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Sample records for extreme-ultraviolet line ratio

  1. Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Lines of Iron Fe XI-XIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepson, Jaan; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Liedahl, D. A.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Dupree, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (ca. 20--300 Å) is rich in emission lines from low- to mid-Z ions, particularly from the middle charge states of iron. Many of these emission lines are important diagnostics for astrophysical plasmas, providing information on properties such as elemental abundance, temperature, density, and even magnetic field strength. In recent years, strides have been made to understand the complexity of the atomic levels of the ions that emit the lines that contribute to the richness of the EUV region. Laboratory measurements have been made to verify and benchmark the lines. Here, we present laboratory measurements of Fe XI, Fe XII, and Fe XIII between 40-140 Å. The measurements were made at the Lawrence Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, which has been optimized for laboratory astrophysics, and which allows us to select specific charge states of iron to help line identification. We also present new calculations by the Hebrew University - Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code (HULLAC), which we also utilized for line identification. We found that HULLAC does a creditable job of reproducing the forest of lines we observed in the EBIT spectra, although line positions are in need of adjustment, and line intensities often differed from those observed. We identify or confirm a number of new lines for these charge states. This work was supported by the NASA Solar and Heliospheric Program under Contract NNH10AN31I and the DOE General Plasma Science program. Work was performed in part under the auspices of the Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DEAC52-07NA27344.

  2. Laboratory calibration of density-dependent lines in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepson, J. K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M. F.; Desai, P.; Bitter, M.; Roquemore, L.; Reinke, M. L.

    2012-05-01

    We have been making spectral measurements in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) from different laboratory sources in order to investigate the electron density dependence of various astrophysically important emission lines and to test the atomic models underlying the diagnostic line ratios. The measurement are being performed at the Livermore EBIT-I electron beam ion trap, the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which together span an electron density of four orders of magnitude and which allow us to test the various models at high and low density limits. Here we present measurements of Fe XXII and Ar XIV, which include new data from an ultra high resolution (λ/Δλ >4000) spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility. We found good agreement between the measurements and modeling calculations for Fe XXII, but poorer agreement for Ar XIV.

  3. Resist Parameter Extraction from Line-and-Space Patterns of Chemically Amplified Resist for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Itani, Toshiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2010-11-01

    The development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has progressed owing to worldwide effort. As the development status of EUV lithography approaches the requirements for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices with a minimum line width of 22 nm, the extraction of resist parameters becomes increasingly important from the viewpoints of the accurate evaluation of resist materials for resist screening and the accurate process simulation for process and mask designs. In this study, we demonstrated that resist parameters (namely, quencher concentration, acid diffusion constant, proportionality constant of line edge roughness, and dissolution point) can be extracted from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of patterned resists without the knowledge on the details of resist contents using two types of latest EUV resist.

  4. Non-Gaussian Velocity Distributions in Solar Flares from Extreme Ultraviolet Lines: A Possible Diagnostic of Ion Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    In a solar flare, a large fraction of the magnetic energy released is converted rapidly to the kinetic energy of non-thermal particles and bulk plasma motion. This will likely result in non-equilibrium particle distributions and turbulent plasma conditions. We investigate this by analyzing the profiles of high temperature extreme ultraviolet emission lines from a major flare (SOL2014-03-29T17:44) observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode . We find that in many locations the line profiles are non-Gaussian, consistent with a kappa distribution of emitting ions with properties that vary in space and time. At the flare footpoints, close to sites of hard X-ray emission from non-thermal electrons, the κ index for the Fe xvi 262.976 Å line at 3 MK takes values of 3–5. In the corona, close to a low-energy HXR source, the Fe xxiii 263.760 Å line at 15 MK shows κ values of typically 4–7. The observed trends in the κ parameter show that we are most likely detecting the properties of the ion population rather than any instrumental effects. We calculate that a non-thermal ion population could exist if locally accelerated on timescales ≤0.1 s. However, observations of net redshifts in the lines also imply the presence of plasma downflows, which could lead to bulk turbulence, with increased non-Gaussianity in cooler regions. Both interpretations have important implications for theories of solar flare particle acceleration.

  5. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China); Morita, Shigeru; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Dong, Chunfeng [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); and others

    2015-12-15

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm{sup 2} and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm{sup 2}/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ{sub 0} = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ{sub 0} is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  6. Demonstration of pattern transfer into sub-100 nm polysilicon line/space features patterned with extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G. F.; Henderson, C. C.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Mangat, P. J. S.; Cobb, J.; Hector, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    In two separate experiments, we have successfully demonstrated the transfer of dense- and loose-pitch line/space (L/S) photoresist features, patterned with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, into an underlying hard mask material. In both experiments, a deep-UV photoresist (∼90 nm thick) was spin cast in bilayer format onto a hard mask (50-90 nm thick) and was subsequently exposed to EUV radiation using a 10x reduction EUV exposure system. The EUV reticle was fabricated at Motorola (Tempe, AZ) using a subtractive process with Ta-based absorbers on Mo/Si multilayer mask blanks. In the first set of experiments, following the EUV exposures, the L/S patterns were transferred first into a SiO 2 hard mask (60 nm thick) using a reactive ion etch (RIE), and then into polysilicon (350 nm thick) using a triode-coupled plasma RIE etcher at the University of California, Berkeley, microfabrication facilities. The latter etch process, which produced steep (>85 degree sign ) sidewalls, employed a HBr/Cl chemistry with a large (>10:1) etch selectivity of polysilicon to silicon dioxide. In the second set of experiments, hard mask films of SiON (50 nm thick) and SiO 2 (87 nm thick) were used. A RIE was performed at Motorola using a halogen gas chemistry that resulted in a hard mask-to-photoresist etch selectivity >3:1 and sidewall profile angles ≥85 degree sign . Line edge roughness (LER) and linewidth critical dimension (CD) measurements were performed using Sandia's GORA(c) CD digital image analysis software. Low LER values (6-9 nm, 3σ, one side) and good CD linearity (better than 10%) were demonstrated for the final pattern-transferred dense polysilicon L/S features from 80 to 175 nm. In addition, pattern transfer (into polysilicon) of loose-pitch (1:2) L/S features with CDs≥60 nm was demonstrated. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  7. Stellar extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, W.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The design, calibration, and launch of a rocket-borne imaging telescope for extreme ultraviolet astronomy are described. The telescope, which employed diamond-turned grazing incidence optics and a ranicon detector, was launched November 19, 1976, from the White Sands Missile Range. The telescope performed well and returned data on several potential stellar sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation. Upper limits ten to twenty times more sensitive than previously available were obtained for the extreme ultraviolet flux from the white dwarf Sirius B. These limits fall a factor of seven below the flux predicted for the star and demonstrate that the temperature of Sirius B is not 32,000 K as previously measured, but is below 30,000 K. The new upper limits also rule out the photosphere of the white dwarf as the source of the recently reported soft x-rays from Sirius. Two other white dwarf stars, Feige 24 and G191-B2B, were observed. Upper limits on the flux at 300 A were interpreted as lower limits on the interstellar hydrogen column densities to these stars. The lower limits indicate interstellar hydrogen densitites of greater than .02 cm -3 . Four nearby stars (Sirius, Procyon, Capella, and Mirzam) were observed in a search for intense low temperature coronae or extended chromospheres. No extreme ultraviolet radiation from these stars was detected, and upper limits to their coronal emisson measures are derived

  8. Spectral lines and characteristic of temporal variations in photoionized plasmas induced with laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, I.; Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Jarocki, R.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2017-11-01

    Spectral lines for Kr/Ne/H2 photoionized plasma in the ultraviolet and visible (UV/Vis) wavelength ranges have been created using a laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV source. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target irradiated with a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The laser pulses were focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Spectral lines from photoionization in neutral Kr/Ne/H2 and up to few charged states were observed. The intense emission lines were associated with the Kr transition lines. Experimental and theoretical investigations on intensity variations for some ionic lines are presented. A decrease in the intensity with the delay time between the laser pulse and the spectrum acquisition was revealed. Electron temperature and electron density in the photoionized plasma have been estimated from the characteristic emission lines. Temperature was obtained using Boltzmann plot method, assuming that the population density of atoms and ions are considered in a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Electron density was calculated from the Stark broadening profile. The temporal evaluation of the plasma and the way of optimizing the radiation intensity of LPP EUV sources is discussed.

  9. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of highly charged argon ions at the Berlin EBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedermann, C; Radtke, R; Fussmann, G; Allen, F I

    2007-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet radiation from highly charged argon was investigated at the Berlin Electron Beam Ion Trap with a 2 m grazing incidence spectrometer. Lines in the wavelength range 150 to 660 A originating from C-like Ar 12+ to Li-like Ar 15+ ions have been identified and are compared with database information from solar line lists and predictions. Line ratios for the observed resonance, intercombination and forbidden lines offer important diagnostic capabilities for low density, hot plasmas

  10. Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y.

    1998-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed

  11. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Bright Source List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.; Marshall, Herman L.; Antia, Behram; Christian, Carol A.; Dobson, Carl A.; Finley, David S.; Fruscione, Antonella; Girouard, Forrest R.; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Initial results from the analysis of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey (58-740 A) and deep survey (67-364 A) are presented through the EUVE Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL contains 356 confirmed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) point sources with supporting information, including positions, observed EUV count rates, and the identification of possible optical counterparts. One-hundred twenty-six sources have been detected longward of 200 A.

  12. Extreme ultraviolet observations of coronal holes. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlin, J.D.; Sheeley, N.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Extreme-ultraviolet Skylab and ground-based solar magnetic field data have been combined to study the origin and evolution of coronal holes. It is shown that holes exist only within the large-scale unipolar magnetic cells into which the solar surface is divided at any given time. A well-defined boundary zone usually exists between the edge of a hole and the neutral line which marks the edge of its magnetic cell. This boundary zone is the region across which a cell is connected by magnetic arcades with adjacent cells of opposite polarity. Three pieces of observational evidence are offered to support the hypothesis that the magnetic lines of force from a hole are open. Kitt Peak magnetograms are used to show that, at least on a relative scale, the average field strengths within holes are quite variable, but indistinguishable from the field strengths in other quiet parts of the Sun's surface. Finally it is shown that the large, equatorial holes characteristic of the declining phase of the last solar cycle during Skylab (1973-74) were all formed as a result of the mergence of bipolar magnetic regions (BMR's), confirming an earlier hypothesis by Timothy et al. (1975). Systematic application of this model to the different aspects of the solar cycle correctly predicts the occurrence of both large, equatorial coronal holes (the 'M-regions' which cause recurrent geomagnetic storms) and the polar cap holes. (Auth.)

  13. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 μm wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  14. Tomographic extreme-ultraviolet spectrographs: TESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, D M; Stephan, A; Cook, T; Vickers, J; Taylor, V; Chakrabarti, S

    2000-08-01

    We describe the system of Tomographic Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) SpectrographS (TESS) that are the primary instruments for the Tomographic Experiment using Radiative Recombinative Ionospheric EUV and Radio Sources (TERRIERS) satellite. The spectrographs were designed to make high-sensitivity {80 counts/s)/Rayleigh [one Rayleigh is equivalent to 10(6) photons/(4pi str cm(2)s)}, line-of-sight measurements of the oi 135.6- and 91.1-nm emissions suitable for tomographic inversion. The system consists of five spectrographs, four identical nightglow instruments (for redundancy and added sensitivity), and one instrument with a smaller aperture to reduce sensitivity and increase spectral resolution for daytime operation. Each instrument has a bandpass of 80-140 nm with approximately 2- and 1-nm resolution for the night and day instruments, respectively. They utilize microchannel-plate-based two-dimensional imaging detectors with wedge-and-strip anode readouts. The instruments were designed, fabricated, and calibrated at Boston University, and the TERRIERS satellite was launched on 18 May 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.

  15. Resist image quality control via acid diffusion constant and/or photodecomposable quencher concentration in the fabrication of 11 nm half-pitch line-and-space patterns using extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro

    2018-05-01

    Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography will be applied to the high-volume production of semiconductor devices with 16 nm half-pitch resolution and is expected to be extended to that of devices with 11 nm half-pitch resolution. With the reduction in the feature sizes, the control of acid diffusion becomes a significant concern. In this study, the dependence of resist image quality on T PEB D acid and photodecomposable quencher concentration was investigated by the Monte Carlo method on the basis of the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified EUV resists. Here, T PEB and D acid are the postexposure baking (PEB) time and the acid diffusion constant, respectively. The resist image quality of 11 nm line-and-space patterns is discussed in terms of line edge roughness (LER) and stochastic defect generation. For the minimization of LER, it is necessary to design and control not only the photodecomposable quencher concentration but also T PEB D acid. In this case, D acid should be adjusted to be 0.3–1.5 nm2 s‑1 for a PEB time of 60 s with optimization of the balance among LER and stochastic pinching and bridging. Even if it is difficult to decrease D acid to the range of 0.3–1.5 nm2 s‑1, the image quality can still be controlled via only the photodecomposable quencher concentration, although LER and stochastic pinching and bridging are slightly increased. In this case, accurate control of the photodecomposable quencher concentration and the reduction in the initial standard deviation of the number of protected units are required.

  16. Dynamical structure of extreme ultraviolet macrospicules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; Habbal, Shadia Rifai

    1994-01-01

    We describe the substructures forming the macrospicules and their temporal evolution, as revealed by the application of an image enhancement algorithm to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations of macrospicules. The enhanced images uncover, for the first time, the substructures forming the column-like structures within the macrospicules and the low-lying arches at their base. The spatial and temporal evolution of macrospicules clearly show continuous interaction between these substructures with occasional ejection of plasma following a ballistic trajectory. We comment on the importance of these results for planning near future space observations of macrospicules with better temporal and spatial resolution.

  17. Extreme ultraviolet spectral irradiance measurements since 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, G.

    2015-03-01

    In the physics of the upper atmosphere the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation plays a dominant role controlling most of the thermospheric/ionospheric (T/I) processes. Since this part of the solar spectrum is absorbed in the thermosphere, platforms to measure the EUV fluxes became only available with the development of rockets reaching altitude levels exceeding 80 km. With the availability of V2 rockets used in space research, recording of EUV spectra started in 1946 using photographic films. The development of pointing devices to accurately orient the spectrographs toward the sun initiated intense activities in solar-terrestrial research. The application of photoelectric recording technology enabled the scientists placing EUV spectrometers aboard satellites observing qualitatively strong variability of the solar EUV irradiance on short-, medium-, and long-term scales. However, as more measurements were performed more radiometric EUV data diverged due to the inherent degradation of the EUV instruments with time. Also, continuous recording of the EUV energy input to the T/I system was not achieved. It is only at the end of the last century that there was progress made in solving the serious problem of degradation enabling to monitore solar EUV fluxes with sufficient radiometric accuracy. The data sets available allow composing the data available to the first set of EUV data covering a period of 11 years for the first time. Based on the sophisticated instrumentation verified in space, future EUV measurements of the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) are promising accuracy levels of about 5% and less. With added low-cost equipment, real-time measurements will allow providing data needed in ionospheric modeling, e.g., for correcting propagation delays of navigation signals from space to earth. Adding EUV airglow and auroral emission monitoring by airglow cameras, the impact of space weather on the terrestrial T/I system can be studied with a spectral terrestrial

  18. Coherence techniques at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The renaissance of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) optics in recent years is mainly driven by the desire of printing and observing ever smaller features, as in lithography and microscopy. This attribute is complemented by the unique opportunity for element specific identification presented by the large number of atomic resonances, essentially for all materials in this range of photon energies. Together, these have driven the need for new short-wavelength radiation sources (e.g. third generation synchrotron radiation facilities), and novel optical components, that in turn permit new research in areas that have not yet been fully explored. This dissertation is directed towards advancing this new field by contributing to the characterization of spatial coherence properties of undulator radiation and, for the first time, introducing Fourier optical elements to this short-wavelength spectral region. The first experiment in this dissertation uses the Thompson-Wolf two-pinhole method to characterize the spatial coherence properties of the undulator radiation at Beamline 12 of the Advanced Light Source. High spatial coherence EUV radiation is demonstrated with appropriate spatial filtering. The effects of small vertical source size and beamline apertures are observed. The difference in the measured horizontal and vertical coherence profile evokes further theoretical studies on coherence propagation of an EUV undulator beamline. A numerical simulation based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle is performed.

  19. TEMPERATURE AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET INTENSITY IN A CORONAL PROMINENCE CAVITY AND STREAMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, T. A. [NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J. [HAO/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Landi, E. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, Space Research Building, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Tripathi, D. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag-4, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2012-09-20

    We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 August 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model predictions to the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) Mark 4 K-coronameter. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude-dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude-dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the EUV line intensities by a factor of 4-10, without overestimating pB. We discuss this difference in terms of filling factors and uncertainties in density diagnostics and elemental abundances.

  20. Kr photoionized plasma induced by intense extreme ultraviolet pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.

    2016-04-01

    Irradiation of any gas with an intense EUV (extreme ultraviolet) radiation beam can result in creation of photoionized plasmas. The parameters of such plasmas can be significantly different when compared with those of the laser produced plasmas (LPP) or discharge plasmas. In this work, the photoionized plasmas were created in a krypton gas irradiated using an LPP EUV source operating at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The Kr gas was injected into the vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV radiation pulses. The EUV beam was focused onto a Kr gas stream using an axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector. The resulting low temperature Kr plasmas emitted electromagnetic radiation in the wide spectral range. The emission spectra were measured either in the EUV or an optical range. The EUV spectrum was dominated by emission lines originating from Kr III and Kr IV ions, and the UV/VIS spectra were composed from Kr II and Kr I lines. The spectral lines recorded in EUV, UV, and VIS ranges were used for the construction of Boltzmann plots to be used for the estimation of the electron temperature. It was shown that for the lowest Kr III and Kr IV levels, the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions were not fulfilled. The electron temperature was thus estimated based on Kr II and Kr I species where the partial LTE conditions could be expected.

