under water deprivation or high temperatures. On the whole plant level, effects on long-distance translocation of solutes via xylem and phloem and on leaf senescence (e.g. anticipated, accelerated or delayed senescence are important. The factors mentioned above are relevant for the overall performance of crops under drought and heat and must be considered for genotype selection and breeding programs.

  4. Continuous and discrete extreme climatic events affecting the dynamics of a high-arctic reindeer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kung-Sik; Mysterud, Atle; Øritsland, Nils Are; Severinsen, Torbjørn; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2005-10-01

    Climate at northern latitudes are currently changing both with regard to the mean and the temporal variability at any given site, increasing the frequency of extreme events such as cold and warm spells. Here we use a conceptually new modelling approach with two different dynamic terms of the climatic effects on a Svalbard reindeer population (the Brøggerhalvøya population) which underwent an extreme icing event ("locked pastures") with 80% reduction in population size during one winter (1993/94). One term captures the continuous and linear effect depending upon the Arctic Oscillation and another the discrete (rare) "event" process. The introduction of an "event" parameter describing the discrete extreme winter resulted in a more parsimonious model. Such an approach may be useful in strongly age-structured ungulate populations, with young and very old individuals being particularly prone to mortality factors during adverse conditions (resulting in a population structure that differs before and after extreme climatic events). A simulation study demonstrates that our approach is able to properly detect the ecological effects of such extreme climate events.

  5. Frequency Analysis of High Flow Extremes in the Yingluoxia Watershed in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanling Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Statistical modeling of hydrological extremes is significant to the construction of hydraulic engineering. This paper, taking the Yingluoxia watershed as the study area, compares the annual maximum (AM series and the peaks over a threshold (POT series in order to study the hydrological extremes, examines the stationarity and independence assumptions for the two series, and discusses the estimations and uncertainties of return levels from the two series using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV and Generalized Pareto distribution (GPD models. For comparison, the return levels from all threshold excesses with considering the extremal index are also estimated. For the POT series, the threshold is selected by examining the mean excess plot and the stability of the parameter estimates and by using common-sense. The serial correlation is reduced by filtering out a set of dependent threshold excesses. Results show that both series are approximately stationary and independent. The GEV model fits the AM series well and the GPD model fits the POT series well. The estimated return levels are fairly comparable for the AM series, the POT series, and all threshold excesses with considering the extremal index, with the difference being less than 10% for return periods longer than 10 years. The uncertainties of the estimated return levels are the highest for the AM series, and next for the POT series and then for all threshold excesses series in turn.

  6. Fluorescent Organic Planar pn Heterojunction Light-Emitting Diodes with Simplified Structure, Extremely Low Driving Voltage, and High Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongcheng; Xie, Gaozhan; Cai, Xinyi; Liu, Ming; Cao, Yong; Su, Shi-Jian

    2016-01-13

    Fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes capable of radiative utilization of both singlet and triplet excitons are achieved via a simple double-layer planar pn hetero-junction configuration without a conventional emission layer, leading to high external quantum efficiency above 10% and extremely low driving voltages close to the theoretical minima.

  7. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, He [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Xu, Yiming [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ulonska, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Robinson, Joseph S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ranitovic, Predrag [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Kaindl, Robert A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division

    2015-06-11

    Novel table-top sources of extreme-ultraviolet light based on high-harmonic generation yield unique insight into the fundamental properties of molecules, nanomaterials or correlated solids, and enable advanced applications in imaging or metrology. Extending high-harmonic generation to high repetition rates portends great experimental benefits, yet efficient extreme-ultraviolet conversion of correspondingly weak driving pulses is challenging. In this article, we demonstrate a highly-efficient source of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ultraviolet second-harmonic focused tightly into Kr gas. In this cascaded scheme, a photon flux beyond ≈3 × 1013 s-1 is generated at 22.3 eV, with 5 × 10-5 conversion efficiency that surpasses similar harmonics directly driven by the fundamental by two orders-of-magnitude. The enhancement arises from both wavelength scaling of the atomic dipole and improved spatio-temporal phase matching, confirmed by simulations. Finally, spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz extreme-ultraviolet source a powerful tool for ultrafast photoemission, nanoscale imaging and other applications.

  8. Patient satisfaction with doctor-patient interaction and its association with modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among moderately-high risk patients in primary healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Noor Norhayati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The outcomes of the physician-patient discussion intervene in the satisfaction of cardiovascular disease risk patients. Adherence to treatment, provision of continuous care, clinical management of the illness and patients’ adjustment are influenced by satisfaction with physician-patient interaction. This study aims to determine the patient satisfaction with doctor-patient interaction and over six months after following prevention counselling, its associations with modifiable cardiovascular risk factors amongst moderately-high risk patients in a primary healthcare clinic in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods A prospective survey was conducted amongst patients with moderately-high cardiovascular risk. A total of 104 moderately-high risk patients were recruited and underwent structured prevention counselling based on the World Health Organization guideline, and their satisfaction with the doctor-patient interaction was assessed using ‘Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan-11,’ the Malay version of the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale-21. Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at a follow-up visit at six months. Descriptive analysis, paired t test and linear regression analyses were performed. Results A total of 102 patients responded, giving a response rate of 98.1%. At baseline, 76.5% of the respondents were satisfied with the relation with their doctor, with the favourable domain of distress relief (85.3% and rapport/confidence (91.2%. The unfavourable domain was interaction outcome, with satisfaction in only 67.6% of the respondents. Between the two visits, changes had occurred in total cholesterol (P = 0.022 and in systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001. Six months after the initial visits, no relationship existed between patient satisfaction scores and changes in modifiable cardiovascular risks. Discussion The ‘Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan-11’ which

  9. Patient satisfaction with doctor-patient interaction and its association with modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among moderately-high risk patients in primary healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseni, Abd Aziz; Azlina, Ishak

    2017-01-01

    Background The outcomes of the physician-patient discussion intervene in the satisfaction of cardiovascular disease risk patients. Adherence to treatment, provision of continuous care, clinical management of the illness and patients’ adjustment are influenced by satisfaction with physician-patient interaction. This study aims to determine the patient satisfaction with doctor-patient interaction and over six months after following prevention counselling, its associations with modifiable cardiovascular risk factors amongst moderately-high risk patients in a primary healthcare clinic in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods A prospective survey was conducted amongst patients with moderately-high cardiovascular risk. A total of 104 moderately-high risk patients were recruited and underwent structured prevention counselling based on the World Health Organization guideline, and their satisfaction with the doctor-patient interaction was assessed using ‘Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan-11,’ the Malay version of the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale-21. Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at a follow-up visit at six months. Descriptive analysis, paired t test and linear regression analyses were performed. Results A total of 102 patients responded, giving a response rate of 98.1%. At baseline, 76.5% of the respondents were satisfied with the relation with their doctor, with the favourable domain of distress relief (85.3%) and rapport/confidence (91.2%). The unfavourable domain was interaction outcome, with satisfaction in only 67.6% of the respondents. Between the two visits, changes had occurred in total cholesterol (P = 0.022) and in systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Six months after the initial visits, no relationship existed between patient satisfaction scores and changes in modifiable cardiovascular risks. Discussion The ‘Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan-11’ which represents a

  10. A Survey of the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Social Happiness among High-schools Teachers of Giroft City

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Zareshahabadi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   Human resources are among the most valuable sources of getting to the targets of any organization or system and are deemed as among the most prominent assets of any organization. Thus the better quality this asset has, the more probable success, prosperity and promotion the organization will enjoy (Tazhibi et al, 1389: 650). Job satisfaction is a combination of sensations and beliefs which people hold about their current job. Job satisfaction is one of the most important factor...

  11. Romantic Relationships and Relationship Satisfaction Among Adults With Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Sandra; Schermuck, Constanze; Ballerstein, Sarah; Ahlers, Christoph J; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience difficulties in maintaining romantic relationships. In this study high-functioning adults with ASD were examined concerning their romantic relationship interest and experience. Participants, 31 recruited via an outpatient clinic and 198 via an online survey, were asked to answer a number of self-report questionnaires. The total sample comprised 229 high-functioning adults with ASD (40% males, average age: 35 years). Of the total sample, 73% indicated romantic relationship experience and only 7% had no desire to be in a romantic relationship. ASD individuals whose partner was also on the autism spectrum were significantly more satisfied with their relationship than those with neurotypical partners. Severity of autism, schizoid symptoms, empathy skills, and need for social support were not correlated with relationship status. Our findings indicate that the vast majority of high-functioning adults with ASD are interested in romantic relationships. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Removal mechanisms for extremely high-level fluoroquinolone antibiotics in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyan; Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Yi; Kong, Xiangji; Kong, Deyang; Shan, Zhengjun; Wang, Na

    2017-03-01

    Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) receive industrial effluents from the plant that contain extremely high levels of antibiotics and are regarded as one of the major sources of antibiotics in the environment. Two PWWTPs have been selected in Zhejiang Province, China, to assess the removal mechanisms of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs). PWWTP A uses activated sludge with biocarriers in a moving bed biofilm reactor in anoxic and aerobic units, and PWWTP B uses biological units under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions. The wastewater samples and solid samples (sludge and suspended solid matter) were analyzed using solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ofloxacin (OFX) was detected in each stage of PWWTP A, and enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were detected in PWWTP B. The concentrations of FQs ranged from 0.32 μg/L to 5.7 mg/L. Although the FQs were largely removed in the biological units (94.5 to 99.9%), large amounts were still discharged in the final effluent (up to 88.0 ± 7.0 μg/L) and dewatered sludge (up to 0.85 ± 0.24 mg/kg). Mass balance analyses of samples from PWWTP A indicated that biodegradation (93.8%) was the major mechanism responsible for the removal of OFX, whereas the contribution of sorption by sludge (0.79%) was less significant, deviating from the findings of most similar studies. Using linear analysis and correlation analysis, we found that the log10 values of the FQ concentration in the sludge were positively related with the log10 values of the equilibrium concentration in water (C w ). These relationships can be described by a Freundlich-like equation. However, these relationships were negative when the C w values were high. Our preliminary explanation is that the equilibrium C w plays an important role in controlling the sorption behavior of FQs in activated sludge.

  13. Perfectionism, Depression, Loneliness, and Life Satisfaction: A Study of High School Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T.; Yuen, Mantak; Slaney, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the cross-cultural construct validity of perfectionism using the Chinese translation of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996) with 509 Chinese high school students from Hong Kong. The factor structure of the Chinese APS-R and correlations between the APS-R subscales and…

  14. Residential Satisfaction and Friendship Formation in High- and Low-Rise Student Housing: An Interactional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Wilcox, Brian L.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the interaction between social competence and type of environment showed that residents of low-rise dormitories were significantly more satisfied and established more dormitory-based friendships than residents of a high-rise mega-dorm setting. A number of interactions were found between social competence, type of environment, and…

  15. Tournament Satisfaction Scale (TOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay Öcal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing in the popularity of regional sport tourism addresses the consumers to measure satisfaction of participants in order to provide high quality product or services. The literature declares the strong need of a reliable and valid scale in the area of sport tourism. For that purpose this paper describes the process of developing Tournament Satisfaction Scale (TOSS that can be used to asses athletes’ perception of satisfaction through sport tournaments. An item pool with 33 items was developed by literature reviews and interviews with experts in the area of sport tourism, sport management and coaching. Exploratory Factor Analysis with Maximum Likelihood extraction method and oblique rotation (direct oblimin was carried out by using the data obtained from 278 athletes in various sport branches participated in a tournament as a regional sport tourist. Exploratory Factor Analysis results yielded one factor with 22 items over .50 factor loading. The 22-item TOSS was found to explain 40.3% of the variance in tournament satisfaction. Cronbach alpha coefficient is 0.93 for TOSS indicating satisfactory reliability evidence. Overall, it can be concluded that the scale is reliable and valid tool for evaluating tournament satisfaction from the perceptions of athletes. In this way coaches, team managers, and tournament organizers would possible to obtain important clues about their performances.

  16. Metamaterial Demonstrates Both a High Refractive Index and Extremely Low Reflection in the 0.3-THz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Koki; Suzuki, Takehito

    2017-07-01

    Communication and imaging in the terahertz waveband have advanced rapidly in offering industrial applications. However, optical elements such as collimated lenses in the terahertz waveband are bulky compared with the wavelength due to the lack of naturally occurring substances with a high refractive index and low loss. It is essential to miniaturize optical elements in the terahertz waveband for industrial application. Metamaterials consisting of subwavelength structures can arbitrarily control permittivity and permeability and provide a range of refractive indices. Here, we demonstrate a metamaterial with both a high refractive index and extremely low reflection consisting of symmetrically aligned paired cut metal wires with 18,800 units on the front and back surfaces of a dielectric substrate. Measurements by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) confirm a high effective refractive index of 6.66 + j0.123, extremely low reflection power of 1.16%, and the unprecedented high figure of merit (FOM = |n real/n imag|) of above 300 in the 0.3-THz band. Components with such specifications would enable miniature, high-performance optical elements in the terahertz waveband such as ultrathin flat antennas with high directivity. Further, the concept of the metamaterial with both a high refractive index and extremely low reflection potentially offers a wide range of attractive applications such as solid immersion lenses and cloaking devices.

  17. Metamaterial Demonstrates Both a High Refractive Index and Extremely Low Reflection in the 0.3-THz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Koki; Suzuki, Takehito

    2017-09-01

    Communication and imaging in the terahertz waveband have advanced rapidly in offering industrial applications. However, optical elements such as collimated lenses in the terahertz waveband are bulky compared with the wavelength due to the lack of naturally occurring substances with a high refractive index and low loss. It is essential to miniaturize optical elements in the terahertz waveband for industrial application. Metamaterials consisting of subwavelength structures can arbitrarily control permittivity and permeability and provide a range of refractive indices. Here, we demonstrate a metamaterial with both a high refractive index and extremely low reflection consisting of symmetrically aligned paired cut metal wires with 18,800 units on the front and back surfaces of a dielectric substrate. Measurements by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) confirm a high effective refractive index of 6.66 + j0.123, extremely low reflection power of 1.16%, and the unprecedented high figure of merit (FOM = | n real/ n imag|) of above 300 in the 0.3-THz band. Components with such specifications would enable miniature, high-performance optical elements in the terahertz waveband such as ultrathin flat antennas with high directivity. Further, the concept of the metamaterial with both a high refractive index and extremely low reflection potentially offers a wide range of attractive applications such as solid immersion lenses and cloaking devices.

  18. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source and ultra-high vacuum chamber for studying EUV-induced processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolgov, A.; Yakushev, O.; Abrikosov, A.; Snegirev, E.; Krivtsun, V.M.; Lee, C.J.; Bijkerk, F.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental setup that directly reproduces extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography relevant conditions for detailed component exposure tests is described. The EUV setup includes a pulsed plasma radiation source, operating at 13.5 nm; a debris mitigation system; collection and filtering optics; and

  19. Number of Black Children in Extreme Poverty Hits Record High. Analysis Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    To examine the experiences of black children and poverty, researchers conducted a computer analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey, the source of official government poverty statistics. The data are through 2001. Results indicated that nearly 1 million black children were living in extreme poverty, with after-tax…

  20. Extreme Weight-Control Behaviors and Suicide Risk among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emily R.; Weiler, Robert M.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Pealer, Lisa N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicide is the third leading cause of death for people ages 15-19. Research has established an association across numerous risk factors and suicide, including depression, substance abuse, bullying victimization, and feelings of alienation. However, the connection between disordered eating as manifested in extreme weight-control…

  1. Discovery of extreme [O III] λ5007 Å outflows in high-redshift red quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakamska, Nadia L.; Hamann, Fred; Pâris, Isabelle; Brandt, W. N.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Villforth, Carolin; Wylezalek, Dominika; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Ross, Nicholas P.

    2016-07-01

    Black hole feedback is now a standard component of galaxy formation models. These models predict that the impact of black hole activity on its host galaxy likely peaked at z = 2-3, the epoch of strongest star formation activity and black hole accretion activity in the Universe. We used XSHOOTER on the Very Large Telescope to measure rest-frame optical spectra of four z ˜ 2.5 extremely red quasars with infrared luminosities ˜1047 erg s-1. We present the discovery of very broad (full width at half max = 2600-5000 km s-1), strongly blueshifted (by up to 1500 km s-1) [O III] λ5007 Å emission lines in these objects. In a large sample of type 2 and red quasars, [O III] kinematics are positively correlated with infrared luminosity, and the four objects in our sample are on the extreme end in both [O III] kinematics and infrared luminosity. We estimate that at least 3 per cent of the bolometric luminosity in these objects is being converted into the kinetic power of the observed wind. Photo-ionization estimates suggest that the [O III] emission might be extended on a few kpc scales, which would suggest that the extreme outflow is affecting the entire host galaxy of the quasar. These sources may be the signposts of the most extreme form of quasar feedback at the peak epoch of galaxy formation, and may represent an active `blow-out' phase of quasar evolution.

  2. Further Evidence on the "Costs of Privilege": Perfectionism in High-Achieving Youth at Socioeconomic Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Emily L.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2014-01-01

    This study involved two academically-gifted samples of 11th and 12th grade youth at the socioeconomic status (SES) extremes; one from an exclusive private, affluent school, and the other from a magnet school with low-income students. Negative and positive adjustment outcomes were examined in relation to multiple dimensions of perfectionism…

  3. Extreme Weight-Control Behaviors and Suicide Risk among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emily R.; Weiler, Robert M.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Pealer, Lisa N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicide is the third leading cause of death for people ages 15-19. Research has established an association across numerous risk factors and suicide, including depression, substance abuse, bullying victimization, and feelings of alienation. However, the connection between disordered eating as manifested in extreme weight-control…

  4. Distinctive properties of high hydrogen producing extreme thermophiles, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotaga elfii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Haas, de G.G.; Wal, van der F.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Growth and hydrogen production by two extreme thermophiles during sugar fermentation was investigated. In cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus grown on sucrose and Thermotoga elfii grown on glucose stoichiometries of 3.3 mol of hydrogen and 2 mol of acetate per mol C6-sugar unit were obt

  5. The effect of high performance HR practices on employees' job satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GÜRBÜZ, Sait

    2009-01-01

    ... yöneten takımlar), hedef alınan firmalarda çalışan işgörenlerin iş tatminini anlamlı düzeyde açıkladığı görülmüştür. The purpose of this paper is to investigate potential impacts of high performance HR...

  6. Improvement of PCR-free NGS Library Preparation to Obtain Uniform Read Coverage of Genome with Extremely High AT Content

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A.; Storton, D.; Buckles, J.; Llinas, M.; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    PCR amplification is commonly used in generating libraries for Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) to efficiently enrich and amplify sequenceable DNA fragments. However, it introduces bias in the representation of the original complex template DNA. Such artifact has devastating effects in sequencing genomes with highly unbalanced base composition: regions of extremely high or low GC content, which are a substantial fraction of such genomes, are often covered with zero or near-zero read depth. PC...

  7. Reduced Worries of Hypoglycaemia, High Satisfaction, and Increased Perceived Ease of Use after Experiencing Four Nights of MD-Logic Artificial Pancreas at Home (DREAM4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ziegler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study assesses the impact of using an AP-system at home on fear of hypoglycaemia. In addition, satisfaction and acceptance of the new technology are evaluated. Methods. In a multicentre, multinational study of 75 patients using the MD-Logic AP during four consecutive nights in home setting 59 of them (aged 10–54 years, 54% male, HbA1c 7.89 ± 0.69% [62.72 ± 7.51 mmol/mol], diabetes duration 11.6 ± 8.4 yrs answered standardized questionnaires (HFS, adapted TAM, and AP satisfaction before and after using the AP. Results. After experiencing the AP in home setting worries of hypoglycaemia were significantly reduced (before 1.04 ± 0.53 versus after 0.90 ± 0.63; P=0.017. Perceived ease of use as a measure of acceptance with the AP significantly increased after personal experience (before 4.64 ± 0.94 versus after 5.06 ± 1.09; P=0.002. The overall satisfaction mean score after using the AP was 3.02 ± 0.54 (range 0–4, demonstrating a high level of satisfaction with this technology. Conclusions. The four-night home-based experience of using MD Logic AP was associated with reduced worries of hypoglycaemia, high level of satisfaction, and increased perceived ease of use of the new technology in children, adolescents, and adults.

  8. High Resolution Modeling in Mountainous Terrain for Water Resource Management: AN Extreme Precipitation Event Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarik, M. T.; Watson, K. A.; Flores, A. N.; Anderson, K.; Tangen, S.

    2016-12-01

    The water resources infrastructure of the Western US is designed to deliver reliable water supply to users and provide recreational opportunities for the public, as well as afford flood control for communities by buffering variability in precipitation and snow storage. Thus water resource management is a balancing act of meeting multiple objectives while trying to anticipate and mitigate natural variability of water supply. Currently, the forecast guidance available to personnel managing resources in mountainous terrain is lacking in two ways: the spatial resolution is too coarse, and there is a gap in the intermediate time range (10-30 days). To address this need we examine the effectiveness of using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a state of the art, regional, numerical weather prediction model, as a means to generate high-resolution weather guidance in the intermediate time range. This presentation will focus on a reanalysis and hindcasting case study of the extreme precipitation and flooding event in the Payette River Basin of Idaho during the period of June 2nd-4th, 2010. For the reanalysis exercise we use NCEP's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data sets as input boundary conditions to WRF. The model configuration includes a horizontal spatial resolution of 3km in the outer nest, and 1 km in the inner nest, with output temporal resolution of 3 hrs and 1 hr, respectively. The hindcast simulations, which are currently underway, will make use of the NCEP Climate Forecast System Reforecast (CFSRR) data. The current state of these runs will be discussed. Preparations for the second of two components in this project, weekly WRF forecasts during the intense portion of the water year, will be briefly described. These forecasts will use the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) operational forecast data as boundary conditions to provide forecast guidance geared towards water resource

  9. Solar cosmic rays during the extremely high ground level enhancement on 23 February 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belov

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The 23 February 1956 ground level enhancement of the solar cosmic ray intensity (GLE05 is the most famous among the proton events observed since 1942. But we do not have a great deal of information on this event due to the absence of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field measurements at that time. Furthermore, there were no X-Ray or gamma observations and the information on the associated flare is limited. Cosmic ray data was obtained exclusively by ground level detectors of small size and in some cases of a non-standard design. In the present work all available data from neutron monitors operating in 1956 were analyzed, in order to develop a model of the solar cosmic ray behavior during the event. The time-dependent characteristics of the cosmic ray energy spectrum, cosmic ray anisotropy, and differential and integral fluxes have been evaluated utilizing different isotropic and anisotropic models. It is shown that the most outstanding features of this proton enhancement were a narrow and extremely intense beam of ultra-relativistic particles arriving at Earth just after the onset and the unusually high maximum solar particle energy. However, the contribution of this beam to the overall solar particle density and fluency was not significant because of its very short duration and small width. Our estimate of the integral flux for particles with energies over 100 MeV places this event above all subsequent. Perhaps the number of accelerated low energy particles was closer to a record value, but these particles passed mainly to the west of Earth.

    Many features of this GLE are apparently explained by the peculiarity of the particle interplanetary propagation from a remote (near the limb source. The quality of the available neutron monitor data does not allow us to be certain of some details; these may be cleared up by the incorporation into the analysis of data from muonic telescopes and ionization chambers

  10. Changes in extreme high-temperature tolerance and activities of antioxidant enzymes of sacred lotus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, YanFen; Cheng, HongYan; Song, SongQuan

    2008-09-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. 'Tielian') seed is long-lived and extremely tolerant of high temperature. Water content of lotus and maize seeds was 0.103 and 0.129 g H2O [g DW](-1), respectively. Water content, germination percentage and fresh weight of seedlings produced by surviving seeds gradually decreased with increasing treatment time at 100 degrees C. Germination percentage of maize (Zea mays L. 'Huangbaogu') seeds was zero after they were treated at 100 degrees C for 15 min and that of lotus seeds was 13.5% following the treatment at 100 degrees C for 24 h. The time in which 50% of lotus and maize seeds were killed by 100 degrees C was about 14.5 h and 6 min, respectively. With increasing treatment time at 100 degrees C, relative electrolyte leakage of lotus axes increased significantly, and total chlorophyll content of lotus axes markedly decreased. When treatment time at 100 degrees C was less than 12 h, subcellular structure of lotus hypocotyls remained fully intact. When treatment time at 100 degrees C was more than 12 h, plasmolysis gradually occurred, endoplasmic reticulum became unclear, nuclei and nucleoli broke down, most of mitochondria swelled, lipid granules accumulated at the cell periphery, and organelles and plasmolemma collapsed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content of lotus axes and cotyledons decreased during 0 -12 h of the treatment at 100 degrees C and then increased. By contrast, the MDA content of maize embryos and endosperms increased during 5-10 min of the treatment at 100 degrees C and then decreased slightly. For lotus seeds: (1) activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) of axes and cotyledons and of catalase (CAT) of axes increased during the early phase of treatment at 100 degrees C and then decreased; and (2) activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) of axes and cotyledons and of CAT of cotyledons gradually decreased with increasing treatment time at 100 degrees

  11. Changes in extreme high-temperature tolerance and activities of antioxidant enzymes of sacred lotus seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YanFen; CHENG HongYan; SONG SongQuan

    2008-01-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. 'Tielian') seed is long-lived and extremely tolerant of high temperature. Water content of lotus and maize seeds was 0.103 and 0.129 g H2O [g DW]-1, respectively. Water content, germination percentage and fresh weight of seedlings produced by surviving seeds gradually decreased with increasing treatment time at 100℃. Germination percentage of maize (Zea mays L. 'Huangbaogu') seeds was zero after they were treated at 100℃ for 15 min and that of lotus seeds was 13.5% following the treatment at 100℃ for 24 h. The time in which 50% of lotus and maize seeds were killed by 100℃ was about 14.5 h and 6 min, respectively. With increasing treatment time at 100℃, relative electrolyte leakage of lotus axes increased significantly, and total chlorophyll content of lotus axes markedly decreased. When treatment time at 100℃ was less than 12 h, subcellular structure of lotus hypocotyls remained fully intact. When treatment time at 100℃ was more than 12 h, plasmoly-sis gradually occurred, endoplasmic reticulum became unclear, nuclei and nucleoli broke down, most of mitochondria swelled, lipid granules accumulated at the cell periphery, and organelles and plas-molemma collapsed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content of lotus axes and cotyledons decreased during 0 -12 h of the treatment at 100℃ and then increased. By contrast, the MDA content of maize embryos and endosperms increased during 5-10 min of the treatment at 100℃ and then decreased slightly. For lotus seeds: (1) activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) of axes and cotyledons and of catalase (CAT) of axes increased during the early phase of treatment at 100℃ and then decreased; and (2) activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) of axes and cotyledons and of CAT of cotyledons gradually decreased with increasing treat-ment time at 100℃. For maize seeds: (1) activities of SOD and DHAR of embryos and

  12. Changes in extreme high-temperature tolerance and activities of antioxidant enzymes of sacred lotus seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ‘Tielian’) seed is long-lived and extremely tolerant of high temperature. Water content of lotus and maize seeds was 0.103 and 0.129 g H2O [g DW] ?1, respectively. Water content, germination percentage and fresh weight of seedlings produced by surviving seeds gradually decreased with increasing treatment time at 100℃. Germination percentage of maize (Zea mays L. ‘Huangbaogu’) seeds was zero after they were treated at 100℃ for 15 min and that of lotus seeds was 13.5% following the treatment at 100℃ for 24 h. The time in which 50% of lotus and maize seeds were killed by 100℃ was about 14.5 h and 6 min, respectively. With increasing treatment time at 100℃, relative electrolyte leakage of lotus axes increased significantly, and total chlorophyll content of lotus axes markedly decreased. When treatment time at 100℃ was less than 12 h, subcellular structure of lotus hypocotyls remained fully intact. When treatment time at 100℃ was more than 12 h, plasmoly-sis gradually occurred, endoplasmic reticulum became unclear, nuclei and nucleoli broke down, most of mitochondria swelled, lipid granules accumulated at the cell periphery, and organelles and plas-molemma collapsed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content of lotus axes and cotyledons decreased during 0-12 h of the treatment at 100℃ and then increased. By contrast, the MDA content of maize embryos and endosperms increased during 5-10 min of the treatment at 100℃ and then decreased slightly. For lotus seeds: (1) activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) of axes and cotyledons and of catalase (CAT) of axes increased during the early phase of treatment at 100℃ and then decreased; and (2) activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) of axes and cotyledons and of CAT of cotyledons gradually decreased with increasing treat-ment time at 100℃. For maize seeds: (1) activities of SOD and DHAR of embryos and

  13. Temporal Changes in Extreme High Temerature, Heat Waves in Istanbul Between 1960-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yürük, C.; Ünal, Y. S.; Bilgen, S. I.; Menteş, Ş. S.; İncecik, S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has crucial effects on cities and especially for informal settlements, urban poor and other vulnerable groups by influencing human health, assets and livelihoods. These impacts directly result from the variations in temperature and precipitation, and emergence of heat waves, droughts, floods and fires (IPCC, 2014). Summertime episodes with extremely high air temperatures which last for several days or longer are addressed to as heat waves and affect the weather and climate in the globe. The aim of this study is to analyze the occurrence of heat waves in terms of quantity, duration and frequency and also to evaluate the accuracy of the COSMO-CLM (CCLM) model in reproducing the characteristics of heat waves in Istanbul. The summer maximum temperatures of six Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS) stations are selected between 1960 and 2014 to estimate the characteristics of heat waves in Istanbul. We define the heat wave if the maximum temperatures exceed a threshold value for at least three consecutive days. The threshold value is determined as 30.5 from the 90th percentile of all six station's observations. Then it is used in the detection of the hot days, heat waves and their durations. The results show that not only the number of heat waves but also duration of heat waves increase towards the end of the study period. Especially, a significant increase in heat wave events is evident after 1990s. In 2012, the number of hot days reaches the maximum value in all stations and Kartal station located southern part of city, has the highest value of 60 hot days. Furthermore, Kartal as an urban area in the Asian side of the city, exhibits highest heat wave duration with 18 consecutive days in 1998. To estimate the relationship between urban heat island intensity and the heat waves, we examined data at 43 stations collected by Disaster Coordination Center and TSMS between 2007 and 2012. Urban heat island phenomenon is found to be related to higher

  14. EXTREME METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND METABOLIC PROFILE IN HIGH YIELDING HOLSTEINFRIESIAN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. GERGÁCZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of two years (2002 and 2003 with different summer temperature extremes on variation in metabolic profile was analyzed in blood and urine samples taken from healthy, primiparous (n = 371 and multiparous (n = 795 high yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. In this study main focus was lead on three most critical physiological phases, thus cows were assigned into three groups as follows: (1 dry cows for 10 days prior to calving; (2 cows 1-30 days after delivery, and (3 cows with more than 31 days post partum. Findings reveal clear response of the cows to heat in selected blood (hemoglobin, plasma aceto-acetic-acid, FFA, AST, glucose, urea and urine (pH, NABE and urea parameters. In the majority of cows, glucose and hemoglobin level, one of the most significant blood parameters, indicated symptoms of insufficient energy supply. Further metabolic indicators differed more or less from reference values depending on actual condition. Due to heat load dry matter intake has been decreased even by 10-15 per cent in primiparous cows. They were expected to increase body weight and size and simultaneously produce attain at large milk yields. In doing so that cows would have require large amount of nutrients. Out of parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, FFA, AST and blood-urea differed from the reference values in most cases; however, this phenomenon seemed to be present in almost every case for hemoglobin and glucose. The lack of energy caused by heat stress can be contributed to the decrease of dry matter intake which has been indicated by the urea levels and pH both in blood and urine prevailing unfavorable and insufficient feeding practice. The results reconfirm the need to reconsider both the actual feeding practice (e.g. to increase of nutrient content in rations, reduce the intake of soluble proteins in rumen, pay attention of crude fiber in Total Mixed Rations (TMR, NDF and ADF, avoid overfeeding of inorganic buffers, to control moisture

  15. Association Between Sexual Problems and Relationship Satisfaction Among People With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Molly; Murphy, Patrick; D'Eath, Maureen; Doherty, Sally; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2017-05-01

    Relationship satisfaction is generally positively correlated with sexual satisfaction, but this relation has been poorly examined in people with cardiovascular disease who are at increased risk of sexual problems compared with the general population. To document reported changes to sex after a diagnosis of cardiac disease and determine whether there is an association between sexual function and relationship satisfaction. Semistructured telephone interviews focused on relationship satisfaction and sexual problems were conducted with 201 people with cardiovascular disease who were currently in a sexual relationship with one main partner and were recruited from six hospital cardiac rehabilitation centers in Ireland. Comparisons between groups were conducted using t-tests and multivariate analysis of variance for continuous variables and χ(2) tests for categorical variables. Predictors of relationship satisfaction were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Data were gathered on demographic and clinical variables, sexual problems, and relationship satisfaction, including satisfaction with the physical, emotional, affection, and communication aspects of relationships. Just less than one third of participants (n = 61, 30.3%) reported that sex had changed for the worse since their cardiac event or diagnosis, with approximately half of these stating that this was a serious problem for them. Satisfaction with relationships was high among patients surveyed; more than 70% of the sample reported being very or extremely satisfied with the physical and emotional aspects and showing affection during sex. Satisfaction with communication about sex was lower, with only 58% reporting being very or extremely satisfied. We did not find significant associations between reporting of sexual problems or deterioration of sex as a result of disease and relationship satisfaction. Cardiac rehabilitation programs should address these sexual problems, potentially by enhancing

  16. Correlates of appearance and weight satisfaction in a U.S. National Sample: Personality, attachment style, television viewing, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Morse, Patrick J; Swami, Viren

    2016-06-01

    We examined the prevalence and correlates of satisfaction with appearance and weight. Participants (N=12,176) completed an online survey posted on the NBCNews.com and Today.com websites. Few men and women were very to extremely dissatisfied with their physical appearances (6%; 9%), but feeling very to extremely dissatisfied with weight was more common (15%; 20%). Only about one-fourth of men and women felt very to extremely satisfied with their appearances (28%; 26%) and weights (24%; 20%). Men and women with higher body masses reported higher appearance and weight dissatisfaction. Dissatisfied people had higher Neuroticism, more preoccupied and fearful attachment styles, and spent more hours watching television. In contrast, satisfied people had higher Openness, Conscientious, and Extraversion, were more secure in attachment style, and had higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. These findings highlight the high prevalence of body dissatisfaction and the factors linked to dissatisfaction among U.S. adults.

