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Sample records for extremely cold conditions

  1. Long-term monitoring reveals cold-water corals in extreme conditions off the southeast US coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Davies, A. J.; Ross, S. W.; Lavaleye, M.; Van Weering, T.

    2011-12-01

    Cold-water corals are common on the SE slope of the US (SEUS) from Florida to Cape Hatteras between depths of 400-600 m. Near Cape Hatteras cold-water corals have formed mound structures that are up to 60 m high, which are mainly covered by living colonies of the coral species Lophelia pertusa. Past explorations of major reef sites of N Carolina using remote and manned submersibles have shown living Lophelia pertusa colonies on the current facing side of the mound structures and a high biodiversity of associated fauna, especially fish. The coral areas lie in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream characterized by strong currents transporting relatively warm water northwards along the SEUS slope. Thus far little is known about the environmental conditions inside the SEUS coral communities and particularly the effects of the nearby Gulf Stream. In December 2009 two autonomous benthic landers were deployed amidst Lophelia reefs off Cape Lookout (NC) for a period of 6 months to define oceanographic patterns that are relevant for the development and persistence of cold-water coral ecosystems. Landers recorded temperature, fluorescence, turbidity, and current speed and direction. Furthermore, a sediment trap was mounted on the landers that collected material at a 16-days interval. A first analysis of the lander data shows that instability of the Gulf Stream causes rapid rises in temperature, current speed and turbidity lasting for days to more than a week. Peak temperature and turbidity levels are the highest measured in coral habitats studied so far. We did not see clear cut effects of Gulf Stream instabilities on the near bed flux of phytodetritus as opposed to reports of meanders inducing upwelling and enhanced production in the photic zone. Data analyzed so far suggest that cwc habitats of Cape Lookout experience extreme and adverse conditions for prolonged periods. The findings of this study are compared with methodologically similar studies that have been conducted in

  2. The genomic sequence of Exiguobacterium chiriqhucha str. N139 reveals a species that thrives in cold waters and extreme environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gutiérrez-Preciado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the genome sequence of Exiguobacterium chiriqhucha str. N139, isolated from a high-altitude Andean lake. Comparative genomic analyses of the Exiguobacterium genomes available suggest that our strain belongs to the same species as the previously reported E. pavilionensis str. RW-2 and Exiguobacterium str. GIC 31. We describe this species and propose the chiriqhucha name to group them. ‘Chiri qhucha’ in Quechua means ‘cold lake’, which is a common origin of these three cosmopolitan Exiguobacteria. The 2,952,588-bp E. chiriqhucha str. N139 genome contains one chromosome and three megaplasmids. The genome analysis of the Andean strain suggests the presence of enzymes that confer E. chiriqhucha str. N139 the ability to grow under multiple environmental extreme conditions, including high concentrations of different metals, high ultraviolet B radiation, scavenging for phosphorous and coping with high salinity. Moreover, the regulation of its tryptophan biosynthesis suggests that novel pathways remain to be discovered, and that these pathways might be fundamental in the amino acid metabolism of the microbial community from Laguna Negra, Argentina.

  3. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  4. Atomic collisions under extreme conditions in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    1987-01-01

    In space, atoms and molecules are often placed under the extreme conditions which are very difficult to be realized on Earth. For instance, extremely hot and dense plasmas are found in and around various stellar objects (e.g., neutron stars) on one hand and extremely cold and diffuse gases prevail in interstellar space on the other. There is so strong a magnetic field that electron clouds in atoms and molecules are distorted. The study of atomic collisions under the extreme conditions is not only helpful in understanding the astrophysical environment but also reveals new aspects of the physics of atoms and molecules. This paper is an invitation to the study. (References are not exhaustive but only provide a clue with which more details can be found.) (author)

  5. Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronov, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Review for book by M.P. Zakharchenko, S.A. Lopatin, G.N. Novozhilov, V.I. Zakharov Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions is presented discussing the problem of people health preservation under extreme conditions. Hygienic diagnosis is considered illustrated by cases of hostilities (Afghan War), earthquake response in Armenia (1988) and Chernobyl accident response. Attention is paid to the estimation of radiation doses to people and characteristics of main types of dosimeters. The high scientific level of the book is marked

  6. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  7. Extreme conditions (p, T, H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesot, J [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the sample environment which will be accessible at the SINQ. In order to illustrate the type of experiments which will be feasible under extreme conditions of temperature, magnetic field and pressure at the SINQ a few selected examples are also given. (author) 7 figs., 14 refs.

  8. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawon, Michael J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico on May 13–14, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to numerically and experimentally model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. large ocean storms) and to suggest how national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry. More than 30 U.S. and European WEC experts from industry, academia, and national research institutes attended the workshop, which consisted of presentations from W EC developers, invited keynote presentations from subject matter experts, breakout sessions, and a final plenary session .

  9. Spontaneous De-Icing Phenomena on Extremely Cold Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Freezing of droplets on cold surfaces is universal phenomenon, while the mechanisms are still inadequately understood. Here we report spontaneous de-icing phenomena of an impacting droplet which occur on extreme cold surfaces. When a droplet impacts on cold surfaces lower than -80°, it takes more than two times longer for the droplet to freeze than the ones at -50°. Moreover, the frozen droplet below -80° breaks up into several large parts spontaneously in the end. When a droplet impacts on the extreme cold surfaces, evaporation and condensation occur immediately as the droplet approaches the substrate. A thick layer of frost forms between the droplet and substrate, decreasing the contact area of the droplet with substrate. It leads to impede the heat transfer and hence extends the freezing time significantly. On the extremely cold substrate, the droplet freezes from the center to the edge area, in contrast to a typical case freezing from the bottom to the top. This novel from-center-to-edge freezing process changes the internal tension of the frozen droplet and results in the instantaneous breakup and release eventually, which can be taken advantage of for effective deicing mechanisms.

  10. Shocking matter to extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Y.M.; Sharma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    A good understanding of the thermodynamic response of matter at high compression and high energy densities is important to several areas of physics. Shock-wave experiments are uniquely suited for obtaining data at extreme conditions, and a shock-compressed matter can be viewed as a condensed system with or without dissociation or as a strongly coupled plasma. This article reviews work by Da Silva et al. in which irradiances ranging from 5x10 superscript 12 to 2x10 superscript 14 W/cm 2 were used to generate 8- to 10-ns square pulses in liquid deuterium. The authors demonstrated negligible pre-heating of the sample, steady propagation of the shock wave, and direct determination of the shock wave velocity along with particle velocity and density in the shocked state. Da Silva et al. results are compared with models and other experimental information, and the usefulness of the data in other areas is assessed. 11 refs., 1 fig

  11. Constructing and Screening a Metagenomic Library of a Cold and Alkaline Extreme Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaring, Mikkel A; Vester, Jan K; Stougaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Natural cold or alkaline environments are common on Earth. A rare combination of these two extremes is found in the permanently cold (less than 6 °C) and alkaline (pH above 10) ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Southern Greenland. Bioprospecting efforts have established the ikaite columns as a source of bacteria and enzymes adapted to these conditions. They have also highlighted the limitations of cultivation-based methods in this extreme environment and metagenomic approaches may provide access to novel extremophilic enzymes from the uncultured majority of bacteria. Here, we describe the construction and screening of a metagenomic library of the prokaryotic community inhabiting the ikaite columns.

  12. Frequent extreme cold exposure and brown fat and cold-induced thermogenesis: a study in a monozygotic twin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J Vosselman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mild cold acclimation is known to increase brown adipose tissue (BAT activity and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT in humans. We here tested the effect of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold on BAT and CIT in a Dutch man known as 'the Iceman', who has multiple world records in withstanding extreme cold challenges. Furthermore, his monozygotic twin brother who has a 'normal' sedentary lifestyle without extreme cold exposures was measured. METHODS: The Iceman (subject A and his brother (subject B were studied during mild cold (13°C and thermoneutral conditions (31°C. Measurements included BAT activity and respiratory muscle activity by [18F]FDG-PET/CT imaging and energy expenditure through indirect calorimetry. In addition, body temperatures, cardiovascular parameters, skin perfusion, and thermal sensation and comfort were measured. Finally, we determined polymorphisms for uncoupling protein-1 and β3-adrenergic receptor. RESULTS: Subjects had comparable BAT activity (A: 1144 SUVtotal and B: 1325 SUVtotal, within the range previously observed in young adult men. They were genotyped with the polymorphism for uncoupling protein-1 (G/G. CIT was relatively high (A: 40.1% and B: 41.9%, but unlike during our previous cold exposure tests in young adult men, here both subjects practiced a g-Tummo like breathing technique, which involves vigorous respiratory muscle activity. This was confirmed by high [18F]FDG-uptake in respiratory muscle. CONCLUSION: No significant differences were found between the two subjects, indicating that a lifestyle with frequent exposures to extreme cold does not seem to affect BAT activity and CIT. In both subjects, BAT was not higher compared to earlier observations, whereas CIT was very high, suggesting that g-Tummo like breathing during cold exposure may cause additional heat production by vigorous isometric respiratory muscle contraction. The results must be interpreted with caution given the

  13. Heavy fermions and extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheikine, Ilia

    2000-01-01

    Three heavy electron systems, CeCu 2 Si 2 , CePd 2 Si 2 and UGe 2 , were investigated by transport, quantum oscillations (CePd 2 Si 2 ) and neutron diffraction (UGe 2 ) measurements. The experiments were performed under extreme conditions of very low temperature, high magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure. In the case of CeCu 2 Si 2 , we followed the evolution of the magnetic A-phase that is found to collapse rapidly under pressure. We found evidence for a relation between the A-phase and the presence of a maximum in the temperature dependence of H c2 . Our analysis showed that at low pressure, the sign of the exchange integral should be negative, thus superconductivity is enhanced by an increase in the paramagnetic susceptibility as in the Jaccarino-Peter effect. The anisotropy of the initial slope of H c2 and therefore that of the effective mass was found to change under pressure. For CePd 2 Si 2 , both the de Haas-van Alphen effect at ambient pressure and the electrical resistivity under pressure were studied. The latter reveals a non-Fermi liquid behavior in the vicinity of the antiferromagnetic quantum critical point, P c ∼ kbar. The analysis of H c2 at P c shows that the superconducting state is well described by a weak coupling, clean limit model with a slightly anisotropic orbital limit and a strongly anisotropic paramagnetic one. UGe 2 is shown to demonstrate the coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity that develops just below the ferromagnetic quantum critical point, P c ∼16 kbar. The measurements of the resistivity under pressure point to a possible existence of another phase boundary and thus another quantum critical point, P x ∼ 12 kbar, within the ferromagnetic state. The P-T phase diagram containing both P c and P x was sketched, and a possible relation between P x and the development of superconductivity was discussed. The temperature dependence of H c2 demonstrates a variety of novel behaviors, which cannot be understood within

  14. Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cindy H; Vagi, Sara J; Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, John Paul; Noe, Rebecca S

    2014-01-01

    Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning.

  15. Wind energy under cold climate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in wind energy production under different climatic conditions, among them cold climate and icing conditions. More and more wind turbines are being installed in cold climates and even adapted technology has been developed for that environment. Various national activities are going on in at least Finland, Canada, Italy, Sweden, etc. and international collaboration has been carried out within the European Union's Non-nuclear energy programme. Wind turbine operation is affected by both the cold temperatures and the formation of ice on the blades and the supporting structure. Cold temperatures can be handled by material selections known in other technical fields but to prevent icing, new techniques have to be - and have been - developed. Icing affects the reliability of anemometers, which concerns both turbine control and resource estimation, and changes the aerodynamics of the blades, which eventually stops the turbine. In addition, occasional icing events can locally affect public safety. The development of applied technology has entered some different paths and different solutions are tried out. As the applications are entering a commercial phase, these is a request to gather the experiences and monitor the reliability in a form that can be utilised by developers, manufactureres, consultants and other tenderers. The Topical Experts Meeting will focus on site classification, operational experiences, modelling and mesurements of ice induced loads and safety aspects. (EHS)

  16. Frequent extreme cold exposure and brown fat and cold-induced thermogenesis: A study in a monozygotic twin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Vosselman (Maarten J.); G.H.E.J. Vijgen (Guy H. E. J.); B.R.M. Kingma (Boris R. M.); B. Brans (Boudewijn); W.D. Van Marken Lichtenbelt (Wouter D.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Mild cold acclimation is known to increase brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT) in humans. We here tested the effect of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold on BAT and CIT in a Dutch man known as 'the Iceman', who has

  17. Complex Plasma Research Under Extreme Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Complex plasma research under extreme conditions is described. The extreme conditions include low-dimensionality for self-organized structures of dust particles, dust magnetization in high magnetic field, criticality in phase transition, and cryogenic environment for Coulomb crystals and dust dynamics.

  18. The Impact of Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome on Cold Sensation in the Pedal Extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Rinko; Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko; Morimoto, Daijiro; Iwamoto, Naotaka; Kobayashi, Shiro; Morita, Akio

    2016-08-01

    Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) is an entrapment neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve in the tarsal tunnel. It is not known whether vascular or neuropathic factors are implicated in the cause of a cold sensation experienced by patients. Therefore, we studied the cold sensation in the pedal extremities of patients who did or did not undergo TTS surgery. Our study population comprised 20 patients with TTS (38 feet); 1 foot was affected in 2 patients and both feet in 18 patients. We acquired the toe-brachial pressure index to evaluate perfusion of the sole and toe perfusion under 4 conditions: the at-rest position (condition 1); the at-rest position with compression of the foot dorsal artery (condition 2); the Kinoshita foot position (condition 3); and the Kinoshita foot position with foot dorsal artery compression (condition 4). Patients who reported abatement in the cold sensation during surgery underwent intraoperative reocclusion of the tibial artery to check for the return of the cold sensation. The toe-brachial pressure index for conditions 1 and 3 averaged 0.82 ± 0.09 and 0.81 ± 0.11, respectively; for conditions 2 and 4, it averaged 0.70 ± 0.11 and 0.71 ± 0.09, respectively. Among the 16 operated patients, the cold sensation in 7 feet improved intraoperatively; transient reocclusion of the tibial artery did not result in the reappearance of the cold sensation. Our findings suggest that the cold sensation in the feet of our patients with TTS was associated with neuropathic rather than vascular factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold-sensitive young trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki-Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise-induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold-sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty-eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold-sensitive (Cold-sensitive, n  = 7) and non-cold-sensitive (Control, n  = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then performed 30-min of moderate intensity cycling (50% peak oxygen uptake) followed by a 60-min recovery. Core and mean skin temperatures and cold sensation over the whole-body and extremities (fingers and toes) were assessed throughout. Resting core temperature was lower in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group (36.4 ± 0.3 vs. 36.7 ± 0.2°C). Core temperature increased to similar levels at end-exercise (~37.2°C) and gradually returned to near preexercise rest levels at the end of recovery (>36.6°C). Whole-body cold sensation was greater in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group during resting at a room temperature of 23.5°C only without a difference in mean skin temperature between groups. In contrast, cold sensation of the extremities was greater in the Cold-sensitive group prior to, during and following exercise albeit this was not paralleled by differences in mean extremity skin temperature. We show that young trained females who are sensitive to cold exhibit augmented whole-body cold sensation during rest under temperate ambient conditions. However, this response is diminished during and following exercise. In contrast, cold sensation of extremities is augmented during resting that persists during and following exercise. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  20. Injuries in an Extreme Conditioning Program

    OpenAIRE

    Aune, Kyle T.; Powers, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. Hypothesis: The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occ...

  1. QCD under extreme conditions: an informal discussion

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, E.S.

    2015-05-22

    We present an informal discussion of some aspects of strong interactions un- der extreme conditions of temperature and density at an elementary level. This summarizes lectures delivered at the 2013 and 2015 CERN – Latin-American Schools of High-Energy Physics and is aimed at students working in experi- mental high-energy physics.

  2. Public Perception of Extreme Cold Weather-Related Health Risk in a Cold Area of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jie; Lan, Li; Yang, Chao; Wang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Huang, Ganlin; Li, Tiantian

    2017-08-01

    A need exists for public health strategies regarding extreme weather disasters, which in recent years have become more frequent. This study aimed to understand the public's perception of extreme cold and its related health risks, which may provide detailed information for public health preparedness during an extreme cold weather event. To evaluate public perceptions of cold-related health risk and to identify vulnerable groups, we collected responses from 891 participants in a face-to-face survey in Harbin, China. Public perception was measured by calculating the score for each perception question. Locals perceived that extreme cold weather and related health risks were serious, but thought they could not avoid these risks. The significant difference in perceived acceptance level between age groups suggested that the elderly are a "high health risk, low risk perception" group, meaning that they are relatively more vulnerable owing to their high susceptibility and low awareness of the health risks associated with extreme cold weather. The elderly should be a priority in risk communication and health protective interventions. This study demonstrated that introducing risk perception into the public health field can identify vulnerable groups with greater needs, which may improve the decision-making of public health intervention strategies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:417-421).

  3. Large reptiles and cold temperatures: Do extreme cold spells set distributional limits for tropical reptiles in Florida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Parry, Mark; Beauchamp, Jeff; Rochford, Mike; Smith, Brian J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Brandt, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Distributional limits of many tropical species in Florida are ultimately determined by tolerance to low temperature. An unprecedented cold spell during 2–11 January 2010, in South Florida provided an opportunity to compare the responses of tropical American crocodiles with warm-temperate American alligators and to compare the responses of nonnative Burmese pythons with native warm-temperate snakes exposed to prolonged cold temperatures. After the January 2010 cold spell, a record number of American crocodiles (n = 151) and Burmese pythons (n = 36) were found dead. In contrast, no American alligators and no native snakes were found dead. American alligators and American crocodiles behaved differently during the cold spell. American alligators stopped basking and retreated to warmer water. American crocodiles apparently continued to bask during extreme cold temperatures resulting in lethal body temperatures. The mortality of Burmese pythons compared to the absence of mortality for native snakes suggests that the current population of Burmese pythons in the Everglades is less tolerant of cold temperatures than native snakes. Burmese pythons introduced from other parts of their native range may be more tolerant of cold temperatures. We documented the direct effects of cold temperatures on crocodiles and pythons; however, evidence of long-term effects of cold temperature on their populations within their established ranges remains lacking. Mortality of crocodiles and pythons outside of their current established range may be more important in setting distributional limits.

  4. Physics of condensed matter at extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1988-01-01

    The study of matter under extreme conditions is a highly interdisciplinary subject with broad applications to materials science, geophysics and astrophysics. High-pressure properties are studied in the laboratory using static and dynamic techniques. The two differ drastically in the methods of generating and measuring pressure and in the fundamentally different nature of the final compressed state. This article covers a very broad range of conditions, intended to present an overview of important recent developments and to emphasize the behavior of materials and the kinds of properties now being studied

  5. Constructing and screening a metagenomic library of a cold and alkaline extreme environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Stougaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Natural cold or alkaline environments are common on Earth. A rare combination of these two extremes is found in the permanently cold (less than 6 °C) and alkaline (pH above 10) ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Southern Greenland. Bioprospecting efforts have established the ikaite columns...

  6. Baryon number nonconservation in extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.A.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tavkhelidze, A.N.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    In gauge theories with the left-right asymmetric fermionic content (e.g. in standard electroweak theory) fermion number F is not conserved due to the anomaly. It is shown that anomalous processes, while being exponentially suppressed, under normal conditions, are in fact rapid. The mechanism of fermionic number nonconservation connected with a level crossing phenomenon in external gauge fields is described. The theory and experimental consequences of monopole catalysis of a proton decay is reviewed. It is shown that cold dense fermionic matter is stable only up to some limiting density. It is demonstrated that there is no exponential suppression of the rate F nonconservation at high temperatures. The cosmological implications of this fact are discussed. The strong anomalous fermionic number violation in decays of superheavy fermions technibaryons is considered

  7. Behavior under Extreme Conditions: The Titanic Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno S. Frey; David A. Savage; Benno Torgler

    2011-01-01

    During the night of April 14, 1912, the RMS Titanic collided with an iceberg on her maiden voyage. Two hours and 40 minutes later she sank, resulting in the loss of 1,501 lives—more than two-thirds of her 2,207 passengers and crew. This remains one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in history and by far the most famous. For social scientists, evidence about how people behaved as the Titanic sunk offers a quasi-natural field experiment to explore behavior under extreme conditions o...

  8. Injuries in an Extreme Conditioning Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Kyle T; Powers, Joseph M

    2016-10-19

    Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occur to the shoulder and back. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. This is a retrospective survey of injuries reported by athletes participating in an ECP. An injury survey was sent to 1100 members of Iron Tribe Fitness, a gym franchise with 5 locations across Birmingham, Alabama, that employs exercises consistent with an ECP in this study. An injury was defined as a physical condition resulting from ECP participation that caused the athlete to either seek medical treatment, take time off from exercising, or make modifications to his or her technique to continue. A total of 247 athletes (22%) completed the survey. The majority (57%) of athletes were male (n = 139), and 94% of athletes were white (n = 227). The mean age of athletes was 38.9 years (±8.9 years). Athletes reported participation in the ECP for, on average, 3.6 hours per week (± 1.2 hours). Eighty-five athletes (34%) reported that they had sustained an injury while participating in the ECP. A total of 132 injuries were recorded, yielding an estimated incidence of 2.71 per 1000 hours. The shoulder or upper arm was the most commonly injured body site, accounting for 38 injuries (15% of athletes). Athletes with a previous shoulder injury were 8.1 times as likely to injure their shoulder in the ECP compared with athletes with healthy shoulders. The trunk, back, head, or neck (n = 29, 12%) and the leg or knee (n = 29, 12%) were the second most commonly injured sites. The injury incidence rate among athletes with study estimates the incidence of

  9. Increasing occurrence of cold and warm extremes during the recent global warming slowdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathaniel C; Xie, Shang-Ping; Kosaka, Yu; Li, Xichen

    2018-04-30

    The recent levelling of global mean temperatures after the late 1990s, the so-called global warming hiatus or slowdown, ignited a surge of scientific interest into natural global mean surface temperature variability, observed temperature biases, and climate communication, but many questions remain about how these findings relate to variations in more societally relevant temperature extremes. Here we show that both summertime warm and wintertime cold extreme occurrences increased over land during the so-called hiatus period, and that these increases occurred for distinct reasons. The increase in cold extremes is associated with an atmospheric circulation pattern resembling the warm Arctic-cold continents pattern, whereas the increase in warm extremes is tied to a pattern of sea surface temperatures resembling the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. These findings indicate that large-scale factors responsible for the most societally relevant temperature variations over continents are distinct from those of global mean surface temperature.

  10. Tolerances of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.M.; Arme, S.C.

    1985-03-01

    Microbial isolates from sites relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes have been subjected to extreme environmental conditions in order to ascertain their tolerance ability. Two groups were chosen, sulphate reducing bacteria and sulphur oxidising bacteria, because of their potential effects on waste containment. They have been subjected to high temperatures, pressures and radiation (delta-emissions) in optimal media conditions and their ability to tolerate the conditions has been ascertained by epifluorescence microscopy and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis followed by 'culture-on' to assess post experimental viability. Results indicate that the sulphate reducers in general, are more tolerant to these conditions than the sulphur oxidisers, some proving to be thermophilic. The sulphate reducer showed increased growth rates, as determined by population numbers, at 50 0 C and survived at 80 0 C, 4,500 psig (310 bar) with no subsequent loss in viability. Gamma irradiation of this group and an isolate of 10 5 rad over 4 hours had no effect on population numbers or viability. Such resistances are not apparent with the sulphur oxidisers whose numbers decreased with increasing radiation dose and are destroyed with pressure. (author)

  11. Injuries in an Extreme Conditioning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Kyle T.; Powers, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. Hypothesis: The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occur to the shoulder and back. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: This is a retrospective survey of injuries reported by athletes participating in an ECP. An injury survey was sent to 1100 members of Iron Tribe Fitness, a gym franchise with 5 locations across Birmingham, Alabama, that employs exercises consistent with an ECP in this study. An injury was defined as a physical condition resulting from ECP participation that caused the athlete to either seek medical treatment, take time off from exercising, or make modifications to his or her technique to continue. Results: A total of 247 athletes (22%) completed the survey. The majority (57%) of athletes were male (n = 139), and 94% of athletes were white (n = 227). The mean age of athletes was 38.9 years (±8.9 years). Athletes reported participation in the ECP for, on average, 3.6 hours per week (± 1.2 hours). Eighty-five athletes (34%) reported that they had sustained an injury while participating in the ECP. A total of 132 injuries were recorded, yielding an estimated incidence of 2.71 per 1000 hours. The shoulder or upper arm was the most commonly injured body site, accounting for 38 injuries (15% of athletes). Athletes with a previous shoulder injury were 8.1 times as likely to injure their shoulder in the ECP compared with athletes with healthy shoulders. The trunk, back, head, or neck (n = 29, 12%) and the leg or knee (n = 29, 12%) were the second most commonly injured sites. The

  12. Matter Under Extreme Conditions: The Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, R. Norris; Gibson, Carl H.

    2012-03-01

    Extreme conditions in natural flows are examined, starting with a turbulent big bang. A hydro-gravitational-dynamics cosmology model is adopted. Planck-Kerr turbulence instability causes Planck-particle turbulent combustion. Inertial-vortex forces induce a non-turbulent ki- netic energy cascade to Planck-Kolmogorov scales where vorticity is produced, overcoming 10113 Pa Planck-Fortov pressures. The spinning, expanding fireball has a slight deficit of Planck antiparticles. Space and mass-energy powered by gluon viscous stresses expand exponentially at speeds >1025 c. Turbulent temperature and spin fluctuations fossilize at scales larger than ct, where c is light speed and t is time. Because "dark-energy" antigravity forces vanish when infla- tion ceases, and because turbulence produces entropy, the universe is closed and will collapse and rebound. Density and spin fossils of big bang turbulent mixing trigger structure formation in the plasma epoch. Fragmenting protosuperclustervoids and protoclustervoids produce weak tur- bulence until the plasma-gas transition give chains of protogalaxies with the morphology of tur- bulence. Chain galaxy clusters observed at large redshifts ~8.6 support this interpretation. Pro- togalaxies fragment into clumps, each with a trillion Earth-mass H-He gas planets. These make stars, supernovae, the first chemicals, the first oceans and the first life soon after the cosmologi- cal event.

  13. Ecological and biological systems under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, V S; Nenishkiene, V B

    1989-01-01

    The behaviour of biological and ecological systems under extreme conditions (high and low temperatures, electromagnetic fields of different frequencies, ultraviolet. X-ray and gamma radiation) is analyzed. The ecosystems of macro- and microalgae living in salt, brackinsh and fresh waters are considered in the evolutional aspect basing on their chemical and biochemical composition taking into account the mechanism of radionuclide uptake by water plant cells, osmotic regulation, water and ice structures, combined water in a living organism. The problems of life-support in cosmic flights and of mastering the planets of the Solar system, for instance Mars and Venus, utilizing some microalgae and bacteria with high adaptive properties are discussed. Abnormal water points and their role in the metabolism of a water plant cell are estimated. The 'life niches' are determined at the temperatures exceeding 100 deg C and the possibility of existence for living organisms in high pressure and temperature is grounded. Attempts are made to change the metabolism of the plant and animal cell by subjecting it to the action of electromagnetic and thermal fields, heavy water, chemical and pharmocological substances changing the structure of bound water. 333 refs.; 79 tabs.

  14. The effect of extreme cold temperatures on the risk of death in the two major Portuguese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Liliana; Silva, Susana Pereira; Marques, Jorge; Nunes, Baltazar; Antunes, Sílvia

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that meteorological conditions influence the comfort and human health. Southern European countries, including Portugal, show the highest mortality rates during winter, but the effects of extreme cold temperatures in Portugal have never been estimated. The objective of this study was the estimation of the effect of extreme cold temperatures on the risk of death in Lisbon and Oporto, aiming the production of scientific evidence for the development of a real-time health warning system. Poisson regression models combined with distributed lag non-linear models were applied to assess the exposure-response relation and lag patterns of the association between minimum temperature and all-causes mortality and between minimum temperature and circulatory and respiratory system diseases mortality from 1992 to 2012, stratified by age, for the period from November to March. The analysis was adjusted for over dispersion and population size, for the confounding effect of influenza epidemics and controlled for long-term trend, seasonality and day of the week. Results showed that the effect of cold temperatures in mortality was not immediate, presenting a 1-2-day delay, reaching maximum increased risk of death after 6-7 days and lasting up to 20-28 days. The overall effect was generally higher and more persistent in Lisbon than in Oporto, particularly for circulatory and respiratory mortality and for the elderly. Exposure to cold temperatures is an important public health problem for a relevant part of the Portuguese population, in particular in Lisbon.

  15. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing and the Hypothetical Cold Response Mode of Saussurea involucrata in Extreme Cold Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Liu, Hailiang; Xia, Wenwen; Mu, Jianqiang; Feng, Yujie; Liu, Ruina; Yan, Panyao; Wang, Aiying; Lin, Zhongping; Guo, Yong; Zhu, Jianbo; Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-06-07

    Saussurea involucrata grows in high mountain areas covered by snow throughout the year. The temperature of this habitat can change drastically in one day. To gain a better understanding of the cold response signaling pathways and molecular metabolic reactions involved in cold stress tolerance, genome-wide transcriptional analyses were performed using RNA-Seq technologies. A total of 199,758 transcripts were assembled, producing 138,540 unigenes with 46.8 Gb clean data. Overall, 184,416 (92.32%) transcripts were successfully annotated. The 365 transcription factors identified (292 unigenes) belonged to 49 transcription factor families associated with cold stress responses. A total of 343 transcripts on the signal transduction (132 upregulated and 212 downregulated in at least any one of the conditions) were strongly affected by cold temperature, such as the CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase ( CIPKs ), receptor-like protein kinases , and protein kinases . The circadian rhythm pathway was activated by cold adaptation, which was necessary to endure the severe temperature changes within a day. There were 346 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to transport, of which 138 were upregulated and 22 were downregulated in at least any one of the conditions. Under cold stress conditions, transcriptional regulation, molecular transport, and signal transduction were involved in the adaptation to low temperature in S. involucrata . These findings contribute to our understanding of the adaptation of plants to harsh environments and the survival traits of S. involucrata . In addition, the present study provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of chilling and freezing tolerance.

  16. Community responses to extreme climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric JIGUET, Lluis BROTONS, Vincent DEVICTOR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Species assemblages and natural communities are increasingly impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events. Here we propose a brief overview of expected and demonstrated direct and indirect impacts of extreme events on animal communities. We show that differential impacts on basic biological parameters of individual species can lead to strong changes in community composition and structure with the potential to considerably modify the functional traits of the community. Sudden disequilibria have even been shown to induce irreversible shifts in marine ecosystems, while cascade effects on various taxonomic groups have been highlighted in Mediterranean forests. Indirect effects of extreme climatic events are expected when event-induced habitat changes (e.g. soil stability, vegetation composition, water flows altered by droughts, floods or hurricanes have differential consequences on species assembled within the communities. Moreover, in increasing the amplitude of trophic mismatches, extreme events are likely to turn many systems into ecological traps under climate change. Finally, we propose a focus on the potential impacts of an extreme heat wave on local assemblages as an empirical case study, analysing monitoring data on breeding birds collected in France. In this example, we show that despite specific populations were differently affected by local temperature anomalies, communities seem to be unaffected by a sudden heat wave. These results suggest that communities are tracking climate change at the highest possible rate [Current Zoology 57 (3: 406–413, 2011].

  17. On the conditions of existence of cold-blanket systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1977-12-01

    An extende analysis of the partially ionized boundary layer of a magnetized plasma has been performed, leading to the following results: (i) In a first approximation the ion density at the inner ''edge'' of the layer becomes related to the wall-near neutral gas density, in a way being independent of the spatial distribution of the ionization rate. (ii) The particle and momentum balance equations, and the associated impermeability condition of the plasma with respect to neutral gas penetration, are not sufficient to specify a cold-blanket state, but have to be combined with considerations of the heat blance. This leads to lower and upper power input limits, thus defining conditions for the existence of a cold-blanket state. At decreasing beta values , or increasing radiation losses, there are situations where such a state cannot exist at all. (iii) It should become possible to fulfill the cold-blanket conditions in full-scale reactors as well as in certain model experiments. Probably these conditions can also be satisfied in large tokamaks like JET, and by fast gas injection in devices such as Alcator, but not in medium-size tokamaks being operated at moderately high ion densities. (iv) A strong ''boundary layer stabilization'' mechanism due to the joint viscosity-resistivity-pressure effects is available under cold-blanket conditions. (author)

  18. Performance enhancement of a subcooled cold storage air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, M.-J.; Cheng, C.-H.; Huang, M.-C.; Chen, S.-L.

    2009-01-01

    This article experimentally investigates the enhancement of thermal performance for an air conditioning system utilizing a cold storage unit as a subcooler. The cold storage unit is composed of an energy storage tank, liquid-side heat exchanger, suction-side heat exchanger and energy storage material (ESM), water. When the cooling load is lower than the nominal cooling capacity of the system, the cold storage unit can store extra cold energy of the system to subcool the condenser outlet refrigerant. Hence, both the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be increased. This experiment tests the two operation modes: subcooled mode with energy storage and non-subcooled mode without energy storage. The results show that for fixed cooling loads at 3.05 kW, 3.5 kW and 3.95 kW, the COP of the subcooled mode are 16.0%, 15.6% and 14.1% higher than those of the non-subcooled mode, respectively. In the varied cooling load experiments, the COP of the subcooled cold storage air conditioning system is 15.3% higher than the conventional system.

  19. The other side of the coin: urban heat islands as shields from extreme cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Bou-Zeid, E.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive studies focusing on urban heat islands (UHIs) during hot periods create a perception that UHIs are invariably hazardous to human health and the sustainability of cities. Consequently, cities have invested substantial resources to try to mitigate UHIs. These urban policies can have serious repercussions since the health risks associated with cold weather are in fact higher than for heat episodes, yet wintertime UHIs have hardly been explored. We combine ground observations from 12 U.S. cities and high-resolution simulations to show that UHIs not only warm urban areas in the winter, but also further intensify during cold waves by up to 1.32 ± 0.78 oC (mean ± standard deviation) at night. Urban heat islands serve as shelters against extreme colds and provide invaluable benefits of reducing health risks and heating demand. More importantly, our simulations indicate that standard UHI mitigation measures such as green or cool roofs reduce these cold time amenities to different extents. Cities, particularly in cool and cold temperate climates, should hence revisit policies and efforts that are only desgined for hot periods. A paradigm shift is urgently needed to give an equal weight to the wintertime benefits of UHIs in the sustainability and resilience blueprints of cities.

  20. Crenarchaeal biofilm formation under extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Koerdt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation has been studied in much detail for a variety of bacterial species, as it plays a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria. However, only limited information is available for the development of archaeal communities that are frequently found in many natural environments. METHODOLOGY: We have analyzed biofilm formation in three closely related hyperthermophilic crenarchaeotes: Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, S. solfataricus and S. tokodaii. We established a microtitre plate assay adapted to high temperatures to determine how pH and temperature influence biofilm formation in these organisms. Biofilm analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the three strains form very different communities ranging from simple carpet-like structures in S. solfataricus to high density tower-like structures in S. acidocaldarius in static systems. Lectin staining indicated that all three strains produced extracellular polysaccharides containing glucose, galactose, mannose and N-acetylglucosamine once biofilm formation was initiated. While flagella mutants had no phenotype in two days old static biofilms of S. solfataricus, a UV-induced pili deletion mutant showed decreased attachment of cells. CONCLUSION: The study gives first insights into formation and development of crenarchaeal biofilms in extreme environments.

  1. QCD under extreme conditions. Inhomogeneous condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Achim

    2014-10-15

    Almost 40 years after the first publication on the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) big progress has been made but many questions are still open. This work covers several aspects of low-energy QCD and introduces advanced methods to calculate selected parts of the QCD phase diagram. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking as well as its restoration is a major aspect of QCD. Two effective models, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model and the linear σ-model, are widely used to describe the QCD chiral phase transition. We study the large-N{sub c} behavior of the critical temperature T{sub c} for chiral symmetry restoration in the framework of both models. While in the NJL model T{sub c} is independent of N{sub c} (and in agreement with the expected QCD scaling), the scaling behavior in the linear σ-model reads T{sub c} ∝ N{sup 1/2}{sub c}. However, this mismatch can be corrected: phenomenologically motivated temperature-dependent parameters or the extension with the Polyakov-loop renders the scaling in the linear σ-model compatible with the QCD scaling. The requirement that the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry is constant in space is too restrictive. Recent studies on inhomogeneous chiral condensation in cold, dense quark matter suggest a rich crystalline structure. These studies feature models with quark degrees of freedom. In this thesis we investigate the formation of the chiral density wave (CDW) in the framework of the so-called extended linear sigma model (eLSM) at high densities and zero temperature. The eLSM is a modern development of the linear σ-model which contains scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, as well as axial-vector mesons, and in addition, a light tetraquark state. The nucleon and its chiral partner are introduced as parity doublets in the mirror assignment. The model describes successfully the vacuum phenomenology and nuclear matter ground-state properties. As a result we find that an inhomogeneous phase

  2. Risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns during extreme cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Aimina; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey; Bilodeau-Bertrand, Marianne; Auger, Nathalie

    2017-10-01

    Environmental factors are important predictors of fires, but no study has examined the association between outdoor temperature and fire-related burn injuries. We sought to investigate the relationship between extremely cold outdoor temperatures and the risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns. We carried out a time-stratified case-crossover study of 2470 patients hospitalized for fire-related burn injuries during cold months between 1989 and 2014 in Quebec, Canada. The main exposure was the minimum outdoor temperature on the day of and the day before the burn. We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate the relationship between minimum temperature and fire-related burns, and assessed how associations varied across sex and age. Exposure to extreme cold temperature was associated with a significantly higher risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns. Compared with 0°C, exposure to a minimum temperature of -30°C was associated with an OR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.22-1.87) for hospitalization for fire-related burns. The associations were somewhat stronger for women, youth, and the elderly. Compared with 0°C, a minimum temperature of -30°C was associated with an OR for fire-related burn hospitalization of 1.65 for women (95% CI 1.13-2.40), 1.60 for age fire-related burns. Measures to prevent fires should be implemented prior to the winter season, and enhanced during extreme cold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effective interactions for extreme isospin conditions; Interactions effectives pour des conditions extremes d`isospin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabanat, E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the main goal in nuclear physics research is the study of nuclei in extreme conditions of spin and isospin. The more performing tools for theoretical predictions in this field are microscopic methods such as the Hartree-Fock one based on independent particle approximation. The main ingredient for such an approach is the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The actual trend being the study of nuclei more and more far from the stability valley, it is necessary to cast doubt over the validity of usual effective interaction. This work constitute a study on the way one can construct a new interaction allowing some theoretical predictions on nuclei far from the stability. We have thus made a complete study of symmetric infinite nuclear matter and asymmetric one up to pure neutron matter. One shows that the asymmetry coefficient, which was considered until now as fixing isospin properties, is not sufficient to have a correct description of very exotic isospin states. A new type of constraint is shown for fixing this degree of freedom: the neutron matter equation of state. One include this equation of state, taken from a theoretical model giving a good description of radii and masses of neutron stars. One can thus expect to build up new Skyrme interaction with realistic properties of ground state of very neutron-rich nuclei. (author). 63 refs., 68 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and their relationship to extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ruiz, J.; Cadena, M.

    2013-11-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Caribbean Sea are commonly related to the effects of storms and hurricanes during the months of June through November. The collapse of 200 m of the Puerto Colombia pier in March 2009 revealed the effects of meteorological phenomena other than storms and hurricanes that may be influencing the extreme wave regime in the Colombian Caribbean. The marked seasonality of these atmospheric fronts was established by analyzing the meteorological-marine reports of the Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales of Colombia (IDEAM, based on its initials in Spanish) and the Centro de Investigación en Oceanografía y Meteorología of Colombia (CIOH, based on its initials in Spanish) during the last 16 yr. The highest number of cold fronts was observed during the months of January, February, and March, with 6 fronts occurring per year. An annual trend was observed and the highest number of fronts occurred in 2010 (20 in total); moreover, an annual strong relationship between the maximum average wave values and the cold fronts in the central zone of the Colombian Caribbean during the first three months of the year was established. In addition, the maximum values of the significant height produced by the passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the

  5. Thermal properties of bentonite under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasicek, R. [Czech Technical Univ., Centre of Experimental Geotechnics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    Centre of Experimental Geotechnics (CEG) deals with the research of the behaviour of bentonite and clays. The measurement of thermal properties is not so frequent test in geotechnical laboratory but in relation to deep repository it is a part which should not be overlooked. The reason is the heat generated by canister with spent nuclear fuel and possible influence of the heat on the materials of the engineered barrier. In the initial stages following the burial of canister with the waste the barrier materials will be exposed to elevated temperature. According to existing information, these temperatures should not exceed 90 C. That heat can induce a creation of cracks and opening of joint between highly compacted blocks. It will predispose the bentonite barrier to penetration of water from surrounding towards to canister. Therefore easy removal of heat through the barrier is required. It is essential that the tests aimed at determining the real values of measured parameters are carried out in conditions identical with those anticipated in a future disposal system. These relatively complicated thermophysical tests are logical continuation of the simple ones, carried out under laboratory temperature and on not fully saturated samples without possibility to measure the swelling pressure. Thermophysical properties and swelling pressure are dominantly influenced by water content (which is influenced by temperature). Therefore is important to realize the tests under different moisture and thermal conditions. These tests are running at the APT-PO1 Analyser, designed to fulfill mentioned requirements - it allows measurement of thermal properties under temperature up to 200 C and swelling pressure up to 20 MPa. The device is capable to register the evolution of temperature, swelling and vapor pressure. The measurement of thermal conductivity and volume heat capacity is realized by the dynamic impulse method with point source of heat. Four types of tests are possible: at

  6. [Guidelines on asthma in extreme environmental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnic, Franchek; Borderías Clau, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic disease which, if not properly controlled, can limit the patient's activities and lifestyle. In recent decades, owing to the diffusion of educational materials, the application of clinical guidelines and, most importantly, the availability of effective pharmacological treatment, most patients with asthma are now able to lead normal lives. Significant social changes have also taken place during the same period, including more widespread pursuit of sporting activities and tourism. As a result of these changes, individuals with asthma can now participate in certain activities that were inconceivable for these patients only a few years ago, including winter sports, underwater activities, air flight, and travel to remote places with unusual environmental conditions (deserts, high mountain environments, and tropical regions). In spite of the publication of several studies on this subject, our understanding of the effects of these situations on patients with asthma is still limited. The Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) has decided to publish these recommendations based on the available evidence and expert opinion in order to provide information on this topic to both doctors and patients and to avert potentially dangerous situations that could endanger the lives of these patients.

  7. Weakened cyclones, intensified anticyclones and recent extreme cold winter weather events in Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangdong; Lu Chuhan; Guan Zhaoyong

    2012-01-01

    Extreme cold winter weather events over Eurasia have occurred more frequently in recent years in spite of a warming global climate. To gain further insight into this regional mismatch with the global mean warming trend, we analyzed winter cyclone and anticyclone activities, and their interplay with the regional atmospheric circulation pattern characterized by the semi-permanent Siberian high. We found a persistent weakening of both cyclones and anticyclones between the 1990s and early 2000s, and a pronounced intensification of anticyclone activity afterwards. It is suggested that this intensified anticyclone activity drives the substantially strengthening and northwestward shifting/expanding Siberian high, and explains the decreased midlatitude Eurasian surface air temperature and the increased frequency of cold weather events. The weakened tropospheric midlatitude westerlies in the context of the intensified anticyclones would reduce the eastward propagation speed of Rossby waves, favoring persistence and further intensification of surface anticyclone systems. (letter)

  8. Major differences observed in transcript profiles of blueberry during cold acclimation under field and cold room conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanaraj, Anik L; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Beard, Hunter S; Chouikha, Imed B; Matthews, Benjamin F; Wei, Hui; Arora, Rajeev; Rowland, Lisa J

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has been working toward increasing our understanding of the genetic control of cold hardiness in blueberry (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus) to ultimately use this information to develop more cold hardy cultivars for the industry. Here, we report using cDNA microarrays to monitor changes in gene expression at multiple times during cold acclimation under field and cold room conditions. Microarrays contained over 2,500 cDNA inserts, approximately half of which had been picked and single-pass sequenced from each of two cDNA libraries that were constructed from cold acclimated floral buds and non-acclimated floral buds of the fairly cold hardy cv. Bluecrop (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Two biological samples were examined at each time point. Microarray data were analyzed statistically using t tests, ANOVA, clustering algorithms, and online analytical processing (OLAP). Interestingly, more transcripts were found to be upregulated under cold room conditions than under field conditions. Many of the genes induced only under cold room conditions could be divided into three major types: (1) genes associated with stress tolerance; (2) those that encode glycolytic and TCA cycle enzymes, and (3) those associated with protein synthesis machinery. A few of the genes induced only under field conditions appear to be related to light stress. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed in physiological context. Although many similarities exist in how plants respond during cold acclimation in the cold room and in the field environment, there are major differences suggesting caution should be taken in interpreting results based only on artificial, cold room conditions.

  9. The effect of ethnicity on the vascular responses to cold exposure of the extremities

    OpenAIRE

    Maley, Matthew J.; Eglin, Clare M.; House, James R.; Tipton, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cold injuries are more prevalent in individuals of African descent (AFD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of extremity cooling on skin blood flow (SkBF) and temperature (T sk) between ethnic groups. Methods Thirty males [10 Caucasian (CAU), 10 Asian (ASN), 10 AFD] undertook three tests in 30 °C air whilst digit T sk and SkBF were measured: (i) vasomotor threshold (VT) test—arm immersed in 35 °C water progressively cooled to 10 °C and rewarmed to 35 °C to identify vasoconstrictio...

  10. The effect of ethnicity on the vascular responses to cold exposure of the extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Matthew J; Eglin, Clare M; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Cold injuries are more prevalent in individuals of African descent (AFD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of extremity cooling on skin blood flow (SkBF) and temperature (T sk) between ethnic groups. Thirty males [10 Caucasian (CAU), 10 Asian (ASN), 10 AFD] undertook three tests in 30 °C air whilst digit T sk and SkBF were measured: (i) vasomotor threshold (VT) test--arm immersed in 35 °C water progressively cooled to 10 °C and rewarmed to 35 °C to identify vasoconstriction and vasodilatation; (ii) cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) test--hand immersed in 8 °C water for 30 min followed by spontaneous warming; (iii) cold sensitivity (CS) test--foot immersed in 15 °C water for 2 min followed by spontaneous warming. Cold sensory thresholds of the forearm and finger were also assessed. In the VT test, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation occurred at a warmer finger T sk in AFD during cooling [21.2 (4.4) vs. 17.0 (3.1) °C, P = 0.034] and warming [22.0 (7.9) vs. 12.1 (4.1) °C, P = 0.002] compared with CAU. In the CIVD test, average SkBF during immersion was greater in CAU [42 (24) %] than ASN [25 (8) %, P = 0.036] and AFD [24 (13) %, P = 0.023]. Following immersion, SkBF was higher and rewarming faster in CAU [3.2 (0.4) °C min(-1)] compared with AFD [2.5 (0.7) °C min(-1), P = 0.037], but neither group differed from ASN [3.0 (0.6) °C min(-1)]. Responses to the CS test and cold sensory thresholds were similar between groups. AFD experienced a more intense protracted finger vasoconstriction than CAU during hand immersion, whilst ASN experienced an intermediate response. This greater sensitivity to cold may explain why AFD are more susceptible to cold injuries.

  11. Mean versus extreme climate in the Mediterranean region and its sensitivity to future global warming conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeth, H.; Hense, A. [Meteorological Inst., Univ. Bonn (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    The Mediterranean region (MTR) has been supposed to be very sensitive to changes in land surface and atmospheric greenhouse-gas (GHG) concentrations. Particularly, an intensification of climate extremes may be associated with severe socio-economic implications. Here, we present an analysis of climate mean and extreme conditions in this subtropical area based on regional climate model experiments, simulating the present-day and possible future climate. The analysis of extreme values (EVs) is based on the assumption that the extremes of daily precipitation and near-surface temperature are well fitted by the Generalized Pareto distribution (GPD). Return values of extreme daily events are determined using the method of L-moments. Particular emphasis is laid on the evaluation of the return values with respect to the uncertainty range of the estimate as derived from a Monte Carlo sampling approach. During the most recent 25 years the MTR has become dryer in spring but more humid especially in the western part in autumn and winter. At the same time, the whole region has been subject to a substantial warming. The strongest rainfall extremes are simulated in autumn over the Mediterranean Sea around Italy. Temperature extremes are most pronounced over the land masses, especially over northern Africa. Given the large uncertainty of the EV estimate, only 1-year return values are further analysed. During recent decades, statistically significant changes in extremes are only found for temperature. Future climate conditions may come along with a decrease in mean and extreme precipitation during the cold season, whereas an intensification of the hydrological cycle is predicted in summer and autumn. Temperature is predominantly affected over the Iberian Peninsula and the eastern part of the MTR. In many grid boxes, the signals are blurred out due to the large amount of uncertainty in the EV estimate. Thus, a careful analysis is required when making inferences about the future

  12. QTL mapping of inbreeding-related cold sensitivity and conditional lethality in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding-related and conditionally expressed lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. The lethal effect was triggered by exposure to a cold shock. We used a North Carolina crossing Design 3 to establish the mapping population, as well as to estimate the average dominance ratio and heritability. We found two......Inbreeding depression is a central theme within genetics, and is of specific interest for researchers within evolutionary and conservation genetics and animal and plant breeding. Inbreeding effects are thought to be caused by the joint expression of conditional and unconditional deleterious alleles....... Whenever the expression of deleterious alleles is conditional, this can result in extreme environmental sensitivity in certain inbred lineages. Analysis of conditional lethal effects can reveal some of the loci that are sensitive to inbreeding. We performed a QTL (quantitative trait locus) mapping study...

  13. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  14. Impaired reproduction in Japanese Black cattle under cold environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabenishi, H; Yamazaki, A

    2017-06-01

    Environmental factors such as the temperature-humidity index (THI) are known to affect reproductive parameters in cattle. Therefore, here, we examined whether there was any correlation between the THI and the reproductive performance of Japanese Black cattle by analysing the first-service conception rates of 178,492 artificially inseminated cows across 9,833 herds in south-western Japan over a 3-year period. The daily mean (±SD) THI over the study period was 63.6 ± 11.3 (range: 41.4-81.5). The calving to first artificial insemination (AI) interval was significantly negatively correlated with THI in the month of AI (r = -.75, p reproductive performance in Japanese Black cattle and that the impact of the cold environment on the conception rate is attributable to a carryover effect from the cold season before AI rather than conditions at the time of AI. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Properties of volcanic soils in cold climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Layers of volcanic ash and the Andosol soils derived from them may play an important role in preserving snow and ice as well as developing permafrost conditions in the immediate vicinity of volcanoes of high elevation or those situated at high latitudes, and land areas, often distant from volcanic activity that are either prone to permafrost or covered by snow and ice, but are affected by the deposition of subaerial ash. The special properties of volcanic ash that are responsible are critically reviewed particularly in relation to recent research in Kamchatka in the Far East of Russia. Of particular importance are the thermal properties and the unfrozen water contents of ash layers and the rate at which the weathering of volcanic glass takes place. Volcanic glass is the most easily weathered component of volcanic ejecta (Shoji et al., 1993; Kimble et al., 2000). There are many specific environmental conditions, including paleoclimate and present-day climate, the composition of volcanic tephra and glaciation history, which cause the differences in weathering and development of volcanic ash soils (Zehetner et al., 2003). The preservation of in situ, unweathered, and unaltered surficial ash-fall deposits in the cold regions has important implications for paleoclimate and glacial history. Ash-fall deposits, which trap and preserve the soils, sediments, and landforms on which they fall, can be used to resolve local climate conditions (temperature and moisture) at the ash site during ash-fall deposition. The preservation of detailed sedimentary features (e.g. bedding in the ash, sharpness of stratigraphic contacts) can tell us about their post-depositional history, whether they have been redeposited by wind or water, or overridden by glaciers (Marchant et al., 1996). Weathering of volcanic glass results in the development of amorphous clay minerals (e.g. allophane, opal, palagonite) but this takes place much slower in cold than under warmer climate conditions. Only few

  16. Atmospheric conditions and weather regimes associated with extreme winter dry spells over the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Florian; Ullmann, Albin; Camberlin, Pierre; Oueslati, Boutheina; Drobinski, Philippe

    2018-06-01

    Very long dry spell events occurring during winter are natural hazards to which the Mediterranean region is extremely vulnerable, because they can lead numerous impacts for environment and society. Four dry spell patterns have been identified in a previous work. Identifying the main associated atmospheric conditions controlling the dry spell patterns is key to better understand their dynamics and their evolution in a changing climate. Except for the Levant region, the dry spells are generally associated with anticyclonic blocking conditions located about 1000 km to the Northwest of the affected area. These anticyclonic conditions are favourable to dry spell occurrence as they are associated with subsidence of cold and dry air coming from boreal latitudes which bring low amount of water vapour and non saturated air masses, leading to clear sky and absence of precipitation. These extreme dry spells are also partly related to the classical four Euro-Atlantic weather regimes are: the two phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Scandinavian "blocking" or "East-Atlantic", and the "Atlantic ridge". Only the The "East-Atlantic", "Atlantic ridge" and the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation are frequently associated with extremes dry spells over the Mediterranean basin but they do not impact the four dry spell patterns equally. Finally long sequences of those weather regimes are more favourable to extreme dry spells than short sequences. These long sequences are associated with the favourable prolonged and reinforced anticyclonic conditions

  17. Response of Simple, Model Systems to Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Rodney C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lang, Maik [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The focus of the research was on the application of high-pressure/high-temperature techniques, together with intense energetic ion beams, to the study of the behavior of simple oxide systems (e.g., SiO2, GeO2, CeO2, TiO2, HfO2, SnO2, ZnO and ZrO2) under extreme conditions. These simple stoichiometries provide unique model systems for the analysis of structural responses to pressure up to and above 1 Mbar, temperatures of up to several thousands of kelvin, and the extreme energy density generated by energetic heavy ions (tens of keV/atom). The investigations included systematic studies of radiation- and pressure-induced amorphization of high P-T polymorphs. By studying the response of simple stoichiometries that have multiple structural “outcomes”, we have established the basic knowledge required for the prediction of the response of more complex structures to extreme conditions. We especially focused on the amorphous state and characterized the different non-crystalline structure-types that result from the interplay of radiation and pressure. For such experiments, we made use of recent technological developments, such as the perforated diamond-anvil cell and in situ investigation using synchrotron x-ray sources. We have been particularly interested in using extreme pressures to alter the electronic structure of a solid prior to irradiation. We expected that the effects of modified band structure would be evident in the track structure and morphology, information which is much needed to describe theoretically the fundamental physics of track-formation. Finally, we investigated the behavior of different simple-oxide, composite nanomaterials (e.g., uncoated nanoparticles vs. core/shell systems) under coupled, extreme conditions. This provided insight into surface and boundary effects on phase stability under extreme conditions.

  18. The structure and large-scale organization of extreme cold waves over the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zuowei; Black, Robert X.; Deng, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Extreme cold waves (ECWs) occurring over the conterminous United States (US) are studied through a systematic identification and documentation of their local synoptic structures, associated large-scale meteorological patterns (LMPs), and forcing mechanisms external to the US. Focusing on the boreal cool season (November-March) for 1950‒2005, a hierarchical cluster analysis identifies three ECW patterns, respectively characterized by cold surface air temperature anomalies over the upper midwest (UM), northwestern (NW), and southeastern (SE) US. Locally, ECWs are synoptically organized by anomalous high pressure and northerly flow. At larger scales, the UM LMP features a zonal dipole in the mid-tropospheric height field over North America, while the NW and SE LMPs each include a zonal wave train extending from the North Pacific across North America into the North Atlantic. The Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) in general simulates the three ECW patterns quite well and successfully reproduces the observed enhancements in the frequency of their associated LMPs. La Niña and the cool phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) favor the occurrence of NW ECWs, while the warm PDO phase, low Arctic sea ice extent and high Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) are associated with elevated SE-ECW frequency. Additionally, high Eurasian SCE is linked to increases in the occurrence likelihood of UM ECWs.

  19. Desensitization of menthol-activated cold receptors in lower extremities during local cooling in young women with a cold constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko

    2017-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that topical menthol-induced reactivity of cold sensation and cutaneous vasoconstriction to local cooling is augmented in individuals with a cold constitution, we examined thermal sensation and cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses at menthol-treated and untreated sites in the legs during local skin cooling in young women complaining of chilliness (C group) and young women with no complaint as a normal control group (N group). During local skin cooling, the sensitivity to cold sensation was greater in the C group than in the N group. The application of menthol enhanced the cold sensation at a low temperature in the N group, but not in the C group. Cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses to local skin cooling were not altered by menthol treatment in either of the two groups. These findings suggest the desensitization of menthol-activated cold receptors in the legs of C group subjects, and a minor role of cold receptor activity in cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to local cooling.