  1. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of low pressure helium microwave driven discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinho, Susana; Felizardo, Edgar; Tatarova, Elena; Alves, Luis Lemos

    2016-09-01

    Surface wave driven discharges are reliable plasma sources that can produce high levels of vacuum and extreme ultraviolet radiation (VUV and EUV). The richness of the emission spectrum makes this type of discharge a possible alternative source in EUV/VUV radiation assisted applications. However, due to challenging experimental requirements, publications concerning EUV radiation emitted by microwave plasmas are scarce and a deeper understanding of the main mechanisms governing the emission of radiation in this spectral range is required. To this end, the EUV radiation emitted by helium microwave driven plasmas operating at 2.45 GHz has been studied for low pressure conditions. Spectral lines from excited helium atoms and ions were detected via emission spectroscopy in the EUV/VUV regions. Novel data concerning the spectral lines observed in the 23 - 33 nm wavelength range and their intensity behaviour with variation of the discharge operational conditions are presented. The intensity of all the spectral emissions strongly increases with the microwave power delivered to the plasma up to 400 W. Furthermore, the intensity of all the ion spectral emissions in the EUV range decreases by nearly one order of magnitude as the pressure was raised from 0.2 to 0.5 mbar. Work funded by FCT - Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, under Project UID/FIS/50010/2013 and grant SFRH/BD/52412/2013 (PD-F APPLAuSE).

  2. Extreme ultraviolet narrow band emission from electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, H.; Ma, B. H.; Li, X. X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Sheng, L. S.; Zhang, G. B.; Tian, Y. C.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is considered as the most promising solution at and below dynamic random access memory 32 nm half pitch among the next generation lithography, and EUV light sources with high output power and sufficient lifetime are crucial for the realization of EUVL. However, there is no EUV light source completely meeting the requirements for the commercial application in lithography yet. Therefore, ECR plasma is proposed as a novel concept EUV light source. In order to investigate the feasibility of ECR plasma as a EUV light source, the narrow band EUV power around 13.5 nm emitted by two highly charged ECR ion sources--LECR2M and SECRAL--was measured with a calibrated EUV power measurement tool. Since the emission lines around 13.5 nm can be attributed to the 4d-5p transitions of Xe XI or the 4d-4f unresolved transition array of Sn VIII-XIII, xenon plasma was investigated. The dependence of the EUV throughput and the corresponding conversion efficiency on the parameters of the ion source, such as the rf power and the magnetic confinement configurations, were preliminarily studied

  3. The extreme ultraviolet spectrum of G191 - B2B and the ionization of the local interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Jelinsky, P.; Bowyer, S.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the nearby hot white dwarf G191 - B2B is reported. The results are used to derive interstellar neutral column densities of 1.6 + or - 0.2 x 10 to the 18th/sq cm and 9.8 + 2.8 or - 2.6 x 10 to the 16th/sq cm for H I and He I, respectively. This ratio of neutral hydrogen to neutral helium indicates that the ionization of hydrogen along the line of sight is less than about 30 percent unless significant helium ionization is present. The scenario in which the hydrogen is highly ionized and the helium is neutral is ruled out by this observation. 54 refs

  4. The extreme ultraviolet spectrum of G191 - B2B and the ionization of the local interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James; Jelinsky, Patrick; Bowyer, Stuart

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the nearby hot white dwarf G191 - B2B is reported. The results are used to derive interstellar neutral column densities of 1.6 + or - 0.2 x 10 to the 18th/sq cm and 9.8 + 2.8 or - 2.6 x 10 to the 16th/sq cm for H I and He I, respectively. This ratio of neutral hydrogen to neutral helium indicates that the ionization of hydrogen along the line of sight is less than about 30 percent unless significant helium ionization is present. The scenario in which the hydrogen is highly ionized and the helium is neutral is ruled out by this observation.

  5. Mode Conversion of a Solar Extreme-ultraviolet Wave over a Coronal Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Weiguo [Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081 (China); Dai, Yu, E-mail: ydai@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (Nanjing University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-01-10

    We report on observations of an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave event in the Sun on 2011 January 13 by Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and Solar Dynamics Observatory in quadrature. Both the trailing edge and the leading edge of the EUV wave front in the north direction are reliably traced, revealing generally compatible propagation velocities in both perspectives and a velocity ratio of about 1/3. When the wave front encounters a coronal cavity near the northern polar coronal hole, the trailing edge of the front stops while its leading edge just shows a small gap and extends over the cavity, meanwhile getting significantly decelerated but intensified. We propose that the trailing edge and the leading edge of the northward propagating wave front correspond to a non-wave coronal mass ejection component and a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic wave component, respectively. The interaction of the fast-mode wave and the coronal cavity may involve a mode conversion process, through which part of the fast-mode wave is converted to a slow-mode wave that is trapped along the magnetic field lines. This scenario can reasonably account for the unusual behavior of the wave front over the coronal cavity.

  6. Calibration of windowless photodiode for extreme ultraviolet pulse energy measurement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 35 (2015), s. 10454-10459 ISSN 1559-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Photodetectors * Soft-X-ray * Extreme ultraviolet * Detection * Filters * Metrology Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.598, year: 2015

  7. Graphene defect formation by extreme ultraviolet generated photoelectrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, An; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the effect of photoelectrons on defect formation in graphene during extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiation. Assuming the major role of these low energy electrons, we have mimicked the process by using low energy primary electrons. Graphene is irradiated by an electron beam with energy

  8. Elastic modulus of Extreme Ultraviolet exposed single-layer graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mund, Baibhav Kumar; Gao, An; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Highly transparent membranes are required for a number of applications, such as protective coatings for components in Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, beam splitters (EUV pump-probe experiments), transmission gratings, and reticles. Graphene is an excellent candidate due to its high tensile

  9. Infrared diffractive filtering for extreme ultraviolet multilayer Bragg reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, Viacheslav; van den Boogaard, Toine; van der Meer, R.; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Krivtsun, V.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We report on the development of a hybrid mirror realized by integrating an EUV-reflecting multilayer coating with a lamellar grating substrate. This hybrid irror acts as an efficient Bragg reflector for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation at a given wavelength while simultaneously

  10. Spectrometer system for diffuse extreme ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labov, Simon E.

    1989-01-01

    A unique grazing incidence spectrometer system has been designed to study diffuse line emission between 80 and 650 A with 10-30 A resolution. The minimum detectable emission line strength during a 5-min observation ranges from 100-2000 ph/sq cm sec str. The instrument uses mechanically ruled reflection gratings placed in front of a linear array of mirrors. These mirrors focus the spectral image on microchannel plate detectors located behind thin filters. The field of view is 40 min of arc by 15 deg, and there is no spatial imaging. This instrument has been fabricated, calibrated, and successfully flown on a sounding rocket to observe the astronomical background radiation.

  11. Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachev, S A; Chkhalo, N I; Kuzin, S V; Pariev, D E; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, N N; Shestov, S V; Zuev, S Y

    2016-03-20

    We provide an analysis of contemporary multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar astronomy in the wavelength ranges: λ=12.9-13.3  nm, λ=17-21  nm, λ=28-33  nm, and λ=58.4  nm. We found new material pairs, which will make new spaceborne experiments possible due to the high reflection efficiencies, spectral resolution, and long-term stabilities of the proposed multilayer coatings. In the spectral range λ=13  nm, Mo/Be multilayer mirrors were shown to demonstrate a better ratio of reflection efficiency and spectral resolution compared with the commonly used Mo/Si. In the spectral range λ=17-21  nm, a new multilayer structure Al/Si was proposed, which had higher spectral resolution along with comparable reflection efficiency compared with the commonly used Al/Zr multilayer structures. In the spectral range λ=30  nm, the Si/B4C/Mg/Cr multilayer structure turned out to best obey reflection efficiency and long-term stability. The B4C and Cr layers prevented mutual diffusion of the Si and Mg layers. For the spectral range λ=58  nm, a new multilayer Mo/Mg-based structure was developed; its reflection efficiency and long-term stability have been analyzed. We also investigated intrinsic stresses inherent for most of the multilayer structures and proposed possibilities for stress elimination.

  12. Nonlinear wave-mixing processes in the extreme ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misoguti, L.; Christov, I. P.; Backus, S.; Murnane, M. M.; Kapteyn, H. C.

    2005-01-01

    We present data from two-color high-order harmonic generation in a hollow waveguide, that suggest the presence of a nonlinear-optical frequency conversion process driven by extreme ultraviolet light. By combining the fundamental and second harmonic of an 800 nm laser in a hollow-core fiber, with varying relative polarizations, and by observing the pressure and power scaling of the various harmonic orders, we show that the data are consistent with a picture where we drive the process of high-harmonic generation, which in turn drives four-wave frequency mixing processes in the extreme EUV. This work promises a method for extending nonlinear optics into the extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum using an approach that has not previously been considered, and has compelling implications for generating tunable light at short wavelengths

  13. Telescience - Concepts and contributions to the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Will; Dobson, Carl; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Malina, Roger F.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown how the contradictory goals of low-cost and fast data turnaround characterizing the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) mission can be achieved via the early use of telescience style transparent tools and simulations. The use of transparent tools reduces the parallel development of capability while ensuring that valuable prelaunch experience is not lost in the operations phase. Efforts made to upgrade the 'EUVE electronics' simulator are described.

  14. A search for thermal extreme ultraviolet radiation from nearby pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstein, G.; Margon, B.

    1977-01-01

    We present the first extreme ultraviolet (100-1000 A) observations of radio pulsars. Using an EUV telescope carried aboard the Apollo-Soyuz mission, data were acquired on the nearby pulsars PSR 1133 + 16, 1451 - 68 and 1929 + 10. The data are interpreted to set limits on the effective temperatures of the neutron stars, yielding T 5 K in the best cases, and the limits compared with theoretical predictions. (orig./BJ) [de

  15. System performance modeling of extreme ultraviolet lithographic thermal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, P. A.; Gianoulakis, S. E.; Moen, C. D.; Kanouff, M. P.; Fisher, A.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical simulation is used in the development of an extreme ultraviolet lithography Engineering Test Stand. Extensive modeling was applied to predict the impact of thermal loads on key lithographic parameters such as image placement error, focal shift, and loss of CD control. We show that thermal issues can be effectively managed to ensure that their impact on lithographic performance is maintained within design error budgets. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  16. Extreme-Ultraviolet Vortices from a Free-Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Rebernik Ribič

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Extreme-ultraviolet vortices may be exploited to steer the magnetic properties of nanoparticles, increase the resolution in microscopy, and gain insight into local symmetry and chirality of a material; they might even be used to increase the bandwidth in long-distance space communications. However, in contrast to the generation of vortex beams in the infrared and visible spectral regions, production of intense, extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray optical vortices still remains a challenge. Here, we present an in-situ and an ex-situ technique for generating intense, femtosecond, coherent optical vortices at a free-electron laser in the extreme ultraviolet. The first method takes advantage of nonlinear harmonic generation in a helical undulator, producing vortex beams at the second harmonic without the need for additional optical elements, while the latter one relies on the use of a spiral zone plate to generate a focused, micron-size optical vortex with a peak intensity approaching 10^{14}  W/cm^{2}, paving the way to nonlinear optical experiments with vortex beams at short wavelengths.

  17. Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A few more pieces of the puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christopher N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-05-20

    The work described in this dissertation has improved three essential components of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography: exposure tools, photoresist, and metrology. Exposure tools. A field-averaging illumination stage is presented that enables nonuniform, high-coherence sources to be used in applications where highly uniform illumination is required. In an EUV implementation, it is shown that the illuminator achieves a 6.5% peak-to-valley intensity variation across the entire design field of view. In addition, a design for a stand-alone EUV printing tool capable of delivering 15 nm half-pitch sinusoidal fringes with available sources, gratings and nano-positioning stages is presented. It is shown that the proposed design delivers a near zero line-edge-rougness (LER) aerial image, something extremely attractive for the application of resist testing. Photoresist. Two new methods of quantifying the deprotection blur of EUV photoresists are described and experimentally demonstrated. The deprotection blur, LER, and sensitivity parameters of several EUV photoresists are quantified simultaneously as base weight percent, photoacid generator (PAG) weight percent, and post-exposure bake (PEB) temperature are varied. Two surprising results are found: (1) changing base weight percent does not significantly affect the deprotection blur of EUV photoresist, and (2) increasing PAG weight percent can simultaneously reduce LER and E-size in EUV photoresist. The latter result motivates the development of an EUV exposure statistics model that includes the effects of photon shot noise, the PAG spatial distribution, and the changing of the PAG distribution during the exposure. In addition, a shot noise + deprotection blur model is used to show that as deprotection blur becomes large relative to the size of the printed feature, LER reduction from improved counting statistics becomes dominated by an increase in LER due to reduced deprotection contrast. Metrology. Finally, this

  18. Final Report: Spectral Analysis of L-shell Data in the Extreme Ultraviolet from Tokamak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jernigan, J. Garrett [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    We performed detailed analyses of extreme ultraviolet spectra taken by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the National Spherical Torus Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and on the Alcator CKmod tokamak at the M.I.T. Plasma Science and Fusion Center. We focused on the emission of iron, carbon, and other elements in several spectral band pass regions covered by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We documented emission lines of carbon not found in currently used solar databases and demonstrated that this emission was due to charge exchange.

  19. Thermal transport studies using extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy: Final technical report, 5 March 1986-30 June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.

    1987-12-01

    Thermal transport was investigated in laser-produced plasmas using spectroscopic measurements in the extreme ultraviolet. Theoretical work in collaboration with the University of Rochester allowed comparisons to be made of experimental spectra to a lagrangian hydrodynamic code. Results showed that transport is influenced by thermal flux inhibition in addition to non-uniformities in the laser irradiation. This work is a continuation of last year's project in which the main thermal transport results are reported. Very rich spectra were obtained in these experiments which yielded additional information on the ablating plasmas. A doppler shift was observed for neonlike titanium lines relative to higher ionization states of Ti. This shift is attributed to differences in expansion velocities between different charge states of Ti. A detailed report discussing this effect is attached. New lines were identified for Ti XXI and Ti XIX from these spectra in the wavelength region from 12 to 15 /angstrom/. The new heliumlike lines of Ti can exhibit population inversion and are candidates for x-ray laser experiments. A preprint of this paper is attached. Finally, line ratios of Ti XIX and Ti XX were employed to determine electron densities and temperatures. A report is also attached discussing these results

  20. EDITORIAL: Extreme Ultraviolet Light Sources for Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, David

    2004-12-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) [1] provides industry expectations for high volume computer chip fabrication a decade into the future. It provides expectations to anticipated performance and requisite specifications. While the roadmap provides a collective projection of what international industry expects to produce, it does not specify the technology that will be employed. Indeed, there are generally several competing technologies for each two or three year step forward—known as `nodes'. Recent successful technologies have been based on KrF (248 nm), and now ArF (193 nm) lasers, combined with ultraviolet transmissive refractive optics, in what are known as step and scan exposure tools. Less fortunate technologies in the recent past have included soft x-ray proximity printing and, it appears, 157 nm wavelength F2 lasers. In combination with higher numerical aperture liquid emersion optics, 193 nm is expected to be used for the manufacture of leading edge chip performance for the coming five years. Beyond that, starting in about 2009, the technology to be employed is less clear. The leading candidate for the 2009 node is extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, however this requires that several remaining challenges, including sufficient EUV source power, be overcome in a timely manner. This technology is based on multilayer coated reflective optics [2] and an EUV emitting plasma. Following Moore's Law [3] it is expected, for example, that at the 2009 `32 nm node' (printable patterns of 32 nm half-pitch), isolated lines with 18 nm width will be formed in resist (using threshold effects), and that these will be further narrowed to 13 nm in transfer to metalized electronic gates. These narrow features are expected to provide computer chips of 19 GHz clock frequency, with of the order of 1.5 billion transistors per chip [1]. This issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains a cluster of eight papers addressing the critical

  1. Excluded volume effects caused by high concentration addition of acid generators in chemically amplified resists used for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Komuro, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi

    2017-08-01

    The resolution of lithography used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices has been improved to meet the market demands for highly integrated circuits. With the reduction in feature size, the molecular size becomes non-negligible in the resist material design. In this study, the excluded volume effects caused by adding high-concentration acid generators were investigated for triphenylsulfonium nonaflate. The resist film density was measured by X-ray diffractometry. The dependences of absorption coefficient and protected unit concentration on acid generator weight ratio were calculated from the measured film density. Using these values, the effects on the decomposition yield of acid generators, the protected unit fluctuation, and the line edge roughness (LER) were evaluated by simulation on the basis of sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. The positive effects of the increase in acid generator weight ratio on LER were predominant below the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3, while the negative effects became equivalent to the positive effects above the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3 owing to the excluded volume effects.

  2. GLOBAL SIMULATION OF AN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING TELESCOPE WAVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    We use the observation of an Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) wave in the lower solar corona, seen with the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft in extreme ultraviolet light on 2007 May 19, to model the same event with a three-dimensional (3D) time-depending magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code that includes solar coronal magnetic fields derived with Wilcox Solar Observatory magnetogram data, and a solar wind outflow accelerated with empirical heating functions. The model includes a coronal mass ejection (CME) of Gibson and Low flux rope type above the reconstructed active region with parameters adapted from observations to excite the EIT wave. We trace the EIT wave running as circular velocity enhancement around the launching site of the CME in the direction tangential to the sphere produced by the wave front, and compute the phase velocities of the wave front. We find that the phase velocities are in good agreement with theoretical values for a fast magnetosonic wave, derived with the physical parameters of the model, and with observed phase speeds of an incident EIT wave reflected by a coronal hole and running at about the same location. We also produce in our 3D MHD model the observed reflection of the EIT wave at the coronal hole boundary, triggered by the magnetic pressure difference between the wave front hitting the hole and the boundary magnetic fields of the coronal hole, and the response of the coronal hole, which leads to the generation of secondary reflected EIT waves radiating away in different directions than the incident EIT wave. This is the first 3D MHD model of an EIT wave triggered by a CME that includes realistic solar magnetic field, with results comparing favorably to STEREO Extreme Ultraviolet Imager observations.