  17. Life Satisfaction of the Elderly American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Freddie L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines generally high life satisfaction of 58 elderly reservation American Indians and its relationship to selected internal and external environmental factors. Suggests that internal environmental variables may be useful indicators of life satisfaction and that subjective measures of life satisfaction may be more predictive of mental health…

  18. Job Satisfaction among Women in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywczynski, James V.; Crowley, John H.

    A study examined job satisfaction among women in advertising. Subjects were 48 female respondents from a mail survey of membership of a Midwest advertising club. Two types of job satisfaction measures were used: items from the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and the action tendency scales developed by E. Locke. The results showed a high level…

  19. Extreme High and Low Temperature Operation of the Silicon-On-Insulator Type CHT-OPA Operational Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    A new operational amplifier chip based on silicon-on-insulator technology was evaluated for potential use in extreme temperature environments. The CHT-OPA device is a low power, precision operational amplifier with rail-to-rail output swing capability, and it is rated for operation between -55 C and +225 C. A unity gain inverting circuit was constructed utilizing the CHT-OPA chip and a few passive components. The circuit was evaluated in the temperature range from -190 C to +200 C in terms of signal gain and phase shift, and supply current. The investigations were carried out to determine suitability of this device for use in space exploration missions and aeronautic applications under wide temperature incursion. Re-restart capability at extreme temperatures, i.e. power switched on while the device was soaked at extreme temperatures, was also investigated. In addition, the effects of thermal cycling under a wide temperature range on the operation of this high performance amplifier were determined. The results from this work indicate that this silicon-on-insulator amplifier chip maintained very good operation between +200 C and -190 C. The limited thermal cycling had no effect on the performance of the amplifier, and it was able to re-start at both -190 C and +200 C. In addition, no physical degradation or packaging damage was introduced due to either extreme temperature exposure or thermal cycling. The good performance demonstrated by this silicon-on-insulator operational amplifier renders it a potential candidate for use in space exploration missions or other environments under extreme temperatures. Additional and more comprehensive characterization is, however, required to establish the reliability and suitability of such devices for long term use in extreme temperature applications.

  20. Pyogenic Arthritis of the Ankle Joint Following a High-Voltage Electrical Burn in the Lower Extremity: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kuk Seon; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Kang, Ik Won; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Eil Seong; Min, Seon Jung; Han, You Mie [Dept. of Radiology, Hangang Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eil Seong [Dept.of Radiology, Gyeongju Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    A high-voltage electrical burn caused extensive deep muscle injuries beneath a relatively small skin wound at the contact point. Hidden, undetected deep muscle injuries have a tendency for progressive tissue necrosis, which can lead to major amputations or sepsis. The radiologic features of this rare, sometimes life-threatening injury have occasionally been described in the literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports on a case of pyogenic arthritis of the ankle joint following a high-voltage electrical burn involving the lower extremity. We report a case of the pyogenic arthritis of the ankle joint following a high-voltage electrical burn involving the lower extremity.

  1. Probing the origin of cosmic-rays with extremely high energy neutrinos using the IceCube Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Arguelles, C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grandmont, D T; Grant, D; Gretskov, P; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kriesten, A; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Macías, O; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zoll, M

    2013-01-01

    We have searched for extremely high energy neutrinos using data taken with the IceCube detector between May 2010 and May 2012. Two neutrino induced particle shower events with energies around 1 PeV were observed, as reported previously. In this work, we investigate whether these events could originate from cosmogenic neutrinos produced in the interactions of ultra-high energy cosmic-rays with ambient photons while propagating through intergalactic space. Exploiting IceCube's large exposure for extremely high energy neutrinos and the lack of observed events above 100 PeV, we can rule out the corresponding models at more than 90% confidence level. The model independent quasi-differential 90% CL upper limit, which amounts to $E^2 \\phi_{\

  2. Greater increases in temperature extremes in low versus high income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Nicholas; Alexander, Lisa; Green, Donna; Donat, Markus

    2017-03-01

    It is commonly expected that the world’s lowest income countries will face some of the worst impacts of global warming, despite contributing the least to greenhouse gas emissions. Using global atmospheric reanalyses we show that the world’s lowest income countries are already experiencing greater increases in the occurrence of temperature extremes compared to the highest income countries, and have been for over two decades. Not only are low income countries less able to support mitigation and adaptation efforts, but their typically equatorial location predisposes them to lower natural temperature variability and thus greater changes in the occurrence of temperature extremes with global warming. This aspect of global warming is well known but overlooked in current international climate policy agreements and we argue that it is an important factor in reducing inequity due to climate impacts.

  3. Comparison of coronagraphs for high contrast imaging in the context of Extremely Large Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, P; Kasper, M; Cavarroc, C; Yaitskova, N; Fusco, T; Verinaud, C

    2008-01-01

    We compare coronagraph concepts and investigate their behavior and suitability for planet finder projects with Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs, 30-42 meters class telescopes). For this task, we analyze the impact of major error sources that occur in a coronagraphic telescope (central obscuration, secondary support, low-order segment aberrations, segment reflectivity variations, pointing errors) for phase, amplitude and interferometric type coronagraphs. This analysis is performed at two different levels of the detection process: under residual phase left uncorrected by an eXtreme Adaptive Optics system (XAO) for a large range of Strehl ratio and after a general and simple model of speckle calibration, assuming common phase aberrations between the XAO and the coronagraph (static phase aberrations of the instrument) and non-common phase aberrations downstream of the coronagraph (differential aberrations provided by the calibration unit). We derive critical parameters that each concept will have to cope with by...

  4. Kelp and seaweed feeding by High-Arctic wild reindeer under extreme winter conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    One challenge in current Arctic ecological research is to understand and predict how wildlife may respond to increased frequencies of ‘‘extreme’’ weather events. Heavy rain-on-snow (ROS) is one such extreme phenomenon associated with winter warming that is not well studied but has potentially profound ecosystem effects through changes in snow-pack properties and ice formation. Here, we document how ice-locked pastures following substantial amounts of ROS forced coastal Svalbard reindeer (Rang...

  5. Weather extremes in very large, high-resolution ensembles: the weatherathome experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Rosier, S.; Massey, N.; Rye, C.; Bowery, A.; Miller, J.; Otto, F.; Jones, R.; Wilson, S.; Mote, P.; Stone, D. A.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Carrington, D.

    2011-12-01

    Resolution and ensemble size are often seen as alternatives in climate modelling. Models with sufficient resolution to simulate many classes of extreme weather cannot normally be run often enough to assess the statistics of rare events, still less how these statistics may be changing. As a result, assessments of the impact of external forcing on regional climate extremes must be based either on statistical downscaling from relatively coarse-resolution models, or statistical extrapolation from 10-year to 100-year events. Under the weatherathome experiment, part of the climateprediction.net initiative, we have compiled the Met Office Regional Climate Model HadRM3P to run on personal computer volunteered by the general public at 25 and 50km resolution, embedded within the HadAM3P global atmosphere model. With a global network of about 50,000 volunteers, this allows us to run time-slice ensembles of essentially unlimited size, exploring the statistics of extreme weather under a range of scenarios for surface forcing and atmospheric composition, allowing for uncertainty in both boundary conditions and model parameters. Current experiments, developed with the support of Microsoft Research, focus on three regions, the Western USA, Europe and Southern Africa. We initially simulate the period 1959-2010 to establish which variables are realistically simulated by the model and on what scales. Our next experiments are focussing on the Event Attribution problem, exploring how the probability of various types of extreme weather would have been different over the recent past in a world unaffected by human influence, following the design of Pall et al (2011), but extended to a longer period and higher spatial resolution. We will present the first results of the unique, global, participatory experiment and discuss the implications for the attribution of recent weather events to anthropogenic influence on climate.

  6. Discovery of extreme [OIII]5007A outflows in high-redshift red quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Zakamska, Nadia L; Pâris, Isabelle; Brandt, W N; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A; Villforth, Carolin; Wylezalek, Dominika; Alexandroff, Rachael M; Ross, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Black hole feedback is now a standard component of galaxy formation models. These models predict that the impact of black hole activity on its host galaxy likely peaked at z=2-3, the epoch of strongest star formation activity and black hole accretion activity in the Universe. We used XShooter on the Very Large Telescope to measure rest-frame optical spectra of four z~2.5 extremely red quasars with infrared luminosities ~10^47 erg/sec. We present the discovery of very broad (full width at half max= 2600-5000 km/sec), strongly blue-shifted (by up to 1500 km/sec) [OIII]5007A emission lines in these objects. In a large sample of obscured and red quasars, [OIII] kinematics are positively correlated with infrared luminosity, and the four objects in our sample are on the extreme end both in [OIII] kinematics and infrared luminosity. We estimate that ~3% of the bolometric luminosity in these objects is being converted into the kinetic power of the observed wind. These sources may be the signposts of the most extreme ...

  7. Correlation of PUV and SUV in the extremities while using PEM as a high-resolution positron emission scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, Sania [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mawlawi, Osama; Taylor, Shree; Millican, Richelle; Swanston, Nancy M.; Rohren, Eric M. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Fox, Patricia [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Biostatistics, Houston, TX (United States); Brown, J.E. [Yale University Hospital, Department of Radiology, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Owing to its unique configuration of two adjustable plate detectors positron emission mammography, or PEM, could theoretically also function as a high-resolution positron emission scanner for the extremities or neck. PEM quantitates its activity via a ''PEM uptake value,'' or PUV, and although its relationship to the standardized uptake value, or SUV, has been demonstrated in the breasts, to our knowledge there are no studies validating PUV in other sites such as the extremities. This was a retrospective chart review of two separate protocols of a total of 15 patients. The patients all had hypermetabolic lesions in the extremities or neck on imaging with PET/CT and were sent after their PET/CT to PEM for further imaging. Owing to the sequential nature of these examinations no additional radiotracer was administered. Spearman's rank order correlation was calculated between the PUVmax obtained from PEM images, and the SUVmax for all. Spearman's rank order correlation for all sites was 0.42, which is not significantly different from 0 (p = 0.13). When neck lesions were excluded from the group, there was a strong and statistically significant correlation between PUVmax and SUVmax, with Spearman's rank correlation of 0.73, and significantly different from 0 (p = 0.0068). The correlation of PUV and SUV in the extremities indicates the potential use of PEM as a semiquantitative, high-resolution positron emission scanner and warrants further investigation, especially in the realms of disease processes that often present in the extremities, such as melanoma, osteomyelitis, and arthritis, as well as playing a role in the imaging of patients with metallic hardware post-limb salvage surgery. (orig.)

  8. Detection and Attribution of Climate Change : From global mean temperature change to climate extremes and high impact weather.

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This talk will describe how evidence has grown in recent years for a human influence on climate and explain how the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that it is extremely likely (>95% probability) that human influence on climate has been the dominant cause of the observed global-mean warming since the mid-20th century. The fingerprint of human activities has also been detected in warming of the ocean, in changes in the global water cycle, in reductions in snow and ice, and in changes in some climate extremes. The strengthening of evidence for the effects of human influence on climate extremes is in line with long-held basic understanding of the consequences of mean warming for temperature extremes and for atmospheric moisture. Despite such compelling evidence this does not mean that every instance of high impact weather can be attributed to anthropogenic climate change, because climate variability is often a major factor in many locations, especially for rain...

  9. Career satisfaction and professional accomplishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Kowitt, Benjamin; Doria, Cataldo; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2010-10-01

    Research on doctor career satisfaction has often focused on factors such as income, specialty, gender, work hours, autonomy, patient load, lifestyle preferences, work environment, and insurance regulations. Other educational, personal and professional factors have not received sufficient empirical attention. This study was designed to test the following five hypotheses that doctors' career satisfaction is associated with: (i) Higher satisfaction with their undergraduate medical education; (ii) Greater academic and clinical competence; (iii) More involvement in teaching and research activities; (iv) Higher orientation toward lifelong learning; and (v) Increased professional accomplishments. A survey was mailed in 2006 to a national sample of 5349 doctors in the United States who graduated from Jefferson Medical College between 1975 and 2000; 3170 (59%) returned completed surveys. Based on responses to a career satisfaction question, doctors were classified into three groups: Highly satisfied (top third, n=1078); moderately satisfied (middle third, n=1031); and least satisfied (bottom third, n=1061). These groups were compared on a number of variables. All five research hypotheses were confirmed. Additionally, no significant association was observed between career satisfaction, age, years in practice, gender, or ethnicity; however, career satisfaction was associated with doctors' specialties. The findings suggest that factors such as satisfaction with medical education, medical school class rank, assessments of clinical competence, teaching, and research activities, orientation toward lifelong learning, and professional accomplishments should be considered for a more comprehensive understanding of doctors' career satisfaction. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  10. Career satisfaction of surgical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Sagar S

    2011-05-01

    To examine the factors that impact career satisfaction for various surgical specialties. An acute shortage of surgeons is anticipated in the future. Career dissatisfaction can make this already difficult situation worse. It is important to understand and address factors that influence career satisfaction of surgeons to prolong tenure of existing surgeons and understand anticipated needs of future surgeons. The Center for Studying Health System Change 2008 Health Tracking Physician Survey data were used in this study. Regression analysis was done to examine the impact of various practice-related factors, compensation-related factors, practice location, extent of minority patient, and various demographics on career satisfaction of various surgical specialties (n = 762). Among practice related factors, although threat of malpractice had a significant negative impact on career satisfaction, ability to provide quality care to patients and time with patients had a significant positive impact on career satisfaction of surgical specialists. Among compensation related factors, income and financial incentives to expand services had a significant positive impact on career satisfaction. Among practice location factors, those who primarily worked in medical schools were significantly more satisfied with their careers than others. Among minority factors, those treating a large proportion of Hispanic patients were significantly less likely to be satisfied with their careers. Ability to provide quality care, time with patients, income, and financial incentives had a significant positive impact on career satisfaction. Similarly, threat of malpractice and high proportion of Hispanic patients had a negative impact on career satisfaction.

  11. A new extension of the polarizable continuum model: Toward a quantum chemical description of chemical reactions at extreme high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammi, Roberto

    2015-11-15

    A quantum chemical method for studying potential energy surfaces of reactive molecular systems at extreme high pressures is presented. The method is an extension of the standard Polarizable Continuum Model that is usually used for Quantum Chemical study of chemical reactions at a standard condition of pressure. The physical basis of the method and the corresponding computational protocol are described in necessary detail, and an application of the method to the dimerization of cyclopentadiene (up to 20 GPa) is reported.

  12. Probing the origin of cosmic-rays with extremely high energy neutrinos using the IceCube Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.;

    2013-01-01

    originate from cosmogenic neutrinos produced in the interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with ambient photons while propagating through intergalactic space. Exploiting IceCube’s large exposure for extremely high energy neutrinos and the lack of observed events above 100 PeV, we can rule out...... cosmological evolution of the highest energy cosmic-ray sources such as the Fanaroff-Riley type II class of radio galaxies....

  13. The first search for extremely-high energy cosmogenic neutrinos with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Alba, J L Bazo; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K -H; Benabderrahmane, M L; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; B?oser, S; Botner, O; Bradley, L; Braun, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Demir?ors, L; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; D?ıaz-V?elez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Duvoort, M R; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdeg°ard, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Ganugapati, R; Geisler, M; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Gl?usenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; H?ulß, J -P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Imlay, R L; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K -H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kemming, N; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Knops, S; K?ohne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; K?opke, L; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Lauer, R; Lehmann, R; Lennarz, D; L?unemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Matusik, M; Meagher, K; Merck, M; M?esz?aros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Nießen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Heros, C P?erez de los; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Roucelle, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H -G; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schukraft, A; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tosi, D; Tur?can, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Voigt, B; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wikstr?om, G; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P

    2010-01-01

    We report on the results of the search for extremely-high energy (EHE) neutrinos with energies above $10^7$ GeV obtained with the partially ($\\sim$30%) constructed IceCube in 2007. From the absence of signal events in the sample of 242.1 days of effective livetime, we derive a 90% C.L. model independent differential upper limit based on the number of signal events per energy decade at $E^2 \\phi_{\

  14. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ACUTE EFFECTS OF STATIC STRETCHING, DYNAMIC EXERCISES, AND HIGH VOLUME UPPER EXTREMITY PLYOMETRIC ACTIVITY ON TENNIS SERVE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Gelen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static stretching; dynamic exercises and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity on tennis serve performance. Twenty-six elite young tennis players (15.1 ± 4.2 years, 167.9 ± 5.8 cm and 61.6 ± 8.1 kg performed 4 different warm-up (WU routines in a random order on non-consecutive days. The WU methods consisted of traditional WU (jogging, rally and serve practice (TRAD; traditional WU and static stretching (TRSS; traditional WU and dynamic exercise (TRDE; and traditional WU and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity (TRPLYP. Following each WU session, subjects were tested on a tennis serve ball speed test. TRAD, TRSS, TRDE and TRPLYO were compared by repeated measurement analyses of variance and post-hoc comparisons. In this study a 1 to 3 percent increase in tennis serve ball speed was recorded in TRDE and TRPLYO when compared to TRAD (p 0.05. ICCs for ball speed showed strong reliability (0.82 to 0.93 for the ball speed measurements.The results of this study indicate that dynamic and high volume upper extremity plyometric WU activities are likely beneficial to serve speed of elite junior tennis players.

  16. The Influence of Tropical Forcing on Westerly Disturbances: Implications for Extreme Precipitation in High Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, F.; Carvalho, L. V.; Jones, C.; Norris, J.; Kiladis, G. N.; Hoell, A.

    2015-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones, including winter westerly disturbances (WD) over central Asia, are fundamental features of the atmosphere that redistribute energy, momentum, and moisture from global to regional scales. Within the Karakoram and western Himalaya (KH), snowfall from only a few WD each winter maintains the region's snowpack and its vast network of glaciers, which seasonally melt to sustain water resources for downstream populations across Asia. WD activity and subsequent precipitation in the mountains are influenced by global atmospheric variability and tropical-extratropical interactions. This research explores the independent influences of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation on WD and extreme precipitation events in the KH. On interannual time-scales, El Niño suppresses convection in the Indian Ocean and induces a Rossby wave response over Southwest Asia that is linked with enhanced dynamical forcing of WD and available moisture content. Consequently, extreme orographic precipitation events are more frequent during El Niño than La Niña or neutral conditions. A similar spatial pattern of tropical diabatic heating anomalies is produced by the MJO at intraseasonal scales. In comparison to El Niño, the Rossby wave response to MJO activity is less spatially uniform over southwest Asia and exists on a much shorter time-scale. Consequently, this mode's relationship with WD behavior and KH precipitation is more complex. Phases of the MJO propagation cycle that favor the dynamical enhancement of WD simultaneously suppress available moisture over southwest Asia, and vice versa. As a result, extreme precipitation events in the KH occur with similar frequency in most phases of the MJO, however, the relative importance of the dynamic and thermodynamic components of WD to orographic precipitation in the KH transitions as the MJO propagates. These findings give insight into the dynamics and predictability of extreme precipitation

  17. Extreme Multiplex Spectrograph: An efficient mechanical design for high-demanding requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Becerril, S; Dubbeldam, C M; Content, R; Rohloff, R R; Prada, F; Shanks, T; Sharples, R

    2010-01-01

    XMS is a multi-channel wide-field spectrograph designed for the prime focus of the 3.5m Calar-Alto telescope. The instrument is composed by four quadrants, each of which contains a spectrograph channel. An innovative mechanical design -at concept/preliminary stage- has been implemented to: 1) Minimize the separation between the channels to achieve maximal filling factor; 2) Cope with the very constraining space and mass overall requirements; 3) Achieve very tight alignment tolerances; 4) Provide lens self-centering under large temperature excursions; 5) Provide masks including 4000 slits (edges thinner than 100\\mu). An overview of this extremely challenging mechanical design is here presented.

  18. State-of-the-Art of Extreme Pressure Lubrication Realized with the High Thermal Diffusivity of Liquid Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijiang; Tian, Pengyi; Lu, Hongyu; Jia, Wenpeng; Du, Haodong; Zhang, Xiangjun; Li, Qunyang; Tian, Yu

    2017-02-15

    Sliding between two objects under very high load generally involves direct solid-solid contact at molecular/atomic level, the mechanism of which is far from clearly disclosed yet. Those microscopic solid-solid contacts could easily lead to local melting of rough surfaces. At extreme conditions, this local melting could propagate to the seizure and welding of the entire interface. Traditionally, the microscopic solid-solid contact is alleviated by various lubricants and additives based on their improved mechanical properties. In this work, we realized the state-of-the-art of extreme pressure lubrication by utilizing the high thermal diffusivity of liquid metal, 2 orders of magnitude higher than general organic lubricants. The extreme pressure lubrication property of gallium based liquid metal (GBLM) was compared with gear oil and poly-α-olefin in a four-ball test. The liquid metal lubricates very well at an extremely high load (10 kN, the maximum capability of a four-ball tester) at a rotation speed of 1800 rpm for a duration of several minutes, much better than traditional organic lubricants which typically break down within seconds at a load of a few kN. Our comparative experiments and analysis showed that this superextreme pressure lubrication capability of GBLM was attributed to the synergetic effect of the ultrafast heat dissipation of GBLM and the low friction coefficient of FeGa3 tribo-film. The present work demonstrated a novel way of improving lubrication capability by enhancing the lubricant thermal properties, which might lead to mechanical systems with much higher reliability.

  19. Kelp and seaweed feeding by High-Arctic wild reindeer under extreme winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brage Bremset Hansen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One challenge in current Arctic ecological research is to understand and predict how wildlife may respond to increased frequencies of “extreme” weather events. Heavy rain-on-snow (ROS is one such extreme phenomenon associated with winter warming that is not well studied but has potentially profound ecosystem effects through changes in snow-pack properties and ice formation. Here, we document how ice-locked pastures following substantial amounts of ROS forced coastal Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus to use marine habitat in late winter 2010. A thick coat of ground ice covered 98% of the lowland ranges, almost completely blocking access to terrestrial forage. Accordingly, a population census revealed that 13% of the total population (n=26 of 206 individuals and 21% of one sub-population were feeding on washed-up kelp and seaweed on the sea-ice foot. Calves were overrepresented among the individuals that applied this foraging strategy, which probably represents a last attempt to avoid starvation under particularly severe foraging conditions. The study adds to the impression that extreme weather events such as heavy ROS and associated icing can trigger large changes in the realized foraging niche of Arctic herbivores.

  20. S-shape relationship between customer satisfaction and willingness to pay premium prices for high quality cured pork products in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes-Torres, Alejandro; Muñoz-Gallego, Pablo A; Cotes-Torres, José Miguel

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores 2 different probabilistic models explaining willingness to pay premium prices for high-quality cured products from the swine industry. Seven cured pork products (sausage, fuet, ham, loin, shoulder, salami and pepperoni) were studied in 9 food-stores in Valladolid, Spain. Consumers of the products were interviewed (686 completed surveys). It was found by using mixed effect statistical models that the relationship between willingness to pay a premium price and customer satisfaction had nonlinear behavior, following an S-shape with inverted slope which was the first empirical evidence of this type of behavior in meat products in real market conditions. It was also established that the interaction between satisfaction and current expenditure on the product was significant and indispensable for explaining consumers' willingness to pay premium price for cured pork products.

  1. High Resolution Simulation of a Colorado Rockies Extreme Snow and Rain Event in both a Current and Future Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Roy; Ikeda, Kyoko; Liu, Changhai; Gutmann, Ethan; Gochis, David

    2016-04-01

    Modeling of extreme weather events often require very finely resolved treatment of atmospheric circulation structures in order to produce and localize the large moisture fluxes that result in extreme precipitation. This is particularly true for cool season orographic precipitation processes where the representation of the landform can significantly impact vertical velocity profiles and cloud moisture entrainment rates. This study presents results for high resolution regional climate modeling study of the Colorado Headwaters region using an updated version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model run at 4 km horizontal resolution and a hydrological extension package called WRF-Hydro. Previous work has shown that the WRF modeling system can produce credible depictions of winter orographic precipitation over the Colorado Rockies if run at horizontal resolutions warming on total precipitation, snow-rain partitioning and surface hydrological fluxes (evapotranspiration and runoff) will be discussed in the context of how potential changes in temperature impact the amount of precipitation, the phase of precipitation (rain vs. snow) and the timing and amplitude of streamflow responses. The results show using the Pseudo Global Warming technique that intense precipitation rates significantly increased during the event and a significant fraction of the snowfall converts to rain which significantly amplifies the runoff response from one where runoff is produced gradually to one in which runoff is rapidly translated into streamflow values that approach significant flooding risks. Results from a new, CONUS scale high resolution climate simulation of extreme events in a current and future climate will be presented as time permits.

  2. XMM-Newton analysis of a newly discovered, extremely X-ray luminous galaxy cluster at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoelken, S.; Schrabback, T.

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy clusters, the largest virialized structures in the universe, provide an excellent method to test cosmology on large scales. The galaxy cluster mass function as a function of redshift is a key tool to determine the fundamental cosmological parameters and especially measurements at high redshifts can e.g. provide constraints on dark energy. The fgas test as a direct cosmological probe is of special importance. Therefore, relaxed galaxy clusters at high redshifts are needed but these objects are considered to be extremely rare in current structure formation models. Here we present first results from an XMM-Newton analysis of an extremely X-ray luminous, newly discovered and potentially cool core cluster at a redshift of z=0.9. We carefully account for background emission and PSF effects and model the cluster emission in three radial bins. Our preliminary results suggest that this cluster is indeed a good candidate for a cool core cluster and thus potentially of extreme value for cosmology.

  3. Spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet light pulses from high-order harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötzing, M.; Adam, R.; Weier, C.; Plucinski, L.; Eich, S.; Emmerich, S.; Rollinger, M.; Aeschlimann, M.; Mathias, S.; Schneider, C. M.

    2016-04-01

    The fundamental mechanism responsible for optically induced magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films has been under intense debate since almost two decades. Currently, numerous competing theoretical models are in strong need for a decisive experimental confirmation such as monitoring the triggered changes in the spin-dependent band structure on ultrashort time scales. Our approach explores the possibility of observing femtosecond band structure dynamics by giving access to extended parts of the Brillouin zone in a simultaneously time-, energy- and spin-resolved photoemission experiment. For this purpose, our setup uses a state-of-the-art, highly efficient spin detector and ultrashort, extreme ultraviolet light pulses created by laser-based high-order harmonic generation. In this paper, we present the setup and first spin-resolved spectra obtained with our experiment within an acquisition time short enough to allow pump-probe studies. Further, we characterize the influence of the excitation with femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by comparing the results with data acquired using a continuous wave light source with similar photon energy. In addition, changes in the spectra induced by vacuum space-charge effects due to both the extreme ultraviolet probe- and near-infrared pump-pulses are studied by analyzing the resulting spectral distortions. The combination of energy resolution and electron count rate achieved in our setup confirms its suitability for spin-resolved studies of the band structure on ultrashort time scales.

  4. Shallow gene pools in the high intertidal: extreme loss of genetic diversity in viviparous sea stars (Parvulastra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keever, Carson C; Puritz, Jonathan B; Addison, Jason A; Byrne, Maria; Grosberg, Richard K; Toonen, Robert J; Hart, Michael W

    2013-10-23

    We document an extreme example of reproductive trait evolution that affects population genetic structure in sister species of Parvulastra cushion stars from Australia. Self-fertilization by hermaphroditic adults and brood protection of benthic larvae causes strong inbreeding and range-wide genetic poverty. Most samples were fixed for a single allele at nearly all nuclear loci; heterozygotes were extremely rare (0.18%); mitochondrial DNA sequences were more variable, but few populations shared haplotypes in common. Isolation-with-migration models suggest that these patterns are caused by population bottlenecks (relative to ancestral population size) and low gene flow. Loss of genetic diversity and low potential for dispersal between high-intertidal habitats may have dire consequences for extinction risk and potential for future adaptive evolution in response to climate and other selective agents.

  5. Using extreme value theory approaches to forecast the probability of outbreak of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangpeng Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza is a contagious disease with high transmissibility to spread around the world with considerable morbidity and mortality and presents an enormous burden on worldwide public health. Few mathematical models can be used because influenza incidence data are generally not normally distributed. We developed a mathematical model using Extreme Value Theory (EVT to forecast the probability of outbreak of highly pathogenic influenza.The incidence data of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang province from April 2009 to November 2013 were retrieved from the website of Health and Family Planning Commission of Zhejiang Province. MATLAB "VIEM" toolbox was used to analyze data and modelling. In the present work, we used the Peak Over Threshold (POT model, assuming the frequency as a Poisson process and the intensity to be Pareto distributed, to characterize the temporal variability of the long-term extreme incidence of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang, China.The skewness and kurtosis of the incidence of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang between April 2009 and November 2013 were 4.49 and 21.12, which indicated a "fat tail" distribution. A QQ plot and a mean excess plot were used to further validate the features of the distribution. After determining the threshold, we modeled the extremes and estimated the shape parameter and scale parameter by the maximum likelihood method. The results showed that months in which the incidence of highly pathogenic influenza is about 4462/2286/1311/487 are predicted to occur once every five/three/two/one year, respectively.Despite the simplicity, the present study successfully offers the sound modeling strategy and a methodological avenue to implement forecasting of an epidemic in the midst of its course.