  20. Spirometry Changes in Cold Climatic Conditions of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaya, Iyamanda B; Laxmi, Chettangada C; Abhishekh, Hulegar A; Raju, Trichur R; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function is one of the important physiological measures that is known to be affected during the changes in the altitude. There is dearth of literature on changes in the pulmonary function variables in the cold climate conditions of Antarctica. We carried out spirometry before, during and after one year stay at Antarctica in members of the Indian expedition. Spirometry was carried out on 23 members of the XXVI Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica at baseline, after six months of expedition and at the end of one year, using standard guidelines. The tests were carried out indoor in temperature controlled laboratory. The pulmonary function test parameters did not vary across the period. Although, both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) showed a decreasing trend but did not attain any statistical significance. However, peak expiratory flow (PEFR) rate was reduced significantly. Our study did not show consistently significant change in the pulmonary function parameters in the members of the Indian Antarctic expedition.

  1. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymantas Kazys

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10−3 g/cm3 (1%.

  2. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Rekuviene, Regina; Zukauskas, Egidijus; Mazeika, Liudas

    2015-01-01

    An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer) on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C) and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10−3 g/cm3 (1%). PMID:26262619

  3. Ultrasonic Technique for Density Measurement of Liquids in Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Rekuviene, Regina; Zukauskas, Egidijus; Mazeika, Liudas

    2015-08-07

    An ultrasonic technique, invariant to temperature changes, for a density measurement of different liquids under in situ extreme conditions is presented. The influence of geometry and material parameters of the measurement system (transducer, waveguide, matching layer) on measurement accuracy and reliability is analyzed theoretically along with experimental results. The proposed method is based on measurement of the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, reflected from the interface of the solid/liquid medium under investigation. In order to enhance sensitivity, the use of a quarter wavelength acoustic matching layer is proposed. Therefore, the sensitivity of the measurement system increases significantly. Density measurements quite often must be performed in extreme conditions at high temperature (up to 220 °C) and high pressure. In this case, metal waveguides between piezoelectric transducer and the measured liquid are used in order to protect the conventional transducer from the influence of high temperature and to avoid depolarization. The presented ultrasonic density measurement technique is suitable for density measurement in different materials, including liquids and polymer melts in extreme conditions. A new calibration algorithm was proposed. The metrological evaluation of the measurement method was performed. The expanded measurement uncertainty Uρ = 7.4 × 10(-3) g/cm(3) (1%).

  4. Extreme coldness, the new frontier of petroleum companies; Les tres grands froids, nouvelle frontiere des petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemain, A.

    2003-11-01

    This brief article presents the new challenges the oil companies have to face for the exploration and production of oil and gas in extreme climatic conditions (arctic latitudes and deep offshore). The feasibility depends on the development of new, lighter and more resistant materials and on new procedures of 'flow assurance' to avoid the formation of hydrates plugs inside risers and pipes. (J.S.)

  5. Wireless pilot monitoring system for extreme race conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Esteban J; Arias, Diego E; Aqueveque, Pablo; Melin, Pedro; Curtis, Dorothy W

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an assistive device to monitor car drivers under extreme conditions. In particular, this system is designed in preparation for the 2012 Atacama Solar Challenge to be held in the Chilean desert. Actual preliminary results show the feasibility of such a project including physiological and ambient sensors, real-time processing algorithms, wireless data transmission and a remote monitoring station. Implementation details and field results are shown along with a discussion of the main problems found in real-life telemetry monitoring.

  6. Preference for safflower oil in rats exposed to a cold environment under free-feeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Masaji; Ishii, Toshiaki; Takewaki, Tadashi; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2005-07-01

    There are several benefits to a high-fat diet for animals exposed to cold, including improved tolerance to severe cold conditions and increased survival rates in cold environments. It is therefore of interest to examine whether animals exposed to cold will selectively consume lipids. We examined the intake of safflower oil (SO) by rats exposed to cold (4 +/- 2 degrees C) under a feeding condition in which the rats were given free access to SO. Rats exposed to cold consumed more SO than those housed at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. This finding suggests that rats prefer SO in a cold environment. There was no significant difference in the ratio of calories of SO ingested to that of matter (standard laboratory chow plus SO) ingested between rats exposed to cold and those at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. The high SO intake also affected cold tolerance and metabolite kinetics in the rats. Factors that affected the SO intake of rats exposed to cold are also discussed.

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on scattering experiments under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, N.; Ikeda, H.; Ando, M.

    1991-10-01

    In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), as the research facilities, there are Photon Factory, the facility for utilizing the booster and University of Tokyo Meson Science Research Center. For the research on physical properties, it is very important to do structural analysis in a broad sense and to observe the behavior of quasiparticles in solids. The X-ray and pulsed neutrons required for these researches can be obtained in a single laboratory in KEK, and it is rare in the world. At this opportunity of the workshop on scattering experiments under extreme conditions, it is hoped that the positive interchange between both PF and booster groups will be carried out. The research on magnetic substances using X-ray is a most noteworthy utilization of synchrotron radiation. The discovery of X-ray resonance magnetic scattering by K. Namikawa is one of the remarkable researches using synchrotron radiation in the world. When the extreme conditions around samples are prepared, the quality of signals for the research on physical properties is to be heightened. In this report, the researches on physical properties under ultrahigh pressure and ultralow temperature are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Triticale in the years with extreme weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nožinić Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other grain crops, the area under triticale in the Republic of Srpska has been expanding every year. Since the introduction of this plant species in the broad production began a few years ago, the finding of the optimal variety agrotechnique in different environmental conditions has great importance. This paper deals with the results of the trials from seven locations in two very extreme vegetation seasons (2002/03, 2006/07. High yield of triticale on the location Banja Luka (150 m alt. with five triticale varieties in four sowing rates in the replication trial in very unfavorable weather conditions in 2003, points to emphasized triticale tolerance to high temperatures and drought. High grain yield of triticale in the trials on the locations Banja Luka, Butmir (460 m alt. and Živince (230 m alt. was obtained in 2007 too, when all vegetation months had higher mean temperature than long term average, what is a unique appearance in the entire 'meteorological history'. In the paper the appearance of the earliest triticale heading is described and explained. It happened at one production trial on Manjača (250 m alt. in the first decade of March in 2007. On the another location on Manjača (450 m alt., in the macrotrial, rye showed much higher tolerance to extreme soil acidity, than triticale. Obtained results and unusual appearances on triticale are helpful for the further research of the stability and adaptability of more important triticale traits. .

  9. Hatching delays in great tits and blue tits in response to an extreme cold spell: a long-term study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glądalski, Michał; Bańbura, Mirosława; Kaliński, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Skwarska, Joanna; Wawrzyniak, Jarosław; Zieliński, Piotr; Bańbura, Jerzy

    2018-04-01

    Variation in ambient temperature affects various life stages of organisms. It has been suggested that climate change not only implies higher global temperatures but also more unpredictable weather and more frequent extreme weather events. Temperature has a major influence on the optimal laying-incubation-hatching dates of insectivorous passerines, because it poses energetic constraints and affects the timing of food abundance. We have been studying breeding characteristics of great tits Parus major and blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus in two areas, an urban parkland and a deciduous forest, around the city of Łódź since 2002. During the egg-laying period in 2017, both tit species at both study areas faced an unusual cold spell as reflected by a sudden decrease in the mean ambient temperature to ca. 2-3 °C for about 5 days, which caused mean hatching delays of up to 6 days. Since flexibility of behavior plays a major role in adjusting to unpredictable weather conditions, examining its limits may be an important goal for future research.

  10. A 24-year-old male with a painful and cold lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric A; Khalpey, Zain I; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2017-05-01

    A 24-year-old male presented to the emergency department with intense pain in his right lower extremity. He has a medical history significant for systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome. He also had four prior episodes of deep venous thromboses on rivaroxaban. The patient stated that early in the morning, he started to feel intense pain that started from his knee and progressed to his calf, with associated numbness and paraesthesia. On physical examination, the limb felt cold with absent right popliteal and dorsalis pedis pulses. He was immediately taken for embolectomy after discovery of a distal common femoral artery occlusion. The patient's blood cultures remained negative. X-plane imaging on real-time three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography (RT-3DTEE) of the aortic valve (figure 1A) and colour Doppler (figure 1B) are shown. What is the diagnosis and management for this patient (assuming the patient will stay anticoagulated for life)? Infective endocarditis (IE); antibiotics and valve replacementLibman-Sacks endocarditis; corticosteroidsIE; antibiotics onlyLibman-Sacks endocarditis; valve replacementLibman-Sacks endocarditis; continuing anticoagulation only heartjnl;103/10/765/HEARTJNL2016310872F1F1HEARTJNL2016310872F1Figure 1Visualisation of the aortic valve on (A) X-plane imaging on real-time three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography (RT-3DTEE) and (B) colour Doppler. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Study on the effectiveness of Extreme Cold Mist MQL system on turning process of stainless steel AISI 316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, A. S.; Hosokawa, A.; Furumoto, T.; Koyano, T.; Hashimoto, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Cutting process of difficult-to-cut material such as stainless steel, generates immensely excessive heat, which is one of the major causes related to shortening tool life and lower quality of surface finish. It is proven that application of cutting fluid during the cutting process of difficult-to-cut material is able to improve the cutting performance, but excessive application of cutting fluid leads to another problem such as increasing processing cost and environmental hazardous pollution of workplace. In the study, Extreme Cold Mist system is designed and tested along with various Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) systems on turning process of stainless steel AISI 316. In the study, it is obtained that, Extreme Cold Mist system is able to reduce cutting force up to 60N and improve the surface roughness of the machined surface significantly.

  12. Improving Warfighters’ Sustainment and Performance in Extreme Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-18

    Kuppusamy P, Parinandi N. Oxygen, the lead actor in the pathophysiologic drama : enactment of the trinity of normoxia, hypoxia, and hyperoxia in disease...and therapy . Antioxid Redox Signal 2007;9(10):1717-30. 9. Sun Z. Genetic AVP deficiency abolishes cold-induced diuresis but does not attenuate cold

  13. Post-cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2011-01-01

    Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage. Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold-storage warm-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations...

  14. Extreme conditions over Europe and North America: role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Msadek, Rym; Delworth, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is the result and possibly the source of marked modulations of the climate over many areas of the globe. For instance, the relatively warm and dry climate of North America throughout the 30-yr interval of 1931-60, during which the Dust Bowl and the 1950's drought occurred, has been linked to the concomitant warm phase of the AMV. During this period relative warm and wet conditions prevailed over Europe. After 1960, the Atlantic began to cool, and for almost three decades the North American climate turned wetter and cooler whereas Europe experienced cooler and dryer conditions. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period suggested by longer proxy (~60-80yr) does not allow to firmly conclude on the causal effect of the AMV. We use a model approach to isolate the causal role of the AMV on the occurrence of extreme events over Europe and North America. We present experiments based on two GFDL global climate models, a low resolution version, CM2.1 and a higher resolution model for the atmospheric component, FLOR. In both model experiments sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic sector are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts on extreme events, we use large ensemble simulations (100 members for CM2.1 and 50 for FLOR) that we run for 20 years. We find that a positive phase of the AMV increases the frequency of occurrence of drought over North America and of extremely cold/warm conditions over Northern/Central Europe during winter/summer. Interestingly, we find that the AMV impacts on these extreme conditions are modulated by the Pacific response to the AMV itself. Members that develop a weak Pacific response show more extreme events over Europe whereas those that develop a strong Pacific response show more extreme events over North America.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Survival Strategies in Extreme Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Migliardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the major challenges in biophysics is to disclose the molecular mechanisms underlying biological processes. In such a frame, the understanding of the survival strategies in extreme conditions received a lot of attention both from the scientific and applicative points of view. Since nature provides precious suggestions to be applied for improving the quality of life, extremophiles are considered as useful model-systems. The main goal of this review is to present an overview of some systems, with a particular emphasis on trehalose playing a key role in several extremophile organisms. The attention is focused on the relation among the structural and dynamic properties of biomolecules and bioprotective mechanisms, as investigated by complementary spectroscopic techniques at low- and high-temperature values.

  16. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after an Extreme Conditioning Competition: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramires Alsamir Tibana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes an instance of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by an extreme conditioning program (ECP competition. A 35-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and soreness, which began one day after she completed two days of ECPcompetition composed of five workouts. Three days after competition, creatine kinase (CK was 77,590 U/L accompanied by myalgia and abnormal liver function tests, while renal function was normal and this resulted in a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. A follow-up examination revealed that her serum level of CK was still elevated to 3034 U/L on day 10 and 1257 U/L on day 25 following the ECP competition. The subject reported myalgia even up to 25 days after the ECP competition. Exertional rhabdomyolysis can be observed in ECP athletes following competition and highlights a dangerous condition, which may be increasing in recent years due to the massive expansion of ECP popularity and a growing number of competitions. Future research should investigate the causes of rhabdomyolysis that occur as a result of ECP, especially training methods and/or tasks developed specifically for these competitions.

  17. Safety analysis of casks under extreme impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, G.; Qiao, L.; Voelzke, H.; Wolff, D.; Droste, B.

    2004-01-01

    The determination of the inherent safety of casks under extreme impact conditions has been of increasing interest since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001. For nearly three decades BAM has been investigating cask safety under severe accident conditions like drop tests from more than 9 m onto different targets and without impact limiters as well as artificially damaged prototype casks. One of the most critical scenarios for a cask is the centric impact of a dynamic load onto the lid-seal system. This can be caused, for example, by a direct aircraft crash (or just its engine) as well as by an impact due to the collapse of a building, e.g. a nuclear facility storage hall. In this context BAM is developing methods to calculate the deformation of cask components and-with respect to leak-tightness-relative displacements between the metallic seals and their counterparts. This paper presents reflections on modelling of cask structures for finite-element analyses and discusses calculated results of stresses and deformations. Another important aspect is the behaviour of a cask under a lateral impact by aircraft or fragments of a building. Examples of the kinetic reaction (cask acceleration due to the fragments, subsequent contact with neighbouring structures like the ground, buildings or casks) are shown and discussed in correlation to cask stresses which are to be expected. (author)

  18. Safety analysis of casks under extreme impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, G.; Qiao Linan; Voelzke, H.; Wolff, D.; Droste, B.

    2004-01-01

    The determination of the inherent safety of casks also under extreme impact conditions has been of increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001. For nearly three decades BAM has been investigating cask safety under severe accident conditions like drop tests from more than 9 m onto different targets and without impact limiters as well as artificially damaged prototype casks. One of the most critical scenarios for a cask is the centric impact of a dynamic load onto the lid seal system. This can be caused e.g. by direct aircraft crash or its engine as well as by an impact due to the collapse of a building e.g. a nuclear facility storage hall. In this context BAM is developing methods to calculate the deformation of cask components and - with respect to leak tightness - relative displacements between the metallic seals and their counterparts. This paper presents reflections on modelling of cask structures for Finite Element analyses and discusses calculated results of stresses and deformations. Another important aspect is the behaviour of a cask under a lateral impact by aircraft and fragments of a building. Examples of the kinetic reaction (cask acceleration due to the fragments, subsequent contact with neighbouring structures like ground, buildings or casks) are shown and discussed in correlation to cask stresses which are to be expected

  19. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M.; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  20. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G R; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  1. Effect of cold water and inverse lighting on growth performance of broiler chickens under extreme heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-oh; Park, Byung-sung; Hwangbo, Jong

    2015-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of provision of extreme heat stress diet (EHD), inverse lighting, cold water on growth performance of broiler chickens exposed to extreme heat stress. The chickens were divided into four treatment groups, (T1, T2, T3, T4) as given below: Ti (EHD 1, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light, cool water 9 degrees C); T2 (EHD 2, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light, cool water 9 degrees C); T3 (EHD 1, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light, cool water 141C); T4 (EHD 2, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light, cool water 14 degrees C. EHD 1 contained soybean oil, molasses, methionine and lysine; EHD 2 contained the same ingredients as EHD 1 with addition of vitamin C. Groups T1 and T2 were given cooler water than the othertwo groups, and displayed higher body weight increase and diet intake as compared to T3 and T4 (pstress diet, inverse lighting (10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light) with cold water at 9 degrees C under extreme heat stress could enhance growth performance of broiler chickens.

  2. Extreme wind conditions for a Danish offshore site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of extreme wind speed gust values measured at a shallow water offshore site and at a coastal onshore site in Denmark. An estimate of 50-year extreme values has been evaluated using a new statistical method. In addition a mean gust shape is determined, based on a la...

  3. Thermal discomfort with cold extremities in relation to age, gender, and body mass index in a random sample of a Swiss urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgül Selim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate the relationship of thermal discomfort with cold extremities (TDCE to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI in a Swiss urban population. Methods In a random population sample of Basel city, 2,800 subjects aged 20-40 years were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating the extent of cold extremities. Values of cold extremities were based on questionnaire-derived scores. The correlation of age, gender, and BMI to TDCE was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 1,001 women (72.3% response rate and 809 men (60% response rate returned a completed questionnaire. Statistical analyses revealed the following findings: Younger subjects suffered more intensely from cold extremities than the elderly, and women suffered more than men (particularly younger women. Slimmer subjects suffered significantly more often from cold extremities than subjects with higher BMIs. Conclusions Thermal discomfort with cold extremities (a relevant symptom of primary vascular dysregulation occurs at highest intensity in younger, slimmer women and at lowest intensity in elderly, stouter men.

  4. Characterization and effects of cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Coast and their relationship to extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ruiz, J.; Cadena, M.

    2013-07-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Caribbean Sea are commonly related to the effects of storms and hurricanes during the months of June through November. The collapse of 200 m of the Puerto Colombia pier in March 2009 revealed the effects of meteorological phenomena other than storms and hurricanes that may be influencing the extreme wave regime in the Colombian Caribbean. The marked seasonality of these atmospheric fronts was established by analyzing the meteorological-marine reports of Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales of Colombia (IDEAM, based on its initials in Spanish) and Centro de Investigación en Oceanografía y Meteorología of Colombia (CIOH, based on its initials in Spanish). The highest occurrences were observed during the months of January, February, and March, with 6 fronts occurring per year. An annual trend was not observed, although the highest number of fronts occurred in 2010 (20 in total). An annual strong relationship between the maximum average wave values and the cold fronts, in the central zone of the Colombian Caribbean during the first three months of the year was established. In addition, the maximum values of the significant height produced by the passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that, there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the purpose of informing the design of

  5. Dynamical Influence and Operational Impacts of an Extreme Mediterranean Cold Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    in significant flooding over regions surrounding the Mediterranean Sea ( Trigo , Bigg, & Davies 2002). The cold air mass and associated cyclogenesis...119, 17–55. Trigo , I., G. Bigg, and T. Davies, 2002: Climatology of cyclogenesis mechanisms in the Mediterranean. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 549–569

  6. Extreme Conditioning Programs: Potential Benefits and Potential Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit, Insanity, Gym Jones, and P90X are examples of extreme conditioning programs (ECPs). ECPs typically involve high-volume and high-intensity physical activities with short rest periods between movements and use of multiple joint exercises. Data on changes in fitness with ECPs are limited to CrossFit investigations that demonstrated improvements in muscle strength, muscular endurance, aerobic fitness, and body composition. However, no study has directly compared CrossFit or other ECPs to other more traditional forms of aerobic and resistance training within the same investigation. These direct comparisons are needed to more adequately evaluate the effectiveness of ECPs. Until these studies emerge, the comparisons with available literature suggest that improvements in CrossFit, in terms of muscular endurance (push-ups, sit-ups), strength, and aerobic capacity, appear to be similar to those seen in more traditional training programs. Investigations of injuries in ECPs are limited to two observational studies that suggest that the overall injury rate is similar to that seen in other exercise programs. Several cases of rhabdomyolysis and cervical carotid artery dissections have been reported during CrossFit training. The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these are reviewed here. Until more data on ECPs emerge, physical training should be aligned with US Army doctrine. If ECPs are included in exercise programs, trainers should (1) have appropriate training certifications, (2) inspect exercise equipment regularly to assure safety, (3) introduce ECPs to new participants, (4) ensure medical clearance of Soldiers with special health problems before participation in ECPs, (4) tailor ECPs to the individual Soldier, (5) adjust rest periods to optimize recovery and reduce fatigue, (6) monitor Soldiers for signs of overtraining, rhabdomyolysis, and other problems, and (7) coordinate exercise programs with other unit training activities to eliminate redundant activities

  7. Final Report for Project. Quark matter under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incera, Vivian [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Ferrer, Efrain [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2015-12-31

    The results obtained in the two years of the grant have served to shine new light on several important questions about the phases of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) under extreme conditions that include quark matter at high density, as well quark-gluon plasma at high temperatures, both in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The interest in including an external magnetic field on these studies is motivated by the generation of large magnetic fields in off-central heavy-ion collisions and by their common presence in astrophysical compact objects, the two scenarios where the physics of quark matter becomes relevant. The tasks carried out in this DOE project led us, among other things, to discover the first connection between the physics of very dense quark matter and novel materials as for instance topological insulators and Weyl semimetals; they allowed us to find a physical explanation for and a solution to a standing puzzle in the apparent effect of a magnetic field on the critical temperature of the QCD chiral transition; and they led us to establish by the first time that the core of the observed two-solar-mass neutron stars could be made up of quark matter in certain inhomogeneous chiral phases in a magnetic field and that this was consistent with current astrophysical observations. A major goal established by the Nuclear Science Advisory committee in its most recent report “Reaching for the Horizon” has been “to truly understand how nuclei and strongly interacting matter in all its forms behave and can predict their behavior in new settings.” The results found in this DOE project have all contributed to address this goal, and thus they are important for advancing fundamental knowledge in the area of nuclear physics and for enhancing our understanding of the role of strong magnetic fields in the two settings where they are most relevant, neutron stars and heavy-ion collisions.

  8. Final Report for Project. Quark matter under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incera, Vivian; Ferrer, Efrain

    2015-01-01

    The results obtained in the two years of the grant have served to shine new light on several important questions about the phases of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) under extreme conditions that include quark matter at high density, as well quark-gluon plasma at high temperatures, both in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The interest in including an external magnetic field on these studies is motivated by the generation of large magnetic fields in off-central heavy-ion collisions and by their common presence in astrophysical compact objects, the two scenarios where the physics of quark matter becomes relevant. The tasks carried out in this DOE project led us, among other things, to discover the first connection between the physics of very dense quark matter and novel materials as for instance topological insulators and Weyl semimetals; they allowed us to find a physical explanation for and a solution to a standing puzzle in the apparent effect of a magnetic field on the critical temperature of the QCD chiral transition; and they led us to establish by the first time that the core of the observed two-solar-mass neutron stars could be made up of quark matter in certain inhomogeneous chiral phases in a magnetic field and that this was consistent with current astrophysical observations. A major goal established by the Nuclear Science Advisory committee in its most recent report 'Reaching for the Horizon' has been 'to truly understand how nuclei and strongly interacting matter in all its forms behave and can predict their behavior in new settings.' The results found in this DOE project have all contributed to address this goal, and thus they are important for advancing fundamental knowledge in the area of nuclear physics and for enhancing our understanding of the role of strong magnetic fields in the two settings where they are most relevant, neutron stars and heavy-ion collisions.

  9. Directional analysis of extreme winds under mixed climate conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Directional statistics provide design engineers with the opportunity to realise considerable cost savings, but these are not yet provided for in the South African standard for wind loading. The development of the directional statistics of extreme...

  10. A low cost, high precision extreme/harsh cold environment, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    SWIMS III, is a low cost, autonomous sensor data gathering platform developed specifically for extreme/harsh cold environments. Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally inert materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enabling the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. SWIMS III's sophisticated autonomous sensors are designed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. This platform uses low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless solution. The system also incorporates tilt sensors and sonar based ice thickness sensors. The system is light weight and can be deployed by hand by a single person. This presentation covers the technical, and design challenges in developing and deploying these platforms.

  11. Correlations in condensed matter under extreme conditions a tribute to Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses a wide range of topics relating to the properties and behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions such as intense magnetic and electric fields, high pressures, heat and cold, and mechanical stresses. It is divided into four sections devoted to condensed matter theory, molecular chemistry, theoretical physics, and the philosophy and history of science. The main themes include electronic correlations in material systems under extreme pressure and temperature conditions, surface physics, the transport properties of low-dimensional electronic systems, applications of the density functional theory in molecular systems, and graphene. The book is the outcome of a workshop held at the University of Catania, Italy, in honor of Professor Renato Pucci on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It includes selected invited contributions from collaborators and co-authors of Professor Pucci during his long and successful career, as well as from other distinguished guest authors.

  12. Adsorption cold storage system with zeolite-water working pair used for locomotive air conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.Z.; Wang, R.Z.; Zhang, M.; Jiangzhou, S.

    2003-01-01

    Adsorption cold storage has lately attracted attention for its large storage capacity and zero cold energy loss during the storing process. Thermodynamic and experimental studies on the cold storage capacity and the cold discharging process, in which the adsorber is either air cooled or adiabatic, have been presented. An adsorption cold storage system with zeolite-water working pair has been developed, and some operating results are summarized. This system is used for providing air conditioning for the driver's cab of an internal combustion locomotive. Unlike a normal adsorption air conditioner, the system starts running with the adsorption process, during which the cold energy stored is discharged, and ends running with the generation process. The adsorbent temperature decreases during the cold storing period between two runs. The refrigeration power output for the whole running cycle is about 4.1 kW. It appears that such a system is quite energetically efficient and is comparatively suitable for providing discontinuous refrigeration capacity when powered by low grade thermal energy, such as industrial exhausted heat or solar energy

  13. Near-extreme system condition and near-extreme remaining useful time for a group of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hai-Kun; Li, Yan-Feng; Huang, Hong-Zhong; Jin, Tongdan

    2017-01-01

    When a group of identical products is operating in field, the aggregation of failures is a catastrophe to engineers and customers who strive to develop reliable and safe products. In order to avoid a swarm of failures in a short time, it is essential to measure the degree of dispersion from different failure times in a group of products to the first failure time. This phenomenon is relevant to the crowding of system conditions near the worst one among a group of products. The group size in this paper represents a finite number of products, instead of infinite number or a single product. We evaluate the reliability of the product fleet from two aspects. First, we define near-extreme system condition and near-extreme failure time for offline solutions, which means no online observations. Second, we apply them to a continuous degradation system that breaks down when it reaches a soft failure threshold. By using particle filtering in the framework of prognostics and health management for a group of products, we aim to estimate near-extreme system condition and further predict the remaining useful life (RUL) using online solutions. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. - Highlights: • The aggregation of failures is measured for a group of identical products. • The crowding of failures is quantitated by the near-extreme evaluations. • Near-extreme system condition are given for offline solutions. • Near-extreme remaining useful time are provided for online solutions.

  14. Trends in Cold Extremes and Winter Weather for the SPTC Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    Extreme weather poses multifaceted hazards to transportation. There is now increased awareness of the threats of climate variability and change on transportation safety and state of good repair. In particular, a non-stationary climate will potentiall...

  15. Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions: Implications for orogeny at convergent plate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Ren-Xu

    2017-09-01

    Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions refers either to Alpine-type metamorphism at low geothermal gradients of geothermal gradients of >30 °C/km. Extreme pressures refer to those above the polymorphic transition of quartz to coesite, so that ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogite-facies metamorphism occurs at mantle depths of >80 km. Extreme temperatures refer to those higher than 900 °C at crustal depths of ≤80 km, so that ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies metamorphism occurs at medium to high pressures. While crustal subduction at the low geothermal gradients results in blueschist-eclogite facies series without arc volcanism, heating of the thinned orogenic lithosphere brings about the high geothermal gradients for amphibolite-granulite facies series with abundant magmatism. Therefore, UHP metamorphic rocks result from cold lithospheric subduction to the mantle depths, whereas UHT metamorphic rocks are produced by hot underplating of the asthenospheric mantle at the crustal depths. Active continental rifting is developed on the thinned lithosphere in response to asthenospheric upwelling, and this tectonism is suggested as a feasible mechanism for regional granulite-facies metamorphism, with the maximum temperature depending on the extent to which the mantle lithosphere is thinned prior to the rifting. While lithospheric compression is associated with subduction metamorphism in accretionary and collisional orogens, the thinned orogenic lithosphere undergoes extension due to the asthenospheric upwelling to result in orogen-parallel rifting metamorphism and magmatism. Thus, the rifting metamorphism provides a complement to the subduction metamorphism and its operation marks the asthenospheric heating of the orogenic lithosphere. Because of the partial melting and melt extraction of the lower continental crust, contemporaneous granite-migmatite-granulite associations may serve as a petrological indicator of rifting orogeny that is superimposed on

  16. Neurosensory and vascular function after 14 months of military training comprising cold winter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Daniel; Pettersson, Hans; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr; Wahlström, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of 14 months of military training comprising cold winter conditions on neurosensory and vascular function in the hands and feet. Military conscripts (N=54) were assessed with quantitative sensory testing comprising touch, temperature, and vibration perception thresholds and finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) after local cooling and a questionnaire on neurosensory and vascular symptoms at both baseline and follow-up. Ambient air temperature was recorded with body worn temperature loggers. The subjects showed reduced sensitivity to perception of touch, warmth, cold and vibrations in both the hands and feet except from vibrotactile perception in digit two of the right hand (right dig 2). Cold sensations, white fingers, and pain/discomfort when exposed to cold as well as pain increased in both prevalence and severity. There were no statistically significant changes in FSBP after local cooling. Fourteen months of winter military training comprising cold winter conditions reduced sensation from touch, warmth, cold, and vibrotactile stimulus in both hands and feet and increased the severity and prevalence of symptoms and pain. The vascular function in the hands, measured by FSBP after local cooling, was not affected.

  17. Thyroid transcriptome analysis reveals different adaptive responses to cold environmental conditions between two chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Yang, Xukai; Wang, Dehe; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Ning; Hou, Zhuocheng; Ning, Zhonghua

    2018-01-01

    Selection for cold tolerance in chickens is important for improving production performance and animal welfare. The identification of chicken breeds with higher cold tolerance and production performance will help to target candidates for the selection. The thyroid gland plays important roles in thermal adaptation, and its function is influenced by breed differences and transcriptional plasticity, both of which remain largely unknown in the chicken thyroid transcriptome. In this study, we subjected Bashang Long-tail (BS) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens to either cold or warm environments for 21 weeks and investigated egg production performance, body weight changes, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and thyroid gland transcriptome profiles. RIR chickens had higher egg production than BS chickens under warm conditions, but BS chickens produced more eggs than RIRs under cold conditions. Furthermore, BS chickens showed stable body weight gain under cold conditions while RIRs did not. These results suggested that BS breed is a preferable candidate for cold-tolerance selection and that the cold adaptability of RIRs should be improved in the future. BS chickens had higher serum thyroid hormone concentrations than RIRs under both environments. RNA-Seq generated 344.3 million paired-end reads from 16 sequencing libraries, and about 90% of the processed reads were concordantly mapped to the chicken reference genome. Differential expression analysis identified 46-1,211 genes in the respective comparisons. With regard to breed differences in the thyroid transcriptome, BS chickens showed higher cell replication and development, and immune response-related activity, while RIR chickens showed higher carbohydrate and protein metabolism activity. The cold environment reduced breed differences in the thyroid transcriptome compared with the warm environment. Transcriptional plasticity analysis revealed different adaptive responses in BS and RIR chickens to cope with the cold

  18. Effect of Extreme Cold Treatment on Morphology and Behavior of Hydrogels and Microgels (Poster Session)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-20

    capable of better managing a soldier’s comfort by regulating moisture and thermal properties • Hydrogel or microgel textile coatings are of interest...to understand the effect of cold temperature ( down to -80 ° C) on hydrogel and microgel particles properties and response to thermal stimuli • We...determine water uptake post freezing Sweat EFFECTS ON WATER UPTAKE PRELIMINARY MICROGEL THERMAL STUDIES MORPHOLOGY POST FREEZING PAA PEG PNIPAAm BEFORE AFTER

  19. Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument - Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, R.F.; Boyce, R.M.; Haller, G.; Hastings, J.B.; Hays, G.; Lee, H.J.; /SLAC; Lee, R.W.; /LLNL, Livermore; Nagler, B.; /Rutherford; Scharfenstein, M.; Marsh, D.; White, W.E.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), is constructing a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) research facility. The FEL has already met its performance goals in the wavelength range 1.5 nm - 0.15 nm. This facility, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC 2-Mile Linear Accelerator (linac) and will produce sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength X-rays with very high peak brightness and almost complete transverse coherence. The final one-third of the SLAC linac is used as the source of electrons for the LCLS. The high energy electrons are transported across the SLAC Research Yard, into a tunnel which houses a long undulator. In passing through the undulator, the electrons are bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation and produce an intense, monochromatic, spatially coherent beam of X-rays. By varying the electron energy, the FEL X-ray wavelength is tunable from 1.5 nm to 0.15 nm. The LCLS includes two experimental halls as well as X-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to create a facility that can be developed for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of designing and constructing an X-ray instrument in order to exploit the unique scientific capability of LCLS by creating extreme conditions and study the behavior of plasma under those controlled conditions. This instrument will address the Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences, mission objective related to study of Plasma and Warm Dense Matter as described in the report titled LCLS, the First Experiments, prepared by the LCLS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) in September 2000. The technical objective of the LCLS Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) Instrument project is

  20. Physical plausibility of cold star models satisfying Karmarkar conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuloria, Pratibha [Kumaun University, Physics Dept., Almora (India); Pant, Neeraj [N.D.A., Maths Dept., Khadakwasla, Pune (India)

    2017-11-15

    In the present article, we have obtained a new well behaved solution to Einstein's field equations in the background of Karmarkar spacetime. The solution has been used for stellar modelling within the demand of current observational evidences. All the physical parameters are well behaved inside the stellar interior and our model satisfies all the required conditions to be physically realizable. The obtained compactness parameter is within the Buchdahl limit, i.e. 2M/R ≤ 8/9. The TOV equation is well maintained inside the fluid spheres. The stability of the models has been further confirmed by using Herrera's cracking method. The models proposed in the present work are compatible with observational data of compact objects 4U1608-52 and PSRJ1903+327. The necessary graphs have been shown to authenticate the physical viability of our models. (orig.)

  1. Potential of Natural Ventilation in Cold Conditions Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the energy performance of natural ventilation as a passive cooling method of buildings within houses located in temperate countries using Denmark as a case study. The method consists in running simulations with a thermal-airflow program of a household...... the simulations are validated with measured data, and by applying a new assessment method presented in this article as the cooling rate due to natural ventilation instead of a constant mechanical ventilation rate in the thermal balance within the dwelling, the energy saving is calculated. Results show...... ventilation rather mechanical one on large-scale scenarios located in temperate conditions. Finally, as a practical implication example, an assessment for Denmark is carried out....

  2. Physical plausibility of cold star models satisfying Karmarkar conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuloria, Pratibha; Pant, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we have obtained a new well behaved solution to Einstein's field equations in the background of Karmarkar spacetime. The solution has been used for stellar modelling within the demand of current observational evidences. All the physical parameters are well behaved inside the stellar interior and our model satisfies all the required conditions to be physically realizable. The obtained compactness parameter is within the Buchdahl limit, i.e. 2M/R ≤ 8/9. The TOV equation is well maintained inside the fluid spheres. The stability of the models has been further confirmed by using Herrera's cracking method. The models proposed in the present work are compatible with observational data of compact objects 4U1608-52 and PSRJ1903+327. The necessary graphs have been shown to authenticate the physical viability of our models. (orig.)

  3. Physical plausibility of cold star models satisfying Karmarkar conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuloria, Pratibha; Pant, Neeraj

    2017-11-01

    In the present article, we have obtained a new well behaved solution to Einstein's field equations in the background of Karmarkar spacetime. The solution has been used for stellar modelling within the demand of current observational evidences. All the physical parameters are well behaved inside the stellar interior and our model satisfies all the required conditions to be physically realizable. The obtained compactness parameter is within the Buchdahl limit, i.e. 2M/R ≤ 8/9 . The TOV equation is well maintained inside the fluid spheres. The stability of the models has been further confirmed by using Herrera's cracking method. The models proposed in the present work are compatible with observational data of compact objects 4U1608-52 and PSRJ1903+327. The necessary graphs have been shown to authenticate the physical viability of our models.

  4. Differential response of vegetation in Hulun Lake region at the northern margin of Asian summer monsoon to extreme cold events of the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengrui; Xiao, Jule; Xu, Qinghai; Wen, Ruilin; Fan, Jiawei; Huang, Yun; Yamagata, Hideki

    2018-06-01

    The response of vegetation to extreme cold events during the last deglaciation is important for assessing the impact of possible extreme climatic events on terrestrial ecosystems under future global warming scenarios. Here, we present a detailed record of the development of regional vegetation in the northern margin of Asian summer monsoon during the last deglaciation (16,500-11,000 cal yr BP) based on a radiocarbon-dated high-resolution pollen record from Hulun Lake, northeast China. The results show that the regional vegetation changed from subalpine meadow-desert steppe to mixed coniferous and deciduous forest-typical steppe during the last deglaciation. However, its responses to the Heinrich event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas event (YD) were significantly different: during the H1 event, scattered sparse forest was present in the surrounding mountains, while within the lake catchment the vegetation cover was poor and was dominated by desert steppe. In contrast, during the YD event, deciduous forest developed and the proportion of coniferous forest increased in the mountains, the lake catchment was occupied by typical steppe. We suggest that changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation and land surface conditions (ice sheets and sea level) caused temperature and monsoonal precipitation variations that contributed to the contrasting vegetation response during the two cold events. We conclude that under future global warming scenarios, extreme climatic events may cause a deterioration of the ecological environment of the Hulun Lake region, resulting in increased coniferous forest and decreased total forest cover in the surrounding mountains, and a reduction in typical steppe in the lake catchment.

  5. Biological effects of extreme environmental conditions. [considering limits of biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imshenetskiy, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    Actions of extreme physical and chemical space factors on microorganisms and plants are elaborated in order to establish limits for the biosphere. Considered are effects of low and high temperatures; ionizing and ultraviolet radiation; various gases; and effects of vibration, desiccation and acceleration.

  6. The effects of corrosion conditions and cold work on the nodular corrosion of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Gil Sung

    1992-02-01

    The nodular corrosion of Zircaloy-4 was investigated on the effects of corrosion conditions and cold work. Variation of steam pressures, heat-up environments and prefilms were considered and cold work effects were also studied. The corrosion rate of Zircaloy-4 was dependent on pressure between 1 and 100 atm and it followed the cubic law as W=16.85 x P 0.31 for plate specimens and W=12.69 x P 0.27 for tube specimens, where W is weight gain (mg/dm 2 ) and P is the steam pressure (atm). The environment variation in autoclave during heat-up period did not affect the early stage of nodular corrosion. The prefilm, which was formed at 500 .deg. C under 1 atm steam for 4 hours, restrained the formation of the initial small nodules. The oxide film formed under 1 atm steam showed no difference of electrical resistivity from the oxides formed under 100 atm steam pressure. Cold work specimens showed the higher resistivity against nodular corrosion than as-received specimens. The corrosion resistance arising from cold work seems to be due to the texture changes by the cold work. The results showed that cold work can affect the later stage of uniform corrosion and the early stage of nodular corrosion, namely, the nodule initiation stage

  7. Rational Calibration of Four IEC 61400-1 Extreme External Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2008-01-01

    Based on a set of asymptotic statistical models on closed form this paper presents a rational and consistent calibration of four extreme external conditions defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-1 standard: extreme operating gust, extreme wind shear, extreme coheren...... and proposed specifications of the magnitudes of the extreme external wind conditions are highlighted and discussed using an illustrative example based on two selected terrain types. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....... gust with direction change and extreme wind direction change. These four extreme external conditions are used in the definition of six of the IEC 61400-1 ultimate load cases. The statistical models are based on simple and easily accessible mean wind speed and turbulence characteristics...

  8. Assessment extreme hydrometeorological conditions in the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornikov, Anton; Martyanov, Stanislav; Ryabchenko, Vladimir; Eremina, Tatjana; Isaev, Alexey; Sein, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hydrometeorological conditions in the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea, are estimated paying a special attention to the area of the future construction of nuclear power plant (NPP) "Hanhikivi-1" (24° 16' E, 64° 32' N). To produce these estimates, long-term observations and results from numerical models of water and ice circulation and wind waves are used. It is estimated that the average annual air temperature in the vicinity of the station is +3° C, summer and winter extreme temperature is equal to 33.3° C and -41.5° C, respectively. Model calculations of wind waves have shown that the most dangerous (in terms of the generation of wind waves in the NPP area) is a north-west wind with the direction of 310°. The maximum height of the waves in the Gulf of Bothnia near the NPP for this wind direction with wind velocity of 10 m/s is 1.2-1.4 m. According to the model estimates, the highest possible level of the sea near the NPP is 248 cm, the minimum level, -151 cm, respectively for the western and eastern winds. These estimates are in good agreement with observations on the sea level for the period 1922-2015 at the nearest hydrometeorological station Raahe (Finland). In order to assess the likely impact of the NPP on the marine environment numerical experiments for the cold (2010) and warm year (2014) have been carried out. These calculations have shown that permanent release of heat into the marine environment from the operating NPP for the cold year (2010) will increase the temperature in the upper layer of 0-250m zone by 10°C in winter - spring and by 8°C in summer - early autumn, and in the bottom layer of 0-250m zone by 5°C in winter - spring and 3°C in summer - early autumn. For the warm year (2014), these temperature changes are smaller. Ice cover in both cases will disappear in two - kilometer vicinity of the NPP. These effects should be taken into account when assessing local climate changes in the future

  9. Stable pelagic vertebrate community structure through extreme Paleogene greenhouse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, E. C.; Friedman, M.; Hull, P. M.; Hunt, G.; Norris, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    The species composition (structure) and energy transfer (function) of an ecosystem is reflected by the presence and type of consumers that it supports. Here we use ichthyoliths, microfossil fish teeth and shark denticles, to assess the ecological variability of the pelagic fish community structure and composition from the Late Cretaceous to the middle Eocene from a drill core in the South Pacific gyre (DSDP Site 596). We find that the overall vertebrate community structure, as measured by the relative abundance of sharks to ray-finned fishes, has a punctuated change at the Cretaceous/Paleogene mass extinction. The vertebrate community structure remained stable throughout the Paleogene despite a five-fold increase in overall abundance of ichthyoliths during the extreme greenhouse of the Early Eocene. Further, we use a novel system to quantify the morphological variation in fish teeth. We find that the morphospace occupied by the tooth assemblage is conserved throughout the interval, with a slight expansion following the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction, and the evolution of a distinct morphotype-group around the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. While there are elevated rates of morphotype origination and extinction following the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction, the extreme greenhouse warming of the Early Eocene and associated increase in fish production produce near-zero origination and extinction rates. The relative stability in composition of the pelagic vertebrate community during intervals of extreme climate change and across large ranges of total fish accumulation, suggests that pelagic ecosystem structure is robust to climate events, and that the overall structure of the pelagic fish community may be decoupled from both climate and ecosystem function.

  10. Condensed Matter NMR under Extreme Conditions: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arneil

    2006-11-01

    Advances in resistive magnet and power supply technology have made available extremely high magnetic fields suitable for condensed matter broadline NMR experiments. This capability expands the available phase space for investigating a wide variety of materials using magnetic resonance; utilizing the strength of the field to expose or induce new physical phenomena resulting in better understanding of the physics. Continuous fields up to 45T in NHMFL Hybrid magnet have brought new challenges in designing NMR instrumentation. Field strengths and sample space limitations put constraints on RF pulse power, tuning range, bandwidth, and temperature control. The inclusion of other capabilities, including high pressure, optics, and sample rotation requires intricate probe design and construction, while extremely low milliKelvin temperatures are desired in order to explore energy scales where thermal fluctuations are suppressed. Optimization of these devices has been of paramount consideration in NHMFL Condensed Matter NMR user program. Science achieved at high fields, the new initiatives to develop resistively-detected NMR in 2D electron gas and similar systems, and the current new generation Series-Connected Hybrid magnets for NMR work will be discussed. The NHMFL is supported by the National Science Foundation and the State of Florida.

  11. Capability of LOFT vital batteries to supply emergency power demands during severe cold weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    This study evaluates the capability of the vital batteries (PPS) to provide electrical power via the vital DC-AC motor generator sets to the LOFT PPS loads during severe cold weather conditions. It is concluded that these batteries while at a temperature of 5 0 F will supply the necessary PPS electrical loads for a time in excess of the one hour permitted to start the diesel generators and are, therefore, adequate at this temperature. This Revision B of the LTR includes revised, more recent, and complete technical data relating to MG set efficiency, battery operating procedures and cold temperature derating. Revision B supersedes and replaces all previous issues

  12. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved

  13. Uncertainties in extreme precipitation under climate change conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia

    of adaptation strategies, but these changes are subject to uncertainties. The focus of this PhD thesis is the quantification of uncertainties in changes in extreme precipitation. It addresses two of the main sources of uncertainty in climate change impact studies: regional climate models (RCMs) and statistical...... downscaling methods (SDMs). RCMs provide information on climate change at the regional scale. SDMs are used to bias-correct and downscale the outputs of the RCMs to the local scale of interest in adaptation strategies. In the first part of the study, a multi-model ensemble of RCMs from the European ENSEMBLES...... project was used to quantify the uncertainty in RCM projections over Denmark. Three aspects of the RCMs relevant for the uncertainty quantification were first identified and investigated. These are: the interdependency of the RCMs; the performance in current climate; and the change in the performance...

  14. A study of ideal conditions for sodium purification in diffusion type cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    The ideal conditions for sodium purification in diffusion type cold traps are studied. It is known that the temperature profile along axial direction (x) of the trap must follow the condition (∂ T/∂ x) 2 ≤ 0 , in order to avoid crystals deposition on the wall and the consequent premature plugging. In the present work it is showed that (∂ T/∂ x) 2 ≤ 0 condition is necessary but not sufficient. A temperature profile which satisfies both conditions is found and its practical obtention is presented. (L.C.J.A.)

  15. 49 CFR 392.14 - Hazardous conditions; extreme caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.14 Hazardous conditions... nearest point at which the safety of passengers is assured. [33 FR 19732, Dec. 25, 1968, as amended at 60...

  16. Extremal and Degree Conditions for Path Extendability in Digraphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zan-Bo; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Broersma, Hajo; Lou, Dingjun

    2017-01-01

    In the study of cycles and paths, the meta-conjecture of Bondy that sufficient conditions for Hamiltonicity often imply pancyclicity has motivated research on the existence of cycles and paths of many lengths. Hendry further introduced the stronger concepts of cycle extendability and path

  17. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  18. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G.R.; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M.; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370832132; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At

  19. Performance of Chlorella sorokiniana under simulated extreme winter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Buffing, M.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Lobato, C.V.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    High annual microalgae productivities can only be achieved if solar light is efficiently used through the different seasons. During winter the productivity is low because of the light and temperature conditions. The productivity and photosynthetic efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana were assessed

  20. On Impact Dynamics under Complex or Extreme Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    . We study the details of these explosions and characterize the metal debris. We contrast the results for two different metals, i.e. tin and a special metal alloy called Field’s metal. For tin the drop solidifies and forms a porous foam-like solid, whereas the Field’s metal breaks up into a multitude of spherical beads, with a range of sizes as small as a few microns. We attribute this difference to the much lower melting point of the Field’s metal, which is only 60oC, compared to 230oC for the tin. This allows more fragmentation of the Field’s metal drop before it solidifies. When the temperature of the impacting metal is increased, high-speed imaging reveals a sequence of up to three vapor explosions, each of increasing intensity. We measure the acceleration of the vapor interface and compare the size-distribution of the microbeads to the fastest growing instability mode of the corresponding Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Part III, investigates the coefficient of restitution when a steel sphere impacts on an ice surface. As observed in earlier studies the restitution coefficient is largest for the smallest impact velocities, where the surface is not greatly fragmented. Our focus is on greatly heating the sphere up to 400oC to investigate how the thermal load affects the short term interaction of the sphere with the ice. We see a clear trend where hotter spheres rebound less than cold spheres. We also track the speed of ice-fragments ejected during the earliest stages of the impact.

  1. Are glendonites reliable indicators of cold conditions? Evidence from the Lower Cretaceous of Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Madeleine; Price, Gregory; Watkinson, Matthew; Jerrett, Rhodri

    2017-04-01

    Glendonites are pseudomorphs after the mineral ikaite, and have been found in marine sediments throughout geological time. Ikaite is a metastable, hydrated form of calcium carbonate, which is only stable under specific conditions: between -2 and +5 °C, and with high alkalinity and phosphate concentrations. Glendonites are often associated with cold climates due to the strong temperature control on ikaite growth, and the coincidence in the geological record with episodes of global cooling. Glendonites are found in the Lower Cretaceous succession in Spitsbergen. During the Early Cretaceous, Spitsbergen was at a palaeolatitude of 60°N, and was part of a shallow epicontinental sea that formed during the Mesozoic as Atlantic rifting propagated northwards. Though the Early Cretaceous was generally characterised by greenhouse climate conditions, episodic cold snaps occurred during the Valanginian (the "Weissert Event") and during Aptian-Albian. Using high resolution carbon-isotope stratigraphy, we show that the first occurrences of glendonites are in the upper Lower Hauterivian and in the very upper Upper Hauterivian, stratigraphically higher than the Valanginian cooling event. Glendonites are also found in horizons in the Upper Aptian, coincident with the Aptian-Albian cold snap. Petrological analysis of the glendonite structure reveals differences between the Hauterivian and Aptian glendonites, with evidence for multiple diagenetic phases of growth in the Hauterivian glendonites, suggesting oscillating chemical conditions. This evidence suggests that local environmental conditions may have a stronger control on glendonite formation and preservation than global climate. We present a new model for ikaite growth and slow transformation to glendonite in marine sediments, which points to a more complex suite of diagenetic transformations than previously modelled. Furthermore, we critically assess whether such pseudomorphs after marine sedimentary ikaite may be indicators

  2. The impact of extreme weather conditions on the life of settlers in the Central Russia in X - XVI centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Irina; Nizovtsev, Viacheslav; Erman, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    A special place in the reconstruction of climate dynamics takes an analysis of extraordinary meteorological phenomena. These extreme weather events in the first place impact the functioning of, the rhythm and dynamics of the landscapes and determine not only the features of economy, but also certain aspects of historical development. In the analysis of primary chronicles and published data, along with the direct climatic characteristics (hot, warm, cold, wet, dry, etc.) a lot of attention was paid to abnormal (extreme) natural phenomena and indirect indications of climate variability (floods, crop failures, hunger years, epidemics, etc.). As a result, tables were compiled reflecting climatic basic characteristics and extremes for each year since 900 BC. X-XI centuries was a period of minor climatic optimum - the climate was warmer and drier than the modern one. In addition to higher temperatures (up to 1-3C above than mordern), during this period there were no severe winters. A small amount of summer rainfall has led to a reduction in the number of small water reservoirs and flooding rivers. This is evidenced by Slavic settlements on floodplains of a number of rivers in the Moscow region. It is in this favorable climatic time the way "from the Vikings to the Greeks" was open. Catastrophic natural events had a minimum repeatability. For example, during the X century the Russian chronicles mentioned 41 extreme event, but for the XIII century - 102. Most of the villages and towns were located on the low floodplain terraces of rivers. The main farmland was concentrated there as well. In the "period of contrasts" (XIII - XIV centuries) there was an increase of intra-seasonal climate variability, humidity and widespread reduction in summer temperatures by 1-2C. The number of extreme weather events increased: cold prolonged winters, long rains in summers, cold weather returns in the early summer, early frosts in late summer - early autumn. Such conditions often

  3. Kinetics of cellular viability in warm versus cold ischemia conditions of kidney preservation. A biometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savioz, D; Bolle, J F; Graf, J D; Jeanjacquot, A; Savioz, M; Dietler, G; Favre, H; Leski, M; Morel, D; Morel, P

    1996-08-15

    We have determined the kinetics of the cellular viability ratio (CVR), defined as the number of living cells over the total cell count, in pig kidneys using propidium iodide and fluorescein diacetate staining, as a function of time and preservation conditions. The kidneys were preserved in warm or cold ischemia in order to mimic the conditions of transplantation from non-heart-beating donors or multiple removal with optimal preservation of the graft, respectively. To determine the CVR, the cells were obtained by a fine-needle aspiration biopsy, which minimizes the damage to the graft. A biometric analysis by regression enabled the determination of the time dependence for warm ischemia (CVR(t) = 80.0 x e(-0.733-t)(+2.7/-0.36)) and for cold ischemia (CVR(t) = 80.0 x e(-0.022-t)(+1.57/-0.64)) with a confidence interval of 95%. These master curves allow us to predict, under the described conditions, the CVR after a given ischemia time. The half-life of the cells can be deduced from the time-dependent CVR(t), and is 0.64 hr (38 min) for warm ischemia and 21.4 hr for cold ischemia. Further, the CVR for a given kidney can be used to assess its condition at removal: if the CVR is below 48% at 2 hr after removal, one can conclude that the organ has suffered a period of warm ischemia.

  4. Mathematical modelling of unglazed solar collectors under extreme operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, M.; Perers, Bengt; Eicher, S.

    2015-01-01

    average temperature levels at the evaporator. Simulation of these systems requires a collector model that can take into account operation at very low temperatures (below freezing) and under various weather conditions, particularly operation without solar irradiation.A solar collector mathematical model......Combined heat pumps and solar collectors got a renewed interest on the heating system market worldwide. Connected to the heat pump evaporator, unglazed solar collectors can considerably increase their efficiency, but they also raise the coefficient of performance of the heat pump with higher...... was found due to the condensation phenomenon and up to 40% due to frost under no solar irradiation. This work also points out the influence of the operating conditions on the collector's characteristics.Based on experiments carried out at a test facility, every heat flux on the absorber was separately...

  5. Cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy for diagnostics of high harmonics of the extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser light source at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.-J.; Fukuzawa, H.; Pruemper, G.; Ueda, K.; Okunishi, M.; Shimada, K.; Motomura, K.; Saito, N.; Iwayama, H.; Nagaya, K.; Yao, M.; Rudenko, A.; Ullrich, J.; Foucar, L.; Czasch, A.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Doerner, R.; Nagasono, M.; Higashiya, A.; Yabashi, M.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy apparatus dedicated to the experiments using the extreme-ultraviolet light pulses at the free-electron laser facility, SPring-8 Compact SASE Source test accelerator, in Japan and used it to measure spatial distributions of fundamental, second, and third harmonics at the end station.

  6. Survival, recovery and microcystin release of Microcystis aeruginosa in cold or dark condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Gan, Nanqin; Liu, Jin; Zheng, Lingling; Li, Lin; Song, Lirong

    2017-03-01

    Microcystis often dominates phytoplankton in eutrophic lakes and must survive a long period of cold or dark conditions. However, the survival strategies of Microcystis to withstand cold or dark stress are less well known. In this study, we conducted experiments on the responses of two toxic Microcystis aeruginosa strains (FACHB-905 and FACHB-915) and their microcystin release in conditions of low temperature (15°C or 4°C, with illumination) or darkness, and subsequent recovery in standard conditions (25°C with illumination). On exposure to 15°C, a small decrease in cell viability was observed, but the cell number increased gradually, suggesting that M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 and FACHB-915 cells seem in general tolerant in 15°C. Interestingly, our results show that a higher carotenoid content and microcystin release potentially enhance the fitness of surviving cells at 15°C. M. aeruginosa cells exposed to lower temperature light stress (4°C) did not completely lose viability and retained the ability to reinitiate growth. In darkness, the maximum quantum yield ( F v/ F m) and the maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax) values and cell viability of M. aeruginosa cells gradually decreased with time. During the recovery period, the photosynthetic efficiency of M. aeruginosa reverted to the normal level. Additionally, M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 and FACHB-915 exposed to low temperature had increased caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation, which suggests the occurrence of a type of cell death in M. aeruginosa cells under cold stress similar to programmed cell death. Overall, our findings could confer certain advantages on the Microcystis for surviving cold or dark conditions encountered in the annual cycle, and help explain its repeated occurrence in water blooms in large and shallow lakes.

  7. TRISO-Coated Fuel Durability Under Extreme Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The PIs propose to examine TRISO-coated particles (SiC and ZrC coatings) in an integrated two-part study. In the first part, experiments will be performed to assess the reaction kinetics of the carbides under CO-CO2 environments at temperatures up to 1800 degree C. Kinetic model will be applied to describe the degradation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy will be employed to establish the chemical and microstructure evolution under the imposed environmental conditions. The second part of the proposed work focuses on establishing the role of the high temperature, environmental exposure described above on the mechanical behavior of TRISO-coated particles. Electron microscopy and other advanced techniques will be subsequently performed to evaluate failure mechanisms. The work is expected to reveal relationships between corrosion reactions, starting material characteristics (polytype of SiC, impurity concentration, flaw distribution), flaw healing behavior, and crack growth.