  3. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics. (paper)

  4. Rabi oscillations in extreme ultraviolet ionization of atomic argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flögel, Martin; Durá, Judith; Schütte, Bernd; Ivanov, Misha; Rouzée, Arnaud; Vrakking, Marc J. J.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate Rabi oscillations in nonlinear ionization of argon by an intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser field produced by high-harmonic generation. We monitor the formation of A r2 + as a function of the time delay between the XUV pulse and an additional near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser pulse, and show that the population of an A r+* intermediate resonance exhibits strong modulations both due to an NIR laser-induced Stark shift and XUV-induced Rabi cycling between the ground state of A r+ and the A r+* excited state. Our experiment represents a direct experimental observation of a Rabi-cycling process in the XUV regime.

  5. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  6. Extreme Ultraviolet Stokesmeter for Pulsed Magneto-Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Ruiz-Lopez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Several applications in material science and magnetic holography using extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation require the measurement of the degree and state of polarization. In this work, an instrument to measure simultaneously both parameters from EUV pulses is presented. The instrument determines the Stokes parameters after a reflection on an array of multilayer mirrors at the Brewster angle. The Stokesmeter was tested at Swiss Light Source at different EUV wavelengths. The experimental Stokes patterns of the source were compared with the simulated pattern.

  7. The Extreme Ultraviolet spectrometer on bard the Hisaki satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kagitani, M.; Kimura, T.; Yoshikawa, I.

    2017-12-01

    The extreme ultraviolet spectroscope EXCEED (EXtrem ultraviolet spetrosCope for ExosphEric Dynamics) on board the Hisaki satellite was launched in September 2013 from the Uchinoura space center, Japan. It is orbiting around the Earth with an orbital altitude of around 950-1150 km. This satellite is dedicated to and optimized for observing the atmosphere and magnetosphere of terrestrial planets such as Mercury, Venus, Mars, as well as Jupiter. The instrument consists of an off axis parabolic entrance mirror, switchable slits with multiple filters and shapes, a toroidal grating, and a photon counting detector, together with a field of view guiding camera. The design goal is to achieve a large effective area but with high spatial and spectral resolution. Based on the after-launch calibration, the spectral resolution of EXCEED is found to be 0.3-0.5 nm FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) over the entire spectral band, and the spatial resolution is around 17". The evaluated effective area is larger than 1cm2. In this presentation, the basic concept of the instrument design and the observation technique are introduced. The current status of the spacecraft and its future observation plan are also shown.

  8. CAN A NANOFLARE MODEL OF EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIANCES DESCRIBE THE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CORONA?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajfirouze, E.; Safari, H. [Department of Physics, University of Zanjan, P.O. Box 45195-313, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-10

    Nanoflares, the basic units of impulsive energy release, may produce much of the solar background emission. Extrapolation of the energy frequency distribution of observed microflares, which follows a power law to lower energies, can give an estimation of the importance of nanoflares for heating the solar corona. If the power-law index is greater than 2, then the nanoflare contribution is dominant. We model a time series of extreme-ultraviolet emission radiance as random flares with a power-law exponent of the flare event distribution. The model is based on three key parameters: the flare rate, the flare duration, and the power-law exponent of the flare intensity frequency distribution. We use this model to simulate emission line radiance detected in 171 A, observed by Solar Terrestrial Relation Observatory/Extreme-Ultraviolet Imager and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. The observed light curves are matched with simulated light curves using an Artificial Neural Network, and the parameter values are determined across the active region, quiet Sun, and coronal hole. The damping rate of nanoflares is compared with the radiative losses cooling time. The effect of background emission, data cadence, and network sensitivity on the key parameters of the model is studied. Most of the observed light curves have a power-law exponent, {alpha}, greater than the critical value 2. At these sites, nanoflare heating could be significant.

  9. Optical proximity correction for anamorphic extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Chris; Lam, Michael; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Jiang, Fan; Fenger, Germain; Adam, Kostas

    2017-10-01

    The change from isomorphic to anamorphic optics in high numerical aperture (NA) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scanners necessitates changes to the mask data preparation flow. The required changes for each step in the mask tape out process are discussed, with a focus on optical proximity correction (OPC). When necessary, solutions to new problems are demonstrated, and verified by rigorous simulation. Additions to the OPC model include accounting for anamorphic effects in the optics, mask electromagnetics, and mask manufacturing. The correction algorithm is updated to include awareness of anamorphic mask geometry for mask rule checking (MRC). OPC verification through process window conditions is enhanced to test different wafer scale mask error ranges in the horizontal and vertical directions. This work will show that existing models and methods can be updated to support anamorphic optics without major changes. Also, the larger mask size in the Y direction can result in better model accuracy, easier OPC convergence, and designs which are more tolerant to mask errors.

  10. Plans for the extreme ultraviolet explorer data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Herman L.; Dobson, Carl A.; Malina, Roger F.; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for storage and fast access to data that will be obtained by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), a satellite payload scheduled for launch in 1991. The EUVE telescopes will be operated remotely from the EUVE Science Operation Center (SOC) located at the University of California, Berkeley. The EUVE science payload consists of three scanning telescope carrying out an all-sky survey in the 80-800 A spectral region and a Deep Survey/Spectrometer telescope performing a deep survey in the 80-250 A spectral region. Guest Observers will remotely access the EUVE spectrometer database at the SOC. The EUVE database will consist of about 2 X 10 to the 10th bytes of information in a very compact form, very similar to the raw telemetry data. A history file will be built concurrently giving telescope parameters, command history, attitude summaries, engineering summaries, anomalous events, and ephemeris summaries.

  11. Method for the protection of extreme ultraviolet lithography optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, Philip A.; Clift, Wayne M.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2010-06-22

    A coating for the protection of optical surfaces exposed to a high energy erosive plasma. A gas that can be decomposed by the high energy plasma, such as the xenon plasma used for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), is injected into the EUVL machine. The decomposition products coat the optical surfaces with a protective coating maintained at less than about 100 .ANG. thick by periodic injections of the gas. Gases that can be used include hydrocarbon gases, particularly methane, PH.sub.3 and H.sub.2S. The use of PH.sub.3 and H.sub.2S is particularly advantageous since films of the plasma-induced decomposition products S and P cannot grow to greater than 10 .ANG. thick in a vacuum atmosphere such as found in an EUVL machine.

  12. Absolute measurement of undulator radiation in the extreme ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maezawa, H.; Kitamura, H.; Sasaki, T.; Mitani, S.; Osaka City Univ.; Suzuki, Y.; Kanamori, H.; Tamamushi, S.; Tokyo Univ.; Mikuni, A.; Tokyo Univ., Tanashi

    1983-01-01

    The spectral brightness of undulator radiation emitted by the model PMU-1 incorporated in the SOR-RING, the dedicated synchrotron radiation source in Tokyo, has been studied in the extreme ultraviolet region from 21.6 to 72.9 eV as a function of the electron energy #betta#, the field parameter K, and the angle of observation THETA in the absolute scale. A series of measurements covering the first and the second harmonic component of undulator radiation was compared with the fundamental formula lambdasub(n)=lambda 0 /2n#betta# 2 (1+K 2 /2+#betta# 2 THETA 2 ), and the effects of finite emittance were studied. The brightness at the first peak was smaller than the theoretical value, while an enhanced second harmonic component was observed. (orig.)

  13. Laser waveform control of extreme ultraviolet high harmonics from solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yong Sing; Wu, Mengxi; Yin, Yanchun; Chew, Andrew; Ren, Xiaoming; Gholam-Mirzaei, Shima; Browne, Dana A; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B; Ghimire, Shambhu

    2017-05-01

    Solid-state high-harmonic sources offer the possibility of compact, high-repetition-rate attosecond light emitters. However, the time structure of high harmonics must be characterized at the sub-cycle level. We use strong two-cycle laser pulses to directly control the time-dependent nonlinear current in single-crystal MgO, leading to the generation of extreme ultraviolet harmonics. We find that harmonics are delayed with respect to each other, yielding an atto-chirp, the value of which depends on the laser field strength. Our results provide the foundation for attosecond pulse metrology based on solid-state harmonics and a new approach to studying sub-cycle dynamics in solids.

  14. Low-defect reflective mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, S C; Cerjarn, C; Kearney, P; Mirkarimi, P; Ray-Chaudhuri, A; Walton, C.

    1999-01-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithgraphy (EUVL) is an emerging technology for fabrication of sub-100 nm feature sizes on silicon, following the SIA road map well into the 21st century. The specific EUVL system described is a scanned, projection lithography system with a 4:1 reduction, using a laser plasma EUV source. The mask and all of the system optics are reflective, multilayer mirrors which function in the extreme ultraviolet at 13.4 nm wavelength. Since the masks are imaged to the wafer exposure plane, mask defects greater than 80% of the exposure plane CD (for 4:1 reduction) will in many cases render the mask useless, whereas intervening optics can have defects which are not a printing problem. For the 100 nm node, we must reduce defects to less than 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; at sign 80nm or larger to obtain acceptable mask production yields. We have succeeded in reducing the defects to less than 0.1/cm ampersand sup2; for defects larger than 130 nm detected by visible light inspection tools, however our program goal is to achieve 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; in the near future. More importantly though, we plan to have a detailed understanding of defect origination and the effect on multilayer growth in order to mitigate defects below the 10 -2 /cm ampersand sup2; level on the next generation of mask blank deposition systems. In this paper we will discuss issues and results from the ion-beam multilayer deposition tool, details of the defect detection and characterization facility, and progress on defect printability modeling

  15. Chromospheric Evaporation in an M1.8 Flare Observed by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P.

    2012-12-01

    We discuss observations of chromospheric evaporation for a flare that occurred on 9 March 2012 near 03:30 UT obtained from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft. This was a multiple event with a strong energy input that reached the M1.8 class when observed by EIS. EIS was in raster mode and fortunately the slit reached almost the exact location of a significant energy input. Also, fortunately EIS obtained a full-CCD spectrum of the flare, i.e., the entire CCD was readout so that data were obtained for about the 500 lines identified in the EIS wavelength ranges. Chromospheric evaporation characterized by 150-200 km/s upflows was observed in several locations in multi-million degree spectral lines of flare ions such as Fe XXII, Fe XXIII, Fe XXIV, with simultaneous 20 - 60 km/s upflows in a host of million degree coronal lines from ions such as Fe XI - Fe XVI. The behavior of cooler, transition region ions such as O VI, Fe VIII, He II, and Fe X is more complex. At a point close to strong energy input, the flare ions reveal an isothermal source with a temperature close to 14 MK. At this point there is a strong downflow in cooler active region lines from ions such as Fe XIII and Fe XIV. Electron densities were obtained from density sensitive lines ratios from Fe XIII and Fe XIV. The results to be presented are refined from the preliminary data given above and combined with context AIA observations for a comparison with predictions of models of chromospheric evaporation as envisaged in the Standard Flare Model.

  16. Temperature diagnostic line ratios of Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.C.; Smith, B.W.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1986-01-01

    Based on extensive calculations of the excitation rates of Fe XVII, four temperature-sensitive line ratios are investigated, paying special attention to the contribution of resonances to the excitation rates and to the contributions of dielectronic recombination satellites to the observed line intensities. The predictions are compared to FPCS observations of Puppis A and to Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and SOLEX observations of the sun. Temperature-sensitive line ratios are also computed for emitting gas covering a broad temperature range. It is found that each ratio yields a differently weighted average for the temperature and that this accounts for some apparent discrepancies between the theoretical ratios and solar observations. The effects of this weighting on the Fe XVII temperature diagnostics and on the analogous Fe XXIV/Fe XXV satellite line temperature diagnostics are discussed. 27 references

  17. High-resolution Fourier-transform extreme ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy of 14N15N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heays, A. N.; Dickenson, G. D.; Salumbides, E. J.; de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Lewis, B. R.; Ubachs, W.

    2011-12-01

    The first comprehensive high-resolution photoabsorption spectrum of 14N15N has been recorded using the Fourier-transform spectrometer attached to the Desirs beamline at the Soleil synchrotron. Observations are made in the extreme ultraviolet and span 100 000-109 000 cm-1 (100-91.7 nm). The observed absorption lines have been assigned to 25 bands and reduced to a set of transition energies, f values, and linewidths. This analysis has verified the predictions of a theoretical model of N2 that simulates its photoabsorption and photodissociation cross section by solution of an isotopomer independent formulation of the coupled-channel Schrödinger equation. The mass dependence of predissociation linewidths and oscillator strengths is clearly evident and many local perturbations of transition energies, strengths, and widths within individual rotational series have been observed.

  18. EIT: Solar corona synoptic observations from SOHO with an Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Gabriel, A. H.; Artzner, G. E.; Michels, D. J.; Dere, K. P.; Howard, R. A.; Catura, R.; Stern, R.; Lemen, J.; Neupert, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) of SOHO (solar and heliospheric observatory) will provide full disk images in emission lines formed at temperatures that map solar structures ranging from the chromospheric network to the hot magnetically confined plasma in the corona. Images in four narrow bandpasses will be obtained using normal incidence multilayered optics deposited on quadrants of a Ritchey-Chretien telescope. The EIT is capable of providing a uniform one arc second resolution over its entire 50 by 50 arc min field of view. Data from the EIT will be extremely valuable for identifying and interpreting the spatial and temperature fine structures of the solar atmosphere. Temporal analysis will provide information on the stability of these structures and identify dynamical processes. EIT images, issued daily, will provide the global corona context for aid in unifying the investigations and in forming the observing plans for SOHO coronal instruments.

  19. Broadband interference lithography at extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarad, Nassir; Fan, Daniel; Gobrecht, Jens; Ekinci, Yasin

    2014-04-15

    Manufacturing efficient and broadband optics is of high technological importance for various applications in all wavelength regimes. Particularly in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectra, this becomes challenging due to the involved atomic absorption edges that rapidly change the optical constants in these ranges. Here we demonstrate a new interference lithography grating mask that can be used for nanopatterning in this spectral range. We demonstrate photolithography with cutting-edge resolution at 6.5 and 13.5 nm wavelengths, relevant to the semiconductor industry, as well as using 2.5 and 4.5 nm wavelength for patterning thick photoresists and fabricating high-aspect-ratio metal nanostructures for plasmonics and sensing applications.

  20. Extreme-ultraviolet limb spectra of a prominence observed from SKYLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariska, J.T.; Doschek, G.A.; Feldman, U.

    1979-01-01

    Line profiles of extreme ultraviolet emission lines observed in a solar prominence at positions above the white-light limb with the NRL slit spectrograph on Skylab are discussed. Absolute line intensities and full widths at half-maximum are presented for lines formed over the temperature range approx.1 x 10 4 to 2.2 x 10 5 K. The volume emission measures calculated using resonance line intensities are greater than quiet-Sun emission measures at the same height above the limb and indicate a somewhat different distribution of material with temperature in the prominence compared to the quiet-Sun emission measure at +8''. Electron densities in the prominence determined using the calculated emission measures and the intensities of density-sensitive intersystem lines are between the quiet-Sun electron density and half the quiet-Sun electron density. Random mass-motion velocities calculated from the measured full widths at half-maximum show a range of velocities. For T/sub e/> or approx. =4 x 10 4 K, the nonthermal velocity decreases with increasing height in the prominence. For T/sub e/ 4 K, the calculated mass motions are near zero. From the He II 1640 A line profile we derive an average temperature of 27,000 K for the region in which He II is emitted

  1. Broadband transmission masks, gratings and filters for extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brose, S.; Danylyuk, S.; Juschkin, L.; Dittberner, C.; Bergmann, K.; Moers, J.; Panaitov, G.; Trellenkamp, St.; Loosen, P.; Grützmacher, D.

    2012-01-01

    Lithography and patterning on a nanometre scale with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray radiation allow creation of high resolution, high density patterns independent of a substrate type. To realize the full potential of this method, especially for EUV proximity printing and interference lithography, a reliable technology for manufacturing of the transmission masks and gratings should be available. In this paper we present a development of broadband amplitude transmission masks and gratings for extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray lithography based on free-standing niobium membranes. In comparison with a standard silicon nitride based technology the transmission masks demonstrate high contrast not only for in-band EUV (13.5 nm) radiation but also for wavelengths below Si L-absorption edge (12.4 nm). The masks and filters with free standing areas up to 1000 × 1000 μm 2 and 100 nm to 300 nm membrane thicknesses are shown. Electron beam structuring of an absorber layer with dense line and dot patterns with sub-50 nm structures is demonstrated. Diffractive and filtering properties of obtained structures are examined with EUV radiation from a gas discharge plasma source. - Highlights: ► Broadband transmission masks for EUV proximity and interference lithography. ► Technology for free standing niobium membranes with areas up to 1 mm 2 . ► High density patterns with periods of 100 nm and structure sizes below 40 nm. ► Measured diffraction efficiency at 11 nm is in agreement with the theory. ► Produced masks can be effectively used with wavelengths between 6 nm and 17 nm.

  2. Divertor extreme ultraviolet (EUV) survey spectroscopy in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Adam; Allen, Steve; Ellis, Ron; Jarvinen, Aaro; Soukhanovskii, Vlad; Boivin, Rejean; Gonzales, Eduardo; Holmes, Ian; Kulchar, James; Leonard, Anthony; Williams, Bob; Taussig, Doug; Thomas, Dan; Marcy, Grant

    2017-10-01

    An extreme ultraviolet spectrograph measuring resonant emissions of D and C in the lower divertor has been added to DIII-D to help resolve an 2X discrepancy between bolometrically measured radiated power and that predicted by boundary codes for DIII-D, JET and ASDEX-U. With 290 and 450 gr/mm gratings, the DivSPRED spectrometer, an 0.3 m flat-field McPherson model 251, measures ground state transitions for D (the Lyman series) and C (e.g., C IV, 155 nm) which account for >75% of radiated power in the divertor. Combined with Thomson scattering and imaging in the DIII-D divertor, measurements of position, temperature and fractional power emission from plasma components are made and compared to UEDGE/SOLPS-ITER. Mechanical, optical, electrical, vacuum, and shielding aspects of DivSPRED are presented. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, and by the LLNL Laboratory Directed R&D Program, project #17-ERD-020.

  3. Extreme ultraviolet patterning of tin-oxo cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitjema, Jarich; Zhang, Yu; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Kazazis, Dimitrios; Ekinci, Yasin; Brouwer, Albert M.