  6. High Precision Astrometry with MICADO at the European Extremely Large Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, S; Eisenhauer, F; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Fritz, T K; Genzel, R

    2009-01-01

    In this article we identify and discuss various statistical and systematic effects influencing the astrometric accuracy achievable with MICADO, the near-infrared imaging camera proposed for the 42-metre European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These effects are instrumental (e.g. geometric distortion), atmospheric (e.g. chromatic differential refraction), and astronomical (reference source selection). We find that there are several phenomena having impact on ~100 micro-arcsec scales, meaning they can be substantially larger than the theoretical statistical astrometric accuracy of an optical/NIR 42m-telescope. Depending on type, these effects need to be controlled via dedicated instrumental design properties or via dedicated calibration procedures. We conclude that if this is done properly, astrometric accuracies of 40 micro-arcsec or better - with 40 micro-arcsec/year in proper motions corresponding to ~20 km/s at 100 kpc distance - can be achieved in one epoch of actual observations

  7. GTC optical imaging of extremely red 5C radio galaxies at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, A; Lagos, P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of seven unusual radio galaxies from the 5C catalogue that were previously known to have extremely red R-K colours, and for which emission lines were previously found to be weak or absent in their optical spectra. We present and discuss u, g, or r images of these radio galaxies, obtained using the Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) at the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). We have detected all seven targets in our g-band imaging. Their optical emission is extended, and we tentatively detect a radio-optical alignment effect in this sample. A subset of our sample (three sources) shows broad-band spectral energy distributions that flatten out near the wavelength range of the g-band, implying a dominant contribution there due to young stars and/or scattered or reprocessed radiation from the active nucleus.

  8. High-fidelity numerical modeling of the Upper Mississippi River under extreme flood condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Le, Trung; DeWall, Petra; Bartelt, Nicole; Woldeamlak, Solomon; Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-12-01

    We present data-driven numerical simulations of extreme flooding in a large-scale river coupling coherent-structure resolving hydrodynamics with bed morphodynamics under live-bed conditions. The study area is a ∼ 3.2 km long and ∼ 300 m wide reach of the Upper Mississippi River, near Minneapolis MN, which contains several natural islands and man-made hydraulic structures. We employ the large-eddy simulation (LES) and bed-morphodynamic modules of the Virtual Flow Simulator (VFS-Rivers) model, a recently developed in-house code, to investigate the flow and bed evolution of the river during a 100-year flood event. The coupling of the two modules is carried out via a fluid-structure interaction approach using a nested domain approach to enhance the resolution of bridge scour predictions. We integrate data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), sub-aqueous sonar apparatus on-board a boat and in-situ laser scanners to construct a digital elevation model of the river bathymetry and surrounding flood plain, including islands and bridge piers. A field campaign under base-flow condition is also carried out to collect mean flow measurements via Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to validate the hydrodynamic module of the VFS-Rivers model. Our simulation results for the bed evolution of the river under the 100-year flood reveal complex sediment transport dynamics near the bridge piers consisting of both scour and refilling events due to the continuous passage of sand dunes. We find that the scour depth near the bridge piers can reach to a maximum of ∼ 9 m. The data-driven simulation strategy we present in this work exemplifies a practical simulation-based-engineering-approach to investigate the resilience of infrastructures to extreme flood events in intricate field-scale riverine systems.

  9. Analysis of employee satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cikrytová, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    The thesis contains analysis of job satisfaction employees of call center. In the theoretical part is defined conception of job satisfaction, are described deteminants of job satisfaction and relationship between job satisfaction and work motivation. In the practical part are analysed results of questionnaire survey and there are presented suggestions measures to increas job satisfaction. The respondents were asked about satisfaction with the content of work, remuneration, work organization, ...

  10. Clinical Implications of Diffuse Excessive High Signal Intensity (DEHSI on Neonatal MRI in School Age Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Broström

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain carried out during the neonatal period shows that 55-80% of extremely preterm infants display white matter diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI. Our aim was to study differences in developmental outcome at the age of 6.5 years in children born extremely preterm with and without DEHSI.This was a prospective cohort study of 83 children who were born in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2004 and 2007, born at gestational age of < 27 weeks + 0 days and who underwent an MRI scan of their brain at term equivalent age. The outcome measures at 6.5 years included testing 66 children with the modified Touwen neurology examination, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Beery Visual-motor Integration test-Sixth Edition, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Group-wise comparisons were done between children with and without DEHSI using Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Chi square test and regression analysis.DEHSI was detected in 39 (59% of the 66 children who were assessed at 6.5 years. The presence of DEHSI was not associated with mild neurological dysfunction, scores on M-ABC assessment, cognition, visual-motor integration, or behavior at 6.5 years.The presence of qualitatively defined DEHSI on neonatal MRI did not prove to be a useful predictor of long-term impairment in children born extremely preterm.

  11. Local impact analysis of climate change on precipitation extremes: are high-resolution climate models needed for realistic simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Hossein; De Troch, Rozemien; Giot, Olivier; Hamdi, Rafiq; Termonia, Piet; Saeed, Sajjad; Brisson, Erwan; Van Lipzig, Nicole; Willems, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    This study explores whether climate models with higher spatial resolutions provide higher accuracy for precipitation simulations and/or different climate change signals. The outputs from two convection-permitting climate models (ALARO and CCLM) with a spatial resolution of 3-4 km are compared with those from the coarse-scale driving models or reanalysis data for simulating/projecting daily and sub-daily precipitation quantiles. Validation of historical design precipitation statistics derived from intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves shows a better match of the convection-permitting model results with the observations-based IDF statistics compared to the driving GCMs and reanalysis data. This is the case for simulation of local sub-daily precipitation extremes during the summer season, while the convection-permitting models do not appear to bring added value to simulation of daily precipitation extremes. Results moreover indicate that one has to be careful in assuming spatial-scale independency of climate change signals for the delta change downscaling method, as high-resolution models may show larger changes in extreme precipitation. These larger changes appear to be dependent on the timescale, since such intensification is not observed for daily timescales for both the ALARO and CCLM models.

  12. The Impact of Sport on the Overall Standard of Satisfaction of Students with Physical Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergendiová Flóra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Life satisfaction is the main goal that people try to achieve in their lives. This study aims to broaden the knowledge of overall life satisfaction of physically handicapped students performing sports. The Satisfaction with Life scale was used to assess the overall life satisfaction SWLS and Emotional Habitual Subjective Well-Being questionnaire SEHP. The research sample consisted of 25 physically handicapped students. Based on their performance in physical education and sport they were divided into 2 groups: regularly active in sports (36 % and occasionally active in sports (64 %. The results showed at an interesting fact, 66 % of regularly active students in sports with a physical handicap were found on the high level of life satisfaction (44 % and extremely high level of life satisfaction (22.2 %, comparing to occasionally active students in sports, who supported only 18.8 % of the particular category. 12.5 % of occasionally active students in sports feel physical vigour, mainly after coming from physiotherapy and after getting enough sleep. Regularly active peers in sports feel physical vigour while performing physical education and sports or after finishing the activity. His spare time is devoted to fitness activities, swimming, table tennis and shooting.

  13. The Imprint of Extreme Climate Events in Century-Long Time Series of Wood Anatomical Traits in High-Elevation Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Marco; Brunetti, Michele; Castagneri, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Extreme climate events are of key importance for forest ecosystems. However, both the inherent infrequency, stochasticity and multiplicity of extreme climate events, and the array of biological responses, challenges investigations. To cope with the long life cycle of trees and the paucity of the extreme events themselves, our inferences should be based on long-term observations. In this context, tree rings and the related xylem anatomical traits represent promising sources of information, due to the wide time perspective and quality of the information they can provide. Here we test, on two high-elevation conifers (Larix decidua and Picea abies sampled at 2100 m a.s.l. in the Eastern Alps), the associations among temperature extremes during the growing season and xylem anatomical traits, specifically the number of cells per ring (CN), cell wall thickness (CWT), and cell diameter (CD). To better track the effect of extreme events over the growing season, tree rings were partitioned in 10 sectors. Climate variability has been reconstructed, for 1800-2011 at monthly resolution and for 1926-2011 at daily resolution, by exploiting the excellent availability of very long and high quality instrumental records available for the surrounding area, and taking into account the relationship between meteorological variables and site topographical settings. Summer temperature influenced anatomical traits of both species, and tree-ring anatomical profiles resulted as being associated to temperature extremes. Most of the extreme values in anatomical traits occurred with warm (positive extremes) or cold (negative) conditions. However, 0-34% of occurrences did not match a temperature extreme event. Specifically, CWT and CN extremes were more clearly associated to climate than CD, which presented a bias to track cold extremes. Dendroanatomical analysis, coupled to high-quality daily-resolved climate records, seems a promising approach to study the effects of extreme events on trees

  14. Work-family conflict and safety participation of high-speed railway drivers: Job satisfaction as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Guo, Ming; Ye, Long; Liao, Ganli; Yang, Zhehan

    2016-10-01

    Despite the large body of work on the work-family interface, hardly any literature has addressed the work-family interface in safety-critical settings. This study draws from social exchange theory to examine the effect of employees' strain-based work-to-family conflict on their supervisors' rating of their safety participation through job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 494 drivers from a major railway company in China. The results of a structural equation model revealed that drivers' strain-based work-to-family conflict negatively influences safety participation, and the relationship was partially mediated by job satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of reducing employees' work-to-family conflict in safety-critical organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Level of satisfaction of clients of public pharmacies dispensing high-cost drugs in Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Oliveira dos Santos Cassaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of satisfaction of pharmaceutical services and to determine the socioeconomic profile of public pharmacy clients. This is a cross-sectional observational study using a quantitative approach. The sample was calculated from the monthly number of patients seen in pharmacies and was stratified for each pharmacy. Data were analysed using SPSS 11.5 software and by observing the simple relative frequencies for qualitative variables. For the quantitative variables, the analysis of variance (ANOVA and post-hoc Fisher tests were performed. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD. The results show that, in general, patients at "Farmácias cidadãs" are satisfied with the services. However, when stratified, we found that the greatest satisfaction was related only to structural and organizational aspects, while the pharmaceutical services are unsatisfactory. When relating satisfaction to the socioeconomic characteristics, a difference between waiting time (39.07 ± 19.53, attendance by pharmacist (8.91 ± 5.14 and education was observed. It is concluded that users are satisfied with the services of state "Farmácias cidadãs" of Espírito Santo, but there should be improvements in relation to pharmaceutical services and the interpersonal relationships between health professionals and users of the public health system in Brazil.

  16. Factors influencing professional life satisfaction among neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2017-06-19

    Predicted shortages in the supply of neurologists may limit patients' access to and quality of care for neurological disorders. Retaining neurologists already in practice provides one opportunity to support the overall supply of practicing neurologists. Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice. In this paper, we present results from the first study examining factors associated with professional life satisfaction among a large sample of U.S, neurologists. We collaborated with the AAN to survey a sample of U.S. neurologists about their professional life satisfaction. Analyses examined the association of physician and practice characteristics with aspects of professional life satisfaction, including satisfaction with their career in medicine, medical specialty, current position, relationship with colleagues, relationship with patients, work/life balance, and pay. The study population consisted of 625 neurologists. In multivariate regression analyses, no single group or population stratum indicated high (or low) responses to all aspects of satisfaction. Older neurologists reported higher satisfaction with career, specialty, and relationship with patients than younger neurologists. Female neurologists had significantly lower satisfaction with pay than male neurologists. Neurologists who spent more time in research and teaching had greater satisfaction with specialty, relationship with colleagues, and relationship with patients than those spending no time in research. Neurologists who practiced in small cities/rural areas reported lower satisfaction across multiple dimensions than those practicing in large urban areas. Neurologists in solo practice had greater satisfaction with the relationship with their patients, but lower satisfaction with pay. Satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that is associated with

  17. An extremely low power voltage reference with high PSRR for power-aware ASICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihai, Duan; Dongyu, Deng; Weilin, Xu; Baolin, Wei

    2015-09-01

    An extremely low power voltage reference without resistors is presented for power-aware ASICs. In order to reduce the power dissipation, an Oguey current reference source is used to reduce the static current; a cascode current mirror is used to increase the power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) and reduce the line sensitivity of the circuit. The voltage reference is fabricated in SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS process. The measured results for the voltage reference demonstrate that the temperature coefficient of the voltage is 66 ppm/°C in a range from 25 to 100 °C. The line sensitivity is 0.9% in a supply voltage range of 1.8 to 3.3 V, and PSRR is -49 dB at 100 Hz. The power dissipation is 200 nW. The chip area is 0.01 mm2. The circuit can be used as an elementary circuit block for power-aware ASICs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61161003, 61264001, 61166004) and the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (No. 2013GXNSFAA019333).

  18. Brain Tumour Segmentation based on Extremely Randomized Forest with high-level features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Adriano; Pereira, Sergio; Correia, Higino; Oliveira, J; Rasteiro, Deolinda M L D; Silva, Carlos A

    2015-08-01

    Gliomas are among the most common and aggressive brain tumours. Segmentation of these tumours is important for surgery and treatment planning, but also for follow-up evaluations. However, it is a difficult task, given that its size and locations are variable, and the delineation of all tumour tissue is not trivial, even with all the different modalities of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We propose a discriminative and fully automatic method for the segmentation of gliomas, using appearance- and context-based features to feed an Extremely Randomized Forest (Extra-Trees). Some of these features are computed over a non-linear transformation of the image. The proposed method was evaluated using the publicly available Challenge database from BraTS 2013, having obtained a Dice score of 0.83, 0.78 and 0.73 for the complete tumour, and the core and the enhanced regions, respectively. Our results are competitive, when compared against other results reported using the same database.

  19. CHANGES IN FREQUENCY, PERSISTENCE AND INTENSITY OF EXTREME HIGH-TEMPERATURE EVENTS IN THE ROMANIAN PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOTĂ CARMEN-SOFIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent summer heat waves (2003, 2010 had a strong socio-economic impact in different parts of the continent by means of crop shortfalls and forest fires. Sustained hot days became more frequent in the recent decades in many European regions, affecting human health and leading to additional deaths. This signal has been outlined in many studies conducted in Romania, suggesting that the southern region of Romania is particularly subject to large temperature increase. This work investigates the changing annual and seasonal heat waves at regional scale of the Romanian Plain, over period 1961-2014. Daily maximum temperature recorded at six weather stations available from the ECA&D project (European Climate Assessment and Datasets were analyzed. The changes in the seasonal frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves were studied using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test, as recommended by the scientific expert team on climate change detection. The likelyhood of higher maximum temperatures rise, particularly after the mid 1980s, and the changes in the upper tail of the probability density functions of these temperatures, within the extreme domain (beyond the 95% percentile level, explain the persistence and intensity of heat waves. The upward trends are dominant most of the year, and many of the calculated decadal slopes were found statistically significant (relative to the 5% level, proving an ongoing and strong warming all over the region. Our findings are in good agreement with several recent studies carried out at European and national scale and pledge for further scientific analyses i.e. heat stress impact on public health and agriculture.

  20. Fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic low back and lower extremity pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Shai N

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine if fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (FS-TENS) is effective in treating chronic low back and lower extremity pain. Background Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is widely used for treatment of chronic pain. General-purpose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation devices are designed for stimulation anywhere on the body and often cannot be used while the user is active or sleeping. FS-TENS devices are designed for placement at a pre-determined location, which enables development of a wearable device for use over extended time periods. Methods Study participants with chronic low back and/or lower extremity pain self-administered an FS-TENS device for 60 days. Baseline, 30-, and 60-day follow-up data were obtained through an online questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was the patient global impression of change. Pain intensity and interference were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Changes in use of concomitant pain medications were evaluated with a single-item global self-rating. Results One hundred and thirty participants were enrolled, with 88 completing the 60-day follow-up questionnaire. Most participants (73.9%) were 50 years of age or older. At baseline, low back pain was identified by 85.3%, lower extremity pain by 71.6%, and upper extremity pain by 62.5%. Participants reported widespread pain, at baseline, with a mean of 3.4 (standard deviation 1.1) pain sites. At the 60-day follow-up, 80.7% of participants reported that their chronic pain had improved and they were classified as responders. Baseline characteristics did not differentiate non-responders from responders. There were numerical trends toward reduced pain interference with walking ability and sleep, and greater pain relief in responders. There was a large difference in use of concomitant pain medications, with 80.3% of responders reporting a reduction compared to 11.8% of non

  1. Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  2. Extended-range grazing-incidence spectrometer for high-resolution extreme ultraviolet measurements on an electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Brown, G. V.; Träbert, E.; Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    A high-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer has been implemented on the Livermore electron beam ion traps for performing very high-resolution measurements in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet region spanning from below 10 Å to above 300 Å. The instrument operates without an entrance slit and focuses the light emitted by highly charged ions located in the roughly 50 μm wide electron beam onto a cryogenically cooled back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector. The measured line widths are below 0.025 Å above 100 Å, and the resolving power appears to be limited by the source size and Doppler broadening of the trapped ions. Comparisons with spectra obtained with existing grating spectrometers show an order of magnitude improvement in spectral resolution.

  3. Comb-based radio-frequency photonic filters: rounts to nanosecond tuning speed and extremely high stopband attenuation

    CERN Document Server

    Supradeepa, V R; Wu, Rui; Ferdous, Fahmida; Hamidi, Ehsan; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M

    2011-01-01

    Photonic technologies have received considerable attention for enhancement of radio-frequency (RF) electrical systems, including high-frequency analog signal transmission, control of phased arrays, analog-to-digital conversion, and signal processing. Although the potential of radio-frequency photonics for implementation of tunable electrical filters over broad RF bandwidths has been much discussed, realization of programmable filters with highly selective filter lineshapes has faced significant challenges. In this paper we show that a new approach based on optical frequency combs enables dramatic progress. A novel comb generation scheme employing tailored electro-optic modulation and cascaded four-wave mixing results in approximately Gaussian RF filter lineshapes with extremely high (>60 dB) out-of-band suppression. A modification of our approach provides RF filter tuning through optical delay variation and decouples filter tuning and lineshape control. By exploiting a dual-comb scheme, the optical delay and ...

  4. Visualization tools for extremely high resolution DEM from the LRO and other orbiter satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J.; McDonald, John

    2012-10-01

    Recent space missions have included laser altimetry instrumentation that provides precise high-resolution global topographic data products. These products are critical in analyzing geomorphological surface processes of planets and moons. Although highly valued, the high-resolution data is often overlooked by researchers due to the high level of IT sophistication necessary to use the high-resolution data products, which can be as large as several hundred gigabytes. Researchers have developed software tools to assist in viewing and manipulating data products derived from altimetry data, however current software tools require substantial off-line processing, provide rudimentary visualization or are not suited for viewing the new high-resolution data. We have adapted mVTK, a novel software visualization tool, to work with NASA's recently acquired Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data. mVTK is a software visualization package that dynamically creates cylindrical cartographic map projections from gridded high-resolution altimetry data in real-time. The projections are interactive 2D shade relief, false color maps that allow the user to make simple slope and distance measurements on the actual underlying high-resolution data. We have tested mVTK on several laser altimetry data sets including binned gridded record data from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter space missions.

  5. Centrifugal Step Emulsification can Produce Water in Oil Emulsions with Extremely High Internal Volume Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Schuler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The high throughput preparation of emulsions with high internal volume fractions is important for many different applications, e.g., drug delivery. However, most emulsification techniques reach only low internal volume fractions and need stable flow rates that are often difficult to control. Here, we present a centrifugal high throughput step emulsification disk for the fast and easy production of emulsions with high internal volume fractions above 95%. The disk produces droplets at generation rates of up to 3700 droplets/s and, for the first time, enables the generation of emulsions with internal volume fractions of >97%. The coefficient of variation between droplet sizes is very good (4%. We apply our system to show the in situ generation of gel emulsion. In the future, the recently introduced unit operation of centrifugal step emulsification may be used for the high throughput production of droplets as reaction compartments for clinical diagnostics or as starting material for micromaterial synthesis.

  6. High-space resolution imaging plate analysis of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from tin laser-produced plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, Christopher S A; Murakami, Takehiro; Ugomori, Teruyuki; Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Atarashi, Hironori; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Nagai, Keiji

    2017-03-01

    With the advent of high volume manufacturing capabilities by extreme ultraviolet lithography, constant improvements in light source design and cost-efficiency are required. Currently, light intensity and conversion efficiency (CE) measurments are obtained by charged couple devices, faraday cups etc, but also phoshpor imaging plates (IPs) (BaFBr:Eu). IPs are sensitive to light and high-energy species, which is ideal for studying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from laser produced plasmas (LPPs). In this work, we used IPs to observe a large angular distribution (10°-90°). We ablated a tin target by high-energy lasers (1064 nm Nd:YAG, 10(10) and 10(11) W/cm(2)) to generate the EUV light. The europium ions in the IP were trapped in a higher energy state from exposure to EUV light and high-energy species. The light intensity was angular dependent; therefore excitation of the IP depends on the angle, and so highly informative about the LPP. We obtained high-space resolution (345 μm, 0.2°) angular distribution and grazing spectrometer (5-20 nm grate) data simultaneously at different target to IP distances (103 mm and 200 mm). Two laser systems and IP types (BAS-TR and BAS-SR) were also compared. The cosine fitting values from the IP data were used to calculate the CE to be 1.6% (SD ± 0.2) at 13.5 nm 2% bandwidth. Finally, a practical assessment of IPs and a damage issue are disclosed.

  7. High-space resolution imaging plate analysis of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from tin laser-produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, Christopher S. A.; Murakami, Takehiro; Ugomori, Teruyuki; Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Atarashi, Hironori; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Nagai, Keiji

    2017-03-01

    With the advent of high volume manufacturing capabilities by extreme ultraviolet lithography, constant improvements in light source design and cost-efficiency are required. Currently, light intensity and conversion efficiency (CE) measurments are obtained by charged couple devices, faraday cups etc, but also phoshpor imaging plates (IPs) (BaFBr:Eu). IPs are sensitive to light and high-energy species, which is ideal for studying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light from laser produced plasmas (LPPs). In this work, we used IPs to observe a large angular distribution (10°-90°). We ablated a tin target by high-energy lasers (1064 nm Nd:YAG, 1010 and 1011 W/cm2) to generate the EUV light. The europium ions in the IP were trapped in a higher energy state from exposure to EUV light and high-energy species. The light intensity was angular dependent; therefore excitation of the IP depends on the angle, and so highly informative about the LPP. We obtained high-space resolution (345 μm, 0.2°) angular distribution and grazing spectrometer (5-20 nm grate) data simultaneously at different target to IP distances (103 mm and 200 mm). Two laser systems and IP types (BAS-TR and BAS-SR) were also compared. The cosine fitting values from the IP data were used to calculate the CE to be 1.6% (SD ± 0.2) at 13.5 nm 2% bandwidth. Finally, a practical assessment of IPs and a damage issue are disclosed.

  8. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  9. High energy density and extreme field physics in the transparent-overdense regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, Kin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bowers, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gautier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huang, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jung, D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniyappan, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shah, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fernandez, J. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dromey, B [QUEENS UNIV BELFAST; Henig, A [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Horlein, R [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Kefer, D. [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Tajima, T [LUDWIG-MAXIMILIN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Yan, X [QUEENS UNIV BELFAST; Habs, D [LUDWIG-MAXIMILIAN-UNIV MUNCHEN

    2011-01-31

    Conclusions of this report are: (1) high harmonics generated on solid surfaces are a very versatile source of intense coherent XUV radiation; (2) high harmonics can be used to probe and monitor the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with nm-scale foil targets; (3) direct measurement of target density during relativistic interaction; (4) high harmonics generated with PW-scale short-pulse lasers could serve as unique backlighting sources for a wide range experiments; and (5) Trident can be a test bed to develop such experiments and the required instrumentation.

  10. MR imaging findings of high-voltage electrical burns in the upper extremities: correlation with angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyung Kyu; Kang, Ik Won; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Min, Seon Jung; Han, You Mi (Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Suh, Kyung Jin (Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Gyeongju Hospital, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)), email: kyungjin.suh@gmail.com; Choi, Min Ho (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-02-15

    Background: A high-voltage electrical burn is often associated with deep muscle injuries. Hidden, undetected deep muscle injuries have a tendency for progressive tissue necrosis, and this can lead to major amputations or sepsis. MRI has excellent soft tissue contrast and it may aid in differentiating the areas of viable deep muscle from the areas of non-viable deep muscle. Purpose: To describe the MR imaging findings of a high-voltage electrical burn in the upper extremity with emphasis on the usefulness of the gadolinium-enhanced MRI and to compare the MR imaging findings with angiography. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of six patients with high-voltage electrical burns who underwent both MRI and angiography at the burn center of our hospital from January 2005 to December 2009. The imaging features were evaluated for the involved locations, the MR signal intensity of the affected muscles, the MR enhancement pattern, the involved arteries and the angiographic findings (classified as normal, sluggish flow, stenosis or occlusion) of the angiography of the upper extremity. We assessed the relationship between the MR imaging findings and the angiographic findings. Results: The signal intensities of affected muscles were isointense or of slightly high signal intensity as compared with the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T1-weighted MR images. Affected muscles showed heterogenous high signal intensity relative to the adjacent unaffected skeletal muscle on the T2- weighted images. The gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images showed diffuse inhomogeneous enhancement or peripheral rim enhancement of the affected muscles. The angiographic findings of the arterial injuries showed complete occlusion in three patients, severe stenosis in two patients and sluggish flow in one patient. Of these, the five patients with complete occlusion or severe stenosis on angiography showed non-perfused and non-viable areas of edematous muscle on

  11. Extreme Cosmic-Ray-Dominated-Regions: a new paradigm for high star formation density events in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Thi, Wing-Fai; Viti, Serena

    2010-01-01

    We examine in detail the recent proposal that extreme Cosmic-Ray-Dominated-Regions (CRDRs) characterize the ISM of galaxies during events of high-density star formation, fundamentally altering its initial conditions (Papadopoulos 2010). Solving the coupled chemical and thermal state equations for dense UV-shielded gas reveals that the large cosmic ray energy densities in such systems (U_{CR}~(few)x(10^3-10^4) U_{CR,Gal}) will indeed raise the minimum temperature of this phase (where the initial conditions of star formation are set) from ~10K (as in the Milky Way) to ~(50-100)K. Moreover in such extreme CRDRs the gas temperature remains fully decoupled from that of the dust, with T_{kin} >> T_{dust}, even at high densities (n(H_2)~10^5--10^6 cm^{-3}), quite unlike CRDRs in the Milky Way where T_k~T_{dust} when n(H_2) >= 10^5 cm^{-3}. These dramatically different star formation initial conditions will: a) boost the Jeans mass of UV-shielded gas regions by factors of ~10--100 with respect to those in quiescent o...

  12. Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their effects on bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soghomonyan, Diana; Trchounian, Karen; Trchounian, Armen

    2016-06-01

    Millimeter waves (MMW) or electromagnetic fields of extremely high frequencies at low intensity is a new environmental factor, the level of which is increased as technology advance. It is of interest that bacteria and other cells might communicate with each other by electromagnetic field of sub-extremely high frequency range. These MMW affected Escherichia coli and many other bacteria, mainly depressing their growth and changing properties and activity. These effects were non-thermal and depended on different factors. The significant cellular targets for MMW effects could be water, cell plasma membrane, and genome. The model for the MMW interaction with bacteria is suggested; a role of the membrane-associated proton FOF1-ATPase, key enzyme of bioenergetic relevance, is proposed. The consequences of MMW interaction with bacteria are the changes in their sensitivity to different biologically active chemicals, including antibiotics. Novel data on MMW effects on bacteria and their sensitivity to different antibiotics are presented and discussed; the combined action of MMW and antibiotics resulted with more strong effects. These effects are of significance for understanding changed metabolic pathways and distinguish role of bacteria in environment; they might be leading to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The effects might have applications in the development of technique, therapeutic practices, and food protection technology.

  13. Novel High-Temperature Pressure Sensors for Extreme Service Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research will result in a prototype high temperature pressure sensing cell based on the piezoresistive properties of platinum:tungsten alloys. The...

  14. Assessment of high latitude variability and extreme events in the Bering Sea as simulated by a global climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Joshua M.

    Atmospheric and Oceanic observations of the Arctic and Subarctic are relatively sparse and hinder our ability to analyze short term variability and long-duration anomalies of physical and biological variables over decadal time scales. Earth System Models (ESM's), such as the Community Earth System Model (CESM1), represent a useful tool to advance the understanding and the predictive potential of large-scale shifts in the climate and climate related impacts. This thesis initially focuses on assessing the skill of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4), to capture natural variability of the climate system. Subsequently, I examine the impacts of variability and seasonal-scale extremes of the physical environment on the marine ecosystem of the eastern Bering Sea as simulated by an earth system model, the CESM1, which includes the CCSM4 and earth system elements. A performance assessment of key atmospheric components (air temperature, sea level pressure, wind speed and direction) simulated by the CCSM4 over the Bering Sea and Arctic domains suggests a general improvement in model predictions at high latitudes relative to the model's predecessor, the CCSM3. However, several shortcomings, with possible implications for marine ecosystem modeling, still remain in this version of the CCSM. The most important of which includes an under-simulated Siberian High and a large northwest displacement of the Aleutian Low resulting in a negative bias of up to 8 hPa over the Bering Sea. The simulated inter-annual variability of surface air temperature and sea level pressure over the Bering Sea was found to exceed observed variability by ˜1.5 to 2 times. The displaced pressure systems and increased variability could have important ramifications for modeling efforts that use CCSM atmospheric output as drivers for marine ecosystem studies. When the CCSM was combined with other earth system elements to form the CESM, the coupled model was found to simulate strong linear relationships

  15. Satisfaction with care in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, J; Perera-Chang, M; Klinkner, G; Soley, I; Marcelli, D; Arkossy, O; Stopper, A; Kimmel, P L

    2006-10-01

    Patient satisfaction is an important aspect of dialysis care, only recently evaluated in clinical studies. We developed a tool to assess peritoneal dialysis (PD) customer satisfaction, and sought to evaluate and validate the Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), quantifying PD patient satisfaction. The CSQ included questions regarding administrative issues, Delivery Service, PD Training, Handling Requests, and transportation. The study was performed using interviews in all Hungarian Fresenius Medical Care dialysis centers offering PD. CSQ results were compared with psychosocial measures to identify if patient satisfaction was associated with perception of social support and illness burden, or depression. We assessed CSQ internal consistency and validity. Factor analysis explored potential underlying dimensions of the CSQ. One hundred and thirty-three patients treated with PD for end-stage renal disease for more than 3 months were interviewed. The CSQ had high internal consistency. There was high patient satisfaction with customer service. PD patient satisfaction scores correlated with quality of life (QOL) and social support measures, but not with medical or demographic factors, or depressive affect. The CSQ is a reliable tool to assess PD customer satisfaction. PD patient satisfaction is associated with perception of QOL. Efforts to improve customer satisfaction may improve PD patients' quantity as well as QOL.

  16. Venus High Temperature Atmospheric Dropsonde and Extreme-Environment Seismometer (HADES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Nathan J.; Salazar, Denise; Stelter, Christopher J.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric composition and geologic structure of Venus have been identified by the US National Research Council's Decadal Survey for Planetary Science as priority targets for scientific exploration, however the high temperature and pressure at the surface, along with the highly corrosive chemistry of the Venus atmosphere, present significant obstacles to spacecraft design that have severely limited past and proposed landed missions. Following the methodology of the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) proposal regime and the Collaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) design protocol, this paper presents a conceptual study and initial feasibility analysis for a Discovery-class Venus lander capable of an extended-duration mission at ambient temperature and pressure, incorporating emerging technologies within the field of high temperature electronics in combination with novel configurations of proven, high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) systems. Radioisotope Thermal Power (RTG) systems and silicon carbide (SiC) communications and data handling are examined in detail, and various high-temperature instruments are proposed, including a seismometer and an advanced photodiode imager. The study combines this technological analysis with proposals for a descent instrument package and a relay orbiter to demonstrate the viability of an integrated atmospheric and in-situ geologic exploratory mission that differs from previous proposals by greatly reducing the mass, power requirements, and cost, while achieving important scientific goals.