  8. The Sphagnum microbiome supports bog ecosystem functioning under extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Anastasia; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Zachow, Christin; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    Sphagnum-dominated bogs represent a unique yet widely distributed type of terrestrial ecosystem and strongly contribute to global biosphere functioning. Sphagnum is colonized by highly diverse microbial communities, but less is known about their function. We identified a high functional diversity within the Sphagnum microbiome applying an Illumina-based metagenomic approach followed by de novo assembly and MG-RAST annotation. An interenvironmental comparison revealed that the Sphagnum microbiome harbours specific genetic features that distinguish it significantly from microbiomes of higher plants and peat soils. The differential traits especially support ecosystem functioning by a symbiotic lifestyle under poikilohydric and ombrotrophic conditions. To realise a plasticity-stability balance, we found abundant subsystems responsible to cope with oxidative and drought stresses, to exchange (mobile) genetic elements, and genes that encode for resistance to detrimental environmental factors, repair and self-controlling mechanisms. Multiple microbe-microbe and plant-microbe interactions were also found to play a crucial role as indicated by diverse genes necessary for biofilm formation, interaction via quorum sensing and nutrient exchange. A high proportion of genes involved in nitrogen cycle and recycling of organic material supported the role of bacteria for nutrient supply. 16S rDNA analysis indicated a higher structural diversity than that which had been previously detected using PCR-dependent techniques. Altogether, the diverse Sphagnum microbiome has the ability to support the life of the host plant and the entire ecosystem under changing environmental conditions. Beyond this, the moss microbiome presents a promising bio-resource for environmental biotechnology - with respect to novel enzymes or stress-protecting bacteria. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Beryllium armoured target for extreme heat and neutron loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazul, I.; Gervash, A.; Giniyatulin, R.

    2004-01-01

    Beryllium is a primary candidate as a target material for high-energy protons conversion into neutrons used for different applications. In order to get higher neutron flux the conversion area has to be minimized - in our case the target is limited by 1-2 liter volume. This target generates about 5·10 13 fast neutrons per second and removes of 150 kW thermal power deposited by proton beam (30 mA, 5 MeV), coming from linac. The operational condition of the converter is close to the condition of Be-armored components in fusion reactors: high thermal and neutron fluxes and active cooling. Therefore achievements in development of water-cooled high heat flux components for fusion application can be used for design of Be converter and vice versa. However for medical application the using of high-activated heat sink materials such as Cu and SS is strongly limited. So, new materials (Be, Al, Zr) and new joining technologies in comparison with the achievements in fusion area have to be used for construction of such Be converter. In order to reduce amount of heat sink materials in the target saddle-block geometry for Be armor is suggested and developed. Results of R and D works on the development of water cooled Be target for converter are presented, including data on selected materials, technological trials and mockups high heat flux testing. Preliminary design of Be neutron converter for medical applications based on R and D results is presented. (author)

  10. The photochemical reaction of hydrocarbons under extreme thermobaric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serovaiskii, Aleksandr; Kolesnikov, Anton; Mukhina, Elena; Kutcherov, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    The photochemical reaction of hydrocarbons was found to play an important role in the experiments with the synthetic petroleum conducted in Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC). Raman spectroscopy with a green laser (514.5 nm) was used for in situ sample analysis. This photochemical effect was investigated in the pressure range of 0.7-5 GPa, in the temperature interval from the ambient conditions to 450°C. The power of laser used in these experiment series was from 0.05 W to 0.6 W. The chemical transformation was observed when the necessary threshold pressure (~2.8 GPa) was reached. This transformation correlated with the luminescence appearance on the Raman spectra and a black opaque spot in the sample was observed in the place where the laser focus was forwarded. The exposure time and laser power (at least in the 0.1-0.5 W range) did not play a role in the 0.1-0.5 GPa range.

  11. Online Surface Defect Identification of Cold Rolled Strips Based on Local Binary Pattern and Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of cold-rolled strip, the strip surface may suffer from various defects which need to be detected and identified using an online inspection system. The system is equipped with high-speed and high-resolution cameras to acquire images from the moving strip surface. Features are then extracted from the images and are used as inputs of a pre-trained classifier to identify the type of defect. New types of defect often appear in production. At this point the pre-trained classifier needs to be quickly retrained and deployed in seconds to meet the requirement of the online identification of all defects in the environment of a continuous production line. Therefore, the method for extracting the image features and the training for the classification model should be automated and fast enough, normally within seconds. This paper presents our findings in investigating the computational and classification performance of various feature extraction methods and classification models for the strip surface defect identification. The methods include Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT, Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF and Local Binary Patterns (LBP. The classifiers we have assessed include Back Propagation (BP neural network, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM. By comparing various combinations of different feature extraction and classification methods, our experiments show that the hybrid method of LBP for feature extraction and ELM for defect classification results in less training and identification time with higher classification accuracy, which satisfied online real-time identification.

  12. Beam plug replacement and alignment under high radiation conditions for cold neutron facilities at Hanaro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeong-Garp, Cho; Jin-Won, Shin; Jung-Hee, Lee; Jeong-Soo, Ryu

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The HANARO, an open-tank-in-pool type research reactor of a 30 MWth power in Korea, has been operating for 15 years since its initial criticality in February 1995. The beam port assigned for the cold neutron at HANARO had been used for an 8-m SANS without neutron guides until it was replaced by a cold neutron guide system in 2008. It was developed a cold neutron guide system for the delivery of cold neutrons from the cold neutron source in the reactor to the neutron scattering instruments in the guide hall. Since the HANARO has been operated from 1995, it was a big challenge to replace the existing plug and shutter with the new facilities under high radiation conditions. When the old plug was removed from the beam port in 2008, the radiation level was 230 mSv/hr at the end of beam port. In addition to that, there were more difficult situations such as the poor as-built dimensions of the beam port, limited work space and time constraint due to other constructions in parallel in the reactor hall. Before the removal of the old plug the level of the radiation was measured coming out through a small hole of the plug to estimate the radiation level during the removal of the old plug and installation of a new plug. Based on the measurement and analysis results, special tools and various shielding facilities were developed for the removal of old in-pile plug and the installation of the new in-pile plug assembly safely. In 2008, the old plug and shutter were successfully replaced by the new plug and shutter as shown in this article with a minimum exposure to the workers. A laser tracker system was also one of the main factors in our successful installation and alignment under high radiation conditions and limited work space. The laser tracker was used to measure and align all the mechanical facilities and the neutron guides with a minimum radiation exposure to workers. The alignment of all the guides and accessories were possible during reactor operation because

  13. Application of Electro Chemical Machining for materials used in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandilov, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Electro-Chemical Machining (ECM) is the generic term for a variety of electrochemical processes. ECM is used to machine work pieces from metal and metal alloys irrespective of their hardness, strength or thermal properties, through the anodic dissolution, in aerospace, automotive, construction, medical equipment, micro-systems and power supply industries. The Electro Chemical Machining is extremely suitable for machining of materials used in extreme conditions. General overview of the Electro-Chemical Machining and its application for different materials used in extreme conditions is presented.

  14. Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip R A; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2015-09-18

    Recovery strategies are often used with the intention of preventing or minimising muscle soreness after exercise. Whole-body cryotherapy, which involves a single or repeated exposure(s) to extremely cold dry air (below -100 °C) in a specialised chamber or cabin for two to four minutes per exposure, is currently being advocated as an effective intervention to reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the British Nursing Index and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. We also searched the reference lists of articles, trial registers and conference proceedings, handsearched journals and contacted experts.The searches were run in August 2015. We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared the use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) versus a passive or control intervention (rest, no treatment or placebo treatment) or active interventions including cold or contrast water immersion, active recovery and infrared therapy for preventing or treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We also aimed to include randomised trials that compared different durations or dosages of WBC. Our prespecified primary outcomes were muscle soreness, subjective recovery (e.g. tiredness, well-being) and adverse effects. Two review authors independently screened search results, selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted and cross-checked data. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials. The random-effects model was used for pooling where there was substantial heterogeneity. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Four laboratory-based randomised controlled trials were included. These reported results for 64

  15. User-Defined Meteorological (MET) Profiles from Climatological and Extreme Condition Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    ARL-TN-0876 ● MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory User-Defined Meteorological (MET) Profiles from Climatological and Extreme...needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0876 ● MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory User-Defined Meteorological (MET...User-Defined Meteorological (MET) Profiles from Climatological and Extreme Condition Data 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  16. Recent Intensified Winter Coldness in the Mid-High Latitudes of Eurasia and Its Relationship with Daily Extreme Low Temperature Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuhan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observational records in recent decades show a large-scale decrease in the cold-season temperature variance in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes under continuous global warming. However, severe low temperature events in winter frequently occurred in midlatitude Eurasia (MEA in the last decade. Here, we define a new coldness intensity (CI index for the near-surface based on the amplitude of daily anomalously cold temperatures in winter to demonstrate the CI of the variability of low temperature extremes. The results show that a sign-consistent mode dominates the CI variation in MEA, with a marked intensification during the last decade via empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis. This leading mode is significantly related to the frequency of winter extreme events. The associated circulations are characterized by a remarkable anomalous anticyclone in Northwest Eurasia, which induced substantial cold advection in MEA. The widespread intensified CI in MEA is closely linked with strong surface anticyclones and synoptic blocking in the mid-high latitudes (25°E–85°E. Coincidently, positive phase shifts of the first two leading modes of the extratropical circulation, which feature similar blocking-like anomalies in the northwestern Eurasian subarctic, jointly play an important role in the recent frequency of severe winters.

  17. Resistance of Microorganisms to Extreme Environmental Conditions and Its Contribution to Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabulo Henrique Rampelotto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, substantial changes have occurred regarding what scientists consider the limits of habitable environmental conditions. For every extreme environmental condition investigated, a variety of microorganisms have shown that not only can they tolerate these conditions, but that they also often require these extreme conditions for survival. Microbes can return to life even after hundreds of millions of years. Furthermore, a variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions, such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuums, and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions that microbes could experience during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space, as well as the impact in another planet. With these discoveries, our knowledge about the biosphere has grown and the putative boundaries of life have expanded. The present work examines the recent discoveries and the principal advances concerning the resistance of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions, and analyzes its contributions to the development of the main themes of astrobiology: the origins of life, the search for extraterrestrial life, and the dispersion of life in the Universe.

  18. Failure of PWR-RHRS under cold shutdown conditions: Experimental results from the PKL test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandl, R.M.; Umminger, K.J.; Logt, J.V.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) of a PWR is designed to transfer thermal energy from the core after plant shutdown and maintain the plant in cold shutdown or refuelling conditions for extended periods of time. Initial reactor cooling after shutdown is achieved by dissipating heat through the steam generators (SGs) and discharging steam to the condenser by means of the Turbine Bypass System (TBS). When the reactor coolant temperature has dropped to about 160C and pressure has been reduced to 30 bar the RHRS is placed into operation. it reduces the coolant temperature to 50C within 20 hours after shutdown. The time margin for establishing alternate methods of heat removal following a failure of the RHRS depends on the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) temperature, the decay heat rate and the amount of RCS inventory. During some shutdown operations the RCS may be partially drained (e. g. to perform SG inspections). Decreased primary system inventory can significantly reduce the time available to recover the RHRS's function prior to bulk boiling and possible core uncovery. In the PKL test facility, which simulates a 1,300 MWe 4-loop PWR on a scale 1:145, a failure of RHRS under cold shutdown conditions was performed. This presentation gives a brief description of the test facility followed by the test objectives and results of this experiment

  19. Effect of cold conditions on manual performance while wearing petroleum industry protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggen, Øystein Nordrum; Heen, Sigri; Færevik, Hilde; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate manual performance and thermal responses during low work intensity in persons wearing standard protective clothing in the petroleum industry when they were exposed to a range of temperatures (5, -5, -15 and -25℃) that are relevant to environmental conditions for petroleum industry personnel in northern regions. Twelve men participated in the study. Protective clothing was adjusted for the given cold exposure according to current practices. The subjects performed manual tests five times under each environmental condition. The manual performance test battery consisted of four different tests: tactile sensation (Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments), finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard), hand dexterity (Complete Minnesota dexterity test) and grip strength (grip dynamometer). We found that exposure to -5℃ or colder lowered skin and body temperatures and reduced manual performance during low work intensity. In conclusion the current protective clothing at a given cold exposure is not adequate to maintain manual performance and thermal balance for petroleum workers in the high north.

  20. Extreme groundwater levels caused by extreme weather conditions - the highest ever measured groundwater levels in Middle Germany and their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstorf, F.; Kramer, S.; Koch, T.; Pfützner, B.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme weather conditions during the years 2009 - 2011 in combination with changes in the regional water management led to maximum groundwater levels in large areas of Germany in 2011. This resulted in extensive water logging, with problems especially in urban areas near rivers, where water logging produced huge problems for buildings and infrastructure. The acute situation still exists in many areas and requires the development of solution concepts. Taken the example of the Elbe-Saale-Region in the Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt, were a pilot research project was carried out, the analytical situation, the development of a management tool and the implementation of a groundwater management concept are shown. The central tool is a coupled water budget - groundwater flow model. In combination with sophisticated multi-scale parameter estimation, a high-resolution groundwater level simulation was carried out. A decision support process with an intensive stakeholder interaction combined with high-resolution simulations enables the development of a management concept for extreme groundwater situations in consideration of sustainable and environmentally sound solutions mainly on the base of passive measures.

  1. Study of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, A.P.; Lacroix, M.

    2003-01-01

    A study is performed of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions. This unit is employed to maintain the temperature inside the refrigerated compartment of a truck below 265 K. The system consists of parallel plates filled with a phase change material (PCM) that absorbs heat from the flow of warm moist air. A mathematical model for the system is first presented and, next, validated with numerical and experimental data. It is then exploited to assess the effects of design parameters and operating conditions on the performance of the system. The recommended thickness and distance separating the PCM plates are found to be 50x10 -3 and 30x10 -3 m, respectively. The results indicate that the performance of the unit is enhanced by turbulent air flow in spite of the increased pressure loss and accentuated frost growth. The unit also performs well even when the surrounding relative humidity is 100%

  2. Proceedings of the second symposium on science of hadrons under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2000-08-01

    The second symposium on Science of Hadrons under Extreme Conditions, organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on January 24 to 26, 2000. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of fields such as nuclear matter, high-energy nuclear reactions, quantum chromodynamics, supernovae and nucleosynthesis to understand various aspects of hadrons under extreme conditions. The 26 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Has dry/cold weather an impact on the skin condition of cleanroom workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In previous epidemiological studies irritant skin changes were reported significantly more frequently under dry/cold ambient air conditions. The aim of this study was to assess whether a similar effect might be observed in cleanroom workers, occupationally exposed to strictly controlled ambient conditions. This investigation examined 690 employees of a semiconductor production company in Germany, one half in winter (n = 358) and the other half in spring (n = 332). In both waves, both cleanroom workers, who used occlusive gloves predominantly during the entire shift, and employees in the administration, serving as the control group, were included. Ambient outdoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) were measured and absolute humidity (AH) was calculated. Hands were dermatologically examined with quantitative clinical skin score HEROS, supplemented by transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration measurements. Temperature ranged from -5.41 to 6.51°C in winter (RH 71.04-92.38%; AH 2.85-6.7 g/m 3 ) and from 6.35 to 10.26°C in spring (RH 76.17-82.79%; AH 5.66-7.92 g/m 3 ). Regarding HEROS, TEWL, and corneometry, no marked consistent pattern regarding an enhanced or decreased risk of irritant skin changes was found. Work in a strictly controlled environment with prolonged wearing of occlusive gloves, with clean hands and without exposure to additional hazardous substances, did not seem to negatively affect the skin. In this particular setting, meteorological conditions also did not appear to adversely affect the skin. It is conceivable that wearing of gloves and air conditioning in the plant protect skin of the hands from adverse effects due to dry and cold air encountered when not working.

  4. "On-off-on" switchable sensor: a fluorescent spiropyran responds to extreme pH conditions and its bioimaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shulin; Zheng, Yang; Shen, Jie; Yang, Wantai; Yin, Meizhen

    2014-11-26

    A novel spiropyran that responds to both extreme acid and extreme alkali and has an "on-off-on" switch is reported. Benzoic acid at the indole N-position and carboxyl group at the indole 6-position contribute to the extreme acid response. The ionizations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups cause the extreme alkali response. Moreover, the fluorescent imaging in bacterial cells under extreme pH conditions supports the mechanism of pH response.

  5. Technology-derived storage solutions for stabilizing insulin in extreme weather conditions I: the ViViCap-1 device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Pesach, Gidi; Nagar, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Injectable life-saving drugs should not be exposed to temperatures 30°C/86°F. Frequently, weather conditions exceed these temperature thresholds in many countries. Insulin is to be kept at 4-8°C/~ 39-47°F until use and once opened, is supposed to be stable for up to 31 days at room temperature (exception: 42 days for insulin levemir). Extremely hot or cold external temperature can lead to insulin degradation in a very short time with loss of its glucose-lowering efficacy. Combined chemical and engineering solutions for heat protection are employed in ViViCap-1 for disposable insulin pens. The device works based on vacuum insulation and heat consumption by phase-change material. Laboratory studies with exposure of ViViCap-1 to hot outside conditions were performed to evaluate the device performance. ViViCap-1 keeps insulin at an internal temperature phase-change process and 'recharges' the device for further use. ViViCap-1 performed within its specifications. The small and convenient device maintains the efficacy and safety of using insulin even when carried under hot weather conditions.

  6. Superfluorescence with cold trapped neon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachorowski, Jerzy

    2003-01-01

    A method for observation of superfluorescence in a cloud of cold metastable Ne atoms is proposed. Means of achieving a cold sample of trapped metastable atoms are discussed. The feasibility of obtaining conditions for a superfluorescence pulse is studied. The paper also discusses the prospects for obtaining intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet radiation

  7. Numerical experiments on the atmospheric response to cold Equatorial Pacific conditions ('La Nina') during northern summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, H. von; Schriever, D.; Arpe, K.; Branstator, G.W.; Legnani, R.; Ulbrich, U.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of cold conditions in the central and eastern Equatorial Pacific during Northern Summer is examined in a series of numerical experiments with the low resolution (T21) atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM2. Anomalous sea surface temperatures (SST) as observed in June 1988 were prescribed and the effect on the global circulation is examined. In the model atmosphere, the anomalous cold water in the Equatorial Pacific excites a strong and stable response over the tropical Central and East Pacific. From here stationary Rossby waves radiate into both hemispheres. The Northern Hemisphere wave train is weak and affects only the Northeast Pacific area; the Southern Hemisphere wave train arches from the Central Pacific over the southern tip of South America to the South Atlantic. This response is not only present in the basic anomaly experiment with the T21 GCM but also in experiments with SST anomalies confined to the tropics and with an envelope-formulation of the SST anomalies, in experiments with a linear model, and in high resolution (T42) model experiments. The model output is also compared to the actually observed atmospheric state in June 1988. (orig./KW)

  8. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  9. Probing the local, electronic and magnetic structure of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torchio, R.; Boccato, S.; Cerantola, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present recent achievements in the field of investigation of the local, electronic and magnetic structure of the matter under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. These results were obtained thanks to the coupling of a compact laser heating system to the energy-dispersive...

  10. On the Performance of Carbon Nanotubes in Extreme Conditions and in the Presence of Microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    been considered for use as transparent conductors include: transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs), graphene ...optical transmission properties, but are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions (such as temperature and humidity). Graphene has recently...during the dicing procedure, silver paint was applied to the sample to serve as improvised contact/probe-landing points. Figure 1 shows the CNT thin

  11. Punchless Drawing of Magnesium Alloy Sheet under Cold Condition and its Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Minoru; Hattori, Toshio; Sato, Joji

    2011-01-01

    The punchless drawing with Maslennikov's technique was applied to the circular cup drawing of magnesium alloy AZ31B sheet under cold condition. The elastic rubber ring was used instead of the 'hard' punch, where the compressed ring dragged the sheet inward the die cavity. Attainable circumferential strain of the blank was increased by this technique with repetitive drawing operation. Thickness of the rubber pad affected little the attainable strain. The shape appearance became better when a harder rubber was used. The cup forming by single drawing operation was also tested using a small die shoulder radius. The LDR of 1.250 was obtained with the straight cup wall. Further, the computation of the punchless drawing was also conducted for the single drawing operation. The computed deformation pattern was well consistent with the corresponding experimental result.

  12. The Effects Of Different Environmental Conditions (Cold, Heat and Altitude On Soccer Players' Performance And Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sinan ASLAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sports are divided into sub-headings according to structural characteristics as team sports and individual sports; according to the physiological characteristics as aerobic- and anaerobic-based sports. In addition, they may be described as "in-door" and "out-door", as well. While basketball, handball, volleyball are classified as "in-door" sports; cross country, mountaineering, skiing are classified as "out-door" sports. Football is one of the outdoor sports, and is highly influenced by external factors. Indeed, beyond affecting players’ performance, sometimes these factors may lead to unwanted consequences regarding the athlete’s health. In this review, it is targeted to examine the effects of different environmental conditions such as cold, heat and altitude on soccer players' performance and health, through referring to the results of previous studies.

  13. Numerical tools to predict the environmental loads for offshore structures under extreme weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanling

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the extreme waves were generated using the open source computational fluid dynamic (CFD) tools — OpenFOAM and Waves2FOAM — using linear and nonlinear NewWave input. They were used to conduct the numerical simulation of the wave impact process. Numerical tools based on first-order (with and without stretching) and second-order NewWave are investigated. The simulation to predict force loading for the offshore platform under the extreme weather condition is implemented and compared.

  14. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during

  15. Influence of the emotional state on behavior in extreme conditions of competitive sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Malakhov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : establish a communication pattern of emotional intensity and level of extreme environment in which activity is performed. Materials : in the study involved 600 men aged 18-22 years. Results : the effect of the emotional state on the efficiency of the motor activity that flowed under extreme conditions. Set individual characteristics flow sports activities in extreme conditions. First used in the special semantic space for the orderly presentation of research results parachute jumps. The monogram built in semantic fields allows to establish the frequency response range of individual heartbeats and the optimal frequency for maximum performance. On the basis of established regularities of the "reflex of readiness" assessment methodology given emotional stress, which reflects the readiness of an individual to perform a parachute jump. An objective indicator of preparedness measures is a violation of the symmetry of the flow and haptic reflex and serial dynamometry. Conclusions : in using semantic spaces reflects the flowing of reflex of biological caution and accompaniment reflex. In the basis of constructing estimates of emotional stress are the regularities of mean arterial pressure as nonspecific reactions. Measure of extent of confused is estimated by variability of accompaniment reflex. Breach of symmetry in mean arterial pressure and the amplitude - frequency response accompaniment reflex, determine the validity of staying in extreme conditions. Introduction of the measure in using semantic spaces allows by selective data to establish the overall structure of the studied process.

  16. Influence of the emotional state on behavior in extreme conditions of competitive sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakhov V.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : establish a communication pattern of emotional intensity and level of extreme environment in which activity is performed. Materials : in the study involved 600 men aged 18-22 years. Results : the effect of the emotional state on the efficiency of the motor activity that flowed under extreme conditions. Set individual characteristics flow sports activities in extreme conditions. First used in the special semantic space for the orderly presentation of research results parachute jumps. The monogram built in semantic fields allows to establish the frequency response range of individual heartbeats and the optimal frequency for maximum performance. On the basis of established regularities of the "reflex of readiness" assessment methodology given emotional stress, which reflects the readiness of an individual to perform a parachute jump. An objective indicator of preparedness measures is a violation of the symmetry of the flow and haptic reflex and serial dynamometry. Conclusions : in using semantic spaces reflects the flowing of reflex of biological caution and accompaniment reflex. In the basis of constructing estimates of emotional stress are the regularities of mean arterial pressure as nonspecific reactions. Measure of extent of confused is estimated by variability of accompaniment reflex. Breach of symmetry in mean arterial pressure and the amplitude - frequency response accompaniment reflex, determine the validity of staying in extreme conditions. Introduction of the measure in using semantic spaces allows by selective data to establish the overall structure of the studied process.

  17. Mechanical characterization of alloys in extreme conditions of high strain rates and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Ezio

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the description of the mechanical characterization of alloys under extreme conditions of temperature and loading. In fact, in the frame of the Cost Action CA15102 “Solutions for Critical Raw Materials Under Extreme Conditions (CRM-EXTREME)” this aspect is crucial and many industrial applications have to consider the dynamic response of materials. Indeed, for a reduction and substitution of CRMs in alloys is necessary to design the materials and understand if the new materials behave better or if the substitution or reduction badly affect their performance. For this reason, a deep knowledge of the mechanical behaviour at high strain-rates of considered materials is required. In general, machinery manufacturing industry or transport industry as well as energy industry have important dynamic phenomena that are simultaneously affected by extended strain, high strain-rate, damage and pressure, as well as conspicuous temperature gradients. The experimental results in extreme conditions of high strain rate and high temperature of an austenitic stainless steel as well as a high-chromium tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97 are presented.

  18. Improving multisensor estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation via conditional bias-penalized optimal estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beomgeun; Seo, Dong-Jun; Noh, Seong Jin; Prat, Olivier P.; Nelson, Brian R.

    2018-01-01

    A new technique for merging radar precipitation estimates and rain gauge data is developed and evaluated to improve multisensor quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), in particular, of heavy-to-extreme precipitation. Unlike the conventional cokriging methods which are susceptible to conditional bias (CB), the proposed technique, referred to herein as conditional bias-penalized cokriging (CBPCK), explicitly minimizes Type-II CB for improved quantitative estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation. CBPCK is a bivariate version of extended conditional bias-penalized kriging (ECBPK) developed for gauge-only analysis. To evaluate CBPCK, cross validation and visual examination are carried out using multi-year hourly radar and gauge data in the North Central Texas region in which CBPCK is compared with the variant of the ordinary cokriging (OCK) algorithm used operationally in the National Weather Service Multisensor Precipitation Estimator. The results show that CBPCK significantly reduces Type-II CB for estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation, and that the margin of improvement over OCK is larger in areas of higher fractional coverage (FC) of precipitation. When FC > 0.9 and hourly gauge precipitation is > 60 mm, the reduction in root mean squared error (RMSE) by CBPCK over radar-only (RO) is about 12 mm while the reduction in RMSE by OCK over RO is about 7 mm. CBPCK may be used in real-time analysis or in reanalysis of multisensor precipitation for which accurate estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation is of particular importance.

  19. What are extreme environmental conditions and how do organisms cope with them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. WINGFIELD, J. Patrick KELLEY, Frédéric ANGELIER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe environmental conditions affect organisms in two major ways. The environment may be predictably severe such as in deserts, polar and alpine regions, or individuals may be exposed to temporarily extreme conditions through weather, presence of predators, lack of food, social status etc. Existence in an extreme environment may be possible, but then to breed or molt in addition can present major bottlenecks that have resulted in the evolution of hormone-behavior adaptations to cope with unpredictable events. Examples of hormone-behavior adaptations in extreme conditions include attenuated testosterone secretion because territoriality and excess courtship may be too costly when there is one opportunity to reproduce. The individual may even become insensitive to testosterone when target areas of the brain regulating reproductive behavior no longer respond to the hormone. A second example is reduced sensitivity to glucocorticoids following acute stress during the breeding season or molt that allows successful reproduction and/or a vital renewal of the integument to endure extreme conditions during the rest of the year. Reduced sensitivity could involve: (a modulated response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, (b reduced sensitivity to high glucocorticoid levels, or (c a combination of (a and (b. Moreover, corticosteroid binding proteins (CBP buffer responses to stress by reducing the movement of glucocorticoids into target cells. Finally, intracellular enzymes (11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and variants can deactivate glucocorticoids entering cells thus reducing interaction with receptors. These mechanisms have important implications for climate change and increasing extremes of weather [Current Zoology 57 (3: 363–374, 2011].

  20. High-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies on disordered materials. From ambient condition to an extreme condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Shinji; Ohishi, Yasuo; Suzuya, Kentaro; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    High-energy x-rays from synchrotron radiation source allow us to measure high-quality diffraction data of the disordered materials from under ambient condition to an extreme condition, which is necessary to reveal the detailed structure of glass, liquid, and amorphous materials. We introduce the high-energy x-ray diffraction beamline and dedicated diffractometer for glass, liquid, and amorphous materials with the recent developments of ancillary equipments. Furthermore our recent studies on the structures of disordered materials reviewed. (author)

  1. EMA beamline at SIRIUS: extreme condition X-ray methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Neto, Narcizo

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The EMA beamline (Extreme condition X-ray Methods of Analysis) is one of the hard x-ray undulator beamlines within the first phase of the new synchrotron source in Brazil (Sirius project). This beamline is thought to make a difference where a high brilliance (high flux of up to 2 x 10 14 photons/sec with beam size down to 0.5 x 0.5 μm 2 ) is essential, which is the case for extreme pressures that require small focus and time-resolved that require high photon flux. With that in mind we propose the beamline to have two experimental hutches to cover most of the extreme condition techniques today employed at synchrotron laboratories worldwide. These two stations are thought to provide the general infrastructure for magnets and lasers experiments, which may evolve as new scientific problems appear. In addition to the hutches, support laboratories will be strongly linked and supportive to the experiments at the beamline, covering high pressure instrumentations using diamond anvil cells and pump-and-probe requirements for ultrafast and high power lasers. Along these lines, we will describe the following techniques covered at this beamline: magnetic spectroscopy (XMCD) and scattering (XRMS) under high pressure and very low temperature in order to fully probe both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic materials and the dependence with pressure; extreme pressure and temperature XRD and XAS experiments using very small diamond culet anvils and high power lasers. (author)

  2. EMA beamline at SIRIUS: extreme condition X-ray methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Neto, Narcizo, E-mail: narcizo.souza@lnls.br [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The EMA beamline (Extreme condition X-ray Methods of Analysis) is one of the hard x-ray undulator beamlines within the first phase of the new synchrotron source in Brazil (Sirius project). This beamline is thought to make a difference where a high brilliance (high flux of up to 2 x 10{sup 14} photons/sec with beam size down to 0.5 x 0.5 μm{sup 2}) is essential, which is the case for extreme pressures that require small focus and time-resolved that require high photon flux. With that in mind we propose the beamline to have two experimental hutches to cover most of the extreme condition techniques today employed at synchrotron laboratories worldwide. These two stations are thought to provide the general infrastructure for magnets and lasers experiments, which may evolve as new scientific problems appear. In addition to the hutches, support laboratories will be strongly linked and supportive to the experiments at the beamline, covering high pressure instrumentations using diamond anvil cells and pump-and-probe requirements for ultrafast and high power lasers. Along these lines, we will describe the following techniques covered at this beamline: magnetic spectroscopy (XMCD) and scattering (XRMS) under high pressure and very low temperature in order to fully probe both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic materials and the dependence with pressure; extreme pressure and temperature XRD and XAS experiments using very small diamond culet anvils and high power lasers. (author)

  3. Distribution patterns of terricolous and saxicolous lichens in extreme desert conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temina, M.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of biodiversity in stressful habitats is of great interest because it elucidates relationships between organisms and their environment, as well as revealing the mechanisms of their survival and adaptation to extreme conditions. Deserts represent such stressful habitats where harsh climate and limited resources greatly influence the formation of biota. In order to understand the link between microscale environmental variability in extreme arid conditions and lichen biodiversity patterns, we conducted the present study. For this purpose, the structure and distribution of lichen communities on soil and cobbles at six stations at "Evolution Canyon" III (EC III), Nahal Shaharut, in the extreme southern Negev, Israel, were examined. The opposite slopes of the canyon represented specific ecological niches characterized by sharply different microclimatic conditions. The following characteristics of lichen communities were studied: species richness, systematic diversity, biogeographical elements, frequencies and distribution of species, their morphological and anatomical characteristics, reproductive strategy, and ecological peculiarities. In the research site three environmental variables were evaluated: soil moisture, and temperatures of soil and cobbles. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis was used to study the influence of these ecological variables on the distribution of lichen species. The lichen diversity of EC III was very poor and comprised 12 species (3 cyanoliches on soil vs. 9 phycolichens on cobbles). Most of them belong to a specific group of arid endemic elements, adapted to survive in extreme arid conditions in the deserts of the Levant. The harsh desert conditions of the canyon negatively influence the reproductive ability of lichens. This influence is expressed in the decreased sizes of fruit bodies in some species, and the frequent occurrence of sterile specimens among lichens found in the canyon. A comparative analysis of structure

  4. Behavior of crushed rock aggregates used in road construction exposed to cold climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Pérez Fortes, Ana Patricia; Anastasio, Sara; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2016-04-01

    Presently, about 90% of the aggregate production in Europe comes from naturally occurring resources: quarries and pits. Due to the increased demand for sand and gravel for construction purposes, not only in building but also in road construction, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards the use of more crushed rock aggregates. This resource has been more and more preferred to sand and gravel thanks to the significant technological development of its process and use phase. The performance of the aggregates is generally evaluated depending on three main factors: the geological origin (mineral composition, texture, structure, degree of weathering), the aggregate processing (crushing, sieving, washing, storing) and the user technology for a specific area of use (e.g. road construction, asphalt binders). Nevertheless climatic conditions should carefully be taken into account in application such as road construction. Large temperature gradients and high levels of humidity are known to significantly affect the performance of the material. Although the problem is, at least in the asphalt field, considered mostly from the binder point of view, this article aims to investigate the effect of aggregate properties on road performance in cold climatic conditions. Two different climatic areas will be taken into account: Norway and Spain. While both these countries are listed among the main European producers of aggregates, they represent significantly different climatic regions. While Norwegian weather is characterized by humid cold winters and relatively mild summers, Spain has temperate climate with cold regions in mountainous and internal areas. Both countries have been significantly affected by climate change with increasing temperature variations and instability. At the same time, similar winter maintenance measures, including the use of a considerable amount of solid and liquid chemicals to avoid ice formation (e.g. NaCl) and/or to provide better friction, are

  5. EXTREME WINTERS IN XX–XXI CENTURIES AS INDICATORS OF SNOWINESS AND AVALANCHE HAZARD IN THE PAST AND EXPECTED CLIMATE CHANGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Oleynikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the global climate change and increasing frequency of weather events focus is on prediction of climate extremes. Large-scale meteorological anomalies can cause long-term paralysis of social and economic infrastructure of the major mountain regions and even individual states. In winter periods, these anomalies are associated with prolonged heavy snowfalls and associated with them catastrophic avalanches which cause significant social and economic damage. The climate system maintains a certain momentum during periods of adjustment and transition to other conditions in the ratio of heat and moisture and contains a climate «signal» of the climates of the past and the future. In our view seasonal and yearly extremes perform the role of these indicators, study of which enables for a deeper understanding and appreciation of the real situation of the climate periods related to the modern ones. The paper provides an overview of the criteria for selection of extreme winters. Identification of extremely cold winters during the period of instrumental observation and assessment of their snowiness and avalanche activity done for the Elbrus region, which is a model site for study of the avalanche regime in the Central Caucasus. The studies aim to identify the extreme winters in the Greater Caucasus, assess their frequency of occurrence, characterize the scale and intensity of the avalanche formation. The data obtained can be used to identify winter-analogues in the reconstruction and long-term forecast of avalanches. 

  6. Thermoregulatory value of cracking-clay soil shelters for small vertebrates during extreme desert conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waudby, Helen P; Petit, Sophie

    2017-05-01

    Deserts exhibit extreme climatic conditions. Small desert-dwelling vertebrates have physiological and behavioral adaptations to cope with these conditions, including the ability to seek shelter. We investigated the temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) regulating properties of the soil cracks that characterize the extensive cracking-clay landscapes of arid Australia, and the extent of their use by 2 small marsupial species: fat-tailed and stripe-faced dunnarts (Sminthopsis crassicaudata and Sminthopsis macroura). We measured hourly (over 24-h periods) the T and RH of randomly-selected soil cracks compared to outside conditions, during 2 summers and 2 winters. We tracked 17 dunnarts (8 Sminthopsis crassicaudata and 9 Sminthopsis macroura) to quantify their use of cracks. Cracks consistently moderated microclimate, providing more stable conditions than available from non-crack points, which often displayed comparatively dramatic fluctuations in T and RH. Both dunnart species used crack shelters extensively. Cracks constitute important shelter for small animals during extreme conditions by providing a stable microclimate, which is typically cooler than outside conditions in summer and warmer in winter. Cracks likely play a fundamental sheltering role by sustaining the physiological needs of small mammal populations. Globally, cracking-clay areas are dominated by agricultural land uses, including livestock grazing. Management of these systems should focus not only on vegetation condition, but also on soil integrity, to maintain shelter resources for ground-dwelling fauna. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Resistance of Two Mediterranean Cold-Water Coral Species to Low-pH Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juancho Movilla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water ecosystems are characterized by relatively low carbonate concentration values and, due to ocean acidification (OA, these habitats might be among the first to be exposed to undersaturated conditions in the forthcoming years. However, until now, very few studies have been conducted to test how cold-water coral (CWC species react to such changes in the seawater chemistry. The present work aims to investigate the mid-term effect of decreased pH on calcification of the two branching CWC species most widely distributed in the Mediterranean, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. No significant effects were observed in the skeletal growth rate, microdensity and porosity of both species after 6 months of exposure. However, while the calcification rate of M. oculata was similar for all colony fragments, a heterogeneous skeletal growth pattern was observed in L. pertusa, the younger nubbins showing higher growth rates than the older ones. A higher energy demand is expected in these young, fast-growing fragments and, therefore, a reduction in calcification might be noticed earlier during long-term exposure to acidified conditions.

  8. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  9. Proceedings of the third symposium on science of hadrons under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The third symposium on Science of Hadrons under Extreme Conditions, organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on January 29 to 31, 2001. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of hadron physics such as nuclear matter, high-energy nuclear reactions, quantum chromodynamics, neutron stars, supernovae, nucleosynthesis as well as finite nuclei to understand various aspects of hadrons under extreme conditions. Twenty two papers on these topics presented at the symposium, including a special talk on the present status of JAERI-KEK joint project on high-intensity proton accelerator, aroused lively discussions among approximately 40 participants. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. In-situ transmission electron microscopy growth of nanoparticles under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, F. P.; Azevedo, G. de M.; Baptista, D. L.; Zawislak, F. C.; Oliviero, E.; Fichtner, P. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    The formation and time resolved behavior of individual Pb nanoparticles embedded in silica have been studied by in-situ transmission electron microscopy observations at high temperatures (400–1100 °C) and under 200 keV electron irradiation. It is shown that under such extreme conditions, nanoparticles can migrate at long distances presenting a Brownian-like behavior and eventually coalesce. The particle migration phenomenon is discussed considering the influence of the thermal energy and the electron irradiation effects on the atomic diffusion process which is shown to control particle migration. These results and comparison with ex-situ experiments tackle the stability and the microstructure evolution of nanoparticles systems under extreme conditions. It elucidates on the effects of energetic particle irradiation-annealing treatments either as a tool or as a detrimental issue that could hamper their long-term applications in radiation-harsh environments such as in space or nuclear sectors

  11. Review on the Strength Development Required for the Concrete Structure of Nuclear Power Plant under Cold Weather Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyung Teak; Park, Chun Jin; Ryu, Gum Sung; Kim, Do Gyeum; Lee, Jang Hwa [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    As a part of a Department of Energy-Nuclear According to the specifications for the construction execution for a nuclear power plant (NPP), the cold weather concrete should be facilitated that comply with the regulations of ACI-306R. Here, in terms of the standards applied to the cold weather concrete, such concrete should be applied in the case where the daily average temperature is 5 .deg. C or less. So, according to the analysis on the average temperature in winter over the last one year at each NPP construction area, it was found that such had lowered by about 0.5 - 2 .deg. C as compared to the temperature during the normal years (the last ten years) and the number of days applied to the cold weather concrete according to the ACI regulations was shown as 83, so as around 1/4 of year falls into the cold weather conditions and furthermore the recent weather is getting severe, it is necessary to perform the appropriate insulation curing for the cold weather concrete. On the other hand, according to the regulations with regards to the curing conditions for cold weather concrete, the insulation curing of such should be appropriately performed under an environment of 5 .deg. C or greater until the strength of 3.5 MPa (500 Psi) develops. Likewise, according to the regulations regarding the cold weather concrete in the domestic concrete specifications, the insulation curing should be performed until a strength development of 5 MPa (715 Psi) considering the safety factor indicated to the ACI regulation under the temperature of 5 .deg. C or greater. According to the above-mentioned regulations, the NPP structure is required to develop a minimum strength of 5 MPa or greater, and to maintain such important qualities, including strength development, early anti-freezing and duality under cold weather conditions. However, even though the early strength of 5 MPa or greater is secured under the recent abnormal weather conditions and cold weather conditions, if the structure is

  12. Optimal energy management for a mechanical-hybrid vehicle with cold start conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van K.; Klemm, W.P.A.; Hofman, T.; Vroemen, B.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an optimal Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for a hybrid vehicle that starts with a cold powertrain. The cold start negatively affects the combustion and transmission efficiency of the powertrain, caused by the higher frictional losses due to increased hydrodynamic

  13. Life at extreme conditions: neutron scattering studies of biological molecules suggest that evolution selected dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaccai, Joseph Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The short review concentrates on recent work performed at the neutrons in biology laboratories of the Institut Laue Langevin and Institut de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble. Extremophile organisms have been discovered that require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure or solvent environment for survival. The existence of such organisms poses a significant challenge in understanding the physical chemistry of their proteins, in view of the great sensitivity of protein structure and stability to the aqueous environment and to external conditions in general. Results of neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of proteins from extremophile organisms, in vitro as well as in vivo, indicated remarkably how adaptation to extreme conditions involves forces and fluctuation amplitudes that have been selected specifically, suggesting that evolutionary macromolecular selection proceeded via dynamics. The experiments were performed on a halophilic protein, and membrane adapted to high salt, a thermophilic enzyme adapted to high temperature and its mesophilic (adapted to 37 degC) homologue; and in vivo for psychrophilic, mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria, adapted respectively to temperatures of 4 degC, 37 degC, 75 degC and 85 degC. Further work demonstrated the existence of a water component of exceptionally low mobility in an extreme halophile from the Dead Sea, which is not present in mesophile bacterial cells. (author)

  14. Organizing of medical ensurance of human population under extreme conditions. Summaries of reports of scientific-practical conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Summary of reports are presented of Scientific-Practical conference on the organizing of medical ensurance of human population under extreme conditions including radiation accidents. The conference held in Moscow in October, 1994. It covered problems of organizing medical ensurance of population, medical surveillance problems, sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological problems (including radiation protection), and medical provision problems under extreme conditions

  15. Life under Multiple Extreme Conditions: Diversity and Physiology of the Halophilic Alkalithermophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Around the world, there are numerous alkaline, hypersaline environments that are heated either geothermally or through intense solar radiation. It was once thought that such harsh environments were inhospitable and incapable of supporting a variety of life. However, numerous culture-dependent and -independent studies revealed the presence of an extensive diversity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and archaea that survive and grow under these multiple harsh conditions. This diversity includes the halophilic alkalithermophiles, a novel group of polyextremophiles that require for growth and proliferation the multiple extremes of high salinity, alkaline pH, and elevated temperature. Life under these conditions undoubtedly involves the development of unique physiological characteristics, phenotypic properties, and adaptive mechanisms that enable control of membrane permeability, control of intracellular osmotic balance, and stability of the cell wall, intracellular proteins, and other cellular constituents. This minireview highlights the ecology and growth characteristics of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles that have been isolated thus far. Biochemical, metabolic, and physiological properties of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles are described, and their roles in resistance to the combined stressors of high salinity, alkaline pH, and high temperature are discussed. The isolation of halophilic alkalithermophiles broadens the physicochemical boundaries for life and extends the boundaries for the combinations of the maximum salinity, pH, and temperature that can support microbial growth. PMID:22492435

  16. Numerical Analysis of Flood modeling of upper Citarum River under Extreme Flood Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, R. I.

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on how to approach the numerical method and computation to analyse flood parameters. Water level and flood discharge are the flood parameters solved by numerical methods approach. Numerical method performed on this paper for unsteady flow conditions have strengths and weaknesses, among others easily applied to the following cases in which the boundary irregular flow. The study area is in upper Citarum Watershed, Bandung, West Java. This paper uses computation approach with Force2 programming and HEC-RAS to solve the flow problem in upper Citarum River, to investigate and forecast extreme flood condition. Numerical analysis based on extreme flood events that have occurred in the upper Citarum watershed. The result of water level parameter modeling and extreme flood discharge compared with measurement data to analyse validation. The inundation area about flood that happened in 2010 is about 75.26 square kilometres. Comparing two-method show that the FEM analysis with Force2 programs has the best approach to validation data with Nash Index is 0.84 and HEC-RAS that is 0.76 for water level. For discharge data Nash Index obtained the result analysis use Force2 is 0.80 and with use HEC-RAS is 0.79.

  17. A statistical methodology for the estimation of extreme wave conditions for offshore renewable applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Kalogeri, Christina; Galanis, George

    2015-01-01

    and post-process outputs from a high resolution numerical wave modeling system for extreme wave estimation based on the significant wave height. This approach is demonstrated through the data analysis at a relatively deep water site, FINO 1, as well as a relatively shallow water area, coastal site Horns...... as a characteristic index of extreme wave conditions. The results from the proposed methodology seem to be in a good agreement with the measurements at both the relatively deep, open water and the shallow, coastal water sites, providing a potentially useful tool for offshore renewable energy applications. © 2015...... Rev, which is located in the North Sea, west of Denmark. The post-processing targets at correcting the modeled time series of the significant wave height, in order to match the statistics of the corresponding measurements, including not only the conventional parameters such as the mean and standard...

  18. Durability and smart condition assessment of ultra-high performance concrete in cold climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-31

    The goals of this study were to develop ecological ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) with local materials and supplementary cementitious materials and to evaluate the long-term performance of UHPC in cold climates using effective mechanical test...

  19. The myoglobin of Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): amino acid sequence and functional adaptation to extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, M; Romano, M; Giardina, B; di Prisco, G

    1999-02-01

    In the framework of a study on molecular adaptations of the oxygen-transport and storage systems to extreme conditions in Antarctic marine organisms, we have investigated the structure/function relationship in Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) myoglobin, in search of correlation with the bird life style. In contrast with previous reports, the revised amino acid sequence contains one additional residue and 15 differences. The oxygen-binding parameters seem well adapted to the diving behaviour of the penguin and to the environmental conditions of the Antarctic habitat. Addition of lactate has no major effect on myoglobin oxygenation over a large temperature range. Therefore, metabolic acidosis does not impair myoglobin function under conditions of prolonged physical effort, such as diving.

  20. Necessary and sufficient conditions for big bangs, bounces, crunches, rips, sudden singularities and extremality events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattoen, Celine; Visser, Matt

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, the physically relevant singularities occurring in FRW cosmologies had traditionally been thought to be limited to the 'big bang', and possibly a 'big crunch'. However, over the last few years, the zoo of cosmological singularities considered in the literature has become considerably more extensive, with 'big rips' and 'sudden singularities' added to the mix, as well as renewed interest in nonsingular cosmological events such as 'bounces' and 'turnarounds'. In this paper we present an extensive catalogue of such cosmological milestones, both at the kinematical and dynamical level. First, using generalized power series, purely kinematical definitions of these cosmological events are provided in terms of the behaviour of the scale factor a(t). The notion of a 'scale-factor singularity' is defined, and its relation to curvature singularities (polynomial and differential) is explored. Second, dynamical information is extracted by using the Friedmann equations (without assuming even the existence of any equation of state) to place constraints on whether or not the classical energy conditions are satisfied at the cosmological milestones. We use these considerations to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of cosmological milestones such as bangs, bounces, crunches, rips, sudden singularities and extremality events. Since the classification is extremely general and, modulo certain technical assumptions, is complete, the corresponding results are to a high degree model independent: in particular, we provide a characterization of the class of bangs, crunches and sudden singularities for which the dominant energy condition is satisfied

  1. Bridge Management Strategy Based on Extreme User Costs for Bridge Network Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislaus Lwambuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical approach for prioritization of bridge maintenance within a given bridge network. The maintenance prioritization is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem where the simultaneous satisfaction of several conflicting objectives includes minimization of maintenance costs, maximization of bridge deck condition, and minimization of traffic disruption and associated user costs. The prevalence of user cost during maintenance period is twofold; the first case refers to the period of dry season where normally the traffic flow is diverted to alternative routes usually resurfaced to regain traffic access. The second prevalence refers to the absence of alternative routes which is often the case in the least developed countries; in this case the user cost referred to results from the waiting time while the traffic flow is put on hold awaiting accomplishment of the maintenance activity. This paper deals with the second scenario of traffic closure in the absence of alternative diversion routes which in essence results in extreme user cost. The paper shows that the multiobjective optimization approach remains valid for extreme cases of user costs in the absence of detour roads as often is the scenario in countries with extreme poor road infrastructure.

  2. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Ning, Jicai; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE). Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  3. An archaeal tRNA-synthetase complex that enhances aminoacylation under extreme conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka; Jaric, Jelena; Hausmann, Corinne D

    2011-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play an integral role in protein synthesis, functioning to attach the correct amino acid with its cognate tRNA molecule. AaRSs are known to associate into higher-order multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complexes (MSC) involved in archaeal and eukaryotic translatio...... of a complex between MtSerRS and MtArgRS provides a means by which methanogenic archaea can optimize an early step in translation under a wide range of extreme environmental conditions....

  4. Proceedings of the first symposium on science of hadrons under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki [eds.

    1999-08-01

    The first symposium on Science of Hadrons under Extreme Conditions, organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on March 11 and 12, 1999. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of fields such as observation of X-ray pulsars, theoretical studies of nuclear matter, nuclear structure, low- and high-energy nuclear reactions and QCD. Thirty seven papers on these topics presented at the symposium are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. The potential for cold climate conditions and permafrost in Forsmark in the next 60 000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandefelt, Jenny; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Zhang, Qiong; Hartikainen, Juha

    2013-05-01

    This report presents results of a study devoted to extend the current knowledge of the climate in Sweden in the next ∼60,000 years (60 ka). Specifically, the potential of cold climate and permafrost development in south-central Sweden, and in the Forsmark region, over this time horizon was investigated. The climate system is an interactive system consisting of five major components: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryo sphere, the land surface and the biosphere, forced or influenced by various external forcing mechanisms, of which the most important is the Sun. Also the direct effect of human activities on the climate system is considered an external forcing. The latitudinal and seasonal distribution of incoming solar radiation (insolation) varies on millennial time scales due to variations in the Earth's orbit and axial tilt. These variations, together with variations in the atmospheric CO 2 concentration, are viewed as two main factors in determining the climate variation between interglacial (warmer) and glacial (colder) climates. Summer insolation at high northern latitudes is at a minimum 17 ka and 54 ka after present (AP). These periods were therefore identified as potential future periods of cold climate conditions in high northern latitudes in general and in south-central Sweden in particular. Due to human emissions of carbon to the atmosphere, the atmospheric CO 2 concentration is currently 392 ppmv (2011 AD), a substantial increase as compared to the range of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations of 180-295 ppmv found in ice cores for the last 400 ka. The future atmospheric CO 2 concentration is determined by i) future human carbon emissions to the atmosphere, ii) possible emissions due to feedbacks in the climate system, and iii) by the global carbon cycle. To investigate the potential of cold climate conditions in south-central Sweden in the next 60 ka the future air temperature in Forsmark was estimated based on simulations with an Earth system model

  6. The potential for cold climate conditions and permafrost in Forsmark in the next 60 000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandefelt, Jenny; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering, Stockholm (Sweden); Zhang, Qiong [Dept. of Meteorology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Hartikainen, Juha [School of Engineering, Aalto Univ., Aalto (Finland)

    2013-05-15

    This report presents results of a study devoted to extend the current knowledge of the climate in Sweden in the next {approx}60,000 years (60 ka). Specifically, the potential of cold climate and permafrost development in south-central Sweden, and in the Forsmark region, over this time horizon was investigated. The climate system is an interactive system consisting of five major components: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryo sphere, the land surface and the biosphere, forced or influenced by various external forcing mechanisms, of which the most important is the Sun. Also the direct effect of human activities on the climate system is considered an external forcing. The latitudinal and seasonal distribution of incoming solar radiation (insolation) varies on millennial time scales due to variations in the Earth's orbit and axial tilt. These variations, together with variations in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, are viewed as two main factors in determining the climate variation between interglacial (warmer) and glacial (colder) climates. Summer insolation at high northern latitudes is at a minimum 17 ka and 54 ka after present (AP). These periods were therefore identified as potential future periods of cold climate conditions in high northern latitudes in general and in south-central Sweden in particular. Due to human emissions of carbon to the atmosphere, the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is currently 392 ppmv (2011 AD), a substantial increase as compared to the range of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 180-295 ppmv found in ice cores for the last 400 ka. The future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by i) future human carbon emissions to the atmosphere, ii) possible emissions due to feedbacks in the climate system, and iii) by the global carbon cycle. To investigate the potential of cold climate conditions in south-central Sweden in the next 60 ka the future air temperature in Forsmark was estimated based on

  7. Cold start-up condition model for heat recovery steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindareh-Esfahani, Peyman; Habibi-Siyahposh, Ehsan; Saffar-Avval, Majid; Ghaffari, Ali; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Firooz

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic modeling of Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) during cold start-up operation in Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) is introduced. In order to characterize the essential dynamic behavior of the HRSG during cold start-up; Dynamic equations of all HRSG's components are developed based on energy and mass balances. To describe precisely the operation of HRSG; a method based on nonlinear estimated functions for thermodynamic properties is applied to estimate the model parameters. Model parameters are evaluated by a designed algorithm based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). A wide set of experimental data is used to validate HRSG model during cold start-up operation. The simulation results show the reliability and validity of the developed model for cold start-up operation. - Highlights: •Presenting a mathematical model for HRSGs cold start-up based on energy and mass balances. •A designed parameter identification algorithm based on GA is presented. •Application of experimental data in order to model and validate simulation results

  8. Extreme Sea Conditions in Shallow Water: Estimation based on in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Crom, Izan; Saulnier, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-04-01

    The design of marine renewable energy devices and components is based, among others, on the assessment of the environmental extreme conditions (winds, currents, waves, and water level) that must be combined together in order to evaluate the maximal loads on a floating/fixed structure, and on the anchoring system over a determined return period. Measuring devices are generally deployed at sea over relatively short durations (a few months to a few years), typically when describing water free surface elevation, and extrapolation methods based on hindcast data (and therefore on wave simulation models) have to be used. How to combine, in a realistic way, the action of the different loads (winds and waves for instance) and which correlation of return periods should be used are highly topical issues. However, the assessment of the extreme condition itself remains a not-fully-solved, crucial, and sensitive task. Above all in shallow water, extreme wave height, Hmax, is the most significant contribution in the dimensioning process of EMR devices. As a case study, existing methodologies for deep water have been applied to SEMREV, the French marine energy test site. The interest of this study, especially at this location, goes beyond the simple application to SEMREV's WEC and floating wind turbines deployment as it could also be extended to the Banc de Guérande offshore wind farm that are planned close by. More generally to pipes and communication cables as it is a redundant problematic. The paper will first present the existing measurements (wave and wind on site), the prediction chain that has been developed via wave models, the extrapolation methods applied to hindcast data, and will try to formulate recommendations for improving this assessment in shallow water.

  9. Does red noise increase or decrease extinction risk? Single extreme events versus series of unfavorable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwager, Monika; Johst, Karin; Jeltsch, Florian

    2006-06-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown contrasting effects of temporal correlation of environmental fluctuations (red noise) on the risk of population extinction. It is still debated whether and under which conditions red noise increases or decreases extinction risk compared with uncorrelated (white) noise. Here, we explain the opposing effects by introducing two features of red noise time series. On the one hand, positive autocorrelation increases the probability of series of poor environmental conditions, implying increasing extinction risk. On the other hand, for a given time period, the probability of at least one extremely bad year ("catastrophe") is reduced compared with white noise, implying decreasing extinction risk. Which of these two features determines extinction risk depends on the strength of environmental fluctuations and the sensitivity of population dynamics to these fluctuations. If extreme (catastrophic) events can occur (strong noise) or sensitivity is high (overcompensatory density dependence), then temporal correlation decreases extinction risk; otherwise, it increases it. Thus, our results provide a simple explanation for the contrasting previous findings and are a crucial step toward a general understanding of the effect of noise color on extinction risk.

  10. Studies in the statistical and thermal properties of hadronic matter under some extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, K.C.; Mekjian, A.Z.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    1997-01-01

    The thermal and statistical properties of hadronic matter under some extreme conditions are investigated using an exactly solvable canonical ensemble model. A unified model describing both the fragmentation of nuclei and the thermal properties of hadronic matter is developed. Simple expressions are obtained for quantities such as the hadronic equation of state, specific heat, compressibility, entropy, and excitation energy as a function of temperature and density. These expressions encompass the fermionic aspect of nucleons, such as degeneracy pressure and Fermi energy at low temperatures and the ideal gas laws at high temperatures and low density. Expressions are developed which connect these two extremes with behavior that resembles an ideal Bose gas with its associated Bose condensation. In the thermodynamic limit, an infinite cluster exists below a certain critical condition in a manner similar to the sudden appearance of the infinite cluster in percolation theory. The importance of multiplicity fluctuations is discussed and some recent data from the EOS collaboration on critical point behavior of nuclei can be accounted for using simple expressions obtained from the model. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Quantitative evaluation of the mitochondrial proteomes of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to extreme oxygen conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyue Yin

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are the primary organelles that consume oxygen and provide energy for cellular activities. To investigate the mitochondrial mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions, we generated Drosophila strains that could survive in low- or high-oxygen environments (LOF or HOF, respectively, examined their mitochondria at the ultrastructural level via transmission electron microscopy, studied the activity of their respiratory chain complexes, and quantitatively analyzed the protein abundance responses of the mitochondrial proteomes using Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. A total of 718 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 55 and 75 mitochondrial proteins displayed significant differences in abundance in LOF and HOF, respectively, compared with the control flies. Importantly, these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins are primarily involved in respiration, calcium regulation, the oxidative response, and mitochondrial protein translation. A correlation analysis of the changes in the levels of the mRNAs corresponding to differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins revealed two sets of proteins with different modes of regulation (transcriptional vs. post-transcriptional in both LOF and HOF. We believe that these findings will not only enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptation to extreme oxygen conditions in Drosophila but also provide a clue in studying human disease induced by altered oxygen tension in tissues and cells.