    2017-07-01

    We report on the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) patterning performance of tin-oxo cages. These cage molecules were already known to function as a negative tone photoresist for EUV radiation, but in this work, we significantly optimized their performance. Our results show that sensitivity and resolution are only meaningful photoresist parameters if the process conditions are optimized. We focus on contrast curves of the materials using large area EUV exposures and patterning of the cages using EUV interference lithography. It is shown that baking steps, such as postexposure baking, can significantly affect both the sensitivity and contrast in the open-frame experiments as well as the patterning experiments. A layer thickness increase reduced the necessary dose to induce a solubility change but decreased the patterning quality. The patterning experiments were affected by minor changes in processing conditions such as an increased rinsing time. In addition, we show that the anions of the cage can influence the sensitivity and quality of the patterning, probably through their effect on physical properties of the materials.

  4. Surface roughness control by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Inam Ul; Obeidi, Muhannad Ahmed; Budner, Bogusław; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Brabazon, Dermot

    2017-10-01

    Surface roughness control of polymeric materials is often desirable in various biomedical engineering applications related to biocompatibility control, separation science and surface wettability control. In this study, Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer films were irradiated with Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons in nitrogen environment and investigations were performed on surface roughness modification via EUV exposure. The samples were irradiated at 3 mm and 4 mm distance from the focal spot to investigate the effect of EUV fluence on topography. The topography of the EUV treated PET samples were studied by AFM. The detailed scanning was also performed on the sample irradiated at 3 mm. It was observed that the average surface roughness of PET samples was increased from 9 nm (pristine sample) to 280 nm and 253 nm for EUV irradiated samples. Detailed AFM studies confirmed the presence of 1.8 mm wide period U-shaped channels in EUV exposed PET samples. The walls of the channels were having FWHM of about 0.4 mm. The channels were created due to translatory movements of the sample in horizontal and transverse directions during the EUV exposure. The increased surface roughness is useful for many applications. The nanoscale channels fabricated by EUV exposure could be interesting for microfluidic applications based on lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices.

  5. Telescience - Concepts And Contributions To The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Will; Dobson, Carl; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Malina, Roger F.

    1987-10-01

    A goal of the telescience concept is to allow scientists to use remotely located instruments as they would in their laboratory. Another goal is to increase reliability and scientific return of these instruments. In this paper we discuss the role of transparent software tools in development, integration, and postlaunch environments to achieve hands on access to the instrument. The use of transparent tools helps to reduce the parallel development of capability and to assure that valuable pre-launch experience is not lost in the operations phase. We also discuss the use of simulation as a rapid prototyping technique. Rapid prototyping provides a cost-effective means of using an iterative approach to instrument design. By allowing inexpensive produc-tion of testbeds, scientists can quickly tune the instrument to produce the desired scientific data. Using portions of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) system, we examine some of the results of preliminary tests in the use of simulation and tran-sparent tools. Additionally, we discuss our efforts to upgrade our software "EUVE electronics" simulator to emulate a full instrument, and give the pros and cons of the simulation facilities we have developed.

  6. Optical studies of noctilucent clouds in the extreme ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hedin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand noctilucent clouds (NLC and their sensitivity to the variable environment of the polar mesosphere, more needs to be learned about the actual cloud particle population. Optical measurements are today the only means of obtaining information about the size of mesospheric ice particles. In order to efficiently access particle sizes, scattering experiments need to be performed in the Mie scattering regime, thus requiring wavelengths of the order of the particle size. Previous studies of NLC have been performed at wavelengths down to 355 nm from the ground and down to about 200 nm from rockets and satellites. However, from these measurements it is not possible to access the smaller particles in the mesospheric ice population. This current lack of knowledge is a major limitation when studying important questions about the nucleation and growth processes governing NLC and related particle phenomena in the mesosphere. We show that NLC measurements in the extreme ultraviolet, in particular using solar Lyman-α radiation at 121.57 nm, are an efficient way to further promote our understanding of NLC particle size distributions. This applies both to global measurements from satellites and to detailed in situ studies from sounding rockets. Here, we present examples from recent rocket-borne studies that demonstrate how ambiguities in the size retrieval at longer wavelengths can be removed by invoking Lyman-α. We discuss basic requirements and instrument concepts for future rocket-borne NLC missions. In order for Lyman-α radiation to reach NLC altitudes, high solar elevation and, hence, daytime conditions are needed. Considering the effects of Lyman-α on NLC in general, we argue that the traditional focus of rocket-borne NLC missions on twilight conditions has limited our ability to study the full complexity of the summer mesopause environment.

  7. Evidence for a New Class of Extreme Ultraviolet Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Dan; Ofek, Eran O.; Shemi, Amotz

    1997-01-01

    Most of the sources detected in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 100-600 A) by the ROSAT/WFC and EUVE all-sky surveys have been identified with active late-type stars and hot white dwarfs that are near enough to the Earth to escape absorption by interstellar gas. However, about 15 per cent of EUV sources are as yet unidentified with any optical counterparts. We examine whether the unidentified EUV sources may consist of the same population of late-type stars and white dwarfs. We present B and R photometry of stars in the fields of seven of the unidentified EUV sources. We detect in the optical the entire main-sequence and white dwarf population out to the greatest distances where they could still avoid absorption. We use color-magnitude diagrams to demonstrate that, in most of the fields, none of the observed stars has the colours and magnitudes of late-type dwarfs at distances less than 100 pc. Similarly, none of the observed stars is a white dwarf within 500 pc that is hot enough to be a EUV emitter. The unidentified EUV sources we study are not detected in X-rays, while cataclysmic variables, X-ray binaries, and active galactic nuclei generally are. We conclude that some of the EUV sources may be a new class of nearby objects, which are either very faint at optical bands or which mimic the colours and magnitudes of distant late-type stars or cool white dwarfs. One candidate for optically faint objects is isolated old neutron stars, slowly accreting interstellar matter. Such neutron stars are expected to be abundant in the Galaxy, and have not been unambiguously detected.

  8. Analysis of extreme ultraviolet spectra from laser produced rhenium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Li, Bowen; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Dunne, Padraig; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; Liu, Luning; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2015-08-01

    Extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly-charged rhenium ions were observed in the 1-7 nm region using two Nd:YAG lasers with pulse lengths of 150 ps and 10 ns, respectively, operating at a number of laser power densities. The maximum focused peak power density was 2.6 × 1014 W cm-2 for the former and 5.5 × 1012 W cm-2 for the latter. The Cowan suite of atomic structure codes and unresolved transition array (UTA) approach were used to calculate and interpret the emission properties of the different spectra obtained. The results show that n = 4-n = 4 and n = 4-n = 5 UTAs lead to two intense quasi-continuous emission bands in the 4.3-6.3 nm and 1.5-4.3 nm spectral regions. As a result of the different ion stage distributions in the plasmas induced by ps and ns laser irradiation the 1.5-4.3 nm UTA peak moves to shorter wavelength in the ps laser produced plasma spectra. For the ns spectrum, the most populated ion stage during the lifetime of this plasma that could be identified from the n = 4-n = 5 transitions was Re23+ while for the ps plasma the presence of significantly higher stages was demonstrated. For the n = 4-n = 4 4p64dN-4p54dN+1 + 4p64dN-14f transitions, the 4d-4f transitions contribute mainly in the most intense 4.7-5.5 nm region while the 4p-4d subgroup gives rise to a weaker feature in the 4.3-4.7 nm region. A number of previously unidentified spectral features produced by n = 4-n = 5 transitions in the spectra of Re XVI to Re XXXIX are identified.

  9. NEW SOLAR EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIANCE OBSERVATIONS DURING FLARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Hock, Rachel; Eparvier, Frank; Jones, Andrew R.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Klimchuk, James A.; Didkovsky, Leonid; Judge, Darrell; Mariska, John; Warren, Harry; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Webb, David F.; Bailey, Scott; Tobiska, W. Kent

    2011-01-01

    New solar extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment provide full coverage in the EUV range from 0.1 to 106 nm and continuously at a cadence of 10 s for spectra at 0.1 nm resolution and even faster, 0.25 s, for six EUV bands. These observations can be decomposed into four distinct characteristics during flares. First, the emissions that dominate during the flare's impulsive phase are the transition region emissions, such as the He II 30.4 nm. Second, the hot coronal emissions above 5 MK dominate during the gradual phase and are highly correlated with the GOES X-ray. A third flare characteristic in the EUV is coronal dimming, seen best in the cool corona, such as the Fe IX 17.1 nm. As the post-flare loops reconnect and cool, many of the EUV coronal emissions peak a few minutes after the GOES X-ray peak. One interesting variation of the post-eruptive loop reconnection is that warm coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI 33.5 nm) sometimes exhibit a second large peak separated from the primary flare event by many minutes to hours, with EUV emission originating not from the original flare site and its immediate vicinity, but rather from a volume of higher loops. We refer to this second peak as the EUV late phase. The characterization of many flares during the SDO mission is provided, including quantification of the spectral irradiance from the EUV late phase that cannot be inferred from GOES X-ray diagnostics.

  10. The quiet Sun extreme ultraviolet spectrum observed in normal incidence by the SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, D H; Fludra, A; Harrison, R A; Innes, D E; Landi, E; Landini, M; Lang, J; Lanzafame, A C; Loch, S D; McWhirter, R W P; Summers, H P; Thompson, W T

    1999-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet quiet Sun spectrum, observed at normal incidence by the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer on the SOHO spacecraft, is presented. The spectrum covers the wavelength ranges 308-381 AA and 513-633 AA and is based $9 on data recorded at various positions on the solar disk between October 1996 and February 1997. Datasets at twelve of these `positions' were judged to be free from active regions and data faults and selected for detailed study. A $9 constrained maximum likelihood spectral line fitting code was used to analyse the spectral features. In all over 200 spectrum lines have been measured and about 50 186584dentified. The line identification process consisted of a $9 number of steps. Firstly assignment of well known lines was made and used to obtain the primary wavelength calibration. Variations of wavelengths with position were used to assess the precision of calibration achievable. Then, an $9 analysis method first used in studies with the CHASE experiment, was applied to the new obser...

  11. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hong; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Xinbing, E-mail: xbwang@hust.edu.cn; Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lu, Peixiang [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-05-21

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer–Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui; Wang, Xinbing; Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-01-01

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer–Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data

  13. Analysis of extreme ultraviolet spectra from laser produced rhenium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tao; Dunne, Padraig; O’Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; Liu, Luning; O’Sullivan, Gerry; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Li, Bowen

    2015-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly-charged rhenium ions were observed in the 1–7 nm region using two Nd:YAG lasers with pulse lengths of 150 ps and 10 ns, respectively, operating at a number of laser power densities. The maximum focused peak power density was 2.6 × 10 14 W cm −2 for the former and 5.5 × 10 12 W cm −2 for the latter. The Cowan suite of atomic structure codes and unresolved transition array (UTA) approach were used to calculate and interpret the emission properties of the different spectra obtained. The results show that n = 4-n = 4 and n = 4-n = 5 UTAs lead to two intense quasi-continuous emission bands in the 4.3–6.3 nm and 1.5–4.3 nm spectral regions. As a result of the different ion stage distributions in the plasmas induced by ps and ns laser irradiation the 1.5–4.3 nm UTA peak moves to shorter wavelength in the ps laser produced plasma spectra. For the ns spectrum, the most populated ion stage during the lifetime of this plasma that could be identified from the n = 4-n = 5 transitions was Re 23+ while for the ps plasma the presence of significantly higher stages was demonstrated. For the n = 4-n = 4 4p 6 4d N -4p 5 4d N+1  + 4p 6 4d N−1 4f transitions, the 4d-4f transitions contribute mainly in the most intense 4.7–5.5 nm region while the 4p-4d subgroup gives rise to a weaker feature in the 4.3–4.7 nm region. A number of previously unidentified spectral features produced by n = 4-n = 5 transitions in the spectra of Re XVI to Re XXXIX are identified. (paper)

  14. CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN AN M1.8 FLARE OBSERVED BY THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P.; Young, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss observations of chromospheric evaporation for a complex flare that occurred on 2012 March 9 near 03:30 UT obtained from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode spacecraft. This was a multiple event with a strong energy input that reached the M1.8 class when observed by EIS. EIS was in raster mode and fortunately the slit was almost at the exact location of a significant energy input. Also, EIS obtained a full-CCD spectrum of the flare, i.e., the entire CCD was readout so that data were obtained for about the 500 lines identified in the EIS wavelength ranges. Chromospheric evaporation characterized by 150-200 km s –1 upflows was observed in multiple locations in multi-million degree spectral lines of flare ions such as Fe XXII, Fe XXIII, and Fe XXIV, with simultaneous 20-60 km s –1 upflows in million degree coronal lines from ions such as Fe XII-Fe XVI. The behavior of cooler, transition region ions such as O VI, Fe VIII, He II, and Fe X is more complex, but upflows were also observed in Fe VIII and Fe X lines. At a point close to strong energy input in space and time, the flare ions Fe XXII, Fe XXIII, and Fe XXIV reveal an isothermal source with a temperature close to 14 MK and no strong blueshifted components. At this location there is a strong downflow in cooler active region lines from ions such as Fe XIII and Fe XIV, on the order of 200 km s –1 . We speculate that this downflow may be evidence of the downward shock produced by reconnection in the current sheet seen in MHD simulations. A sunquake also occurred near this location. Electron densities were obtained from density sensitive lines ratios from Fe XIII and Fe XIV. Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory are used with JHelioviewer to obtain a qualitative overview of the flare. However, AIA data are not presented in this paper. In summary, spectroscopic data from EIS are presented that can be used for predictive

  15. Chromospheric Evaporation in an M1.8 Flare Observed by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P.; Young, P. R.

    2013-04-01

    We discuss observations of chromospheric evaporation for a complex flare that occurred on 2012 March 9 near 03:30 UT obtained from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode spacecraft. This was a multiple event with a strong energy input that reached the M1.8 class when observed by EIS. EIS was in raster mode and fortunately the slit was almost at the exact location of a significant energy input. Also, EIS obtained a full-CCD spectrum of the flare, i.e., the entire CCD was readout so that data were obtained for about the 500 lines identified in the EIS wavelength ranges. Chromospheric evaporation characterized by 150-200 km s-1 upflows was observed in multiple locations in multi-million degree spectral lines of flare ions such as Fe XXII, Fe XXIII, and Fe XXIV, with simultaneous 20-60 km s-1 upflows in million degree coronal lines from ions such as Fe XII-Fe XVI. The behavior of cooler, transition region ions such as O VI, Fe VIII, He II, and Fe X is more complex, but upflows were also observed in Fe VIII and Fe X lines. At a point close to strong energy input in space and time, the flare ions Fe XXII, Fe XXIII, and Fe XXIV reveal an isothermal source with a temperature close to 14 MK and no strong blueshifted components. At this location there is a strong downflow in cooler active region lines from ions such as Fe XIII and Fe XIV, on the order of 200 km s-1. We speculate that this downflow may be evidence of the downward shock produced by reconnection in the current sheet seen in MHD simulations. A sunquake also occurred near this location. Electron densities were obtained from density sensitive lines ratios from Fe XIII and Fe XIV. Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory are used with JHelioviewer to obtain a qualitative overview of the flare. However, AIA data are not presented in this paper. In summary, spectroscopic data from EIS are presented that can be used for predictive tests of

  16. Micro- and Nanoprocessing of Polymers Using a Laser Plasma Extreme Ultraviolet Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Rakowski, R.; Szczurek, A.; Szczurek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Laser plasma with temperature of the order of tens eV can be an efficient source of extreme ultraviolet (EUV). The radiation can be focused using different kind of optics, giving sufficient fluence for some applications. In this work we present results of investigations concerning applications of a laser plasma EUV source based on a double stream gas puff target. The source was equipped with two different grazing incidence collectors. One of them was a multifoil collector, the second one was an axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector. The multifoil mirror was used mainly in experiments concerning micromachining of organic polymers by direct photo-etching. The experiments were performed for different polymers that were irradiated through a fine metal grid as a contact mask. The smallest element of a pattern structure obtained in this way was 5 μm, while the structure height was 50 μm giving an aspect ratio about 10. The laser-plasma EUV source equipped with the axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector was used for surface modification of organic polymers and inorganic solids. The surface morphology after irradiation was investigated. Different forms of micro- and nanostructures were obtained depending on material and irradiation conditions. (author)

  17. Thermal conduction properties of Mo/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorg-Grayeli, Elah; Li, Zijian; Asheghi, Mehdi; Delgado, Gil; Pokrovsky, Alexander; Panzer, Matthew; Wack, Daniel; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2012-10-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography requires nanostructured optical components, whose reliability can be influenced by radiation absorption and thermal conduction. Thermal conduction analysis is complicated by sub-continuum electron and phonon transport and the lack of thermal property data. This paper measures and interprets thermal property data, and their evolution due to heating exposure, for Mo/Si EUV mirrors with 6.9 nm period and Mo/Si thickness ratios of 0.4/0.6 and 0.6/0.4. We use time-domain thermoreflectance and the 3ω method to estimate the thermal resistance between the Ru capping layer and the Mo/Si multilayers (RRu-Mo/Si = 1.5 m2 K GW-1), as well as the out-of-plane thermal conductivity (kMo/Si 1.1 W m-1 K-1) and thermal anisotropy (η = 13). This work also reports the impact of annealing on thermal conduction in a co-deposited MoSi2 layer, increasing the thermal conductivity from 1.7 W m-1 K-1 in the amorphous phase to 2.8 W m-1 K-1 in the crystalline phase.

  18. Three new extreme ultraviolet spectrometers on NSTX-U for impurity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, M. E., E-mail: weller4@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Magee, E. W.; Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Three extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometers have been mounted on the National Spherical Torus Experiment–Upgrade (NSTX-U). All three are flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometers and are dubbed X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (XEUS, 8–70 Å), Long-Wavelength Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (LoWEUS, 190–440 Å), and Metal Monitor and Lithium Spectrometer Assembly (MonaLisa, 50–220 Å). XEUS and LoWEUS were previously implemented on NSTX to monitor impurities from low- to high-Z sources and to study impurity transport while MonaLisa is new and provides the system increased spectral coverage. The spectrometers will also be a critical diagnostic on the planned laser blow-off system for NSTX-U, which will be used for impurity edge and core ion transport studies, edge-transport code development, and benchmarking atomic physics codes.