  17. High genetic diversity in a potentially vulnerable tropical tree species despite extreme habitat loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika M E Noreen

    Full Text Available Over the last 150 years, Singapore's primary forest has been reduced to less than 0.2% of its previous area, resulting in extinctions of native flora and fauna. Remaining species may be threatened by genetic erosion and inbreeding. We surveyed >95% of the remaining primary forest in Singapore and used eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity indices of 179 adults (>30 cm stem diameter, 193 saplings (>1 yr, and 1,822 seedlings (<1 yr of the canopy tree Koompassia malaccensis (Fabaceae. We tested hypotheses relevant to the genetic consequences of habitat loss: (1 that the K. malaccensis population in Singapore experienced a genetic bottleneck and a reduction in effective population size, and (2 K. malaccensis recruits would exhibit genetic erosion and inbreeding compared to adults. Contrary to expectations, we detected neither a population bottleneck nor a reduction in effective population size, and high genetic diversity in all age classes. Genetic diversity indices among age classes were not significantly different: we detected overall high expected heterozygosity (He = 0.843-0.854, high allelic richness (R = 16.7-19.5, low inbreeding co-efficients (FIS = 0.013-0.076, and a large proportion (30.1% of rare alleles (i.e. frequency <1%. However, spatial genetic structure (SGS analyses showed significant differences between the adults and the recruits. We detected significantly greater SGS intensity, as well as higher relatedness in the 0-10 m distance class, for seedlings and saplings compared to the adults. Demographic factors for this population (i.e. <200 adult trees are a cause for concern, as rare alleles could be lost due to stochastic factors. The high outcrossing rate (tm = 0.961, calculated from seedlings, may be instrumental in maintaining genetic diversity and suggests that pollination by highly mobile bee species in the genus Apis may provide resilience to acute habitat loss.

  18. High genetic diversity in a potentially vulnerable tropical tree species despite extreme habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Annika M E; Webb, Edward L

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 150 years, Singapore's primary forest has been reduced to less than 0.2% of its previous area, resulting in extinctions of native flora and fauna. Remaining species may be threatened by genetic erosion and inbreeding. We surveyed >95% of the remaining primary forest in Singapore and used eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity indices of 179 adults (>30 cm stem diameter), 193 saplings (>1 yr), and 1,822 seedlings (tree Koompassia malaccensis (Fabaceae). We tested hypotheses relevant to the genetic consequences of habitat loss: (1) that the K. malaccensis population in Singapore experienced a genetic bottleneck and a reduction in effective population size, and (2) K. malaccensis recruits would exhibit genetic erosion and inbreeding compared to adults. Contrary to expectations, we detected neither a population bottleneck nor a reduction in effective population size, and high genetic diversity in all age classes. Genetic diversity indices among age classes were not significantly different: we detected overall high expected heterozygosity (He = 0.843-0.854), high allelic richness (R = 16.7-19.5), low inbreeding co-efficients (FIS = 0.013-0.076), and a large proportion (30.1%) of rare alleles (i.e. frequency trees) are a cause for concern, as rare alleles could be lost due to stochastic factors. The high outcrossing rate (tm = 0.961), calculated from seedlings, may be instrumental in maintaining genetic diversity and suggests that pollination by highly mobile bee species in the genus Apis may provide resilience to acute habitat loss.

  19. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko (ed.)

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  20. Generation of Bright Phase-matched Circularly-polarized Extreme Ultraviolet High Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-08

    relation to local moments. Phys. Scr . 1993, 302 (1993). 7. Stöhr, J. et al. Element-specific magnetic microscopy with circularly polarized X-rays...Becker, W. & Kopold, R. Generation of circularly polarized high-order harmonics by two-color coplanar field mixing . Phys. Rev. A 61, 063403 (2000). 38...1995). 42. Eichmann, H. et al. Polarization-dependent high-order two-color mixing . Phys. Rev. A 51, R3414–R3417 (1995). 43. Fleischer, A., Kfir, O

  1. The Evolving HIV-1 Epidemic in Warao Amerindians Is Dominated by an Extremely High Frequency of CXCR4-Utilizing Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Héctor R; Bello, Gonzalo; Villalba, Julian A; Sulbaran, Yoneira F; Garzaro, Domingo; Maes, Mailis; Loureiro, Carmen L; de Waard, Jacobus H; Pujol, Flor H

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported a high prevalence of HIV-1 infection in Warao Amerindians from Venezuela due to the rapid spread of a single B subtype strain. In this study we evaluated the coreceptor use of the HIV-1 strains infecting this Amerindian community. Sequences of the HIV-1 V3 loop from 56 plasma samples were genotyped for coreceptor use. An extremely high frequency of CXCR4 strains was found among HIV-1-infecting Waraos (47/49, 96%), compared to HIV-1 strains infecting the non-Amerindian Venezuelan population (35/79, 44%, p HIV-1 transmissions occurred within the very early phase of infection (≤12 months). This is consistent with an initial infection dominated by an X4 strain or a very rapid selection of X4 variants after infection. This Amerindian population also exhibits the highest prevalence of tuberculosis in Venezuela, being synergistically bad prognostic factors for the evolution of morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable population.

  2. Exoplanet Science with the European Extremely Large Telescope. The Case for Visible and Near-IR Spectroscopy at High Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Udry, S; Bouchy, F; Cameron, A Collier; Henning, T; Mayor, M; Pepe, F; Piskunov, N; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Quirrenbach, A; Rauer, H; Rebolo, R; Santos, N C; Snellen, I; Zerbi, F

    2014-01-01

    Exoplanet science is booming. In 20 years our knowledge has expanded considerably, from the first discovery of a Hot Jupiter, to the detection of a large population of Neptunes and super-Earths, to the first steps toward the characterization of exoplanet atmospheres. Between today and 2025, the field will evolve at an even faster pace with the advent of several space-based transit search missions, ground-based spectrographs, high-contrast imaging facilities, and the James Webb Space Telescope. Especially the ESA M-class PLATO mission will be a game changer in the field. From 2024 onwards, PLATO will find transiting terrestrial planets orbiting within the habitable zones of nearby, bright stars. These objects will require the power of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) to be characterized further. The technique of ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy is establishing itself as a crucial pathway to measure chemical composition, atmospheric structure and atmospheric circulation in transiting exoplanets. A hig...

  3. Transapical Implantation of a 2nd-Generation JenaValve Device in Patient with Extremely High Surgical Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mieres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR is performed in patients who are poor surgical candidates. Many patients have inadequate femoral access, and alternative access sites have been used such as the transapical approach discussed in this paper. We present an elderly and fragile patient not suitable for surgery for unacceptable high risk, including poor ventricular function, previous myocardial infarction with percutaneous coronary intervention, pericardial effusion, and previous cardiac surgery with replacement of mechanical mitral valve. Transapical aortic valve replacement with a second-generation self-expanding JenaValve is performed. The JenaValve is a second-generation transapical TAVR valve consisting of a porcine root valve mounted on a low-profile nitinol stent. The valve is fully retrievable and repositionable. We discuss transapical access, implantation technique, and feasibility of valve implantation in this extremely high surgical risk patient.

  4. Highly selective etching of SnO2 absorber in binary mask structure for extreme ultra-violet lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Jung, Chang Yong; Park, Sung Jin; Hwangbo, Chang Kweun; Seo, Hwan Seok; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2012-04-01

    Among the core EUVL (extreme ultra-violet lithography) technologies for nanoscale patterning below the 30 nm node for Si chip manufacturing, new materials and fabrication processes for high-performance EUVL masks are of considerable importance due to the use of new reflective optics. In this work, the selective etching of SnO2 (tin oxide) as a new absorber material, with high EUV absorbance due to its large extinction coefficient, for the binary mask structure of SnO2 (absorber layer)/Ru (capping/etch stop layer)/Mo-Si multilayer (reflective layer)/Si (substrate), was investigated. Because infinitely high selectivity of the SnO2 layer to the Ru ESL is required due to the ultrathin nature of the Ru layer, various etch parameters were assessed in the inductively coupled Cl2/Ar plasmas in order to find the process window required for infinitely high etch selectivity of the SnO2 layer. The results showed that the gas flow ratio and V(dc) value play an important role in determining the process window for the infinitely high etch selectivity of SnO2 to Ru ESL. The high EUV-absorbance SnO2 layer, patternable by a dry process, allows a smaller absorber thickness, which can mitigate the geometric shadowing effects observed for high-performance binary EUVL masks.

  5. Observing Ultra High Energy Cosmic Particles from Space: SEUSO, the Super Extreme Universe Space Observatory Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Santangelo, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The experimental search for ultra high energy cosmic messengers, from $E\\sim 10^{19}$ eV to beyond $E\\sim 10^{20}$ eV, at the very end of the known energy spectrum, constitutes an extraordinary opportunity to explore a largely unknown aspect of our universe. Key scientific goals are the identification of the sources of ultra high energy particles, the measurement of their spectra and the study of galactic and local intergalactic magnetic fields. Ultra high energy particles might, also, carry evidence of unknown physics or of exotic particles relics of the early universe. To meet this challenge a significant increase in the integrated exposure is required. This implies a new class of experiments with larger acceptances and good understanding of the systematic uncertainties. Space based observatories can reach the instantaneous aperture and the integrated exposure necessary to systematically explore the ultra high energy universe. In this paper, after briefly summarising the science case of the mission, we desc...

  6. Gene expression profiles in testis of pigs with extreme high and low levels of androstenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Meuwissen, Theo; Lien, Sigbjørn

    2007-01-01

    Boar taint is a major obstacle when using uncastrated male pigs for swine production. One of the main compounds causing this taint is androstenone, a pheromone produced in porcine testis. Here we use microarrays to study the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in testis of high and low...

  7. The Fire-Walker’s High: Affect and Physiological Responses in an Extreme Collective Ritual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis;

    2014-01-01

    -walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated...

  8. STEM High School Teaching Enhancement through Collaborative Engineering Research on Extreme Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Danielle; Yazdani, Nur; Manzur, Tanvir

    2013-01-01

    The Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program on Hazard Mitigation at the University of Texas at Arlington (UT Arlington) involved area high school STEM teachers in engineering research with faculty and graduate students. The primary objective of the project was to train participating teachers in inquiry based research learning, research…

  9. Nanoscale imaging with table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet source based on high harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba Dinh, Khuong; Le, Hoang Vu; Hannaford, Peter; Van Dao, Lap

    2017-08-01

    A table-top coherent diffractive imaging experiment on a sample with biological-like characteristics using a focused narrow-bandwidth high harmonic source around 30 nm is performed. An approach involving a beam stop and a new reconstruction algorithm to enhance the quality of reconstructed the image is described.

  10. Effect of High Temperature on Extreme Substrate Acidification by Geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium is unknown and previous reports suggest it may be due to high temperature. The first of 2 experiments compared plants grown at 4 temperatures (14/10, 18/14, 22/18 and 26/22º C day/night). With increasing increments of temperature, substrate pH de...

  11. Extremely High-Birefringent Asymmetric Slotted-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber in THz Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Habib, Selim; Hasanuzzaman, G.K.M.

    2015-01-01

    of the circular cladding confines most of the power in the fiber-core. The fiber structure reported in this letter exhibits simultaneously ultrahigh modal birefringence of 7.5 × 10−2 and a very low effective absorption loss of 0.07 cm−1 for y-polarization mode at an operating frequency of 1 THz. It is highly...

  12. Association of Competition Volume, Club Sports, and Sport Specialization With Sex and Lower Extremity Injury History in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Pfaller, Adam Y; Hetzel, Scott J; Brooks, M Alison; McGuine, Timothy A

    2017-06-01

    High school athletes are increasingly encouraged to participate in 1 sport year-round to increase their sport skills. However, no study has examined the association of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with sex and lower extremity injury (LEI) in a large sample of high school athletes. Increased competition volume, participating on a club team outside of school sports, and high levels of specialization will all be associated with a history of LEI. Girls will be more likely to engage in higher competition volume, participate on a club team, and be classified as highly specialized. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. High school athletes completed a questionnaire prior to the start of their competitive season regarding their sport participation and previous injury history. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with history of LEI, adjusting for sex. A cohort of 1544 high school athletes (780 girls; grades 9-12) from 29 high schools completed the questionnaire. Girls were more likely to participate at high competition volume (23.2% vs 11.0%, χ(2) = 84.7, P sport, or who were highly specialized had greater odds of reporting a previous LEI than those with low competition volume (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% CI, 1.55-2.80; P sport participation (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20-1.88; P sport volume, on a club team, or being highly specialized was associated with history of LEI. Girls were more likely to participate at high volumes, be active on club teams, or be highly specialized, potentially placing them at increased risk of injury. Youth athletes, parents, and clinicians should be aware of the potential risks of intense, year-round participation in organized sports.

  13. Snow cover and extreme winter warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R; Elberling, Bo; Cooper, Elisabeth J

    2013-08-01

    The High Arctic winter is expected to be altered through ongoing and future climate change. Winter precipitation and snow depth are projected to increase and melt out dates change accordingly. Also, snow cover and depth will play an important role in protecting plant canopy from increasingly more frequent extreme winter warming events. Flower production of many Arctic plants is dependent on melt out timing, since season length determines resource availability for flower preformation. We erected snow fences to increase snow depth and shorten growing season, and counted flowers of six species over 5 years, during which we experienced two extreme winter warming events. Most species were resistant to snow cover increase, but two species reduced flower abundance due to shortened growing seasons. Cassiope tetragona responded strongly with fewer flowers in deep snow regimes during years without extreme events, while Stellaria crassipes responded partly. Snow pack thickness determined whether winter warming events had an effect on flower abundance of some species. Warming events clearly reduced flower abundance in shallow but not in deep snow regimes of Cassiope tetragona, but only marginally for Dryas octopetala. However, the affected species were resilient and individuals did not experience any long term effects. In the case of short or cold summers, a subset of species suffered reduced reproductive success, which may affect future plant composition through possible cascading competition effects. Extreme winter warming events were shown to expose the canopy to cold winter air. The following summer most of the overwintering flower buds could not produce flowers. Thus reproductive success is reduced if this occurs in subsequent years. We conclude that snow depth influences flower abundance by altering season length and by protecting or exposing flower buds to cold winter air, but most species studied are resistant to changes. Winter warming events, often occurring

  14. ALMA observation of high-z extreme star-forming environments discovered by Planck/Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissl, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Comic Microwave Background satellite Planck with its High Frequency Instrument has surveyed the mm/sub-mm sky in six frequency channels from 100 to 900 GHz. A sample of 228 cold sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background was observed in follow-up with Herschel SPIRE. The majority of sources appear to be over-densities of star-forming galaxies matching the size of high-z proto-cluster regions, while a 3% fraction are individual bright, lensed galaxies. A large observing program is underway with the aim of resolving the regions into the constituent members of the Planck sources. First ALMA data have been received on one Planck/Herschel proto-cluster candidate, showing the expected large over-abundance of bright mm/sub-mm sources within the cluster region. ALMA long baseline data of the brightest lensed galaxy in the sample with > 1 Jy at 350 μm are also forthcoming.

  15. Photochemical activation of extremely weak nucleophiles: highly fluorinated urethanes and polyurethanes from polyfluoro alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marc; Sebastián, Rosa María; Marquet, Jordi

    2014-06-06

    An efficient and environmentally friendly photoreaction between phenyl isocyanate or pentafluorophenyl isocyanate and polyfluorinated alcohols and diols is described for the first time. New highly fluorinated urethanes and diurethanes, derived from aromatic isocyanates, are produced in good yields in a photoreaction that is apparently governed by the acidic properties of the polyfluoro alcohols and diols. The wettability properties of the new polyfluorinated diurethanes have been tested, some of them showing significantly high values of hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. This new photoreaction has also been tested in the production of a model polyfluorinated polyurethane, establishing the influence of the irradiation power in the outcome of the process, and directly achieving a molecular weight distribution corresponding to a number-average DP(n) = 12 and a highest DP(n) = 20 after 4 h of irradiation (DP(n): "number-average degree of polymerization").

  16. High Mortality of Nearctic River Otters on a Florida, USA Interstate Highway During an Extreme Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinlaw A.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available From 28 December 1999 until 15 July 2000, I recorded 15 river otters killed on a 16 km segment of Interstate highway in Polk County, Florida, USA. This included 9 during a 37 day period, the highest road mortality rate reported for North American otters. This compares to 22 otters killed on a south Florida road during a 2 year period. My sample of 15 killed on I-4 is a negatively biased count of the true number killed, due to the minimal sampling period and sampling method. Possible reasons for such a high number counted during such a short period are discussed, including the impact of a major drought, high traffic density, and possible dieldrin bioaccumulation.

  17. Extremely high frequency (EHF) satellite communications (SATCOM) technology-transmitters and receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Jorg E.

    1983-10-01

    During the past three years, interest in satellite communications in the frequency bands above Ku-band has expanded dramatically. As a result, a number of key technology developments, targeted to meet specific next generation spaceborne needs, were undertaken. The state-of-the-art in solid state power transmitters and low noise receivers, including critical passive component technology, is presented. This includes filters as well as a series of rugged high performance ferrite components such as isolators, circulators and latching switches.

  18. A High Fraction of Ly-alpha-Emitters Among Galaxies with Extreme Emission Line Ratios at z ~ 2

    CERN Document Server

    Erb, Dawn K; Steidel, Charles C; Strom, Allison L; Rudie, Gwen C; Trainor, Ryan F; Shapley, Alice E; Reddy, Naveen A

    2016-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies form a sequence in the [OIII]/H-beta vs. [NII]/H-alpha diagnostic diagram, with low metallicity, highly ionized galaxies falling in the upper left corner. Drawing from a large sample of UV-selected star-forming galaxies at z~2 with rest-frame optical nebular emission line measurements from Keck-MOSFIRE, we select the extreme ~5% of the galaxies lying in this upper left corner, requiring log([NII]/H-alpha) = 0.75. These cuts identify galaxies with 12 + log(O/H) 20 A. We compare the equivalent width distribution of a sample of 522 UV-selected galaxies at 2.0extreme galaxies typically have lower attenuation at Ly-alpha than those in the comparison sample, and have ~50% lower median oxygen abundances. Both factors are likely to facilitate the escape of Ly-alpha: in less dusty galaxies Ly-alpha photons are l...

  19. Synchrotron Radiation and High Pressure: New Light on Materials Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell

    2005-03-01

    Current technological advances now make it possible to perform experiments on materials subjected to static or sustained conditions up to multimegabar pressures (>300 GPa) and from cryogenic temperatures to several thousand degrees (˜0.5 eV range). With these techniques, densities of condensed matter can be increased over an order of magnitude, causing numerous transformations and new physical and chemical phenomena to occur. Growth in this area largely been made possible by accelerating developments in diamond-anvil cell methods coupled with new synchrotron radiation techniques. Significant advances have occurred in x-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, inelastic scattering, radiography, and infrared spectroscopy. With recent developments, structure refinements based on polycrystalline data up to multimegabar pressures have been possible. Single-crystal methods have been extended to megabar pressure, with the prospect of full crystallographic refinements. `Three- dimensional' diffraction data can be collected for determining strength, deformation, and elastic tensors at high P-T conditions. Studies carried out during the past three years provide numerous breakthroughs in high-pressure x-ray spectroscopy and a broad range of inelastic scattering methods. Other experiments have exploited the use of x-ray radiography over a range of pressures. Finally, synchrotron infrared measurements have revealed a wealth of high-pressure phenomena, particularly for molecular systems. Examples to be discussed include investigations of dense hydrogen; transformations in molecular materials; novel ceramics; new types of superconductors, electronic, and magnetic materials; and liquids and amorphous materials.

  20. Topic 14+16: High-performance and scientific applications and extreme-scale computing (Introduction)

    KAUST Repository

    Downes, Turlough P.

    2013-01-01

    As our understanding of the world around us increases it becomes more challenging to make use of what we already know, and to increase our understanding still further. Computational modeling and simulation have become critical tools in addressing this challenge. The requirements of high-resolution, accurate modeling have outstripped the ability of desktop computers and even small clusters to provide the necessary compute power. Many applications in the scientific and engineering domains now need very large amounts of compute time, while other applications, particularly in the life sciences, frequently have large data I/O requirements. There is thus a growing need for a range of high performance applications which can utilize parallel compute systems effectively, which have efficient data handling strategies and which have the capacity to utilise current and future systems. The High Performance and Scientific Applications topic aims to highlight recent progress in the use of advanced computing and algorithms to address the varied, complex and increasing challenges of modern research throughout both the "hard" and "soft" sciences. This necessitates being able to use large numbers of compute nodes, many of which are equipped with accelerators, and to deal with difficult I/O requirements. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Macroscopic birefringence in liquid crystals from novel cyanobacterial polysaccharide with an extremely high molecular weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima-Kaneko, Maiko; Hayasaka-Kaneko, Daisaku; Miyazato, Shinji; Kaneko, Tatsuo

    2007-05-01

    We report an efficient method for extraction of anionic polysaccharides (PS) from cyanobacteria, Aphanothece sacrum; we used a hot alkaline solution (0.01 N NaOH) as an elution solvent in the first step of the extraction and isopropanol as a precipitation solvent in the last step. Thin fibers of PS were obtained at a high yield (50-80 % to the weight of the raw cyanobacterial sample). The spectroscopy and elemental analyses indicated the PS contains fucose, uronic acids (14.2 % by a carbazole-sulfuric acid method), a sugar unit containing amides. The solution of PS with a concentration of 1 wt% showed a very high viscosity (80 000cps) implying a high molecular weight, and a strong macroscopic birefringence with a texture typical of nematic liquid crystals was confirmed by crossed-polarizing microscopy (more than 0.5 wt%). The PS from A. sacrum may form a special structure rigid-rod enough to show LC phase and macroscopic birefringence.

  2. Effects of sample size on estimation of rainfall extremes at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Boessenkool

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High precipitation quantiles tend to rise with temperature, following the so-called Clausius–Clapeyron (CC scaling. It is often reported that the CC-scaling relation breaks down and even reverts for very high temperatures. In our study, we investigate this reversal using observational climate data from 142 stations across Germany. One of the suggested meteorological explanations for the breakdown is limited moisture supply. Here we argue that, instead, it could simply originate from undersampling. As rainfall frequency generally decreases with higher temperatures, rainfall intensities as dictated by CC scaling are less likely to be recorded than for moderate temperatures. Empirical quantiles are conventionally estimated from order statistics via various forms of plotting position formulas. They have in common that their largest representable return period is given by the sample size. In small samples, high quantiles are underestimated accordingly. The small-sample effect is weaker, or disappears completely, when using parametric quantile estimates from a generalized Pareto distribution (GPD fitted with L moments. For those, we obtain quantiles of rainfall intensities that continue to rise with temperature.

  3. Factors influencing customer retention, satisfaction and loyalty in the South African banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Craucamp, Frederik Willem

    2012-01-01

    Customer retention, loyalty and satisfaction are extremely important elements in any company’s strategy, especially in the highly competitive South African banking industry. Understanding the various factors that could influence these constructs is therefore critical to organizational success. Several studies showed the impact of these measures on profitability and shareholder value, but there has been little effort to access the factors that might lead to higher levels of retention, loyal...

  4. Factors influencing customer retention, satisfaction and loyalty in the South African banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Craucamp, Frederik Willem

    2012-01-01

    Customer retention, loyalty and satisfaction are extremely important elements in any company’s strategy, especially in the highly competitive South African banking industry. Understanding the various factors that could influence these constructs is therefore critical to organizational success. Several studies showed the impact of these measures on profitability and shareholder value, but there has been little effort to access the factors that might lead to higher levels of retention, loyal...

  5. Lean thinking transformation of the unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy pathway improves efficiency and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydes, Theresa; Hansi, Navjyot; Trebble, Timothy M

    2012-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy is a routine healthcare procedure with a defined patient pathway. The objective of this study was to redesign this pathway for unsedated patients using lean thinking transformation to focus on patient-derived value-adding steps, remove waste and create a more efficient process. This was to form the basis of a pathway template that was transferrable to other endoscopy units. A literature search of patient expectations for UGI endoscopy identified patient-derived value. A value stream map was created of the current pathway. The minimum and maximum time per step, bottlenecks and staff-staff interactions were recorded. This information was used for service transformation using lean thinking. A patient pathway template was created and implemented into a secondary unit. Questionnaire studies were performed to assess patient satisfaction. In the primary unit the patient pathway reduced from 19 to 11 steps with a reduction in the maximum lead time from 375 to 80 min following lean thinking transformation. The minimum value/lead time ratio increased from 24% to 49%. The patient pathway was redesigned as a 'cellular' system with minimised patient and staff travelling distances, waiting times, paperwork and handoffs. Nursing staff requirements reduced by 25%. Patient-prioritised aspects of care were emphasised with increased patient-endoscopist interaction time. The template was successfully introduced into a second unit with an overall positive patient satisfaction rating of 95%. Lean thinking transformation of the unsedated UGI endoscopy pathway results in reduced waiting times, reduced staffing requirements and improved patient flow and can form the basis of a pathway template which may be successfully transferred into alternative endoscopy environments with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  6. Estimation of the high-spatial-resolution variability in extreme wind speeds for forestry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venäläinen, Ari; Laapas, Mikko; Pirinen, Pentti; Horttanainen, Matti; Hyvönen, Reijo; Lehtonen, Ilari; Junila, Päivi; Hou, Meiting; Peltola, Heli M.

    2017-07-01

    The bioeconomy has an increasing role to play in climate change mitigation and the sustainable development of national economies. In Finland, a forested country, over 50 % of the current bioeconomy relies on the sustainable management and utilization of forest resources. Wind storms are a major risk that forests are exposed to and high-spatial-resolution analysis of the most vulnerable locations can produce risk assessment of forest management planning. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of the wind multiplier approach for downscaling of maximum wind speed, using 20 m spatial resolution CORINE land-use dataset and high-resolution digital elevation data. A coarse spatial resolution estimate of the 10-year return level of maximum wind speed was obtained from the ERA-Interim reanalyzed data. Using a geospatial re-mapping technique the data were downscaled to 26 meteorological station locations to represent very diverse environments. Applying a comparison, we find that the downscaled 10-year return levels represent 66 % of the observed variation among the stations examined. In addition, the spatial variation in wind-multiplier-downscaled 10-year return level wind was compared with the WAsP model-simulated wind. The heterogeneous test area was situated in northern Finland, and it was found that the major features of the spatial variation were similar, but in some locations, there were relatively large differences. The results indicate that the wind multiplier method offers a pragmatic and computationally feasible tool for identifying at a high spatial resolution those locations with the highest forest wind damage risks. It can also be used to provide the necessary wind climate information for wind damage risk model calculations, thus making it possible to estimate the probability of predicted threshold wind speeds for wind damage and consequently the probability (and amount) of wind damage for certain forest stand configurations.

  7. Extensive pollen flow but few pollen donors and high reproductive variance in an extremely fragmented landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael G Albaladejo

    Full Text Available Analysing pollen movement is a key to understanding the reproductive system of plant species and how it is influenced by the spatial distribution of potential mating partners in fragmented populations. Here we infer parameters related to levels of pollen movement and diversity of the effective pollen cloud for the wind-pollinated shrub Pistacia lentiscus across a highly disturbed landscape using microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis and the indirect KinDist and Mixed Effect Mating models were used to assess mating patterns, the pollen dispersal kernel, the effective number of males (N(ep and their relative individual fertility, as well as the existence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure in adult plants. All methods showed extensive pollen movement, with high rates of pollen flow from outside the study site (up to 73-93%, fat-tailed dispersal kernels and large average pollination distances (δ = 229-412 m. However, they also agreed in detecting very few pollen donors (N(ep = 4.3-10.2 and a large variance in their reproductive success: 70% of males did not sire any offspring among the studied female plants and 5.5% of males were responsible for 50% of pollinations. Although we did not find reduced levels of genetic diversity, the adult population showed high levels of biparental inbreeding (14% and strong spatial genetic structure (S(p = 0.012, probably due to restricted seed dispersal and scarce safe sites for recruitment. Overall, limited seed dispersal and the scarcity of successful pollen donors can be contributing to generate local pedigrees and to increase inbreeding, the prelude of genetic impoverishment.

  8. Job autonomy and job satisfaction: new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J.; Bradley, S.; A N Nguyen

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of perceived job autonomy on job satisfaction. We use the fifth sweep of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (1988-2000), which contains personally reported job satisfaction data for a sample of individuals eight years after the end of compulsory education. After controlling for a wide range of personal and job-related variables, perceived job autonomy is found to be a highly significant determinant of five separate domains of job satisfaction (pay, ...

  9. Coupled hydro-meteorological modelling on a HPC platform for high-resolution extreme weather impact study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dehua; Echendu, Shirley; Xuan, Yunqing; Webster, Mike; Cluckie, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Impact-focused studies of extreme weather require coupling of accurate simulations of weather and climate systems and impact-measuring hydrological models which themselves demand larger computer resources. In this paper, we present a preliminary analysis of a high-performance computing (HPC)-based hydrological modelling approach, which is aimed at utilizing and maximizing HPC power resources, to support the study on extreme weather impact due to climate change. Here, four case studies are presented through implementation on the HPC Wales platform of the UK mesoscale meteorological Unified Model (UM) with high-resolution simulation suite UKV, alongside a Linux-based hydrological model, Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE). The results of this study suggest that the coupled hydro-meteorological model was still able to capture the major flood peaks, compared with the conventional gauge- or radar-driving forecast, but with the added value of much extended forecast lead time. The high-resolution rainfall estimation produced by the UKV performs similarly to that of radar rainfall products in the first 2-3 days of tested flood events, but the uncertainties particularly increased as the forecast horizon goes beyond 3 days. This study takes a step forward to identify how the online mode approach can be used, where both numerical weather prediction and the hydrological model are executed, either simultaneously or on the same hardware infrastructures, so that more effective interaction and communication can be achieved and maintained between the models. But the concluding comments are that running the entire system on a reasonably powerful HPC platform does not yet allow for real-time simulations, even without the most complex and demanding data simulation part.

  10. Graphene Embedded Modulator with Extremely Small Footprint and High Modulation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By embedding graphene sheet in the silicon waveguide, the overall effective mode index displays unexpected symmetry and the electrorefraction effect has been significantly enhanced near the epsilon-near-zero point. An eight-layer graphene embedded Mach-Zehnder Modulator has been theoretically demonstrated with the advantage of ultracompact footprint (4 × 2 μm2, high modulation efficiency (1.316 V·μm, ultrafast modulation speed, and large extinction ratio. Our results may promote various on-chip active components, boosting the utilization of graphene in optical applications.

  11. Extreme ultraviolet radiation for coherent diffractive imaging with high spatial resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.V.; DAO; S.; TEICHMANN; B.; CHEN; R.A.; DILANIAN; K.B.; DINH; P.; HANNAFORD

    2010-01-01

    Using different noble gases,argon,neon and helium,we are able to generate by high-harmonic generation(HHG) just a few harmonic orders in the spectral range 10-35 nm with a photon flux of~2.10 12 photons/(harmonic cm2 s) for argon and~10 10 photons/(harmonic cm2 s) for helium. The few-harmonic-order radiation is used for coherent diffractive imaging directly without any spectral filter. A spatial resolution of~100 nm is achieved using a~30 nm HHG source.

  12. Microscopic description of rotation: From ground states to the extremes of ultra-high spin

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasjev, A V

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in the microscopic description of rotational properties within covariant density functional theory (CDFT) is presented. It is shown that it provides an accurate description of rotational bands both in the paired regime at low spin and in the unpaired regime at ultra-high spins. The predictive power of CDFT is verified by comparing the CDFT predictions for band crossing features in the $A\\geq 242$ actinides with new experimental data. In addition, possible role of the Coulomb antipairing effect for proton pairing is discussed.

  13. Relationship between mental health and marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsattar Shahi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28. Marital satisfaction measured by Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire among married couples. Data was analyzed using multiple regression and analysis of variance modelling.Results: Results indicated that marital satisfaction was predicted by the person’s mental health level. Findings also showed that depression and anxiety were significantly associated with marital satisfaction. 52.5% of studied individuals had mental disorders at the clinical level (p≤0/05. Marital satisfaction in this population was 51.7%. Conclusions: The study confirmed that mental health is an important predictor of marital satisfaction. Improving mental health may lead to improve marital satisfaction.