  12. Performance of PICS bags under extreme conditions in the sahel zone of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoua, Ibrahim B; Bakoye, Ousmane; Amadou, Laouali; Murdock, Larry L; Baributsa, Dieudonne

    2018-03-01

    Experiments in Niger assessed whether extreme environmental conditions including sunlight exposure affect the performance of triple-layer PICS bags in protecting cowpea grain against bruchids. Sets of PICS bags and woven polypropylene bags as controls containing 50 kg of naturally infested cowpea grain were held in the laboratory or outside with sun exposure for four and one-half months. PICS bags held either inside or outside exhibited no significant increase in insect damage and no loss in weight after 4.5 months of storage compared to the initial values. By contrast, woven bags stored inside or outside side by side with PICS bags showed several-fold increases in insects present in or on the grain and significant losses in grain weight. Grain stored inside in PICS bags showed no reduction in germination versus the initial value but there was a small but significant drop in germination of grain in PICS bags held outside (7.6%). Germination rates dropped substantially more in grain stored in woven bags inside (16.1%) and still more in woven bags stored outside (60%). PICS bags held inside and outside retained their ability to maintain internal reduced levels of oxygen and elevated levels of carbon dioxide. Exposure to extreme environmental conditions degraded the external polypropylene outer layer of the PICS triple-layer bag. Even so, the internal layers of polyethylene were more slowly degraded. The effects of exposure to sunlight, temperature and humidity variation within the sealed bags are described.

  13. Extreme Wave-Induced Oscillation in Paradip Port Under the Resonance Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Gulshan

    2017-12-01

    A mathematical model is constructed to analyze the long wave-induced oscillation in Paradip Port, Odisha, India under the resonance conditions to avert any extreme wave hazards. Boundary element method (BEM) with corner contribution is utilized to solve the Helmholtz equation under the partial reflection boundary conditions. Furthermore, convergence analysis is also performed for the boundary element scheme with uniform and non-uniform discretization of the boundary. The numerical scheme is also validated with analytic approximation and existing studies based on harbor resonance. Then, the amplification factor is estimated at six key record stations in the Paradip Port with multidirectional incident waves and resonance modes are also estimated at the boundary of the port. Ocean surface wave field is predicted in the interior of Paradip Port for the different directional incident wave at various resonance modes. Moreover, the safe locations in the port have been identified for loading and unloading of moored ship with different resonance modes and directional incident waves.

  14. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Escudero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual. The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C and times (two and three weeks. The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols, and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

  15. Combustion aided by a glow plug in diesel engines under cold idling conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qile

    2016-01-01

    Glow plugs are widely used to promote the desired cold start and post-cold start combustion characteristics of light duty diesel engines. The importance of the glow plug becomes more apparent when the compression ratio is low. An experimental investigation of combustion initiation and development aided by the glow plug has been carried out on a single cylinder HPCR DI diesel engine with a low compression ratio of 15.5:1. High speed imaging of combustion initiated by the glow plug in a combust...

  16. Temporal Changes in Mortality Related to Extreme Temperatures for 15 Cities in Northeast Asia: Adaptation to Heat and Maladaptation to Cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeonseung; Noh, Heesang; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro; Bell, Michelle L; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Kim, Ho

    2017-05-15

    Understanding how the temperature-mortality association worldwide changes over time is crucial to addressing questions of human adaptation under climate change. Previous studies investigated the temporal changes in the association over a few discrete time frames or assumed a linear change. Also, most studies focused on attenuation of heat-related mortality and studied the United States or Europe. This research examined continuous temporal changes (potentially nonlinear) in mortality related to extreme temperature (both heat and cold) for 15 cities in Northeast Asia (1972-2009). We used a generalized linear model with splines to simultaneously capture 2 types of nonlinearity: nonlinear association between temperature and mortality and nonlinear change over time in the association. We combined city-specific results to generate country-specific results using Bayesian hierarchical modeling. Cold-related mortality remained roughly constant over decades and slightly increased in the late 2000s, with a larger increase for cardiorespiratory deaths than for deaths from other causes. Heat-related mortality rates have decreased continuously over time, with more substantial decrease in earlier decades, for older populations and for cardiorespiratory deaths. Our findings suggest that future assessment of health effects of climate change should account for the continuous changes in temperature-related health risk and variations by factors such as age, cause of death, and location. © Crown copyright 2017.

  17. Costs and benefits of cold acclimation in field released Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Hoffmann, Ary A; Overgaard, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    -acclimated were up to 36 times more likely to find food than the cold-acclimated flies when temperatures were warm. Such costs and strong benefits were not evident in laboratory tests where we found no reduction in heat survival of the cold-acclimated flies. Field release studies, therefore, reveal costs of cold......One way animals can counter the effects of climatic extremes is via physiological acclimation, but acclimating to one extreme might decrease performance under different conditions. Here, we use field releases of Drosophila melanogaster on two continents across a range of temperatures to test...... for costs and benefits of developmental or adult cold acclimation. Both types of cold acclimation had enormous benefits at low temperatures in the field; in the coldest releases only cold-acclimated flies were able to find a resource. However, this advantage came at a huge cost; flies that had not been cold...

  18. Differences in cold adaptation of .i.Bacillus subtilis./i. under anaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beranová, J.; Mansilla, M.C.; de Mendoza, D.; Elhottová, Dana; Konopásek, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 16 (2010), s. 4164-4171 ISSN 0021-9193 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : cold adaptation * Bacillus subtilis * anaerobiosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.726, year: 2010

  19. CD36 is indispensable for thermogenesis under conditions of fasting and cold stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putri, Mirasari [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Department of Public Health, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A.A. [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang KM 21, Jatinangor, West Java 45363 (Indonesia); Iso, Tatsuya, E-mail: isot@gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Education and Research Support Center, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Aiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi [Department of Bioimaging Information Analysis, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Sunaga, Hiroaki [Department of Laboratory Sciences, Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Koitabashi, Norimichi [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Matsui, Hiroki [Department of Laboratory Sciences, Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi [Department of Public Health, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Tsushima, Yoshito [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); and others

    2015-02-20

    Hypothermia can occur during fasting when thermoregulatory mechanisms, involving fatty acid (FA) utilization, are disturbed. CD36/FA translocase is a membrane protein which facilitates membrane transport of long-chain FA in the FA consuming heart, skeletal muscle (SkM) and adipose tissues. It also accelerates uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by brown adipose tissue (BAT) in a cold environment. In mice deficient for CD36 (CD36{sup −/−} mice), FA uptake is markedly reduced with a compensatory increase in glucose uptake in the heart and SkM, resulting in lower levels of blood glucose especially during fasting. However, the role of CD36 in thermogenic activity during fasting remains to be determined. In fasted CD36{sup −/−} mice, body temperature drastically decreased shortly after cold exposure. The hypothermia was accompanied by a marked reduction in blood glucose and in stores of triacylglycerols in BAT and of glycogen in glycolytic SkM. Biodistribution analysis using the FA analogue {sup 125}I-BMIPP and the glucose analogue {sup 18}F-FDG revealed that uptake of FA and glucose was severely impaired in BAT and glycolytic SkM in cold-exposed CD36{sup −/−} mice. Further, induction of the genes of thermogenesis in BAT was blunted in fasted CD36{sup −/−} mice after cold exposure. These findings strongly suggest that CD36{sup −/−} mice exhibit pronounced hypothermia after fasting due to depletion of energy storage in BAT and glycolytic SkM and to reduced supply of energy substrates to these tissues. Our study underscores the importance of CD36 for nutrient homeostasis to survive potentially life-threatening challenges, such as cold and starvation. - Highlights: • We examined the role of CD36 in thermogenesis during cold exposure. • CD36{sup −/−} mice exhibit rapid hypothermia after cold exposure during fasting. • Uptake of fatty acid and glucose is impaired in thermogenic tissues during fasting. • Storage of energy substrates is

  20. CD36 is indispensable for thermogenesis under conditions of fasting and cold stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putri, Mirasari; Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A.A.; Iso, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Matsui, Hiroki; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2015-01-01

    Hypothermia can occur during fasting when thermoregulatory mechanisms, involving fatty acid (FA) utilization, are disturbed. CD36/FA translocase is a membrane protein which facilitates membrane transport of long-chain FA in the FA consuming heart, skeletal muscle (SkM) and adipose tissues. It also accelerates uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by brown adipose tissue (BAT) in a cold environment. In mice deficient for CD36 (CD36 −/− mice), FA uptake is markedly reduced with a compensatory increase in glucose uptake in the heart and SkM, resulting in lower levels of blood glucose especially during fasting. However, the role of CD36 in thermogenic activity during fasting remains to be determined. In fasted CD36 −/− mice, body temperature drastically decreased shortly after cold exposure. The hypothermia was accompanied by a marked reduction in blood glucose and in stores of triacylglycerols in BAT and of glycogen in glycolytic SkM. Biodistribution analysis using the FA analogue 125 I-BMIPP and the glucose analogue 18 F-FDG revealed that uptake of FA and glucose was severely impaired in BAT and glycolytic SkM in cold-exposed CD36 −/− mice. Further, induction of the genes of thermogenesis in BAT was blunted in fasted CD36 −/− mice after cold exposure. These findings strongly suggest that CD36 −/− mice exhibit pronounced hypothermia after fasting due to depletion of energy storage in BAT and glycolytic SkM and to reduced supply of energy substrates to these tissues. Our study underscores the importance of CD36 for nutrient homeostasis to survive potentially life-threatening challenges, such as cold and starvation. - Highlights: • We examined the role of CD36 in thermogenesis during cold exposure. • CD36 −/− mice exhibit rapid hypothermia after cold exposure during fasting. • Uptake of fatty acid and glucose is impaired in thermogenic tissues during fasting. • Storage of energy substrates is reduced in thermogenic tissues during

  1. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Petra M., E-mail: pkklein@ou.edu [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Coffman, Reid, E-mail: rcoffma4@kent.edu [College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Kent State University, Kent, OH (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April–October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  2. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Petra M.; Coffman, Reid

    2015-01-01

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April–October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  3. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García-Herrera

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal and Madrid (Spain. Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid. The impact of most intense heat events is very similar for both cities, with significant mortality values occurring up to 3 days after the temperature threshold has been surpassed. This impact is measured as the percentual increase of mortality associated to a 1°C increase above the threshold temperature. In this respect, Lisbon shows a higher impact, 31%, as compared with Madrid at 21%. The difference can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, the longer life span of Iberian women is critical to explain why, in both cities, females are more susceptible than males to heat effects, with an almost double mortality impact value.

    The analysis of Sea Level Pressure (SLP, 500hPa geopotential height and temperature fields reveals that, despite being relatively close to each other, Lisbon and Madrid have relatively different synoptic circulation anomalies associated with their respective extreme summer temperature days. The SLP field reveals higher anomalies for Lisbon, but extending over a smaller area. Extreme values in Madrid seem to require a more western location of the Azores High, embracing a greater area over Europe, even if it is not as deep as for Lisbon. The origin of the hot and dry air masses that usually lead to extreme heat days in both cities is located in Northern Africa. However, while Madrid maxima require wind blowing directly from the south, transporting heat from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, Lisbon maxima occur under more easterly

  5. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García-Herrera

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal and Madrid (Spain. Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid. The impact of most intense heat events is very similar for both cities, with significant mortality values occurring up to 3 days after the temperature threshold has been surpassed. This impact is measured as the percentual increase of mortality associated to a 1°C increase above the threshold temperature. In this respect, Lisbon shows a higher impact, 31%, as compared with Madrid at 21%. The difference can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, the longer life span of Iberian women is critical to explain why, in both cities, females are more susceptible than males to heat effects, with an almost double mortality impact value. The analysis of Sea Level Pressure (SLP, 500hPa geopotential height and temperature fields reveals that, despite being relatively close to each other, Lisbon and Madrid have relatively different synoptic circulation anomalies associated with their respective extreme summer temperature days. The SLP field reveals higher anomalies for Lisbon, but extending over a smaller area. Extreme values in Madrid seem to require a more western location of the Azores High, embracing a greater area over Europe, even if it is not as deep as for Lisbon. The origin of the hot and dry air masses that usually lead to extreme heat days in both cities is located in Northern Africa. However, while Madrid maxima require wind blowing directly from the south, transporting heat from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, Lisbon maxima occur under more easterly conditions, when Northern African air

  6. Quadrupole beam-transport experiment for heavy ions under extreme space charge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Hartwig, E.C.

    1983-03-01

    A Cs ion-beam-transport experiment is in progress to study beam behavior under extreme space-charge conditions. A five-lens section matches the beam into a periodic electrostatic quadrupole FODO channel and its behavior is found to agree with predictions. With the available parameters (less than or equal to 200 keV, less than or equal to 20 mA, πepsilon/sub n/ greater than or equal to 10 - 7 π rad-m, up to 41 periods) the transverse (betatron) occillation frequency (nu) can be depressed down to one-tenth of its zero current value (nu/sub 0/), where nu/sup 2/ = nu/sub 0//sup 2/ -#betta#/sub p/ 2 /2, and #betta#/sub p/ is the beam plasma frequency. The current can be controlled by adjustment of the gun and the emittance can be controlled independently by means of a set of charged grids

  7. Development of a system for simultaneously generating triple extreme conditions for neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimura, Shigeju [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    We have developed new system available for controlling sample environment during the neutron scattering experiments. The system can simultaneously generate triple extreme conditions of low temperature, high magnetic field and high pressure. The system consists of : (1) a liquid-helium cryostat which enables the sample temperature range of 1.7 K to 200 K, (2) a superconducting magnet providing a vertical field up to 5 Tesla with antisymmetric split-coil geometry for polarized-beam experiments, and (3) a non-magnetic clamping high-pressure cell designed with the aim of generating hydrostatic pressure up to 2.5 Gpa. In the workshop, we will report the outline of the system and some results of performance tests using the system at JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  8. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  9. Higher order magnetic modulation structures in rare earth metal, alloys and compounds under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, S.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic materials consisting of rare earth ions form modulation structures such as a helical or sinusoidal structure caused by the oscillating magnetic interaction between rare earth ions due to RKKY magnetic interaction. These modulation structures, in some cases, develop further to higher order modulation structures by additional modulations caused by higher order crystalline electric field, magnetic interactions such as spin-lattice interaction, external magnetic field and pressure. The higher order modulation structures are observed in a spin-slip structure or a helifan structure in Ho, and a tilt helix structure in a TbEr alloy. Paramagnetic ions originated from frustration generate many magnetic phases under applied external magnetic field. KUR neutron diffraction groups have performed the development and adjustment of high-pressure instruments and external magnetic fields for neutron diffraction spectrometers. The studies of 'neutron diffraction under extreme conditions' by the seven groups are described in this report. (Y. Kazumata)

  10. Recent studies of transplutonium compounds: new directions and use of extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.; Begun, G.M.; Gibson, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    The number of bulk-phase compounds prepared and characterized for each of the transplutonium (TPu) elements drops off precipitously with increasing atomic number. However, efforts have been made to increase the number of TPu compounds known and also the range of investigative methods applied to their characterization. The results of a worldwide survey to determine the status of the preparation of new TPu compounds and/or the application of new investigative techniques to the study of such compounds in bulk will be presented. The focus will then shift to Oak Ridge projects: extreme conditions of pressure and/or temperature are being used for synthesis and for absorption and raman spectral studies; single crystals of trihalides are being grown for spectral and magnetic studies; new ternary chalcogenide-halide compounds are being characterized; vaporization thermodynamics of TPu compounds are being determined; and attempts to stabilize unusual oxidation states are being carried out

  11. Offshore wind turbine risk quantification/evaluation under extreme environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taflanidis, Alexandros A.; Loukogeorgaki, Eva; Angelides, Demos C.

    2013-01-01

    A simulation-based framework is discussed in this paper for quantification/evaluation of risk and development of automated risk assessment tools, focusing on applications to offshore wind turbines under extreme environmental conditions. The framework is founded on a probabilistic characterization of the uncertainty in the models for the excitation, the turbine and its performance. Risk is then quantified as the expected value of some risk consequence measure over the probability distributions considered for the uncertain model parameters. Stochastic simulation is proposed for the risk assessment, corresponding to the evaluation of some associated probabilistic integral quantifying risk, as it allows for the adoption of comprehensive computational models for describing the dynamic turbine behavior. For improvement of the computational efficiency, a surrogate modeling approach is introduced based on moving least squares response surface approximations. The assessment is also extended to a probabilistic sensitivity analysis that identifies the importance of each of the uncertain model parameters, i.e. risk factors, towards the total risk as well as towards each of the failure modes contributing to this risk. The versatility and computational efficiency of the advocated approaches is finally exploited to support the development of standalone risk assessment applets for automated implementation of the probabilistic risk quantification/assessment. -- Highlights: ► A simulation-based risk quantification/assessment framework is discussed. ► Focus is on offshore wind turbines under extreme environmental conditions. ► Approach is founded on probabilistic description of excitation/system model parameters. ► Surrogate modeling is adopted for improved computational efficiency. ► Standalone risk assessment applets for automated implementation are supported

  12. Cold-water coral ecosystems in Cassidaigne Canyon: An assessment of their environmental living conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fabri, Marie-claire; Bargain, Annaelle; Pairaud, Ivane; Pedel, Laura; Taupier-letage, I.

    2017-01-01

    The Cassidaigne canyon is one of the two canyons (together with Lacaze-Duthiers) of the French Mediterranean coast in which cold-water corals have settled and formed large colonies, providing a structural habitat for other species. Nevertheless, the communities settled in the Cassidaigne canyon are physically impacted by discharges of bauxite residues. New information on the distribution of the species Madrepora oculata and the associated species diversity in Cassidaigne canyon was provid...

  13. Comparison and development of advanced dosimetric techniques to be used under extreme climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhvanath, U.

    1975-08-01

    The post-irradiation fading characteristics of various dosimeters in function of relative humidity of air during storage were tested in specially set up humidity boxes. The temperature and relative humidity were varied between 5deg-35degC and 40-90%, respectively. Fading was 70% and 80% at 2 and 6 days respectively, for Kodak Type 2 film under 28degC and 76% relative humidity. Under these conditions the corresponding values for NTA emulsions were 30% and 80% respectively. Agfa-Gevaert films proved to be less sensitive and gave 20% and 30%, respectively, for the mentioned intervals. When Kodak Type 2 film was sealed in polythene bags, fading was reduced considerably, to appr. 15% in 4 weeks. Alternate storage of exposed films in humid and dry conditions also reduced fading to the same extent. When NTA emulsions were double-sealed with desiccant inside fading was reduced to 10% in 15 days. CaSO 4 :Dy (DRP and Harshaw) showed only 7% fading in 3 months. LiF TLD-100 was more sensitive, 13% in 2 months. Gamma-irradiated Li-borate has faded up to 30% at extreme climatic conditions in 3 months but thermal neutron irradiated Li-borate was resistant against fading for this period

  14. Aortic dissection: natural course of disease? Report of two cases representing the extremes of the condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefsen, Isak; Joergensen, Ingrid K.; Woie, Leik; Fossdal, Jan E.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In a time when diagnostic methods and above all, surgical as well as interventional radiological treatment for aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections have reached a point nobody could think of a few years back, the present authors feel that it is worth while to remind oneself of the natural course of disease in these conditions. Taking into consideration the high morbidity and mortality rate in surgically treated patients with aortic dissection, and the high complication rate per- and postoperatively, it also seems right to ask if a more expectative and conservative approach to the condition sometimes perhaps may be justified. Methods and material: Two case reports are given. One was a 15-year-old boy with Stanford (Daily) type B dissection who statistically ought to have a good prognosis, but who died within 2 h after onset of symptoms. The other patient, a middle-aged woman with Stanford type A dissection, survived for 25 years without operation. Conclusion: These two cases, though not unique viewed separately, we consider to represent the extremes of the condition and also a natural course of disease, while none of them was operated on

  15. Aortic dissection: natural course of disease? Report of two cases representing the extremes of the condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefsen, I; Jørgensen, I K; Woie, L; Fossdal, J E

    2001-10-01

    In a time when diagnostic methods and above all, surgical as well as interventional radiological treatment for aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections have reached a point nobody could think of a few years back, the present authors feel that it is worth while to remind oneself of the natural course of disease in these conditions. Taking into consideration the high morbidity and mortality rate in surgically treated patients with aortic dissection, and the high complication rate per- and postoperatively, it also seems right to ask if a more expectative and conservative approach to the condition sometimes perhaps may be justified. Two case reports are given. One was a 15-year-old boy with Stanford (Daily) type B dissection who statistically ought to have a good prognosis, but who died within 2 h after onset of symptoms. The other patient, a middle-aged woman with Stanford type A dissection, survived for 25 years without operation. These two cases, though not unique viewed separately, we consider to represent the extremes of the condition and also a natural course of disease, while none of them was operated on.

  16. Predicting the Effects of Powder Feeding Rates on Particle Impact Conditions and Cold Spray Deposited Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ozan C.; Widener, Christian A.; Carter, Michael J.; Johnson, Kyle W.

    2017-10-01

    As the industrial application of the cold spray technology grows, the need to optimize both the cost and the quality of the process grows with it. Parameter selection techniques available today require the use of a coupled system of equations to be solved to involve the losses due to particle loading in the gas stream. Such analyses cause a significant increase in the computational time in comparison with calculations with isentropic flow assumptions. In cold spray operations, engineers and operators may, therefore, neglect the effects of particle loading to simplify the multiparameter optimization process. In this study, two-way coupled (particle-fluid) quasi-one-dimensional fluid dynamics simulations are used to test the particle loading effects under many potential cold spray scenarios. Output of the simulations is statistically analyzed to build regression models that estimate the changes in particle impact velocity and temperature due to particle loading. This approach eases particle loading optimization for more complete analysis on deposition cost and time. The model was validated both numerically and experimentally. Further numerical analyses were completed to test the particle loading capacity and limitations of a nozzle with a commonly used throat size. Additional experimentation helped document the physical limitations to high-rate deposition.

  17. Dynamic displacements of the RHIC dipole cold mass with injection molded composite posts during quench conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondericker, J.; Wolf, L.J.

    1991-02-01

    The new design of the RHIC dipole magnets incorporate helium containment bellows having a convolution diameter of only 7.63 inches. The present bellows are 12.80 inches in diameter. The smaller bellows present a substantially reduced pressure area which can be expected to reduce proportionately the end force on the cold mass during a quench. But, the objection was raised that the smaller bellows would present greater obstruction to the helium flow during a quench thereby producing higher pressure differentials. This analysis was undertaken to address these assertions by predicting the dynamic displacements of the cold mass using the latest test data on the stiffness of the IMC posts, pressure-time histories acquired from the recent full cell tests of RHIC magnets, and the dimensions of the new expansion joints. The analysis treated the cold mass as an elastic body having a saggittal curvature. The technique of normal mode expansion of a lumped-parameter system was used to obtain the results and conclusions reported herein

  18. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Petra M; Coffman, Reid

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April-October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  19. Assessment of extreme hydrological conditions in the Bothnian Bay, Baltic Sea, and the impact of the nuclear power plant "Hanhikivi-1" on the local thermal regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornikov, Anton Y.; Martyanov, Stanislav D.; Ryabchenko, Vladimir A.; Eremina, Tatjana R.; Isaev, Alexey V.; Sein, Dmitry V.

    2017-04-01

    The results of the study aimed to assess the influence of future nuclear power plant Hanhikivi-1 upon the local thermal conditions in the Bothnian Bay in the Baltic Sea are presented. A number of experiments with different numerical models were also carried out in order to estimate the extreme hydro-meteorological conditions in the area of the construction. The numerical experiments were fulfilled both with analytically specified external forcing and with real external forcing for 2 years: a cold year (2010) and a warm year (2014). The study has shown that the extreme values of sea level and water temperature and the characteristics of wind waves and sea ice in the vicinity of the future nuclear power plant can be significant and sometimes catastrophic. Permanent release of heat into the marine environment from an operating nuclear power plant will lead to a strong increase in temperature and the disappearance of ice cover within a 2 km vicinity of the station. These effects should be taken into account when assessing local climate changes in the future.

  20. A new fluorescent pH probe for extremely acidic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jiang, Zheng [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Xiao, Yu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Taishan College, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Bi, Fu-Zhen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Miao, Jun-Ying, E-mail: miaojy@sdu.edu.cn [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhao, Bao-Xiang, E-mail: bxzhao@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-04-01

    A new coumarin-based fluorescent probe can detect highly acidic conditions in both solution and bacteria with high selectivity and sensitivity. Highlights: • A new fluorescence probe for very low pH was synthesized and characterized. • The probe can monitor pH in solution and bacteria. • The two-step protonation of N atoms of the probe leads to fluorescence quenching. Abstract: A novel turn-off fluorescent probe based on coumarin and imidazole moiety for extremely acidic conditions was designed and developed. The probe with pKa = 2.1 is able to respond to very low pH value (below 3.5) with high sensitivity relying on fluorescence quenching at 460 nm in fluorescence spectra or the ratios of absorbance maximum at 380 nm to that at 450 nm in UV–vis spectra. It can quantitatively detect pH value based on equilibrium equation, pH = pKa -log[(Ix - Ib)/(Ia - Ix)]. It had very short response time that was less than 1 min, good reversibility and nearly no interference from common metal ions. Moreover, using ¹H NMR analysis and theoretical calculation of molecular orbital, we verified that a two-step protonation process of two N atoms of the probe leaded to photoinduced electron transfer (PET), which was actually the mechanism of the fluorescence quenching phenomenon under strongly acidic conditions. Furthermore, the probe was also applied to imaging strong acidity in bacteria, E.coli and had good effect. This work illustrates that the new probe could be a practical and ideal pH indicator for strongly acidic conditions with good biological significance.

  1. TYPHOID FEVER WITH FATAL OUTCOME IN PEOPLE WITH SEVERE TROPHOLOGICAL FAILURE IN EXTREME CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Lyashenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For purpose of clinical and morphological characterization of typhoid fever with fatal outcome was perform analysis of medical documentation as well as postmortem studies of internal tissues in 36men aged 21 to 34 years with severe body weight loss and in the conditions of combat stress in period from 1983 to 1985. The results of the study find a number of clinical and pathomorphological features of typhoid fever in patients with body weight deficiency that were in extreme conditions. Focal changes of the central nervous system were detected. The defeat of the respiratory system was characterized from the first days of the disease by bronchitis, and in the subsequent development of pneumonia, plevritis and empyema of the pleura. Majority of patients had symptoms of cardiovascular and renal failure. In died in the first week of the disease and in 2/3 parts – in a later period were combined with the symptoms of infectious-toxic encephalopathy and severe acute respiratory failure. All died had postmortem dystrophic changes of cardiomyocytes, and in patients had fatal outcome in 2–5 weeks – also focal or diffuse myocarditis. In a third of the patients who died, the disease was complicated by intestinal perforations. In a number of cases, peritonitis was a consequence of necrosis of mesenteric lymph nodes. In all patients with a fatal outcome, hemorrhagic (thrombohemorrhagic syndrome was diagnosed. A significant proportion of patients posthumously detected signs of sepsis and other complications, many of which could be the cause of death.

  2. Single-photon detector operating under extremely high background photon flux conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Sopko, Bruno; Blazej, Josef

    2009-01-01

    We are reporting our results in research and development in the field of avalanche semiconductor single-photon detectors and their application. Our goal was a development of a solid-state photon-counting detector capable of high-precision photon arrival time tagging in extremely harsh operating conditions. The background photon flux exceeding 10 9 photons per second hitting the detector active area should not avoid the useful signal detection and recognition on the signal level of units of photons per second. This is background photon flux about two orders of magnitude higher than what the conventional solid-state photon counters accept. The detection timing resolution should be better than 100 ps and the delay stability should be on picosecond level. We have developed and tested the active quenched and gated avalanche structure on silicon providing the required features in connection with the K14 detection chips. The detector is capable of gated operation under the conditions of background photon flux of 5x10 9 photons per second. The operational detector tolerates long term exposures to the input photon flux exceeding 10 15 photons (>1 mW) per second without damage.

  3. Predicting the solubility of gases in Nitrile Butadiene Rubber in extreme conditions using molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Musab; Molinari, Nicola; Sutton, Adrian; Mostofi, Arash

    In the oil and gas industry, elastomer seals play an important role in protecting sensitive monitoring equipment from contamination by gases - a problem that is exacerbated by the high pressures and temperatures found down-hole. The ability to predict and prevent such permeative failure has proved elusive to-date. Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) is a common choice of elastomer for seals due to its resistance to heat and fuels. In the conditions found in the well it readily absorbs small molecular weight gases. How this behaviour changes quantitatively for different gases as a function of temperature and pressure is not well-understood. In this work a series of fully atomistic simulations are performed to understand the effect of extreme conditions on gas solubility in NBR. Widom particle insertion is used to compute solubilities. The importance of sampling and allowing structural relaxation upon compression are highlighted, and qualitatively reasonable trends reproduced. Finally, while at STP it has previously been shown that the solubility of CO2 is higher than that of He in NBR, we observe that under the right circumstances it is possible to reverse this trend.

  4. Hemoglobin system of Sparus aurata: Changes in fishes farmed under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Salvatore; Nastasi, Giancarlo; D'Ascola, Angela; Campo, Giuseppe M.; Avenoso, Angela; Traina, Paola; Calatroni, Alberto; Burrascano, Emanuele; Ferlazzo, Alida; Lupidi, Giulio; Gabbianelli, Rosita; Falcioni, Giancarlo

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain more knowledge on the stress responses of gilhead seabream (Sparus aurata) under extreme conditions, this study investigated the functional properties of the hemoglobin system and globin gene expression under hypoxia and low salinity. The oxygen affinity for the two hemoglobin components present inside the S. aurata erythrocyte was practically identical as was the influence of protons and organic phosphates (Root effect). The quantification of S. aurata hemoglobin fractions performed by HPLC and the data on gene expression of globin chains assayed by PCR indicate that under hypoxia and low salinity there is a change in the ratio between the two different hemoglobin components. The result indicating that the distinct hemoglobins present in S. aurata erythrocyte have almost identical functional properties, does not explain the adaptive response (expression change) following exposure of the animal to hypoxia or low salinity on the basis of their function as oxygen transporter. We hypothesize that other parallel biological functions that the hemoglobin molecule is known to display within the erythrocyte are involved in adaptive molecular mechanisms. The autoxidation-reduction cycle of hemoglobin could be involved in the response to particular living conditions

  5. Cold Vacuum Drying facility heating, ventilation, and Air Conditioning system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-01-01

    This System Design Description (SDD) addresses the HVAC system for the CVDF. The CVDF HVAC system consists of five subsystems: (1) Administration building HVAC system; (2) Process bay recirculation HVAC system; (3) Process bay local exhaust HVAC and process vent system; (4) Process general supply/exhaust HVAC system; and (5) Reference air system. The HVAC and reference air systems interface with the following systems: the fire protection control system, Monitoring and Control System (MCS), electrical power distribution system (including standby power), compressed air system, Chilled Water (CHW) system, drainage system, and other Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) control systems not addressed in this SDD

  6. Analysis of Natural Ventilation in a Passive House Located in Cold Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Remmen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    in Vejle during cooling season, in the months of June, July and August. The dwelling belongs to a Danish project of passive houses denominated Komfort Husene, where its occupants claim there is no thermal comfort in summer time. The results show that the use of natural ventilation helps to reduce......This article shows the potential of using natural ventilation as a passive method of cooling buildings that are located in cold climate countries using Denmark as a case study. The energy saving potential of natural ventilation is found by performing thermal simulations of a household located...

  7. Influence of the coating process on the tribological conditions during cold forging with a MoS2 based lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Robby; Hagenah, Hinnerk; Merklein, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Cold forging processes such as forward rod extrusion can be used to produce high quality components like connection rods, shafts and gears. The main advantages of these extruded components are sufficient surface quality, work hardening, compressive residual stresses and fatigue strength. Since one technical disadvantage of extruded components lies in the achievable tolerance classes, the improvement of these should be of crucial importance. For instance, the attainable workpiece accuracy and component quality can be influenced by adapting the tribological system in such a way that the resulting friction is specifically controlled in order to improve component forming. Lubricant modification is one practical way of adapting the tribological system to the requirements of the forming process. An industrial established and highly efficient lubricant system is the application of a zinc-phosphate conversion layer with a molybdenum disulfide-based lubricant. While offering many advantages, its tribological conditions seem to depend strongly on the layer weight and the application strategy. These parameters and the respective interdependencies have not been sufficiently investigated yet. In order to examine this, the tribological conditions depending on the layer weight are analyzed in greater detail using the Ring-Compression-Test (RCT). This tribometer provides a comparative representation of the forming conditions during cold forging. Furthermore, a potential dependency between the tribological conditions and two different coating techniques is analyzed. The latter are represented by the industrial standards dipping and dip-drumming.

  8. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the antioxidative system of Coffea sp. under cold conditions in genotypes with contrasting tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Ana S; Lidon, Fernando C; Batista-Santos, Paula; Leitão, António Eduardo; Pais, Isabel P; Ribeiro, Ana I; Ramalho, José Cochicho

    2010-03-15

    Low positive temperature (chilling) is frequently linked to the promotion of oxidative stress conditions, and is of particular importance in the coffee plant due to its severe impact on growth, development, photosynthesis and production. Nevertheless, some acclimation ability has been reported within the Coffea genus, and is possibly related to oxidative stress control. Using an integrated biochemical and molecular approach, the characterization of the antioxidative system of genotypes with different cold acclimation abilities was performed. Experiments were carried out using 1.5-year-old coffee seedlings of Coffea canephora cv. Apoatã, C. arabica cv. Catuaí, C. dewevrei and 2 hybrids, Icatu (C. arabicaxC. canephora) and Piatã (C. dewevreixC. arabica) subjected to a gradual cold treatment and a recovery period. Icatu showed the greatest ability to control oxidative stress, as reflected by the enhancement of several antioxidative components (Cu,Zn-SOD and APX activities; ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) contents) and lower reactive oxygen species contents (H(2)O(2) and OH). Gene expression studies show that GRed, DHAR and class III and IV chitinases might also be involved in the cold acclimation ability of Icatu. Catuaí showed intermediate acclimation ability through the reinforcement of some antioxidative molecules, usually to a lesser extent than that observed in Icatu. On the other hand, C. dewevrei showed the poorest response in terms of antioxidant accumulation, and also showed the greatest increase in OH values. The difference in the triggering of antioxidative traits supports the hypothesis of its importance to cold (and photoinhibition) tolerance in Coffea sp. and could provide a useful probe to identify tolerant genotypes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Protection against cold in prehospital care-thermal insulation properties of blankets and rescue bags in different wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Otto; Lundgren, J Peter; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar; Bjornstig, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    In a cold, wet, or windy environment, cold exposure can be considerable for an injured or ill person. The subsequent autonomous stress response initially will increase circulatory and respiratory demands, and as body core temperature declines, the patient's condition might deteriorate. Therefore, the application of adequate insulation to reduce cold exposure and prevent body core cooling is an important part of prehospital primary care, but recommendations for what should be used in the field mostly depend on tradition and experience, not on scientific evidence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal insulation properties in different wind conditions of 12 different blankets and rescue bags commonly used by prehospital rescue and ambulance services. The thermal manikin and the selected insulation ensembles were setup inside a climatic chamber in accordance to the modified European Standard for assessing requirements of sleeping bags. Fans were adjusted to provide low (value, Itr (m2 C/Wclo; where C = degrees Celcius, and W = watts), was calculated from ambient air temperature (C), manikin surface temperature (C), and heat flux (W/m2). In the low wind condition, thermal insulation of the evaluated ensembles correlated to thickness of the ensembles, ranging from 2.0 to 6.0 clo (1 clo = 0.155 m2 C/W), except for the reflective metallic foil blankets that had higher values than expected. In moderate and high wind conditions, thermal insulation was best preserved for ensembles that were windproof and resistant to the compressive effect of the wind, with insulation reductions down to about 60-80% of the original insulation capacity, whereas wind permeable and/or lighter materials were reduced down to about 30-50% of original insulation capacity. The evaluated insulation ensembles might all be used for prehospital protection against cold, either as single blankets or in multiple layer combinations, depending on ambient temperatures. However, with extended

  10. Warm and cold molecular gas conditions modeled in 87 galaxies observed by the Herschel SPIRE FTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Glenn, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Molecular gas is the raw material for star formation, and like the interstellar medium (ISM) in general, it can exist in regions of higher and lower excitation. Rotational transitions of the CO molecule are bright and sensitive to cold molecular gas. While the majority of the molecular gas exists in the very cold component traced by CO J=1-0, the higher-J lines trace the highly excited gas that may be more indicative of star formation processes. The atmosphere is opaque to these lines, but the launch of the Herschel Space Observatory made them accessible for study of Galactic and extragalactic sources. We have conducted two-component, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) modeling of the CO lines from J=1‑0 through J=13‑12 in 87 galaxies observed by the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). We used the nested sampling algorithm Multinest to compare the measured CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) to the ones produced by a custom version of the non-LTE code RADEX. This allowed us to fully examine the degeneracies in parameter space for kinetic temperature, molecular gas density, CO column density, and area filling factor.Here we discuss the major findings of our study, as well as the important implications of two-component molecular gas modeling. The average pressure of the warm gas is slightly correlated with galaxy LFIR, but that of the cold gas is not. A high-J (such as J=11-10) to J=1-0 line ratio is diagnostic of warm component pressure. We find a very large spread in our derived values of "alpha-CO," with no discernable trend with LFIR, and average molecular gas depletion times that decrease with LFIR. If only a few molecular lines are available in a galaxy's SLED, the limited ability to model only one component will change the results. A one-component fit often underestimates the flux of carbon monoxide (CO) J=1‑0 and the mass. If low-J lines are not included, mass is underestimated by an order of magnitude. Even when

  11. SCC of cold-worked austenitic stainless steels exposed to PWR primary water conditions: susceptibility to initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herms, E.; Raquet, O.; Sejourne, L.; Vaillant, F.

    2009-01-01

    Heavily cold-worked austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304L and 316L types) could be significantly susceptible to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) when exposed to PWR nominal primary water conditions even in absence of any pollutants. Susceptibility to SCC was shown to be related with some conditions such as initial hardness, procedure of cold-work or dynamic straining. A dedicated program devoted to better understand the initiation stage on CW austenitic stainless steels in PWR water is presented. Initiation is studied thanks to SCC test conditions leading to an intergranular cracking propagation mode on a CW austenitic stainless steel which is the mode generally reported after field experience. SCC tests are carried out in typical primary water conditions (composition 1000 ppm B and 2 ppm Li) and for temperature in the range 290 - 340 C. Material selected is 316L cold-worked essentially by rolling (reduction in thickness of 40%). Initiation tests are carried out under various stress levels with the aim to investigate the evolution of the initiation period versus the value of applied stress. SCC tests are performed on cylindrical notched specimens in order to increase the applied stress and allow accelerated testing without modify the exposure conditions to strictly nominal hydrogenated PWR water. Respective influences of cyclic/dynamic conditions on SCC initiation are presented and discussed. Dedicated interrupted tests help to investigate the behaviour of the crack initiation process. These SCC tests have shown that crack initiation could be obtained after a very short time under dynamic loading conditions on heavily pre-strained austenitic stainless steels. Actual results show that the most limiting stage of the cracking process on CW 316L seems to be the transition from slow transgranular propagation of surface initiated cracks to intergranular fast propagation through the thickness of the sample. The duration of this stage during crack initiation tests is

  12. Data on the changes of the mussels׳ metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Aru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. 1H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels׳ specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the 1H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article entitled “Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels’ freshness” (Aru et al., 2016 [1].

  13. 360⁰ -View of Quantum Theory and Ab Initio Simulation at Extreme Conditions: 2014 Sanibel Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Ping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-09-02

    The Sanibel Symposium 2014 was held February 16-21, 2014, at the King and Prince, St. Simons Island, GA. It was successful in bringing condensed-matter physicists and quantum chemists together productively to drive the emergence of those specialties. The Symposium had a significant role in preparing a whole generation of quantum theorists. The 54th Sanibel meeting looked to the future in two ways. We had 360⁰-View sessions to honor the exceptional contributions of Rodney Bartlett (70), Bill Butler (70), Yngve Öhrn (80), Fritz Schaefer (70), and Malcolm Stocks (70). The work of these five has greatly impacted several generations of quantum chemists and condensed matter physicists. The “360⁰” is the sum of their ages. More significantly, it symbolizes a panoramic view of critical developments and accomplishments in theoretical and computational chemistry and physics oriented toward the future. Thus, two of the eight 360⁰-View sessions focused specifically on younger scientists. The 360⁰-View program was the major component of the 2014 Sanibel meeting. Another four sessions included a sub-symposium on ab initio Simulations at Extreme Conditions, with focus on getting past the barriers of present-day Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics by advances in finite-temperature density functional theory, orbital-free DFT, and new all-numerical approaches.

  14. Theoretical and experimental study of single particle tracking in extreme conditions: single photon imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajgfinger, T.

    2012-10-01

    This manuscript presents my thesis on the high frame rate (500 frames / second) single-photon detector electron-bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). The first section compares three ultra-sensitive detectors and their methods for improving photon sensitivity: the CMOS low noise (sCMOS), the electron-multiplying CCD (emCCD) with signal multiplication by pixel and the ebCMOS with amplification by applied electric field. The method developed to detect single photon impacts with intra-pixel resolution on the ebCMOS sensor is presented. The second section compares the localization accuracy of these detectors in extreme conditions of very low photon flux (<10 photons/frame). First the theoretical limit is calculated using the Cramer-Rao lower bound for significant parameter sets. An experimental comparison of the detectors is then described. The setup provides one or more point sources controlled in position, signal and background noise. The results allow a comparison of the experimental effectiveness, purity and localization accuracy. The last section describes two experiments with the ebCMOS camera. The first aims at tracking hundreds of quantum dots simultaneously at the Nanoptec center. The second focuses on the swimming of bacteria at the surface at the Joliot Curie Institute. The point sources tracking algorithm using single photons and the Kalman filter implementation developed for these experiments is also described. (author)

  15. Characterization of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from diesel, gasoline and hybrid cars under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareuveny, Ronen; Sudan, Madhuri; Halgamuge, Malka N; Yaffe, Yoav; Tzabari, Yuval; Namir, Daniel; Kheifets, Leeka

    2015-01-30

    This study characterizes extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) levels in 10 car models. Extensive measurements were conducted in three diesel, four gasoline, and three hybrid cars, under similar controlled conditions and negligible background fields. Averaged over all four seats under various driving scenarios the fields were lowest in diesel cars (0.02 μT), higher for gasoline (0.04-0.05 μT) and highest in hybrids (0.06-0.09 μT), but all were in-line with daily exposures from other sources. Hybrid cars had the highest mean and 95th percentile MF levels, and an especially large percentage of measurements above 0.2 μT. These parameters were also higher for moving conditions compared to standing while idling or revving at 2500 RPM and higher still at 80 km/h compared to 40 km/h. Fields in non-hybrid cars were higher at the front seats, while in hybrid cars they were higher at the back seats, particularly the back right seat where 16%-69% of measurements were greater than 0.2 μT. As our results do not include low frequency fields (below 30 Hz) that might be generated by tire rotation, we suggest that net currents flowing through the cars' metallic chassis may be a possible source of MF. Larger surveys in standardized and well-described settings should be conducted with different types of vehicles and with spectral analysis of fields including lower frequencies due to magnetization of tires.

  16. [Optimization of fermentation conditions for cold-adapted amylase production by Micrococcus antarcticus and its enzymatic properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-xi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi-pei

    2009-08-15

    By single factor experiments, the fermentation conditions for cold-adapted amylase production from Micrococcus antarcticus were determined as follows(medium g/L): Na2 HPO4 2.0, KH2PO4 1.0, MgSO4 x 7H2O 0.1, NaCl 5.0, (NH4)2SO4 2.5, maltose 5.0, trace element solution 5.0 mL, pH 8.0, 100 mL/Erlenmeyer flask (500 mL); cultivation was in a rotating shaker at 12 degrees C and 160 r/min for 64 h.Under those conditions,the highest total enzyme activity (2.6 U/mL) was obtained and increased by 10.8 fold compared with the original value of 0.24 U/mL before optimization. This amylase was purified by concentration with ultrafiltration membrane module, Hitrap Q anion exchange chromatography and Superdex 200 gel filtration chromatography. The optimal temperature and pH for the purified amylase were 30 degrees C and 6.0, respectively.It still showed high activity at low temperature 10-15 degrees C. It was sensitive to high temperature but was stable at pH 6.0-10.0 with at least 70% activity remained. These results indicated that it was a typical cold-adapted enzyme. The enzyme activity was stimulated by Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+ and Mg2+; but inhibited by Zn2+, Ba2+, Ag+, Cu2+, Al3+, Fe2, Fe3+, Hg2+, EDTA and citrate. This cold-adapted amylase showed resistance to inactivation of 0.1% nonionic surfactants such as Tween 80, TrintonX-100, etc. Its Km was 0.90 mg/mL.

  17. A combination of extreme environmental conditions favor the prevalence of Endospore-forming Firmicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti Filippidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions unsuitable for microbial growth are the rule rather than the exception in most habitats. In response to this, microorganisms have developed various strategies to withstand environmental conditions that limit active growth. Endospore-forming Firmicutes (EFF deploy a myriad of survival strategies in order to resist adverse conditions. Like many bacterial groups, they can form biofilms and detect nutrient scarcity through chemotaxis. Moreover, within this paraphyletic group of Firmicutes, ecophysiological optima are diverse. Nonetheless, a response to adversity that delimits this group is the formation of wet-heat resistant spores. These strategies are energetically demanding and therefore might affect the biological success of EFF. Therefore, we hypothesize that abundance and diversity of EFF should be maximized in those environments in which the benefits of these survival strategies offsets the energetic cost. In order to address this hypothesis, geothermal and mineral springs and drillings were selected because in these environments of steep physicochemical gradients, diversified survival strategies may become a successful strategy. We collected 71 samples from geothermal and mineral environments characterized by none (null, single or multiple limiting environmental factors (temperature, pH, UV radiation and specific mineral composition. To measure success, we quantified EFF gene copy numbers (GCN; spo0A gene in relation to total bacterial GCN (16S rRNA gene, as well as the contribution of EFF to community composition. The quantification showed that relative GCN for EFF reached up to 20% at sites characterized by multiple limiting environmental factors, whereas it corresponded to less than 1% at sites with one or no limiting environmental factor. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene supports a higher contribution of EFF at sites with multiple limiting factors. Community composition suggested a combination of phylotypes

  18. XBeach-G: a tool for predicting gravel barrier response to extreme storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Gerd; Poate, Tim; McCall, Robert; Roelvink, Dano; Russell, Paul; Davidson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Gravel beaches protect low-lying back-barrier regions from flooding during storm events and their importance to society is widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, breaching and extensive storm damage has occurred at many gravel sites and this is likely to increase as a result of sea-level rise and enhanced storminess due to climate change. Limited scientific guidance is currently available to provide beach managers with operational management tools to predict the response of gravel beaches to storms. The New Understanding and Prediction of Storm Impacts on Gravel beaches (NUPSIG) project aims to improve our understanding of storm impacts on gravel coastal environments and to develop a predictive capability by modelling these impacts. The NUPSIG project uses a 5-pronged approach to address its aim: (1) analyse hydrodynamic data collected during a proto-type laboratory experiment on a gravel beach; (2) collect hydrodynamic field data on a gravel beach under a range of conditions, including storm waves with wave heights up to 3 m; (3) measure swash dynamics and beach response on 10 gravel beaches during extreme wave conditions with wave heights in excess of 3 m; (4) use the data collected under 1-3 to develop and validate a numerical model to model hydrodynamics and morphological response of gravel beaches under storm conditions; and (5) develop a tool for end-users, based on the model formulated under (4), for predicting storm response of gravel beaches and barriers. The aim of this presentation is to present the key results of the NUPSIG project and introduce the end-user tool for predicting storm response on gravel beaches. The model is based on the numerical model XBeach, and different forcing scenarios (wave and tides), barrier configurations (dimensions) and sediment characteristics are easily uploaded for model simulations using a Graphics User Interface (GUI). The model can be used to determine the vulnerability of gravel barriers to storm events, but can also be

  19. The effect of cold priming on the fitness of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions under natural and controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvetkovic, Jelena; Müller, Klaus; Baier, Margarete

    2017-01-01

    Priming improves an organism's performance upon a future stress. To test whether cold priming supports protection in spring and how it is affected by cold acclimation, we compared seven Arabidopsis accessions with different cold acclimation potentials in the field and in the greenhouse for growth......, photosynthetic performance and reproductive fitness in March and May after a 14 day long cold-pretreatment at 4 °C. In the plants transferred to the field in May, the effect of the cold pretreatment on the seed yield correlated with the cold acclimation potential of the accessions. In the March transferred...

  20. Evolution of self-organization in nano-structured PVD coatings under extreme tribological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G., E-mail: gfox@mcmaster.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kovalev, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Aguirre, M.H. [Laboratory of Advanced Microscopy, Institute of Nanoscience of Aragón, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Yamamoto, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd, 1-5-5 Takatsuda-dai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271, Hyogo (Japan); Veldhuis, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Gershman, I. [All-Russian Railway Research Institute, 10 Third Mytishchinskaya Street, Moscow 29851 (Russian Federation); Rashkovskiy, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Endrino, J.L. [Albengoa Research, Energia Solar 1, Palmas Altas, Seville 41014 (Spain); Beake, B. [Micro Materials Limited, Willow House, Yale Business Village, Ellice Way, Wrexham LL13 7YL (United Kingdom); Dosbaeva, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Wainstein, D. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Yuan, Junifeng; Bunting, J.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The evolution of self-organization under extreme frictional conditions has been studied. • Comprehensive characterization of the tribo-films was made using various surface analytical techniques. • During the running-in stage, mullite tribo-ceramics predominate on the surface of the nano-multilayer coating, establishing a functional hierarchy within the layer of tribo-films. • It is possible to control tribo-film evolution during self-organization by means of an increase in structural complexity and the non-equilibrium state of the surface engineered layer. - Abstract: The evolution of the self-organization process where dissipative structures are formed under the extreme frictional conditions associated with high performance dry machining of hardened steels has been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the progressive studies of surface transformations within multilayer and monolayer TiAlCrSiYN-based PVD coatings during the running-in stage of wear when self-organization process occurs. The coating layer was characterized by high resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). It is shown that the nano-multilayer coating possesses higher non-equilibrium structure in comparison to the monolayer. Comprehensive studies of the tribo-films (dissipative structures) formed on the friction surface were made using a number of advanced surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The data obtained for the tribo-films was combined with the detailed TEM studies of the structural and phase transformations within the underlying coating layer. This data was related to the micro-mechanical characteristics of the coating layer and its wear resistance. It was demonstrated that the evolution of the self-organization process is strongly controlled by the characteristics of the tribo-films formed at different stages of the wear process. Within running-in stage (after

  1. Overnight storage of whole blood: cooling and transporting blood at room temperature under extreme temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, L; Beauséjour, A; Jacques, A; Ducas, E; Tremblay, M

    2014-02-01

    Many countries allow the overnight storage of whole blood (WB) at ambient temperature. Some countries, such as Canada, also require a rapid cooling of WB with an active cooling system. Given the significant operational constraints associated with current cooling systems, an alternative method for cooling and transporting WB at 20-24°C was evaluated. Phase 22 cooling packs (TCP Reliable Inc., USA) were used in combination with vacuum-insulated panel (VIP) boxes. Temperature profiles of simulated WB units were studied in extreme temperatures (-35 and 40°C). The quality of blood components prepared using Phase 22 packs and CompoCool-WB (Fresenius HemoCare, Germany) was studied. Phase 22 packs reduced the temperature of simulated WB bags from 37 to 24°C in 1·7 ± 0·2 h. Used in combination with VIP boxes, Phase 22 packs maintain the temperature of bags between 20 and 24°C for 15 and 24 h, compared to 2 and 11 h with CompoCool-WB, when exposed at -35 and 40°C, respectively. The quality of platelet concentrates and plasma was comparable, regardless of the cooling system used. For red blood cell units, per cent haemolysis on day 42 was slightly higher in products prepared after cooling with Phase 22 packs compared to CompoCool-WB (0·33 ± 0·15% vs. 0·21 ± 0·06%; P environmental conditions. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  2. Complex layered dental restorations: Are they recognizable and do they survive extreme conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Alistair S; Bush, Mary A; Bush, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has shown that restorative dental materials can be recognized by microscopy and elemental analysis (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence; SEM/EDS and XRF) and that this is possible even in extreme conditions, such as cremation. These analytical methods and databases of dental materials properties have proven useful in DVI (disaster victim identification) of a commercial plane crash in 2009, and in a number of other victim identification cases. Dental materials appear on the market with ever expanding frequency. With their advent, newer methods of restoration have been proposed and adopted in the dental office. Methods might include placing multiple layers of dental materials, where they have different properties including adhesion, viscosity, or working time. These different dental materials include filled adhesives, flowable resins, glass ionomer cements, composite resins, liners and sealants. With possible combinations of different materials in these restorations, the forensic odontologist is now confronted with a new difficulty; how to recognize each individual material. The question might be posed if it is even possible to perform this task. Furthermore, an odontologist might be called upon to identify a victim under difficult circumstances, such as when presented with fragmented or incinerated remains. In these circumstances the ability to identify specific dental materials could assist in the identification of the deceased. Key to use of this information is whether these new materials and methods are detailed in the dental chart. Visual or radiographic inspection may not reveal the presence of a restoration, let alone the possible complex nature of that restoration. This study demonstrates another scientific method in forensic dental identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Invariant-Preserving ALE Method for Solids under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-17

    We are proposing a fundamentally new approach to ALE methods for solids undergoing large deformation due to extreme loading conditions. Our approach is based on a physically-motivated and mathematically rigorous construction of the underlying Lagrangian method, vector/tensor reconstruction, remapping, and interface reconstruction. It is transformational because it deviates dramatically from traditionally accepted ALE methods and provides the following set of unique attributes: (1) a three-dimensional, finite volume, cell-centered ALE framework with advanced hypo-/hyper-elasto-plastic constitutive theories for solids; (2) a new physically and mathematically consistent reconstruction method for vector/tensor fields; (3) advanced invariant-preserving remapping algorithm for vector/tensor quantities; (4) moment-of-fluid (MoF) interface reconstruction technique for multi-material problems with solids undergoing large deformations. This work brings together many new concepts, that in combination with emergent cell-centered Lagrangian hydrodynamics methods will produce a cutting-edge ALE capability and define a new state-of-the-art. Many ideas in this work are new, completely unexplored, and hence high risk. The proposed research and the resulting algorithms will be of immediate use in Eulerian, Lagrangian and ALE codes under the ASC program at the lab. In addition, the research on invariant preserving reconstruction/remap of tensor quantities is of direct interest to ongoing CASL and climate modeling efforts at LANL. The application space impacted by this work includes Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), Z-pinch, munition-target interactions, geological impact dynamics, shock processing of powders and shaped charges. The ALE framework will also provide a suitable test-bed for rapid development and assessment of hypo-/hyper-elasto-plastic constitutive theories. Today, there are no invariant-preserving ALE algorithms for treating solids with large deformations. Therefore

  4. PREFACE: International Symposium on Molecular Conductors: Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions (ISMC 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro; Suzumura, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    The International Symposium on Molecular Conductors 2008 (ISMC2008) was held as the second international symposium of the project entitled `Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions', which was supported by the Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The project lasted from September 2003 to March 2008, and was completed by this symposium held at Okazaki Conference Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan (23-25 July 2008), which about 100 scientists attended. During the symposium, five project teams gave summary talks and exciting talks were given on the topics developed recently not only by the members of the project but also by other scientists including invited speakers from abroad, who are doing active research on molecular conductors. It is expected that papers presented in the symposium will give valuable hints for the next step in the research of this field. Therefore the organizers of this symposium decided to publish this proceedings in order to demonstrate these activities, not only for the local community of the project, but also for the broad society of international scientists who are interested in molecular conductors. The editors, who are also the organizers of this symposium, believe that this proceedings provides a significant and relevant contribution to the field of molecular conductors since it is the first time we have published such a proceedings as an electronic journal. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed by expert referees. Editors made every effort to satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. Toshihiro Takahashi and Yoshikazu Suzumura Editors: Toshihiro Takahashi (Gakushuin University) (Chairman) Kazushi Kanoda (University of Tokyo) Seiichi Kagoshima (University of Tokyo) Takehiko Mori (Tokyo

  5. Atmospheric conditions associated with extreme fire activity in the Western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraoui, Malik; Pereira, Mário G; DaCamara, Carlos C; Calado, Teresa J

    2015-08-15

    Active fire information provided by TERRA and AQUA instruments on-board sun-synchronous polar MODIS platform is used to describe fire activity in the Western Mediterranean and to identify and characterize the synoptic patterns of several meteorological fields associated with the occurrence of extreme fire activity episodes (EEs). The spatial distribution of the fire pixels during the period of 2003-2012 leads to the identification of two most affected sub-regions, namely the Northern and Western parts of the Iberian Peninsula (NWIP) and Northern Africa (NAFR). The temporal distribution of the fire pixels in these two sub-regions is characterized by: (i) high and non-concurrent inter- and intra-annual variability with maximum values during the summer of 2003 and 2005 in NWIP and 2007 and 2012 in NAFR; and, (ii) high intra-annual variability dominated by a prominent annual cycle with a main peak centred in August in both sub-regions and a less pronounced secondary peak in March only evident in NWIP region. The 34 EEs identified were grouped according to the location, period of occurrence and spatial configuration of the associated synoptic patterns into 3 clusters (NWIP-summer, NWIP-winter and NAFR-summer). Results from the composite analysis reveal similar fire weather conditions (statistically significant positive anomalies of air temperature and negative anomalies of air relative humidity) but associated with different circulation patterns at lower and mid-levels of the atmosphere associated with the occurrence of EEs in each cluster of the Western Mediterranean region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The extreme condition analyzing for NEMPI shielding of electronic system in high-intensity pulsed radiation diagnosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaolei; Liu Fang; Ouyang Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    The difficulty for estimating the NEMPI (electromagnetic pulsed interference caused by the nuclear reaction) on the electronic system in high-intensity pulsed radiation diagnosing is analyzed in this article. To solve the difficulty, a method called 'Extreme Condition Analyzing' is presented for estimating the NEMPI conservatively and reliably. Through an extreme condition hypothesizing which could be described as 'Entire Coupling of Electric Field Energy', the E max (maximum electric field intensity which could be endured by the electronic system in the high-intensity pulsed radiation) could be figured out without any other information of the EMP caused by the nuclear reaction. Then a feasibility inspection is introduced, to confirm that the EMPI shielding request according to E max is not too extreme to be achieved. (authors)

  7. Safety analysis of spent fuel transport and storage casks under extreme impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, D.; Wieser, G.; Ballheimer, V.; Voelzke, H.; Droste, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Worldwide the security of transport and storage of spent fuel with respect to terrorism threats is a matter of concern. In Germany a spent nuclear fuel management program was developed by the government including a new concept of dry on-site interim storage instead of centralized interim storage. In order to minimize transports of spent fuel casks between nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants and central storage facilities, the operators of NPPs have to erect and to use interim storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel on the site or in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Up to now, 11 on-site interim storage buildings, one storage tunnel and 4 on-site interim storage areas (preliminary cask storage till the on-site interim storage building is completed) have been licensed at 12 nuclear power plant sites. Inside the interim storage buildings the casks are kept in upright position, whereas at the preliminary interim storage areas horizontal storage of the casks on concrete slabs is used and each cask is covered by concrete elements. Storage buildings and concrete elements are designed only for gamma and neutron radiation shielding reasons and as weather protection. Therefore the security of spent fuel inside a dual purpose transport and storage cask depends on the inherent safety of the cask itself. For nearly three decades BAM has been investigating cask safety under severe accident conditions like drop tests from more than 9 m onto different targets and without impact limiters as well as artificially damaged prototype casks. Since the terror attacks of 11 September 2001 the determination of casks' inherent safety also under extreme impact conditions due to terrorist attacks has been of our increasing interest. With respect to spent fuel storage one of the most critical scenarios of a terrorist attack for a cask is the centric impact of a dynamic load onto the lid-seal-system caused e.g. by direct aircraft crash or its engine as well as by a

  8. Reactive Desorption of CO Hydrogenation Products under Cold Pre-stellar Core Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, K.-J.; Fedoseev, G.; Qasim, D.; Ioppolo, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2018-02-01

    The astronomical gas-phase detection of simple species and small organic molecules in cold pre-stellar cores, with abundances as high as ∼10‑8–10‑9 n H, contradicts the generally accepted idea that at 10 K, such species should be fully frozen out on grain surfaces. A physical or chemical mechanism that results in a net transfer from solid-state species into the gas phase offers a possible explanation. Reactive desorption, i.e., desorption following the exothermic formation of a species, is one of the options that has been proposed. In astronomical models, the fraction of molecules desorbed through this process is handled as a free parameter, as experimental studies quantifying the impact of exothermicity on desorption efficiencies are largely lacking. In this work, we present a detailed laboratory study with the goal of deriving an upper limit for the reactive desorption efficiency of species involved in the CO–H2CO–CH3OH solid-state hydrogenation reaction chain. The limit for the overall reactive desorption fraction is derived by precisely investigating the solid-state elemental carbon budget, using reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy and the calibrated solid-state band-strength values for CO, H2CO and CH3OH. We find that for temperatures in the range of 10 to 14 K, an upper limit of 0.24 ± 0.02 for the overall elemental carbon loss upon CO conversion into CH3OH. This corresponds with an effective reaction desorption fraction of ≤0.07 per hydrogenation step, or ≤0.02 per H-atom induced reaction, assuming that H-atom addition and abstraction reactions equally contribute to the overall reactive desorption fraction along the hydrogenation sequence. The astronomical relevance of this finding is discussed.