  19. Bottom Extreme-Ultraviolet-Sensitive Coating for Evaluation of the Absorption Coefficient of Ultrathin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijikata, Hayato; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi; Takei, Satoshi

    2009-06-01

    A bottom extreme-ultraviolet-sensitive coating (BESC) for evaluation of the absorption coefficients of ultrathin films such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists was developed. This coating consists of a polymer, crosslinker, acid generator, and acid-responsive chromic dye and is formed by a conventional spin-coating method. By heating the film after spin-coating, a crosslinking reaction is induced and the coating becomes insoluble. A typical resist solution can be spin-coated on a substrate covered with the coating film. The evaluation of the linear absorption coefficients of polymer films was demonstrated by measuring the EUV absorption of BESC substrates on which various polymers were spin-coated.

  20. Wave-mixing with high-order harmonics in extreme ultraviolet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Lap Van; Dinh, Khuong Ba; Le, Hoang Vu; Gaffney, Naylyn; Hannaford, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We report studies of the wave-mixing process in the extreme ultraviolet region with two near-infrared driving and controlling pulses with incommensurate frequencies (at 1400 nm and 800 nm). A non-collinear scheme for the two beams is used in order to spatially separate and to characterise the properties of the high-order wave-mixing field. We show that the extreme ultraviolet frequency mixing can be treated by perturbative, very high-order nonlinear optics; the modification of the wave-packet of the free electron needs to be considered in this process

  1. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and FUV calibration facility for special sensor ultraviolet limb imager (SSULI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Craig N.; Osterman, Steven N.; Thonnard, Stefan E.; McCoy, Robert P.; Williams, J. Z.; Parker, S. E.

    1994-09-01

    A facility for calibrating far ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet instruments has recently been completed at the Naval Research Laboratory. Our vacuum calibration vessel is 2-m in length, 1.67-m in diameter, and can accommodate optical test benches up to 1.2-m wide by 1.5-m in length. A kinematically positioned frame with four axis precision pointing capability of 10 microns for linear translation and .01 degrees for rotation is presently used during vacuum optical calibration of SSULI. The chamber was fabricated from 304 stainless steel and polished internally to reduce surface outgassing. A dust-free environment is maintained at the rear of the vacuum chamber by enclosing the 2-m hinged vacuum access door in an 8 ft. by 8 ft. class 100 clean room. Every effort was made to obtain an oil-free environment within the vacuum vessel. Outgassing products are continually monitored with a 1 - 200 amu residual gas analyzer. An oil-free claw and vane pump evacuates the chamber to 10-2 torr through 4 in. diameter stainless steel roughing lines. High vacuum is achieved and maintained with a magnetically levitated 480 l/s turbo pump and a 3000 l/s He4 cryopump. Either of two vacuum monochrometers, a 1-m f/10.4 or a 0.2-m f/4.5 are coaxially aligned with the optical axis of the chamber and are used to select single UV atomic resonance lines from a windowless capillary or penning discharge UV light source. A calibrated channeltron detector is coaxially mounted with the SSULI detector during calibration. All vacuum valves, the cooling system for the cryopump compressor, and the roughing pump are controlled through optical fibers which are interfaced to a computer through a VME board. Optical fibers were chosen to ensure that complete electrical isolation is maintained between the computer and the vacuum system valves-solenoids and relays.

  2. Berkeley extreme-ultraviolet airglow rocket spectrometer - BEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, D. M.; Chakrabarti, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Berkeley EUV airglow rocket spectrometer (BEARS) instrument is described. The instrument was designed in particular to measure the dominant lines of atomic oxygen in the FUV and EUV dayglow at 1356, 1304, 1027, and 989 A, which is the ultimate source of airglow emissions. The optical and mechanical design of the instrument, the detector, electronics, calibration, flight operations, and results are examined.

  3. Shrinking the Synchrotron : Tabletop Extreme Ultraviolet Absorption of Transition-Metal Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Kaili; Lin, Ming Fu; Ryland, Elizabeth S.; Verkamp, Max A.; Benke, Kristin; De Groot, Frank M F; Girolami, Gregory S.; Vura-Weis, Josh

    2016-01-01

    We show that the electronic structure of molecular first-row transition-metal complexes can be reliably measured using tabletop high-harmonic XANES at the metal M2,3 edge. Extreme ultraviolet photons in the 50-70 eV energy range probe 3p → 3d transitions, with the same selection rules as soft X-ray

  4. Reflectance Tuning at Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Wavelengths with Active Multilayer Mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayraktar, Muharrem; Lee, Christopher James; van Goor, F.A.; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    At extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths the refractive power of transmission type optical components is limited, therefore reflective components are used. Reflective optics (multilayer mirrors) usually consist of many bilayers and each bilayer is composed of a high and a low refractive index

  5. Large-solid-angle illuminators for extreme ultraviolet lithography with laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiak, G.D.; Tichenor, D.A.; Sweatt, W.C.; Chow, W.W.

    1995-06-01

    Laser Plasma Sources (LPSS) of extreme ultraviolet radiation are an attractive alternative to synchrotron radiation sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) due to their modularity, brightness, and modest size and cost. To fully exploit the extreme ultraviolet power emitted by such sources, it is necessary to capture the largest possible fraction of the source emission half-sphere while simultaneously optimizing the illumination stationarity and uniformity on the object mask. In this LDRD project, laser plasma source illumination systems for EUVL have been designed and then theoretically and experimentally characterized. Ellipsoidal condensers have been found to be simple yet extremely efficient condensers for small-field EUVL imaging systems. The effects of aberrations in such condensers on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging have been studied with physical optics modeling. Lastly, the design of an efficient large-solid-angle condenser has been completed. It collects 50% of the available laser plasma source power at 14 nm and delivers it properly to the object mask in a wide-arc-field camera

  6. Extreme Ultraviolet Bragg mirrors with suppressed infrared reflectivity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, Viacheslav; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; van den Boogaard, Toine; Krivtsun, V.M.; Yakinun, A.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Many optical applications demand high reflectivity in a particular wavelength range while simultaneously requiring suppression of radiation outside this range. Such parasitic radiation can for instance lead to image distortions in imaging applications or poor signal-noise ratios in spectroscopy. The

  7. Extreme Ultraviolet Bragg mirrors with suppressed infrared reflectivity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, Viacheslav; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; van den Boogaard, Toine; Krivtsun, V.M.; Yakunin, A.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Many optical applications demand high reflectivity in a particular wavelength range while simultaneously requiring suppression of radiation outside this range. Such parasitic radiation can for instance lead to image distortions in imaging applications or poor signal-noise ratios in spectroscopy. The

  8. A gas discharge lamp for the extreme ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, A J

    1970-05-01

    A gas discharge lamp is described suitable for producing the many-lined spectrum of hydrogen (85-160 nm) and the Hopfield continuum in helium (60-100 nm). It was designed for use with a window-less monochromator to study photoionization and operates at pressures below 50 Torr. The hydrogen lamp has a mode of operation which concentrates the discharge into the monochromator entrance slit.

  9. Sensitivity enhancement of chemically amplified resists and performance study using extreme ultraviolet interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Elizabeth; Nagahara, Seiji; Yildirim, Oktay; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Nagai, Tomoki; Naruoka, Takehiko; Verspaget, Coen; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Oshima, Akihiro; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL, λ=13.5 nm) is the most promising candidate to manufacture electronic devices for future technology nodes in the semiconductor industry. Nonetheless, EUVL still faces many technological challenges as it moves toward high-volume manufacturing (HVM). A key bottleneck from the tool design and performance point of view has been the development of an efficient, high-power EUV light source for high throughput production. Consequently, there has been extensive research on different methodologies to enhance EUV resist sensitivity. Resist performance is measured in terms of its ultimate printing resolution, line width roughness (LWR), sensitivity [S or best energy (BE)], and exposure latitude (EL). However, there are well-known fundamental trade-off relationships (line width roughness, resolution and sensitivity trade-off) among these parameters for chemically amplified resists (CARs). We present early proof-of-principle results for a multiexposure lithography process that has the potential for high sensitivity enhancement without compromising other important performance characteristics by the use of a "Photosensitized Chemically Amplified Resist™" (PSCAR™). With this method, we seek to increase the sensitivity by combining a first EUV pattern exposure with a second UV-flood exposure (λ=365 nm) and the use of a PSCAR. In addition, we have evaluated over 50 different state-of-the-art EUV CARs. Among these, we have identified several promising candidates that simultaneously meet sensitivity, LWR, and EL high-performance requirements with the aim of resolving line space (L/S) features for the 7- and 5-nm logic node [16- and 13-nm half-pitch (HP), respectively] for HVM. Several CARs were additionally found to be well resolved down to 12- and 11-nm HP with minimal pattern collapse and bridging, a remarkable feat for CARs. Finally, the performance of two negative tone state-of-the-art alternative resist platforms previously investigated

  10. Design and performance of capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajt, Sasa; Chapman, Henry N.; Nguyen, Nhan; Alameda, Jennifer; Robinson, Jeffrey C.; Malinowski, Michael; Gullikson, Eric; Aquila, Andrew; Tarrio, Charles; Grantham, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Multilayer lifetime has emerged as one of the major issues for the commercialization of extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). We describe the performance of an oxidation-resistant capping layer of Ru atop multilayers that results in a reflectivity above 69% at 13.2 nm, which is suitable for EUVL projection optics and has been tested with accelerated electron-beam and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) light in a water-vapor environment. Based on accelerated exposure results, we calculated multilayer lifetimes for all reflective mirrors in a typical commercial EUVL tool and concluded that Ru-capped multilayers have ∼40x longer lifetimes than Si-capped multilayers, which translates to 3 months to many years, depending on the mirror dose

  11. Three-dimensional characterization of extreme ultraviolet mask blank defects by interference contrast photoemission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingquan; Weber, Nils; Escher, Matthias; Maul, Jochen; Han, Hak-Seung; Merkel, Michael; Wurm, Stefan; Schönhense, Gerd; Kleineberg, Ulf

    2008-09-29

    A photoemission electron microscope based on a new contrast mechanism "interference contrast" is applied to characterize extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defects. Inspection results show that positioning of interference destructive condition (node of standing wave field) on surface of multilayer in the local region of a phase defect is necessary to obtain best visibility of the defect on mask blank. A comparative experiment reveals superiority of the interference contrast photoemission electron microscope (Extreme UV illumination) over a topographic contrast one (UV illumination with Hg discharge lamp) in detecting extreme ultraviolet mask blank phase defects. A depth-resolved detection of a mask blank defect, either by measuring anti-node peak shift in the EUV-PEEM image under varying inspection wavelength condition or by counting interference fringes with a fixed illumination wavelength, is discussed.

  12. Tabletop single-shot extreme ultraviolet Fourier transform holography of an extended object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Erik B; Monserud, Nils C; Brown, Christopher G; Wachulak, Przemyslaw W; Xu, Huiwen; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Chao, Weilun; Anderson, Erik; Marconi, Mario C

    2013-04-22

    We demonstrate single and multi-shot Fourier transform holography with the use of a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser. The reference wave was produced by a Fresnel zone plate with a central opening that allowed the incident beam to illuminate the sample directly. The high reference wave intensity allows for larger objects to be imaged compared to mask-based lensless Fourier transform holography techniques. We obtain a spatial resolution of 169 nm from a single laser pulse and a resolution of 128 nm from an accumulation of 20 laser pulses for an object ~11x11μm(2) in size. This experiment utilized a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser that produces a highly coherent ~1.2 ns laser pulse at 46.9 nm wavelength.

  13. A NOISE ADAPTIVE FUZZY EQUALIZATION METHOD FOR PROCESSING SOLAR EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druckmueller, M., E-mail: druckmuller@fme.vutbr.cz [Institute of Mathematics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2013-08-15

    A new image enhancement tool ideally suited for the visualization of fine structures in extreme ultraviolet images of the corona is presented in this paper. The Noise Adaptive Fuzzy Equalization method is particularly suited for the exceptionally high dynamic range images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. This method produces artifact-free images and gives significantly better results than methods based on convolution or Fourier transform which are often used for that purpose.

  14. Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging of Electron Heated Targets in Petawatt Laser Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, T.; MacPhee, A.; Key, M.; Akli, K.; Mackinnon, A.; Chen, C.; Barbee, T.; Freeman, R.; King, J.; Link, A.; Offermann, D.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Patel, P.; Stephens, R.; VanWoerkom, L.; Zhang, B.; Beg, F.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the transport of electrons, and the flow of energy into a solid target or dense plasma, is instrumental in the development of fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. An extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging diagnostic at 256 eV and 68 eV provides information about heating and energy deposition within petawatt laser-irradiated targets. XUV images of several irradiated solid targets are presented

  15. Spontaneous and artificial direct nanostructuring of solid surface by extreme ultraviolet laser with nanosecond pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr; Prukner, Václav; Melich, Radek; Psota, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2016), s. 11-22 ISSN 0263-0346 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) interferometer * Aspheric interferometer mirrors * Multilayer reflection coating for 46.9 nm * Ar8+ laser application * XUV direct nanostructuring Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0263034615000786

  16. Mask characterization for critical dimension uniformity budget breakdown in advanced extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2013-04-01

    As the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors critical dimension uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. We will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for advanced extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography with 1D (dense lines) and 2D (dense contacts) feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CDs and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples. Mask stack reflectivity variations should also be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We also observed mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) through field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may play a role towards the total intrafield CDU and may need to be taken into account for EUV lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, with results herein, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to quantifying the mask part of

  17. Nanoscale inhomogeneity and photoacid generation dynamics in extreme ultraviolet resist materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping-Jui; Wang, Yu-Fu; Chen, Wei-Chi; Wang, Chien-Wei; Cheng, Joy; Chang, Vencent; Chang, Ching-Yu; Lin, John; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2018-03-01

    The development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography towards the 22 nm node and beyond depends critically on the availability of resist materials that meet stringent control requirements in resolution, line edge roughness, and sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the structure-function relationships in current EUV resist systems are not well understood. In particular, the nanoscale structures of the polymer base and the distributions of photoacid generators (PAGs) should play a critical roles in the performance of a resist system, yet currently available models for photochemical reactions in EUV resist systems are exclusively based on homogeneous bulk models that ignore molecular-level details of solid resist films. In this work, we investigate how microscopic molecular organizations in EUV resist affect photoacid generations in a bottom-up approach that describes structure-dependent electron-transfer dynamics in a solid film model. To this end, molecular dynamics simulations and stimulated annealing are used to obtain structures of a large simulation box containing poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) base polymers and triphenylsulfonium based PAGs. Our calculations reveal that ion-pair interactions govern the microscopic distributions of the polymer base and PAG molecules, resulting in a highly inhomogeneous system with nonuniform nanoscale chemical domains. Furthermore, the theoretical structures were used in combination of quantum chemical calculations and the Marcus theory to evaluate electron transfer rates between molecular sites, and then kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to model electron transfer dynamics with molecular structure details taken into consideration. As a result, the portion of thermalized electrons that are absorbed by the PAGs and the nanoscale spatial distribution of generated acids can be estimated. Our data reveal that the nanoscale inhomogeneous distributions of base polymers and PAGs strongly affect the

  18. A giant planet undergoing extreme-ultraviolet irradiation by its hot massive-star host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudi, B Scott; Stassun, Keivan G; Collins, Karen A; Beatty, Thomas G; Zhou, George; Latham, David W; Bieryla, Allyson; Eastman, Jason D; Siverd, Robert J; Crepp, Justin R; Gonzales, Erica J; Stevens, Daniel J; Buchhave, Lars A; Pepper, Joshua; Johnson, Marshall C; Colon, Knicole D; Jensen, Eric L N; Rodriguez, Joseph E; Bozza, Valerio; Novati, Sebastiano Calchi; D'Ago, Giuseppe; Dumont, Mary T; Ellis, Tyler; Gaillard, Clement; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kasper, David H; Fukui, Akihiko; Gregorio, Joao; Ito, Ayaka; Kielkopf, John F; Manner, Mark; Matt, Kyle; Narita, Norio; Oberst, Thomas E; Reed, Phillip A; Scarpetta, Gaetano; Stephens, Denice C; Yeigh, Rex R; Zambelli, Roberto; Fulton, B J; Howard, Andrew W; James, David J; Penny, Matthew; Bayliss, Daniel; Curtis, Ivan A; DePoy, D L; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Gould, Andrew; Joner, Michael D; Kuhn, Rudolf B; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Lund, Michael B; Marshall, Jennifer L; McLeod, Kim K; Pogge, Richard W; Relles, Howard; Stockdale, Christopher; Tan, T G; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2017-06-22

    The amount of ultraviolet irradiation and ablation experienced by a planet depends strongly on the temperature of its host star. Of the thousands of extrasolar planets now known, only six have been found that transit hot, A-type stars (with temperatures of 7,300-10,000 kelvin), and no planets are known to transit the even hotter B-type stars. For example, WASP-33 is an A-type star with a temperature of about 7,430 kelvin, which hosts the hottest known transiting planet, WASP-33b (ref. 1); the planet is itself as hot as a red dwarf star of type M (ref. 2). WASP-33b displays a large heat differential between its dayside and nightside, and is highly inflated-traits that have been linked to high insolation. However, even at the temperature of its dayside, its atmosphere probably resembles the molecule-dominated atmospheres of other planets and, given the level of ultraviolet irradiation it experiences, its atmosphere is unlikely to be substantially ablated over the lifetime of its star. Here we report observations of the bright star HD 195689 (also known as KELT-9), which reveal a close-in (orbital period of about 1.48 days) transiting giant planet, KELT-9b. At approximately 10,170 kelvin, the host star is at the dividing line between stars of type A and B, and we measure the dayside temperature of KELT-9b to be about 4,600 kelvin. This is as hot as stars of stellar type K4 (ref. 5). The molecules in K stars are entirely dissociated, and so the primary sources of opacity in the dayside atmosphere of KELT-9b are probably atomic metals. Furthermore, KELT-9b receives 700 times more extreme-ultraviolet radiation (that is, with wavelengths shorter than 91.2 nanometres) than WASP-33b, leading to a predicted range of mass-loss rates that could leave the planet largely stripped of its envelope during the main-sequence lifetime of the host star.