  14. Does patient satisfaction affect patient loyalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Daniel P; Mylod, Deirdre

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate how patient satisfaction affects propensity to return, i.e. loyalty. Data from 678 hospitals were matched using three sources. Patient satisfaction data were obtained from Press Ganey Associates, a leading survey firm; process-based quality measures and hospital characteristics (such as ownership and teaching status) and geographic areas were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The frequency with which end-of-life patients return to seek treatment at the same hospital was obtained from the Dartmouth Atlas. The study uses regression analysis to estimate satisfaction's effects on patient loyalty, while holding process-based quality measures and hospital and market characteristics constant. There is a statistically significant link between satisfaction and loyalty. Although satisfaction's effect overall is relatively small, contentment with certain hospitalization experience may be important. The link between satisfaction and loyalty is weaker for high-satisfaction hospitals, consistent with other studies in the marketing literature. RESEARCH LIMITATION/IMPLICATIONS: The US hospitals analyzed are not a random sample; the results are most applicable to large, non-profit teaching hospitals in competitive markets. Satisfaction ratings have business implications for healthcare providers and may be useful as a management tool for private and public purchasers. The paper is the first to show that patient satisfaction affects actual hospital choices in a large sample. Because patient satisfaction ratings are also correlated with other quality measures, the findings suggest a pathway through which individuals naturally gravitate toward higher-quality care.

  15. A highly efficient multi-core algorithm for clustering extremely large datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus Johann M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the demand for computational power in computational biology has increased due to rapidly growing data sets from microarray and other high-throughput technologies. This demand is likely to increase. Standard algorithms for analyzing data, such as cluster algorithms, need to be parallelized for fast processing. Unfortunately, most approaches for parallelizing algorithms largely rely on network communication protocols connecting and requiring multiple computers. One answer to this problem is to utilize the intrinsic capabilities in current multi-core hardware to distribute the tasks among the different cores of one computer. Results We introduce a multi-core parallelization of the k-means and k-modes cluster algorithms based on the design principles of transactional memory for clustering gene expression microarray type data and categorial SNP data. Our new shared memory parallel algorithms show to be highly efficient. We demonstrate their computational power and show their utility in cluster stability and sensitivity analysis employing repeated runs with slightly changed parameters. Computation speed of our Java based algorithm was increased by a factor of 10 for large data sets while preserving computational accuracy compared to single-core implementations and a recently published network based parallelization. Conclusions Most desktop computers and even notebooks provide at least dual-core processors. Our multi-core algorithms show that using modern algorithmic concepts, parallelization makes it possible to perform even such laborious tasks as cluster sensitivity and cluster number estimation on the laboratory computer.

  16. Compact high-resolution spectrographs for large and extremely large telescopes: using the diffraction limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J. Gordon; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2012-09-01

    As telescopes get larger, the size of a seeing-limited spectrograph for a given resolving power becomes larger also, and for ELTs the size will be so great that high resolution instruments of simple design will be infeasible. Solutions include adaptive optics (but not providing full correction for short wavelengths) or image slicers (which give feasible but still large instruments). Here we develop the solution proposed by Bland-Hawthorn and Horton: the use of diffraction-limited spectrographs which are compact even for high resolving power. Their use is made possible by the photonic lantern, which splits a multi-mode optical fiber into a number of single-mode fibers. We describe preliminary designs for such spectrographs, at a resolving power of R ~ 50,000. While they are small and use relatively simple optics, the challenges are to accommodate the longest possible fiber slit (hence maximum number of single-mode fibers in one spectrograph) and to accept the beam from each fiber at a focal ratio considerably faster than for most spectrograph collimators, while maintaining diffraction-limited imaging quality. It is possible to obtain excellent performance despite these challenges. We also briefly consider the number of such spectrographs required, which can be reduced by full or partial adaptive optics correction, and/or moving towards longer wavelengths.

  17. The Sedentary Survey of Extreme High Energy Peaked BL Lacs III. Results from Optical Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Piranomonte, S; Giommi, P; Landt, H; Padovani, P

    2007-01-01

    The multi-frequency Sedentary Survey is a flux limited, statistically well-defined sample of highly X-ray dominated BL Lacertae objects (HBLs) which includes 150 sources. In this paper, the third of the series, we report the results of a dedicated optical spectroscopy campaign that, together with results from other independent optical follow up programs, led to the spectroscopic identification of all sources in the sample. We carried out a systematic spectroscopic campaign for the observation of all unidentified objects of the sample using the ESO 3.6m, the KPNO 4m, and the TNG optical telescopes. We present new identifications and optical spectra for 76 sources, 50 of which are new BL Lac objects, 18 are sources previously referred as BL Lacs but for which no redshift information was available, and 8 are broad emission lines AGNs. We find that the multi-frequency selection technique used to build the survey is highly efficient (about 90%) in selecting BL Lacs objects. We present positional and spectroscopic ...

  18. High-resolution proton scattering off {sup 70}Zn under extreme forward angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Andreas; Martin, Dirk; Neumann-Cosel, Peter von; Pietralla, Norbert [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Tamii, Atsushi [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka (Japan); Collaboration: E377-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    A high-resolution scattering experiment was performed with a 295 MeV proton beam at the Research Center of Nuclear Physics in Osaka, Japan. The nucleus {sup 70}Zn has been measured under scattering angles of 0 {sup circle}, 3 {sup circle} and 4.5 {sup circle}. From the angular distributions it is possible to distinguish spin-M1 and E1 response. The spin-M1 response is assumed to be affected by the shell evolution due to the tensor force towards the exotic neutron-rich doubly magic nuclei {sup 78}Ni. The experiments will also provide important information on the evolution of the pygmy dipole resonance with neutron excess by comparison with unstable neutron-rich isotones {sup 68}Ni discovered recently at GSI. During the analysis procedure, ion optical correction methods, drift time to distance conversion, high-resolution corrections and an energy calibration are applied. After the background subtraction, double differential cross sections can be extracted.

  19. Compact high-resolution spectrographs for large and extremely large telescopes: using the diffraction limit

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, J Gordon

    2012-01-01

    As telescopes get larger, the size of a seeing-limited spectrograph for a given resolving power becomes larger also, and for ELTs the size will be so great that high resolution instruments of simple design will be infeasible. Solutions include adaptive optics (but not providing full correction for short wavelengths) or image slicers (which give feasible but still large instruments). Here we develop the solution proposed by Bland-Hawthorn and Horton: the use of diffraction-limited spectrographs which are compact even for high resolving power. Their use is made possible by the photonic lantern, which splits a multi-mode optical fiber into a number of single-mode fibers. We describe preliminary designs for such spectrographs, at a resolving power of R ~ 50,000. While they are small and use relatively simple optics, the challenges are to accommodate the longest possible fiber slit (hence maximum number of single-mode fibers in one spectrograph) and to accept the beam from each fiber at a focal ratio considerably ...

  20. Large-strain time-temperature equivalence in high density polyethylene for prediction of extreme deformation and damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray G.T.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Time-temperature equivalence is a widely recognized property of many time-dependent material systems, where there is a clear predictive link relating the deformation response at a nominal temperature and a high strain-rate to an equivalent response at a depressed temperature and nominal strain-rate. It has been found that high-density polyethylene (HDPE obeys a linear empirical formulation relating test temperature and strain-rate. This observation was extended to continuous stress-strain curves, such that material response measured in a load frame at large strains and low strain-rates (at depressed temperatures could be translated into a temperature-dependent response at high strain-rates and validated against Taylor impact results. Time-temperature equivalence was used in conjuction with jump-rate compression tests to investigate isothermal response at high strain-rate while exluding adiabatic heating. The validated constitutive response was then applied to the analysis of Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion of HDPE, a tensile analog to Taylor impact developed at LANL. The Dyn-Ten-Ext test results and FEA found that HDPE deformed smoothly after exiting the die, and after substantial drawing appeared to undergo a pressure-dependent shear damage mechanism at intermediate velocities, while it fragmented at high velocities. Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion, properly coupled with a validated constitutive model, can successfully probe extreme tensile deformation and damage of polymers.

  1. Extremely high resolution corrosion monitoring of pipelines: retrofittable, non-invasive and real-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzersen, Oeystein; Tveit, Edd [Sensorlink AS, Trondheim (Norway); Verley, Richard [StatoilHydro ASA, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    The Ultramonit unit is a clamp-on tool (removable) that uses an array of sensors to provide online, real-time, reliable and repeatable high accuracy ultrasonic wall thickness measurements and corrosion monitoring at selected locations along the pipeline. The unit can be installed on new or existing pipelines by diver or ROV. The system is based on the well-established ultrasonic pulse-echo method (A-scan). Special processing methods, and the fact that the unit is fixed to the pipeline, enable detection of changes in wall thickness in the micro-meter range. By utilizing this kind of resolution, it is possible to project corrosion rates in hours or days. The tool is used for calibration of corrosion inhibitor programs, verification and calibration of inspection pig data and general corrosion monitoring of new and existing pipelines. (author)

  2. Generation of 25-TW Femtosecond Laser Pulses at 515 nm with Extremely High Temporal Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Hornung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the frequency doubling of femtosecond laser pulses at 1030 nm center wavelength generated from the fully diode-pumped laser system POLARIS. The newly generated pulses at a center wavelength of 515 nm have a pulse energy of 3 J with a pulse duration of 120 fs. On the basis of initially ultra-high contrast seed pulses we expect a temporal intensity contrast better 10 17 200 ps before the peak of the main pulse. We analyzed the temporal intensity contrast from milliseconds to femtoseconds with a dynamic range covering more than 20 orders of magnitude. The pulses were focussed with a f/2-focussing parabola resulting in a peak intensity exceeding 10 20 W / cm 2 . The peak power and intensity are to the best of our knowledge the highest values for 515 nm-laser-pulses achieved so far.

  3. Extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray diagnostics of high-temperature plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moos, W.

    1986-10-02

    This report describes recent progress and plans for calendar year 1987 in the Johns Hopkins University program to develop and improve spectroscopic diagnostics for the high temperature plasmas used in magnetic fusion research. An EUV spectrograph which provides time resolved spectra along fifteen chords of a plasma device has been completed and evaluation on DIII-D will began in late 1986. Other instrumentation work includes the evaluation of a sensitive detector for ion temperature/velocity distribution determinations and a feasibility study of Zeeman polarimetry for determining magnetic fields. A comprehensive data set taken on the TEXT tokamak is undergoing analysis as a means of improving the ionic parameters used in diagnostic studies and to expand the capabilities of existing instruments. Potential new advanced in spectroscopic technology are being monitored to determine if they provide advantages for fusion research.

  4. Extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray diagnostics of high-temperature plasmas. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moos, W.

    1986-10-02

    This report describes recent progress and plans for calendar year 1987 in the Johns Hopkins University program to develop and improve spectroscopic diagnostics for the high temperature plasmas used in magnetic fusion research. An EUV spectrograph which provides time resolved spectra along fifteen chords of a plasma device has been completed and evaluation on DIII-D will began in late 1986. Other instrumentation work includes the evaluation of a sensitive detector for ion temperature/velocity distribution determinations and a feasibility study of Zeeman polarimetry for determining magnetic fields. A comprehensive data set taken on the TEXT tokamak is undergoing analysis as a means of improving the ionic parameters used in diagnostic studies and to expand the capabilities of existing instruments. Potential new advanced in spectroscopic technology are being monitored to determine if they provide advantages for fusion research.

  5. Extremely high Tp53 mutation load in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Golestan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnoush Abedi-Ardekani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Golestan Province in northeastern Iran has one of the highest incidences of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC in the world with rates over 50 per 100,000 person-years in both sexes. We have analyzed TP53 mutation patterns in tumors from this high-risk geographic area in search of clues to the mutagenic processes involved in causing ESCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biopsies of 119 confirmed ESCC tumor tissue from subjects enrolled in a case-control study conducted in Golestan Province were analyzed by direct sequencing of TP53 exons 2 through 11. Immunohistochemical staining for p53 was carried out using two monoclonal antibodies, DO7 and 1801. A total of 120 TP53 mutations were detected in 107/119 cases (89.9%, including 11 patients with double or triple mutations. The mutation pattern was heterogeneous with infrequent mutations at common TP53 "hotspots" but frequent transversions potentially attributable to environmental carcinogens forming bulky DNA adducts, including 40% at bases known as site of mutagenesis by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Mutations showed different patterns according to the reported temperature of tea consumption, but no variation was observed in relation to ethnicity, tobacco or opium use, and alcoholic beverage consumption or urban versus rural residence. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: ESCC tumors in people from Golestan Province show the highest rate of TP53 mutations ever reported in any cancer anywhere. The heterogeneous mutation pattern is highly suggestive of a causative role for multiple environmental carcinogens, including PAHs. The temperature and composition of tea may also influence mutagenesis.

  6. Novel cookie-with-chocolate carbon dots displaying extremely acidophilic high luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Siyu; Zhao, Xiaohuan; Zhu, Shoujun; Song, Yubin; Yang, Bai

    2014-10-01

    A fluorescent carbon dot with a cookie-with-chocolate film structure (about 5 × 5 μm2) showed a high fluorescence quantum yield (61.12%) at low pH. It was hydrothermally synthesized from l-serine and l-tryptophan. The formation mechanism of the film with carbon dots (CDs) was investigated. The film structure was formed by hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions between aromatic rings. The strong blue fluorescence of the CDs increased under strong acidic conditions owing to the changes in the N-groups. These cookie-like CDs are attractive for their potential use as effective fluorescent probes for the sensitive detection of aqueous H+ and Fe3+.A fluorescent carbon dot with a cookie-with-chocolate film structure (about 5 × 5 μm2) showed a high fluorescence quantum yield (61.12%) at low pH. It was hydrothermally synthesized from l-serine and l-tryptophan. The formation mechanism of the film with carbon dots (CDs) was investigated. The film structure was formed by hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions between aromatic rings. The strong blue fluorescence of the CDs increased under strong acidic conditions owing to the changes in the N-groups. These cookie-like CDs are attractive for their potential use as effective fluorescent probes for the sensitive detection of aqueous H+ and Fe3+. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03965c

  7. Development of an Extreme High Temperature n-type Ohmic Contact to Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Laura J.; Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    We report on the initial demonstration of a tungsten-nickel (75:25 at. %) ohmic contact to silicon carbide (SiC) that performed for up to fifteen hours of heat treatment in argon at 1000 C. The transfer length method (TLM) test structure was used to evaluate the contacts. Samples showed consistent ohmic behavior with specific contact resistance values averaging 5 x 10-4 -cm2. The development of this contact metallization should allow silicon carbide devices to operate more reliably at the present maximum operating temperature of 600 C while potentially extending operations to 1000 C. Introduction Silicon Carbide (SiC) is widely recognized as one of the materials of choice for high temperature, harsh environment sensors and electronics due to its ability to survive and continue normal operation in such environments [1]. Sensors and electronics in SiC have been developed that are capable of operating at temperatures of 600 oC. However operating these devices at the upper reliability temperature threshold increases the potential for early degradation. Therefore, it is important to raise the reliability temperature ceiling higher, which would assure increased device reliability when operated at nominal temperature. There are also instances that require devices to operate and survive for prolonged periods of time above 600 oC [2, 3]. This is specifically needed in the area of hypersonic flight where robust sensors are needed to monitor vehicle performance at temperature greater than 1000 C, as well as for use in the thermomechanical characterization of high temperature materials (e.g. ceramic matrix composites). While SiC alone can withstand these temperatures, a major challenge is to develop reliable electrical contacts to the device itself in order to facilitate signal extraction

  8. Patient and healthcare professional satisfaction with a new, high accuracy blood glucose meter with color range indicator and wireless connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Laurence B; Grady, Mike; Stewart, Lorna; Cameron, Hilary

    2016-07-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. The OneTouch VerioFlex(™) (OTVF) blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) was evaluated for accuracy in a clinical setting. Patients also used OTVF for a 1-wk trial period and reported their level of satisfaction with meter features. In a separate study, healthcare professionals used an on-line simulator of the BGMS and answered questions about its potential utility to their patients. OTVF was accurate over a wide glucose range and met lay user and system accuracy blood glucose standards described in ISO15197:2013 as well as the accuracy requirements to fulfill US FDA expectations for 510(k) clearance of BGMS. Patients and healthcare professionals felt the features of OTVF, which has the capability to connect wirelessly to mobile devices and interact wirelessly with diabetes management software, could provide significant benefits to them or their patients.

  9. Constraints on the extremely-high energy cosmic neutrino flux with the IceCube 2008-2009 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Benzvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Denger, T.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gora, D.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stössl, A.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Stür, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.

    2011-05-01

    We report on a search for extremely-high energy neutrinos with energies greater than 106GeV using the data taken with the IceCube detector at the South Pole. The data was collected between April 2008 and May 2009 with the half-completed IceCube array. The absence of signal candidate events in the sample of 333.5 days of live time significantly improves model-independent limits from previous searches and allows to place a limit on the diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos with an E-2 spectrum in the energy range 2.0×106-6.3×109GeV to a level of E2ϕ≤3.6×10-8GeVcm-2sec-1sr-1.

  10. Internal frequency conversion extreme ultraviolet interferometer using mutual coherence properties of two high-order-harmonic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobosz, S.; Stabile, H.; Tortora, A.; Monot, P.; Reau, F.; Bougeard, M.; Merdji, H.; Carre, B.; Martin, Ph. [CEA, IRAMIS, Service des Photons Atomes et Molecules, F-91191 Gif- sur-Yvette (France); Joyeux, D.; Phalippou, D.; Delmotte, F.; Gautier, J.; Mercier, R. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, CNRS et Universite Paris Sud, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, F-91127 Palaiseau cedex (France)

    2009-11-15

    We report on an innovative two-dimensional imaging extreme ultraviolet (XUV) interferometer operating at 32 nm based on the mutual coherence of two laser high order harmonics (HOH) sources, separately generated in gas. We give the first evidence that the two mutually coherent HOH sources can be produced in two independent spatially separated gas jets, allowing for probing centimeter-sized objects. A magnification factor of 10 leads to a micron resolution associated with a subpicosecond temporal resolution. Single shot interferograms with a fringe visibility better than 30% are routinely produced. As a test of the XUV interferometer, we measure a maximum electronic density of 3x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} 1.1 ns after the creation of a plasma on aluminum target.

  11. ZnO quantum dot-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanghua; Wu, Zhiqian; Xu, Wenli; Lin, Shisheng

    2016-12-01

    A ZnO quantum dot photo-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity of more than 1915 A W-1 and detectivity of more than 1.02 × 1013 Jones (Jones = cm Hz1/2 W-1) has been demonstrated. The interfaced h-BN layer increases the barrier height at the graphene/GaN heterojunction, which decreases the dark current and improves the on/off current ratio of the device. The photo-doping effect increases the barrier height and carrier concentration at the graphene/h-BN/GaN heterojunction, thus the responsivity is improved from 1473 A W-1 to 1915 A W-1 and the detectivity is improved from 5.8 × 1012 to 1.0 × 1013 Jones. Moreover, all of the responsivity and detectivity values are the highest values among all the graphene-based ultraviolet photodetectors.

  12. HotSense: a high temperature piezoelectric platform for sensing and monitoring in extreme environments (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Tim; Wines, Thomas; Martin, David; Vickers, William; Laws, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Effective monitoring of asset integrity subject to corrosion and erosion while minimizing the exposure of personnel to difficult and hazardous working environments has always been a major problem in many industries. One solution of this problem is permanently installed ultrasonic monitoring equipment which can continuously provide information on the rate of corrosion or cracking, even in the most severe environments and at extreme temperatures to prevent the need for shutdown. Here, a permanently installed 5 MHz ultrasonic monitoring system based on our HotSense® technology is designed and investigated. The system applicability for wall thickness, crack monitoring and weld inspection in high temperature environments is demonstrated through experimental studies on a range of Schedule 40 pipes at temperatures up to 350 °C continuously. The applicability for this technology to be distributed to Aerospace and Nuclear sectors are also explored and preliminary results discussed.

  13. Extreme hydrological events and the influence of reservoirs in a highly regulated river basin of northeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Vicente-Serrano

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights: Results reveal a general reduction in the occurrence of extreme precipitation events in the Segre basin from 1950 to 2013, which corresponded to a general reduction in high flows measured at various gauged stations across the basin. While this study demonstrates spatial differences in the decrease of streamflow between the headwaters and the lower parts of the basin, mainly associated with changes in river regulation, there was no reduction in the frequency of the extraordinary floods. Changes in water management practices in the basin have significantly impacted the frequency, duration, and severity of hydrological droughts downstream of the main dams, as a consequence of the intense water regulation to meet water demands for irrigation and livestock farms. Nonetheless, the hydrological response of the headwaters to these droughts differed markedly from that of the lower areas of the basin.

  14. Constraints on the Extremely-high Energy Cosmic Neutrino Flux with the IceCube 2008-2009 Data

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Alba, J L Bazo; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K -H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Denger, T; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Geisler, M; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Gora, D; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülß, J -P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K -H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Nießen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Heros, C Pérez de los; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stössl, A; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Stür, M; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Turčan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P

    2011-01-01

    We report on a search for extremely-high energy neutrinos with energies greater than $10^6$ GeV using the data taken with the IceCube detector at the South Pole. The data was collected between April 2008 and May 2009 with the half completed IceCube array. The absence of signal candidate events in the sample of 333.5 days of livetime significantly improves model independent limit from previous searches and allows to place a limit on the diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos with an $E^{-2}$ spectrum in the energy range $2.0 \\times 10^{6}$ $-$ $6.3 \\times 10^{9}$ GeV to a level of $E^2 \\phi \\leq 3.6 \\times 10^{-8}$ ${\\rm GeV cm^{-2} sec^{-1}sr^{-1}}$.

  15. Error quantification of abnormal extreme high waves in Operational Oceanographic System in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang-Hun; Kim, Jinah; Heo, Ki-Young; Park, Kwang-Soon

    2017-04-01

    In winter season, large-height swell-like waves have occurred on the East coast of Korea, causing property damages and loss of human life. It is known that those waves are generated by a local strong wind made by temperate cyclone moving to eastward in the East Sea of Korean peninsula. Because the waves are often occurred in the clear weather, in particular, the damages are to be maximized. Therefore, it is necessary to predict and forecast large-height swell-like waves to prevent and correspond to the coastal damages. In Korea, an operational oceanographic system (KOOS) has been developed by the Korea institute of ocean science and technology (KIOST) and KOOS provides daily basis 72-hours' ocean forecasts such as wind, water elevation, sea currents, water temperature, salinity, and waves which are computed from not only meteorological and hydrodynamic model (WRF, ROMS, MOM, and MOHID) but also wave models (WW-III and SWAN). In order to evaluate the model performance and guarantee a certain level of accuracy of ocean forecasts, a Skill Assessment (SA) system was established as a one of module in KOOS. It has been performed through comparison of model results with in-situ observation data and model errors have been quantified with skill scores. Statistics which are used in skill assessment are including a measure of both errors and correlations such as root-mean-square-error (RMSE), root-mean-square-error percentage (RMSE%), mean bias (MB), correlation coefficient (R), scatter index (SI), circular correlation (CC) and central frequency (CF) that is a frequency with which errors lie within acceptable error criteria. It should be utilized simultaneously not only to quantify an error but also to improve an accuracy of forecasts by providing a feedback interactively. However, in an abnormal phenomena such as high-height swell-like waves in the East coast of Korea, it requires more advanced and optimized error quantification method that allows to predict the abnormal

  16. Conceptualising the agency of highly marginalised women: Intimate partner violence in extreme settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2016-01-01

    How is the agency of women best conceptualised in highly coercive settings? We explore this in the context of international efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in heterosexual relationships. Articles critique the tendency to think of women's agency and programme endpoints in terms of individual actions, such as reporting violent men or leaving violent relationships, whilst neglecting the interlocking social, economic and cultural contexts that make such actions unlikely or impossible. Three themes cut across the articles. (1) Unhelpful understandings of gender and power implicit in commonly used 'men-women' and 'victim-agent' binaries obscure multi-faceted and hidden forms of women's agency, and the complexity of agency-violence intersections. (2) This neglect of complexity results in a poor fit between policy and interventions to reduce IPV, and women's lives. (3) Such neglect also obscures the multiplicities of women's agency, including the competing challenges they juggle alongside IPV, differing levels of response, and the temporality of agency. We outline a notion of 'distributed agency' as a multi-level, incremental and non-linear process distributed across time, space and social networks, and across a continuum of action ranging from survival to resistance. This understanding of agency implies a different approach to those currently underpinning policies and interventions.

  17. High Resolution Order Tracking at Extreme Slew Rates Using Kalman Tracking Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Vold

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the periodic components in noise and vibration signals measured on rotating equipment such as car power trains, must be done more and more under rapid changes of an axle, or reference RPM. Normal tracking filters (analog or digital implementations have limited resolution in such situations; wavelet methods, even when applied after resampling the data to be proportional to an axle RPM, must compromise between time and frequency resolution. The authors propose the application of nonstationary Kalman filters for the tracking of periodic components in such noise and vibration signals. These filters are designed to accurately track signals with a known structure among noise and signal components of different, “unknown,” structure. The tracking characteristics of these filters, i.e., the predicted signal amplitude versus time values versus exact signal amplitude versus time values, can be tailored to accurate tracking of harmonics buried in other signal components and noise, even at high rates of change of the reference RPM. A key to the successful construction is the precise knowledge of the structure of the signal to be tracked. For signals that vary with an axle RPM, an accurate estimate of the instantaneous RPM is essential, and procedures to this end will also be presented.

  18. Putative extremely high rate of proteome innovation in lancelets might be explained by high rate of gene prediction errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, László; Patthy, László

    2016-08-01

    A recent analysis of the genomes of Chinese and Florida lancelets has concluded that the rate of creation of novel protein domain combinations is orders of magnitude greater in lancelets than in other metazoa and it was suggested that continuous activity of transposable elements in lancelets is responsible for this increased rate of protein innovation. Since morphologically Chinese and Florida lancelets are highly conserved, this finding would contradict the observation that high rates of protein innovation are usually associated with major evolutionary innovations. Here we show that the conclusion that the rate of proteome innovation is exceptionally high in lancelets may be unjustified: the differences observed in domain architectures of orthologous proteins of different amphioxus species probably reflect high rates of gene prediction errors rather than true innovation.

  19. The Satisfaction With Life Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, E; Emmons, R A; Larsen, R J; Griffin, S

    1985-02-01

    This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.

  20. Plasma dynamics in solar macrospicules from high-cadence extreme-UV observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, I. P.; Bogachev, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Macrospicules are relatively large spicule-like formations found mainly over the polar coronal holes when observing in the transition region spectral lines. In this study, we took advantage of the two short series of observations in the He ii 304 Å line obtained by the TESIS solar observatory with a cadence of up to 3.5 s to study the dynamics of macrospicules in unprecedented detail. We used a one-dimensional hydrodynamic method based on the assumption of their axial symmetry and on a simple radiative transfer model to reconstruct the evolution of the internal velocity field of 18 macrospicules from this dataset. Besides the internal dynamics, we studied the motion of the apparent end points of the same 18 macrospicules and found 15 of them to follow parabolic trajectories with high precision which correspond closely to the obtained velocity fields. We found that in a clear, unperturbed case these macrospicules move with a constant deceleration inconsistent with a purely ballistic motion and have roughly the same velocity along their entire axis, with the obtained decelerations typically ranging from 160 to 230 m s-2, and initial velocities from 80 to 130 km s-1. We also found a propagating acoustic wave for one of the macrospicules and a clear linear correlation between the initial velocities of the macrospicules and their decelerations, which indicates that they may be driven by magneto-acoustic shocks. Finally, we inverted our previous method by taking velocities from the parabolic fits to give rough estimates of the percentage of mass lost by 12 of the macrospicules. We found that typically from 10 to 30% of their observed mass fades out of the line (presumably being heated to higher coronal temperatures) with three exceptions of 50% and one of 80%.

  1. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE: I. Atmospheric Parameters and Chemical Compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Wako; Lee, Young Sun; Honda, Satoshi; Ito, Hiroko; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Frebel, Anna; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masatuki Y; Carollo, Daniela; Sivarani, Thirupathi

    2012-01-01

    Chemical compositions are determined based on high-resolution spectroscopy for 137 candidate extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its first stellar extension, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). High-resolution spectra with moderate signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios were obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph of the Subaru Telescope. Most of the sample (approximately 80%) are main-sequence turn-off stars, including dwarfs and subgiants. Four cool main-sequence stars, the most metal-deficient such stars known, are included in the remaining sample. Good agreement is found between effective temperatures estimated by the SEGUE stellar parameter pipeline, based on the SDSS/SEGUE medium-resolution spectra, and those estimated from the broadband $(V-K)_0$ and $(g-r)_0$ colors. Our abundance measurements reveal that 70 stars in our sample have [Fe/H] $ +0.7$) among the 25 giants in our sample is as high as 36%, while only a lowe...

  2. High genetic variation in marginal fragmented populations at extreme climatic conditions of the Patagonian Cypress Austrocedrus chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, María Verónica; Gallo, Leonardo A; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Pastorino, Mario J; Sebastiani, Federico; Marchelli, Paula

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge about current patterns of genetic structure of populations together with the evolutionary history of a species helps to understand and predict the adaptation of populations to future climate change. We assayed variation at nuclear microsatellite markers among peripheral vs. continuous populations of the temperate South American species Austrocedrus chilensis, to investigate the role of historical vs. demographical forces in shaping population genetic structure. This species occurs in continuous populations in the west and central distribution range, but becomes highly fragmented at the eastern limit, which comprised ice-free areas during Quaternary glaciations and has extreme climatic conditions at present times. Bayesian analysis methods identified two contrasting patterns of genetic structure; (I) populations from humid, mesic and peri-glacial regions formed a single deme with relatively low genetic differentiation and high admixture levels whereas (II) a highly heterogeneous genetic structure with low level of admixture was found in the steppe, towards the east and northeast limit of the distribution range. In the steppe, population fragmentation, restricted gene flow and isolation-by-distance were also inferred. In addition, several small steppe populations showed high genetic diversity and divergent gene pools, suggesting that they constitute ancient refuges from pre-Holocene glaciations with just a subgroup of them contributing significantly to post-glacial spread. These results are discussed in relation to patterns of genetic variation found for other temperate species and the contribution of the particular southern Andes topography and climate to post-glacial spread.

  3. GPU Implementation of Two-Dimensional Rayleigh-Benard Code with High Resolution and Extremely High Rayleigh Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C. M.; Sanchez, D. A.; Yuen, D. A.; Wright, G. B.; Barnett, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    model assumed convection was occurring only from heating below and that no other sources of heating were present, such as the radioactive decay of elements that would normally contribute to heating in the mantle. Our calculations attempted to push the potential computing power of the Tesla C2070 Fermi GPU to see how it would perform under the strain of a large grid size and an extremely large Rayleigh number. The array size of our model was 4500x2500 with a Rayleigh number of 5*10^10 and a Prandtl number of infinity. According to our estimates, each timestep for the 4500x2500 grid would take approximately 1 to 2 seconds per timestep. This calculation was based on the order of tenths of a microsecond per timestep grid point.

  4. Part 2. Association of daily mortality with ambient air pollution, and effect modification by extremely high temperature in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengmin; He, Qingci; Lin, Hung-Mo; Kong, Lingli; Zhou, Dunjin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhu, Zhichao; Liao, Duanping; Liu, Wenshan; Bentley, Christy M; Dan, Jijun; Wang, Beiwei; Yang, Niannian; Xu, Shuangqing; Gong, Jie; Wei, Hongming; Sun, Huilin; Qin, Zudian

    2010-11-01

    Fewer studies have been published on the association between daily mortality and ambient air pollution in Asia than in the United States and Europe. This study was undertaken in Wuhan, China, to investigate the acute effects of air pollution on mortality with an emphasis on particulate matter (PM*). There were three primary aims: (1) to examine the associations of daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular [CVD], stroke, cardiac [CARD], respiratory [RD], cardiopulmonary [CP], and non-cardiopulmonary [non-CP] causes) with daily mean concentrations (microg/m3) of PM with an aerodynamic diameter--10 pm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or ozone (O3); (2) to investigate the effect modification of extremely high temperature on the association between air pollution and daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality; and (3) to assess the uncertainty of effect estimates caused by the change in International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding of mortality data from Revision 9 (ICD-9) to Revision 10 (ICD-10) code. Wuhan is called an "oven city" in China because of its extremely hot summers (the average daily temperature in July is 37.2 degrees C and maximum daily temperature often exceeds 40 degrees C). Approximately 4.5 million residents live in the core city area of 201 km2, where air pollution levels are higher and ranges are wider than the levels in most cities studied in the published literature. We obtained daily mean levels of PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentrations from five fixed-site air monitoring stations operated by the Wuhan Environmental Monitoring Center (WEMC). O3 data were obtained from two stations, and 8-hour averages, from 10:00 to 18:00, were used. Daily mortality data were obtained from the Wuhan Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (WCDC) during the study period of July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2004. To achieve the first aim, we used a regression of

  5. USCIS E-Verify Customer Satisfaction Survey, January 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report focuses on the customer satisfaction of companies currently enrolled in the E-Verify program. Satisfaction with E-Verify remains high and follows up a...