  9. Extreme conditioning programs and injury risk in a US Army Brigade Combat Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; McNulty, Vancil; Jones, Bruce H

    2013-01-01

    Brigades and battalions throughout the US Army are currently implementing a variety of exercise and conditioning programs with greater focus on preparation for mission-specific tasks. An Army physical therapy clinic working with a light infantry brigade developed the Advanced Tactical Athlete Conditioning (ATAC) program. The ATAC program is a unique physical training program consisting of high-intensity aquatic exercises, tactical agility circuits, combat core conditioning, and interval speed training. Along with ATAC, battalions have also incorporated components of fitness programs such as the Ranger Athlete Warrior program and CrossFit (Crossfit, Inc, Santa Monica, CA) an extreme conditioning program (ECP). To determine if these new programs (ATAC, ECP) had an effect on injury rates and physical fitness. Surveys were administered to collect personal characteristics, tobacco use, personal physical fitness training, Army physical fitness test results, and self-reported injuries. Medical record injury data were obtained 6 months before and 6 months after the implementation of the new program. Predictors of injury risk were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Injury incidence among Soldiers increased 12% for overall injuries and 16% for overuse injuries after the implementation of the ATAC/ECPs. However, injury incidence among Soldiers not participating in ATAC/ECPs also increased 14% for overall injuries and 10% for overuse injuries. Risk factors associated with higher injury risk for Soldiers participating in ATAC/ECPs included: greater mileage run per week during unit physical training (OR (>16 miles per week÷≤7 miles per week)=2.24, 95% CI, 1.33-3.80); higher body mass index (BMI) (OR (BMI 25-29.9÷BMI<25)=1.77, 95% CI, 1.29-2.44), (OR (BMI =30÷BMI<25)=2.72, 95% CI, 1.67-4.43); cigarette use (OR (smoker÷nonsmoker)=1.80, 95% CI, 1.34-2.42); poor performance on the 2-mile run during

  10. Proteomic Characterization of Inbreeding-Related Cold Sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, C.J.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie; Beck, Hans C.

    2013-01-01

    insight into the molecular interplay between intrinsic stress responses, inbreeding depression and temperature tolerance, we performed a proteomic characterization of a well-defined conditional inbreeding effect in a single line of Drosophila melanogaster, which suffers from extreme cold sensitivity...

  11. [Influence of industrial pollution of ambient air on health of workers engaged into open air activities in cold conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashchin, V P; Siurin, S A; Gudkov, A B; Popova, O N; Voronin, A Iu

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study on assessment of occupational exposure to air pollutants and related health effects in3792 outdoor workers engaged in operations performed in the vicinity of non-ferrous metallurgical facilities in Far North. Findings are that during cold season repeated climate and weather conditions are associated with higher level of chemical hazards and dust in surface air. At the air temperature below -17 degrees C, maximal single concentrations of major pollutants can exceed MAC up to 10 times. With that, transitory disablement morbidity parameters and occupational accidents frequency increase significantly. The workers with long exposure to cooling meteorological factors and air pollution demonstrate significantly increased prevalence of respiratory and circulatory diseases, despite relatively low levels of sculpture dioxide and dust in the air, not exceeding the occupational exposure limits. It has been concluded that severe cold is to be considered asa factor increasing occupational risk at air polluted outdoor worksites dueto more intense air pollution, higher traumatism risk and lower efficiency of filter antidust masks respiratory PPE and due to modification of the toxic effects.

  12. Research on frost formation in air source heat pump at cold-moist conditions in central-south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Guangcai; Tang, Jinchen; Lv, Dongyan; Wang, Hongjin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ►A dynamic evaporator model is built up. ► The model involves the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air. ►A correlation considering d eq is shown below to predict frost accumulation: (M fr v 3 )/(Ψd eq 2 ) =((T a )/(T w ) ) 0.1 ((vτ)/(d eq ) ) 0.7 (l/(d eq ) ) 1.378 X a 1.228 . ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of system performance. ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of frost accumulation. -- Abstract: A dynamic evaporator model of air source heat pump (ASHP), considering the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air, is presented to analyze the performance of ASHP under frosting. The performance parameters, such as the heating capacity, COP and the outlet temperature of compressor, are simulated with CYCLEPAD. Then a semi-empirical correlation that predicts frost accumulation on the air-side of fin-tube heat exchanger is developed with dimensionless analysis and also modified by a test conducted under cold-moist conditions in winter. In addition, eight influence factors are considered involving the ambient conditions and structures of heat exchanger, whose effects are analyzed as well. Among them, the equivalent diameter of air flow cross-section in fin-tube d eq is especially proposed. Lastly, the relationships between the ratio, the performance parameters and the frost accumulation are discussed in this paper, followed by an evaluation of an optimal defrosting time interval to improve the ASHP’s energy efficiency and operational reliability at cold-moist conditions in central-south China.

  13. The study of tribological and corrosion behavior of plasma nitrided 34CrNiMo6 steel under hot and cold wall conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniee, A.; Mahboubi, F.; Soleimani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 34CrNiMo6 steel was plasma nitrided under hot and cold wall conditions. • The amount of ε phase in hot wall condition was more than that of cold wall condition. • Wear resistance of hot wall nitrided samples was more than cold wall treated ones. • Hot wall nitriding provides better corrosion behavior than cold wall nitriding. - Abstract: This paper reports on a comparative study of tribological and corrosion behavior of plasma nitrided 34CrNiMo6 low alloy steel under modern hot wall condition and conventional cold wall condition. Plasma nitriding was carried out at 500 °C and 550 °C with a 25% N 2 + 75% H 2 gas mixture for 8 h. The wall temperature of the chamber in hot wall condition was set to 400 °C. The treated specimens were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness and surface roughness techniques. The wear test was performed by pin-on-disc method. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were also used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the samples. The results demonstrated that in both nitriding conditions, wear and corrosion resistance of the treated samples decrease with increasing temperature from 500 °C to 550 °C. Moreover, nitriding under hot wall condition at the same temperature provided slightly better tribological and corrosion behavior in comparison with cold wall condition. In consequence, the lowest friction coefficient, and highest wear and corrosion resistance were found on the sample treated under hot wall condition at 500 °C, which had the maximum surface hardness and ε-Fe 2–3 N phase

  14. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 2 The cold mass assembly is resting on special supports in order to allow the finishing operations. Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 3 View of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. One can also see the light building surrounding the finishing station, which purpose is to isolate the laser measuring machines from disturbances. Photo 5 The extremity of the shri...

  15. EXTREME METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND METABOLIC PROFILE IN HIGH YIELDING HOLSTEINFRIESIAN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. GERGÁCZ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of two years (2002 and 2003 with different summer temperature extremes on variation in metabolic profile was analyzed in blood and urine samples taken from healthy, primiparous (n = 371 and multiparous (n = 795 high yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. In this study main focus was lead on three most critical physiological phases, thus cows were assigned into three groups as follows: (1 dry cows for 10 days prior to calving; (2 cows 1-30 days after delivery, and (3 cows with more than 31 days post partum. Findings reveal clear response of the cows to heat in selected blood (hemoglobin, plasma aceto-acetic-acid, FFA, AST, glucose, urea and urine (pH, NABE and urea parameters. In the majority of cows, glucose and hemoglobin level, one of the most significant blood parameters, indicated symptoms of insufficient energy supply. Further metabolic indicators differed more or less from reference values depending on actual condition. Due to heat load dry matter intake has been decreased even by 10-15 per cent in primiparous cows. They were expected to increase body weight and size and simultaneously produce attain at large milk yields. In doing so that cows would have require large amount of nutrients. Out of parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, FFA, AST and blood-urea differed from the reference values in most cases; however, this phenomenon seemed to be present in almost every case for hemoglobin and glucose. The lack of energy caused by heat stress can be contributed to the decrease of dry matter intake which has been indicated by the urea levels and pH both in blood and urine prevailing unfavorable and insufficient feeding practice. The results reconfirm the need to reconsider both the actual feeding practice (e.g. to increase of nutrient content in rations, reduce the intake of soluble proteins in rumen, pay attention of crude fiber in Total Mixed Rations (TMR, NDF and ADF, avoid overfeeding of inorganic buffers, to control moisture

  16. Modeling of the cold work stress relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes mechanical behavior under PWR operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.; Delobelle, P.; Leclercq, S.; Bouffioux, P.; Rousselier, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a damaged viscoplastic model to simulate, for different isotherms (320, 350, 380, 400 and 420 degC), the out-of-flux anisotropic mechanical behavior of cold work stress relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes over the fluence range 0-85.1024 nm -2 (E > 1 MeV). The model, identified from uni and biaxial tests conducted at 350 and 400 degC, is validated from tests performed at 320, 380 and 420 degC. This model is able to simulate strain hardening under internal pressure followed by a stress relaxation period (thermal creep), which is representative of a pellet cladding mechanical interaction occurring during a power transient (class 2 incidental condition). Both the integration of a scalar state variable, characterizing the damage caused by a bombardment with neutrons, and the modification of the static recovery law allowed us to simulate the fast neutron flux effect (irradiation creep). (author)

  17. Condition and biochemical profile of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured at different depths in a cold water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardi, Daria; Mills, Terry; Donnet, Sebastien; Parrish, Christopher C.; Murray, Harry M.

    2017-08-01

    The growth and health of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are affected by environmental conditions. Typically, culture sites are situated in sheltered areas near shore (i.e., 20 m depth) mussel culture has been growing. This study evaluated the effect of culture depth on blue mussels in a cold water coastal environment (Newfoundland, Canada). Culture depth was examined over two years from September 2012 to September 2014; mussels from three shallow water (5 m) and three deep water (15 m) sites were compared for growth and biochemical composition; culture depths were compared for temperature and chlorophyll a. Differences between the two years examined were noted, possibly due to harsh winter conditions in the second year of the experiment. In both years shallow and deep water mussels presented similar condition; in year 2 deep water mussels had a significantly better biochemical profile. Lipid and glycogen analyses showed seasonal variations, but no significant differences between shallow and deep water were noted. Fatty acid profiles showed a significantly higher content of omega-3 s (20:5ω3; EPA) and lower content of bacterial fatty acids in deep water sites in year 2. Everything considered, deep water appeared to provide a more favorable environment for mussel growth than shallow water under harsher weather conditions.

  18. Kinetics of Quality Changes of Pangasius Fillets at Stable and Dynamic Temperatures, Simulating Downstream Cold Chain Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nga Mai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was about the quality changes of Pangasius fillets during storage under simulated temperature conditions of downstream cold chain. Sensory, chemical, and microbiological analyses were conducted over storage time and bacterial growth was modelled. Sensory quality index (QI, at five stable (1, 4, 9, 15, and 19 ± 1°C and three dynamic temperatures, progressed faster at higher temperatures, especially with sooner temperature abuses. Total volatile basic nitrogen remained under the acceptable limit throughout all the storage conditions. Total viable psychrotrophic counts (TVC were around 5.68 ± 0.24 log CFU g−1 at the beginning and exceeded the limit of 6 log CFU g−1 after 216, 96, 36, 16, and 7 h at 1, 4, 9, 15, and 19 ± 1°C, respectively. Meanwhile, Pseudomonas counts started at 3.81 ± 0.53 log CFU g−1 and reached 4.60–6.36 log CFU g−1 by the time of TVC rejection. Since lower shelf lives were given by TVC rather than QI, it should be appropriate to base the product shelf life on the TVC acceptable limit. Kinetics models based on the Baranyi and Roberts and square root models, developed for TVC and Pseudomonas spp., gave acceptable bacterial estimations at dynamic temperatures, with over 80% of observed counts within the acceptable simulation zone, revealing promising model applicability as a supporting tool for cold chain management. However, further improvement and validation of the models are needed.

  19. Unusual spontaneous cold auto-hemagglutination phenomenon in blood units stored under blood bank condition: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmukh R Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cold agglutinins (CA are benign naturally occurring low titer autoantibodies present in most individuals. Those with moderate strength are found in infections, malignancies or autoimmune conditions with diagnostic importance. Aim: Present report deals with CA that brought spontaneous hemagglutination in blood units stored at 2-6°C. Study design: Over 32 months period between July 1993 and December 1995, blood units were inspected for spontaneous cold auto-hemagglutination (SpCA phenomenon. The plasma from these units was separated and investigated for serological specificity using in house red cell panel and standard serological methods. Results: Among 51,671 blood units, 112 units showed SpCA phenomenon. A rising trend seen in first half of study period significantly fell in remaining half. Specificities of the antibodies detected include anti-I (27, anti-i (53, anti-Pr (21 with remaining few being undetermined specificity. Absorption of serum using enzyme-treated red cells revealed a presence of anti-Pr among the cases, the two of which with new specificities that reacted preferentially with red cells from either new-born or adults and were tentatively named as anti-Pr Fetal and anti-Pr adult , respectively. While 9 cases showed optimum reaction at neutral pH of 7, 68 (62% cases reacted at pH 5.8 through 8.0, 28 (26% cases preferred an acidic pH 5.8 and 4 cases opted an alkaline pH 8. Of 28 cases with antibodies preferentially reacting in acidic medium, 17 (60% cases were anti-i and 7 (25% cases were anti-Pr. Conclusion: Unique SpCA phenomenon observed in blood units stored under blood bank conditions seems to be due to CA developed in response to vector-borne infectious agents. Majority of the cases displayed their specificities, otherwise are rare to be encountered.

  20. Marine cold seeps and their manifestations: geological control, biogeochemical criteria and environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Erwin

    2014-10-01

    Characteristics of cold seeps at different geologic settings are the subject of this review primarily based on results of the Research Consortium SFB 574. Criteria are drawn from examples on the erosive convergent margin off Costa Rica, the accretionary margin off Chile supplemented by examples from the transform margin of the Golf of Cadiz and the convergent Hikurangi margin off New Zealand. Others are from well-studied passive margins of the Black Sea, the Golf of Mexico, the eastern Mediterranean Sea and the South China Sea. Seeps at all settings transport water and dissolved compounds to the ocean through the seafloor by different forcing mechanism and from different depths of the submerged geosphere (10s of meters to 10s of km). The compounds sustain oasis-type ecosystems by providing bioactive reductants sulfide, methane and hydrogen. Hereby, the interaction between fluid composition, flux rates and biota results in a diagnostic hydrocarbon-metazoan-microbe-carbonate association; currently, well over 100 active sites are known. The single most important reaction is microbially mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane with secondary reactions involving S-biogeochemistry and carbonate mineral precipitation. Seep fluids and their seafloor manifestations provide clues as to source depth, fluid-sediment/rock interaction during ascent, lifetime and cyclicity of seepage events but less so on the magnitude of return flow. At erosive margins, Cl-depleted and B-enriched fluids from clay dehydration provide criteria for source depth and temperature. The upward material flow generates mud volcanoes at the seafloor above the projected location of dehydration at depth. At accretionary margins, fluids are derived from more shallow depths by compaction of sediments as they ride on the incoming oceanic plate; they are emitted through thrust faults. At highly sedimented margins, organic-rich and evaporite-containing strata (when present) determine the final fluid composition

  1. Crystallization and Thermoelectric Transport in Semiconductor Micro- and Nanostructures Under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokirmak, Ali [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Silva, Helena [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2017-08-30

    This project focused on thermoelectric transport in semiconductor micro and nanostructures where moderate and typical operating voltages and currents lead to extreme thermal gradients and current densities. Models that describe behavior of semiconducting materials typically assume an equilibrium condition or slight deviations from it. In these cases the generation-recombination processes are assumed to have reached a local equilibrium for a given temperature. Hence, free carrier concentrations and their mobilities, band-gap, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric properties, mobility of atoms and mechanical properties of the material, can be described as a function of temperature. In the case of PN junctions under electrical bias, carrier concentrations can change up to ~ 1020 cm-3 and a drift-diffusion approximation is typically used to obtain the carrier concentrations while assuming that the material properties do not change. In non-equilibrium conditions, the assumption that the material properties remain the same may not be valid. While the increased conduction-band electron concentration may not have a drastic effect on the material, large hole concentration is expected to soften the material as ‘a hole’ comes into existence as a broken bond in the lattice. As the hole density approaches 1022 cm-3, the number of bonds holding the lattice together is significantly reduced, making it easier to break additional bonds, reduce band-gap and inhibit phonon transport. As these holes move away from where they were generated, local properties are expected to deviate significantly from the equilibrium case. Hence, temperature alone is not sufficient to describe the behavior of the material. The behavior of the solid material close to a molten region (liquid-solid interfaces) is also expected to deviate from the equilibrium case as a function of hole injection rate, which can be drastically increased or decreased in the presence of an electric field. In the past years

  2. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.

  3. Investigating the Effects of Simulated Space conditions on Novel Extremely Halophilic Archaea: Halovarius Luteus gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshangsaz, Niloofar; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Nazmi, Kamran; Semsarha, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Studying halophiles from different environments of Earth provide new insights into our search for life in the universe. Haloarchaea show some unique characteristics and physiological adaptations like acidic proteins against harsh environments such as natural brine with salt concentration approaching saturation (5 M) and regions with low active water. These properties make haloarchaea interesting candidate for astrobiological studies. Halovarius luteus gen. nov., sp. nov. a novel extremely halophilic archaeon from Urmia salt lake, in Iran has been chosen to explore its resistance against a series of extreme conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the resistance of strain DA50T under the effects of simulated space conditions like simulated microgravity, hypergravity, and desiccation. In this paper we will discuss the results of these studies where we specifically focus on changes in carotenoid pigments production and whole cell proteome. This is the first report of very novel Iranian archaea in response to extreme space conditions. The pigments were extracted by acetone and methanol. Pigments were analyzed by scanning the absorbance spectrum in the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. And they were separated by TLC. Whole protein from cell lysate supernatant was extracted after lysis with Bacterial Protein Extraction Reagent and fractionated by RP-HPLC using C18 column. Proteome analyzed by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and MALDI-TOF. Carotenoid pigments are formed under different extreme conditions such as dry environment and gravitational changes. Also the protein composition exhibits alterations after exposure to the same conditions. Our conclusion is that pigments and proteins formation depend on the growth circumstances. Halophiles use this as an adaptation to survive under different environmental conditions.

  4. The Support of Air Operations Under Extreme Hot and Cold Weather Conditions (Les Operatons Aeriennes en Environnement Extreme Chaud/Froid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    as using huarnu data alone, Le. the predicted values abandon thei aircraft over snob terain face the biuarde outside the range of the Imarnu exposure...material’s fire 0 strength and aesthetic appeal . Increased liquid protection. transport causes more liquid to evaporate from the exterior surface; at the

  5. Blowing Hot and Cold: Protecting Against Climatic Extremes (Souffler le chaud et le froid: comment se proteger contre les conditions climstiques extremes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    hereditary abundance, allergy and frequent airways acute inflammatory diseases in anamnesis and have been made routine clinical examination. 23-3 During...have in anamnesis (during last 2 year) 3-4 times and over acute airway inflammatory diseases: 17 persons (31,5%). 19 persons (36%) from both

  6. Thermomechanical and hygroelastic properties of an epoxy system under humid and cold-warm cycling conditions

    KAUST Repository

    El Yagoubi, Jalal; Lubineau, Gilles; Saghir, Shahid; Verdu, Jacques; Askari, Abe H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the hygrothermal aging of an anhydride-cured epoxy under temperature and hygrometry conditions simulating those experienced by an aircraft in wet tropical or subtropical regions. Gravimetric and dimensional measurements were performed and they indicate that there are three stages in this aging process: the first one, corresponding to the early cycles can be called the "induction stage". The second stage of about 1000 cycles duration, could be named the "swelling stage", during which the volume increase is almost equal to the volume of the (liquid) water absorbed. Both the first and second stages are accompanied by modifications of the mechanical properties and the glass transition temperature. During the third ("equilibrium") stage, up to 3000 cycles, there is no significant change in the physical properties despite the continuous increase of water uptake. This can be explained by the fact that only physically sorbed water can influence physical properties. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Herrera , R.; Diaz , J.; Trigo , R. M.; Hernández , E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal) and Madrid (Spain). Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid). The impact of most intense heat events is very ...

  8. Sediment Dynamics Within Buffer Zone and Sinkhole Splay Areas Under Extreme Soil Disturbance Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Jon E; Crim, Jackie F; Williard, Karl W J; Groninger, John W; Zaczek, James J; Pattumma, Klairoong

    2015-09-01

    Sedimentation dynamics were assessed in sinkholes within training areas at Ft. Knox Military Installation, a karst landscape subjected to decades of tracked vehicle use and extreme soil disturbance. Sinkholes sampled were sediment-laden and behaved as intermittent ponds. Dendrogeomorphic analyses were conducted using willow trees (Salix spp.) located around the edge of 18 sinkholes to estimate historical sedimentation rates, and buried bottles were installed in 20 sinkholes at the center, outer edge, and at the midpoint between the center and edge to estimate annual sedimentation rates. Sedimentation data were coupled with vegetation characteristics of sinkhole buffers to determine relationships among these variables. The dendrogeomorphic method estimated an average accumulation rate of 1.27 cm year(-1) translating to a sediment loss rate of 46.1 metric ton year(-1) from the training areas. However, sediment export to sinkholes was estimated to be much greater (118.6 metric ton year(-1)) via the bottle method. These data suggest that the latter method provided a more accurate estimate since accumulation was greater in the center of sinkholes compared to the periphery where dendrogeomorphic data were collected. Vegetation data were not tightly correlated with sedimentation rates, suggesting that further research is needed to identify a viable proxy for direct measures of sediment accumulation in this extreme deposition environment. Mitigation activities for the sinkholes at Ft. Knox's tank training area, and other heavily disturbed karst environments where extreme sedimentation exists, should consider focusing on flow path and splay area management.

  9. Effect of cold cap boundary conditions on Joule-heating flow in the sloping bottom cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jiaju; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Tsuzuki, Nobuyoshi; Kikura, Hiroshige

    2015-01-01

    Flow behavior in a sloping bottom cavity is observed to study the effect of cavity shape on flow behavior for Joule-heating flow. In the former study, a simple cubic cavity is applied to study the chaotic flow behavior of Joule-heating convection due to simplification as the real melter case is complicated. In this study, a sloping bottom cavity of the dimension one-fifth of the actual melter is applied to study the detail flow behavior. Carbon electrodes and top cooling surface are placed to make Joule-heating and the chaotic flow behavior. The working fluid is 80%wt Glycerol-water solution with LiCl as electrolyte. To observe the chaotic flow behavior spatio-temporally, Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP) is applied in this experiment to obtain the one-dimensional continuous velocity profiles in the center line of cavity. Particle Image Velocity (PIV) method is also applied to observe the two-dimensional flow behavior and to examine the cross-check between UVP and PIV for the chaotic flow behavior with temperature distribution. The flow profiles of the former cubic cavity and the sloping bottom cavity are compared changing voltage magnitude and cooling temperature of the electrodes side to analyze the effect of cavity shape under Joule-heating condition. The flow behavior in the upper part of the sloping bottom cavity is similar to that in the cubic cavity in the experiment in whole cavity, the range down-flow achieved is larger than the cubic cavity. (author)

  10. Study of tensile test behavior of austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes in cold worked condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terui, Clarice, E-mail: clarice.terui@marinha.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CINA/CTMSP), Iperó, SP (Brazil). Centro Industrial Nuclear da Marinha; Lima, Nelson B. de, E-mail: nblima@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    These austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes are potential candidates to be used in fuel elements of nuclear power plants (as PWR - Pressurized Water Reactor). So, their metallurgical condition and mechanical properties, as the tensile strength and yield strength, normally are very restrict in demanding project and design requirements. Several full size tensile tests at room temperature and high temperature (315 deg C) were performed in these seamless tubes in cold-worked condition. The results of specified tensile and yield strengths were achieved but the elongation of the tube, in the geometry of the component, could not be measured at high temperature due to unconventional mode of rupture (helical mode without separation of parts). The average value of elongation was obtained from stress-strain curves of hot tensile tests and was around 5%. The results obtained in this research show that this behavior of the full size tensile test samples of thin-walled tube (wall thickness less than 0.5 mm) in high temperature (315°C) is due to the combination of the manufacturing process, the material (crystallographic structure and chemical composition) and the final geometry of the component. In other words, the strong crystallographic texture of material induced by tube drawing process in addition with the geometry of the component are responsible for the behavior in hot uniaxial tensile tests. (author)

  11. Wetting Behavior of Molten AZ61 Magnesium Alloy on Two Different Steel Plates Under the Cold Metal Transfer Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZENG Cheng-zong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The wetting behavior and interfacial microstructures of molten magnesium AZ61 alloy on the surface of two different Q235 and galvanized steel plates under the condition of cold metal transfer were investigated by using dynamic sessile drop method. The results show that the wetting behavior is closely related to the wire feed speed. Al-Fe intermetallic layer was observed whether the substrate is Q235 steel or galvanized steel, and the formation of Al-Fe intermetallic layer should satisfy the thermodynamic condition of such Mg-Al/Fe system. The wettability of molten AZ61 magnesium alloy is improved with the increase of wire feed speed whether on Q235 steel surface or on galvanized steel surface, good wettability on Q235 steel surface is due to severe interface reaction when wire feed speed increases, good wettability on galvanized steel surface is attributed to the aggravating zinc volatilization. When the wire feed speed is ≤10.5m·min-1, the wettability of Mg alloy on Q235 steel plate is better than on galvanized steel plate. However, Zn vapor will result in instability for metal transfer process.

  12. Autophagy sustains the survival of human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells under extreme nutrient deprivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Park, Hye-Jin; Jeong, Hye Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Jung; Kim, Minyeong; Bae, Ok-Nam; Baek, Seung-Hoon

    2015-07-31

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas are an extremely aggressive and devastating type of cancer with high mortality. Given the dense stroma and poor vascularization, accessibility to nutrients is limited in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we aimed to elucidate the role of autophagy in promoting the survival of human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells exposed to nutrient-deprived media (NDM) lacking glucose, amino acids, and serum. NDM inhibited Akt activity and phosphorylation of p70 S6K, and induced AMPK activation and mitochondrial depolarization. NDM also time-dependently increased LC3-II accumulation, number of GFP-LC3 puncta, and colocalization between GFP-LC3 and lysosomes. These results suggested that autophagy was progressively activated through Akt- and AMPK-mTOR pathway in nutrient-deficient PANC-1 cells. Autophagy inhibitors (chloroquine and wortmannin) or silencing of Atg5 augmented PANC-1 cell death in NDM. In cells exposed to NDM, chloroquine and wortmannin induced apoptosis and Z-VAD-fmk inhibited cytotoxicity of these inhibitors. These data demonstrate that autophagy is anti-apoptotic and sustains the survival of PANC-1 cells following extreme nutrient deprivation. Autophagy modulation may be a viable therapeutic option for cancer cells located in the core of solid tumors with a nutrient-deficient microenvironment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the eastern and western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, U.; Nissen, K.; Ulbrich, U.

    2015-11-01

    This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes that produce heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the western and eastern Mediterranean in order to point out specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the adjacent Mediterranean Sea but also from distant upwind sources. Transport from remote sources is usually in the mid-tropospheric layers and associated with specific features and patterns of the larger-scale circulations. The synoptic systems (tropical and extratropical) that account for most of the major extreme precipitation events and the coupling of circulation and extreme rainfall patterns are presented. Heavy rainfall over the Mediterranean Basin is caused at times in concert by several atmospheric processes working at different atmospheric scales, such as local convection, upper synoptic-scale-level troughs, and mesoscale convective systems. Under tropical air-mass intrusions, convection generated by static instability seems to play a more important role than synoptic-scale vertical motions. Locally, the occurrence of torrential rains and their intensity is dependent on factors such as temperature profiles and implied instability, atmospheric moisture, and lower-level convergence.

  14. Impact of urban WWTP and CSO fluxes on river peak flow extremes under current and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keupers, Ingrid; Willems, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The impact of urban water fluxes on the river system outflow of the Grote Nete catchment (Belgium) was studied. First the impact of the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and the Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) outflows on the river system for the current climatic conditions was determined by simulating the urban fluxes as point sources in a detailed, hydrodynamic river model. Comparison was made of the simulation results on peak flow extremes with and without the urban point sources. In a second step, the impact of climate change scenarios on the urban fluxes and the consequent impacts on the river flow extremes were studied. It is shown that the change in the 10-year return period hourly peak flow discharge due to climate change (-14% to +45%) was in the same order of magnitude as the change due to the urban fluxes (+5%) in current climate conditions. Different climate change scenarios do not change the impact of the urban fluxes much except for the climate scenario that involves a strong increase in rainfall extremes in summer. This scenario leads to a strong increase of the impact of the urban fluxes on the river system.

  15. Influence of extreme low temperature conditions on the dynamic mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaoutsos, S. P.; Zilidou, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    In the current study dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is performed in CFRPs that have been exposed for certain periods of time to extreme low temperatures. Through experimental data arising from respective DMA tests the influence of low temperature exposure (-40 °C) on the dynamic mechanical properties is studied. DMA tests were conducted in CFRP specimens in three point bending mode at both frequency and thermal scans in order to determine the viscoelastic response of the material in low temperatures. All experimental tests were run both for aged and pristine materials for comparison purposes. The results occurred reveal that there is deterioration both on transition temperature (Tg) and storage modulus values while there is also a moderate increase in the damping ability of the tested material as expressed by the factor tanδ as the period of exposure to low temperature increases.

  16. The cold climate geomorphology of the Eastern Cape Drakensberg: A reevaluation of past climatic conditions during the last glacial cycle in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, SC; Barrows, TT; Telfer, MW; Fifield, LK

    2017-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: The cold climate geomorphology of the Eastern Cape Drakensberg: A reevaluation of past climatic conditions during the last glacial cycle in Southern Africa journaltitle: Geomorphology articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.11.011 content_type: article copyright: Crown Copyright © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental and theoretical study of electronic structure of aluminum in extreme conditions with X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festa, Floriane

    2013-01-01

    Matter in extreme conditions belongs to Warm Dense Matter regime which lays between dense plasma regime and condensed matter. This regime is still not well known, indeed it is very complex to generate such plasma in the laboratory to get experimental data and validate models. The goal of this thesis is to study electronic structure of aluminum in extreme conditions with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Experimentally aluminum has reached high densities and high temperatures, up to now unexplored. An X-ray source has also been generated to probe highly compressed aluminum. Two spectrometers have recorded aluminum absorption spectra and aluminum density and temperature conditions have been deduced thanks to optical diagnostics. Experimental spectra have been compared to ab initio spectra, calculated in the same conditions. The theoretical goal was to validate the calculation method in high densities and high temperatures regime with the study of K-edge absorption modifications. We also used absorption spectra to study the metal-non metal transition which takes place at low density (density ≤ solid density). This transition could be study with electronic structure modifications of the system. (author) [fr

  18. Surface clay formation during short-term warmer and wetter conditions on a largely cold ancient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Michalski, Joseph R.; Gago-Duport, Luis; Baker, Leslie L.; Velbel, Michael A.; Gross, Christoph; Rampe, Elizabeth B.

    2018-03-01

    The ancient rock record for Mars has long been at odds with climate modelling. The presence of valley networks, dendritic channels and deltas on ancient terrains points towards running water and fluvial erosion on early Mars1, but climate modelling indicates that long-term warm conditions were not sustainable2. Widespread phyllosilicates and other aqueous minerals on the Martian surface3-6 provide additional evidence that an early wet Martian climate resulted in surface weathering. Some of these phyllosilicates formed in subsurface crustal environments5, with no association with the Martian climate, while other phyllosilicate-rich outcrops exhibit layered morphologies and broad stratigraphies7 consistent with surface formation. Here, we develop a new geochemical model for early Mars to explain the formation of these clay-bearing rocks in warm and wet surface locations. We propose that sporadic, short-term warm and wet environments during a generally cold early Mars enabled phyllosilicate formation without requiring long-term warm and wet conditions. We conclude that Mg-rich clay-bearing rocks with lateral variations in mixed Fe/Mg smectite, chlorite, talc, serpentine and zeolite occurrences formed in subsurface hydrothermal environments, whereas dioctahedral (Al/Fe3+-rich) smectite and widespread vertical horizonation of Fe/Mg smectites, clay assemblages and sulphates formed in variable aqueous environments on the surface of Mars. Our model for aluminosilicate formation on Mars is consistent with the observed geological features, diversity of aqueous mineralogies in ancient surface rocks and state-of-the-art palaeoclimate scenarios.

  19. Halophilic archaea on Earth and in space: growth and survival under extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-13

    Salts are abundant on Mars, and any liquid water that is present or may have been present on the planet is expected to be hypersaline. Halophilic archaea (family Halobacteriaceae) are the microorganisms best adapted to life at extremes of salinity on Earth. This paper reviews the properties of the Halobacteriaceae that may make the group good candidates for life also on Mars. Many species resist high UV and gamma radiation levels; one species has survived exposure to vacuum and radiation during a space flight; and there is at least one psychrotolerant species. Halophilic archaea may survive for millions of years within brine inclusions in salt crystals. Many species have different modes of anaerobic metabolism, and some can use light as an energy source using the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. They are also highly tolerant to perchlorate, recently shown to be present in Martian soils, and some species can even use perchlorate as an electron acceptor to support anaerobic growth. The presence of characteristic carotenoid pigments (α-bacterioruberin and derivatives) makes the Halobacteriaceae easy to identify by Raman spectroscopy. Thus, if present on Mars, such organisms may be detected by Raman instrumentation planned to explore Mars during the upcoming ExoMars mission. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Fiber Bragg Grating Dilatometry in Extreme Magnetic Field and Cryogenic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Jaime

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we review single mode SiO2 fiber Bragg grating techniques for dilatometry studies of small single-crystalline samples in the extreme environments of very high, continuous, and pulsed magnetic fields of up to 150 T and at cryogenic temperatures down to <1 K. Distinct millimeter-long materials are measured as part of the technique development, including metallic, insulating, and radioactive compounds. Experimental strategies are discussed for the observation and analysis of the related thermal expansion and magnetostriction of materials, which can achieve a strain sensitivity (ΔL/L as low as a few parts in one hundred million (≈10−8. The impact of experimental artifacts, such as those originating in the temperature dependence of the fiber’s index of diffraction, light polarization rotation in magnetic fields, and reduced strain transfer from millimeter-long specimens, is analyzed quantitatively using analytic models available in the literature. We compare the experimental results with model predictions in the small-sample limit, and discuss the uncovered discrepancies.

  1. Lower Extremity Salvage with Thoracodorsal Artery Perforator Free Flap in Condition of Symmetrical Peripheral Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Yeon Lim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG is rare but devastating complication which is characterized by symmetrical ischemic change of the distal extremities. In this report, we describe our management protocol for SPG, focusing on surgical approaches. Between January 2007 and February 2016, 10 thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP free flaps were performed in 6 patients with SPG. Three patients were male and mean age was 56 (range, 44–69 years. All the patients were in shock. The causes of shock were sepsis in 4 cases, respiratory arrest in 1 case, and hypovolemia in 1 case. Eight transmetatarsal amputations and 2 Lisfranc amputations were performed. Flap sizes ranged from 7 × 11 cm to 25 × 15 cm. There were 3 cases of partial necrosis of the flap: two healed conservatively with dressings and one required skin graft. Three of the patients were later able to walk independently at Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC level 6, one patient could walk independently on level surfaces at FAC level 5, and 2 could walk independently using walking aids, classified at FAC level 4. The average follow-up period was 18 (range, 6–54 months. In patients with SPG, minimal bone amputation and foot salvage with TDAP flaps were successful. Separate reconstruction of bone and soft tissue had good outcomes.

  2. A conditional extreme value theory approach in value-at-risk forecasting: Evidence from Southeastern Europe and USA market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić Selena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the recent financial crisis, the adequacy of different Value-at-Risk (VaR methodologies was heavily questioned. Current practice in VaR assessment relies on modeling the whole distribution of returns. As an alternative, in this paper we model tail behavior of returns, and thus VaR, using conditional Extreme Value Theory (EVT, which combines EVT and GARCH methodology. Moreover, we examine the performance of conditional EVT with the daily returns of seven stock market indices, of which six are from Southeastern Europe (BelexLine, BET, BUX, CROBEX, SBITOP, SOFIX from the period of September 2004 - April 2013, and one from USA market (Standard&Poors 500 Index from the period January 1998 - April 2013. Backtesting of historical daily returns proves that conditional EVT model gives good predictions for all indices and for all confidence levels.

  3. Observations and Predictions of Wave Runup, Extreme Water Levels, and Medium-Term Dune Erosion during Storm Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Suanez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of dune erosion and accretion on the high-energy macrotidal Vougot beach in North Brittany (France over the past decade (2004–2014 has revealed significant morphological changes. Dune toe erosion/accretion records have been compared with extreme water level measurements, defined as the sum of (i astronomic tide; (ii storm surge; and (iii vertical wave runup. Runup parameterization was conducted using swash limits, beach profiles, and hydrodynamic (Hm0, Tm0,–1, and high tide water level—HTWL data sets obtained from high frequency field surveys. The aim was to quantify in-situ environmental conditions and dimensional swash parameters for the best calibration of Battjes [1] runup formula. In addition, an empirical equation based on observed tidal water level and offshore wave height was produced to estimate extreme water levels over the whole period of dune morphological change monitoring. A good correlation between this empirical equation (1.01Hmoξo and field runup measurements (Rmax was obtained (R2 85%. The goodness of fit given by the RMSE was about 0.29 m. A good relationship was noticed between dune erosion and high water levels when the water levels exceeded the dune foot elevation. In contrast, when extreme water levels were below the height of the toe of the dune sediment budget increased, inducing foredune recovery. These erosion and accretion phases may be related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index.

  4. Extreme fire events are related to previous-year surface moisture conditions in permafrost-underlain larch forests of Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forkel, Matthias; Beer, Christian; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cramer, Wolfgang; Bartalev, Sergey; Schmullius, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Wildfires are a natural and important element in the functioning of boreal forests. However, in some years, fires with extreme spread and severity occur. Such severe fires can degrade the forest, affect human values, emit huge amounts of carbon and aerosols and alter the land surface albedo. Usually, wind, slope and dry air conditions have been recognized as factors determining fire spread. Here we identify surface moisture as an additional important driving factor for the evolution of extreme fire events in the Baikal region. An area of 127 000 km 2 burned in this region in 2003, a large part of it in regions underlain by permafrost. Analyses of satellite data for 2002–2009 indicate that previous-summer surface moisture is a better predictor for burned area than precipitation anomalies or fire weather indices for larch forests with continuous permafrost. Our analysis advances the understanding of complex interactions between the atmosphere, vegetation and soil, and how coupled mechanisms can lead to extreme events. These findings emphasize the importance of a mechanistic coupling of soil thermodynamics, hydrology, vegetation functioning, and fire activity in Earth system models for projecting climate change impacts over the next century. (letter)

  5. Structural studies of disordered materials using high-energy x-ray diffraction from ambient to extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Itou, Masayoshi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Suzuya, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (J-PARC/JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Inamura, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (J-PARC/JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sakurai, Yoshiharu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ohishi, Yasuo [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takata, Masaki [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2007-12-19

    High-energy x-rays from a synchrotron radiation source allow us to obtain high-quality diffraction data for disordered materials from ambient to extreme conditions, which is necessary for revealing the detailed structures of glass, liquid and amorphous materials. We introduced high-energy x-ray diffraction beamlines and a dedicated diffractometer for glass, liquid and amorphous materials at SPring-8 and report the recent developments of ancillary equipment. Furthermore, the structures of liquid and amorphous materials determined from the high-energy x-ray diffraction data obtained at SPring-8 are discussed.

  6. Studies of nuclei under the extreme conditions of density, temperature, isospin asymmetry and the phase diagram of hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekjian, Aram [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-10-18

    The main emphasis of the entire project is on issues having to do with medium energy and ultra-relativistic energy and heavy ion collisions. A major goal of both theory and experiment is to study properties of hot dense nuclear matter under various extreme conditions and to map out the phase diagram in density or chemical potential and temperature. My studies in medium energy nuclear collisions focused on the liquid-gas phase transition and cluster yields from such transitions. Here I developed both the statistical model of nuclear multi-fragmentation and also a mean field theory.

  7. Legal and Psychological Fundamentals of Extreme Communication in the Conditions of Hostages Detention (Bibliography Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev V. O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made to generalize and analyze some accumulated scientific knowledge in the sphere of psychological nuances arising in the process of negotiations with criminals in the conditions of hostages detention, the experience shared by Soviet and Russian scientists

  8. Extreme Changes in Stream Geomorphic Conditions induced by Fluvial Scour in Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, O.; Ozcan, O.

    2016-12-01

    The numerous complexities associated with bridge scour have caused scour to be one of the most active topics of stream geomorphic research. The assessment of local scouring mechanism around bridge piers provides information for decision-making regarding the pile footing design, predicting the safety of bridges under critical scoured conditions, and as a result, may help prevent unnecessary loses. In the study, bridge design plans and HEC-RAS modeling were used for the assessment of changes in stream geomorphic conditions. The derived fluvial scour depths were compared with the field measurements and the empirical formula which is based on stream flow discharge rate, streambed condition and shape of river. Preliminary results revealed that bridge damage resulting from the flood event in 2003 induced substantial scour around bridge piles. Afterwards, significant stream bed change was observed under the influence of fluvial scour in another flood occurred in 2009. Consequently, geomorphic conditions of the stream bed should be considered in the structural design of the bridges.

  9. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  10. On the appropriate definition of soil profile configuration and initial conditions for land surface-hydrology models in cold regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapriza-Azuri, Gonzalo; Gamazo, Pablo; Razavi, Saman; Wheater, Howard S.

    2018-06-01

    Arctic and subarctic regions are amongst the most susceptible regions on Earth to global warming and climate change. Understanding and predicting the impact of climate change in these regions require a proper process representation of the interactions between climate, carbon cycle, and hydrology in Earth system models. This study focuses on land surface models (LSMs) that represent the lower boundary condition of general circulation models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs), which simulate climate change evolution at the global and regional scales, respectively. LSMs typically utilize a standard soil configuration with a depth of no more than 4 m, whereas for cold, permafrost regions, field experiments show that attention to deep soil profiles is needed to understand and close the water and energy balances, which are tightly coupled through the phase change. To address this gap, we design and run a series of model experiments with a one-dimensional LSM, called CLASS (Canadian Land Surface Scheme), as embedded in the MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire - Surface and Hydrology) modelling system, to (1) characterize the effect of soil profile depth under different climate conditions and in the presence of parameter uncertainty; (2) assess the effect of including or excluding the geothermal flux in the LSM at the bottom of the soil column; and (3) develop a methodology for temperature profile initialization in permafrost regions, where the system has an extended memory, by the use of paleo-records and bootstrapping. Our study area is in Norman Wells, Northwest Territories of Canada, where measurements of soil temperature profiles and historical reconstructed climate data are available. Our results demonstrate a dominant role for parameter uncertainty, that is often neglected in LSMs. Considering such high sensitivity to parameter values and dependency on the climate condition, we show that a minimum depth of 20 m is essential to adequately represent

  11. On the appropriate definition of soil profile configuration and initial conditions for land surface–hydrology models in cold regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sapriza-Azuri

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Arctic and subarctic regions are amongst the most susceptible regions on Earth to global warming and climate change. Understanding and predicting the impact of climate change in these regions require a proper process representation of the interactions between climate, carbon cycle, and hydrology in Earth system models. This study focuses on land surface models (LSMs that represent the lower boundary condition of general circulation models (GCMs and regional climate models (RCMs, which simulate climate change evolution at the global and regional scales, respectively. LSMs typically utilize a standard soil configuration with a depth of no more than 4 m, whereas for cold, permafrost regions, field experiments show that attention to deep soil profiles is needed to understand and close the water and energy balances, which are tightly coupled through the phase change. To address this gap, we design and run a series of model experiments with a one-dimensional LSM, called CLASS (Canadian Land Surface Scheme, as embedded in the MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire – Surface and Hydrology modelling system, to (1 characterize the effect of soil profile depth under different climate conditions and in the presence of parameter uncertainty; (2 assess the effect of including or excluding the geothermal flux in the LSM at the bottom of the soil column; and (3 develop a methodology for temperature profile initialization in permafrost regions, where the system has an extended memory, by the use of paleo-records and bootstrapping. Our study area is in Norman Wells, Northwest Territories of Canada, where measurements of soil temperature profiles and historical reconstructed climate data are available. Our results demonstrate a dominant role for parameter uncertainty, that is often neglected in LSMs. Considering such high sensitivity to parameter values and dependency on the climate condition, we show that a minimum depth of 20 m is essential to

  12. Extreme temperatures increase the deleterious consequences of inbreeding under laboratory and semi-natural conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Barker, J. Stuart F.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie

    2008-01-01

    when compared with non-inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster under different temperature conditions. Egg-to-adult viability, developmental time and sex ratio of emerging adults are studied under low, intermediate and high temperatures under laboratory as well as semi-natural conditions. The results...... show inbreeding depression for egg-to-adult viability. The level of inbreeding depression is highly dependent on test temperature and is observed only at low and high temperatures. Inbreeding did not affect the developmental time or the sex ratio of emerging adults. However, temperature affected...... the sex ratio with more females relative to males emerging at low temperatures, suggesting that selection against males in pre-adult life stages is stronger at low temperatures. The coefficient of variation (CV) of egg-to-adult viability within and among lines is higher for inbred flies and generally...

  13. Novel portable press for synchrotron time-resolved 3-D micro-imagining under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, J.; Le Godec, Y., E-mail: yann.legodec@impmc.upmc.fr; Bergame, F.; Morand, M. [IMPMC, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Mezouar, M.; Bauchau, S.; Alvarez-Murga, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Perrillat, J. P. [Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France); Bromiley, G.; Berg, M. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); King, A.; Guignot, N.; Itié, J. P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, St Aubin France (France); Atwood, Robert [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    Here we present the instrumental development to extend the synchrotron X-ray microtomography techniques to in situ studies under static compression (HP) or shear stress or the both conditions at high temperatures (HT). To achieve this, a new rotating tomography Paris-Edinburgh cell (rotoPEc) has been developed. This ultra-compact portable device, easily and successfully adapted to various multi-modal synchrotron experimental set-up at ESRF, SOLEIL and DIAMOND is explained in detail.

  14. Hyper-dry conditions provide new insights into the cause of extreme floods after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    A catastrophic wildfire in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado provided a unique opportunity to investigate soil conditions immediately after a wildfire and before alteration by rainfall. Measurements of near-surface (θ; and matric suction, ψ), rainfall, and wind velocity were started 8 days after the wildfire began. These measurements established that hyper-dryconditions (θ 3 cm-3; ψ > ~ 3 x 105 cm) existed and provided an in-situ retention curve for these conditions. These conditions exacerbate the effects of water repellency (natural and fire-induced) and limit the effectiveness of capillarity and gravity driven infiltration into fire-affected soils. The important consequence is that given hyper-dryconditions, the critical rewetting process before the first rain is restricted to the diffusion–adsorption of water-vapor. This process typically has a time scale of days to weeks (especially when the hydrologic effects of the ash layer are included) that is longer than the typical time scale (minutes to hours) of some rainstorms, such that under hyper-dryconditions essentially no rain infiltrates. The existence of hyper-dryconditions provides insight into why, frequently during the first rain storm after a wildfire, nearly all rainfall becomes runoff causing extremefloods and debris flows.

  15. Mechanisms of ultrafine-grained austenite formation under different isochronal conditions in a cold-rolled metastable stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celada-Casero, C., E-mail: c.celada@cenim.csic.es [MATERALIA group, Dpt. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Huang, B.M. [National Taiwan University, Dpt. of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 Roosvelt Road, Section 4, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Aranda, M.M. [MATERALIA group, Dpt. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Yang, J.-R. [National Taiwan University, Dpt. of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 Roosvelt Road, Section 4, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Martin, D. San [MATERALIA group, Dpt. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    The primary objective of this work is to obtain fundamental insights on phase transformations, with focus on the reaustenitization process (α′→γ transformation), of a cold-rolled (CR) semi-austenitic metastable stainless steel upon different isochronal conditions (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 °C/s). For this purpose, an exhaustive microstructural characterization has been performed by using complementary experimental such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), micro-hardness Vickers and magnetization measurements. It has been detected that all microstructural changes shift to higher temperatures as the heating rate increases. The reaustenitization occurs in two-steps for all heating rates, which is attributed to the chemical banding present in the CR state. The α′→γ transformation is controlled by the migration of substitutional alloying elements across the austenite/martensite (γ/α′) interface, which finally leads to ultrafine-grained reaustenitized microstructures (440–280 nm). The morphology of the martensite phase in the CR state has been found to be the responsible for such a grain refinement, along with the presence of χ-phase and nanometric Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Al) precipitates that pin the austenite grain growth, especially upon slowly heating at 0.1 °C/s. - Highlights: •Ultrafine-grained austenite structures are obtained isochronally at 0.1–100 °C/s •The α′→γ transformation occurs in two steps due to the initial chemical banding •A diffusional mechanism governs the α′→γ transformation for all heating rates •The dislocation-cell-type of martensite promotes a diffusional mechanism •Precipitates located at α′/γ interfaces hinder the austenite growth.

  16. Biological feedbacks as cause and demise of the Neoproterozoic icehouse: astrobiological prospects for faster evolution and importance of cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhunen, Pekka; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Oksanen, Ilona; Lehto, Kirsi; Lehto, Harry

    2007-02-14

    Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma). While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets.

  17. Biological feedbacks as cause and demise of the Neoproterozoic icehouse: astrobiological prospects for faster evolution and importance of cold conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Janhunen

    Full Text Available Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma. While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets.

  18. Simulation of cold plasma in a chamber under high- and low-frequency voltage conditions for a capacitively coupled plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Daoxin; Cheng Jia; Ji Linhong; Sun Yuchun

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of cold plasma,especially for a dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP),play an important role for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,which stimulates further studies using different methods.In this paper,a 2D fluid model was constructed for N2 gas plasma simulations with CFD-ACE+,a commercial multi-physical software package.First,the distributions of electric potential (Epot),electron number density (Ne),N number density (N) and electron temperature (Te) are described under the condition of high frequency (HF),13.56 MHz,HF voltage,300 V,and low-frequency (LF) voltage,0 V,particularly in the sheath.Based on this,the influence of HF on Ne is further discussed under different HF voltages of 200 V,300 V,400 V,separately,along with the influence of LF,0.3 MHz,and various LF voltages of 500 V,600 V,700 V.The results show that sheaths of about 3 mm are formed near the two electrodes,in which Epot and Te vary extensively with time and space,while in the plasma bulk Epot changes synchronously with an electric potential of about 70 V and Te varies only in a small range.N is also modulated by the radio frequency,but the relative change in N is small.Ne varies only in the sheath,while in the bulk it is steady at different time steps.So,by comparing Ne in the plasma bulk at the steady state,we can see that Ne will increase when HF voltage increases.Yet,Ne will slightly decrease with the increase of LF voltage.At the same time,the homogeneity will change in both x and y directions.So both HF and LF voltages should be carefully considered in order to obtain a high-density,homogeneous plasma.