  19. Production of narrowband tunable extreme-ultraviolet radiation by noncollinear resonance-enhanced four-wave mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannemann, S.; Hollenstein, U.; van Duijn, E.J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Fourier-transform-limited extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation (bandwidth ≲300 MHz) tunable around 91 nm is produced by use of two-photon resonance-enhanced four-wave mixing on the Kr resonance at 94 093 cm

  20. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF CONTINUOUS OUTFLOWS AND PROPAGATING WAVES FROM NOAA 10942 WITH EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER/HINODE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizuka, N.; Hara, H.

    2011-01-01

    We focused on 'sit-and-stare' observations of an outflow region at the edge of active region NOAA 10942 on 2007 February 20 obtained by the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode. We analyzed the data above the base of the outflow and found both continuous outflows and waves, which propagate from the base of the outflow. The spectra at the base of the outflow and at higher locations show different properties. The line profiles show blue-side asymmetry at the base of the outflow where nonthermal broadening becomes large because of fast upflows generated by heating events. On the other hand, at higher locations line profiles are symmetric and the intensity disturbances vary in phase with the velocity disturbances. The correlations between the intensity and velocity disturbances become noticeable at higher locations, so this indicates evidence of (at least locally) upward propagating slow-mode waves along the outflow. We also found a transient oscillation of different period in the wavelet spectrum. This indicates that a different wave is additionally observed during a limited period. High cadence spectroscopic observations revealed intermittent signatures of nonthermal velocities. Each of them seems to correspond to the base of the propagating disturbances. Furthermore, a jet was captured by the sit-and-stare observations across the slit. The similarity of line profiles of the outflow and the jet may indicate that the flows and waves originate in unresolved explosive events in the lower atmosphere of the corona.

  1. An Upper Limit on the Ratio Between the Extreme Ultraviolet and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala 2nd Block, Bangalore 560 034, India. ... gen, oxygen gas and water molecules that support a habitable environment. ... so significantly that the internal energy of the gas becomes greater than the gravi- ... greenhouse, water vapor would reach the stratosphere where it would get ...

  2. Properites of ultrathin films appropriate for optics capping layers in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajt, S; Edwards, N V; Madey, T E

    2007-06-25

    The contamination of optical surfaces by irradiation shortens optics lifetime and is one of the main concerns for optics used in conjunction with intense light sources, such as high power lasers, 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron sources or plasma sources used in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tools. This paper focuses on properties and surface chemistry of different materials, which as thin layers, could be used as capping layers to protect and extend EUVL optics lifetime. The most promising candidates include single element materials such as ruthenium and rhodium, and oxides such as TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}.

  3. Development of a free-electron laser user facility for the extreme ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    A free-electron laser user facility for scientific experimentation in the extreme ultraviolet is being developed at Los Alamos. A series of laser oscillators and amplifiers, driven by a single, rf linear accelerator, will generate broadly tunable, picosecond-pulse, coherent radiation from 1 nm to 400 nm. The design and output parameters of this facility are described, comparison with synchrotron radiation sources is made, and recent progress in developing the three primary components (electron beam, undulator, and resonator mirrors) is reviewed, and various categories of scientific applications are indicated

  4. Attosecond extreme ultraviolet generation in cluster by using spatially inhomogeneous field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Liqiang, E-mail: lqfeng-lngy@126.com [College of Science, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou, 121000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Liu, Hang [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121000 (China)

    2015-01-15

    A promising method to generate the attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources has been theoretically investigated emerging from the two-dimensional Ar{sup +} cluster driven by the spatially inhomogeneous field. The results show that with the introduction of the Ar{sup +} cluster model, not only the harmonic cutoffs are enhanced, but also the harmonic yields are reinforced. Furthermore, by properly moderating the inhomogeneity as well as the laser parameters of the inhomogeneous field, the harmonic cutoff can be further extended. As a result, three almost linearly polarized XUV pulses with durations of 40 as, 42 as, and 45 as can be obtained.

  5. High-efficiency collector design for extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zocchi, Fabio E.

    2006-01-01

    A design of a two-reflection mirror for nested grazing-incidence optics is proposed in which maximum overall reflectivity is achieved by making the two grazing-incidence angles equal for each ray. The design is proposed mainly for application to nonimaging collector optics for extreme-ultraviolet microlithography where the radiation emitted from a hot plasma source needs to be collected and focused on the illuminator optics. For completeness, the design of a double-reflection mirror with equal reflection angles is also briefly outlined for the case of an object at infinity for possible use in x-ray applications

  6. Extreme-ultraviolet wavelength and lifetime measurements in highly ionized krypton

    CERN Document Server

    Kukla, K W; Vogt, C M V; Berry, H G; Dunford, R W; Curtis, L J; Cheng, S

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the spectrum of highly ionized krypton in the extreme-ultraviolet wavelength region (50-300 Aa), using beam-foil excitation of fast krypton ions at the Argonne ATLAS accelerator facility. We report measurements of transition wavelengths and excited-state lifetimes for n=2 states in the lithiumlike, berylliumlike, and boronlike ions, Kr/sup 31+,32+,33+/. Excited state lifetimes ranging from 10 ps to 3 ns were measured by acquiring time- of-flight-delayed spectra with a position-sensitive multichannel detector.

  7. Design, fabrication, and characterization of high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet diffusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Salmassi, Farhad; Anderson, Erik H.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2004-02-19

    As the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography progresses, interest grows in the extension of traditional optical components to the EUV regime. The strong absorption of EUV by most materials and its extremely short wavelength, however, makes it very difficult to implement many components that are commonplace in the longer wavelength regimes. One such example is the diffuser often implemented with ordinary ground glass in the visible light regime. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of reflective EUV diffusers with high efficiency within a controllable bandwidth. Using these techniques we have fabricated diffusers with efficiencies exceeding 10% within a moderate angular single-sided bandwidth of approximately 0.06 radians.

  8. Silicon photodiode with selective Zr/Si coating for extreme ultraviolet spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruev, P N; Barysheva, Mariya M; Ber, B Ya; Zabrodskaya, N V; Zabrodskii, V V; Lopatin, A Ya; Pestov, Alexey E; Petrenko, M V; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, Nikolai N; Sukhanov, V L; Chkhalo, Nikolai I

    2012-01-01

    The procedure of manufacturing silicon photodiodes with an integrated Zr/Si filter for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range is developed. A setup for measuring the sensitivity profile of detectors with spatial resolution better than 100 μm is fabricated. The optical properties of silicon photodiodes in the EUV and visible spectral ranges are investigated. Some characteristics of SPD-100UV diodes with Zr/Si coating and without it, as well as of AXUV-100 diodes, are compared. In all types of detectors a narrow region beyond the operating aperture is found to be sensitive to the visible light. (photodetectors)

  9. Dissociative multiple ionization of diatomic molecules by extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars Bojer; Leth, Henriette Astrup

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics in dissociative multiple ionization processes of diatomic molecules exposed to extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser pulses is studied theoretically using the Monte Carlo wave packet approach. By simulated detection of the emitted electrons, the model reduces a full propagation...... of the system to propagations of the nuclear wave packet in one specific electronic charge state at a time. Suggested ionization channels can be examined, and kinetic energy release spectra for the nuclei can be calculated and compared with experiments. Double ionization of O2 is studied as an example, and good...

  10. High-efficiency collector design for extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Fabio E

    2006-12-10

    A design of a two-reflection mirror for nested grazing-incidence optics is proposed in which maximum overall reflectivity is achieved by making the two grazing-incidence angles equal for each ray. The design is proposed mainly for application to nonimaging collector optics for extreme-ultraviolet microlithography where the radiation emitted from a hot plasma source needs to be collected and focused on the illuminator optics. For completeness, the design of a double- reflection mirror with equal reflection angles is also briefly outlined for the case of an object at infinity for possible use in x-ray applications.

  11. Electron-hole pairs generated in ZrO2 nanoparticle resist upon exposure to extreme ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph; Itani, Toshiro

    2018-02-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticle resists have attracted much attention as the next-generation resist used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices. However, the sensitization mechanism of the metal oxide nanoparticle resists is unknown. Understanding the sensitization mechanism is important for the efficient development of resist materials. In this study, the energy deposition in a zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticle resist was investigated. The numbers of electron-hole pairs generated in a ZrO2 core and an methacrylic acid (MAA) ligand shell upon exposure to 1 mJ cm-2 (exposure dose) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiations were theoretically estimated to be 0.16 at most and 0.04-0.17 cm2 mJ-1, respectively. By comparing the calculated distribution of electron-hole pairs with the line-and-space patterns of the ZrO2 nanoparticle resist fabricated by an EUV exposure tool, the number of electron-hole pairs required for the solubility change of the resist films was estimated to be 1.3-2.2 per NP. NP denotes a nanoparticle consisting of a metal oxide core with a ligand shell. In the material design of metal oxide nanoparticle resists, it is important to efficiently use the electron-hole pairs generated in the metal oxide core for the chemical change of ligand molecules.

  12. Characterization of extreme ultraviolet light-emitting plasmas from a laser-excited fluorine containing liquid polymer jet target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, B.; Assmann, J.; Faubel, M.; Gaebel, K.; Kranzusch, S.; Lugovoj, E.; Mann, K.; Missalla, T.; Peth, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    The operation of a liquid polymer jet laser-plasma target and the characterization of the absolute x-ray emission in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength window from 9-19 nm is reported. The target is a liquid polymer (perfluoro-polyether) that is exposed to pulsed and focused laser light at 532 nm in the form of a thin, liquid microjet (d=40 to 160 μm) in vacuum. The spectral brightness of the source in the 13 nm range is relatively high because a large fraction of radiative energy is emitted in one single line only, which is assigned to be the 2p-3d F VII doublet at 12.8 nm, with a laser energy conversion efficiency of 0.45% (2π sr, 2% bandwidth) in our initial experiment. A further increase of the relative emission has been found in the wavelength range between 7 and 17 nm when the jet diameter was increased from 40 to 160 μm. The two-dimensional spatial profile of the source plasma (d=40 to 50 μm) has been analyzed with a pinhole camera

  13. Operation of a free-electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, W.; Asova, G.; Ayvazyan, V.; Azima, A.; Baboi, N.; Bähr, J.; Balandin, V.; Beutner, B.; Brandt, A.; Bolzmann, A.; Brinkmann, R.; Brovko, O. I.; Castellano, M.; Castro, P.; Catani, L.; Chiadroni, E.; Choroba, S.; Cianchi, A.; Costello, J. T.; Cubaynes, D.; Dardis, J.; Decking, W.; Delsim-Hashemi, H.; Delserieys, A.; di Pirro, G.; Dohlus, M.; Düsterer, S.; Eckhardt, A.; Edwards, H. T.; Faatz, B.; Feldhaus, J.; Flöttmann, K.; Frisch, J.; Fröhlich, L.; Garvey, T.; Gensch, U.; Gerth, Ch.; Görler, M.; Golubeva, N.; Grabosch, H.-J.; Grecki, M.; Grimm, O.; Hacker, K.; Hahn, U.; Han, J. H.; Honkavaara, K.; Hott, T.; Hüning, M.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Jaeschke, E.; Jalmuzna, W.; Jezynski, T.; Kammering, R.; Katalev, V.; Kavanagh, K.; Kennedy, E. T.; Khodyachykh, S.; Klose, K.; Kocharyan, V.; Körfer, M.; Kollewe, M.; Koprek, W.; Korepanov, S.; Kostin, D.; Krassilnikov, M.; Kube, G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Lilje, L.; Limberg, T.; Lipka, D.; Löhl, F.; Luna, H.; Luong, M.; Martins, M.; Meyer, M.; Michelato, P.; Miltchev, V.; Möller, W. D.; Monaco, L.; Müller, W. F. O.; Napieralski, O.; Napoly, O.; Nicolosi, P.; Nölle, D.; Nuñez, T.; Oppelt, A.; Pagani, C.; Paparella, R.; Pchalek, N.; Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J.; Petersen, B.; Petrosyan, B.; Petrosyan, G.; Petrosyan, L.; Pflüger, J.; Plönjes, E.; Poletto, L.; Pozniak, K.; Prat, E.; Proch, D.; Pucyk, P.; Radcliffe, P.; Redlin, H.; Rehlich, K.; Richter, M.; Roehrs, M.; Roensch, J.; Romaniuk, R.; Ross, M.; Rossbach, J.; Rybnikov, V.; Sachwitz, M.; Saldin, E. L.; Sandner, W.; Schlarb, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmitz, M.; Schmüser, P.; Schneider, J. R.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Schnepp, S.; Schreiber, S.; Seidel, M.; Sertore, D.; Shabunov, A. V.; Simon, C.; Simrock, S.; Sombrowski, E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Spanknebel, P.; Spesyvtsev, R.; Staykov, L.; Steffen, B.; Stephan, F.; Stulle, F.; Thom, H.; Tiedtke, K.; Tischer, M.; Toleikis, S.; Treusch, R.; Trines, D.; Tsakov, I.; Vogel, E.; Weiland, T.; Weise, H.; Wellhöfer, M.; Wendt, M.; Will, I.; Winter, A.; Wittenburg, K.; Wurth, W.; Yeates, P.; Yurkov, M. V.; Zagorodnov, I.; Zapfe, K.

    2007-06-01

    We report results on the performance of a free-electron laser operating at a wavelength of 13.7 nm where unprecedented peak and average powers for a coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation source have been measured. In the saturation regime, the peak energy approached 170 µJ for individual pulses, and the average energy per pulse reached 70 µJ. The pulse duration was in the region of 10 fs, and peak powers of 10 GW were achieved. At a pulse repetition frequency of 700 pulses per second, the average extreme-ultraviolet power reached 20 mW. The output beam also contained a significant contribution from odd harmonics of approximately 0.6% and 0.03% for the 3rd (4.6 nm) and the 5th (2.75 nm) harmonics, respectively. At 2.75 nm the 5th harmonic of the radiation reaches deep into the water window, a wavelength range that is crucially important for the investigation of biological samples.

  14. Ion beam sputtered aluminum based multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziani, A. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 18 Avenue E. Belin, 31401 Toulouse (France); Delmotte, F., E-mail: Franck.Delmotte@InstitutOptique.fr [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Le Paven-Thivet, C. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR) UMR-CNRS 6164, Université de Rennes 1, UEB, IUT Saint Brieuc, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22004 Saint Brieuc cedex France (France); Meltchakov, E.; Jérome, A. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Roulliay, M. [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay UMR 8214, Univ Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay France (France); Bridou, F. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Gasc, K. [Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 18 Avenue E. Belin, 31401 Toulouse (France)

    2014-02-03

    In this paper, we report on the design, synthesis and characterization of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors for solar imaging applications in the spectral range 17 nm–34 nm. This research is carried out in the context of the preparation of the European Space Agency Solar Orbiter mission. The purpose of this study consists in optimizing the deposition of Al-based multilayers by ion beam sputtering according to several parameters such as the ion beam current and the sputtering angle. After optimization of Al thin films, several kinds of Al-based multilayer mirrors have been compared. We have deposited and characterized bi-material and also tri-material periodic multilayers: aluminum/molybdenum [Al/Mo], aluminum/molybdenum/boron carbide [Al/Mo/B{sub 4}C] and aluminum/molybdenum/silicon carbide [Al/Mo/SiC]. Best experimental results have been obtained on Al/Mo/SiC samples: we have measured reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm and 27.5% at 28.2 nm on a synchrotron radiation source. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors. • Optimization of aluminum thin films by adjusting several deposition parameters. • Comparison of results obtained with different types of Al-based multilayer mirrors. • Reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm on a synchrotron radiation source.

  15. Ion beam sputtered aluminum based multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziani, A.; Delmotte, F.; Le Paven-Thivet, C.; Meltchakov, E.; Jérome, A.; Roulliay, M.; Bridou, F.; Gasc, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the design, synthesis and characterization of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors for solar imaging applications in the spectral range 17 nm–34 nm. This research is carried out in the context of the preparation of the European Space Agency Solar Orbiter mission. The purpose of this study consists in optimizing the deposition of Al-based multilayers by ion beam sputtering according to several parameters such as the ion beam current and the sputtering angle. After optimization of Al thin films, several kinds of Al-based multilayer mirrors have been compared. We have deposited and characterized bi-material and also tri-material periodic multilayers: aluminum/molybdenum [Al/Mo], aluminum/molybdenum/boron carbide [Al/Mo/B 4 C] and aluminum/molybdenum/silicon carbide [Al/Mo/SiC]. Best experimental results have been obtained on Al/Mo/SiC samples: we have measured reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm and 27.5% at 28.2 nm on a synchrotron radiation source. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors. • Optimization of aluminum thin films by adjusting several deposition parameters. • Comparison of results obtained with different types of Al-based multilayer mirrors. • Reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm on a synchrotron radiation source

  16. Extreme ultraviolet observations of G191-B2B and the local interstellar medium with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Davidsen, Arthur F.; Blair, William P.; Bowers, Charles W.; Van Dyke Dixon, W.; Durrance, Samuel T.; Feldman, Paul D.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Henry, Richard C.; Kriss, Gerard A.

    1993-01-01

    During the Astro-l mission in 1990 December, the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) was used to observe the extreme ultraviolet spectrum (415-912 A) of the hot DA white dwarf GI91-B2B. Absorption by neutral helium shortward of the 504 A He I absorption edge is clearly detected in the raw spectrum. Model fits to the observed spectrum require interstellar neutral helium and neutral hydrogen column densities of 1.45 +/- 0.065 x 10 exp 17/sq cm and 1.69 +/- 0.12 x 10 exp 18/sq cm, respectively. Comparison of the neutral columns yields a direct assessment of the ionization state of the local interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun. The neutral hydrogen to helium ratio of 11.6 +/- 1.0 observed by HUT strongly contradicts the widespread view that hydrogen is much more ionized than helium in the local interstellar medium, a view which has motivated some exotic theoretical explanations for the supposed high ionization.