  6. Job involvement and job satisfaction of South African nurses compared with other professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Kaplan

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed primarily to compare the work outcomes of job satisfaction and job involvement of South African nurses with those of members of 13 other professional groups in South Africa and with American nurses where data was available. Secondary aims included identifying areas where job satisfaction was particularly low and demonstrating the relative independence of the job involvement and job satisfaction constructs. A questionnaire incorporating the Kanungo Job Involvement Scale and the Short Form of the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire was mailed to random samples of people between the ages of 29 and 41 drawn from 14 professional registers. There were 114 nurses in the final sample and 1677members of other professions. Differences among professions were tested for significance using one-way analyses of variance and Bonferroni ranges tests. South African Nurses were shown to have extremely low job satisfaction relative to American nurses and to other professional groups in South-Africa. By contrast their job involvement was moderately high. The implications of these findings for the medical profession as a whole and for nurses in particular are discussed. The fear is expressed that wide spread dissatisfaction may lead to fewer people entering the profession and highly trained people leaving.

  7. Life satisfaction and frailty among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Wilhelmson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional and physical impairment are factors believed to lead to declined life satisfaction among older adults. This study aimed to examine life satisfaction among older adults and the influence of frailty. Baseline data from two studies addressing frail older adults aged 80+ in Gothenburg, Sweden, (n=577 were used. Frailty was measured through eight indicators. Life satisfaction was measured with Fugl-Meyer’s instrument LiSat-11. Perceived life satisfaction was rather high within the studied population, with 66% being satisfied with life as a whole. Most life satisfaction items were significantly associated with frailty status, with non-frail participants being satisfied to a higher extent for all items with the exception of financial situation, sexual life and partnership relation. The factors significantly explaining life satisfaction were psychological health, partner relationship, leisure and ADL. This study shows that older adults’ satisfaction with life as a whole is almost as high as in younger age groups. Respondents with higher degree of frailty reported significantly lower degrees of life satisfaction, indicating a possibility to maintain life satisfaction by preventing or delaying the development of frailty.

  8. LDRD ER Final Report: Recreating Planetary Cores in the Laboratory: New Techniques to Extremely High Density States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, G; Celliers, P; Hicks, D; Cauble, R; Bradley, D; MacKinnon, A; Moon, S; Young, D; Chau, R; Eggert, J; Willi, P; Pasley, J; Jeanloz, R; Lee, K; Bennedetti, R; Koenig, M; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Batani, D; Loubeyre, P; Hubbard, W

    2003-02-07

    An accurate equation of state (EOS) for planetary constituents at extreme conditions is the key to any credible model of planets or low mass stars. However, very few materials have their high pressure (>few Mbar) EOS experimentally validated, and even then, only on the principal Hugoniot. For planetary and stellar interiors, compression occurs from gravitational force so that material states follow a line of isotropic compression (ignoring phase separation) to ultra-high densities. An example of the hydrogen phase space composing Jupiter and one particular Brown Dwarf is shown. At extreme densities, material states are predicted to have quite unearthly properties such as high temperature superconductivity and low temperature fusion. High density experiments on Earth are achieved with either static compression techniques (i.e. diamond anvil cells) or dynamic compression techniques using large laser facilities, gas guns, or explosives. The ultimate goal of this multi-directorate and multi-institutional proposal was to develop techniques that will enable us to understand material states that previously only existed at the core of giant planets, stars, or speculative theories. Our effort was a complete success, meeting all of the objectives set out in our proposals. First we focused on developing accurate Hugoniot techniques to be used for constraining the equation of state at high pressure/temperature. We mapped out an accurate water EOS and measured that the ionic->electronic conduction transition occurs at lower pressures than models predict. These data and their impact are fully described in the first enclosed paper ''The Equation of State and Optical Properties of Water Compressed by Strong Shock Waves.'' Currently models used to construct planetary isentropes are constrained by only the planet radius, outer atmospheric spectroscopy, and space probe gravitational moment and magnetic field data. Thus these data, which provide rigid constraints

  9. Trauma Symptoms, Communication, and Relationship Satisfaction in Military Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurst, Melissa; McGuire, Annabel; Halford, W Kim

    2017-03-08

    Trauma symptoms are negatively correlated with couple relationship satisfaction, which is of particular importance in the relationships of military personnel who are often exposed to trauma whilst on overseas deployment. This study tested a model in which communication mediated an association between trauma symptoms and low relationship satisfaction. Thirty-one Australian military couples were observationally assessed during a communication task, and assessed on their relationship satisfaction and individual functioning. As expected, trauma symptoms in the male military spouse were associated with low satisfaction in both spouses. Females' low positive communication fully mediated the relationship between males' trauma symptoms and low female satisfaction, but not male relationship satisfaction. Unexpectedly, males' negative communication behaviors were associated with high male relationship satisfaction, and partially mediated the association between trauma symptoms and male satisfaction. Discussion focused on how some communication usually thought of as negative might be associated with relationship satisfaction in military couples. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  10. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system: enabling high-contrast imaging on solar-system scales

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanovic, N; Guyon, O; Clergeon, C; Singh, G; Kudo, T; Garrel, V; Newman, K; Doughty, D; Lozi, J; Males, J; Minowa, Y; Hayano, Y; Takato, N; Morino, J; Kuhn, J; Serabyn, E; Norris, B; Tuthill, P; Schworer, G; Stewart, P; Close, L; Huby, E; Perrin, G; Lacour, S; Gauchet, L; Vievard, S; Murakami, N; Oshiyama, F; Baba, N; Matsuo, T; Nishikawa, J; Tamura, M; Lai, O; Marchis, F; Duchene, G; Kotani, T; Woillez, J

    2015-01-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument is a multipurpose high-contrast imaging platform designed for the discovery and detailed characterization of exoplanetary systems and serves as a testbed for high-contrast imaging technologies for ELTs. It is a multi-band instrument which makes use of light from 600 to 2500nm allowing for coronagraphic direct exoplanet imaging of the inner 3 lambda/D from the stellar host. Wavefront sensing and control are key to the operation of SCExAO. A partial correction of low-order modes is provided by Subaru's facility adaptive optics system with the final correction, including high-order modes, implemented downstream by a combination of a visible pyramid wavefront sensor and a 2000-element deformable mirror. The well corrected NIR (y-K bands) wavefronts can then be injected into any of the available coronagraphs, including but not limited to the phase induced amplitude apodization and the vector vortex coronagraphs, both of which offer an inner worki...

  11. Search for Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (II): high electron temperature objects

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Morales-Luis, A B; Munoz-Tunon, C; Garcia-Benito, R; Nuza, S E; Kitaura, F S

    2016-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are defined to have gas-phase metallicity smaller than a tenth of the solar value (12 + log[O/H] < 7.69). They are uncommon, chemically and possibly dynamically primitive, with physical conditions characteristic of earlier phases of the Universe. We search for new XMPs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in a work that complements Paper I. This time high electron temperature objects are selected; since metals are a main coolant of the gas, metal- poor objects contain high-temperature gas. Using the algorithm k-means, we classify 788677 spectra to select 1281 galaxies having particularly intense [OIII]4363 with respect to [OIII]5007, which is a proxy for high electron temperature. The metallicity of these candidates was computed using a hybrid technique consistent with the direct method, rendering 196 XMPs. A less restrictive noise constraint provides a larger set with 332 candidates. Both lists are provided in electronic format. The selected XMP sample have mean stell...

  12. Fabrication of high aspect ratio tungsten nanostructures on ultrathin c-Si membranes for extreme UV applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delachat, F; Le Drogoff, B; Constancias, C; Delprat, S; Gautier, E; Chaker, M; Margot, J

    2016-01-15

    In this work, we demonstrate a full process for fabricating high aspect ratio diffraction optics for extreme ultraviolet lithography. The transmissive optics consists in nanometer scale tungsten patterns standing on flat, ultrathin (100 nm) and highly transparent (>85% at 13.5 nm) silicon membranes (diameter of 1 mm). These tungsten patterns were achieved using an innovative pseudo-Bosch etching process based on an inductively coupled plasma ignited in a mixture of SF6 and C4F8. Circular ultra-thin Si membranes were fabricated through a state-of-the-art method using direct-bonding with thermal difference. The silicon membranes were sputter-coated with a few hundred nanometers (100-300 nm) of stress-controlled tungsten and a very thin layer of chromium. Nanoscale features were written in a thin resist layer by electron beam lithography and transferred onto tungsten by plasma etching of both the chromium hard mask and the tungsten layer. This etching process results in highly anisotropic tungsten features at room temperature. The homogeneity and the aspect ratio of the advanced pattern transfer on the membranes were characterized with scanning electron microscopy after focus ion beam milling. An aspect ratio of about 6 for 35 nm size pattern is successfully obtained on a 1 mm diameter 100 nm thick Si membrane. The whole fabrication process is fully compatible with standard industrial semiconductor technology.

  13. Excluded volume effects caused by high concentration addition of acid generators in chemically amplified resists used for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Komuro, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi

    2017-08-01

    The resolution of lithography used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices has been improved to meet the market demands for highly integrated circuits. With the reduction in feature size, the molecular size becomes non-negligible in the resist material design. In this study, the excluded volume effects caused by adding high-concentration acid generators were investigated for triphenylsulfonium nonaflate. The resist film density was measured by X-ray diffractometry. The dependences of absorption coefficient and protected unit concentration on acid generator weight ratio were calculated from the measured film density. Using these values, the effects on the decomposition yield of acid generators, the protected unit fluctuation, and the line edge roughness (LER) were evaluated by simulation on the basis of sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. The positive effects of the increase in acid generator weight ratio on LER were predominant below the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3, while the negative effects became equivalent to the positive effects above the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3 owing to the excluded volume effects.

  14. Development of a high-resolution apparatus to monitor physiological state of a person undergoing extreme conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodermyatov Radik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research has shown that ECG recordings and parameters of the body functional state are crucial for all kinds of the astronaut pre-flight preparations (centrifuge, thermal chamber, pressure chamber, pressure chamber with special equipment. It is, therefore, important to develop methods and tools for early detection of the preclinical forms of the functional state disorders in patients undergoing high-intensity loads of mixed character. The method based on the hardware-software compleх (HSC with nanosensors of high resolution has been proposed to measure the electrophysiological characteristics and bioelectrical impedance of the body tissues directly exposed to loading. The hardware-software compleх is subjected to clinical trials in Tomsk Research Institute for Cardiology. The obtained results show that the use of nanosensors of high resolution in the HSC without standard filters allows elimination of the power-line interference in ECG recordings. Monitoring of the tissue bioimpedance parameters under test loads enables the detection of preclinical (latent forms of various diseases. After clinical trials in Tomsk Institute for Cardiology the developed apparatus will be proposed for in-depth study of the cardiovascular system and the functional state of the body of astronauts and other persons exposed to extreme loads.

  15. Influence of an extreme high water event on survival, reproduction, and distribution of snail kites in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, R.E.; Kitchens, W.M.; Dreitz, V.J.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrology frequently has been reported as the environmental variable having the greatest influence on Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) populations. Although drought has received the most attention, high-water conditions also have been reported to affect kites. Years of high water generally have been reported to be favorable for nesting, although prolonged high water may be detrimental to sustaining suitable habitat. During 1994 and 1995, southern Florida experienced an extreme high water event. This event enabled us to compare survival, nesting success, number of young per successful nest, and spatial distribution of nesting before, during, and after the event. We found no evidence of an effect (either negative or positive) on survival of adult kites. In contrast, juvenile kites experienced the highest survival during the event, although our data suggest greater annual variability than can be explained by the event alone. We found no evidence of an effect of the high water event on nest success or number of young per successful nest. Nest success was highest during the event in the southern portion of the range but was quite similar to other years, both before and after the event. Our data do indicate a substantial shift in the spatial distribution of nesting birds. During the event, nesting activity shifted to higher elevations (i.e., shallower water) in the major nesting areas of the Everglades region. Nesting also occurred in Big Cypress National Preserve during the event, which is typically too dry to support nesting kites. Thus, our data indicate a potential short-term benefit of increased juvenile survival and an expansion of nesting habitat. However, the deterioration of habitat quality from prolonged high water precludes any recommendation for such conditions to be maintained for extended periods. ?? 2002, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  16. Research on the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Self-evaluation of Junior High School Students%初中生生活满意度与自我评价的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪榴

    2014-01-01

    采用学生总体生活满意度量表和个人评价问卷,对331名初中生进行施测,探究了初中生生活满意度与自我评价的关系。结果发现初中生生活满意度与自我评价存在显著性正相关,自我评价越高,其生活满意度越高,自我评价对生活满意度具有一定的预测力。%Using student overall life satisfaction scale and indi-vidual evaluation questionnaires, 331 junior high school students were surveyed, in order to explore the relationship between life satisfaction and self-evaluation of junior high school students. It is found that there is a significant positive correlation between ju-nior high school students' life satisfaction and self-evaluation, and the higher the self-evaluation, the higher life satisfaction, and self-evaluation is of certain predictive effect on life satisfac-tion.

  17. Satisfaction and 'comparison sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    the probability of satisfaction. Results show that comparison sharing impacts satisfaction for women, and that those women who share more equally than their peers are more likely to be satisfied, whereas comparison sharing has no influence on satisfaction for men. Also, parents are less likely to be satisfied...

  18. Predictors of Instrumental Music Teacher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert Louis, III

    2012-01-01

    Previous research studies related to teacher quality have found that teacher attrition rates are at an all-time high. Although much research has been conducted in the area of job satisfaction within the general teaching population, few studies of job satisfaction exist for instrumental music teachers. The purpose of this correlational study was to…

  19. Predictors of Instrumental Music Teacher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert Louis, III

    2012-01-01

    Previous research studies related to teacher quality have found that teacher attrition rates are at an all-time high. Although much research has been conducted in the area of job satisfaction within the general teaching population, few studies of job satisfaction exist for instrumental music teachers. The purpose of this correlational study was to…

  20. Diurnal variability and biogeochemical reactivity of mercury species in an extreme high-altitude lake ecosystem of the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanoca, L; Amouroux, D; Monperrus, M; Tessier, E; Goni, M; Guyoneaud, R; Acha, D; Gassie, C; Audry, S; Garcia, M E; Quintanilla, J; Point, D

    2016-04-01

    Methylation and demethylation represent major transformation pathways regulating the net production of methylmercury (MMHg). Very few studies have documented Hg reactivity and transformation in extreme high-altitude lake ecosystems. Mercury (Hg) species concentrations (IHg, MMHg, Hg°, and DMHg) and in situ Hg methylation (M) and MMHg demethylation (D) potentials were determined in water, sediment, floating organic aggregates, and periphyton compartments of a shallow productive Lake of the Bolivian Altiplano (Uru Uru Lake, 3686 m). Samples were collected during late dry season (October 2010) and late wet season (May 2011) at a north (NS) and a south (SS) site of the lake, respectively. Mercury species concentrations exhibited significant diurnal variability as influenced by the strong diurnal biogeochemical gradients. Particularly high methylated mercury concentrations (0.2 to 4.5 ng L(-1) for MMHgT) were determined in the water column evidencing important Hg methylation in this ecosystem. Methylation and D potentials range were, respectively, <0.1-16.5 and <0.2-68.3 % day(-1) and were highly variable among compartments of the lake, but always higher during the dry season. Net Hg M indicates that the influence of urban and mining effluent (NS) promotes MMHg production in both water (up to 0.45 ng MMHg L(-1) day(-1)) and sediment compartments (2.0 to 19.7 ng MMHg g(-1) day(-1)). While the sediment compartment appears to represent a major source of MMHg in this shallow ecosystem, floating organic aggregates (dry season, SS) and Totora's periphyton (wet season, NS) were found to act as a significant source (5.8 ng MMHg g(-1) day(-1)) and a sink (-2.1 ng MMHg g(-1) day(-1)) of MMHg, respectively. This work demonstrates that high-altitude productive lake ecosystems can promote MMHg formation in various compartments supporting recent observations of high Hg contents in fish and water birds.

  1. Couple communication, emotional and sexual intimacy, and relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hana; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Day, Randal D; Gangamma, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Emotional and sexual aspects of intimacy in romantic relationships are important correlates of couples' relationship satisfaction. However, few studies have examined the effect of emotional and sexual aspects of intimacy on relationship satisfaction within the context of the interpersonal relationship processes. In addition, the association between emotional and sexual aspects of intimacy remains unclear. With a sample of 335 married couples from the Flourishing Families Project, the authors examined the associations between couple communication, emotional intimacy, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction, using the couple as the unit of analysis. The results of path analysis suggested that sexual satisfaction significantly predicted emotional intimacy for husbands and wives, while emotional intimacy did not appear to have a significant influence on sexual satisfaction. Further, mediation associations were suggested within as well as between spouses. Within spouses (for each spouse), emotional intimacy and sexual satisfaction mediated the association between spouses' appraisal of their partners' communication and their own relationship satisfaction. Gender differences were revealed in terms of how a spouse's perception of sexual satisfaction is associated with his or her partner's relationship satisfaction. In this study, although wives' relationship satisfaction was not associated with their husbands' sexual satisfaction, husbands tended to report high levels of relationship satisfaction when their wives reported greater sexual satisfaction. Findings suggest that both components of intimacy--emotional and sexual--should be comprehensively addressed in research and clinical work with couples.

  2. Parenthood and Life Satisfaction in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Pollmann-Schult

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the association between parenthood and life satisfaction. It focuses on the question to which extent parental life satisfaction is influenced by individual and familial context. The empirical study is based on the data from the first wave of the German Family Panel (pairfam. All in all, the analyses show that although parents are less satisfied with their leisure time, their social contacts and their relationship, they are nonetheless more satisfied with their life in general than their childless peers. Increased life satisfaction is observed in particular in the first years following the birth of a child. The satisfaction of parents is, however, dependent upon different contextual factors. Parents in the medium and higher income ranges report a comparatively high degree of life satisfaction, whereas only a weak association is observed between parenthood and life satisfaction among low-income persons. Moreover, the life satisfaction of mothers, but not of fathers, varies with their employment status. For instance, only non-employed and part-time employed mothers report a greater life satisfaction than childless women. Finally, fathers whose family formation was presumably unplanned record no higher level of satisfaction than men without children.

  3. Construct of Dialysis Employee Satisfaction: Acquiring Satisfaction Factors and Their Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    We developed a construct of dialysis employees' satisfaction as an assessment framework and identified the crucial factors that contribute to overall job satisfaction. We also seek to capture some important characteristics of dialysis professionals' job satisfaction/dissatisfaction in Japan. A questionnaire was developed, including 35 facet-specific job-related satisfaction and 10 general satisfaction items in closed-ended questions. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between August and October 2013. A total of 799 valid responses (87% of response rate) were collected from 46 physicians, 470 nurses and 251 technologists in the dialysis department of 43 facilities in Japan. Five satisfaction factors were derived by applying principal component analysis with 61% of cumulative variance accounted for. Physicians, nurses and technologists in the dialysis department shared a similar trend of job satisfaction that they were more satisfied with leadership, and communication and teamwork among the five factors, whereas their satisfaction level was relatively low with salary and welfare conditions. Physicians expressed the strongest satisfaction with any factor while nurses were the least satisfied. Nurses' and technologists' overall job satisfaction was mostly determined by satisfaction with self-actualization, and work demands and workload. A five-factor construct of dialysis employee satisfaction was identified. Overall job satisfaction of dialysis nurses and technologists were not overly high in Japan, and this seems to be caused by their relatively low satisfaction with self-actualization and with work demands and workload. Therefore, it is suggested that their work conditions and environment must be improved to support their self-actualization and to reduce their workload.

  4. HELIOS—A laboratory based on high-order harmonic generation of extreme ultraviolet photons for time-resolved spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plogmaker, S., E-mail: Stefan.Plogmaker@physics.uu.se, E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se, E-mail: Johan.Soderstrom@physics.uu.se; Terschlüsen, J. A., E-mail: Stefan.Plogmaker@physics.uu.se, E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se, E-mail: Johan.Soderstrom@physics.uu.se; Krebs, N.; Svanqvist, M.; Forsberg, J.; Cappel, U. B.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Siegbahn, H.; Söderström, J., E-mail: Stefan.Plogmaker@physics.uu.se, E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se, E-mail: Johan.Soderstrom@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we present the HELIOS (High Energy Laser Induced Overtone Source) laboratory, an in-house high-order harmonic generation facility which generates extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photon pulses in the range of 15-70 eV with monochromatized XUV pulse lengths below 35 fs. HELIOS is a source for time-resolved pump-probe/two-color spectroscopy in the sub-50 fs range, which can be operated at 5 kHz or 10 kHz. An optical parametric amplifier is available for pump-probe experiments with wavelengths ranging from 240 nm to 20 000 nm. The produced XUV radiation is monochromatized by a grating in the so-called off-plane mount. Together with overall design parameters, first monochromatized spectra are shown with an intensity of 2 ⋅ 10{sup 10} photons/s (at 5 kHz) in the 29th harmonic, after the monochromator. The XUV pulse duration is measured to be <25 fs after monochromatization.

  5. High incidence of rickets in extremely low birth weight infants with severe parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Min; Namgung, Ran; Park, Min Soo; Eun, Ho Sun; Park, Kook In; Lee, Chul

    2012-12-01

    Risk factors for rickets of prematurity have not been re-examined since introduction of high mineral formula, particularly in ELBW infants. We analyzed the incidence and the risk factors of rickets in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. As a retrospective case-control study from 2004 to 2008, risk factors were analyzed in 24 patients with rickets versus 31 patients without. The frequency of rickets in ELBW infants was 24/55 (44%). Infants with rickets were diagnosed at 48.2 ± 16.1 days of age, and improved by 85.3 ± 25.3 days. By radiologic evaluation, 29% were grade 1 rickets, 58% grade 2 and 13% grade 3. In univariate analysis, infants with rickets had significantly higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC), severe PNAC and moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In multiple regression analysis, after adjustment for gestation and birth weight, rickets significantly correlated with severe PNAC and with moderate/severe BPD. Serum peak alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly elevated in rickets (P rickets of prematurity remains high and the incidence of severe PNAC and moderate/severe BPD was significantly increased 18 and 3 times, respectively.

  6. The value of crossdating to retain high-frequency variability, climate signals, and extreme events in environmental proxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Bryan A; Griffin, Daniel; van der Sleen, Peter; Wanamaker, Alan D; Speer, James H; Frank, David C; Stahle, David W; Pederson, Neil; Copenheaver, Carolyn A; Trouet, Valerie; Griffin, Shelly; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2016-07-01

    High-resolution biogenic and geologic proxies in which one increment or layer is formed per year are crucial to describing natural ranges of environmental variability in Earth's physical and biological systems. However, dating controls are necessary to ensure temporal precision and accuracy; simple counts cannot ensure that all layers are placed correctly in time. Originally developed for tree-ring data, crossdating is the only such procedure that ensures all increments have been assigned the correct calendar year of formation. Here, we use growth-increment data from two tree species, two marine bivalve species, and a marine fish species to illustrate sensitivity of environmental signals to modest dating error rates. When falsely added or missed increments are induced at one and five percent rates, errors propagate back through time and eliminate high-frequency variability, climate signals, and evidence of extreme events while incorrectly dating and distorting major disturbances or other low-frequency processes. Our consecutive Monte Carlo experiments show that inaccuracies begin to accumulate in as little as two decades and can remove all but decadal-scale processes after as little as two centuries. Real-world scenarios may have even greater consequence in the absence of crossdating. Given this sensitivity to signal loss, the fundamental tenets of crossdating must be applied to fully resolve environmental signals, a point we underscore as the frontiers of growth-increment analysis continue to expand into tropical, freshwater, and marine environments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. FURTHER EVIDENCE ON THE “COSTS OF PRIVILEGE”: PERFECTIONISM IN HIGH-ACHIEVING YOUTH AT SOCIOECONOMIC EXTREMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYMAN, EMILY L.; LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.

    2015-01-01

    This study involved two academically-gifted samples of 11th and 12th grade youth at the socioeconomic status (SES) extremes; one from an exclusive private, affluent school, and the other from a magnet school with low-income students. Negative and positive adjustment outcomes were examined in relation to multiple dimensions of perfectionism including perceived parental pressures to be perfect, personal perfectionistic self-presentation, and envy of peers. The low-income students showed some areas of relative vulnerability, but when large group differences were found, it was the affluent youth who were at a disadvantage, with substantially higher substance use and peer envy. Affluent girls seemed particularly vulnerable, with pronounced elevations in perfectionistic tendencies, peer envy, as well as body dissatisfaction. Examination of risk and protective processes showed that relationships with mothers were associated with students’ distress as well as positive adjustment. Additionally, findings showed links between (a) envy of peers and multiple outcomes (among high SES girls in particular), (b) dimensions of perfectionism in relation to internalizing symptoms, and (c) high extrinsic versus intrinsic values in relation to externalizing symptoms. PMID:26345229

  8. Reaction of Basaltic Materials under High-Fidelity Venus Surface Conditions using the Glenn Extreme Environment Rig: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoman-Shaw, Brandon; Harvey, Ralph; Costa, Gustavo; Nakley, Leah Michelle; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Both historical and current investigations of Venus suggest that atmosphererock interactions play a critical role in the evolution of its atmosphere and crust. We have begun a series of systematic experiments designed to further our understanding of atmosphere-driven weathering and secondary mineralization of basaltic materials that may be occurring on Venus today. Our experiments expose representative igneous phases (mineral, glasses and rocks) to a high-fidelity simulation of Venus surface conditions using the NASA Glenn Extreme Environment Rig (GEER) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. GEER is a very large (800L) vessel capable of producing a long-term, high fidelity simulation of both the physical conditions (750 K and 92 bar) and atmospheric chemistry (down to the ppb-level) asso-ciated with the Venusian surface. As of this writing we have just finished the first of several planned experiments: a 42-day exposure of selected mineral, rocks and volcanic glasses. Our goal is to identify and prioritize the reactions taking place and better our understanding of their importance in Venus' climate history.

  9. HELIOS—A laboratory based on high-order harmonic generation of extreme ultraviolet photons for time-resolved spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plogmaker, S.; Terschlüsen, J. A.; Krebs, N.; Svanqvist, M.; Forsberg, J.; Cappel, U. B.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Siegbahn, H.; Söderström, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present the HELIOS (High Energy Laser Induced Overtone Source) laboratory, an in-house high-order harmonic generation facility which generates extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photon pulses in the range of 15-70 eV with monochromatized XUV pulse lengths below 35 fs. HELIOS is a source for time-resolved pump-probe/two-color spectroscopy in the sub-50 fs range, which can be operated at 5 kHz or 10 kHz. An optical parametric amplifier is available for pump-probe experiments with wavelengths ranging from 240 nm to 20 000 nm. The produced XUV radiation is monochromatized by a grating in the so-called off-plane mount. Together with overall design parameters, first monochromatized spectra are shown with an intensity of 2 ṡ 1010 photons/s (at 5 kHz) in the 29th harmonic, after the monochromator. The XUV pulse duration is measured to be <25 fs after monochromatization.

  10. HELIOS--A laboratory based on high-order harmonic generation of extreme ultraviolet photons for time-resolved spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plogmaker, S; Terschlüsen, J A; Krebs, N; Svanqvist, M; Forsberg, J; Cappel, U B; Rubensson, J-E; Siegbahn, H; Söderström, J

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present the HELIOS (High Energy Laser Induced Overtone Source) laboratory, an in-house high-order harmonic generation facility which generates extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photon pulses in the range of 15-70 eV with monochromatized XUV pulse lengths below 35 fs. HELIOS is a source for time-resolved pump-probe/two-color spectroscopy in the sub-50 fs range, which can be operated at 5 kHz or 10 kHz. An optical parametric amplifier is available for pump-probe experiments with wavelengths ranging from 240 nm to 20,000 nm. The produced XUV radiation is monochromatized by a grating in the so-called off-plane mount. Together with overall design parameters, first monochromatized spectra are shown with an intensity of 2 ⋅ 10(10) photons/s (at 5 kHz) in the 29th harmonic, after the monochromator. The XUV pulse duration is measured to be <25 fs after monochromatization.

  11. The Yosemite Extreme Panoramic Imaging Project: Monitoring Rockfall in Yosemite Valley with High-Resolution, Three-Dimensional Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, G. M.; Hansen, E.; Downing, G.

    2008-12-01

    Yosemite Valley experiences numerous rockfalls each year, with over 600 rockfall events documented since 1850. However, monitoring rockfall activity has proved challenging without high-resolution "basemap" imagery of the Valley walls. The Yosemite Extreme Panoramic Imaging Project, a partnership between the National Park Service and xRez Studio, has created an unprecedented image of Yosemite Valley's walls by utilizing gigapixel panoramic photography, LiDAR-based digital terrain modeling, and three-dimensional computer rendering. Photographic capture was accomplished by 20 separate teams shooting from key overlapping locations throughout Yosemite Valley. The shots were taken simultaneously in order to ensure uniform lighting, with each team taking over 500 overlapping shots from each vantage point. Each team's shots were then assembled into 20 gigapixel panoramas. In addition, all 20 gigapixel panoramas were projected onto a 1 meter resolution digital terrain model in three-dimensional rendering software, unifying Yosemite Valley's walls into a vertical orthographic view. The resulting image reveals the geologic complexity of Yosemite Valley in high resolution and represents one of the world's largest photographic captures of a single area. Several rockfalls have already occurred since image capture, and repeat photography of these areas clearly delineates rockfall source areas and failure dynamics. Thus, the imagery has already proven to be a valuable tool for monitoring and understanding rockfall in Yosemite Valley. It also sets a new benchmark for the quality of information a photographic image, enabled with powerful new imaging technology, can provide for the earth sciences.

  12. Monolayer MoS2/GaAs heterostructure self-driven photodetector with extremely high detectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhijuan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Shengjiao; Wu, Zhiqian; Xu, Wenli; Lu, Yanghua; Xu, Sen

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional material/semiconductor heterostructures offer alternative platforms for optoelectronic devices other than conventional Schottky and p-n junction devices. Herein, we use MoS2/GaAs heterojunction as a self-driven photodetector with wide response band width from ultraviolet to visible light, which exhibits high sensitivity to the incident light of 650 nm with responsivity as 446 mA/W and detectivity as 5.9E13 Jones (Jones = cm Hz^1/2 W^-1), respectively. Employing interface design by inserting h-BN and photo-induced doping by covering Si quantum dots on the device, the responsivity is increased to 582 mA/W for incident light of 650 nm. Distinctly, attributing to the low dark current of the MoS2/h-BN/GaAs sandwich structure based on the self-driven operation condition, the detectivity shows extremely high value of 3.2E14 Jones for incident light of 650 nm, which is higher than all the reported values of the MoS2 based photodetectors. Further investigations reveal that the MoS2/GaAs based photodete...

  13. W(310) cold-field emission characteristics reflecting the vacuum states of an extreme high vacuum electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Boklae; Shigeru, Kokubo; Oshima, Chuhei

    2013-01-01

    An extremely high vacuum cold-field electron emission (CFE) gun operating at pressures ranging from ˜10-8 Pa to ˜10-10 Pa was constructed. Only the CFE current emitting from W(310) surfaces revealed the existence of a "stable region" with high current angular density just after tip flash heating. In the "stable region," the CFE current was damped very slowly. The presence of non-hydrogen gas eliminated this region from the plot. Improvement of the vacuum prolonged the 90% damping time of the CFE current from ˜10 min to 800 min. The current angular density I' of CFE current was 60 and 250 μA/sr in the "stable region" for total CFE currents of 10 and 50 μA, respectively. These results were about three times larger than I' when measured after the complete damping of the CFE current. The CFE gun generated bright scanning transmission electron microscopy images of a carbon nanotube at 30 kV.