  19. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  20. Technology development of protein rich concentrates for nutrition in extreme conditions using soybean and meat by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenik, Tatiana K; Costa, Rui; Motkina, Elena V; Kosenko, Tamara A; Skripko, Olga V; Kadnikova, Irina A

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to develop new foods for participants of expeditions in extreme conditions, which must be self-sufficient. These foods should be light to carry, with a long shelf life, tasty and with  high nutrient density. Currently, protein sources are limited mainly to dried and canned meat. In this work, a protein-rich dried concentrate suitable for extreme expeditions was developed using soya, tomato, milk whey and meat by-products. Protein concentrates were developed using minced beef liver and heart, dehydrated and mixed with a soya protein-lycopene coagulate (SPLC) obtained from a solution prepared with germi- nated soybeans and mixed with tomato paste in milk whey, and finally dried. The technological parameters of pressing SPLC and of drying the protein concentrate were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimized technological parameters to prepare the protein concentrates were obtained, with 70:30 being the ideal ratio of minced meat to SPLC. The developed protein concentrates are characterized by a high calorific value of 376 kcal/100 g of dry product, with a water content of 98 g·kg-1, and 641-644 g·kg-1 of proteins. The essential amino acid indices are 100, with minimum essential amino acid content constitut- ing 100-128% of the FAO standard, depending on the raw meat used. These concentrates are also rich in micronutrients such as β-carotene and vitamin C. Analysis of the nutrient content showed that these non-perishable concentrates present a high nutritional value and complement other widely available vegetable concentrates to prepare a two-course meal. The soups and porridges prepared with these concentrates can be classified as functional foods, and comply with army requirements applicable to food products for extreme conditions.

  1. Quantification of Cation Sorption to Engineered Barrier Materials Under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Brian [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Schlautman, Mark [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rao, Linfeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nitsche, Heino [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gregorich, Kenneth [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-02

    The objective of this research is to examine mechanisms and thermodynamics of actinide sorption to engineered barrier materials (iron (oxyhydr)oxides and bentonite clay) for nuclear waste repositories under high temperature and high ionic strength conditions using a suite of macroscopic and microscopic techniques which will be coupled with interfacial reaction models. Gaining a mechanistic understanding of interfacial processes governing the sorption/sequestration of actinides at mineral-water interfaces is fundamental for the accurate prediction of actinide behavior in waste repositories. Although macroscale sorption data and various spectroscopic techniques have provided valuable information regarding speciation of actinides at solid-water interfaces, significant knowledge gaps still exist with respect to sorption mechanisms and the ability to quantify sorption, particularly at high temperatures and ionic strengths. This objective is addressed through three major tasks: (1) influence of oxidation state on actinide sorption to iron oxides and clay minerals at elevated temperatures and ionic strengths; (2) calorimetric titrations of actinide-mineral suspensions; (3) evaluation of bentonite performance under repository conditions. The results of the work will include a qualitative conceptual model and a quantitative thermodynamic speciation model describing actinide partitioning to minerals and sediments, which is based upon a mechanistic understanding of specific sorption processes as determined from both micro-scale and macroscale experimental techniques. The speciation model will be a thermodynamic aqueous and surface complexation model of actinide interactions with mineral surfaces that is self-consistent with macroscopic batch sorption data, calorimetric and potentiometric titrations, X-ray absorption Spectroscopy (XAS, mainly Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS)), and electron microscopy analyses. The novelty of the proposed work lies largely in

  2. Quantification of Cation Sorption to Engineered Barrier Materials Under Extreme Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Brian; Schlautman, Mark; Rao, Linfeng; Nitsche, Heino; Gregorich, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine mechanisms and thermodynamics of actinide sorption to engineered barrier materials (iron (oxyhydr)oxides and bentonite clay) for nuclear waste repositories under high temperature and high ionic strength conditions using a suite of macroscopic and microscopic techniques which will be coupled with interfacial reaction models. Gaining a mechanistic understanding of interfacial processes governing the sorption/sequestration of actinides at mineral-water interfaces is fundamental for the accurate prediction of actinide behavior in waste repositories. Although macroscale sorption data and various spectroscopic techniques have provided valuable information regarding speciation of actinides at solid-water interfaces, significant knowledge gaps still exist with respect to sorption mechanisms and the ability to quantify sorption, particularly at high temperatures and ionic strengths. This objective is addressed through three major tasks: (1) influence of oxidation state on actinide sorption to iron oxides and clay minerals at elevated temperatures and ionic strengths; (2) calorimetric titrations of actinide-mineral suspensions; (3) evaluation of bentonite performance under repository conditions. The results of the work will include a qualitative conceptual model and a quantitative thermodynamic speciation model describing actinide partitioning to minerals and sediments, which is based upon a mechanistic understanding of specific sorption processes as determined from both micro-scale and macroscale experimental techniques. The speciation model will be a thermodynamic aqueous and surface complexation model of actinide interactions with mineral surfaces that is self-consistent with macroscopic batch sorption data, calorimetric and potentiometric titrations, X-ray absorption Spectroscopy (XAS, mainly Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS)), and electron microscopy analyses. The novelty of the proposed work lies largely in

  3. Forecasting of flowrate under rolling motion flow instability condition based on on-line sequential extreme learning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hanying; Gao Puzhen; Tan Sichao; Tang Jiguo; Hou Xiaofan; Xu Huiqiang; Wu Xiangcheng

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of multiple thermal-hydraulic parameters can result in complex flow instability in natural circulation system under rolling motion. A real-time thermal-hydraulic condition prediction is helpful to the operation of systems in such condition. A single hidden layer feedforward neural networks algorithm named extreme learning machine (ELM) is considered as suitable method for this application because of its extremely fast training time, good accuracy and simplicity. However, traditional ELM assumes that all the training data are ready before the training process, while the training data is received sequentially in practical forecasting of flowrate. Therefore, this paper proposes a forecasting method for flowrate under rolling motion based on on-line sequential ELM (OS-ELM), which can learn the data one by one or chunk-by-chunk. The experiment results show that the OS-ELM method can achieve a better forecasting performance than basic ELM method and still keep the advantage of fast training and simplicity. (author)

  4. Nuclear power plant Olkiluoto 3. Containment leakage test under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Tobias [TUEV SUED Industrie Service GmbH, Munich (Germany). Measaruement Technology Dept.

    2015-01-15

    Modern nuclear power plants place high demands on the design and execution of safety checks. TUEV SUED supported the containment leakage test for the largest- capacity third generation nuclear power plant in the world - Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. The experts successfully met the challenges presented by exceptional parameters of the project. The containment of Olkiluoto 3 is unique in that the vessel's volume is 80,000 m{sup 3} while measurements were carried out over a period of ten days. To execute the test, 75 temperature and 15 humidity sensors had to be installed and correctly interlinked by more than ten kilometres of cable. These instruments also needed to withstand an absolute pressure of 6 bar, ambient temperatures of 30 C and high levels of humidity. These conditions required comprehensive preparation and a high amount of qualification tests. Parts of the qualifications were carried out at the autoclave system of the Technical University in Munich, Germany, where the project test conditions could be simulated. The software required to determine the tests was developed by TUEV SUED and verified by German's national accreditation body DAkkS under ISO 17025. TUEV SUED enabled the test schedule to continue without delay by analysing all recorded data continuously on site, including pressure, temperature, humidity and leakage mass flow curves. With the comprehensive preparation, data acquisition system recording measurements continuously and the on-time result calculation, all components of the leak-tightness assessment were successfully completed in accordance with requirements.

  5. Modulation of Pleurodeles waltl DNA polymerase mu expression by extreme conditions encountered during spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Schenten

    Full Text Available DNA polymerase µ is involved in DNA repair, V(DJ recombination and likely somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Our previous studies demonstrated that spaceflight conditions affect immunoglobulin gene expression and somatic hypermutation frequency. Consequently, we questioned whether Polμ expression could also be affected. To address this question, we characterized Polμ of the Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl and exposed embryos of that species to spaceflight conditions or to environmental modifications corresponding to those encountered in the International Space Station. We noted a robust expression of Polμ mRNA during early ontogenesis and in the testis, suggesting that Polμ is involved in genomic stability. Full-length Polμ transcripts are 8-9 times more abundant in P. waltl than in humans and mice, thereby providing an explanation for the somatic hypermutation predilection of G and C bases in amphibians. Polμ transcription decreases after 10 days of development in space and radiation seem primarily involved in this down-regulation. However, space radiation, alone or in combination with a perturbation of the circadian rhythm, did not affect Polμ protein levels and did not induce protein oxidation, showing the limited impact of radiation encountered during a 10-day stay in the International Space Station.

  6. Human nutrition in cold and high terrestrial altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, K. K.; Kumar, Ratan

    1992-03-01

    The calorie and nutritional requirements for a man working in an alien hostile environment of cold regions and high altitude are described and compared to those of normal requirements. Carbohydrates, fats and vitamins fulfilling the caloric and nutritional requirements are generally available in adequate amounts except under conditions of appetite loss. However, the proteins and amino acids should be provided in such a way as to meet the altered behavioral and metabolic requirements. Work in extreme cold requires fulfilling enhanced calorie needs. In high mountainous regions, cold combined with hypoxia produced loss of appetite and necessitated designing of special foods.

  7. Looking for carbonates in the deep Earth: an experimental approach at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chariton, S.; Bykova, E.; Bykov, M.; Cerantola, V.; Vasiukov, D.; Stekiel, M.; Aprilis, G.; Kupenko, I.; Ismailova, L.; Chumakov, A. I.; Winkler, B.; McCammon, C. A.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    There is a long list of natural and experimental evidence to support a key role for carbonates in the deep carbon cycle. As potential carriers of carbon in subducted slabs with the possibility to influence redox conditions, carbonates have deservedly been the focus of many high pressure and high temperature experimental studies over the past decade. "How long do they survive after subduction? What form do they transform to? How do they react with their surroundings?" are all important questions. We use many tools to search for carbonates in the deep Earth. Using laser heated diamond anvil cells to generate pressures and temperatures over 100 GPa and 2500 K along with the advanced technology provided by synchrotron facilities, we have been able to study in situ the behavior of various carbonate minerals at conditions of the Earth's mantle. We have particularly focused our interest on transition metal carbonates (Fe, Mn, Co, Zn, Ni)CO3 in order to study the crystal chemistry of calcite-type carbonates using single crystal X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Our results show new high-pressure carbonate structures, including either CO3-3or CO4-4 units, that often coexist with complex metal oxides. Combined with carbonate stability fields from the surface to the lower mantle, we investigated the possibility to detect carbonates from seismic data. We determined the elastic wave velocities of plausible carbonate mineral compositions in the (Mg-Fe)CO3 system using Nuclear Inelastic Scattering. Our results show the strong anisotropic behavior of carbonates that could explain anisotropic anomalies observed at transition zone depths and confirm the presence of carbonate reservoirs. The effect of carbonate composition and Fe2+ spin transition, which is completed above 50 GPa, are also well demonstrated. More new carbonate phases and their seismic signatures await to be discovered, and thus experiments continue.

  8. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  9. Mountain Warfare and Cold Weather Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    is important to determine whether the bottom is composed of sand, gravel, silt, clay , or rock and in what proportions. For more information see ATP...these planning factors by about two quarts per individual. 6-22. Water increases in viscosity in extreme cold weather, and therefore moves slower...In arctic conditions, fuel spilled on flesh can cause instant frostbite if the proper gloves are not worn. 6-32. Multi- viscosity oil (15W-40) is

  10. Domain wall network as QCD vacuum and the chromomagnetic trap formation under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelko, Sergei N.; Voronin, Vladimir E.

    2015-01-01

    The ensemble of Euclidean gluon field configurations represented by the domain wall network is considered. A single domain wall is given by the sine-Gordon kink for the angle between chromomagnetic and chromoelectric components of the gauge field. The domain wall separates the regions with Abelian self-dual and anti-self-dual fields. The network of the domain wall defects is introduced as a combination of multiplicative and additive superpositions of kinks. The character of the spectrum and eigenmodes of color-charged fluctuations in the presence of the domain wall network is discussed. Conditions for the formation of a stable thick domain wall junction (the chromomagnetic trap) during heavy-ion collisions are discussed, and the spectrum of color-charged quasi-particles inside the trap is evaluated. An important observation is the existence of the critical size L c of a single trap stable against gluon tachyonic modes. The size L c is related to the value of gluon condensate left angle g 2 F 2 right angle. The growth of large lumps of merged chromomagnetic traps and the concept of the confinement-deconfinement transition in terms of the ensemble of domain wall networks are outlined. (orig.)

  11. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  12. Dry cooling with night cool storage to enhance solar power plants performance in extreme conditions areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, J.; Martínez-Val, J.M.; Abbas, R.; Abánades, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar thermo-electric power plants with thermal storage for condenser cooling. ► Technology to mitigate the negative effect on Rankine cycles of the day-time high temperatures in deserts. ► Electricity production augmentation in demand-peak hours by the use of day-night temperature difference. -- Abstract: Solar thermal power plants are usually installed in locations with high yearly average solar radiation, often deserts. In such conditions, cooling water required for thermodynamic cycles is rarely available. Moreover, when solar radiation is high, ambient temperature is very high as well; this leads to excessive condensation temperature, especially when air-condensers are used, and decreases the plant efficiency. However, temperature variation in deserts is often very high, which drives to relatively low temperatures during the night. This fact can be exploited with the use of a closed cooling system, so that the coolant (water) is chilled during the night and store. Chilled water is then used during peak temperature hours to cool the condenser (dry cooling), thus enhancing power output and efficiency. The present work analyzes the performance improvement achieved by night thermal cool storage, compared to its equivalent air cooled power plant. Dry cooling is proved to be energy-effective for moderately high day–night temperature differences (20 °C), often found in desert locations. The storage volume requirement for different power plant efficiencies has also been studied, resulting on an asymptotic tendency.

  13. Biosorption of chromium from electroplating and galvanizing industrial effluents under extreme conditions using Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sibi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI] is a toxic oxidized form and an important metal pollutant in the water bodies. Biosorption of chromium(VI offers a potential alternative to conventional metal removal methods. Dried biomass of Chlorella vulgaris was used as biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI from electroplating and galvanizing industry effluents as a function of biosorbent dosage, contact time, pH, salinity and initial metal ion concentration. Batch experiments were conducted for biosorption and the optimum conditions were 1 g/L biomass, 4 h contact time, pH 2 and 2.893 mS/cm of electrical conductivity. The chromium biosorption was strictly pH dependent with a maximum Cr removal of 63.2 mg/L at pH 2. Highest Cr removal at a concentration of 81.3 mg/L was observed at Electrical conductivity (EC value of 2.893 mS/cm. A comparison of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models revealed that Freundlich isotherm model fitted the experimental data based on R2, qmax and standard error values. The results suggest that C. vulgaris biomass could be considered a promising low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI from electroplating and galvanizing industry effluents. Keywords: Biosorption, Chlorella vulgaris, Microalgae, Hexavalent chromium

  14. Spirituality and Aging in Place: The Impact of Extreme Climatic Conditions on Domestic Gardening Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joanne; Pascal, Jan; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-12-01

    There is limited research exploring how domestic water restrictions imposed as a result of drought conditions impact upon the lives of independently living older people. Within this age group (60 years plus), the domestic garden frequently forms an intrinsic component of ongoing health and well-being. Gardening practice offers components of both mental and physical activity and, for many older people, leads to emotional and spiritual connection on a number of levels. The capacity of older people to maintain a garden during a period of water restrictions is greatly reduced, and the resulting impact on health and well-being is considerable. A recent study, conducted in south-eastern Australia, aimed to determine the benefits to health and well-being of maintaining a domestic garden for older people and the impact of water restrictions on garden practice. This occurred at a time following a prolonged period of drought and, in central Victoria, a complete ban on outside watering. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 gardeners aged between 60 and 83 who had tended their garden over an extended period. The lived experience of gardening was explored through hermeneutic phenomenological analysis. Clear benefits to health and well-being were established, and yet, the essence of this experience lay in the capacity of gardeners to remain connected to their garden despite change. The crisis imposed by ongoing drought and restricted use of water generated a strong impetus for adaptation, resilience and acceptance of change. The spiritual nature of gardening practice clearly emerged and appeared to intensify the experience of gardening and consolidate adaption to change on a number of levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Men in extreme conditions: some medical and psychological aspects of the Auschwitz concentration camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil-Weiss, T

    1983-08-01

    The second world war ended many years ago. Most of those who survived the stay at the German concentration camp at Auschwitz have already died of the consequences of their imprisonment; those still alive are already in the last third of their life. Is there any point in returning to the experiences of those days? Consideration of the mental hygiene of former prisoners cautions us that perhaps we should not do it. But consideration of the general interest holds that we are not entitled to ignore any knowledge that can contribute to social development--including medicine and psychology--even if acquired under unspeakably awful conditions. In addition, since the war new generations have grown up that play an increasingly significant role in various spheres of life but have little concrete information about those events; they can neither rationally nor emotionally understand how the horrors connected with fascism and the war could have happened. In a sense it is encouraging that they cannot grasp such inhuman behavior; nevertheless, we must adhere to the following motto: "Nothing must be forgotten, nobody will be forgotten." We owe it to those millions who did not survive--both the victims of the Holocaust and those who fought against it. These are arguments in favor of returning to the facts that are ineffaceably recorded somewhere in our memories. In doing so, however, we must remember that at times we are revisiting experiences of a boy of 14 as recalled by a 50-year-old man. The material below, examining the medical as well as psychological aspects of imprisonment at Auschwitz, is based on my own memories, as an adolescent imprisoned at Auschwitz. I have tried to move from this individual account to more general statements, although the methodological apparatus on which scientific analysis is usually based is absent.

  16. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  17. Air-cooled LiBr-water absorption chillers for solar air conditioning in extremely hot weathers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.S.; Infante Ferreira, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    A low temperature-driven absorption cycle is theoretically investigated for the development of an air-cooled LiBr-water absorption chiller to be combined with low-cost flat solar collectors for solar air conditioning in hot and dry regions. The cycle works with dilute LiBr-water solutions so that risk of LiBr crystallization is less than for commercially available water-cooled LiBr-water absorption chillers even in extremely hot ambient conditions. Two-phase heat exchangers in the system were modelled taking account of the heat and mass transfer resistances in falling film flows by applying the film theory in thermal and concentration boundary layers. Both directly and indirectly air-cooled chillers were modelled by properly combining component models and boundary conditions in a matrix system and solved with an algebraic equation solver. Simulation results predict that the chillers would deliver chilled water around 7.0 deg. C with a COP of 0.37 from 90 deg. C hot water under 35 deg. C ambient condition. At 50 deg. C ambient temperature, the chillers retained about 36% of their cooling power at 35 deg. C ambient. Compared with the directly air-cooled chiller, the indirectly air-cooled chiller presented a cooling power performance reduction of about 30%

  18. The State of the Art in Cold Forging Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1994-01-01

    The manufature of components in steel, aluminium and copper alloys by cold forging production has increased ever since the 1950's. Typical processes are forward rod extrusion and backward can extrusion, upsetting, ironing, tube extrusion and radial extrusion. The tribological conditions in cold...... forging are extremely severe due to large surface expansion and normal pressure in the tool/workpiece interface combined with elevated tool temperatures. Except for the more simple cold forging operations successful production therefore requires advanced lubrication systems. The present paper gives...... a detailed description of the state of art for lubricant systems for cold forging of C-steels and low alloy steels as well as aluminium alloys including all the basic operations such as cleaning of the slugs, application of eventual conversion coating and lubrication. As regards cold forging of steel...

  19. Impact of protein pre-treatment conditions on the iron encapsulation efficiency of whey protein cold-set gel particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Jong, G.A.H. de

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility for iron fortification of food using protein gel particles in which iron is entrapped using cold-set gelation. The aim is to optimize the iron encapsulation efficiency of whey protein by giving the whey protein different heat treatment prior to gelation with

  20. Kinetics of Materials at Extreme Conditions: Understanding the Time Dependent Approach to Equilibrium at MaRIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, R. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mcnabb, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kumar, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eggert, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Borg, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cerreta, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dattelbaum, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fried, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Greeff, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stolken, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    The National Nuclear Security Agency has recently recognized that a long-term need exists to establish a stronger scientific basis for the assessment and qualification of materials and manufacturing processes for the nuclear stockpile and other national security applications. These materials may have undergone substantial changes with age, or may represent new materials that are being introduced because of difficulties associated with reusing or recreating materials used in original stockpile components. Also, with advancements in manufacturing methods, the NNSA anticipates opportunities for an enhanced range of control over fabricated components, an enhanced pace of materials development, and enhanced functionality. The development of qualification standards for these new materials will require the ability to understand and control material characteristics that affect both mechanical and dynamic performance. A unique aspect for NNSA is that the performance requirements for materials are often set by system hydrodynamics, and these materials must perform in extreme environments and loading conditions. Thus, the scientific motivation is to understand “Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE).”

  1. Properties of a planar electric double layer under extreme conditions investigated by classical density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi; Lamperski, Stanisław; Zydorczak, Maria

    2014-08-14

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and classical density functional theory (DFT) results are reported for the structural and electrostatic properties of a planar electric double layer containing ions having highly asymmetric diameters or valencies under extreme concentration condition. In the applied DFT, for the excess free energy contribution due to the hard sphere repulsion, a recently elaborated extended form of the fundamental measure functional is used, and coupling of Coulombic and short range hard-sphere repulsion is described by a traditional second-order functional perturbation expansion approximation. Comparison between the MC and DFT results indicates that validity interval of the traditional DFT approximation expands to high ion valences running up to 3 and size asymmetry high up to diameter ratio of 4 whether the high valence ions or the large size ion are co- or counter-ions; and to a high bulk electrolyte concentration being close to the upper limit of the electrolyte mole concentration the MC simulation can deal with well. The DFT accuracy dependence on the ion parameters can be self-consistently explained using arguments of liquid state theory, and new EDL phenomena such as overscreening effect due to monovalent counter-ions, extreme layering effect of counter-ions, and appearance of a depletion layer with almost no counter- and co-ions are observed.

  2. Extreme storm surges in the south of Brazil: atmospheric conditions and shore erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Klose Parise

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The region under study is regularly subject to the occurrence of storms associated with frontal systems and extratropical cyclones, since it is located near one of the cyclogenetic regions in South America. These storms can generate storm surges that cause anomalous high sea level rises on Cassino Beach. The use of reanalysis data along with an efficient technique for the location of the cyclone, using a vorticity threshold, has provided a new classification based upon the trajectories of events that produce positive sea level variation. Three patterns have been identified: 1 Cyclogenesis to the south of Argentina with displacement to the east and a trajectory between 47.5ºS and 57.5ºS; 2 Cyclogenesis to the south of Uruguay with displacement to the east and a trajectory between 35ºS and 42.5ºS; and 3 Cyclogenesis to the south of Uruguay with displacement to the southeast and a trajectory between 35ºS and 57.5ºS. Maximum water level elevation above the mean sea level and beach erosion were associated, respectively, with winter and summer storms. Cassino beach displayed a seasonal morphological behavior, with short periods of episodic erosion associated with winter storm events followed by long periods of accretion characterized by the dominance of fair weather conditions.Marés meteorológicas que geram sobre-elevações do nível do mar são freqüentes na costa do Rio Grande do Sul e respondem às variações ocorridas na atmosfera. Torna-se importante, dessa maneira, definir padrões meteorológicos sinóticos responsáveis por gerar eventos de marés meteorológicas intensas na Praia do Cassino como objetivo desse trabalho. O uso de dados de reanálise associados a uma técnica eficiente de localização do ciclone, aplicando o conceito de vorticidade, permitiu definir uma nova classificação com base na trajetória de ciclones extratropicais responsáveis pela subida do nível do mar. Três padrões de trajetórias foram

  3. Effects of anthropogenic heat due to air-conditioning systems on an extreme high temperature event in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Di Sabatino, S.; Martilli, A.; Chan, P. W.

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic heat flux is the heat generated by human activities in the urban canopy layer, which is considered the main contributor to the urban heat island (UHI). The UHI can in turn increase the use and energy consumption of air-conditioning systems. In this study, two effective methods for water-cooling air-conditioning systems in non-domestic areas, including the direct cooling system and central piped cooling towers (CPCTs), are physically based, parameterized, and implemented in a weather research and forecasting model at the city scale of Hong Kong. An extreme high temperature event (June 23-28, 2016) in the urban areas was examined, and we assessed the effects on the surface thermal environment, the interaction of sea-land breeze circulation and urban heat island circulation, boundary layer dynamics, and a possible reduction of energy consumption. The results showed that both water-cooled air-conditioning systems could reduce the 2 m air temperature by around 0.5 °C-0.8 °C during the daytime, and around 1.5 °C around 7:00-8:00 pm when the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height was confined to a few hundred meters. The CPCT contributed around 80%-90% latent heat flux and significantly increased the water vapor mixing ratio in the atmosphere by around 0.29 g kg-1 on average. The implementation of the two alternative air-conditioning systems could modify the heat and momentum of turbulence, which inhibited the evolution of the PBL height (a reduction of 100-150 m), reduced the vertical mixing, presented lower horizontal wind speed and buoyant production of turbulent kinetic energy, and reduced the strength of sea breeze and UHI circulation, which in turn affected the removal of air pollutants. Moreover, the two alternative air-conditioning systems could significantly reduce the energy consumption by around 30% during extreme high temperature events. The results of this study suggest potential UHI mitigation strategies and can be extended to

  4. Development and performance test of a system available for generating multiple extreme conditions for neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Shinji; Fukui, Susumu; Moriai, Atsushi; Ohtomo, Akitoshi; Ichimura, Shigeki; Onodera, Akifumi; Amita, F.; Katano, Susumu

    1998-01-01

    We have developed unique system available for controlling sample environment during the neutron scattering experiments. The system can simultaneously generate triple extreme conditions of low temperature, high magnetic field and high pressure. The system consists of: (i) a liquid-helium cryostat variable for sample temperature from 1.7 K to 200 K, (ii) a superconducting magnet providing a vertical field up to ±5 T with an antisymmetric split-coil geometry for polarized-beam experiments, and (iii) a non-magnetic piston-cylinder high-pressure cell designed with the aim of generating hydrostatic pressure up to 2.5 GPa. In the presentation, we will report the outline of the system and some results of performance tests at KURRI and JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  5. A comparison study of the two-bladed partial pitch turbine during normal operation and an extreme gust conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T; Petersen, M M; Larsen, T J

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the load comparisons between the numerical simulation and the full-scale load measurement data. First part of this paper includes the comparisons of statistic load in terms of maximum, mean, and minimum values for the selected normal operation cases. The blade root bending moments and tower top bending moments are compared. Second part of this paper introduces the dynamic response comparisons during an extreme wind gust condition where the wind speed changed approximately 10 m/s during three seconds. The rotor speed and blade root flapwise and edgewise bending moment are compared. The nonlinear aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2 is used for the simulations. A very fine agreement between the simulated and the full-scale measured loads is seen for the both comparisons

  6. Analyses of crystal field and exchange interaction of Dy3Ga5O12 under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Qi Xin; Yue Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the effects of crystal field and exchange interaction field on magnetic properties in dysprosium gallium garnet under extreme conditions (low temperatures and high magnetic fields) based on quantum theory. Here, five sets of crystal field parameters are discussed and compared. It demonstrates that, only considering the crystal field effect, the experiments can not be successfully explained. Thus, referring to the molecular field theory, an effective exchange field associated with the Dy—Dy exchange interaction is further taken into account. Under special consideration of crystal field and the exchange interaction field, it obtains an excellent agreement between the theoretical results and experiments, and further confirms that the exchange interaction field between rare-earth ions has great importance to magnetic properties in paramagnetic rare-earth gallium garnets. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  7. HERCULES Specialized Course on Synchrotron radiation and neutrons for extreme conditions studies - HSC12 - slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, I.; Itie, J.P.; Meersman, F.; Jacobs, J.; Hantsetters, K. de; Syassen, K.; Krisch, M.; Mezouar, M.; Mac Millan, P.F.; Salmon, P.; Klotz, S.; Pascarelli, S.; Hansen, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this Hercules Specialized Course (HSC12) is to give the participants an introduction to high pressure research at large experimental facilities such as the synchrotron and the neutron reactor. The basic principles of synchrotron radiation and neutrons techniques at extreme conditions of pressure have been illustrated. Cross-disciplinary examples in a representative range of scientific areas, covering fundamental physics, earth and planetary science, chemistry and material science have been dealt with. Most presentations are dedicated to X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption and neutron scattering of materials (solids, liquids or glasses) at high pressure. Several presentations deal with the experimental set-up and especially the preparation of the diamond anvil. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations. (A.C.)

  8. Reliability of offshore wind power production under extreme wind conditions. Deliverable D 9.5. Work Package 9: Electrical grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Zeni, Lorenzo

    years, with each year simulated with five random seeds, leading to a total of 25 annual wind power time series for six large offshore wind farms, summing up to a little over 330 wind turbines. Two storm control strategies were used. The analysis involved several aspects inspired from reliability studies....... The aspects investigated are storm events occurrences and durations, storm control strategy impact on the capacity factor (lost production), the loss of production (power produced from wind drops below a certain threshold due to high wind speeds and storm controller) and finally, the wind power production......Reliability of offshore wind production under extreme wind conditions was investigated in this report. The wind power variability from existing and future large offshore wind farms in Western Denmark were simulated using the Correlated Wind model developed at Risø. The analysis was done for five...

  9. Effect of multiple-feedstock strategy on the economic and environmental performance of thermochemical ethanol production under extreme weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, Nannan; Zhao, Fu

    2011-01-01

    Current US transportation sector mainly relies on liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum and about 60% of the petroleum consumed is from areas where supply may be disturbed by regional instability. This has led to serious concerns on energy security and global warming. To address these issues, numerous alternative energy carriers have been proposed. Among them, second generation biofuel is one of the most promising technologies. Gasification-based thermochemical conversion will bring flexibility to both feedstock and production sides of a plant, thus presents an attractive technical route to address both the energy security and global warming concerns. In this paper, thermochemical ethanol production using multiple-feedstock (corn stover, municipal solid waste, and wood chips) is simulated using Aspen Plus and compared with the single-feedstock scenario, in terms of economic performances, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and survivability under extreme weather conditions. For a hypothetical facility in southwest Indiana it is found that multiple-feedstock strategy improves the net present value by 18% compared to single-feedstock strategy. This margin is increased to 57% when effects of extreme weather conditions on feedstock supply are considered. Moreover, multiple-feedstock fuel plant has no potential risk of bankruptcy during the payback period, while single-feedstock fuel plant has a 75% chance of bankruptcy. Although the multiple-feedstock strategy has 26% more GHG emission per liter of ethanol produced than the single-feedstock strategy, the trend is reversed if feedstock supply disruption is taken into account. Thus the idea of multiple-feedstock strategy is proposed to the future thermo chemical biofuel plants.

  10. Near-bed environmental conditions influencing cold-water coral growth on Viosca Knoll, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Davies, A. J.; Weering, T. V.; Ross, S.; Roberts, M.; Seim, H.

    2010-12-01

    During recent decades research has shown that cold-water coral (CWC) ecosystems are widely distributed on the margins of the Atlantic Ocean, representing the most species rich ecosystems in the upper bathyal zone. On the European continental margin and the continental slope from North Carolina to Florida, CWCs have formed large reef and mound structures. Presently detailed studies on the environmental constraints in CWC areas are limited to the NE Atlantic. This is the first study showing long-term environmental variability in a CWC habitat in the West Atlantic. The most extensive CWC area known in the Gulf of Mexico is found on the Viosca Knoll (480 m), located in the vicinity of the Mississippi River. This source dominates sedimentation patterns, discharging large amounts of sediments and dispersing organic matter and nutrients. In the coral area, CTD transects were made and benthic landers were deployed for a period of 12 months to identify near-bed environmental conditions, seasonal variability and the forcing mechanisms of particle supply. The importance of studying the functioning of deep water ecosystems was underpinned by the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which might pose a risk for the CWC ecosystems. CTD transects showed an oxygen minimum zone at the depth of the corals. Long term deployments of landers revealed intra-annual temperature (6.5-11.6 °C) and salinity fluctuations, which co-vary during the year. Food supply appears not to be driven by surface processes due to low fluorescence (except for two periods in April and June), but an indirect mechanism of transport may be a 24 hour diel vertical migration of zooplankton. The average current speed in the area varies at around 8 cms-1, whilst peak current speeds were recorded up to 38 cms-1. East-west currents are strongest in the area corresponding with flow along isobaths. During westward flow, the amount of particles in the water column increases, while during eastward flow clearer water is

  11. The effect of surface condition and cold work on the sulphidation resistance of 153MA at 700 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szakalos, P.; Hertzman, S.; Pettersson, R.F.A. [Swedish Inst. for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Ivarsson, B. [Avesta Sheffield AB, Avesta (Sweden)

    2000-05-01

    The normal grain sized 153MA-sample experienced an almost linear weight gain curve in the sulphidizing environment while modified materials, with a finer grain size or cold worked structure, displayed more parabolic behaviour and lower weight gains. These effects may be related to more effective Cr-diffusion in the modified samples with a higher Cr-grain boundary diffusion in the fine grain-sample and a higher Cr-bulk diffusion rate in the cold worked sample. The sand blasted sample performed exceedingly well with a thin protective oxide layer compared to the etched and ground samples which both suffered significant weight loss and spalling. The deformed surface structure on the sand blasted sample enhances the Cr-bulk diffusion thus promoting a protective Cr-rich oxide formation. (orig.)

  12. Habitability in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre

    A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than important to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to provide variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most important. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to important conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success of the mission. References: [1] A. Maslow (1943) Theory of Human Motivation [2] J. Stuster (1996) Bold Endeavors, Lessons from Polar and Space Exploration [3] Mars Society, Mars Desert Research Station in Utah

  13. Hexafluorobenzene under Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravica, Michael; Sneed, Daniel; Wang, Yonggang; Smith, Quinlan; White, Melanie

    2016-03-17

    We report the results from three high pressure experiments on hexafluorobenzene (C6F6). In the first experiment, Raman spectra were recorded up to 34.4 GPa. A phase transition from I → II was observed near 2 GPa. Near 8.8 GPa, a phase transition to an unreported phase (III) commenced. Above 20.6 GPa, yet another phase was observed (IV). Pressure cycling was employed to determine that, below 25.6 GPa, all pressure-induced alterations were reversible. However, at pressures above 20 GPa, dramatic spectral changes and broadening were observed at 25.6 and 34.4 GPa. The sample irreversibly changed into a soft solid with waxlike consistency when pressure was reduced to ambient and was recoverable. In the second experiment, IR spectra were collected up to 14.6 GPa. The phase transition (II → III) near 8.8 GPa was confirmed. An angular dispersive X-ray diffraction experiment was conducted to 25.6 GPa. Phase transitions above 1.4 GPa (I → II), above 5.5 GPa (II → III), above 10 GPa (III → IV), and above 15.5 GPa (IV → V) were observed. Near 25.6 GPa, long-range crystalline order was lost as the X-ray diffraction spectrum presented evidence of an amorphous solid.

  14. Assessment of extreme hydrological conditions in the Bothnian Bay, Baltic Sea, and the impact of the nuclear power plant ''Hanhikivi-1'' on the local thermal regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvornikov, Anton Y.; Martyanov, Stanislav D.; Ryabchenko, Vladimir A.; Isaev, Alexey V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). P.P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Eremina, Tatjana R. [Russian State Hydrometeorological Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sein, Dmitry V. [Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany). Alfred Wegener Inst.

    2017-07-01

    The results of the study aimed to assess the influence of future nuclear power plant ''Hanhikivi-1'' upon the local thermal conditions in the Bothnian Bay in the Baltic Sea are presented. A number of experiments with different numerical models were also carried out in order to estimate the extreme hydro-meteorological conditions in the area of the construction. The numerical experiments were fulfilled both with analytically specified external forcing and with real external forcing for 2 years: a cold year (2010) and a warm year (2014). The study has shown that the extreme values of sea level and water temperature and the characteristics of wind waves and sea ice in the vicinity of the future nuclear power plant can be significant and sometimes catastrophic. Permanent release of heat into the marine environment from an operating nuclear power plant will lead to a strong increase in temperature and the disappearance of ice cover within a 2 km vicinity of the station. These effects should be taken into account when assessing local climate changes in the future.

  15. Thermal responses from repeated exposures to severe cold with intermittent warmer temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, H; Enomoto-Koshimizu, H; Tochihara, Y; Nakamura, K

    1998-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate physiological reaction and manual performance during exposure to warm (30 degrees C) and cool (10 degrees C) environments after exposure to very low temperatures (-25 degrees C). Furthermore, this experiment was conducted to study whether it is desirable to remove cold-protective jackets in warmer rooms after severe cold exposure. Eight male students remained in an extremely cold room for 20 min, after which they transferred into either the warm room or the cool room for 20 min. This pattern was repeated three times, and the total cold exposure time was 60 min. In the warm and cool rooms, the subjects either removed their cold-protective jackets (Condition A), or wore them continuously (Condition B). Rectal temperature, skin temperatures, manual performance, blood pressure, thermal, comfort and pain sensations were measured during the experiment. The effects of severe cold on almost all measurements in the cool (10 degrees C) environment were greater than those in the warm (30 degrees C) environment under both clothing conditions. The effects of severe cold on all measurements under Condition A except rectal temperature and toe skin temperature were significantly greater than those under Condition B in the cool environment but, not at all differences between Condition A and Condition B in the warm environments were significant. It was recognized that to remove cold-protective jackets in the cool room (10 degrees C) after severe cold exposure promoted the effects of severe cold. When rewarming in the warm resting room (30 degrees C), the physiological and psychological responses and manual performance were not influenced by the presence or absence of cold-protective clothing. These results suggest that it is necessary for workers to make sure to rewarm in the warm room outside of the cold storage and continue to wear cold-protective clothing in the cool room.

  16. Exposure to hot and cold environmental conditions does not affect the decision making ability of soccer referees following an intermittent sprint protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eTaylor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soccer referees enforce the laws of the game and the decisions they make can directly affect match results. Fixtures within European competitions take place in climatic conditions that are often challenging (e.g. Moscow ~ -5oC, Madrid ~30oC. Effects of these temperatures on player performance are well documented; however, little is known how this environmental stress may impair cognitive performance of soccer referees and if so, whether exercise exasperates this. The present study aims to investigate the effect of cold (COLD; 5oC, 40% relative humidity (RH, hot (HOT; 30oC, 40% RH and temperate (CONT; 18oC, 40% RH conditions on decision making during soccer specific exercise. On separate occasions within each condition, thirteen physically active males; either semi-professional referees or semi-professional soccer players completed three 90 min intermittent treadmill protocols that simulated match play, interspersed with 4 computer delivered cognitive tests to measure vigilance and dual task capacity. Core and skin temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation were recorded throughout the protocol. There was no significant difference between conditions for decision making (p > 0.05 despite significant differences in measured physiological variables (skin temperature = HOT 34.5 ± 5.1°C; CONT 31.2 ± 0.1°C and COLD 26.7 ± 0.5°C; p < 0.05. It is hypothesised that the lack of difference observed in decision making ability between conditions was due to the exercise protocol used, as it may not have elicited an appropriate and valid soccer specific internal load to alter cognitive functioning.

  17. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-08

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.  Created: 2/8/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 2/8/2016.

  18. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold‐sensitive young trained females

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki‐Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P.; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise‐induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold‐sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty‐eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold‐sensitive (Cold‐sensitive, n = 7) and non‐cold‐sensitive (Control, n = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then...

  19. Citric acid production from partly deproteinized whey under non-sterile culture conditions using immobilized cells of lactose-positive and cold-adapted Yarrowia lipolytica B9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nazli Pinar; Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri; Taskin, Mesut

    2016-08-10

    The present study was performed to produce citric acid (CA) from partly deproteinized cheese whey (DPCW) under non-sterile culture conditions using immobilized cells of the cold-adapted and lactose-positive yeast Yarrowia lipolytica B9. DPCW was prepared using the temperature treatment of 90°C for 15min. Sodium alginate was used as entrapping agent for cell immobilization. Optimum conditions for the maximum CA production (33.3g/L) in non-sterile DPCW medium were the temperature of 20°C, pH 5.5, additional lactose concentration of 20g/L, sodium alginate concentration of 2%, number of 150 beads/100mL and incubation time of 120h. Similarly, maximum citric acid/isocitric acid (CA/ICA) ratio (6.79) could be reached under these optimal conditions. Additional nitrogen and phosphorus sources decreased CA concentration and CA/ICA ratio. Immobilized cells were reused in three continuous reaction cycles without any loss in the maximum CA concentration. The unique combination of low pH and temperature values as well as cell immobilization procedure could prevent undesired microbial contaminants during CA production. This is the first work on CA production by cold-adapted microorganisms under non-sterile culture conditions. Besides, CA production using a lactose-positive strain of the yeast Y. lipolytica was investigated for the first time in the present study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A temporal-omic study of Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1 adaptation strategies in conditions mimicking cheese ripening in the cold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dalmasso

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium freudenreichii is used as a ripening culture in Swiss cheese manufacture. It grows when cheeses are ripened in a warm room (about 24°C. Cheeses with an acceptable eye formation level are transferred to a cold room (about 4°C, inducing a marked slowdown of propionic fermentation, but P. freudenreichii remains active in the cold. To investigate the P. freudenreichii strategies of adaptation and survival in the cold, we performed the first global gene expression profile for this species. The time-course transcriptomic response of P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1(T strain was analyzed at five times of incubation, during growth at 30°C then for 9 days at 4°C, under conditions preventing nutrient starvation. Gene expression was also confirmed by RT-qPCR for 28 genes. In addition, proteomic experiments were carried out and the main metabolites were quantified. Microarray analysis revealed that 565 genes (25% of the protein-coding sequences of P. freudenreichii genome were differentially expressed during transition from 30°C to 4°C (P1. At 4°C, a general slowing down was observed for genes implicated in the cell machinery. On the contrary, P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1(T strain over-expressed genes involved in lactate, alanine and serine conversion to pyruvate, in gluconeogenesis, and in glycogen synthesis. Interestingly, the expression of different genes involved in the formation of important cheese flavor compounds, remained unchanged at 4°C. This could explain the contribution of P. freudenreichii to cheese ripening even in the cold. In conclusion, P. freudenreichii remains metabolically active at 4°C and induces pathways to maintain its long-term survival.

  1. The need of the change of the conceptualisation of hydrologic processes under extreme conditions – taking reference evapotranspiration as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available What a hydrological model displays is the relationships between the output and input in daily, monthly, yearly and other temporal scales. In the case of climate change or other environment changes, the input of the hydrological model may show a gradual or abrupt change. There have been numerous documented studies to explore the response of output of the hydrological models to the change of the input with scenario simulation. Most of the studies assumed that the conceptualisation of hydrologic processes will remain, which may be true for the gradual change of the input. However, under extreme conditions the conceptualisation of hydrologic processes may be completely changed. Taking an example of the Allen's formula to calculate crop reference evapotranspiration (ET0 as a simple hydrological model, we analyze the alternation of the extreme in ET0 from 1955 to 2012 at the Chongling Experimental Station located in Hebei Province, China. The relationships between ET0 and the meteorological factors for the average values, minimum (maximum values at daily, monthly and annual scales are revealed. It is found the extreme of the output can follow the extreme of the input better when their relationship is more linear. For non-liner relationship, the extreme of the input cannot at all be reflected from the extreme of the output. Relatively, extreme event at daily scale is harder to be shown than that at monthly scale. The result implicates that a routine model may not be able to catch the response to extreme events and it is even more so as we extrapolate models to higher temperature/CO2 conditions in the future. Some possible choices for the improvements are suggested for predicting hydrological extremes.

  2. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5–17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  3. Communication: A novel method for generating molecular mixtures at extreme conditions: The case of hydrogen and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pravica, Michael; Sneed, Daniel; White, Melanie; Wang, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    We have successfully created a segregated mixture of hydrogen and oxygen at high pressure in a diamond anvil cell using hard x-ray photochemistry. A keyhole (two holes connected by an opening) sample chamber was created in a metallic gasket to support two segregated powders of ammonia borane and potassium perchlorate, respectively, in each hole at a pressure of ∼5.0 GPa. Both holes were separately irradiated with synchrotron hard x-rays to release molecular oxygen and molecular hydrogen, respectively. Upon irradiation of the first KClO 4 -containing hole, solid reddish-orange O 2 appeared in the region of irradiation and molecular oxygen was found to diffuse throughout the entire sample region. The second ammonia borane-containing hole was then irradiated and H 2 was observed to form via Raman spectroscopy. Water also was observed in the ammonia borane-containing hole and possibly (in the form of ice VII) in the second hole. This unique experiment demonstrates the ability to easily create solid mixtures of simple molecular systems via x-ray irradiation and then react them via further irradiation which will aid the study of chemistry under extreme conditions

  4. 360°-View of Quantum Theory and Ab Initio Simulation at Extreme Conditions: 2014 Sanibel Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The Sanibel Symposium 2014 was held February 16-21, 2014, at the King and Prince, St. Simons Island, GA. It was successful in bringing condensed-matter physicists and quantum chemists together productively to drive the emergence of those specialties. The Symposium had a significant role in preparing a whole generation of quantum theorists. The 54th Sanibel meeting looked to the future in two ways. We had 360°-View sessions to honor the exceptional contributions of Rodney Bartlett (70), Bill Butler (70), Yngve Öhrn (80), Fritz Schaefer (70), and Malcolm Stocks (70). The work of these five has greatly impacted several generations of quantum chemists and condensed matter physicists. The ''360°'' is the sum of their ages. More significantly, it symbolizes a panoramic view of critical developments and accomplishments in theoretical and computational chemistry and physics oriented toward the future. Thus, two of the eight 360°-View sessions focused specifically on younger scientists. The 360°-View program was the major component of the 2014 Sanibel meeting. Another four sessions included a sub-symposium on ab initio Simulations at Extreme Conditions, with focus on getting past the barriers of present-day Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics by advances in finite-temperature density functional theory, orbital-free DFT, and new all-numerical approaches.

  5. Alginate Adsorbent Immobilization Technique Promotes Biobutanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum Under Extreme Condition of High Concentration of Organic Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoliang Ye

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation, bacteria should tolerate high concentrations of solvent products, which inhibit bacteria growth and limit further increase of solvents to more than 20 g/L. Moreover, this limited solvent concentration significantly increases the cost of solvent separation through traditional approaches. In this study, alginate adsorbent immobilization technique was successfully developed to assist in situ extraction using octanol which is effective in extracting butanol but presents strong toxic effect to bacteria. The adsorbent improved solvent tolerance of Clostridium acetobutylicum under extreme condition of high concentration of organic solvent. Using the developed technique, more than 42% of added bacteria can be adsorbed to the adsorbent. Surface area of the adsorbent was more than 10 times greater than sodium alginate. Scanning electron microscope image shows that an abundant amount of pore structure was successfully developed on adsorbents, promoting bacteria adsorption. In adsorbent assisted ABE fermentation, there was 21.64 g/L butanol in extracting layer compared to negligible butanol produced with only the extractant but without the adsorbent, for the reason that adsorbent can reduce damaging exposure of C. acetobutylicum to octanol. The strategy can improve total butanol production with respect to traditional culture approach by more than 2.5 fold and save energy for subsequent butanol recovery, which effects can potentially make the biobutanol production more economically practical.

  6. The state of the warm and cold gas in the extreme starburst at the core of the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Marshall W.; Swinbank, Mark; Edge, Alastair C.; Hogan, Michael T.; Wilner, David J.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Benson, Bradford A.; Marrone, Daniel P.; McNamara, Brian R.; Wei, Lisa H.

    2014-01-01

    We present new optical integral field spectroscopy (Gemini South) and submillimeter spectroscopy (Submillimeter Array) of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). This cluster was previously reported to have a massive starburst (∼800 M ☉ yr –1 ) in the central, brightest cluster galaxy, most likely fueled by the rapidly cooling intracluster medium. These new data reveal a complex emission-line nebula, extending for >30 kpc from the central galaxy, detected at [O II]λλ3726, 3729, [O III]λλ4959, 5007, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ, [Ne III]λ3869, and He II λ4686. The total Hα luminosity, assuming Hα/Hβ = 2.85, is L Hα = 7.6 ± 0.4 ×10 43 erg s –1 , making this the most luminous emission-line nebula detected in the center of a cool core cluster. Overall, the relative fluxes of the low-ionization lines (e.g., [O II], Hβ) to the UV continuum are consistent with photoionization by young stars. In both the center of the galaxy and in a newly discovered highly ionized plume to the north of the galaxy, the ionization ratios are consistent with both shocks and active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. We speculate that this extended plume may be a galactic wind, driven and partially photoionized by both the starburst and central AGN. Throughout the cluster we measure elevated high-ionization line ratios (e.g., He II/Hβ, [O III]/Hβ), coupled with an overall high-velocity width (FWHM ≳ 500 km s –1 ), suggesting that shocks are likely important throughout the interstellar medium of the central galaxy. These shocks are most likely driven by a combination of stellar winds from massive young stars, core-collapse supernovae, and the central AGN. In addition to the warm, ionized gas, we detect a substantial amount of cold, molecular gas via the CO(3-2) transition, coincident in position with the galaxy center. We infer a molecular gas mass of M H 2 = 2.2 ± 0.6 × 10 10 M ☉ , which implies that the starburst will consume its fuel in ∼30 Myr if

  7. Lightning Location System Data from Wind Power Plants Compared to Meteorological Conditions of Warm- and Cold Thunderstorm Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Lopez, Javier; Garolera, Anna Candela

    2016-01-01

    of topography, height above mean sea level (AMSL), and average ground flash density. For three sites, the most severe lightning events have been identified during the warm and cold months whereas the other two locations exhibit severe lightning detections mainly during the warm months. In this work severity......Five years of Lightning Location System (LLS) data from five different wind turbine sites in Europe are analysed. The sites are located in Croatia, Italy, Spain, France and one offshore wind power plant in the North sea. Each location exhibits individual characteristic properties in terms...... of such an episode can vary from tens of minutes to several hours in the case of new storms being continuously developed in the same area. The distance of the charge separating -10◦ C and the ground is usually larger than 3000 meters. This analyse provides information about the different thunderstorm types which...

  8. Exposure to hot and cold environmental conditions does not affect the decision making ability of soccer referees following an intermittent sprint protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lee; Fitch, Natalie; Castle, Paul; Watkins, Samuel; Aldous, Jeffrey; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Midgely, Adrian; Brewer, John; Mauger, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Soccer referees enforce the laws of the game and the decisions they make can directly affect match results. Fixtures within European competitions take place in climatic conditions that are often challenging (e.g., Moscow ~ -5°C, Madrid ~30°C). Effects of these temperatures on player performance are well-documented; however, little is known how this environmental stress may impair cognitive performance of soccer referees and if so, whether exercise exasperates this. The present study aims to investigate the effect of cold [COLD; -5°C, 40% relative humidity (RH)], hot (HOT; 30°C, 40% RH) and temperate (CONT; 18°C, 40% RH) conditions on decision making during soccer specific exercise. On separate occasions within each condition, 13 physically active males; either semi-professional referees or semi-professional soccer players completed three 90 min intermittent treadmill protocols that simulated match play, interspersed with 4 computer delivered cognitive tests to measure vigilance and dual task capacity. Core and skin temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS) were recorded throughout the protocol. There was no significant difference between conditions for decision making in either the dual task (interaction effects: FALSE p = 0.46; MISSED p = 0.72; TRACKING p = 0.22) or vigilance assessments (interaction effects: FALSE p = 0.31; HIT p = 0.15; MISSED p = 0.17) despite significant differences in measured physiological variables (skin temperature: HOT vs. CONT 95% CI = 2.6 to 3.9, p decision making ability between conditions was due to the exercise protocol used, as it may not have elicited an appropriate and valid soccer specific internal load to alter cognitive functioning.

  9. Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM): A fast approximate model for oxide and silicate melts at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. S.; Asimow, P. D.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent first-principles calculations (e.g. Stixrude, 2009; de Koker, 2013), shock-wave experiments (Mosenfelder, 2009), and diamond-anvil cell investigations (Sanloup, 2013) indicate that silicate melts undergo complex structural evolution at high pressure. The observed increase in cation-coordination (e.g. Karki, 2006; 2007) induces higher compressibilities and lower adiabatic thermal gradients in melts as compared with their solid counterparts. These properties are crucial for understanding the evolution of impact-generated magma oceans, which are dominated by the poorly understood behavior of silicates at mantle pressures and temperatures (e.g. Stixrude et al. 2009). Probing these conditions is difficult for both theory and experiment, especially given the large compositional space (MgO-SiO2-FeO-Al2O3-etc). We develop a new model to understand and predict the behavior of oxide and silicate melts at extreme P-T conditions (Wolf et al., 2015). The Coordinated Hard Sphere Mixture (CHaSM) extends the Hard Sphere mixture model, accounting for the range of coordination states for each cation in the liquid. Using approximate analytic expressions for the hard sphere model, this fast statistical method compliments classical and first-principles methods, providing accurate thermodynamic and structural property predictions for melts. This framework is applied to the MgO system, where model parameters are trained on a collection of crystal polymorphs, producing realistic predictions of coordination evolution and the equation of state of MgO melt over a wide P-T range. Typical Mg-coordination numbers are predicted to evolve continuously from 5.25 (0 GPa) to 8.5 (250 GPa), comparing favorably with first-principles Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We begin extending the model to a simplified mantle chemistry using empirical potentials (generally accurate over moderate pressure ranges, consuming classical MD calculations. This approach also sheds light on the universality

  10. Hygrothermal conditions in cold, north facing attic spaces under the eaves with vapour-open roofing underlay in a cool, temperate climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Johnston, C.J.; Hansen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    compliance with the current Danish Building Regulations (BR10) for airtightness (moisture levels in attics with vapour-open roofing underlays. North facing cold attic spaces under the eaves constitute a worst case scenario. Following best...... to allow an influx of 3.3 l/s of conditioned indoor air 20 °C and 60% RH at a pressure difference of 50 Pa) and ventilation (singled-sided, passive ventilation) contained more moisture and had significantly higher levels of mould growth than the non-ventilated attics. Under the same physical conditions...... the ‘pressure equalized’ attic rooms were found to have moisture levels in between those observed in the ventilated and non-ventilated attic rooms. Likewise, the observed levels of mould growth were in between those observed in the cases of the ventilated and non-ventilated attic rooms. Attics with reduced...

  11. Expert consensus on facilitators and barriers to return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions : A Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S. E.; Johnston, V.; Ross, M.; Coppieters, M. W.

    2017-01-01

    This Delphi study aimed to reach consensus on important facilitators and barriers for return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions. In Round 1, experts (n = 42) listed 134 factors, which were appraised in Rounds 2 and 3. Consensus (3/485% agreement) was achieved for

  12. Unique Nature of the Quality of Life in the Context of Extreme Climatic, Geographical and Specific Socio-Cultural Living Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Anastasia; Neyaskina, Yuliya; Frizen, Marina; Shiryaeva, Olga; Surikova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed empirical research, aimed at studying the quality of life in the context of extreme climatic, geographical and specific sociocultural living conditions. Our research is based on the methodological approach including social, economical, ecological and psychological characteristics and reflecting…

  13. Optimized chemical composition, working and heat treatment condition for resistance to irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking of cold worked 316 and high-chromium austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Toshio; Iwamura, Toshihiko; Fujimoto, Koji; Ajiki, Kazuhide

    2000-01-01

    The authors have reported that the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in baffle former bolts made of austenitic stainless steels for PWR after long-term operation is caused by irradiation-induced grain boundary segregation. The resistance to PWSCC of simulated austenitic stainless steels whose chemical compositions are simulated to the grain boundary chemical composition of 316 stainless steel after irradiation increased with decrease of the silicon content, increases of the chromium content, and precipitation of M 23 C 6 carbides at the grain boundaries. In order to develop resistance to irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steels, optimized chemical compositions and heat treatment conditions for 316CW and high-chromium austenitic stainless steels for PWR baffle former bolts were investigated. For 316CW stainless steel, ultra-low-impurities and high-chromium content are beneficial. About 20% cold working before aging and after solution treatment has also been recommended to recover sensitization and make M 23 C 6 carbides coherent with the matrix at the grain boundaries. Heating at 700 to 725degC for 20 to 50 h was selected as a suitable aging procedure. Cold working of 5 to 10% after aging produced the required mechanical properties. The optimized composition of the high-chromium austenitic stainless steel contents 30% chromium, 30% nickel, and ultra-low impurity levels. This composition also reduces the difference between its thermal expansion coefficient and that of 304 stainless steel for baffle plates. Aging at 700 to 725degC for longer than 40 h and cold working of 10 to 15% after aging were selected to meet mechanical property specifications. (author)

  14. Life expectancy, adapted technology and cold climate conditions : key issues for wind turbines in Canada; Duree de vie, adaptation technologique et conditions froides : un enjeu majeur pour les eoliennes au Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaumel, J.L.; Nanta, R. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada); Golbeck, P. [Peter Golbeck Consultant, Rimouski, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation discussed the service life of wind turbines, particularly those operating in cold climates. A map of Quebec was included to indicate the potential sites for an additional 450 MW of wind energy capacity for northern Quebec, near James Bay. Different types of wind turbines were described in terms of their size and power, including those without transformers. It was noted that a 30 per cent growth in the wind power industry is anticipated annually. However, there is currently a lack of wind turbines. A 2 MW wind turbine costs $3 million and major reinvestment is needed after 10 years of service life due to component wear. It was noted that a gear box lasts less than 15 years and other generator components also require maintenance. The primary reasons for increased risk and cost include equipment failures due to component fatigue, cold weather operation, lack of maintenance and bad design for winter conditions. The components affected by failures include gearboxes, generators, pitch controls, and hydraulics. Since the industry is relatively new, there are no replacement parts available for these components and cranage costs are high. In addition, since Canada's entry into the wind industry is also relatively new, there is a lack of machine testing in Canada as well as a lack of understanding of energy capacity and the effects of cold weather. Overproduction also occurs frequently. tabs., figs.