  17. Extreme Ultraviolet Solar Images Televised In-Flight with a Rocket-Borne SEC Vidicon System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousey, R; Limansky, I

    1972-05-01

    A TV image of the entire sun while an importance 2N solar flare was in progress was recorded in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation band 171-630 A and transmitted to ground from an Aerobee-150 rocket on 4 November 1969 using S-band telemetry. The camera tube was a Westinghouse Electric Corporation SEC vidicon, with its fiber optic faceplate coated with an XUV to visible conversion layer of p-quaterphenyl. The XUV passband was produced by three 1000-A thick aluminum filters in series together with the platinized reflecting surface of the off-axis paraboloid that imaged the sun. A number of images were recorded with integration times between 1/30 see and 2 sec. Reconstruction of pictures was enhanced by combining several to reduce the noise.

  18. Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Spectrum of CO_2 Induced by Electron Impact at 200 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanik, I.; Ajello, J. M.; James, G. K.

    1993-01-01

    We present the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission spectrum of CO_2 induced by electronimpact at 200 eV. There are 36 spectral features which are identified with a resolution of 0.5 nmover the wavelength range of 40 to 125 nm. Absolute emission cross sections were obtained for eachof these features. The EUV emission spectrum induced by electron impact consist of atomicmultiplets of CI,II and OI,II,III as well as CO and CO^+ molecular band systems produced bydissociative excitation. The CI (119.4 nm) multiplet is the strongest feature of CI with a peak crosssection of 3.61 x 10^(-19) cm^2 at 200 eV. The strongest feature of OI in the EUV spectrum is theOI (99.0 nm) multiplet with a peak cross section of 3.59 x 10^(-19) cm^2 at 200 eV.

  19. Mapping the spectral phase of isolated attosecond pulses by extreme-ultraviolet emission spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Candong; Zeng, Zhinan; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan; Nisoli, Mauro

    2015-04-20

    An all-optical method is proposed for the measurement of the spectral phase of isolated attosecond pulses. The technique is based on the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation in a gas by the combination of an attosecond pulse and a strong infrared (IR) pulse with controlled electric field. By using a full quantum simulation, we demonstrate that, for particular temporal delays between the two pulses, the IR field can drive back to the parent ions the photoelectrons generated by the attosecond pulse, thus leading to the generation of XUV photons. It is found that the generated XUV spectrum is notably sensitive to the chirp of the attosecond pulse, which can then be reliably retrieved. A classical quantum-path analysis is further used to quantitatively explain the main features exhibited in the XUV emission.

  20. Correlated proton-electron hole dynamics in protonated water clusters upon extreme ultraviolet photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ultrafast nuclear and electronic dynamics of protonated water clusters H+(H2On after extreme ultraviolet photoionization is investigated. In particular, we focus on cluster cations with n = 3, 6, and 21. Upon ionization, two positive charges are present in the cluster related to the excess proton and the missing electron, respectively. A correlation is found between the cluster's geometrical conformation and initial electronic energy with the size of the final fragments produced. For situations in which the electron hole and proton are initially spatially close, the two entities become correlated and separate in a time-scale of 20 to 40 fs driven by strong non-adiabatic effects.

  1. Correlated proton-electron hole dynamics in protonated water clusters upon extreme ultraviolet photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafast nuclear and electronic dynamics of protonated water clusters H+(H2O)n after extreme ultraviolet photoionization is investigated. In particular, we focus on cluster cations with n = 3, 6, and 21. Upon ionization, two positive charges are present in the cluster related to the excess proton and the missing electron, respectively. A correlation is found between the cluster's geometrical conformation and initial electronic energy with the size of the final fragments produced. For situations in which the electron hole and proton are initially spatially close, the two entities become correlated and separate in a time-scale of 20 to 40 fs driven by strong non-adiabatic effects. PMID:26798842

  2. Laser-produced plasma-extreme ultraviolet light source for next generation lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Katsunobu; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Gamada, Kouhei; Murakami, Masakatsu; Mochizuki, Takayasu; Sasaki, Akira; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the most promising candidate for the next generation lithography for the 45 nm technology node and below. EUV light sources under consideration use 13.5 nm radiations from multicharged xenon, tin and lithium ions, because Mo/Si multiplayer mirrors have high reflectivity at this wavelength. A review of laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV light sources is presented with a focus on theoretical and experimental studies under the auspices of the Leading Project promoted by MEXT. We discuss three theoretical topics: atomic processes in the LPP-EUV light source, conversion efficiency from laser light to EUV light at 13.5 nm wave-length with 2% bound width, and fast ion spectra. The properties of EUV emission from tin and xenon plasmas are also shown based on experimental results. (author)

  3. Ultimate waveform reproducibility of extreme-ultraviolet pulses by high-harmonic generation in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M.; Kim, H. Y.; Goulielmakis, E.

    2018-05-01

    Optical waveforms of light reproducible with subcycle precision underlie applications of lasers in ultrafast spectroscopies, quantum control of matter and light-based signal processing. Nonlinear upconversion of optical pulses via high-harmonic generation in gas media extends these capabilities to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). However, the waveform reproducibility of the generated EUV pulses in gases is inherently sensitive to intensity and phase fluctuations of the driving field. We used photoelectron interferometry to study the effects of intensity and carrier-envelope phase of an intense single-cycle optical pulse on the field waveform of EUV pulses generated in quartz nanofilms, and contrasted the results with those obtained in gas argon. The EUV waveforms generated in quartz were found to be virtually immune to the intensity and phase of the driving field, implying a non-recollisional character of the underlying emission mechanism. Waveform-sensitive photonic applications and precision measurements of fundamental processes in optics will benefit from these findings.

  4. Spin-on-glass coatings for the generation of super-polishedsubstrates for extreme ultraviolet optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmassi, Farhad; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2005-01-01

    Substrates intended for use as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics have extremely stringent requirements in terms of finish. These requirements can dramatically increase the cost and fabrication time, especially when non-conventional shapes, such as toroids, are required. Here we present a spin-on-glass resist process capable of generating super-polished parts from inexpensive substrates. The method has been used to render diamond-turned substrates compatible for use as EUV optics. Toroidal diamond-turned optics with starting rms roughness in the 3.3 to 3.7 nm range have been smoothed to the 0.4 to 0.6 nm range. EUV reflectometry characterization of these optics has demonstrated reflectivities of approximately 63%.

  5. Invisible marking system by extreme ultraviolet radiation: the new frontier for anti-counterfeiting tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, P. Di; Bollanti, S.; Flora, F.; Mezi, L.; Murra, D.; Torre, A.; Bonfigli, F.; Montereali, R.M.; Vincenti, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a marking technology which uses extreme ultraviolet radiation to write invisible patterns on tags based on alkali fluoride thin films. The shape of the pattern is pre-determined by a mask (in the case of contact lithography) or by a suitable mirror (projection lithography). Tags marked using this method offer a much better protection against fakes than currently available anti-counterfeiting techniques. The complexity and cost of this technology can be tailored to the value of the good to be protected, leaving, on the other hand, the specific reading technique straightforward. So far, we have exploited our invisible marking to tag artworks, identity cards, electrical components, and containers of radioactive wastes. Advantages and limits of this technology are discussed in comparison with the anti-counterfeiting systems available in the market.

  6. High intensity vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet production by noncollinear mixing in laser vaporized media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todt, Michael A.; Albert, Daniel R.; Davis, H. Floyd, E-mail: hfd1@cornell.edu [Baker Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    A method is described for generating intense pulsed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser radiation by resonance enhanced four-wave mixing of commercial pulsed nanosecond lasers in laser vaporized mercury under windowless conditions. By employing noncollinear mixing of the input beams, the need of dispersive elements such as gratings for separating the VUV/XUV from the residual UV and visible beams is eliminated. A number of schemes are described, facilitating access to the 9.9–14.6 eV range. A simple and convenient scheme for generating wavelengths of 125 nm, 112 nm, and 104 nm (10 eV, 11 eV, and 12 eV) using two dye lasers without the need for dye changes is described.

  7. Methods and apparatus for use with extreme ultraviolet light having contamination protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilese, Francis C.; Torczynski, John R.; Garcia, Rudy; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Delgado, Gildardo R.; Rader, Daniel J.; Geller, Anthony S.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2016-07-12

    An apparatus for use with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light comprising A) a duct having a first end opening, a second end opening and an intermediate opening intermediate the first end opening the second end opening, B) an optical component disposed to receive EUV light from the second end opening or to send light through the second end opening, and C) a source of low pressure gas at a first pressure to flow through the duct, the gas having a high transmission of EUV light, fluidly coupled to the intermediate opening. In addition to or rather than gas flow the apparatus may have A) a low pressure gas with a heat control unit thermally coupled to at least one of the duct and the optical component and/or B) a voltage device to generate voltage between a first portion and a second portion of the duet with a grounded insulative portion therebetween.

  8. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) degradation of poly(olefin sulfone)s: Towards applications as EUV photoresists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, Kirsten; Blakey, Idriss; Blinco, James; Gronheid, Roel; Jack, Kevin; Pollentier, Ivan; Leeson, Michael J.; Younkin, Todd R.; Whittaker, Andrew K.

    2011-01-01

    Poly(olefin sulfone)s, formed by the reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and an olefin, are known to be highly susceptible to degradation by radiation and thus have been identified as candidate materials for chain scission-based extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) resist materials. In order to investigate this further, the synthesis and characterisation of two poly(olefin sulfone)s namely poly(1-pentene sulfone) (PPS) and poly(2-methyl-1-pentene sulfone) (PMPS), was achieved and the two materials were evaluated for possible chain scission EUVL resist applications. It was found that both materials possess high sensitivities to EUV photons; however; the rates of outgassing were extremely high. The only observed degradation products were found to be SO 2 and the respective olefin suggesting that depolymerisation takes place under irradiation in a vacuum environment. In addition to depolymerisation, a concurrent conversion of SO 2 moieties to a sulfide phase was observed using XPS.

  9. The Preflight Photometric Calibration of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope EIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, K. P.; Moses, J. D.; Delaboudiniere, J. -P.; Brunaud, J.; Carabetian, C.; Hochedez, J. -F.; Song, X. Y.; Catura, R. C.; Clette, F.; Defise, J. -M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the preflight photometric calibration of the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The EIT consists of a Ritchey-Chretien telescope with multilayer coatings applied to four quadrants of the primary and secondary mirrors, several filters and a backside-thinned CCD detector. The quadrants of the EIT optics were used to observe the Sun in 4 wavelength bands that peak near 171, 195, 284, and 304 . Before the launch of SOHO, the EIT mirror reflectivities, the filter transmissivities and the CCD quantum efficiency were measured and these values are described here. The instrumental throughput in terms of an effective area is presented for each of the various mirror quadrant and filter wheel combinations. The response to a coronal plasma as a function of temperature is also determined and the expected count rates are compared to the count rates observed in a coronal hole, the quiet Sun and an active region.

  10. Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Observations of the Galactic Center: Quantifying the Extreme Ultraviolet/Soft X-ray Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janet P.

    2018-04-01

    It has long been shown that the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the ionizing stars of H II regions can be estimated by comparing the observed line emission to detailed models. In the Galactic Center (GC), however, previous observations have shown that the ionizing spectral energy distribution (SED) of the local photon field is strange, producing both very low excitation ionized gas (indicative of ionization by late O stars) and also widespread diffuse emission from atoms too highly ionized to be found in normal H II regions. This paper describes the analysis of all GC spectra taken by Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph and downloaded from the Spitzer Heritage Archive. In it, H II region densities and abundances are described, and serendipitously discovered candidate planetary nebulae, compact shocks, and candidate young stellar objects are tabulated. Models were computed with Cloudy, using SEDs from Starburst99 plus additional X-rays, and compared to the observed mid-infrared forbidden and recombination lines. The ages inferred from the model fits do not agree with recent proposed star formation sequences (star formation in the GC occurring along streams of gas with density enhancements caused by close encounters with the black hole, Sgr A*), with Sgr B1, Sgr C, and the Arches Cluster being all about the same age, around 4.5 Myr old, with similar X-ray requirements. The fits for the Quintuplet Cluster appear to give a younger age, but that could be caused by higher-energy photons from shocks from stellar winds or from a supernova.

  11. CO line ratios in molecular clouds: the impact of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Camilo H.; Clark, Paul C.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2018-04-01

    Line emission is strongly dependent on the local environmental conditions in which the emitting tracers reside. In this work, we focus on modelling the CO emission from simulated giant molecular clouds (GMCs), and study the variations in the resulting line ratios arising from the emission from the J = 1-0, J = 2-1, and J = 3-2 transitions. We perform a set of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with time-dependent chemistry, in which environmental conditions - including total cloud mass, density, size, velocity dispersion, metallicity, interstellar radiation field (ISRF), and the cosmic ray ionization rate (CRIR) - were systematically varied. The simulations were then post-processed using radiative transfer to produce synthetic emission maps in the three transitions quoted above. We find that the cloud-averaged values of the line ratios can vary by up to ±0.3 dex, triggered by changes in the environmental conditions. Changes in the ISRF and/or in the CRIR have the largest impact on line ratios since they directly affect the abundance, temperature, and distribution of CO-rich gas within the clouds. We show that the standard methods used to convert CO emission to H2 column density can underestimate the total H2 molecular gas in GMCs by factors of 2 or 3, depending on the environmental conditions in the clouds.

  12. Characterization of carbon contamination under ion and hot atom bombardment in a tin-plasma extreme ultraviolet light source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolgov, A.; Lopaev, D.; Lee, Christopher James; Zoethout, E.; Medvedev, Viacheslav; Yakushev, O.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Molecular contamination of a grazing incidence collector for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography was experimentally studied. A carbon film was found to have grown under irradiation from a pulsed tin plasma discharge. Our studies show that the film is chemically inert and has characteristics that

  13. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, He [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Xu, Yiming [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ulonska, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Robinson, Joseph S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ranitovic, Predrag [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Kaindl, Robert A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division

    2015-06-11

    Novel table-top sources of extreme-ultraviolet light based on high-harmonic generation yield unique insight into the fundamental properties of molecules, nanomaterials or correlated solids, and enable advanced applications in imaging or metrology. Extending high-harmonic generation to high repetition rates portends great experimental benefits, yet efficient extreme-ultraviolet conversion of correspondingly weak driving pulses is challenging. In this article, we demonstrate a highly-efficient source of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ultraviolet second-harmonic focused tightly into Kr gas. In this cascaded scheme, a photon flux beyond ≈3 × 1013 s-1 is generated at 22.3 eV, with 5 × 10-5 conversion efficiency that surpasses similar harmonics directly driven by the fundamental by two orders-of-magnitude. The enhancement arises from both wavelength scaling of the atomic dipole and improved spatio-temporal phase matching, confirmed by simulations. Finally, spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz extreme-ultraviolet source a powerful tool for ultrafast photoemission, nanoscale imaging and other applications.

  14. New type of discharge-produced plasma source for extreme ultraviolet based on liquid tin jet electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshelev, K.N.; Krivtsun, V.M.; Ivanov, V.; Yakushev, O.; Chekmarev, A.; Koloshnikov, V.; Snegirev, E.; Medvedev, Viacheslav

    2012-01-01

    A new approach for discharge-produced plasma (DPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources based on the usage of two liquid metallic alloy jets as discharge electrodes has been proposed and tested. Discharge was ignited using laser ablation of one of the cathode jets. A system with two jet electrodes was

  15. Thermal deformation prediction in reticles for extreme ultraviolet lithography based on a measurement-dependent low-order model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikcora, C.; Weiland, S.; Coene, W.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography, imaging errors due to thermal deformation of reticles are becoming progressively intolerable as the source power increases. Despite this trend, such errors can be mitigated by adjusting the wafer and reticle stages based on a set of predicted deformation-induced

  16. Line ratios and wavelengths of helium-like argon n=2 satellite transitions and resonance lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Fournier, K.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristic X-ray emission from helium-like argon was investigated as a mean to diagnose hot plasmas. We have measured the radiation from n=2-1 parent lines and from KLn dielectronic recombination satellites with high wavelength resolution as function of the excitation energy using the Berlin Electron Beam Ion Trap. Values of wavelength relative to the resonance and forbidden line are tabulated and compared with references. The line intensity observed over a wide range of excitation energies is weighted with a Maxwellian electron-energy distribution to analyze line ratios as function of plasma temperature. Line ratios (j+z)/w and k/w compare nicely with theoretical predictions and demonstrate their applicability as temperature diagnostic. The ratio z/(x+y) shows not to depend on the electron density

  17. Dilution Ratios for HB Line Phase I Eductor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    HB Line Phase I product transfer includes an eductor which transfers liquid from Product Hold Tank (PHT) RT-33 or RT-34 to Tank 11.1. The eductor also dilutes the liquid from the PHT with eductant. Dilution must be reliably controlled because of criticality concerns with H Canyon Tanks. The eductor system, which contains a 1 inch Model 264 Schutte and Koerting eductor, was previously modeled [1] in 1998 and dilution ratios were calculated for different flow restrictors, eductant pressures and densities for the eductant and the contents of the PHT. The previous calculation was performed using spreadsheet software no longer supported at SRS. For the previous work dilution ratio was defined as the volume of eductant consumed divided by volume of PHT contents transferred. Since 1998 HB Line Engineering has changed the definition of dilution ratio to the total volume of liquid, eductant consumed plus the volume of PHT liquid transferred, divided by the volume of PHT liquid transferred. The 1998 base case calculation was for a restrictor diameter of 0.334 inches, an eductant supply pressure of 15 psig, full PHT, an eductant specific gravity of 1.385 and a PHT density of 1.015. The base case dilution ratio calculated in 1998 using the current definition was 3.52. After accounting for uncertainty the minimum dilution ratio decreased to 3.23. In 2001 HB Line Engineering requested that the calculation be repeated for a manganous nitrate solution eductant and also a process water eductant. The other conditions were the same as for the 1998 calculation. The objective of this report is to document the calculations and the results

  18. Electron impact collision strengths and transition rates for extreme ultraviolet emission from Xe10+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yunfeng; Gao Cheng; Zeng Jiaolong

    2009-01-01

    The energy levels, oscillator strengths, and electron impact collision strengths are calculated for the Xe 10+ ion using the configuration interaction scheme implemented by the Flexible Atomic Code. These data pertain to the 3917 levels belonging to the following configurations: 4s 2 4p 6 4d 8 , 4s 2 4p 6 4d 7 4f, 4s 2 4p 6 4d 7 5l (l = s, p, d, or f), 4s 2 4p 5 4d 9 , 4s 2 4p 5 4d 8 4f, 4s 2 4p 5 4d 8 5l, 4s 2 4p 6 4d 6 5s5p, 4s 2 4p 6 4d 6 5p5d. Configuration interactions among these configurations are included in the calculation. Collision strengths are obtained at 10 scattered electron energies (1-1000 eV) and are tabulated here at five representative energies of 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 eV. Effective collision strengths are obtained by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at 10 temperatures ranging from 10 to 100 eV, and are tabulated at five representative temperatures of 10, 30, 50, 70 and 100 eV in this work. The whole data set should be useful for research involving extreme ultraviolet emission from Xe 10+

  19. Femtosecond tracking of carrier relaxation in germanium with extreme ultraviolet transient reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Christopher J.; Kraus, Peter M.; Ross, Andrew D.; Zürch, Michael; Cushing, Scott K.; Jager, Marieke F.; Chang, Hung-Tzu; Gullikson, Eric M.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2018-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient reflectivity around the germanium M4 ,5 edge (3 d core-level to valence transition) at 30 eV is advanced to obtain the transient dielectric function of crystalline germanium [100] on femtosecond to picosecond time scales following photoexcitation by broadband visible-to-infrared (VIS/NIR) pulses. By fitting the transient dielectric function, carrier-phonon induced relaxations are extracted for the excited carrier distribution. The measurements reveal a hot electron relaxation rate of 3.2 ±0.2 ps attributed to the X -L intervalley scattering and a hot hole relaxation rate of 600 ±300 fs ascribed to intravalley scattering within the heavy hole (HH) band, both in good agreement with previous work. An overall energy shift of the XUV dielectric function is assigned to a thermally induced band gap shrinkage by formation of acoustic phonons, which is observed to be on a timescale of 4-5 ps, in agreement with previously measured optical phonon lifetimes. The results reveal that the transient reflectivity signal at an angle of 66∘ with respect to the surface normal is dominated by changes to the real part of the dielectric function, due to the near critical angle of incidence of the experiment (66∘-70∘) for the range of XUV energies used. This work provides a methodology for interpreting XUV transient reflectivity near core-level transitions, and it demonstrates the power of the XUV spectral region for measuring ultrafast excitation dynamics in solids.