  14. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  15. Relationship Between South Atlantic Subtropical High and South Atlantic SST Anomalies during Extreme Precipitation Events on Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampuch, L.; Ambrizzi, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Southeast region of Brazil comprises the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo. It occupies 10.85% of Brazilian territory and is highly urbanized. The Southeast Brazil is the biggest geoeconomic region of the country having a strong and diverse economy. Agriculture dominates in all states of the region. The main agricultural products are sugar cane, coffee, cotton, maize, cassava, rice, beans and fruits. Livestock farming is also practiced in the region. The largest herd of cattle is found in the state of Minas Gerais. These activities are highly dependent on the amount and distribution of rainfall. Studies of extreme precipitation events over Brazil have been well emphasized in the literature over the years and their relationship with anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) in both the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean have been analyzed. This paper investigates the extreme events occurring in southeastern Brazil from 1982 to 2004 using the technique of quantiles. The composite technique was applied to precipitation, sea level pressure anomaly (SLP) and sea surface temperature anomaly (SST) data in order to investigate the characteristics of rainfall patterns, the position and intensity of South Atlantic subtropical high (SASH) and SST anomalies in the Southern Atlantic Ocean (SAO) in the occurrence of these events and to make a distinction between dry and wet extremes. Analyzing the precipitation patterns, it was noticed that the composition of dry events throughout the Southeast Brazil has negative precipitation anomalies. Particularly, in the southern part of the region there is a large precipitation deficit, having an average of 50mm in the winter months. The composition for the wet events shows that, on average, positive precipitation anomalies with the southern region containing the highest cumulative average, reaching a positive anomaly of 100mm. The composition of SLP in the case of dry events indicates a positive anomaly

  16. Legal Regulations of Activities of Vladikavkaz High Court Division VTSIK during the Transition of Extreme-Decretive to Codified Law (1921–1923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana G. Sudakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with legal foundations of extreme justice system since 1917 to 1923 and the issues related to organization of Vladikavkaz High Court Division VTSIK. The research states, that after adoption and introduction of the PC and CPC in the judicial practice in 1922, the centralized control over high courts was enhanced.

  17. 我国高等教育领域客户满意度模型比较研究%A Comparative Study on Customer Satisfaction Model of High Education Field in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪晓青

    2012-01-01

    The high education as a service has been widely recognized,the goal of higher education services is to meet the needs of customer and improve their satisfaction.Customer satisfaction model is an important method and way to measure customer satisfaction.As the different target customers between general high education and modern distance education,the customer satisfaction should be also different.The paper has analyzed the customer satisfaction model of high education field,summarized the difference of customer satisfaction between general high education and modern distance to construct education services and management model appropriate to modern distance education.%我国高等教育作为一种服务已经被广泛的认可,满足服务对象的需求、提高服务对象的满意度是高等教育服务的目标。客户满意度模型是衡量满意度的重要方法。普通高等教育对象与现代远程教育对象的不同,形成的客户满意度也应有所不同。分析研究了我国高等教育领域客户满意度模型,发现两者的不同之处,以期建立适合现代远程教育发展的教育服务与管理模式。

  18. RESEARCH ON HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan-Bela FARKAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies on the human resources performance of the educational system have proved that pupils/students’ educational success depends, to a high degree, on the level of human resource motivation, as well as on their degree of professional satisfaction. Teachers’ who show a high level of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, invest more into their activity, are more creative and more efficient in problem solving. The paper debates the results of an empirical study regarding the influence of pre-university teachers’ motivation and satisfaction regarding the general work conditions on their work performance by measuring the present motivation and satisfaction level. Furthermore, the determinant factors of their satisfaction with the work place are determined and analyzed. Finally, based on the statistical data process we will conclude and debate on the research hypothesis validation and the empirical model related to motivation – satisfaction – performance interdependences.

  19. Tolerance to high temperature extremes in an invasive lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae, in subtropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Ting Ju

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are predicted to be more frequent as climate change is increasing its positive impact on the prevalence of invasive exotic species. Success of insect invaders in different temperature zones is closely related to their tolerance to temperature extremes. In this study, we used an exotic lace bug (Corythucha ciliata as the study organism to address the hypotheses that an insect species invading a subtropical zone from temperate regions has a high capacity to survive and adapt to high temperatures, and that its thermal tolerance plays an important role in determining its seasonal abundance and geographic distribution. To test these hypotheses, the effects of heat shock on the survival and reproduction of C. ciliata adults were assessed in the laboratory. Adults were exposed to 26 (control, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, and 45°C for 2 h, and then were transferred to 26°C. Heat-shock temperatures ranging from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect survival pattern, longevity, and fecundity of adults, but heat shock at 43 and 45°C significantly reduced these traits. Exposing parent females to heat-shock treatments from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect the hatching rate of their eggs, survival of the nymphs, and the proportion of female F(1 progeny, while no progeny were produced with treatments of 43 and 45°C. The results indicate that C. ciliata can tolerate high temperatures less than 41°C, which may contribute to its expansion into the lower latitudes in China where its hosts (Platanus trees are widely planted. Our findings have important implications for predicting seasonal abundance and understanding invasion mechanisms of this important urban invader under climate change.

  20. High C/O Chemistry and Weak Thermal Inversion in the Extremely Irradiated Atmosphere of Exoplanet WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J.; Wheatley, Peter J.; Deming, Drake; Blecie, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A.; Lust, Nate B.; Anderson, David R.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Bowman, William C.; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Pollacco, Don; West, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior as opposed to the silicate-dominated composition as found on Earth; the solar C/O is 0.54. Theory, shows that high C/O leads to a diversity of carbon-rich planets that can have very different interiors and atmospheres from those in the solar system. Here we report the detection of C/O greater than or equal to 1 in a planetary atmosphere. The transiting hot Jupiter WASP-12b has a dayside atmosphere depleted in water vapour and enhanced in methane by over two orders of magnitude compared to a solar-abundance chemical equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. The observed concentrations of the prominent molecules CO, CH4, and H2O are consistent with theoretical expectations for an atmosphere with the observed C/O = 1. The C/O ratios are not known for giant planets in the solar system, although they are expected to equal the solar value. If high C/O ratios are common, then extrasolar planets are likely very different in interior composition, and formed very differently, from expectations based on solar composition, potentially explaining the large diversity in observed radii. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (greater than 2500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion, or a stratosphere, and has very efficient day-night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiated hot-Jupiter atmospheres.

  1. High N, dry: Experimental nitrogen deposition exacerbates native shrub loss and nonnative plant invasion during extreme drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliere, Justin M; Irvine, Irina C; Santiago, Louis; Allen, Edith B

    2017-03-20

    Hotter, longer, and more frequent global change-type drought events may profoundly impact terrestrial ecosystems by triggering widespread vegetation mortality. However, severe drought is only one component of global change, and ecological effects of drought may be compounded by other drivers, such as anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and nonnative plant invasion. Elevated N deposition, for example, may reduce drought tolerance through increased plant productivity, thereby contributing to drought-induced mortality. High N availability also often favors invasive, nonnative plant species, and the loss of woody vegetation due to drought may create a window of opportunity for these invaders. We investigated the effects of multiple levels of simulated N deposition on a Mediterranean-type shrubland plant community in southern California from 2011 to 2016, a period coinciding with an extreme, multi-year drought in the region. We hypothesized that N addition would increase native shrub productivity, but that this would increase susceptibility to drought and result in increased shrub loss over time. We also predicted that N addition would favor nonnatives, especially annual grasses, leading to higher biomass and cover of these species. Consistent with these hypotheses, we found that high N availability increased native shrub canopy loss and mortality, likely due to the higher productivity and leaf area and reduced water-use efficiency we observed in shrubs subject to N addition. As native shrub cover declined, we also observed a concomitant increase in cover and biomass of nonnative annuals, particularly under high levels of experimental N deposition. Together, these results suggest that the impacts of extended drought on shrubland ecosystems may be more severe under elevated N deposition, potentially contributing to the widespread loss of native woody species and vegetation type-conversion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of Indian Ocean Variability on HighTemperature Extremes across the Southern Yangtze River Valley in Late Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kaiming; HUANG Gang; QU Xia; HUANG Ronghui

    2012-01-01

    In this study,the teleconnection between Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) and the frequency of high temperature extremes (HTEs) across the southern Yangtze River valley (YRV) was investigated.The results indicate that the frequency of HTEs across the southern YRV in August is remotely influenced by the Indian Ocean basin mode (IOBM) SSTAs.Corresponding to June-July-August (JJA) IOBM warming condition,the number of HTEs was above normal,and corresponding to IOBM cooling conditions,the number of HTEs was below normal across the southern YRV in August.The results of this study indicate that the tropical IOBM warming triggered low-level anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the subtropical northwestern Pacific Ocean and southern China by emanating a warm Kelvin wave in August.In the southern YRV,the reduced rainfall and downward vertical motion associated with the anomalous low-level anticyclonic circulation led to the increase of HTE frequency in August.

  3. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE: II. Binary Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C; Honda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor, Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported three double-lined spectroscopic...

  4. An Extreme High-Velocity Bipolar Outflow in the Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 08005-2356

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, R

    2015-01-01

    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 with an angular-resolution of ~1"-5", using the Submillimeter Array (SMA), in the 12CO J=2-1, 3-2, 13CO J=2-1 and SiO J=5-4 (v=0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10-m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J=4-3 and SiO J-6-5 (v=0) lines. The lines profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 Msun), extreme high-velocity outflow (V~200 km/s) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the HST imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad H-alpha emission profile, which we propose results from Ly-beta emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  5. An Extreme High-velocity Bipolar Outflow in the Pre-planetary Nebula IRAS 08005-2356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Patel, N. A.

    2015-09-01

    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 (I 08005) with an angular resolution of ˜1″-5″, using the Submillimeter Array, in the 12CO J = 2-1, 3-2, 13CO J = 2-1, and SiO J = 5-4 (v = 0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10 m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J = 4-3 and SiO J = 6-5 (v = 0) lines. The line profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 M⊙), extreme high velocity outflow (V ˜ 200 km s-1) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad Hα emission profile, which we propose results from Lyβ emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  6. AN EXTREME HIGH-VELOCITY BIPOLAR OUTFLOW IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA IRAS 08005-2356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 183-900, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Patel, N. A., E-mail: raghvendra.sahai@jpl.nasa.gov [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 (I 08005) with an angular resolution of ∼1″–5″, using the Submillimeter Array, in the {sup 12}CO J = 2–1, 3–2, {sup 13}CO J = 2–1, and SiO J = 5–4 (v = 0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10 m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J = 4–3 and SiO J = 6–5 (v = 0) lines. The line profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 M{sub ⊙}), extreme high velocity outflow (V ∼ 200 km s{sup −1}) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad Hα emission profile, which we propose results from Lyβ emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  7. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Observations of Extremely Luminous High-z Sources Identified by Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, K C; Cybulski, R; Wilson, G W; Aretxaga, I; Chavez, M; De la Luz, V; Erickson, N; Ferrusca, D; Gallup, A D; Hughes, D H; Montaña, A; Narayanan, G; Sánchez-Argüelles, D; Schloerb, F P; Souccar, K; Terlevich, E; Terlevich, R; Zeballos, M; Zavala, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present 8.5 arcsec resolution 1.1mm continuum imaging and CO spectroscopic redshift measurements of eight extremely bright submillimetre galaxies identified from the Planck and Herschel surveys, taken with the Large Millimeter Telescope's AzTEC and Redshift Search Receiver instruments. We compiled a candidate list of high redshift galaxies by cross-correlating the Planck Surveyor mission's highest frequency channel (857 GHz, FWHM = 4.5 arcmin) with the archival Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) imaging data, and requiring the presence of a unique, single Herschel counterpart within the 150 arcsec search radius of the Planck source positions with 350 micron flux density larger than 100 mJy, excluding known blazars and foreground galaxies. All eight candidate objects observed are detected in 1.1mm continuum by AzTEC bolometer camera, and at least one CO line is detected in all cases with a spectroscopic redshift between 1.3 < z(CO) < 3.3. Their infrared spectral energy distribu...

  8. Optical to extreme ultraviolet reddening curves for normal AGN dust and for dust associated with high-velocity outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Japneet; Gaskell, Martin; Gill, Jake

    2017-01-01

    We use mid-IR (WIRE), optical (SDSS), and ultraviolet (GALEX) photometry of over 80,000 AGNs to derive mean attenuation curves from the optical to the rest frame extreme ultraviolet (EUV) for (i) “normal” AGN dust dominating the optical reddening of AGNs and (ii) “BAL dust” - the dust causing the additional extinction in AGNs observed to have broad absorption lines (BALs). Our method confirms that the attenuation curve of “normal” AGN dust is flat in the ultraviolet, as found by Gaskell et al. (2004). In striking contrast to this, the attenuation curve for BAL dust is well fit by a steeply-rising, SMC-like curve. We confirm the shape of the theoretical Weingartner & Draine (2001) SMC curve out to 700 Angstroms but the drop in attenuation to still shorter wavelengths (400 Angstroms) seems to be less than predicted. We find identical attenuation curves for high-ionization and low-ionization BALQSOs. We suggest that attenuation curves appearing to be steeper than the SMC are due to differences in underlying spectra and partial covering by BAL dust. This work was This work was performed under the auspices of the Science Internship Program (SIP) of the University of California at Santa Cruz performed under the auspices of the Science Internship Program (SIP) of the University of California at Santa Cruz.

  9. High frequencies of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and rickets exist in extremely low birth weight infants despite current nutritional support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Bruce R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, Methods We evaluated all ELBW infants admitted to Texas Children's Hospital NICU in 2006 and 2007. Of 211 admissions, we excluded 98 patients who were admitted at >30 days of age or did not survive/stay for >6 weeks. Bone radiographs obtained in 32 infants were reviewed by a radiologist masked to laboratory values. Results In this cohort of 113 infants, P-APA was found to have a significant inverse relationship with BW, gestational age and serum phosphorus. In paired comparisons, P-APA of infants Conclusion Elevation of P-APA >600 IU/L was very common in ELBW infants. BW was significantly inversely related to both P-APA and radiologic rickets. No single value of P-APA was related to radiological findings of rickets. Given the very high risk of osteopenia and rickets among ELBW infants, we recommend consideration of early screening and early mineral supplementation, especially among infants

  10. Strength of metals in liquid and solid states at extremely high tension produced by femtosecond laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashitkov, Sergey I.; Inogamov, Nail A.; Komarov, Pavel S.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.; Oleynik, Ivan I.; Agranat, Mikhail B.; Kanel, Gennady I.; Fortov, Vladimir E.

    2012-07-01

    We will discuss results of combined experimental and theoretical investigations of ablation and laser-driven shock-wave phenomena in metal films irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. The femtosecond interferometric microscopy technique was used to make time-resolved measurements of optical properties as well as record the deformation dynamics at both the rear and frontal surfaces during initial two-temperature electron-ion relaxation and subsequent hydrodynamic expansion. In conjunction with experiment, the formation and propagation of strong tensile and compression waves were investigated by a combination of two-temperature hydrodynamic modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental tensile strengths of aluminum and nickel in solid and liquid states at extremely high strain rates in range 108÷109s-1 were obtained from the time evolution of rear and frontal surface velocities. Theoretical tensile strengths calculated by atomistic simulations of ablation and spallation using micron-sized films agree well with experiment. Elastic-plastic response of metallic films to shock compression investigated by both experiment and theory/modeling will also be discussed.

  11. Strength of metals in liquid and solid states at extremely high tension produced by femtosecond laser heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashitkov, Sergey I.; Inogamov, Nail A.; Komarov, Pavel S.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.; Oleynik, Ivan I.; Agranat, Mikhail B.; Kanel, Gennady I.; Fortov, Vladimir E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation); Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-30

    We will discuss results of combined experimental and theoretical investigations of ablation and laser-driven shock-wave phenomena in metal films irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. The femtosecond interferometric microscopy technique was used to make time-resolved measurements of optical properties as well as record the deformation dynamics at both the rear and frontal surfaces during initial two-temperature electron-ion relaxation and subsequent hydrodynamic expansion. In conjunction with experiment, the formation and propagation of strong tensile and compression waves were investigated by a combination of two-temperature hydrodynamic modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental tensile strengths of aluminum and nickel in solid and liquid states at extremely high strain rates in range 10{sup 8} Division-Sign 10{sup 9}s{sup -1} were obtained from the time evolution of rear and frontal surface velocities. Theoretical tensile strengths calculated by atomistic simulations of ablation and spallation using micron-sized films agree well with experiment. Elastic-plastic response of metallic films to shock compression investigated by both experiment and theory/modeling will also be discussed.

  12. ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE AND EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Milica Jakšiæ, Miloš Jakšiæ

    2014-01-01

    Employee satisfaction related to their job, possibilities of career development, mechanisms of performance measurement and reward, as remuneration systems are of growing importance. Expectations of highly educated workforce continuously increase, so recruiting and retention of such workers becomes key factor of success for modern companies. Success of companies is expected to change together with employee saticfaction.

  13. Life Satisfaction in the Black Elderly: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V. Nandini; Rao, V. V. Prakasa

    1981-01-01

    Tested the Life Satisfaction Index-A for validity and reliability using a sample of 240 Black elderly. The study failed to support the existence of five dimensions that were supposed to form the life satisfaction scale, but the scale was highly reliable in measuring life satisfaction among Black elderly. (Author/JAC)

  14. The Roles of Life Satisfaction, Teaching Efficacy, and Self-Esteem in Predicting Teachers' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çevik, Gülsen Büyüksahin

    2017-01-01

    The current research aims to find out the extent to which high school teachers' life satisfaction, teaching efficacy, and self-esteem predict their job satisfaction. Research participants included a total of 358 teachers (age = 38.82; Ss = 6.73; range, 22-58), 222 males (62%) and 136 females (38%), employed in 21 public high schools in the city…

  15. The Correlation between Teachers' Perceptions about Principal's Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction of Teachers of State Senior High School in Gunungsitoli Nias, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waruwu, Binahati

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at finding out the significant correlation between: (1) teachers' perceptions about principal's emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of teachers, (2) organizational climate and job satisfaction of teachers, and (3) teachers' perceptions about principal's emotional intelligence and organizational climate and job…

  16. From high doses of oral rivastigmine to transdermal rivastigmine patches: user experience and satisfaction among caregivers of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reñé, R; Ricart, J; Hernández, B

    2014-03-01

    Rivastigmine, a treatment for mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD), is the first cholinesterase inhibitor to be available in the transdermal format. We aim to describe user experience and satisfaction with the rivastigmine patch, as well as any clinical changes perceived in patients. Observational, cross-sectional, multicentre study with 239 investigators and 1851 informal caregivers of patients with mild to moderate AD. Patients were treated with transdermal rivastigmine patches for ≥ 6 months and had previously received high doses of oral rivastigmine. Mean caregiver age was 59.8±14.4 years and 70.9% were women. They spent 10.0±7.1hours per day providing care and 79.8% lived with the patient. Patch instructions were described as easy to follow by 97.1% of the caregivers and 92.1% of them rated patch application as easy or very easy. The most commonly cited disadvantage was adhesion problems (26.8%). Discontinuation of treatment was due to cutaneous reactions in most cases. Overall, 76.5% of the caregivers were satisfied or very satisfied with transdermal treatment and 77.4% considered that its interference with daily activities was minimal or null. The patch was preferred to oral treatment by 94.3% of caregivers. Clinical Global Impression of Change ratings improved according to 61.3% of the caregivers and 53% of the investigators. Few caregivers reported medication forgetfulness. Most caregivers of patients with mild to moderate AD preferred the transdermal format of rivastigmine to the oral format. Caregivers also reported overall satisfaction, ease of use, and reduced impact on daily activities for transdermal rivastigmine format, in addition to patient improvement compared to their condition under the previous treatment. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of a Novel Highly Thermostable and Extremely Thermophilic Alkalitolerant Amylase from Hyperthermophilic Bacillus Strain HUTBS71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Akel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study reported the purification and characterization of a novel highly thermostable alkaline amylase from a newly isolated Bacillus strain HUTBS71. Approach: The enzyme was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Results: Maximum amylase activity (72 U mL-1 was obtained at 100°C after 10 min of incubation. The enzyme was purified 24 fold with 12.5% yield and showed a monomer band with a molecular weight of 58.8 kDa by SDS-PAGE. This enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH and temperature, 7.8 and 100°C, respectively. It performed stability over a broad range of pH and temperature, 5.2-10.0 and 80-115°C, respectively. The half-life of the enzyme at 90 and 100°C was estimated to be 3 h. The activation energy of denaturation of purified enzyme was 2.53 kJ moL-1. The enzyme was activated by 5 mM of CoCl2, MgSO4, MnCl2, ZnSO4 and MnSO4 (relative activity was 133, 126, 133, 106.6 and 103%, respectively. It was strongly inhibited by CuSO4 and CdCl2 but less affected by NaCl, CaCl2, FeCl3, ZnCl2 and EDTA. Conclusion: The present purified amylase therefore could be defined as a highly thermostable, extremely hyperthermophilic and alkalitolerant with new properties make the present enzyme applicable for many starch processing and food industries.

  18. High-resolution spectroscopy of extremely metal-poor stars from SDSS/Segue. II. Binary fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Wako; Suda, Takuma [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame,225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46656 (United States); Honda, Satoshi, E-mail: aoki.wako@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: takuma.suda@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: tbeers@nd.edu, E-mail: honda@nhao.jp [Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2, Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    The fraction of binary systems in various stellar populations of the Galaxy and the distribution of their orbital parameters are important but not well-determined factors in studies of star formation, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution. While observational studies have been carried out for a large sample of nearby stars, including some metal-poor Population II stars, almost no constraints on the binary nature for extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] <−3.0) stars have yet been obtained. Here we investigate the fraction of double-lined spectroscopic binaries and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, many of which could have formed as pairs of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, to estimate the lower limit of the fraction of binary systems having short periods. The estimate is based on a sample of very metal-poor stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and observed at high spectral resolution in a previous study by Aoki et al. That survey reported 3 double-lined spectroscopic binaries and 11 CEMP stars, which we consider along with a sample of EMP stars from the literature compiled in the SAGA database. We have conducted measurements of the velocity components for stacked absorption features of different spectral lines for each double-lined spectroscopic binary. Our estimate indicates that the fraction of binary stars having orbital periods shorter than 1000 days is at least 10%, and possibly as high as 20% if the majority of CEMP stars are formed in such short-period binaries. This result suggests that the period distribution of EMP binary systems is biased toward short periods, unless the binary fraction of low-mass EMP stars is significantly higher than that of other nearby stars.

  19. SATISFACTION OF PATIENTS WITH ARTHROSIS FROM MULTIDISCIPLINARY COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergana Nenova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The research of patient satisfaction with arthrosis from multidisciplinary cooperation is related to clarifying the position and the role of the physiotherapist in public health and in the development of integrated care. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the satisfaction of patients with arthrosis from multidisciplinary cooperation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this research study participated 30 patients of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology of University Hospital "St. Marina" EAD - Varna for the period 2012-2016 of which 13 were men and 17 women. A feedback from these patients was sought based on the 5-point Likert scale regarding their satisfaction after the completion of the work of the multidisciplinary task team that provides integrated care at home. The questionnaire includes 12 questions, grouped in the following areas: awareness, attitude / communication, time, physical activity, professionalism and benefit / effectiveness. The data were compared with the results from a study of the satisfaction of a control group of 30 patients who were treated in the same ward, but chose to continue their rehabilitation with NHIF. RESULTS: The respondents from the test group are highly satisfied in the "awareness" area (respectively 4.80 and 4.90. They say that they have more freedom in daily activities after the procedure conducted by physiotherapist (4.93 and would seek the same physiotherapist if they need rehabilitation in the future. Patients appreciate the quality behavior/approach and communication skills displayed by the physiotherapist during the rehabilitation process (5.00, which enables them to better understand their illness (4.93. The respondents from the test group felt much better after each procedure performed by the physiotherapist (5.00 and would recommend him/her to other patients who have the same need (5.00. The satisfaction from the work of the physiotherapist is appreciated by patients extremely high, but

  20. Patient Satisfaction and Nipple-Areola Sensitivity After Bilateral Prophylactic Mastectomy and Immediate Implant Breast Reconstruction in a High Breast Cancer Risk Population: Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy Versus Skin-Sparing Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Verschuer, Victorien M T; Mureau, Marc A M; Gopie, Jessica P; Vos, Elvira L; Verhoef, Cornelis; Menke-Pluijmers, Marian B E; Koppert, Linetta B

    2016-08-01

    Prophylactic skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) both are associated with major risk reduction in women with high breast cancer risk. Skin-sparing mastectomy followed by nipple-areola complex (NAC) reconstruction is standard of care, but NSM is increasingly being performed. Preservation of the NAC in NSM may increase patient satisfaction. Therefore, we measured NAC sensitivity after NSM and compared patient satisfaction as well as body image after SSM with NSM. Women who underwent prophylactic bilateral SSM or NSM and immediate implant breast reconstruction between 2002 and 2012 were eligible. Patient satisfaction was assessed using the Breast-Q reconstruction questionnaire, body image using Hopwood's body image scale (BIS), and satisfaction with the (reconstructed) NAC using a study-specific questionnaire. In the NSM group, NAC sensitivity was assessed using Semmes Weinstein monofilaments with a 5-point scale and compared with NAC sensitivity in a nonoperated control group. The SSM group comprised 25 women (50 SSMs) and the NSM group 20 women (39 NSMs). Median follow-up was 65 months in the SSM group compared with 27 months in the NSM group (P Breast-Q scores were favorable in the SSM group compared with the NSM group with trends for higher "satisfaction with breasts" (66.2 vs 56.6; P = 0.06) and "satisfaction with outcome" (76.1 vs 61.5; P = 0.09). Mean BIS score of 7.1/30 in the SSM group and 9.3/30 in the NSM group (P = 0.35). Adjusted for follow-up, there were no significant differences in Breast-Q scores, nor in BIS scores. Interestingly, satisfaction with the (reconstructed) NAC was similar after SSM and NSM. Nipple-areola complex sensitivity was lower in the NSM group (mean score, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3) compared with the control group (mean score, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 4.6-4.9; P Breast-Q scores regarding satisfaction with breasts and overall outcome were in favor of the SSM group. Residual NAC

  1. Extreme Unconditional Dependence Vs. Multivariate GARCH Effect in the Analysis of Dependence Between High Losses on Polish and German Stock Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokita, Pawel

    Classical portfolio diversification methods do not take account of any dependence between extreme returns (losses). Many researchers provide, however, some empirical evidence for various assets that extreme-losses co-occur. If the co-occurrence is frequent enough to be statistically significant, it may seriously influence portfolio risk. Such effects may result from a few different properties of financial time series, like for instance: (1) extreme dependence in a (long-term) unconditional distribution, (2) extreme dependence in subsequent conditional distributions, (3) time-varying conditional covariance, (4) time-varying (long-term) unconditional covariance, (5) market contagion. Moreover, a mix of these properties may be present in return time series. Modeling each of them requires different approaches. It seams reasonable to investigate whether distinguishing between the properties is highly significant for portfolio risk measurement. If it is, identifying the effect responsible for high loss co-occurrence would be of a great importance. If it is not, the best solution would be selecting the easiest-to-apply model. This article concentrates on two of the aforementioned properties: extreme dependence (in a long-term unconditional distribution) and time-varying conditional covariance.

  2. Effects of elevated mean and extremely high temperatures on the physio-ecological characteristics of geographically distinctive populations of Cunninghamia lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Jia, Xiaorong; Liao, Huixuan; Peng, Shijia; Peng, Shaolin

    2016-12-01

    Conventional models for predicting species distribution under global warming scenarios often treat one species as a homogeneous whole. In the present study, we selected Cunninghamia lanceolata (C. lanceolata), a widely distributed species in China, to investigate the physio-ecological responses of five populations under different temperature regimes. The results demonstrate that increased mean temperatures induce increased growth performance among northern populations, which exhibited the greatest germination capacity and largest increase in the overlap between the growth curve and the monthly average temperature. However,tolerance of the southern population to extremely high temperatures was stronger than among the population from the northern region,shown by the best growth and the most stable photosynthetic system of the southern population under extremely high temperature. This result indicates that the growth advantage among northern populations due to increased mean temperatures may be weakened by lower tolerance to extremely high temperatures. This finding is antithetical to the predicted results. The theoretical coupling model constructed here illustrates that the difference in growth between populations at high and low latitudes and altitudes under global warming will decrease because of the frequent occurrence of extremely high temperatures.

  3. Simultaneous efficient removal of high-strength ammonia nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand from landfill leachate by using an extremely high ammonia nitrogen-resistant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahai; Yang, Jiyu; Fang, Xuexun; Ren, Hejun

    2015-01-01

    Bioaugmentation is a promising technology for pollutant elimination from stressed environments, and it would provide an efficient way to solve challenges in traditional biotreatment of wastewater with high strength of ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). A high NH4(+)-N-resistant bacteria strain, identified as Bacillus cereus (Jlu BC), was domesticated and isolated from the bacteria consortium in landfill leachate. Jlu BC could survive in 100 g/L NH4(+)-N environment, which indicated its extremely high NH4(+)-N tolerance than the stains found before. Jlu BC was employed in the bioaugmented system to remove high strength of NH4(+)-N from landfill leachate, and to increase the removal efficiency, response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing bioaugmentation degradation conditions. At the optimum condition (initial pH 7.33, 4.14 days, initial chemical oxygen demand [COD] concentration [18,000 mg/L], 3.5 mL inoculated domesticated bacteria strain, 0.3 mg/mL phosphorus supplement, 30 °C, and 170 rpm), 94.74 ± 3.8% removal rate of NH4(+)-N was obtained, and the experiment data corresponded well with the predicted removal rate of the RSM models (95.50%). Furthermore, COD removal rate of 81.94 ± 1.4% was obtained simultaneously. The results presented are promising, and the screened strain would be of great practical importance in mature landfill leachate and other NH4(+)-N enrichment wastewater pollution control.

  4. Determining customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of physicians' and patients' satisfaction with laboratory services has become a standard practice in the United States, prompted by national accreditation requirements. Unlike other surveys of hospital-, outpatient care-, or physician-related activities, no ongoing, comprehensive customer satisfaction survey of anatomic pathology services is available for subscription that would allow continual benchmarking against peer laboratories. Pathologists, therefore, must often design their own local assessment tools to determine physician satisfaction in anatomic pathology. To describe satisfaction survey design that would elicit specific information from physician customers about key elements of anatomic pathology services. The author shares his experience in biannually assessing customer satisfaction in anatomic pathology with survey tools designed at the Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich. Benchmarks for physician satisfaction, opportunities for improvement, and characteristics that correlated with a high level of physician satisfaction were identified nationally from a standardized survey tool used by 94 laboratories in the 2001 College of American Pathologists Q-Probes quality improvement program. In general, physicians are most satisfied with professional diagnostic services and least satisfied with pathology services related to poor communication. A well-designed and conducted customer satisfaction survey is an opportunity for pathologists to periodically educate physician customers about services offered, manage unrealistic expectations, and understand the evolving needs of the physician customer. Armed with current information from physician customers, the pathologist is better able to strategically plan for resources that facilitate performance improvements in anatomic pathology laboratory services that align with evolving clinical needs in health care delivery.