  15. Star Formation Conditions in a Planck Galactic Cold Clump, G108.84–00.81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungha; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wu, Yuefang; Tatematsu, Ken‧ichi; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; JCMT Large Program “SCOPE” Collaboration; TRAO Key Science Program “TOP” Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    We present the results from a series of ground-based radio observations toward a Planck Galactic Cold Clump (PGCC), PGCC G108.84–00.81, which is located in one curved filamentary cloud in the vicinity of an extended H II region Sh2-152 and SNR G109.1-1.0. PGCC G108.84–00.81 is mainly composed of two clumps, “G108–N” and “G108–S”. In the 850 μm dust continuum emission map, G108–N is shown as one component while G108–S is fragmented into four components. There is no infrared source associated with G108–N, while there are two infrared sources (IRS 1 and IRS 2) associated with G108–S. The total mass of G108–N is larger than the Jeans mass, suggesting that G108–N is gravitationally unstable and a potential place for a future star formation. The clump properties of G108–N and G108–S such as the gas temperature and the column density, are not distinctly different. However, G108–S is slightly more evolved than G108–N, if considering the CO depletion factor, molecular abundances, and association with infrared sources. G108–S seems to be affected by the compression from Sh2-152, while G108–N is relatively protected from the external effect.

  16. Star Formation Conditions in a Planck Galactic Cold Clump, G108.84–00.81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jungha; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wu, Yuefang; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Liu, Sheng-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    We present the results from a series of ground-based radio observations toward a Planck Galactic Cold Clump (PGCC), PGCC G108.84–00.81, which is located in one curved filamentary cloud in the vicinity of an extended H ii region Sh2-152 and SNR G109.1-1.0. PGCC G108.84–00.81 is mainly composed of two clumps, “G108–N” and “G108–S”. In the 850 μ m dust continuum emission map, G108–N is shown as one component while G108–S is fragmented into four components. There is no infrared source associated with G108–N, while there are two infrared sources (IRS 1 and IRS 2) associated with G108–S. The total mass of G108–N is larger than the Jeans mass, suggesting that G108–N is gravitationally unstable and a potential place for a future star formation. The clump properties of G108–N and G108–S such as the gas temperature and the column density, are not distinctly different. However, G108–S is slightly more evolved than G108–N, if considering the CO depletion factor, molecular abundances, and association with infrared sources. G108–S seems to be affected by the compression from Sh2-152, while G108–N is relatively protected from the external effect.

  17. Star Formation Conditions in a Planck Galactic Cold Clump, G108.84–00.81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungha; Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871, Beijing (China); Tatematsu, Ken' ichi [Department of Astronomical Science, SOKENDAI - The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Liu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Collaboration: JCMT Large Program “SCOPE” Collaboration, and TRAO Key Science Program “TOP” Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    We present the results from a series of ground-based radio observations toward a Planck Galactic Cold Clump (PGCC), PGCC G108.84–00.81, which is located in one curved filamentary cloud in the vicinity of an extended H ii region Sh2-152 and SNR G109.1-1.0. PGCC G108.84–00.81 is mainly composed of two clumps, “G108–N” and “G108–S”. In the 850 μ m dust continuum emission map, G108–N is shown as one component while G108–S is fragmented into four components. There is no infrared source associated with G108–N, while there are two infrared sources (IRS 1 and IRS 2) associated with G108–S. The total mass of G108–N is larger than the Jeans mass, suggesting that G108–N is gravitationally unstable and a potential place for a future star formation. The clump properties of G108–N and G108–S such as the gas temperature and the column density, are not distinctly different. However, G108–S is slightly more evolved than G108–N, if considering the CO depletion factor, molecular abundances, and association with infrared sources. G108–S seems to be affected by the compression from Sh2-152, while G108–N is relatively protected from the external effect.

  18. Warm and cold molecular gas conditions modelled in 87 galaxies observed by the Herschel SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetzky, J.; Rangwala, N.; Glenn, J.

    2017-11-01

    We have conducted two-component, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium modelling of the CO lines from J = 1-0 through J = 13-12 in 87 galaxies observed by the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). We find the average pressure of the cold molecular gas, traced especially by CO J = 1-0, is ˜105.0±0.5 K cm-3. The mid- to high-J lines of CO trace higher pressure gas at 106.5 ± 0.6 K cm-3; this pressure is slightly correlated with LFIR. Two components are often necessary to accurately fit the Spectral Line Energy Distributions; a one-component fit often underestimates the flux of carbon monoxide (CO) J = 1-0 and the mass. If low-J lines are not included, mass is underestimated by an order of magnitude. Even when modelling the low-J lines alone or using an αCO conversion factor, the mass should be considered to be uncertain to a factor of at least 0.4 dex, and the vast majority of the CO luminosity will be missed (median, 65 per cent). We find a very large spread in our derived values of αCO, though they do not have a discernible trend with LFIR; the best fit is a constant 0.7 M⊙ (K km s- 1 pc2)-1, with a standard deviation of 0.36 dex, and a range of 0.3-1.6 M⊙ (K km s- 1 pc2)-1. We find average molecular gas depletion times (τdep) of 108 yr that decrease with increasing star formation rate. Finally, we note that the J = 11-10/J = 1-0 line flux ratio is diagnostic of the warm component pressure, and discuss the implications of this comprehensive study of SPIRE FTS extragalactic spectra for future study post-Herschel.

  19. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  20. Chronic Mild Cold Conditioning Modulates the Expression of Hypothalamic Neuropeptide and Intermediary Metabolic-Related Genes and Improves Growth Performances in Young Chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Nguyen

    Full Text Available Low environmental temperatures are among the most challenging stressors in poultry industries. Although landmark studies using acute severe cold exposure have been conducted, still the molecular mechanisms underlying cold-stress responses in birds are not completely defined. In the present study we determine the effect of chronic mild cold conditioning (CMCC on growth performances and on the expression of key metabolic-related genes in three metabolically important tissues: brain (main site for feed intake control, liver (main site for lipogenesis and muscle (main site for thermogenesis.80 one-day old male broiler chicks were divided into two weight-matched groups and maintained in two different temperature floor pen rooms (40 birds/room. The temperature of control room was 32°C, while the cold room temperature started at 26.7°C and gradually reduced every day (1°C/day to reach 19.7°C at the seventh day of the experiment. At day 7, growth performances were recorded (from all birds and blood samples and tissues were collected (n = 10. The rest of birds were maintained at the same standard environmental condition for two more weeks and growth performances were measured.Although feed intake remained unchanged, body weight gain was significantly increased in CMCC compared to the control chicks resulting in a significant low feed conversion ratio (FCR. Circulating cholesterol and creatine kinase levels were higher in CMCC chicks compared to the control group (P<0.05. CMCC significantly decreased the expression of both the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY and anorexigenic cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART in chick brain which may explain the similar feed intake between the two groups. Compared to the control condition, CMCC increased the mRNA abundance of AMPKα1/α2 and decreased mTOR gene expression (P<0.05, the master energy and nutrient sensors, respectively. It also significantly decreased the expression of fatty

  1. Effects of heating energy and heating position on the conversion characteristics of the catalyst of a four-stroke motorcycle engine in cold start conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horng, R.-F.; Chou, H.-M.; Hsu, T.-C.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of heating energy and heating position on the conversion efficiency of an electrically heated catalyst of a four stroke motorcycle engine under cold start conditions were investigated in this study. In general, during cold start, the operating temperatures of a four stroke motorcycle engine and its catalyst would not be optimized. It was found in this paper that by applying heat to the catalyst however, the reaction of the catalyst could be promoted, which, consequently, improved the conversion efficiency. The experimented parameters were heating energy, heating position, heating temperature and the carbon monoxide (CO) setting level. The heating temperatures included 100, 140 and 180 deg. C, while three different heating powers and six different heating positions were used. The CO levels were set as 1.0%, 1.8% and 2.3%. The best CO conversion efficiency was obtained by applying heating at the inlet of the catalyst. It was revealed that a high heating power induced a high temperature rising rate and, consequently, a high CO conversion efficiency. In terms of energy economy efficiency, however, heating at the mid-section of the catalyst gave the best results and through a relatively low heating power

  2. Left–right coordination from simple to extreme conditions during split‐belt locomotion in the chronic spinal adult cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Étienne; Thibaudier, Yann; Hurteau, Marie‐France; Dambreville, Charline

    2016-01-01

    Key points Coordination between the left and right sides is essential for dynamic stability during locomotion.The immature or neonatal mammalian spinal cord can adjust to differences in speed between the left and right sides during split‐belt locomotion by taking more steps on the fast side.We show that the adult mammalian spinal cord can also adjust its output so that the fast side can take more steps.During split‐belt locomotion, only certain parts of the cycle are modified to adjust left–right coordination, primarily those associated with swing onset.When the fast limb takes more steps than the slow limb, strong left–right interactions persist.Therefore, the adult mammalian spinal cord has a remarkable adaptive capacity for left–right coordination, from simple to extreme conditions. Abstract Although left–right coordination is essential for locomotion, its control is poorly understood, particularly in adult mammals. To investigate the spinal control of left–right coordination, a spinal transection was performed in six adult cats that were then trained to recover hindlimb locomotion. Spinal cats performed tied‐belt locomotion from 0.1 to 1.0 m s−1 and split‐belt locomotion with low to high (1:1.25–10) slow/fast speed ratios. With the left hindlimb stepping at 0.1 m s−1 and the right hindlimb stepping from 0.2 to 1.0 m s−1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 left–right step relationships could appear. The appearance of 1:2+ relationships was not linearly dependent on the difference in speed between the slow and fast belts. The last step taken by the fast hindlimb displayed longer cycle, stance and swing durations and increased extensor activity, as the slow limb transitioned to swing. During split‐belt locomotion with 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 relationships, the timing of stance onset of the fast limb relative to the slow limb and placement of both limbs at contact were invariant with increasing slow/fast speed ratios. In contrast, the timing of

  3. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the importance of spatio-temporal RCM resolution when estimating sub-daily extreme precipitation under current and future climate conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Luchner, J.; Onof, C.

    2017-01-01

    extreme precipitation over Denmark generated by the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM-ECEARTH at different spatial resolutions (8, 12, 25 and 50km), three RCM from the RiskChange project at 8km resolution and three RCMs from ENSEMBLES at 25km resolution at temporal aggregations from 1 to 48h...... are more skewed than the observational dataset, which leads to an overestimation by the higher spatial resolution simulations. Nevertheless, in general, under current conditions RCM simulations at high spatial resolution represent extreme events and high-order moments better. The changes projected...

  5. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold.

  6. Identification of Extreme Events Under Climate Change Conditions Over Europe and The Northwest-atlantic Region: Spatial Patterns and Time Series Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckebusch, G.; Ulbrich, U.; Speth, P.

    In the context of climate change and the resulting possible impacts on socio-economic conditions for human activities it seems that due to a changed occurrence of extreme events more severe consequences have to be expected than from changes in the mean climate. These extreme events like floods, excessive heats and droughts or windstorms possess impacts on human social and economic life in different categories such as forestry, agriculture, energy use, tourism and the reinsurance business. Reinsurances are affected by nearly 70% of all insured damages over Europe in the case of wind- storms. Especially the December 1999 French windstorms caused damages about 10 billion. A new EU-founded project (MICE = Modelling the Impact of Climate Ex- tremes) will focus on these impacts caused by changed occurrences of extreme events over Europe. Based upon the output of general circulation models as well as regional climate models, investigations are carried out with regard to time series characteristics as well as the spatial patterns of extremes under climate changed conditions. After the definition of specific thresholds for climate extremes, in this talk we will focus on the results of the analysis for the different data sets (HadCM3 and CGCMII GCM's and RCM's, re-analyses, observations) with regard to windstorm events. At first the results of model outputs are validated against re-analyses and observations. Especially a comparison of the stormtrack (2.5 to 8 day bandpass filtered 500 hPa geopotential height), cyclone track, cyclone frequency and intensity is presented. Highly relevant to damages is the extreme wind near the ground level, so the 10 m wind speed will be investigated additionally. of special interest to possible impacts is the changed spatial occurrence of windspeed maxima under 2xCO2-induced climate change.

  7. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  8. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  9. The 1998 bible. Cold production, air conditioning, big cooking installations; La bible 1998. Froid, climatisation, grandes cuisines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This manual is devoted to French professionals of thermal engineering. It contains all useful addresses of companies involved in the manufacturing, distribution and maintenance of air conditioning and refrigerating systems, a list of companies classified by products and activities, a departmental list of distribution companies, an alphabetical list of professional organizations, a catalog of the new products of the year, and the recent regulatory texts concerning the confinement of refrigerating installations. (J.S.)

  10. A joint analysis of wave and surge conditions for past and present extrem events in the south-western Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Nikolaus; Gaslikova, Lidia

    2017-04-01

    Extreme marine events in the south-western Baltic Sea like the historic storm in 1872 are rare, but have large impacts on human safety and coastal infrastructure. The aforementioned extreme storm event of 1872 and has cost over 250 human lives, left severely damaged infrastructure and caused land loss due to coastal erosion. Recent extreme events also result in drastic impacts to coastal regions. Using results from numerical wave and hydrodynamic model simulations we will present a joint analysis of wave and water level conditions for selected extreme events. For the historic event the numerical models have been forced by reconstructed wind and pressure fields from pressure readings. Simulated atmospheric conditions from reanalysis have been used for the more recent events. The height of the water level due to the possible previous inflow of water masses in the Baltic Sea basin, as well as possible seiches and swell effects have been incorporated in the simulations. We will discuss similarities and differences between the historic and the more recent marine hazard events.

  11. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Zoom of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 2 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. Photo 3 Zoom of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. One can also see the auxiliary bus bars needed to power the corrector magnets that are installed in the dipole cold mass assembly. Photo 4 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions.

  12. Cold Leak Tests of LHC Beam Screens

    CERN Document Server

    Collomb-Patton, C; Jenninger, B; Kos, N

    2009-01-01

    In order to guide the high energy proton beams inside its two 27 km long vacuum rings, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, makes use of superconducting technology to create the required magnetic fields. More than 4000 beam screens, cooled at 7 20 K, are inserted inside the 1.9 K beam vacuum tubes to intercept beam induced heat loads and to provide dynamic vacuum stability. As extremely high helium leak tightness is required, all beam screens have been leak tested under cold conditions in a dedicated test stand prior to their installation. After describing the beam screen design and its functions, this report focuses on the cold leak test sequence and discusses the results.

  13. Temporal variation of sandy beach macrofauna at two sites with distinct environmental conditions on Cassino Beach, extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Sá Rodrigues da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variations of the macrofauna of sandy beaches have been related to variations in the beach morphodynamics and also to the population dynamics of dominant species. The aim of this article is to describe the temporal variation of the intertidal macrofauna at two sites with distinct environmental condition on Cassino Beach, extreme southern Brazil. At each site three transect lines 50 m apart were defined perpendicular to the shore line, from which samples were collected monthly in triplicate at 4 intertidal levels (10 m apart from June 2004 to May 2005. During winter a generally low density was observed, due to the absence of recruitments and to the mud deposition, which occurred just before sampling (in April 2004, and to low intensity stranding events. Spring witnessed a population explosion of Scolelepis gaucha, a migration of Mesodesma mactroides adults from the subtidal zone, and a strong stranding event. In the summer, recruitment of M. mactroides, Donax hanleyanus and Emerita brasiliensis was observed. Fall was characterized by low densities, except for D. hanleyanus recruitment. The macrofauna at both sites showed a striking seasonal variation in density and diversity, perhaps attributable to the recruitment of numerically dominant species and physical disturbances (stranding and mud deposition.Variações sazonais da macrofauna bentônica de praias arenosas têm sido relacionadas com variações da morfodinâmica da praia e também aos recrutamentos das espécies dominantes. Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a variabilidade temporal da macrofauna da zona entremarés de dois locais com distintas características ambientais na praia do Cassino, extremo sul do Brasil. Em cada local foram demarcadas três transversais (separadas por 50m perpendiculares à linha de água, nas quais amostras foram coletadas em triplicata em 4 níveis entremarés (separados por 10 m, entre junho/2004 e maio/2005. Durante o inverno ocorreram baixas

  14. Considerations concerning the physics of nuclear matter under extreme conditions and an accelerator for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasche, K.; Bock, R.; Franzke, B.; Greiner, W.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Povh, B.; Schmelzer, C.; Stock, R.

    1977-01-01

    The future problems of heavy-ion physics in the 10 GeV/U range are dealt with: the dynamics of relativistic nuclear collisions, phase transitions, nuclear matter, quantum electrodynamics of extremely strong fields, and astrophysical aspects. In the second part, the project of a heavy-ion accelerator in the 10 GeV/U range to be coupled to the present GSI UNILAC accelerator is discussed. (WL) [de

  15. Observations and predictions of wave runup, extreme water levels, and medium-term dune erosion during storm conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Suanez , Serge ,; Cancouët , Romain; Floc'h , France; Blaise , Emmanuel; Ardhuin , Fabrice; Filipot , Jean-François; Cariolet , Jean-Marie; Delacourt , Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of dune erosion and accretion on the high-energy macrotidal Vougot beach in North Brittany (France) over the past decade (2004–2014) has revealed significant morphological changes. Dune toe erosion/accretion records have been compared with extreme water level measurements, defined as the sum of (i) astronomic tide; (ii) storm surge; and (iii) vertical wave runup. Runup parameterization was conducted using swash limits, beach profiles, and hydrodynamic (Hm0, Tm0,–1, and high tide wa...

  16. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict. We measured response functions linking carbon (C) assimilation and temperature- and moisture-related microclimatic factors for limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seedlings growing in a heating × watering experiment within and above the alpine treeline. We then extrapolated these response functions using observed microclimate conditions to estimate the net effects of warming and associated soil drying on C assimilation across an entire growing season. Moisture and temperature limitations were each estimated to reduce potential growing season C gain from a theoretical upper limit by 15-30% (c. 50% combined). Warming above current treeline conditions provided relatively little benefit to modeled net assimilation, whereas assimilation was sensitive to either wetter or drier conditions. Summer precipitation may be at least as important as temperature in constraining C gain by establishing subalpine trees at and above current alpine treelines as seasonally dry subalpine and alpine ecosystems continue to warm. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Analysis of the repeatability of the exhaust pollutants emission research results for cold and hot starts under controlled driving cycle conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Artur; Kuszewski, Hubert; Ustrzycki, Adam; Balawender, Krzysztof; Lejda, Kazimierz; Woś, Paweł

    2018-04-20

    Measurement of car engines exhaust pollutants emissions is very important because of their harmful effects on the environment. This article presents the assessment of repeatability of the passenger car engine exhaust pollutants emission research results obtained in the conditions of a chassis dynamometer. The research was conducted in a climate chamber, enabling the temperature conditions to be determined from - 20 to + 30 °C. The emission of CO, CH 4 , CO 2 , NO X , THC, and NMHC was subjected to the analysis. The aim of the research is to draw attention to the accuracy of the pollutant emission research results in driving cycles, and the comparison of pollutant emission results and their repeatability obtained in successive NEDC cycles under cold and hot start conditions. The results of the analysis show that, in the case of a small number of measurements, the results repeatability analysis is necessary for a proper interpretation of the pollutant emission results on the basis of the mean value. According to the authors' judgment, it is beneficial to determine the coefficient of variation for a more complete assessment of exhaust emission result repeatability obtained from a small number of measurements. This parameter is rarely presented by the authors of papers on exhaust components emission research.

  18. Analysis of injection sprays by means of large high-speed engines under cold and evaporating conditions; Analyse von Einspritzsprays mittelschnelllaufender Grossmotoren unter kalten und verdampfenden Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Christian; Pinkert, Fabian; Harndorf, Horst [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kolbenmaschinen und Verbrennungsmotoren; Frobenius, Moritz [AVL Deutschland GmbH, Haimhausen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The introduction of future emission limits for marine diesel engines requires an improved understanding of the fuel injection process and mixture formation as well as the development of robust and powerful tools to calculate the emission generation. This publication presents research results of the project partners AVI Deutschland GmbH and Rostock University obtained in the associated project EMI-MINI II. Objective of the experimental part of the work is the fundamental investigation of the mixture formation at cold and evaporative conditions in a high-pressure and high-temperature chamber by means of optical methods. For the measurements, a modem, heavy fuel capable single circuit common-rail injector of a medium speed diesel engine is applied. Based on the experimental results a calibration and validation of spray break-up and evaporation models is done. The models are applied in a specific simulation approach in order to predict engine emissions. Characteristic feature of the chosen approach is the consideration of specific nozzle internal flow conditions as boundary conditions for the spray break-up models and thus for the ignition, combustion and emission generation. The presented results demonstrate that the applied models are very sufficient to calculate injection and mixture formation processes. By comparing calculated engine emissions to experimental results obtained by WTZ Rosslau gGmbH it is shown that the presented simulation approach is capable to predict the impact of varying engine parameters on NO{sub x}- and soot emissions effectively. (orig.)

  19. The influence of near-bed hydrodynamic conditions on cold-water corals in the Viosca Knoll area, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2012-01-01

    Near-bed hydrodynamic conditions were recorded for almost one year in the Viosca Knoll area (lease block 826), one of the most well-developed cold-water coral habitats in the Gulf of Mexico. Here, a reef-like cold-water coral ecosystem, dominated by the coral Lophelia pertusa, resembles coral habitats found off the southeastern US coast and the North East Atlantic. Two landers were deployed in the vicinity and outside of the coral habitat and measured multiple near-bed parameters, including temperature, salinity, current speed and direction and optical and acoustic backscatter. Additionally, the lander deployed closest to the coral area was equipped with a sediment trap that collected settling particles over the period of deployment at 27 day intervals. Long-term monitoring showed, that in general, environmental parameters, such as temperature (6.5-11.6 °C), salinity (34.95-35.4) and current speed (average 8 cm s -1, peak current speed up to 38 cm s -1) largely resembled conditions previously recorded within North East Atlantic coral habitats. Major differences between site VK 826 and coral areas in the NE Atlantic were the much higher particle load, and the origin of the particulate matter. Several significant events occurred during the deployment period beginning with an increase in current speed followed by a gradual increase in temperature and salinity, followed by a rapid decrease in temperature and salinity. Simultaneously with the decrease in temperature and salinity, the direction of the current changed from west to east and cold and less turbid water was transported upslope. The most prominent event occurred in July, when a westward flow lasted over 21 days. These events are consistent with bottom boundary layer dynamics influenced by friction (bottom Ekman layer). The Mississippi River discharges large quantities of sediment and dominates sedimentation regimes in the area. Furthermore, the Mississippi River disperses large amounts of terrestrial organic

  20. Research on Using the Naturally Cold Air and the Snow for Data Center Air-conditioning, and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Kunikazu; Tano, Shunichi; Ichino, Junko

    To lower power consumption has becomes a worldwide concern. It is also becoming a bigger area in Computer Systems, such as reflected by the growing use of software-as-a-service and cloud computing whose market has increased since 2000, at the same time, the number of data centers that accumulates and manages the computer has increased rapidly. Power consumption at data centers is accounts for a big share of the entire IT power usage, and is still rapidly increasing. This research focuses on the air-conditioning that occupies accounts for the biggest portion of electric power consumption by data centers, and proposes to develop a technique to lower the power consumption by applying the natural cool air and the snow for control temperature and humidity. We verify those effectiveness of this approach by the experiment. Furthermore, we also examine the extent to which energy reduction is possible when a data center is located in Hokkaido.

  1. A comparative study of different methods for the generation of tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide clathrate hydrate slurry in a cold storage air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, X.J.; Zhang, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Four kinds of TBAB CHS generation methods are experimentally investigated. ► Accession of CHS into supercooled solution can be helpful to the generation. ► Higher flow rate results in higher energy efficiency of CHS generation. - Abstract: A cold storage air-conditioning system using tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS) as cold storage medium was built to investigate the high-efficiency method of TBAB CHS generation. In the present study, four kinds of different TBAB CHS generation methods were experimentally investigated and compared, and these methods included continuously cooling, turning off refrigerator while crystals appearing, supercooling release and accession of TBAB CHS into supercooled TBAB aqueous solution. The results showed that continuously cooling would lead to severe adhesion of crystal to the heat exchanger wall, and supercooling release took place with a big stochastic characteristic, hence the first and third method were concluded not reliable. Both the second and fourth methods could maintain the temperature of heat exchanger wall at a relatively higher level, therefore the crystal adhesion to the heat exchanger wall would be reduced significantly, which led to higher coefficient of performance (COP). In addition, accession of TBAB CHS into TBAB supercooled solution could shorten the time of supercooling release, resulting in about 21.8–35.4% shorter generation time than other methods. Moreover, the influence of flow rate on the CHS generation process was investigated, and the results showed that higher flow rate generally resulted in higher system COP

  2. Nordic Winter and Cold: Their Correspondence with Tomas Tranströmer's Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosian, Mohammad Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize winning poet Tomas Tranströmer was born and bred in Sweden, a remarkably Scandinavian country. Topographically, Scandinavian countries are locations of extreme cold and snowing. This distinguishing climatic condition has had a dominant influence and impact on almost all Scandinavian art and literature, including Tomas Tranströmer's…

  3. Reaction Norms in Natural Conditions: How Does Metabolic Performance Respond to Weather Variations in a Small Endotherm Facing Cold Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2014-01-01

    Reaction norms reflect an organisms' capacity to adjust its phenotype to the environment and allows for identifying trait values associated with physiological limits. However, reaction norms of physiological parameters are mostly unknown for endotherms living in natural conditions. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) increase their metabolic performance during winter acclimatization and are thus good model to measure reaction norms in the wild. We repeatedly measured basal (BMR) and summit (Msum) metabolism in chickadees to characterize, for the first time in a free-living endotherm, reaction norms of these parameters across the natural range of weather variation. BMR varied between individuals and was weakly and negatively related to minimal temperature. Msum varied with minimal temperature following a Z-shape curve, increasing linearly between 24°C and −10°C, and changed with absolute humidity following a U-shape relationship. These results suggest that thermal exchanges with the environment have minimal effects on maintenance costs, which may be individual-dependent, while thermogenic capacity is responding to body heat loss. Our results suggest also that BMR and Msum respond to different and likely independent constraints. PMID:25426860

  4. Cold Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may reduce how often they return. Symptoms A cold sore usually passes through several stages: Tingling and itching. Many people feel an itching, burning or tingling sensation around their lips for a day or so ...

  5. Heat transfer and pressure drop of a gasket-sealed plate heat exchanger depending on operating conditions across hot and cold sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyouck Ju [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In a gas engine based cogeneration system, heat may be recovered from two parts: Jacket water and exhaust gas. The heat from the jacket water is often recovered using a plate-type heat exchanger, and is used for room heating and/or hot water supply applications. Depending on the operating conditions of an engine and heat recovery system, there may be an imbalance in the flow rate and supply pressure between the engine side and the heat-recovery side of the heat exchanger. This imbalance causes deformation of the plate, which affects heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. In the present study, the heat transfer and pressure drop inside a heat exchanger were investigated under varying hot-side and cold-side operating conditions. Thermal efficiency of the plate heat exchanger decreases up to 30% with an operating engine load of 50%. A correction factor for the pressure drop correlation is proposed to account for the deformation caused by an imbalance between the two sides of a heat exchanger.

  6. Coupled large-eddy simulation and morphodynamics of a large-scale river under extreme flood conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Stony Brook University Team

    2016-11-01

    We present a coupled flow and morphodynamic simulations of extreme flooding in 3 km long and 300 m wide reach of the Mississippi River in Minnesota, which includes three islands and hydraulic structures. We employ the large-eddy simulation (LES) and bed-morphodynamic modules of the VFS-Geophysics model to investigate the flow and bed evolution of the river during a 500 year flood. The coupling of the two modules is carried out via a fluid-structure interaction approach using a nested domain approach to enhance the resolution of bridge scour predictions. The geometrical data of the river, islands and structures are obtained from LiDAR, sub-aqueous sonar and in-situ surveying to construct a digital map of the river bathymetry. Our simulation results for the bed evolution of the river reveal complex sediment dynamics near the hydraulic structures. The numerically captured scour depth near some of the structures reach a maximum of about 10 m. The data-driven simulation strategy we present in this work exemplifies a practical simulation-based-engineering-approach to investigate the resilience of infrastructures to extreme flood events in intricate field-scale riverine systems. This work was funded by a Grant from Minnesota Dept. of Transportation.

  7. Method of Maintaining the Required Values of Surface Roughness and Prediction of Technological Conditions for Cold Sheet Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valíček J.

    2014-06-01

    respect to variable technological conditions. On this basis it is then possible to calculate and plot individual main technological parameters.

  8. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 Th is winter ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cardiovascular ConditionsConditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac ...

  9. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  10. The influence of short-term cold stress on the metabolism of non-structural carbohydrates in polar grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Łopieńska-Biernat Elżbieta; Pastorczyk Marta; Giełwanowska Irena; Żółtowska Krystyna; Stryiński Robert; Zaobidna Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Plants adapt to extremely low temperatures in polar regions by maximizing their photosynthetic efficiency and accumulating cryoprotective and osmoprotective compounds. Flowering plants of the family Poaceae growing in the Arctic and in the Antarctic were investigated. Their responses to cold stress were analyzed under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected after 24 h and 48 h of cold treatment. Quantitative and qualitative changes of sugars are found among different species, but they c...

  11. “100 percent fun”: A case study of benefits from cold water surfing in Jæren, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Elmahdy, Yasmine Mounir

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Norway is steadily progressing towards being a popular cold-water surf destination. The long Norwegian coastline is attracting an increasing number of surfers who surf year round in extreme weather conditions. The aim of this research is to identify the benefits acquired by Norwegian surfers surfing in cold water along the Jæren coast, south the city of Stavanger in Norway. This research adopted a phenomenological approach and q...

  12. The De-Icing Comparison Experiment (D-ICE): A campaign for improving data retention rates of radiometric measurements under icing conditions in cold regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C. J.; Morris, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes are fundamental quantities regularly observed globally using broadband radiometers. In cold climates, frost, rime, snow and ice (collectively, "icing") frequently builds up on sensor windows, contaminating measurements. Since icing occurs under particular meteorological conditions, associated data losses constitutes a climatological bias. Furthermore, the signal caused by ice is difficult to distinguish from that of clouds, hampering efforts to identify contaminated from real data in post-processing. Because of the sensitivity of radiometers to internal temperature instabilities, there are limitations to using heat as a de-icing method. The magnitude of this problem is indicated by the large number of research institutions and commercial vendors that have developed various de-icing strategies. The D-ICE campaign has been designed to bring together a large number of currently available systems to quantitatively evaluate and compare ice-migration strategies and also to characterize the potentially adverse effects of the techniques themselves. For D-ICE, a variety of automated approaches making use of ventilation, heating, modified housings and alcohol spray are being evaluated alongside standard units operating with only the regularly scheduled manual cleaning by human operators at the NOAA Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) station in Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska. Previous experience within the BSRN community suggests that aspiration of ambient air alone may be sufficient to maintain ice-free radiometers without increasing measurement uncertainty during icing conditions, forming the main guiding hypothesis of the experiment. Icing on the sensors is monitored visually using cameras recording images every 15 minutes and quantitatively using an icing probe and met station. The effects of applied heat on infrared loss in pyranometers will be analyzed and the integrated effect of icing on monthly averages will be

  13. Sensitivities of crop models to extreme weather conditions during flowering period demonstrated for maize and winter wheat in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitzinger, J; Thaler, S; Schmid, E

    2013-01-01

    the start of flowering. Two locations in Austria, representing different agro-climatic zones and soil conditions, were included in the simulations over 2 years, 2003 and 2004, exhibiting contrasting weather conditions. In addition, soil management was modified at both sites by following either ploughing...

  14. Decrease in hydroclimatic conditions generating floods in the southeast of Belgium over the last 50 years resulting from changes in seasonal snow cover and extreme precipitation events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyard, Coraline; Fettweis, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    As a consequence of climate change, several studies concluded that winter flood occurrence could increase in the future in many rivers of northern and western Europe in response to an increase in extreme precipitation events. This study aims to determine if trends in extreme hydroclimatic events generating floods can already be detected over the last century. In particular, we focus on the Ourthe River (southeast of Belgium) which is one of the main tributaries of the Meuse River with a catchment area of 3500 km². In this river, most of the floods occur during winter and about 50% of them are due to rainfall events associated with the melting of the snow which covers the Ardennes during winter. In this study, hydroclimatic conditions favorable to flooding were reconstructed over the 20th century using the regional climate model MAR ("Modèle Atmosphérique Régional") forced by the following reanalyses: the ERA-20C, the ERA-Interim and the NCEP/NCAR-v1. The use of the MAR model allows to compute precipitation, snow depth and run-off resulting from precipitation events and snow melting in any part of the Ourthe river catchment area. Therefore, extreme hydroclimatic events, namely extreme run-off events, which could potentially generate floods, can be reconstructed using the MAR model. As validation, the MAR results were compared to weather station-based data. A trend analysis was then performed in order to study the evolution of conditions favorable to flooding in the Ourthe River catchment. The results show that the MAR model allows the detection of more than 95% of the hydroclimatic conditions which effectively generated observed floods in the Ourthe River over the 1974-2014 period. Conditions favorable to flooding present a negative trend over the last 50 years as a result of a decrease in snow accumulation and in extreme precipitation events. However, significance of these trends depends on the reanalysis used to force the regional climate model as well as the

  15. The near-term prediction of drought and flooding conditions in the northeastern United States based on extreme phases of AMO and NAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Rouzbeh; Driscoll, Charles T.; Adamowski, Jan F.

    2017-10-01

    frequency of wet, average, and dry discharge conditions with regards to the extreme phases of AMO and NAO. While the function was decaying, the tail asymptotically merged into and stabilized at the theoretical probability of the event. As the basin scale increased, the probability of wet, average, and dry discharge conditions decreased. The Merrimack River watershed will most likely experience greater than average discharge as its extreme condition, therefore development should be avoided on flood plains. Furthermore, the current reservoir storage capacity in the Merrimack should be improved in order to accommodate excess water input and minimize flood damage. Future research should target changes in the magnitude and timing of high discharge events in order to develop adaptation strategies for aging hydraulic infrastructure in the region.

  16. Evaluation of Workability on the Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Modified 9Cr-2W Steel for Fuel Cladding by Cold Drawing Process and Intermediate Heat Treatment Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Min Heo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the cold drawing workability of two kinds of modified 9Cr-2W steel containing different contents of boron and nitrogen depending on the temperature and time of normalizing and tempering treatments. Using ring compression tests at room temperature, the effect of intermediate heat treatment condition on workability was investigated. It was found that the prior austenite grain size can be changed by the austenite transformation and that the grain size increases with increasing temperature during normalizing heat treatment. Alloy B and Alloy N showed different patterns after normalizing heat treatment. Alloy N had higher stress than Alloy B, and the reduction in alloy N increased while the reduction in alloy B decreased. Alloy B showed a larger number of initially formed cracks and a larger average crack length than Alloy N. Crack length and number increased proportionally in Alloy B as the stress increased. Alloy B had lower crack resistance than Alloy N due to boron segregation.

  17. Precipitation of Oriented Rutile and Ilmenite Needles in Garnet, Northeastern Connecticut, USA: Evidence for Extreme Metamorphic Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ague, J. J.; Eckert, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    We report the discovery of oriented needles of rutile and, less commonly, ilmenite in the cores of garnets from northeastern CT, USA. The rocks preserve granulite facies mineral assemblages, form part of the Merrimack Synclinorium, and underwent metamorphism and deformation during the Acadian orogeny. The needles appear identical to those reported from a number of extreme P-T environments worldwide, including UHP metamorphic rocks, high-P granulites, and garnet peridotites. The needles are predominantly oriented along directions in garnet. The long axes of the rutile needles commonly do not go extinct parallel to the cross hairs under cross-polarized light (e.g., Griffin et al., 1971). This anomalous extinction indicates that the needles do not preserve a specific crystallographic relationship with their garnet hosts (e.g., Hwang et al., 2007). The needles range from a few hundred nm to a few um in diameter, and can be mm-scale in length. Micrometer-scale plates of rutile, srilankite and crichtonite have also been observed in some garnets together with the Fe-Ti oxide needles. Several origins for the needles have been proposed in the literature; we investigate the hypothesis that they precipitated in situ from originally Ti-rich garnet. Chemical profiles across garnets indicate that some retain Ti zoning, with elevated-Ti concentrations in the cores dropping to low values in the rims. For these zoned garnets, high-resolution, 2-D chemical mapping using the JEOL JXA-8530F field emission gun electron microprobe at Yale University reveals that the needles are surrounded by well-defined Ti-depletion halos. Chemical profiles also document strong depletions of Cr (which is present in both rutile and ilmenite) directly adjacent to needles. The observed Ti-depletions demonstrate that the needles precipitated from Ti-bearing garnet, probably during cooling and/or decompression associated with exhumation. The rutile precipitates must be largely incoherent with respect to the

  18. Development of a high-resolution apparatus to monitor physiological state of a person undergoing extreme conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodermyatov Radik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research has shown that ECG recordings and parameters of the body functional state are crucial for all kinds of the astronaut pre-flight preparations (centrifuge, thermal chamber, pressure chamber, pressure chamber with special equipment. It is, therefore, important to develop methods and tools for early detection of the preclinical forms of the functional state disorders in patients undergoing high-intensity loads of mixed character. The method based on the hardware-software compleх (HSC with nanosensors of high resolution has been proposed to measure the electrophysiological characteristics and bioelectrical impedance of the body tissues directly exposed to loading. The hardware-software compleх is subjected to clinical trials in Tomsk Research Institute for Cardiology. The obtained results show that the use of nanosensors of high resolution in the HSC without standard filters allows elimination of the power-line interference in ECG recordings. Monitoring of the tissue bioimpedance parameters under test loads enables the detection of preclinical (latent forms of various diseases. After clinical trials in Tomsk Institute for Cardiology the developed apparatus will be proposed for in-depth study of the cardiovascular system and the functional state of the body of astronauts and other persons exposed to extreme loads.

  19. Tips to Protect Workers in Cold Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Index | Newsroom | Contact Us | FAQs | About OSHA OSHA ... health problems such as trench foot, frostbite and hypothermia. In extreme cases, including cold water immersion, exposure can lead to ...

  20. Potential changes in the extreme climate conditions at the regional scale: from observed data to modelling approaches and towards probabilistic climate change information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachon, P.; Radojevic, M.; Harding, A.; Saad, C.; Nguyen, V.T.V.

    2008-01-01

    The changes in the characteristics of extreme climate conditions are one of the most critical challenges for all ecosystems, human being and infrastructure, in the context of the on-going global climate change. However, extremes information needed for impacts studies cannot be obtained directly from coarse scale global climate models (GCMs), due mainly to their difficulties to incorporate regional scale feedbacks and processes responsible in part for the occurrence, intensity and duration of extreme events. Downscaling approaches, namely statistical and dynamical downscaling techniques (i.e. SD and RCM), have emerged as useful tools to develop high resolution climate change information, in particular for extremes, as those are theoretically more capable to take into account regional/local forcings and their feedbacks from large scale influences as they are driven with GCM synoptic variables. Nevertheless, in spite of the potential added values from downscaling methods (statistical and dynamical), a rigorous assessment of these methods are needed as inherent difficulties to simulate extremes are still present. In this paper, different series of RCM and SD simulations using three different GCMs are presented and evaluated with respect to observed values over the current period and over a river basin in southern Quebec, with future ensemble runs, i.e. centered over 2050s (i.e. 2041-2070 period using the SRES A2 emission scenario). Results suggest that the downscaling performance over the baseline period significantly varies between the two downscaling techniques and over various seasons with more regular reliable simulated values with SD technique for temperature than for RCM runs, while both approaches produced quite similar temperature changes in the future from median values with more divergence for extremes. For precipitation, less accurate information is obtained compared to observed data, and with more differences among models with higher uncertainties in the

  1. Sensitivities of crop models to extreme weather conditions during flowering period demonstrated for maize and winter wheat in Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eitzinger, Josef; Thaler, S.; Schmid, E.; Strauss, F.; Ferrise, R.; Moriondo, M.; Bindi, M.; Palosuo, T.; Rötter, R.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Olesen, J. E.; Patil, R. H.; Saylan, L.; Çaldag, B.; Caylak, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 6 (2013), s. 813-835 ISSN 0021-8596 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : crop models * weather conditions * winter wheat * Austria Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.891, year: 2013

  2. Adaptive Coping under Conditions of Extreme Stress: Multilevel Influences on the Determinants of Resilience in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2009-01-01

    The study of resilience in maltreated children reveals the possibility of coping processes and resources on multiple levels of analysis as children strive to adapt under conditions of severe stress. In a maltreating context, aspects of self-organization, including self-esteem, self-reliance, emotion regulation, and adaptable yet reserved…

  3. Monitoring of prestressed concrete pressure vessels. II. performance of selected concrete embedment strain meters under normal and extreme environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Hurtt, C.C.

    1978-10-01

    Unique types of instrumentation are used in prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) to measure strains, stresses, deflections, prestressing forces, moisture content, temperatures, and possibly cracking. Their primary purpose is to monitor these complex structures throughout their 20- to 30-year operating lifetime in order to provide continuing assurance of their reliability and safety. Numerous concrete embedment instrumentation systems are available commercially. Since this instrumentation is important in providing continuing assurance of satisfactory performance of PCPVs, the information provided must be reliable. Therefore, laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the reliability of these commercially available instrumentation systems. This report, the second in a series related to instrumentation embedded in concrete, presents performance-reliability data for 13 types of selected concrete embedment strain meters which were subjected to a variety of loading environments, including unloaded, thermally loaded, simulated PCPV, and extreme environments. Although only a limited number of meters of each type were tested in any one test series, the composite results of the investigation indicate that the majority of these meters would not be able to provide reliable data throughout the 20- to 30-year anticipated operating life of a PCPV. Specific conclusions drawn from the study are: (1) Improved corrosion-resistant materials and sealing techniques should be developed for meters that are to be used in PCPV environments. (2) There is a need for the development of meters that are capable of surviving in concretes where temperatures in excess of 66 0 C are present for extended periods of time. (3) Research should be conducted on other measurement techniques, such as inductance, capacitance, and fluidics

  4. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person's chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals' chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light-dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration.

  5. U.S. War Powers in the 21st Century: Do Post Cold War Conditions Facilitate Abuse of Executive Prerogative in Foreign Affairs?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anders, R

    2001-01-01

    ...: The Legislative Branch declared, or at least authorized and funded, military intervention. The Cold War led directly to an expedient shift of War Powers towards the Executive Branch, during this period to restore balance...

  6. Extreme hydrometeorological events in the Peruvian Central Andes during austral summer and their relationship with the large-scale circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulca, Juan C.

    In this Master's dissertation, atmospheric circulation patterns associated with extreme hydrometeorological events in the Mantaro Basin, Peruvian Central Andes, and their teleconnections during the austral summer (December-January-February-March) are addressed. Extreme rainfall events in the Mantaro basin are related to variations of the large-scale circulation as indicated by the changing strength of the Bolivian High-Nordeste Low (BH-NL) system. Dry (wet) spells are associated with a weakening (strengthening) of the BH-NL system and reduced (enhanced) influx of moist air from the lowlands to the east due to strengthened westerly (easterly) wind anomalies at mid- and upper-tropospheric levels. At the same time extreme rainfall events of the opposite sign occur over northeastern Brazil (NEB) due to enhanced (inhibited) convective activity in conjunction with a strengthened (weakened) Nordeste Low. Cold episodes in the Mantaro Basin are grouped in three types: weak, strong and extraordinary cold episodes. Weak and strong cold episodes in the MB are mainly associated with a weakening of the BH-NL system due to tropical-extratropical interactions. Both types of cold episodes are associated with westerly wind anomalies at mid- and upper-tropospheric levels aloft the Peruvian Central Andes, which inhibit the influx of humid air masses from the lowlands to the east and hence limit the potential for development of convective cloud cover. The resulting clear sky conditions cause nighttime temperatures to drop, leading to cold extremes below the 10-percentile. Extraordinary cold episodes in the MB are associated with cold and dry polar air advection at all tropospheric levels toward the central Peruvian Andes. Therefore, weak and strong cold episodes in the MB appear to be caused by radiative cooling associated with reduced cloudiness, rather than cold air advection, while the latter plays an important role for extraordinary cold episodes only.

  7. A comparison of spent fuel shipping cask response to 10 CFR 71 normal conditions and realistic hot day extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, S.J.; Gianoulakis, S.E.

    1994-04-01

    An examination of the effect of a realistic (though conservative) hot day environment on the thermal transient behavior of spent fuel shipping casks is made. These results are compared to those that develop under the prescribed normal thermal condition of 10 CFR 71. Of specific concern are the characteristics of propagating thermal waves, which are set up by diurnal variations of temperature and insolation in the outdoor environment. In order to arrive at a realistic approximation of these variations on a conservative hot day, actual temperature and insolation measurements have been obtained from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) for representatively hot and high heat flux days. Thus, the use of authentic meteorological data ensures the realistic approach sought. Further supporting the desired realism of the modeling effort is the use of realistic cask configurations in which multiple laminations of structural, shielding, and other materials are expected to attenuate the propagating thermal waves. The completed analysis revealed that the majority of wall temperatures, for a wide variety of spent fuel shipping cask configurations, fall well below those predicted by enforcement of the regulatory environmental conditions of 10 CFR 71. It was found that maximum temperatures at the cask surface occasionally lie above temperatures predicted under the prescribed regulatory conditions. However, the temperature differences are small enough that the normal conservative assumptions that are made in the course of typical cask evaluations should correct for any potential violations. The analysis demonstrates that diurnal temperature variations that penetrate the cask wall all have maxima substantially less than the corresponding regulatory solutions. Therefore it is certain that vital cask components and the spent fuel itself will not exceed the temperatures calculated by use of the conditions of 10 CFR 71

  8. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this contribution the author the phenomenom of so-called cold fusion, inspired by the memorable lecture of Moshe Gai on his own search for this effect. Thus much of what follows was presented by Dr. Gai; the rest is from independent reading. What is referred to as cold fusion is of course the observation of possible products of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion within deuterium-loaded (dentended) electrodes. The debate over the two vanguard cold fusion experiments has raged under far more public attention than usually accorded new scientific phenomena. The clamor commenced with the press conference of M. Fleishmann and S. Pons on March 23, 1989 and the nearly simultaneous wide circulation of a preprint of S. Jones and collaborators. The majority of work attempting to confirm these observations has at the time of this writing yet to appear in published form, but contributions to conferences and electronic mail over computer networks were certainly filled with preliminary results. To keep what follows to a reasonable length the author limit this discussion to the searches for neutron (suggested by ref. 2) or for excessive heat production (suggested by ref. 1), following a synopsis of the hypotheses of cold fusion

  9. Project COLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  10. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun

    1996-01-01

    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author)

  11. Development of manganese toxicity in pasture legumes under extreme climatic conditions. [Trifolium subterraneum; Medicago sativa; Brassica campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siman, A; Cradock, F W; Hudson, A W

    1974-08-01

    Manganese levels and pH in soil were measured on limed and unlimed plots at bi-monthly intervals for two years at five field sites with lucerne (Medicago sativa) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) and related to rainfall and temperature. Pot experiments with lucerne, subterranean clover and rape (Brassica campestris) were used to confirm the results of the field experiments. Manganese toxicity developed in lucerne and subterranean clover under waterlogged conditions after heavy rain on the slightly acid soils (pH 4.7-5.5). Lucerne also showed manganese toxicity on the same soils in summer after extended hot, dry conditions. The maximum available manganese was 210 ..mu..g/g in the waterlogged soil (0-15 cm) the 128 ..mu..g/g in the heat affected soil. Lime treatment of 2240 kg/ha reduced the maximum available manganese to 148 ..mu..g/g in waterlogged plots and to 47 ..mu..g/g in the heat affected plots but failed to correct manganese toxicity. However, lime corrected toxicity symptoms under less severe conditions. In the pot experiments, available manganese reached 270 ..mu..g/g after 2 weeks artificial waterlogging and 68 ..mu..g/g after 2 weeks dry heat exposure. 12 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Cold regions isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids

  13. Stability of fluorite-type La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, F.X., E-mail: zhangfx@umich.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science & Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); Tracy, C.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lang, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37966 (United States); Ewing, R.C. [Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-07-25

    The structural stability of fluorite-type La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} was studied at pressure up to ∼40 GPa and under hydrothermal conditions of ∼1 GPa and up to 350 °C, respectively, using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering measurements. XRD measurements indicated that the fluorite-type La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} is not stable at pressures greater than 22.6 GPa and gradually transformed to a high-pressure phase. The high-pressure phase is not stable and changed back to the fluorite-type structure when pressure is released. The La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} fluorite is also not stable under hydrothermal conditions and began to react with water at 200–250 °C. Both Raman and XRD results suggest that lanthanum hydroxide La(OH){sub 3} and La{sup 3+}-doped CeO{sub 2} fluorite are the dominant products after hydrothermal treatment. - Graphical abstract: The fluorite-type La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} reacted with water at hydrothermal condition (1 GPa, and above 200 °C), and formed rare earth hydroxides. - Highlights: • La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} transforms to a metastable phase at pressure higher than 21 GPa. • La{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} reacts with water at ∼1 GPa and above 200 °C. • The pressure-induced phase transition is reversible.

  14. Improving real-time estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation using rain gauge data via conditional bias-penalized optimal estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Siddique, Ridwan; Zhang, Yu; Kim, Dongsoo

    2014-11-01

    A new technique for gauge-only precipitation analysis for improved estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation is described and evaluated. The technique is based on a novel extension of classical optimal linear estimation theory in which, in addition to error variance, Type-II conditional bias (CB) is explicitly minimized. When cast in the form of well-known kriging, the methodology yields a new kriging estimator, referred to as CB-penalized kriging (CBPK). CBPK, however, tends to yield negative estimates in areas of no or light precipitation. To address this, an extension of CBPK, referred to herein as extended conditional bias penalized kriging (ECBPK), has been developed which combines the CBPK estimate with a trivial estimate of zero precipitation. To evaluate ECBPK, we carried out real-world and synthetic experiments in which ECBPK and the gauge-only precipitation analysis procedure used in the NWS's Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) were compared for estimation of point precipitation and mean areal precipitation (MAP), respectively. The results indicate that ECBPK improves hourly gauge-only estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation significantly. The improvement is particularly large for estimation of MAP for a range of combinations of basin size and rain gauge network density. This paper describes the technique, summarizes the results and shares ideas for future research.

  15. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a condition of local blood circulation in the bottom extremities showed that the most expressed its compensation is noted at complex application of mechanical pulse traction influence and electrotherapy for patients with a dorsopathy of lumbar and sacral department of a backbone that is confirmed by restoration to normal values of all indicators rheovasogramm. Conclusion. High clinical results of application of the combined medical and rehabilitation complex are based on compensation of local blood circulation that is shown in elimination of deficiency of blood supply due to improvement of a tone of arterial vessels and elimination of venous stagnation, and also due to increase of linear speed of a blood-groove and development of collateral blood circulation. Application of electrical impulse and mechanical traction influences, more at their combination promotes fermentative activity of the systems responsible for a protein exchange that is important for prevention of degenerate and dystrophic process progressing.

  16. Consortium for Health and Military Performance and American College of Sports Medicine consensus paper on extreme conditioning programs in military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Michael F; Nindl, Bradley C; Deuster, Patricia A; Baumgartner, Neal; Kane, Shawn F; Kraemer, William J; Sexauer, Lisa R; Thompson, Walter R; O'Connor, Francis G

    2011-01-01

    A potential emerging problem associated with increasingly popularized extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) has been identified by the military and civilian communities. That is, there is an apparent disproportionate musculoskeletal injury risk from these demanding programs, particularly for novice participants, resulting in lost duty time, medical treatment, and extensive rehabilitation. This is a significant and costly concern for the military with regard to effectively maintaining operational readiness of the Force. While there are certain recognized positive aspects of ECPs that address a perceived and/or actual unfulfilled conditioning need for many individuals and military units, these programs have limitations and should be considered carefully. Moreover, certain distinctive characteristics of ECPs appear to violate recognized accepted standards for safely and appropriately developing muscular fitness and are not uniformly aligned with established and accepted training doctrine. Accordingly, practical solutions to improve ECP prescription and implementation and reduce injury risk are of paramount importance.

  17. Effects of extreme habitat conditions on otolith morphology: a case study on extremophile live bearing fishes (Poecilia mexicana, P. sulphuraria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Riesch, Rüdiger; García de León, Francisco J; Plath, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Our study was designed to evaluate if, and to what extent, restrictive environmental conditions affect otolith morphology. As a model, we chose two extremophile livebearing fishes: (i) Poecilia mexicana, a widespread species in various Mexican freshwater habitats, with locally adapted populations thriving in habitats characterized by the presence of one (or both) of the natural stressors hydrogen sulphide and darkness, and (ii) the closely related Poecilia sulphuraria living in a highly sulphidic habitat (Baños del Azufre). All three otolith types (lapilli, sagittae, and asterisci) of P. mexicana showed a decrease in size ranging from the non-sulphidic cave habitat (Cueva Luna Azufre), to non-sulphidic surface habitats, to the sulphidic cave (Cueva del Azufre), to sulphidic surface habitats (El Azufre), to P. sulphuraria. Although we found a distinct differentiation between ecotypes with respect to their otolith morphology, no clear-cut pattern of trait evolution along the two ecological gradients was discernible. Otoliths from extremophiles captured in the wild revealed only slight similarities to aberrant otoliths found in captive-bred fish. We therefore hypothesize that extremophile fishes have developed coping mechanisms enabling them to avoid aberrant otolith growth - an otherwise common phenomenon in fishes reared under stressful conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Performance under Extreme Conditions with Respect to a Resilient Organisation. Proceedings of a CSNI International Workshop, 24-26 February 2015, Brugg, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi accident a number of initiatives have been undertaken internationally to learn from the accident and to implement lessons learned to improve nuclear safety. The accident has shown in particular the challenges in supporting reliable human performance under extreme conditions. Acknowledging that further work is needed to be better prepared for the HOF (Human and Organisational Factors) challenges of the extreme conditions that may be present in severe accidents, the NEA's Working Group on Human and Organisational Factors (WGHOF), one of the working groups for the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) initiated a new task with the objectives to: - share experiences and knowledge of human and organisational performance under extreme conditions, - identify specific currently applied HOF principles in nuclear and other high risk industries and compare them with the available knowledge, - provide a basis for improvements and necessary research taking into account HOF issues in the design and use of measures, and - make recommendations with the aim to achieve the best level of human and organisational performance as possible under extreme conditions. In order to move those issues forward WGHOF hosted together with the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI a workshop entitled 'Human Performance under Extreme Conditions with respect to a Resilient Organization'. The workshop was conducted with participation of a number of invited key speakers from academic research and a range of industries, including nuclear. Thirty-four experts from 12 countries, the IAEA and OECD/Halden participated. Experts came from nuclear authorities, research centres, technical support organisations, training simulator centres, utilities and from non-nuclear field (aircraft accident investigation, fire fighting, military, design of resilient organisations). From the discussions at the workshop, it is clear that the accident at Fukushima has

  19. Micro tectonic milonitas analysis in the extreme south of the Sarandi del Yi shear zone: Kinematics and deformation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyhantçabal, P; Suarez, I; Seluchi, N; Martinez, X.

    2010-01-01

    The Shear Zone divides Sarandi del Yi Craton River Plate in Piedra Alta and Nico Perez land . The southern end of this zone extends to north - south from the vicinity of the town of Minas to Punta Solis. The predominant lithology of the study area consists of a granitic mylonite with abundant muscovite and biotite. Structural data of foliation , stretching lineation and kinematic indicators were surveyed .Petrographic analysis shows that quartz is presented as ribbons polycrystalline product subgrain rotation recrystallization and grain boundary migration . Feldspar porphyroclasts are partially recrystallized in developing type structures c ore and mantle . Kinematic indicators such as sigma porphyroclasts , mica fish and oblique foliation defined consistently sinistral sense . The presence of stable and mirmequitas in the plane of biotite foliation along the microstructures described in quartz and feldspar , can be inferred temperature conditions between 450 ° C and 550° C during deformation

  20. Production of Secondary Metabolites in Extreme Environments: Food- and Airborne Wallemia spp. Produce Toxic Metabolites at Hypersaline Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jančič, Sašo; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Kocev, Dragi

    2016-01-01

    the genome data analysis of W. mellicola (previously W. sebi sensu lato) and W. ichthyophaga revealed a low number of secondary metabolites clusters, a substantial number of secondary metabolites were detected at different conditions. Machine learning analysis of the obtained dataset showed that NaCl has...... of salt or sugar. In relation to food safety, the effect of high salt and sugar concentrations on the production of secondary metabolites by this toxigenic fungus was investigated. The secondary metabolite profiles of 30 strains of the listed species were examined using general growth media, known...... to support the production of secondary metabolites, supplemented with different concentrations of NaCl, glucose and MgCl2. In more than two hundred extracts approximately one hundred different compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Although...

  1. Effects of Extreme Temperatures on Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Mortality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuying; Li, Guoxing; Liu, Liqun; Westerdahl, Dane; Jin, Xiaobin; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2015-12-21

    Limited evidence is available for the effects of extreme temperatures on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in China. We collected data from Beijing and Shanghai, China, during 2007-2009, including the daily mortality of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and hypertensive disease, as well as air pollution concentrations and weather conditions. We used Poisson regression with a distributed lag non-linear model to examine the effects of extremely high and low ambient temperatures on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality. For all cause-specific cardiovascular mortality, Beijing had stronger cold and hot effects than those in Shanghai. The cold effects on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality reached the strongest at lag 0-27, while the hot effects reached the strongest at lag 0-14. The effects of extremely low and high temperatures differed by mortality types in the two cities. Hypertensive disease in Beijing was particularly susceptible to both extremely high and low temperatures; while for Shanghai, people with ischemic heart disease showed the greatest relative risk (RRs = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.34) to extremely low temperature. People with hypertensive disease were particularly susceptible to extremely low and high temperatures in Beijing. People with ischemic heart disease in Shanghai showed greater susceptibility to extremely cold days.

  2. Effects of Extreme Temperatures on Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuying Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Limited evidence is available for the effects of extreme temperatures on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in China. Methods: We collected data from Beijing and Shanghai, China, during 2007–2009, including the daily mortality of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and hypertensive disease, as well as air pollution concentrations and weather conditions. We used Poisson regression with a distributed lag non-linear model to examine the effects of extremely high and low ambient temperatures on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality. Results: For all cause-specific cardiovascular mortality, Beijing had stronger cold and hot effects than those in Shanghai. The cold effects on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality reached the strongest at lag 0–27, while the hot effects reached the strongest at lag 0–14. The effects of extremely low and high temperatures differed by mortality types in the two cities. Hypertensive disease in Beijing was particularly susceptible to both extremely high and low temperatures; while for Shanghai, people with ischemic heart disease showed the greatest relative risk (RRs = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.34 to extremely low temperature. Conclusion: People with hypertensive disease were particularly susceptible to extremely low and high temperatures in Beijing. People with ischemic heart disease in Shanghai showed greater susceptibility to extremely cold days.

  3. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  4. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  5. Frequency Analysis of Extreme Sub-Daily Precipitation under Stationary and Non-Stationary Conditions across Two Contrasting Hydroclimatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, E. M.; Goodrich, D. C.; Keefer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Observed sub-daily precipitation intensities from contrasting hydroclimatic environments in the USA are used to evaluate temporal trends and to develop Intensity-Duration Frequency (IDF) curves under stationary and nonstationary climatic conditions. Analyses are based on observations from two United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) experimental watersheds located in a semi-arid and a temperate environment. We use an Annual Maximum Series (AMS) and a Partial Duration Series (PDS) approach to identify temporal trends in maximum intensities for durations ranging from 5- to 1440-minutes. A Bayesian approach with Monte Carlo techniques is used to incorporate the effect of non-stationary climatic assumptions in the IDF curves. The results show increasing trends in observed AMS sub-daily intensities in both watersheds whereas trends in the PDS observations are mostly positive in the semi-arid site and a mix of positive and negative in the temperate site. Stationary climate assumptions lead to much lower estimated sub-daily intensities than those under non-stationary assumptions with larger absolute differences found for shorter durations and smaller return periods. The risk of failure (R) of a hydraulic structure is increased for non-stationary effects over those of stationary effects, with absolute differences of 25% for a 100-year return period (T) and a project life (n) of 100 years. The study highlights the importance of considering non-stationarity, due to natural variability or to climate change, in storm design.

  6. Nuclear arms control in the post-Cold War era. New conditions, new requirements, and nonproliferation (with special emphasis on Japan and East Asia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1994-01-01

    The paper starts with a general survey of post-Cold War nuclear disarmament, pointing out Japan's positions, policies, and problems in the process. The discussion is not Japan-centered, nor is it an explanation of the Japanese view. It is useful, in this context, to recall that during the Cold War period, Japan was firmly in the ''Western Camp'', relying on the protection of the extended nuclear deterrence provided by the United States. This article is written with that history very much in mind, and by an author who for some years was in a position to represent Japan in such a context. (orig./DG)

  7. Expert consensus on facilitators and barriers to return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S E; Johnston, V; Ross, M; Coppieters, M W

    2017-02-01

    This Delphi study aimed to reach consensus on important facilitators and barriers for return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions. In Round 1, experts ( n = 42) listed 134 factors, which were appraised in Rounds 2 and 3. Consensus (⩾85% agreement) was achieved for 13 facilitators (high motivation to return-to-work; high self-efficacy for return-to-work and recovery; availability of modified/alternative duties; flexible return-to-work arrangements; positive coping skills; limited heavy work exertion; supportive return-to-work policies; supportive supervisor/management; no catastrophic thinking; no fear avoidance to return-to-work; no fear avoidance to pain/activity; return to meaningful work duties; high job satisfaction) and six barriers (mood disorder diagnosis; pain/symptoms at more than one musculoskeletal site; heavy upper extremity exertions at work; lack of flexible return-to-work arrangements; lack of support from supervisor/management; high level of pain catastrophizing). Future prognostic studies are required to validate these biopsychosocial factors to further improve return-to-work outcomes. V.

  8. The Neanderthal face is not cold adapted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Todd C; Koppe, Thomas; Stringer, Chris B

    2011-02-01

    Many morphological features of the Pleistocene fossil hominin Homo neanderthalensis, including the reputed large size of its paranasal sinuses, have been interpreted as adaptations to extreme cold, as some Neanderthals lived in Europe during glacial periods. This interpretation of sinus evolution rests on two assumptions: that increased craniofacial pneumatization is an adaptation to lower ambient temperatures, and that Neanderthals have relatively large sinuses. Analysis of humans, other primates, and rodents, however, suggests that the first assumption is suspect; at least the maxillary sinus undergoes a significant reduction in volume in extreme cold, in both wild and laboratory conditions. The second assumption, that Neanderthal sinuses are large, extensive, or even 'hyperpneumatized,' has held sway since the first specimen was described and has been interpreted as the causal explanation for some of the distinctive aspects of Neanderthal facial form, but has never been evaluated with respect to scaling. To test the latter assumption, previously published measurements from two-dimensional (2D) X-rays and new three-dimensional (3D) data from computed tomography (CT) of Neanderthals and temperate-climate European Homo sapiens are regressed against cranial size to determine the relative size of their sinuses. The 2D data reveal a degree of craniofacial pneumatization in Neanderthals that is both commensurate with the size of the cranium and comparable in scale with that seen in temperate climate H. sapiens. The 3D analysis of CT data from a smaller sample supports this conclusion. These results suggest that the distinctive Neanderthal face cannot be interpreted as a direct result of increased pneumatization, nor is it likely to be an adaptation to resist cold stress; an alternative explanation is thus required. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict.

  10. Validation of nonlinear FEA models of a thin-walled elbow under extreme loading conditions for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watakabe, Tomoyoshi; Wakai, Takashi; Jin, Chuanrong; Usui, Yoshiya; Sakai, Shinkichi; Ooshika, Junji; Tsukimori, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of confirming failure modes and safety margin, some studies on the ultimate strength of thin-walled piping components for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) under extreme loading conditions such as large earthquakes have been reported these several years. Nonlinear finite element analysis has been applied in these studies to simulate buckling and yielding with large deformation, whose accuracy is dependent on the element type, the mesh size, the elasto-plastic model and so on. It is important to check the validation of a finite element model for nonlinear analysis especially under extreme loading conditions. This paper presents static and dynamic analyses of a thin-walled elbow with large deformation under large seismic loading, and discusses the validation of the FEA models comparing with experimental results. The finite element analysis models in this study are generated by shell elements for a stainless steel pipe elbow of diameter-to-thickness ratio 59:1 similar to the main pipe of SFRs, which is used for shaking table tests. At first, a static analysis is carried out for an in-plane monotonic bending test, in order to confirm that the shell element is appropriate to the large deformation analysis and the material parameters are proper for the strain level in the experiments. And then, a dynamic in-plane bending test with the maximum acceleration of 11.7G is simulated by the nonlinear FEA with stiffness-proportional damping. The influence of mesh sizes on results is investigated, to determine proper mesh sizes and reduce the computational cost. Finally, comparing the results of the FEM analyses with those of experiments, it is concluded that the appropriately generated FEA models are effective and give accurate results for nonlinear analyses of the thin-walled elbow under large seismic loading. (author)

  11. Mercury critical concentrations to Enchytraeus crypticus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils - Reproduction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Niva, Cintia Carla; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2017-05-01

    Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant. The main goal of this study was to obtain Hg critical concentrations under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils to Enchytraeus crypticus to order to assess if climate change may potentiate their acute and chronic toxicity effects. Tropical soils were sampled from of two Forest Conservation Units of the Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil, which has been contaminated by Hg atmospheric depositions. Worms were exposed to three moisture conditions, at 20%, 50% and 80% of water holding capacity, respectively, and in combination with different Hg (HgCl 2 ) concentrations spiked in three types of tropical soil (two natural soils and one artificial soil). The tested concentrations ranged from 0 to 512mg Hg kg -1 dry weight. Results indicate that the Hg toxicity is higher under increased conditions of moisture, significantly affecting survival and reproduction rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison and development of advanced dosimetric techniques to be used under extreme climatic conditions. Final report for the period 1 November 1971--28 December 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhvanath, U

    1975-08-01

    The post-irradiation fading characteristics of various dosimeters in function of relative humidity of air during storage were tested in specially set up humidity boxes. The temperature and relative humidity were varied between 5 and 35degC and 40-90%, respectively. Fading was 70% and 80% at 2 and 6 days respectively, for Kodak Type 2 film under 28degC and 76% relative humidity. Under these conditions the corresponding values for NTA emulsions were 30% and 80% respectively. Agfa-Gevaert films proved to be less sensitive and gave 20% and 30%, respectively, for the mentioned intervals. When Kodak Type 2 film was sealed in polythene bags, fading was reduced considerably, to appr. 15% in 4 weeks. Alternate storage of exposed films in humid and dry conditions also reduced fading to the same extent. When NTA emulsions were double-sealed with desiccant inside fading was reduced to 10% in 15 days. CaSO/sub 4/:Dy (DRP and Harshaw) showed only 7% fading in 3 months. LiF TLD-100 was more sensitive, 13% in 2 months. Gamma-irradiated Li-borate has faded up to 30% at extreme climatic conditions in 3 months but thermal neutron irradiated Li-borate was resistant against fading for this period.

  13. Microbial ecology of extreme environments: Antarctic yeasts and growth in substrate-limited habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    The high, dry valleys of the Ross Desert of Antarctic, characterized by extremely low temperatures, aridity and a depauperate biota, are used as an analog of the postulated extreme climates of other planetary bodies of the Solar System to test the hypothesis that if life could be supported by Ross, it might be possible where similar conditions prevail. The previously considered sterility of the Ross Desert soil ecosystem has yielded up an indigenous yeast, Cryptoccus vishniacci, which is able to resist the extremes of cold, wet and dry freezing, and long arid periods, while making minimal nutritional demands on the soil.

  14. Heterologous Expression of the Carrot Hsp17.7 gene Increased Growth, Cell Viability, and Protein Solubility in Transformed Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under Heat, Cold, Acid, and Osmotic Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunhye; Kim, Minhye; Park, Yunho; Ahn, Yeh-Jin

    2017-08-01

    In industrial fermentation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), culture conditions are often modified from the optimal growth conditions of the cells to maintain large-scale cultures and/or to increase recombinant protein production. However, altered growth conditions can be stressful to yeast cells resulting in reduced cell growth and viability. In this study, a small heat shock protein gene from carrot (Daucus carota L.), Hsp17.7, was inserted into the yeast genome via homologous recombination to increase tolerance to stress conditions that can occur during industrial culture. A DNA construct, Translational elongation factor gene promoter-carrot Hsp17.7 gene-Phosphoribosyl-anthranilate isomerase gene (an auxotrophic marker), was generated by a series of PCRs and introduced into the chromosome IV of the yeast genome. Immunoblot analysis showed that carrot Hsp17.7 accumulated in the transformed yeast cell lines. Growth rates and cell viability of these cell lines were higher than control cell lines under heat, cold, acid, and hyperosmotic stress conditions. Soluble protein levels were higher in the transgenic cell lines than control cell lines under heat and cold conditions, suggesting the molecular chaperone function of the recombinant Hsp17.7. This study showed that a recombinant DNA construct containing a HSP gene from carrot was successfully expressed in yeast by homologous recombination and increased tolerances to abiotic stress conditions.

  15. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  16. Industrial Coatings at Extreme Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramanian, Srinath; Pérez Hornero, Clara; Pedersen, Lars Thorslund

    With the gradual depletion of oil wells operable at relatively lower temperatures and pressures, the upstream oil industry relies on High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) wells to source crude oil and gas. HPHT well extraction and processing require anticorrosive coatings applied on substrates...

  17. Burden and Risk Factors for Cold-Related Illness and Death in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Lane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to cold weather can cause cold-related illness and death, which are preventable. To understand the current burden, risk factors, and circumstances of exposure for illness and death directly attributed to cold, we examined hospital discharge, death certificate, and medical examiner data during the cold season from 2005 to 2014 in New York City (NYC, the largest city in the United States. On average each year, there were 180 treat-and-release emergency department visits (average annual rate of 21.6 per million and 240 hospital admissions (29.6 per million for cold-related illness, and 15 cold-related deaths (1.8 per million. Seventy-five percent of decedents were exposed outdoors. About half of those exposed outdoors were homeless or suspected to be homeless. Of the 25% of decedents exposed indoors, none had home heat and nearly all were living in single-family or row homes. The majority of deaths and illnesses occurred outside of periods of extreme cold. Unsheltered homeless individuals, people who use substances and become incapacitated outdoors, and older adults with medical and psychiatric conditions without home heat are most at risk. This information can inform public health prevention strategies and interventions.

  18. Thermal science under extreme conditions. Proceedings of the annual congress of the French Society of Thermal science - SFT 2012, 29 May-1 June, Bordeaux-Talence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendrhi, Philippe; Perrin, Bernard; Journeau, Christophe; MOST, Jean-Michel; Nicolai, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    This publication proposes the contributions made during plenary sessions, and those made on various themes (Multi-physical couplings combustion; Contacts and interfaces; Natural, hybrid and forced convection, Energy and the environment; High temperatures and high flows; Metrology and identification; Micro- and nano-thermal science; Radiation; Control of systems and thermal process; System thermal science; Life thermal science; Transfer in multi-phase media; Transfer in porous media). Among the plenary session conferences some authors more particularly addressed the following issues: Thermal science at the heart of thermonuclear fusion (presentation of thermonuclear fusion by magnetic confinement); Thermal science of severe accidents of nuclear reactors (study of the thermal science of corium-water interaction which could result in a thermal detonation, study of corium baths at the vessel bottom or in interaction with the vessel well concrete, proposition of technological solutions for corium recovery); Fusion by inertial confinement and associated energy exchanges (case of inertial confinement by power lasers, presentation of needed conditions to obtain an energetic gain, of different energy and heat transfers under extreme conditions)

  19. Psychological and psycho-vegetative technologies of diagnostics and correction the behavior of professionals working in extreme conditions (state of problem and prospective studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulygina V.G.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to promising areas of research regulatory processes (self-control оf the professionals working in special and extreme conditions of professional activity. The actuality of creation a comprehensive compact of the selection methods, adaptation the technologies to professional tasks, methods of psychological assistance of the specialists of hazardous occupations was shown. It was done an overview of foreign studies of the features of psychological regulation and self-control in stressful situations, neurophysiological correlates of self-control and aggressive behavior. The results of trainings of the development of the capacity for self-control, increasing resistance to the negative effects of mental exhaustion, were described. There were expounded the results of domestic investigations of the association between the self-regulation of behavior and profile of reactivity among mentally healthy and ill persons. The necessity of the development of psychodiagnostic and psychological programs for specialists in the professions of risk, aimed to improve the efficiency of regulatory processes for the adaptation to the conditions of professional activity.

  20. Evaluation of a lateral flow-based technology card for blood typing using a simplified protocol in a model of extreme blood sampling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Benoît; Pouget, Thomas; Sailliol, Anne

    2018-02-01

    Life-threatening situations requiring blood transfusion under extreme conditions or in remote and austere locations, such as the battlefield or in traffic accidents, would benefit from reliable blood typing practices that are easily understood by a nonscientist or nonlaboratory technician and provide quick results. A simplified protocol was developed for the lateral flow-based device MDmulticard ABO-D-Rh subgroups-K. Its performance was compared to a reference method (PK7300, Beckman Coulter) in native blood samples from donors. The method was tested on blood samples stressed in vitro as a model of hemorrhage cases (through hemodilution using physiologic serum) and dehydration (through hemoconcentration by removing an aliquot of plasma after centrifugation), respectively. A total of 146 tests were performed on 52 samples; 126 in the hemodilution group (42 for each native, diluted 1/2, and diluted 1/4 samples) and 20 in the hemoconcentration group (10 for each native and 10% concentrated samples). Hematocrit in the tested samples ranged from 9.8% to 57.6% while hemoglobin levels ranged from 3.2 to 20.1 g/dL. The phenotype profile detected with the MDmulticard using the simplified protocol resulted in 22 A, seven B, 20 O, and three AB, of which nine were D- and five were Kell positive. No discrepancies were found with respect to the results obtained with the reference method. The simplified protocol for MDmulticard use could be considered a reliable method for blood typing in extreme environment or emergency situations, worsened by red blood cell dilution or concentration. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Correlation of denitrification-accepted fraction of electrons with NAD(P)H fluorescence for Pseudomonas aeruginosa performing simultaneous denitrification and respiration at extremely low dissolved oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Xia, Qing; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2004-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis airway infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms a microaerobic biofilm and undergoes significant physiological changes. It is important to understand the bacterium's metabolism at microaerobic conditions. In this work, the culture properties and two indicators (the denitrification-accepted e- fraction and an NAD(P)H fluorescence fraction) for the culture's "fractional approach" to a fully anaerobic denitrifying state were examined in continuous cultures with practically zero DO but different aeration rates. With decreasing aeration, specific OUR decreased while specific NAR and NIR increased and kept Y(ATP/S) relatively constant. P. aeruginosa thus appeared to effectively compensate for energy generation at microaerobic conditions with denitrification. At the studied dilution rate of 0.06 h(-1), the maximum specific OUR was 2.8 mmol O2/g cells-h and the Monod constant for DO, in the presence of nitrate, was extremely low (Y(X/S) increased significantly (from 0.24 to 0.34) with increasing aeration, attributed to a roughly opposite trend of Y(ATP/X) (ATP generation required for cell growth). As for the denitrification-accepted e- fraction and the fluorescence fraction, both decreased with increasing aeration as expected. The two fractions, however, were not directly proportional. The fluorescence fraction changed more rapidly than the e- fraction at very low aeration rates, whereas the opposite was true at higher aeration. The results demonstrated the feasibility of using online NAD(P)H fluorescence to monitor sensitive changes of cellular physiology and provided insights to the shift of e- -accepting mechanisms of P. aeruginosa under microaerobic conditions.

  2. Heat shock protection against cold stress of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Vicky; Mitchell, Herschel K.; Young, Patricia; Petersen, Nancy S.

    1988-01-01

    Heat shock protein synthesis can be induced during recovery from cold treatment of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Survival of larvae after a cold treatment is dramatically improved by a mild heat shock just before the cold shock. The conditions which induce tolerance to cold are similar to those which confer tolerance to heat.

  3. Extremal surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  4. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  5. Аrg-Х Proteo-Processing as Model System for Organization of Karyogenomics Interphase Chromatin of Mature Germs of Wheats, Formed in the Conditions of Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ivanova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available First experimental data on the epigenetics mechanisms of karyogenomics interphase chromatin of hexaploidy wheat are driven to terminologies of karyogenomics and epibiochemistry. The zones of localization of Arg-X of proteo-processing are educed in nonhistones and core histones, topological associated domens, in the cellular nuclear of mesocotyle of vegetative period of growth morphogeny of mature germs of wheat adapted to cold stress. These data will be useful for those who involved in the development of mathematical logic schemes of the theory and practice of biological specificity, and it could be included in the ontology of the stages karyogenomics plant growth and development.

  6. Rhizosphere bacteria of Costularia spp. from ultramafic soils in New Caledonia: diversity, tolerance to extreme edaphic conditions, and role in plant growth and mineral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonin, Mathieu; Gensous, Simon; Lagrange, Alexandre; Ducousso, Marc; Amir, Hamid; Jourand, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    Rhizosphere bacteria were isolated from Costularia spp., pioneer sedges from ultramafic soils in New Caledonia, which is a hotspot of biodiversity in the South Pacific. Genus identification, ability to tolerate edaphic constraints, and plant-growth-promoting (PGP) properties were analysed. We found that 10(5) colony-forming units per gram of root were dominated by Proteobacteria (69%) and comprised 21 genera, including Burkholderia (28%), Curtobacterium (15%), Bradyrhizobium (9%), Sphingomonas (8%), Rhizobium (7%), and Bacillus (5%). High proportions of bacteria tolerated many elements of the extreme edaphic conditions: 82% tolerated 100 μmol·L(-1) chromium, 70% 1 mmol·L(-1) nickel, 63% 10 mmol·L(-1) manganese, 24% 1 mmol·L(-1) cobalt, and 42% an unbalanced calcium/magnesium ratio (1/16). These strains also exhibited multiple PGP properties, including the ability to produce ammonia (65%), indole-3-acetic acid (60%), siderophores (52%), and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (39%); as well as the capacity to solubilize phosphates (19%). The best-performing strains were inoculated with Sorghum sp. grown on ultramafic substrate. Three strains significantly enhanced the shoot biomass by up to 33%. The most successful strains influenced plant nutrition through the mobilization of metals in roots and a reduction of metal transfer to shoots. These results suggest a key role of these bacteria in plant growth, nutrition, and adaptation to the ultramafic constraints.

  7. Single-crystal diffraction at the Extreme Conditions beamline P02.2: procedure for collecting and analyzing high-pressure single-crystal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkirch, André; Gatta, G Diego; Meyer, Mathias; Merkel, Sébastien; Merlini, Marco; Liermann, Hanns Peter

    2013-09-01

    Fast detectors employed at third-generation synchrotrons have reduced collection times significantly and require the optimization of commercial as well as customized software packages for data reduction and analysis. In this paper a procedure to collect, process and analyze single-crystal data sets collected at high pressure at the Extreme Conditions beamline (P02.2) at PETRA III, DESY, is presented. A new data image format called `Esperanto' is introduced that is supported by the commercial software package CrysAlis(Pro) (Agilent Technologies UK Ltd). The new format acts as a vehicle to transform the most common area-detector data formats via a translator software. Such a conversion tool has been developed and converts tiff data collected on a Perkin Elmer detector, as well as data collected on a MAR345/555, to be imported into the CrysAlis(Pro) software. In order to demonstrate the validity of the new approach, a complete structure refinement of boron-mullite (Al5BO9) collected at a pressure of 19.4 (2) GPa is presented. Details pertaining to the data collections and refinements of B-mullite are presented.

  8. Stakeholders identify similar barriers but different strategies to facilitate return-to-work: A vignette of a worker with an upper extremity condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan E; Truong, Anthony P; Johnston, Venerina

    2018-01-01

    Stakeholders involved in the return-to-work (RTW) process have different roles and qualificationsOBJECTIVE:To explore the perspectives of Australian stakeholders of the RTW barriers and strategies for a worker with an upper extremity condition and a complex workers' compensation case. Using a case vignette, stakeholders were asked to identify barriers and recommend strategies to facilitate RTW. Content analysis was performed on the open-ended responses. The responses were categorised into RTW barriers and strategies using the biopsychosocial model. Pearson's Chi Square and ANOVA were performed to establish group differences. 621 participants (488 healthcare providers (HCPs), 62 employers, 55 insurers and 16 lawyers) identified 36 barriers (31 modifiable): 4 demographic; 8 biological; 15 psychological and 9 social barriers. 484 participants reported 16 RTW strategies: 4 biological; 6 psychological and 6 social strategies. 'Work relationship stressors' (83.4%) and 'Personal relationship stressors' (64.7%) were the most frequently nominated barriers. HCPs most frequently nominated 'Pain management' (49.6%), while employers, insurers and lawyers nominated 'RTW planning/Suitable duties programs' (40.5%; 42.9%; 80%). Stakeholders perceived similar barriers for RTW but recommended different strategies. Stakeholders appeared to be more proficient in identifying barriers than recommending strategies. Future research should focus on tools to both identify RTW barriers and direct intervention.

  9. Interim evaluation report on research and development of robots serviceable under extreme conditions; Kyokugen sagyo robot no kenkyu kaihatsu chukan hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The research and development project for robots serviceable under extreme conditions are aimed at development of the robots for commercial nuclear power plants, where they are remotely controlled by the operators to implement advanced works, e.g., maintenance, inspection and repair of the facilities; supporting development of submarine oil fields, where they are remotely controlled by the operators to implement advanced works, e.g., maintenance, inspection and repair of the facilities; and for prevention of hazards at oil-producing plants, where they are remotely controlled by the operators to implement advanced works, e.g., controlling hazards, should they occur, and supporting hazard-preventive works. It is also aimed at development of the basic techniques for, e.g., those related to the system structures, and controlling and supporting the other systems. The project has been comprehensively evaluated for the achievements made so far. The individual elementary techniques for the robots for nuclear power plants, submarine oil field development and hazard prevention, and the basic techniques for these systems, are developed as planned as of the end of FY 1987 for the objects in the interim stage, based on the evaluation of the individual techniques developed before. Therefore, the bright prospects are obtained for achieving the final objectives by the end of the project period. (NEDO)

  10. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The transmission resonance model (TRM) is combined with some electrochemistry of the cathode surface and found to provide a good fit to new data on excess heat. For the first time, a model for cold fusion not only fits calorimetric data but also predicts optimal trigger points. This suggests that the model is meaningful and that the excess heat phenomenon claimed by Fleischmann and Pons is genuine. A crucial role is suggested for the overpotential and, in particular, for the concentration overpotential, i.e., the hydrogen overvoltage. Self-similar geometry, or scale invariance, i.e., a fractal nature, is revealed by the relative excess power function. Heat bursts are predicted with a scale invariance in time, suggesting a possible link between the TRM and chaos theory. The model describes a near-surface phenomenon with an estimated excess power yield of ∼1 kW/cm 3 Pd, as compared to 50 W/cm 3 of reactor core for a good fission reactor. Transmission resonance-induced nuclear transmutation, a new type of nuclear reaction, is strongly suggested with two types emphasized: transmission resonance-induced neutron transfer reactions yielding essentially the same end result as Teller's hypothesized catalytic neutron transfer and a three-body reaction promoted by standing de Broglie waves. In this paper suggestions for the anomalous production of heat, particles, and radiation are given

  11. Dependence of present and future European heat waves and cold spells on the location of atmospheric blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, L.; Schaller, N.; Sillmann, J.; Steiner, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric blocking describes stationary anti-cyclones, which weaken or reverse the climatological flow at mid-latitudes. In the northern hemisphere one of the main blocking regions is located over the North Atlantic and Northern Europe. The link between blocking and European temperature extremes, such as heat waves and cold spells, strongly depends on several aspects like season, longitudinal location of the block, and location of the extremes (particularly Northern Europe versus Southern Europe). We use a 50-member ensemble of the Canadian CanESM2 model to investigate historical (1981-2010) and future (2070-2099) blocking cases and their relationship with European temperature extremes. For the historical period the model results are also compared to those from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Atmospheric blocking is detected on a daily basis in different 30° longitude windows between 60°W and 60°E, using a standard geopotential height-based detection index. Temperature extremes are defined by the daily Heat/Cold Wave Magnitude Index (HWMId/CWMId). The role of cold advection is found particularly important in winter conditions leading to a more than threefold increase in cold wave occurrence during blocking between 60°W and 0°. During blocking over Northern Europe (0° to 60°E) a split relationship is found with cold wave occurrence being strongly increased in Southern Europe, while it is decreased in Northern Europe. Direct, radiative effects dominate in summer, therefore blocking westward of Europe has a weaker effect, while blocking over Northern Europe leads to an increase of heat waves by at least a factor three at the location of the block and a decrease in cold wave occurrence in almost all of Europe. Comparing the historical and future period we find the link between blocking and temperature extremes in Europe to be robust, even though blocking frequency and temperatures are changing.

  12. High Latitude Corals Tolerate Severe Cold Spell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenae A. Tuckett

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climatically extreme weather events often drive long-term ecological responses of ecosystems. By disrupting the important symbiosis with zooxanthellae, Marine Cold Spells (MCS can cause bleaching and mortality in tropical and subtropical scleractinian corals. Here we report on the effects of a severe MCS on high latitude corals, where we expected to find bleaching and mortality. The MCS took place off the coast of Perth (32°S, Western Australia in 2016. Bleaching was assessed before (2014 and after (2017 the MCS from surveys of permanent plots, and with timed bleaching searches. Temperature data was recorded with in situ loggers. During the MCS temperatures dipped to the coldest recorded in ten years (15.3°C and periods of <17°C lasted for up to 19 days. Only 4.3% of the surveyed coral colonies showed signs of bleaching. Bleaching was observed in 8 species where those most affected were Plesiastrea versipora and Montipora mollis. These findings suggest that high latitude corals in this area are tolerant of cold stress and are not persisting near a lethal temperature minimum. It has not been established whether other environmental conditions are limiting these species, and if so, what the implications are for coral performance on these reefs in a warmer future.

  13. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  14. Cold episodes in the Peruvian Central Andes: Composites, Types, and their Impacts over South America (1958-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulca, J. C.; Vuille, M. F.; Roundy, P. E.; Trasmonte, G.; Silva, Y.; Takahashi, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Mantaro basin (MB) is located in the central Peruvian Andes. Occasionally, cold episodes are observed during austral summer (January-March), that strongly damage crops. However, little is known about the causes and impacts of such cold episodes. The main goal of this study is thus to characterize cold episodes in the MB and assess their large-scale circulation and teleconnections over South America (SA) during austral summer. To identify cold events in the MB daily minimum temperature (Tmin) for the period 1958-2014 from Huayao station, located within the MB was used. A cold episode is defined when daily minimum temperature drops below its 10-percentile for at least one day. Additionally, to study the sensitivity between physical mechanisms associated with cold episodes and temperature, cold episodes are classified in three groups: Weak cold episodes (7.5 ≤ Tmin ≤ 10 percentile), strong cold episodes (Tmin ≤ 2.5 percentile), but excluding the 9 coldest events (Tmin ≤ 0 ͦ C), henceforth referred to as extraordinary cold episodes. Several gridded reanalysis were used to characterize the large-scale circulation, cloud cover and rainfall over SA associated with these events. Weak and strong cold episodes in the MB are mainly associated with a weakening of the Bolivian High-Nordeste Low system by tropical-extratropical interactions. Both types of cold episodes are associated with westerly wind anomalies at mid- and upper-tropospheric levels aloft the Peruvian Central Andes, which inhibit the influx of humid air masses from the lowlands to the east and hence limit the development of cloud cover (e.g., positive OLR anomalies over MB). The resulting clear sky conditions cause nighttime temperatures to drop, leading to cold extremes below 10-percentile. Simultaneously, northeastern Brazil (NEB) registers negative OLR anomalies, strong convection and enhanced cloud cover because displacement of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) toward the northeast of

  15. Structural comparison of tRNA m1A58 methyltransferases revealed different molecular strategies to maintain their oligomeric architecture under extreme conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guelorget Amandine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background tRNA m1A58 methyltransferases (TrmI catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to nitrogen 1 of adenine 58 in the T-loop of tRNAs from all three domains of life. The m1A58 modification has been shown to be essential for cell growth in yeast and for adaptation to high temperatures in thermophilic organisms. These enzymes were shown to be active as tetramers. The crystal structures of five TrmIs from hyperthermophilic archaea and thermophilic or mesophilic bacteria have previously been determined, the optimal growth temperature of these organisms ranging from 37°C to 100°C. All TrmIs are assembled as tetramers formed by dimers of tightly assembled dimers. Results In this study, we present a comparative structural analysis of these TrmIs, which highlights factors that allow them to function over a large range of temperature. The monomers of the five enzymes are structurally highly similar, but the inter-monomer contacts differ strongly. Our analysis shows that bacterial enzymes from thermophilic organisms display additional intermolecular ionic interactions across the dimer interfaces, whereas hyperthermophilic enzymes present additional hydrophobic contacts. Moreover, as an alternative to two bidentate ionic interactions that stabilize the tetrameric interface in all other TrmI proteins, the tetramer of the archaeal P. abyssi enzyme is strengthened by four intersubunit disulfide bridges. Conclusions The availability of crystal structures of TrmIs from mesophilic, thermophilic or hyperthermophilic organisms allows a detailed analysis of the architecture of this protein family. Our structural comparisons provide insight into the different molecular strategies used to achieve the tetrameric organization in order to maintain the enzyme activity under extreme conditions.

  16. Case report of cold-weather-induced radiation recall dermatitis after chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindts, Isabelle; Stellamans, Karin; Planckaert, Nikie; Goethals, Laurence; Bonny, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    The radiation recall reaction (RRR) is an inflammatory reaction that occurs in previously irradiated areas. The phenomenon is probably due to an idiosyncratic hypersensitivity reaction, in which a second agent can recall the inflammatory reaction. This case report documents a cold-weather-induced radiation recall dermatitis (RRD). We observed a severe RRD in a patient after chemoradiotherapy treatment with cisplatin for a nasopharyngeal carcinoma, precipitated by cold temperatures, which developed 9 days after completion of therapy. In the medical literature, RRD following extreme cold temperatures seems to be a peculiar event. Until further information on the interaction is available, future studies on combined chemotherapy with cisplatin should be carefully monitored and any side effects clearly documented. This case suggests that environmental conditions may play a contributing role in the development of RRD. This case also implies that neither fraction size nor total radiation dose is a determining factor in the development of the dermatologic reaction. (orig.) [de

  17. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed (P hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg (P hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  18. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  19. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed ( P hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg ( P hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  20. Improving Performance of Cold-Chain Insulated Container with Phase Change Material: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cold-chain transportation is an important means to ensure the drug and food safety. An cold-chain insulated container incorporating with Phase Change Material (PCM has been developed for a temperature-controlled transportation in the range of 2~8 °C. The container configuration and different preconditioning methods have been determined to realize a 72-h transportation under extremely high, extremely low, and alternating temperature conditions. The experimental results showed that the temperature-controlled time was extended from 1 h to more than 80 h and the internal temperature maintained at 4~5 °C by using a PCM with a melting/freezing point of 5 °C, while the container presented a subcooling effect in a range of −1~2 °C when using water as PCM. The experimental values of the temperature-controlled time agreed well with the theoretical values.

  1. Tip model of cold fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goennenwein, F.; Boersig, B.

    1991-01-01

    Cold fission is defined to be the limiting case of nuclear fission where virtually all of the available energy is converted into the total kinetic energy of the fragments. The fragments have, therefore, to be born in or at least close to their respective ground states. Starting from the viewpoint that cold fission corresponds to most compact scission configurations, energy constraints have been exploited to calculate minimum tip distances between the two nascent fragments in binary fission. Crucial input parameters to this tip model of cold fission are the ground-state deformations of fragment nuclei. It is shown that the minimum tip distances being compatible with energy conservation vary strongly with both the mass and charge fragmentation of the fission prone nucleus. The tip distances refer to nuclei with equivalent sharp surfaces. In keeping with the size of the surface width of leptodermous nuclei, only configurations where the tip distances are smaller than a few fm may be considered as valid scission configurations. From a comparison with experimental data on cold fission this critical tip distance appears to be 3.0 fm for the model parameters chosen. Whenever the model calculation yields tip distances being smaller than the critical value, a necessary condition for attaining cold fission is considered to be fulfilled. It is shown that this criterion allows to understand in fair agreement with experiment which mass fragmentations are susceptible to lead to cold fission and which fragment-charge divisions are the most favored in each isobaric mass chain. Being based merely on energy arguments, the model cannot aim at predicting fragment yields in cold fission. However, the tip model proposed appears well suited to delineate the phase space where cold fission phenomena may come into sight. (orig.)

  2. Short-term test-retest-reliability of conditioned pain modulation using the cold-heat-pain method in healthy subjects and its correlation to parameters of standardized quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehling, Julia; Mainka, Tina; Vollert, Jan; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther M; Maier, Christoph; Enax-Krumova, Elena K

    2016-08-05

    Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) is often used to assess human descending pain inhibition. Nine different studies on the test-retest-reliability of different CPM paradigms have been published, but none of them has investigated the commonly used heat-cold-pain method. The results vary widely and therefore, reliability measures cannot be extrapolated from one CPM paradigm to another. Aim of the present study was to analyse the test-retest-reliability of the common heat-cold-pain method and its correlation to pain thresholds. We tested the short-term test-retest-reliability within 40 ± 19.9 h using a cold-water immersion (10 °C, left hand) as conditioning stimulus (CS) and heat pain (43-49 °C, pain intensity 60 ± 5 on the 101-point numeric rating scale, right forearm) as test stimulus (TS) in 25 healthy right-handed subjects (12females, 31.6 ± 14.1 years). The TS was applied 30s before (TSbefore), during (TSduring) and after (TSafter) the 60s CS. The difference between the pain ratings for TSbefore and TSduring represents the early CPM-effect, between TSbefore and TSafter the late CPM-effect. Quantitative sensory testing (QST, DFNS protocol) was performed on both sessions before the CPM assessment. paired t-tests, Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, significance level p Pain ratings during CPM correlated significantly (ICC: 0.411…0.962) between both days, though ratings for TSafter were lower on day 2 (p pain thresholds. The short-term test-retest-reliability of the early CPM-effect using the heat-cold-pain method in healthy subjects achieved satisfying results in terms of the ICC. The SRD of the early CPM effect showed that an individual change of > 20 NRS can be attributed to a real change rather than chance. The late CPM-effect was weaker and not reliable.

  3. Improving diversity in cultures of bacteria from an extreme environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Stougaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Greenland represent one of the few permanently cold and alkaline environments on Earth, and the interior of the columns is home to a bacterial community adapted to these extreme conditions. The community is characterized by low cell numbers imbedded in a ca...... the diversity of the culture and many hitherto uncharacterized genera could be brought into culture by extended incubation time. Extended incubation time also gave rise to a more diverse community with a significant number of rare species not detected in the initial community....

  4. The accelerating effects of the microorganisms on biodeterioration of stone monuments under air pollution and continental-cold climatic conditions in Erzurum, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhoglu, Y.; Oguz, E.; Uslu, H.; Ozbek, A.; Ipekoglu, B.; Ocak, I.; Hasenekoglu, I.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the accelerating effects of microorganisms on the biodeterioration of stone under air pollution and continental-cold climatic region in Erzurum, Turkey. Studies have been carried out on specimens of the Rustempasa Bazaar, the Lalapasa Mosque, the Erzurum Castle Mosque, the Double Minarets-Madrasah, the Great Mosque and the Haji Mehmet Fountain aged from 441 to 823 years old. The results showed that vegetative and reproductive (generative) forms of the microorganisms could develop during the winter months when the night time average temperature was even - 25 deg. C. Also the reproductive forms had developed and the whole stone surface was covered with a biofilm caused by the microorganisms. Silicon, aluminum, calcium, potassium, titanium, magnesium, zinc, sulfur, iron, sodium, and niobium were found in the stones of the historical buildings with varying amounts through the SEM-EDS analysis. Some of these elements could be used as an energy resource for the microorganisms together with the air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particles on the stone surfaces. Of 21 isolates, 15 species from 6 bacterium genera and 5 species from 5 fungi genera plus 1 fungi genera were identified on the deteriorated stone surfaces even during the coldest months by microbial identification system (MIS) and these findings were tested by SEM investigations

  5. Cisgenic inhibition of the potato cold induced phosphorylase L gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transgenic line M4), implying that silencing of starch phosphorylase L gene reduced starch breakdown during cold storage conditions. Key words: Cold sweetening, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), RNA interference, starch phosphorylase L. gene, ...

  6. Computer system for the assessment of radiation situation in the cases of radiological accidents and extreme weather conditions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, M.; Garger, E.; Kuzmenko, A. [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation situation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) is determined by high radionuclides contamination of the land surface formed after the 1986 accident, as well as the presence of a number of potentially hazardous objects (the 'Shelter' object, the Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Facility ISF-1, radioactive waste disposal sites, radioactive waste temporary localization sites etc.). The air concentration of radionuclides over the ChEZ territory and radiation exposure of personnel are influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors: variable weather conditions, forest fires, construction and excavation activity etc. The comprehensive radiation monitoring and early warning system in the ChEZ was established under financial support of European Commission in 2011. It involves the computer system developed for assessment and prediction of radiological emergencies consequences in the ChEZ ensuring the protection of personnel and the population living near its borders. The system assesses radiation situation under both normal conditions in the ChEZ and radiological emergencies which result in considerable radionuclides emission into the air (accidents at radiation hazardous objects, extreme weather conditions). Three different types of radionuclides release sources can be considered in the software package. So it is based on a set of different models of emission, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides: 1) mesoscale model of radionuclide atmospheric transport LEDI for calculations of the radionuclides emission from stacks and buildings; 2) model of atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides due to anthropogenic resuspension from contaminated area (area surface source model) as a result of construction and excavation activity, heavy traffic etc.; 3) model of resuspension, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the ChEZ. The system calculates the volume and surface

  7. Cold injury to a diver's hand after a 90-min dive in 6 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laden, Gerard D M; Purdy, Gerard; O'Rielly, Gerard

    2007-05-01

    We present here a case of non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) in a sport scuba diver. There are similarities between the presenting symptoms of NFCI and decompression sickness, e.g., pain and/or altered sensation in an extremity, often reported as numbness. In both conditions patients have been known to describe their lower limbs or feet as feeling woolly. Both conditions are the result of environmental exposure. Additionally, there are no good (high sensitivity and specificity) diagnostic tests for either condition. Diagnosis is made based on patient history, clinical presentation, and examination. NFCI is most frequently seen in military personnel, explorers, and the homeless. When affecting the feet of soldiers it is often referred to as "trench foot." Historically, NFCI has been and continues to be of critical importance in infantry warfare in cold and wet environments. A high priority should be given to prevention of NFCI during military operational planning. With the advent of so-called "technical diving" characterized by going deeper for longer (often in cold water) and adventure tourism, this extremely painful condition is likely to increase in prevalence. NFCI is treated symptomatically.

  8. Waste Material Based "Terrazzo" Tiles: The Effect Of Curing Time And Extreme Environmental Conditions Over Glass Aggregate/Cement Matrix Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, E.; Radica, F.; Stabile, P.; Ansaloni, F.; Giuli, G.; Carroll, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Currently, more than half of all materials extracted globally (over three billion tonnes/year in the EU only) are transformed for use in construction. Before year 2020, the EU aims to reduce the environmental impact of the construction sector by recycling or re-using large amounts of these materials, thus reducing the consumption of raw materials and helping promote the sector's economic stability. With this challenge in mind an aesthetically pleasant and fully recycled (up to 78%) pre-cast cement based tile (Terrazzo tiles) was designed by replacing raw materials with Glass Waste (GW) and Construction/Demolition Waste (CDW). Several recent studies explored the effect of the addition of GW in the manufacture of urban pavements, concluding that the use of GW can improve various phases of pavement life and structure by enhancing the structural performance, durability, environmental friendliness, and aesthetic features. In this study we extend this knowledge also to interior cement-based tiles by evaluating the technical performances of this this novel designed tile, in particular by focusing on the interface between the GW aggregates and different Portland cement based matrix at extreme environmental conditions. For this work three representative waste material based "terrazzo" tiles were selected and characterized by means of XRD and SEM imaging in order to study the boundary effect between GW aggregate and different binding materials: limestone powder, quartz powder and fine ground WG powder. A fourth additional mixture of Portland cement and CDW material was characterized. Fragments of a Limestone matrix tile were also thermally threated at -18°C and at 60°C for one week to witness the possible formation of new harmful phases at the grain-matrix boundary. Preliminary results on X-ray diffraction patterns show that 1 year after manufacture and/or thermal treatment there is no new formation of harmful phases other than the starting ones. High magnification SEM

  9. Prediction of cold flow properties of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Saxena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel being environmentally friendly is fast gaining acceptance in the market as an alternate diesel fuel. But compared to petroleum diesel it has certain limitations and thus it requires further development on economic viability and improvement in its properties to use it as a commercial fuel. The cold flow properties play a major role in the usage of biodiesel commercially as it freezes at cold climatic conditions. In the present study, cold flow properties of various types of biodiesel were estimated by using correlations available in literature. The correlations were evaluated based on the deviation between the predicted value and experimental values of cold flow properties.

  10. Grooved cold moderator tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Iwasa, H.; Watanabe, N.; Ikeda, S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Ishikawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    We performed some grooved cold moderator experiments for methane at 20 K by using the Hokkaido University linac to obtain information to be used in the planning of the KENS-I' project. Cold neutron gains, spatial distribution of emitted beams and time distribution of the neutrons in the grooved cold moderator were measured. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of the grooved cold moderator on the performances of the spectrometers presently installed at the KENS-I cold source. We concluded that the grooved cold moderator benefited appreciably the performances of the spectrometers

  11. Suppressing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Extremely Thin Al2O3 Films Grown by Gas-Phase Deposition at Ambient Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Bui, H.V.; Valdesueiro Gonzalez, D.; Yuan, Shaojun; Liang, Bin; van Ommen, J.R.

    2018-01-01

    This work investigated the suppression of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment powders by extremely thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films deposited via an atomic-layer-deposition-type process using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O as precursors. The deposition was performed on

  12. Using mobile, internet connected deep sea crawlers for spatial and temporal analysis of cold seep ecosystems and the collection of real-time classroom data for extreme environment education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Autun; Kwasnitschka, Tom; Duda, Alexander; Schwendner, Jakob; Bamberg, Marlene; Sohl, Frank; Doya, Carol; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Best, Mairi; Llovet, Neus Campanya I.; Scherwath, Martin; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2015-04-01

    Cabled internet and power connectivity with the deep sea allow instruments to operate in the deep sea at higher temporal resolutions than was possible historically, with the reliance on battery life and data storage capacities. In addition to the increase in sensor temporal frequency, cabled infrastructures now allow remote access to and control of mobile platforms on the seafloor. Jacobs University Bremen, in combination with collaborators from the Robotic Exploration of Extreme Environments (ROBEX) project, CSIC Barcelona and Ocean Networks Canada have been operating tracked deep sea crawler vehicles at ~890 m depth at the dynamic Barkley Canyon methane seep site, Pacific Canada during the last ~4 years. The vehicle has been able to explore an area of ~50 m radius, allowing repeated visits to numerous microhabitats. Mounting a range of sensors, including temperature, pressure, conductivity, fluorescence, turbidity, flow and methane concentration sensors, as well as various camera systems a large dataset has been compiled. Several methane pockmarks are present in the survey area, and geological, biological and oceanographic changes have been monitored over a range of timescales. Several publications have been produced, and in this presentation we introduce further data currently under analysis. Cabled internet connectivity further allows mobile platforms to be used directly in education. As part of the ROBEX project, researchers and students from both terrestrial and planetary sciences are using the crawler in an ongoing study project. Students are introduced to statistical methods from both fields during the course and in later stages they can plan their own research using the in-situ crawler, and follow the progress of their investigations live, then analyse the collected data using the techniques introduced during the course. Cabled infrastructures offer a unique facility for spatial investigation of extreme ecosystems over time, and for the 'hands on

  13. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  14. The Behavior of Hydrogen Under Extreme Conditions on Ultrafast Timescales (A 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Ho-kwang

    2011-01-01

    'The Behavior of Hydrogen Under Extreme Conditions on Ultrafast Timescales ' was submitted by the Center for Energy Frontier Research in Extreme Environments (EFree) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. EFree is directed by Ho-kwang Mao at the Carnegie Institute of Washington and is a partnership of scientists from thirteen institutions.The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of Energy Frontier Research in Extreme Environments is 'to accelerate the discovery and creation of energy-relevant materials using extreme pressures and temperatures.' Research topics are: catalysis (CO 2 , water), photocatalysis, solid state lighting, optics, thermelectric, phonons, thermal conductivity, solar electrodes, fuel cells, superconductivity, extreme environment, radiation effects, defects, spin dynamics, CO 2 (capture, convert, store), greenhouse gas, hydrogen (fuel, storage), ultrafast physics, novel materials synthesis, and defect tolerant materials.

  15. Cold atoms close to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Wildermuth, Stephan; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    Microscopic atom optical devices integrated on atom chips allow to precisely control and manipulate ultra-cold (T atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) close to surfaces. The relevant energy scale of a BEC is extremely small (down to ... be utilized as a sensor for variations of the potential energy of the atoms close to the surface. Here we describe how to use trapped atoms as a measurement device and analyze the performance and flexibility of the field sensor. We demonstrate microscopic magnetic imaging with simultaneous high spatial...

  16. Cold rolling precision forming of shaft parts theory and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Jianli; Li, Yongtang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the theory, processes and equipment involved in cold rolling precision forming technologies, focusing on spline and thread shaft parts. The main topics discussed include the status quo of research on cold rolling precision forming technologies; the design and calculation of process parameters; the numerical simulation of cold rolling forming processes; and the equipment used in cold rolling forming. The mechanism of cold rolling forming is extremely complex, and research on the processes, theory and mechanical analysis of spline cold rolling forming has remained very limited to date. In practice, the forming processes and production methods used are mainly chosen on the basis of individual experience. As such, there is a marked lack of both systematic, theory-based guidelines, and of specialized books covering theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, experiments and equipment used in spline cold rolling forming processes – all key points that are included in this book and ill...

  17. Colds and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (COPD). What medicines can I give my child? There is no cure for the cold or the flu, and antibiotics do not work against the viruses that cause colds and the flu. Pain relievers such as ...

  18. Cold knife cone biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References Baggish ...

  19. Cold medicines and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredient. Avoid giving more than one OTC cold medicine to your child. It may cause an overdose with severe side ... the dosage instructions strictly while giving an OTC medicine to your child. When giving OTC cold medicines to your child: ...

  20. Steel weldability. Underbead cold cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, F.; Defourny, J.; Bragard, A.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of underbead cold cracking has been studied by the implant technique. This approach allows to take into account in a quantitative manner the different factors acting on the cold cracking phenomenon: structure under the weld bead, level of restraint, hydrogen content in the molten metal. The influence of the metallurgical factors depending from the chemical composition of the steel has been examined. It appeared that carbon equivalent is an important factor to explain cold cracking sensitivity but that it is not sufficient to characterize the steel. The results have shown that vanadium may have a deleterious effect on the resistance to cold cracking when the hydrogen content is high and that small silicon additions are beneficient. The influence of the diffusible hydrogen content has been checked and the important action of pre- and postheating has been shown. These treatments allow the hydrogen to escape from the weld before the metal has been damaged. Some inclusions (sulphides) may also decrease the influence of hydrogen. A method based on the implant tests has been proposed which allows to choose and to control safe welding conditions regarding cold cracking

  1. Simulated trends of extreme climate indices for the Carpathian basin using outputs of different regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongracz, R.; Bartholy, J.; Szabo, P.; Pieczka, I.; Torma, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Regional climatological effects of global warming may be recognized not only in shifts of mean temperature and precipitation, but in the frequency or intensity changes of different climate extremes. Several climate extreme indices are analyzed and compared for the Carpathian basin (located in Central/Eastern Europe) following the guidelines suggested by the joint WMO-CCl/CLIVAR Working Group on climate change detection. Our statistical trend analysis includes the evaluation of several extreme temperature and precipitation indices, e.g., the numbers of severe cold days, winter days, frost days, cold days, warm days, summer days, hot days, extremely hot days, cold nights, warm nights, the intra-annual extreme temperature range, the heat wave duration, the growing season length, the number of wet days (using several threshold values defining extremes), the maximum number of consecutive dry days, the highest 1-day precipitation amount, the greatest 5-day rainfall total, the annual fraction due to extreme precipitation events, etc. In order to evaluate the future trends (2071-2100) in the Carpathian basin, daily values of meteorological variables are obtained from the outputs of various regional climate model (RCM) experiments accomplished in the frame of the completed EU-project PRUDENCE (Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining EuropeaN Climate change risks and Effects). Horizontal resolution of the applied RCMs is 50 km. Both scenarios A2 and B2 are used to compare past and future trends of the extreme climate indices for the Carpathian basin. Furthermore, fine-resolution climate experiments of two additional RCMs adapted and run at the Department of Meteorology, Eotvos Lorand University are used to extend the trend analysis of climate extremes for the Carpathian basin. (1) Model PRECIS (run at 25 km horizontal resolution) was developed at the UK Met Office, Hadley Centre, and it uses the boundary conditions from the HadCM3 GCM. (2) Model Reg

  2. Performance of Portable Ventilators Following Storage at Temperature Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Rodriquez, Dario; Britton, Tyler J; Johannigman, Jay A; Petro, Michael C; Branson, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    In the current theater of operation, medical devices are often shipped and stored at ambient conditions. The effect of storage at hot and cold temperature extremes on ventilator performance is unknown. We evaluated three portable ventilators currently in use or being evaluated for use by the Department of Defense (731, Impact Instrumentation; T1, Hamilton Medical; and Revel, CareFusion) at temperature extremes in a laboratory setting. The ventilators were stored at temperatures of 60°C and -35°C for 24 hours and were allowed to acclimate to room temperature for 30 minutes before evaluation. The T1 required an extra 15 to 30 minutes of acclimation to room temperature before the ventilator would deliver breaths. All delivered tidal volumes at room temperature and after storage at temperature extremes were less than the ±10% American Society for Testing and Materials standard with the Revel. Delivered tidal volumes at the pediatric settings were less than the ±10% threshold after storage at both temperatures and at room temperature with the 731. Storage at extreme temperature affected the performance of the portable ventilators tested. This study showed that portable ventilators may need an hour or more of acclimation time at room temperature after storage at temperature extremes to operate as intended. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Acclimatization to extreme heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, M. E.; Ganguly, A. R.; Bhatia, U.

    2017-12-01

    Heat extremes throughout the globe, as well as in the United States, are expected to increase. These heat extremes have been shown to impact human health, resulting in some of the highest levels of lives lost as compared with similar natural disasters. But in order to inform decision makers and best understand future mortality and morbidity, adaptation and mitigation must be considered. Defined as the ability for individuals or society to change behavior and/or adapt physiologically, acclimatization encompasses the gradual adaptation that occurs over time. Therefore, this research aims to account for acclimatization to extreme heat by using a hybrid methodology that incorporates future air conditioning use and installation patterns with future temperature-related time series data. While previous studies have not accounted for energy usage patterns and market saturation scenarios, we integrate such factors to compare the impact of air conditioning as a tool for acclimatization, with a particular emphasis on mortality within vulnerable communities.

  4. Cold-Adapted Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georlette, D.; Bentahir, M.; Claverie, P.; Collins, T.; D'amico, S.; Delille, D.; Feller, G.; Gratia, E.; Hoyoux, A.; Lonhienne, T.; Meuwis, M.-a.; Zecchinon, L.; Gerday, Ch.

    In the last few years, increased attention has been focused on enzymes produced by cold-adapted micro-organisms. It has emerged that psychrophilic enzymes represent an extremely powerful tool in both protein folding investigations and for biotechnological purposes. Such enzymes are characterised by an increased thermosensitivity and, most of them, by a higher catalytic efficiency at low and moderate temperatures, when compared to their mesophilic counterparts. The high thermosensitivity probably originates from an increased flexibility of either a selected area of the molecular edifice or the overall protein structure, providing enhanced abilities to undergo conformational changes during catalysis at low temperatures. Structure modelling and recent crystallographic data have allowed to elucidate the structural parameters that could be involved in this higher resilience. It was demonstrated that each psychrophilic enzyme adopts its own adaptive strategy. It appears, moreover, that there is a continuum in the strategy of protein adaptation to temperature, as the previously mentioned structural parameters are implicated in the stability of thermophilic proteins. Additional 3D crystal structures, site-directed and random mutagenesis experiments should now be undertaken to further investigate the stability-flexibility-activity relationship.

  5. Cold and heat waves in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, A G; Hajat, S; Gasparrini, A; Rocklöv, J

    2012-01-01

    Extreme cold and heat waves, characterized by a number of cold or hot days in succession, place a strain on people's cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The increase in deaths due to these waves may be greater than that predicted by extreme temperatures alone. We examined cold and heat waves in 99 US cities for 14 years (1987-2000) and investigated how the risk of death depended on the temperature threshold used to define a wave, and a wave's timing, duration and intensity. We defined cold and heat waves using temperatures above and below cold and heat thresholds for two or more days. We tried five cold thresholds using the first to fifth percentiles of temperature, and five heat thresholds using the 95-99 percentiles. The extra wave effects were