  5. Readmission rates after transcatheter aortic valve replacement in high- and extreme-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcillo, Jessica; Condado, Jose F; Binongo, Jose N; Lasanajak, Yi; Caughron, Hope; Babaliaros, Vasilis; Devireddy, Chandan; Leshnower, Bradley; Guyton, Robert A; Block, Peter C; Simone, Amy; Keegan, Patricia; Khairy, Paul; Thourani, Vinod H

    2017-08-01

    In high- or extreme-risk patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement, readmissions have not been adequately studied and are the subject of increased scrutiny by healthcare systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of 30-day and 1-year cardiac and noncardiac readmissions, identify predictors of readmission, and assess the association between readmission and 1-year mortality. A retrospective review was performed on 714 patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement from September 2007 to January 2015 at Emory University. Patients' median age was 83 years, and 46.6% were female. Early all-cause readmission for the cohort was 10.5%, and late readmission was 18.8%. Anemia was related to both early all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74) and cardiovascular-related readmission (HR, 0.60). A 23-mm valve implanted was associated with early all-cause readmission (HR, 1.73). Length of hospital stay was related to late all-cause (HR, 1.14) and cardiovascular-related readmission (HR, 1.21). Postoperative permanent stroke had an impact on late cardiovascular-related readmission (HR, 3.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-11.49). Multivariable analysis identified anemia as being associated with 30-day all-cause readmission, and anemia and postoperative stroke were associated with 30-day cardiovascular-related readmission. Readmissions seemed to be related to 1-year mortality (HR, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-3.12). We show some baseline comorbidities and procedural complications that are directly associated with early and late readmissions, and anemia and postoperative stroke were associated with an increase in mortality. Moreover, we found that readmission was associated with double the hazard of death within 1 year. Whether treatment of identified risk factors could decrease readmission rates and mortality warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by

  6. Escherichia coli growth changes by the mediated effects after low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation of extremely high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgomyan, Heghine; Hovnanyan, Karlen; Trchounian, Armen

    2013-04-01

    Water is the major constituent of environmental medium and biological systems. The effects occurring in water as a result of low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) in extremely high frequencies are supposed to be the primary mechanism to create conditions for biological responses. The EMI effects on Escherichia coli, after irradiation of their suspension, are most probably water-mediated. Indirect effects of EMI at 51.8, 53, 70.6, and 73 GHz frequencies on bacteria, through water, assay buffer (Tris-phosphate buffer with inorganic salts at low or moderate concentrations), or peptone growth medium were studied. The mediated effects of 70.6 and 73 GHz irradiated water, assay buffer, and growth medium on E. coli growth characteristics were insignificant. But the results were different for 51.8 and 53 GHz. EMI mediated effects on bacterial growth were clearly demonstrated. The effects were more strongly expressed with 53 GHz. Moreover, it was shown that 70.6 and 73 GHz similarly suppressed the cell growth after direct irradiation of E. coli in water or on solid medium. Interestingly, for 51.8 and 53 GHz the bacterial growth decreases after suspension irradiation was less, compared to the direct irradiation of bacteria on solid medium. Especially, it was also more expressed in case of 53 GHz. Also with electron microscopy, EMI-induced bacterial cell sizes and structure different changes were detected. In addition, the distinguished changes in surface tension, oxidation-reduction potential and pH of water, assay buffer, growth medium, and bacterial suspension were determined. They depended on EMI frequency used. The differences could be associated with the partial absorbance of EMI energy by the surrounding medium, which depends on a specific frequency. The results are crucial to understand biophysical mechanisms of EMI effects on bacteria.

  7. Comparative outcome of bomb explosion injuries versus high-powered gunshot injuries of the upper extremity in a civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Rivkin, Gurion; Avitzour, Malka; Liebergall, Meir; Mintz, Yoav; Mosheiff, Ram

    2013-03-01

    Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms. To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures. Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the DASH Questionnaire (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and SF-12 (Short Form-12) after a minimum period of 1 year. Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% vs. 22% with a score of > 16, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up. The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.

  8. A multireader reliability study comparing conventional high-field magnetic resonance imaging with extremity low-field MRI in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bird, Paul; Ejbjerg, Bo; Lassere, Marissa;

    2007-01-01

    The use of extremity low-field magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI) is increasing, but relatively few data exist on its reproducibility and accuracy in comparison with high-field MRI, especially for multiple readers. The aim of this multireader exercise of rheumatoid arthritis wrist...

  9. A multireader reliability study comparing conventional high-field magnetic resonance imaging with extremity low-field MRI in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bird, Paul; Ejbjerg, Bo; Lassere, Marissa;

    2007-01-01

    The use of extremity low-field magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI) is increasing, but relatively few data exist on its reproducibility and accuracy in comparison with high-field MRI, especially for multiple readers. The aim of this multireader exercise of rheumatoid arthritis wrist and metacarpoph...

  10. Citizen (Dis)satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the importance of equivalence framing for understanding how satisfaction measures affect citizens’ evaluation of public services. Does a 90 percent satisfaction rate have a different effect than a logically equivalent 10 percent dissatisfaction rate? Two experiments were...... conducted on citizens’ evaluations of hospital services in a large, nationally representative sample of Danish citizens. Both experiments found that exposing citizens to a patient dissatisfaction measure led to more negative views of public service than exposing them to a logically equivalent satisfaction...

  11. Management Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers' Managers' Satisfaction Survey asks managers to rate their perception of workforce planning, interaction with and levels of support...

  12. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction Among 13 year Old Boys and Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2011-01-01

    . National income and income inequality were associated with aggregated life satisfaction score and prevalence of high life satisfaction. Within-country socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction existed even after adjustment for family structure. This relationship was curvilinear and varied cross...

  13. Remote, Real-time Investigations of Extreme Environments Using High Power and Bandwidth Cabled Observatories: The OOI Regional Scale Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Methane hydrate deposits and hydrothermal vents are two of the most extreme environments on Earth. Seismic events and flow of gases from the seafloor support and modulate novel microbial communities within these systems. Although studied intensely for several decades, significant questions remain about the flux of heat, volatiles and microbial material from the subsurface to the hydrosphere in these dynamic environments. Quantification of microbial communities, their structure and abundances, and metabolic activities is in an infant state. To better understand these systems, the National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatory Initiative has installed high power (8 kW), high bandwidth (10 Gb/s) nodes on the seafloor that provide access to active methane seeps at Southern Hydrate Ridge, and at the most magmatically robust volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge - Axial Seamount. The real-time interactive capabilities of the cabled observatory are critical to studying gas-hydrate systems because many of the key processes occur over short time scales. Events such as bubble plume formation, the creation of collapse zones, and increased seepage in response to earthquakes require adaptive response and sampling capabilities. To meet these challenges a suite of instruments will be connected to the cable in 2013. These sensors include full resolution sampling by upward-looking sonars, fluid and gas chemical characterization by mass spectrometers and osmo samplers, long-term duration collection of seep imagery from cameras, and in situ manipulation of chemical sensors coupled with flow meters. In concert, this instrument suite will provide quantification of transient and more stable chemical fluxes. Similarly, at Axial Seamount the high bandwidth and high power fiber optic cables will be used to communicate with and power a diverse array of sensors at the summit of the volcano. Real-time high definition video will provide unprecedented views of macrofaunal and microbial communities

  14. An extremely simple method for fabricating 3D protein microarrays with an anti-fouling background and high protein capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhifeng; Ma, Yuhong; Zhao, Changwen; Chen, Ruichao; Zhu, Xing; Zhang, Lihua; Yan, Xu; Yang, Wantai

    2014-07-21

    Protein microarrays have become vital tools for various applications in biomedicine and bio-analysis during the past decade. The intense requirements for a lower detection limit and industrialization in this area have resulted in a persistent pursuit to fabricate protein microarrays with a low background and high signal intensity via simple methods. Here, we report on an extremely simple strategy to create three-dimensional (3D) protein microarrays with an anti-fouling background and a high protein capacity by photo-induced surface sequential controlled/living graft polymerization developed in our lab. According to this strategy, "dormant" groups of isopropyl thioxanthone semipinacol (ITXSP) were first introduced to a polymeric substrate through ultraviolet (UV)-induced surface abstraction of hydrogen, followed by a coupling reaction. Under visible light irradiation, the ITXSP groups were photolyzed to initiate surface living graft polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl methacrylate (PEGMMA), thus introducing PEG brushes to the substrate to generate a full anti-fouling background. Due to the living nature of this graft polymerization, there were still ITXSP groups on the chain ends of the PEG brushes. Therefore, by in situ secondary living graft cross-linking copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), we could finally plant height-controllable cylinder microarrays of a 3D PEG network containing reactive epoxy groups onto the PEG brushes. Through a commonly used reaction of amine and epoxy groups, the proteins could readily be covalently immobilized onto the microarrays. This delicate design aims to overcome two universal limitations in protein microarrays: a full anti-fouling background can effectively eliminate noise caused by non-specific absorption and a 3D reactive network provides a larger protein-loading capacity to improve signal intensity. The results of non-specific protein absorption tests

  15. Aesthetic outcome, patient satisfaction, and health-related quality of life in women at high risk undergoing prophylactic mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isern, A E; Tengrup, I; Loman, N; Olsson, H; Ringberg, A

    2008-10-01

    Prophylactic mastectomy is an effective risk-reducing option in women with hereditary increased risk of breast cancer. It may be combined with immediate reconstruction, with the intention of improving aesthetic outcome and health-related quality of life. Sixty-one women underwent prophylactic mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction in Malmö, Sweden, between 1995 and 2003. Forty women underwent bilateral prophylactic mastectomy and immediate reconstruction. Ten of these had a previous breast cancer diagnosis. Twenty-one women underwent contralateral prophylactic mastectomy and immediate reconstruction after a previous breast cancer. Fifty-four of the women (89%) were evaluated clinically for aesthetic results and complications. Patient satisfaction and quality of life were evaluated with one study-specific and two standardised health-related questionnaires administered at time of clinical follow-up. Median follow-up time was 42 months (range 7-99 months). The position of the reconstructed breasts was judged as satisfactory in 77% of breasts. Symmetry in relation to the midline was adequate in 89% of breasts. A capsular contracture grade III according to Baker and indentation tonometry was observed in 1% of breasts (1/104). The complication rate was 18% (7% early and 11% late). Secondary corrections were carried out in 11% of breasts. The study-specific questionnaire revealed a high degree of satisfaction. No woman regretted the procedure, and all women would have chosen the same type of surgery again. An age-stratified comparison of Swedish women using the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) questionnaire was carried out for this study. The study population scores were high, suggesting that prophylactic mastectomy and immediate reconstruction on both physical and psychological issues in this retrospective study had no negative effect. Also, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) questionnaire did not suggest any increased anxiety or

  16. Breeding on the extreme edge : Modulation of the adrenocortical response to acute stress in two High Arctic passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Brian G; Meddle, Simone L; Romero, L Michael; Landys, MM; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Wingfield, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic weather in spring is unpredictable and can also be extreme, so Arctic-breeding birds must be flexible in their breeding to deal with such variability. Unpredictability in weather conditions will only intensify with climate change and this in turn could affect reproductive capability of migrat

  17. Snow cover and extreme winter warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Elberling, Bo; Cooper, Elisabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    frequent extreme winter warming events. Flower production of many Arctic plants is dependent on melt out timing, since season length determines resource availability for flower preformation. We erected snow fences to increase snow depth and shorten growing season, and counted flowers of six species over 5...

  18. Relationship Satisfaction and Risk Factors for Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that troubled romantic relationships are associated with higher risk factors for mental health. However, studies examining the role of relationship satisfaction in suicide risk factors are scarce. We investigated differences in risk factors for suicide between individuals with high relationship satisfaction, individuals with low relationship satisfaction, and singles. Furthermore, we explored patterns of experiencing, and dealing with, conflicts in the relationship and examined associations with suicide risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed relationship status, relationship satisfaction, specific types of relationship conflicts, and suicide risk factors (i.e., suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression) with questionnaires among 382 individuals in Austria. Risk factors for suicide were higher among singles than among individuals in happy relationships, but lower among those with low relationship satisfaction. Participants reporting a high number of unsolved conflicts in their relationship had higher levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression than individuals who tend to solve issues with their partner amicably or report no conflicts. Relationship satisfaction and relationship conflicts reflect risk factors for suicide, with higher levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression reported by individuals who mentioned unsolved conflicts with their partner and experienced low satisfaction with their relationship.

  19. Degree of satisfaction among hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss (HL is defined as the complete or partial loss of hearing ability. Aims: To characterize (1 the degree of satisfaction among adult and elderly hearing aid (HA users who were treated by a public hearing health service and (2 the relationship between satisfaction and the variables of gender, age, degree of HL, and type of HA. Method: The clinical and experimental study included the administration of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL questionnaire to 110 patients who had used HAs for more than 3 months and were 18 years of age or older. Results: Test patients were sex-balanced (48% were women and had a mean age of 67 years. A relatively high incidence of sensorineural moderate HL was detected in the study patients (66% and device B was the most commonly used HA type (48%. No significant differences were evident between HA satisfaction and sex. The importance placed on services/costs and personal image varied between age groups. Correlation was evident at all levels between user satisfaction and amplification. Decreased satisfaction was observed in individuals with severe and/or profound HL. The type of HA used yielded statistically significant differences in the positive effects referring. Conclusion: No correlations were evident between the different factors proposed. HA users exhibited high levels of satisfaction in all SADL areas.

  20. Components of Patient Satisfaction After Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufta, Kenneth; Peacock, Zachary S; Chuang, Sung-Kiang; Inverso, Gino; Levin, Lawrence M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare overall patient satisfaction after orthognathic surgery with the following specific categories: appearance, functional ability, general health, sociability, and patient-clinician communication. A 16-question survey was developed and administered to include patients at either 6 or 12 months after orthognathic surgery between June 2013 and June 2014 at the University of Pennsylvania and Massachusetts General Hospital. The predictor variables included age, sex, type of procedure, medical comorbidities, intra- or postoperative complications, and presence of paresthesia. The outcome variable was patient satisfaction overall and in each category based on a Likert scale (0: not satisfied at all to 5: very satisfied).A total of 37 patients completed the survey and had a high overall rate of satisfaction (100% of responses were 4 or 5 on Likert scale). Overall satisfaction had the highest correlation with appearance (ρ=0.52, P=0.0009) followed by sociability (ρ=0.47, P=0.004), patient-clinician communication (ρ=0.38, P=0.02) functionality (ρ=0.19, P=0.26), and general health (ρ = -0.11, P = 0.51). Patients had high satisfaction scores for orthognathic surgery. Satisfaction with postoperative appearance had the strongest correlation with overall satisfaction.

  1. Measuring patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger

    2005-03-01

    Many businesses use customer satisfaction surveys successfully. You may notice that you find one in almost every restaurant or hotel room. I do not think it is a coincidence that the hotel industry provides some of the finest customer service available. When it comes to providing excellent customer service, dental practices can learn from businesses that regularly assess customer satisfaction.

  2. Citizen (Dis)satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the importance of equivalence framing for understanding how satisfaction measures affect citizens’ evaluation of public services. Does a 90 percent satisfaction rate have a different effect than a logically equivalent 10 percent dissatisfaction rate? Two experiments were...... to dissatisfaction rates. The results call for further study of equivalence framing of performance information....

  3. Customer satisfaction measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction is important in business management as a basis for long-term profitability of a single line of products and services and the company as a whole. Customer satisfaction in modern market conditions is characterized by a large number of alternatives that can satisfy the same need or desire of consumers, and are a prerequisite for the retention, loyalty, and positive verbal communication between companies and vendors on one hand and consumers on the other. Companies are investing more and more investment and management efforts in improving customer satisfaction. Improving customer satisfaction and its measurement involves the taking of appropriate marketing strategies and tactics, as well as corrective measures. This paper presents the well-known attempts to measure customers' satisfaction at the macro and micro level of marketing analysis. The index of consumer satisfaction is an important indicator of achieved quality and market performance of companies and can be measured on a micro and macro level. National customer satisfaction indexes are useful framework for analyzing the competitiveness of national economies, industries and individual companies and are used for a variety of other aspects of observation and analysis. Standardization of consumer satisfaction indexes in different countries allows comparability of the data, giving a new quality of analysis in the era of globalization and internationalization of business.

  4. Designing satisfaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In the effect sampling method, presentation of researcher, the intro text, the order of questions in the questionnaire along with the number of categories in the rating scale is tested in relation to the design of satisfaction studies. Based on the analyses specific recommendations for designing...... satisfaction studies are given....

  5. Novel all-extremity high-intensity interval training improves aerobic fitness, cardiac function and insulin resistance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Kim, Han-Kyul; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Handberg, Eileen M; Petersen, John W; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased aerobic fitness and cardiac remodeling leading to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the treadmill has been reported to be more effective in ameliorating these risk factors compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in patients with cardiometabolic disease. In older adults, however, weight-bearing activities are frequently limited due to musculoskeletal and balance problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of non-weight-bearing all-extremity HIIT in older adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that all-extremity HIIT will be more effective in improving aerobic fitness, cardiac function, and metabolic risk factors compared with all-extremity MICT. Fifty-one healthy sedentary older adults (age: 65±1years) were randomized to HIIT (n=17), MICT (n=18) or non-exercise control (CONT; n=16). HIIT (4×4min 90% of peak heart rate; HRpeak) and isocaloric MICT (70% of HRpeak) were performed on a non-weight-bearing all-extremity ergometer, 4×/week for 8weeks under supervision. All-extremity HIIT was feasible in older adults and resulted in no adverse events. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption; VO2peak) and ejection fraction (echocardiography) improved by 11% (PHIIT, while no changes were observed in MICT and CONT (P≥0.1). Greater improvements in ejection fraction were associated with greater improvements in VO2peak (r=0.57; PHIIT by 26% (P=0.016). Diastolic function, body composition, glucose and lipids were unaffected (P≥0.1). In conclusion, all-extremity HIIT is feasible and safe in older adults. HIIT, but not MICT, improved aerobic fitness, ejection fraction, and insulin resistance.

  6. Logan County's High School Seniors: Community Satisfaction, Jobs, and Future Plans. Illinois Agricultural Economics Staff Paper, No. 81 S19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, J. C.; Schneider, Judy B.

    The Logan County (Illinois) Community Resource Development Council, assisted by sociologists and graduate students from the University of Illinois, designed an attitudinal survey which was administered in 1980 to 324 graduating seniors from 3 Logan County high schools to determine why students were leaving the county after graduation and what…

  7. WORK / LIFE BALANCE REFLECTIONS ON EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between employee satisfaction andwork/life balance. The construct used for this research consists of career opportunity, recognition,work tasks, payments, benefits, superior subordinate relationship, employee satisfaction, andwork/life balance. The study was conducted on a total of 210 respondents working in IT organization.This study makes a contribution to join two distinct research streams, namely employee satisfaction,and work/life balance. Findings suggest that high correlation exists between work task and employeesatisfaction with a mediator variable namely work-life balance.

  8. A cross-sectional survey of patient satisfaction and subjective experiences of treatment with fingolimod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson KA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristin A Hanson,1 Neetu Agashivala,2 Sonja M Stringer,3 Zaneta Balantac,3 David W Brandes4 1United BioSource Corporation, Dorval, QC, Canada; 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 3United BioSource Corporation, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Hope MS Center, Knoxville, TN, USA Background: Fingolimod is the first oral disease-modifying therapy indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS to reduce the frequency of clinical relapses and delay the progression of physical disability caused by MS. Objective: To obtain data from MS patients who have taken fingolimod regarding their treatment choice, first-dose observation (FDO experience, and treatment satisfaction. Methods: Patients ≥ 18 years old with physician-diagnosed MS in the United States who had taken at least one dose of fingolimod for the treatment of MS were invited to complete a web-based survey, which captured information on the reasons for starting fingolimod, FDO experience, and treatment satisfaction as measured by the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM. A high TSQM scale score denotes high satisfaction. Results: Survey respondents (n = 380; 55% female had a mean (standard deviation age of 39.8 (12.6 years, and a mean (standard deviation duration of MS of 9.8 (10.3 years. Overall, more than 80% of patients reported the first dose was moderately/very/extremely manageable, convenient, and easy to take. Although 80% of patients reported experiencing a side effect with the first dose, most were highly tolerable and only eleven patients (2.9% reported they were “Not at all” satisfied with the FDO experience. TSQM scale scores were highest for the side effect (79.4, followed by convenience (71.7, effectiveness (70.1, and global satisfaction (68.9 domains; relatively higher scores were observed among treatment-experienced patients. Both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients indicated physician

  9. High efficacy and students' satisfaction after voluntary vs mandatory use of an e-learning program in traumatology and orthopedics--a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, David Alexander; Haberstroh, Nicole; Sostmann, Kai; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Putzier, Michael; Perka, Carsten; Hoff, Eike

    2014-01-01

    Within the last decade, e-learning has gained a consistent place in surgical teaching. However, as the use of new programs is often voluntary, more information on the implications of the data regarding user acceptance and knowledge with mandatory use is desirable, especially in the context of the long-term developments of courses. Starting in 2009, the e-learning program Network for Students in Traumatology and Orthopedics was offered in a voluntary blended learning context. Students' satisfaction and increase in knowledge were evaluated using questionnaires and written tests. With proven effectiveness, the program became a mandatory part of the curriculum, and students' attitudes and gain of knowledge were re-evaluated in 2010 and 2011 to detect differences in voluntary vs mandatory use. In the evaluation questionnaires (n = 108 voluntary vs n = 361 mandatory), the overall appreciation regarding the offerings remained high. Significantly more students felt better prepared for clinical situations (p orthopedics and traumatology. Data can support the assumption that even if the voluntary evaluation of e-learning offerings might be subject to a selection bias, the results can serve as a representative impression for the students' overall mood and their gain in knowledge. However, as changes would have to be anticipated when shifting to mandatory use, users' perceptions should be constantly evaluated. © 2013 Published by Association of Program Directors in Surgery on behalf of Association of Program Directors in Surgery.

  10. Customer satisfaction measurement in emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Markku; Määttä, Teuvo; Hakala, Taisto; Sivula, Tommi; Nousila-Wiik, Maria

    2003-07-01

    The annual patient volume in emergency medical services (EMS) systems is high worldwide. However, there are no comprehensive studies on customer satisfaction for EMS. The authors report how a customer satisfaction survey on EMS patients was conducted, the results, and the possible causes for dissatisfaction. Two prospective customer satisfactions surveys were conducted in an urban EMS system. Consecutive patients treated by EMS received a postal questionnaire approximately two weeks after service. Satisfaction was measured in a scale from 1 (very poor) to 5 (excellent). Neither EMS personnel nor patients were made aware prospectively that patient satisfaction would be measured. Response rates to the surveys were 36.8% (432/1,175) in 2000 and 40.0% (464/1,150) in 2002. The mean general grades for the service were 4.6 and 4.5, respectively. Patients reported the highest degree of dissatisfaction when they were not taken to their hospital of choice, when they perceived that the paramedics were not able to meet their needs, and when paramedics did not introduce themselves or communicate directly with the patient's relatives. In high-volume calls (i.e., frequent chief complaints), the general satisfaction was highest in patients with arrhythmias, breathing difficulties, and hypoglycemia. Patients with drug overdose included the highest proportion of unsatisfied patients. None of the background variables (e.g., gender, transport decision, working shift) was statistically related to general patient satisfaction. This study shows that customer satisfaction surveys can be successfully conducted for EMS. EMS systems should consider routinely using customer satisfaction surveys as a tool for quality measurement and improvement.

  11. Dual diagnosis clients' treatment satisfaction - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirling John

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize existing evidence about treatment satisfaction among clients with substance misuse and mental health co-morbidity (dual diagnoses, DD. Methods We examined satisfaction with treatment received, variations in satisfaction levels by type of treatment intervention and by diagnosis (i.e. DD clients vs. single diagnosis clients, and the influence of factors other than treatment type on satisfaction. Peer-reviewed studies published in English since 1970 were identified by searching electronic databases using pre-defined search strings. Results Across the 27 studies that met inclusion criteria, high average satisfaction scores were found. In most studies, integrated DD treatment yielded greater client satisfaction than standard treatment without explicit DD focus. In standard treatment without DD focus, DD clients tended to be less satisfied than single diagnosis clients. Whilst the evidence base on client and treatment variables related to satisfaction is small, it suggested client demographics and symptom severity to be unrelated to treatment satisfaction. However, satisfaction tended to be linked to other treatment process and outcome variables. Findings are limited in that many studies had very small sample sizes, did not use validated satisfaction instruments and may not have controlled for potential confounders. A framework for further research in this important area is discussed. Conclusions High satisfaction levels with current treatment provision, especially among those in integrated treatment, should enhance therapeutic optimism among practitioners dealing with DD clients.

  12. Discharge-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source and ultra high vacuum chamber for studying EUV-induced processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, A; Abrikosov, A; Snegirev, E; Krivtsun, V M; Lee, C J; Bijkerk, F

    2014-01-01

    An experimental setup that directly reproduces Extreme UV-lithography relevant conditions for detailed component exposure tests is described. The EUV setup includes a pulsed plasma radiation source, operating at 13.5 nm; a debris mitigation system; collection and filtering optics; and an UHV experimental chamber, equipped with optical and plasma diagnostics. The first results, identifying the physical parameters and evolution of EUV-induced plasmas are presented. Finally, the applicability and accuracy of the in situ diagnostics is briefly discussed.

  13. Polyarylenesulfonium Salt as a Novel and Versatile Nonchemically Amplified Negative Tone Photoresist for High-Resolution Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pulikanti Guruprasad; Pal, Satyendra Prakash; Kumar, Pawan; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P; Ghosh, Subrata; Sharma, Satinder K; Gonsalves, Kenneth E

    2017-01-11

    The present report demonstrates the potential of a polyarylenesulfonium polymer, poly[methyl(4-(phenylthio)-phenyl)sulfoniumtrifluoromethanesulfonate] (PAS), as a versatile nonchemically amplified negative tone photoresist for next-generation lithography (NGL) applications starting from i-line (λ ∼ 365 nm) to extreme ultraviolet (EUV, λ ∼ 13.5 nm) lithography. PAS exhibited considerable contrast (γ), 0.08, toward EUV and patterned 20 nm features successfully.

  14. Job satisfaction and burnout among paediatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozlem; Ozturk, Candan; Bektas, Murat; Ayar, Dijle; Armstrong, Merry A

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to determine factors of job satisfaction and burnout levels of paediatric nurses. A total of 165 nurses working in paediatric clinics completed the Minnesota job satisfaction scale and the Maslach burnout scale. Average scores of the emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation score were low, while personal accomplishment scores were high. A high level of job satisfaction, being married, increased age and a decreased number of assigned patients were significantly associated with a low level of burnout. Paediatric nurses experience burnout at significant levels. The most important variable that affected job satisfaction was income. The results of the study could guide development of strategies that might prevent or alleviate burnout of paediatric nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Stable, Extreme Temperature, High Radiation, Compact. Low Power Clock Oscillator for Space, Geothermal, Down-Hole & other High Reliability Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient and stable clock signal generation requirements at extreme temperatures (-180C to +450C)and radiation (>250 Krad TID) are not met with the current...

  16. Quantitative methods for stochastic high frequency spatio-temporal and non-linear analysis: Assessing health effects of exposure to extreme ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Alexander

    Extreme weather events, such as heat waves and cold spells, cause substantial excess mortality and morbidity in the vulnerable elderly population, and cost billions of dollars. The accurate and reliable assessment of adverse effects of extreme weather events on human health is crucial for environmental scientists, economists, and public health officials to ensure proper protection of vulnerable populations and efficient allocation of scarce resources. However, the methodology for the analysis of large national databases is yet to be developed. The overarching objective of this dissertation is to examine the effect of extreme weather on the elderly population of the Conterminous US (ConUS) with respect to seasonality in temperature in different climatic regions by utilizing heterogeneous high frequency and spatio-temporal resolution data. To achieve these goals the author: 1) incorporated dissimilar stochastic high frequency big data streams and distinct data types into the integrated data base for use in analytical and decision support frameworks; 2) created an automated climate regionalization system based on remote sensing and machine learning to define climate regions for the Conterminous US; 3) systematically surveyed the current state of the art and identified existing gaps in the scientific knowledge; 4) assessed the dose-response relationship of exposure to temperature extremes on human health in relatively homogeneous climate regions using different statistical models, such as parametric and non-parametric, contemporaneous and asynchronous, applied to the same data; 5) assessed seasonal peak timing and synchronization delay of the exposure and the disease within the framework of contemporaneous high frequency harmonic time series analysis and modification of the effect by the regional climate; 6) modeled using hyperbolic functional form non-linear properties of the effect of exposure to extreme temperature on human health. The proposed climate

  17. Wind and Wave Setup Contributions to Extreme Sea Levels at a Tropical High Island: A Stochastic Cyclone Simulation Study for Apia, Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Karl Hoeke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind-wave contributions to tropical cyclone (TC-induced extreme sea levels are known to be significant in areas with narrow littoral zones, particularly at oceanic islands. Despite this, little information exists in many of these locations to assess the likelihood of inundation, the relative contribution of wind and wave setup to this inundation, and how it may change with sea level rise (SLR, particularly at scales relevant to coastal infrastructure. In this study, we explore TC-induced extreme sea levels at spatial scales on the order of tens of meters at Apia, the capitol of Samoa, a nation in the tropical South Pacific with typical high-island fringing reef morphology. Ensembles of stochastically generated TCs (based on historical information are combined with numerical simulations of wind waves, storm-surge, and wave setup to develop high-resolution statistical information on extreme sea levels and local contributions of wind setup and wave setup. The results indicate that storm track and local morphological details lead to local differences in extreme sea levels on the order of 1 m at spatial scales of less than 1 km. Wave setup is the overall largest contributor at most locations; however, wind setup may exceed wave setup in some sheltered bays. When an arbitrary SLR scenario (+1 m is introduced, overall extreme sea levels are found to modestly decrease relative to SLR, but wave energy near the shoreline greatly increases, consistent with a number of other recent studies. These differences have implications for coastal adaptation strategies.

  18. Mobility-related participation and user satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Aase; Kreiner, Svend; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    scale was good,while themobilityrelated participation scalewas not optimal in discriminating between personswith a high degree ofmobility-related participation. It was demonstrated that mobility-related participation and user satisfaction are separate, not related constructs. Conclusions. It can...... be concluded that the investigated mobility-related participation and user satisfaction constructs appear to be valid. Since the two constructs are not related and both yield important information, both dimensions should be evaluated in outcomes research and praxis targeting powered wheelchair interventions...

  19. Full Solar Spectrum Light Driven Thermocatalysis with Extremely High Efficiency on Nanostructured Ce Ion Substituted OMS-2 Catalyst for VOCs Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, J.T.; Li, Y.Z.; Mao, M.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The nanostructured Ce ion substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar energy to thermal energy, resulting...... in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full...... solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light, the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and acetone. Based on the experimental evidence, we propose a novel...

  20. Baseline climatology of extremely high vertical wind shears' values over Europe based on ERA-Interim reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palarz, Angelika; Celiński-Mysław, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The dominant role in the development of deep convection is played by kinematic and thermodynamic conditions, as well as atmospheric circulation, land cover and local relief. Severe thunderstorms are considerably more likely to form in environments with large values of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and significant magnitude of vertical wind shears (VWSs). According to the most recent research, the tropospheric wind shears have an important influence on intensity, longevity and organisation of the primary convective systems - bow echoes, squall lines and supercell thunderstorms. This study, in turn, examines the role of wind structure in controlling the spatial and temporal variability of VWSs over Europe. Considering the importance of the kinematic conditions for the convective systems formation, research is limited exclusively to 0-1 km, 0-3 km and 0-6 km wind shears. In order to compute the VWS' values, the data derived from ERA-Interim reanalysis for the period 1981-2015 was applied. It consisted of U and V wind components with 12-hourly sampling and horizontal resolution of 0.75×0.75°. The VWS' values were calculated as wind difference between two levels - this entails that the hodograph's shape was not considered (e.g. Clark 2013, Pucik et. al 2015). We have analysed both VWS' mean values (MN) and frequency of VWSs exceeding assumed thresholds (FQ). Taking into account previous studies (e.g. Rasmussen & Blanchard 1998, Schneider et al. 2006, Schaumann & Przybylinski 2012), the thresholds for extremely high values of vertical wind shears were set at 10 m/s for 0-1 km shear, 15 m/s for 0-3 km shear and 18 m/s for 0-6 km shear. Both MN and FQ values were characterised by strong temporal variability, as well as significant spatial differentiation over the research area. A clear diurnal cycle was identified in the case of 0-1 km shear, while seasonal variability was typical for 0-3 km and 0-6 km shears. Regardless of the season, 0-1 km shear reached