  20. Design considerations of 10 kW-scale, extreme ultraviolet SASE FEL for lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Pagani, C; Schneidmiller, E A; Yurkov, M V

    2001-01-01

    The semiconductor industry growth is driven to a large extent by steady advancements in microlithography. According to the newly updated industry road map, the 70 nm generation is anticipated to be available in the year 2008. However, the path to get there is not clear. The problem of construction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) quantum lasers for lithography is still unsolved: progress in this field is rather moderate and we cannot expect a significant breakthrough in the near future. Nevertheless, there is clear path for optical lithography to take us to sub-100 nm dimensions. Theoretical and experimental work in Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) Free Electron Lasers (FEL) physics and the physics of superconducting linear accelerators over the last 10 years has pointed to the possibility of the generation of high-power optical beams with laser-like characteristics in the EUV spectral range. Recently, there have been important advances in demonstrating a high-gain SASE FEL at 100 nm wavelength (J. Andr...

  1. THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET DEFICIT AND MAGNETICALLY ARRESTED ACCRETION IN RADIO-LOUD QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punsly, Brian, E-mail: brian.punsly1@verizon.net [1415 Granvia Altamira, Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274 (United States); ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica, I-65100 10 Pescara (Italy)

    2014-12-20

    The Hubble Space Telescope composite quasar spectra presented in Telfer et al. show a significant deficit of emission in the extreme ultraviolet for the radio-loud component of the quasar population (RLQs) compared to the radio-quiet component of the quasar population. The composite quasar continuum emission between 1100 Å and ∼580 Å is generally considered to be associated with the innermost regions of the accretion flow onto the central black hole. The deficit between 1100 Å and 580 Å in RLQs has a straightforward interpretation as a missing or a suppressed innermost region of local energy dissipation in the accretion flow. It is proposed that this can be the result of islands of large-scale magnetic flux in RLQs that are located close to the central black hole that remove energy from the accretion flow as Poynting flux (sometimes called magnetically arrested accretion). These magnetic islands are natural sites for launching relativistic jets. Based on the Telfer et al. data and the numerical simulations of accretion flows in Penna et al., the magnetic islands are concentrated between the event horizon and an outer boundary of <2.8 M (in geometrized units) for rapidly rotating black holes and <5.5 M for modestly rotating black holes.

  2. Dynamic absorption coefficients of chemically amplified resists and nonchemically amplified resists at extreme ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallica, Roberto; Stowers, Jason K.; Grenville, Andrew; Frommhold, Andreas; Robinson, Alex P. G.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    The dynamic absorption coefficients of several chemically amplified resists (CAR) and non-CAR extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresists are measured experimentally using a specifically developed setup in transmission mode at the x-ray interference lithography beamline of the Swiss Light Source. The absorption coefficient α and the Dill parameters ABC were measured with unprecedented accuracy. In general, the α of resists match very closely with the theoretical value calculated from elemental densities and absorption coefficients, whereas exceptions are observed. In addition, through the direct measurements of the absorption coefficients and dose-to-clear values, we introduce a new figure of merit called chemical sensitivity to account for all the postabsorption chemical reaction ongoing in the resist, which also predicts a quantitative clearing volume and clearing radius, due to the photon absorption in the resist. These parameters may help provide deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms of the EUV concepts of clearing volume and clearing radius, which are then defined and quantitatively calculated.

  3. Technique for rapid at-wavelength inspection of extreme ultraviolet mask blanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, S. J.; White, D. L.; Tennant, D. M.; Ocola, L. E.; Novembre, A. E.; Peabody, M. L.; Wood, O. R. II

    1999-01-01

    We have developed two new methods for at-wavelength inspection of mask blanks for extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. In one method an EUV photoresist is applied directly to a mask blank which is then flood exposed with EUV light and partially developed. In the second method, the photoresist is applied to an EUV transparent membrane that is placed in close proximity to the mask and then exposed and developed. Both reflectivity defects and phase defects alter the exposure of the resist, resulting in mounds of resist at defect sites that can then be located by visual inspection. In the direct application method, a higher contrast resist was shown to increase the height of the mounds, thereby improving the sensitivity of the technique. In the membrane method, a holographic technique was used to reconstruct an image of the mask, revealing the presence of very small defects, approximately 0.2 μm in size. The demonstrated clean transfer of phase and amplitude defects to resist features on a membrane will be important when flagging defects in an automatic inspection tool. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  4. USING HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER TO CONFIRM A SEISMOLOGICALLY INFERRED CORONAL TEMPERATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, M. S.; Walsh, R. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the HINODE satellite is used to examine the loop system described in Marsh et al. by applying spectroscopic diagnostic methods. A simple isothermal mapping algorithm is applied to determine where the assumption of isothermal plasma may be valid, and the emission measure locii technique is used to determine the temperature profile along the base of the loop system. It is found that, along the base, the loop has a uniform temperature profile with a mean temperature of 0.89 ± 0.09 MK which is in agreement with the temperature determined seismologically in Marsh et al., using observations interpreted as the slow magnetoacoustic mode. The results further strengthen the slow mode interpretation, propagation at a uniform sound speed, and the analysis method applied in Marsh et al. It is found that it is not possible to discriminate between the slow mode phase speed and the sound speed within the precision of the present observations.

  5. Analysis of buried interfaces in multilayer mirrors using grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectometry near resonance edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertsu, M G; Nardello, M; Giglia, A; Corso, A J; Maurizio, C; Juschkin, L; Nicolosi, P

    2015-12-10

    Accurate measurements of optical properties of multilayer (ML) mirrors and chemical compositions of interdiffusion layers are particularly challenging to date. In this work, an innovative and nondestructive experimental characterization method for multilayers is discussed. The method is based on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectivity measurements performed on a wide grazing incidence angular range at an energy near the absorption resonance edge of low-Z elements in the ML components. This experimental method combined with the underlying physical phenomenon of abrupt changes of optical constants near EUV resonance edges enables us to characterize optical and structural properties of multilayers with high sensitivity. A major advantage of the method is to perform detailed quantitative analysis of buried interfaces of multilayer structures in a nondestructive and nonimaging setup. Coatings of Si/Mo multilayers on a Si substrate with period d=16.4  nm, number of bilayers N=25, and different capping structures are investigated. Stoichiometric compositions of Si-on-Mo and Mo-on-Si interface diffusion layers are derived. Effects of surface oxidation reactions and carbon contaminations on the optical constants of capping layers and the impact of neighboring atoms' interactions on optical responses of Si and Mo layers are discussed.

  6. AN AUTOMATIC DETECTION METHOD FOR EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET DIMMINGS ASSOCIATED WITH SMALL-SCALE ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alipour, N.; Safari, H. [Department of Physics, University of Zanjan, P.O. Box 45195-313, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Innes, D. E. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2012-02-10

    Small-scale extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) dimming often surrounds sites of energy release in the quiet Sun. This paper describes a method for the automatic detection of these small-scale EUV dimmings using a feature-based classifier. The method is demonstrated using sequences of 171 Angstrom-Sign images taken by the STEREO/Extreme UltraViolet Imager (EUVI) on 2007 June 13 and by Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on 2010 August 27. The feature identification relies on recognizing structure in sequences of space-time 171 Angstrom-Sign images using the Zernike moments of the images. The Zernike moments space-time slices with events and non-events are distinctive enough to be separated using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The SVM is trained using 150 events and 700 non-event space-time slices. We find a total of 1217 events in the EUVI images and 2064 events in the AIA images on the days studied. Most of the events are found between latitudes -35 Degree-Sign and +35 Degree-Sign . The sizes and expansion speeds of central dimming regions are extracted using a region grow algorithm. The histograms of the sizes in both EUVI and AIA follow a steep power law with slope of about -5. The AIA slope extends to smaller sizes before turning over. The mean velocity of 1325 dimming regions seen by AIA is found to be about 14 km s{sup -1}.

  7. Classification of mini-dimmings associated with extreme ultraviolet eruptions by using graph theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Bazargan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coronal dimmings in both micro and macro scales, can be observed by extreme ultraviolet images, recorded from Solar Dynamics Observatory or Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA. Mini-dimmings are sometimes associated with wave-like brightening, called coronal mass ejections. Here, the sun full disk images with 171 Å wavelenght, cadence of 2.5, and  0.6 arcsec cell size, were taken on 3 March 2012, then the obtained data were analyzed. Using Zernike Moment and Support Vector Machine (SVM, mini dimmings are detected. 538 active region events, 680 coronal hole events and 723 quiet sun events have been recognized using algorithm. The position, time duration and spatial expansion of these events were computed .The eruptive dimmings have a more spatial development than thermal dimmings after eruptions. This is evident in their graph characteristics length. Then, using graph theory, eruptive and thermal mini-dimmings were classified, with 13% error, for 200 dimmings. 68 dimmings were classified as thermal, and 132 as eruptive. To do this, evolution of graph characteristic length were used.

  8. Desorption/ablation of lithium fluoride induced by extreme ultraviolet laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blejchař Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of reliable modeling tools and input data required for the prediction of surface removal rate from the lithium fluoride targets irradiated by the intense photon beams is essential for many practical aspects. This study is motivated by the practical implementation of soft X-ray (SXR or extreme ultraviolet (XUV lasers for the pulsed ablation and thin film deposition. Specifically, it is focused on quantitative description of XUV laser-induced desorption/ablation from lithium fluoride, which is a reference large band-gap dielectric material with ionic crystalline structure. Computational framework was proposed and employed here for the reconstruction of plume expansion dynamics induced by the irradiation of lithium fluoride targets. The morphology of experimentally observed desorption/ablation craters were reproduced using idealized representation (two-zone approximation of the laser fluence profile. The calculation of desorption/ablation rate was performed using one-dimensional thermomechanic model (XUV-ABLATOR code taking into account laser heating and surface evaporation of the lithium fluoride target occurring on a nanosecond timescale. This step was followed by the application of two-dimensional hydrodynamic solver for description of laser-produced plasma plume expansion dynamics. The calculated plume lengths determined by numerical simulations were compared with a simple adiabatic expansion (blast-wave model.

  9. Compact 13.5-nm free-electron laser for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Socol

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical lithography has been actively used over the past decades to produce more and more dense integrated circuits. To keep with the pace of the miniaturization, light of shorter and shorter wavelength was used with time. The capabilities of the present 193-nm UV photolithography were expanded time after time, but it is now believed that further progress will require deployment of extreme ultraviolet (EUV lithography based on the use of 13.5-nm radiation. However, presently no light source exists with sufficient average power to enable high-volume manufacturing. We report here the results of a study that shows the feasibility of a free-electron laser EUV source driven by a multiturn superconducting energy-recovery linac (ERL. The proposed 40×20  m^{2} facility, using MW-scale consumption from the power grid, is estimated to provide about 5 kW of average EUV power. We elaborate the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE option, which is presently technically feasible. A regenerative-amplifier option is also discussed. The proposed design is based on a short-period (2–3 cm undulator. The corresponding electron beam energy is about 0.5–1.0 GeV. The proposed accelerator consists of a photoinjector, a booster, and a multiturn ERL.

  10. Langmuir probe measurement of the bismuth plasma plume formed by an extreme-ultraviolet pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pira, P; Burian, T; Kolpaková, A; Tichý, M; Kudrna, P; Daniš, S; Wild, J; Juha, L; Lančok, J; Vyšín, L; Civiš, S; Zelinger, Z; Kubát, P

    2014-01-01

    Properties of the plasma plume produced on a bismuth (Bi) target irradiated by a focused extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) capillary-discharge laser beam were investigated. Langmuir probes were used in both single- and double-probe arrangements to determine the electron temperature and the electron density, providing values of 1–3 eV and ∼10 13 –10 14  m −3 , respectively. Although the temperatures seem to be comparable with values obtained in ablation plasmas produced by conventional, long-wavelength lasers, the density is significantly lower. This finding indicates that the desorption-like phenomena are responsible for the plume formation rather than the ablation processes. A very thin Bi film was prepared on an MgO substrate by pulsed XUV laser deposition. The non-uniform, sub-monolayer character of the deposited bismuth film confirms the Langmuir probe's observation of the desorption-like erosion induced by the XUV laser on the primary Bi target. (paper)

  11. Design, conception, and metrology of Extreme Ultraviolet multilayers mirrors resistant environments of space and EUV sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecquet, Ch.

    2009-03-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum (EUV) wavelengths, which range between 13 nm and 40 nm, have many applications in science and technology. These have been developed for example in plasma physics (high order harmonics sources, X ray lasers). The work presented is about the design, the fabrication and the metrology of periodic multilayer mirrors. The main motivation of this study is to establish a cycle of development taking into account both the optical properties of reflective coatings (reflectivity, spectral selectivity, attenuation) and their behaviour under various environments. To improve the spectral selectivity, new multilayer periodic structures have been developed. They are characterized by a bimodal reflectance profile with adjustable attenuation. The effect of environment on the stability of performance is especially critical for the optical collection. The addition of material barriers has stabilized the performance of the peak reflectivity for over 200 h at 400 C deg. and it reduces the influence of other factors of instability on the reflectance. In addition, all structures have been fabricated successfully and evaluated in severe environments. (author)

  12. On the Importance of the Flare's Late Phase for the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Frank; Jones, Andrew R.; Hock, Rachel; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Klimchuk, James A.; Didkovsky, Leonid; Judge, Darrell; Mariska, John; Bailey, Scott; hide

    2011-01-01

    The new solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have revealed a new class of solar flares that are referred to as late phase flares. These flares are characterized by the hot 2-5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI 33.5 nm) showing large secondary peaks that appear many minutes to hours after an eruptive flare event. In contrast, the cool 0.7-1.5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe IX 17.1 nm) usually dim immediately after the flare onset and do not recover until after the delayed second peak of the hot coronal emissions. We refer to this period of 1-5 hours after the fl amrea sin phase as the late phase, and this late phase is uniquely different than long duration flares associated with 2-ribbon flares or large filament eruptions. Our analysis of the late phase flare events indicates that the late phase involves hot coronal loops near the flaring region, not directly related to the original flaring loop system but rather with the higher post-eruption fields. Another finding is that space weather applications concerning Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere need to consider these late phase flares because they can enhance the total EUV irradiance flare variation by a factor of 2 when the late phase contribution is included.

  13. Laser-assisted vacuum arc extreme ultraviolet source: a comparison of picosecond and nanosecond laser triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Girum A.; Tobin, Isaac; Juschkin, Larissa; Hayden, Patrick; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sokell, Emma; Zakharov, Vassily S.; Zakharov, Sergey V.; O'Reilly, Fergal

    2016-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light generation by hybrid laser-assisted vacuum arc discharge plasmas, utilizing Sn-coated rotating-disc-electrodes, was investigated. The discharge was initiated by localized ablation of the liquid tin coating of the cathode disc by a laser pulse. The laser pulse, at 1064 nm, was generated by Nd:YAG lasers with variable energy from 1 to 100 mJ per pulse. The impact of shortening the laser pulse from 7 ns to 170 ps on the EUV generation has been investigated in detail. The use of ps pulses resulted in an increase in emission of EUV radiation. With a fixed discharge energy of ~4 J, the EUV conversion efficiency tends to plateau at ~2.4  ±  0.25% for the ps laser pulses, while for the ns pulses, it saturates at ~1.7  ±  0.3%. Under similar discharge and laser energy conditions, operating the EUV source with the ps-triggering resulted also in narrower spectral profiles of the emission in comparison to ns-triggering. The results indicate an advantage in using ps-triggering in laser-assisted discharges to produce brighter plasmas required for applications such as metrology.

  14. Ion beam deposition system for depositing low defect density extreme ultraviolet mask blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, V.; Kearney, P.; Sohn, J.; Harris-Jones, J.; John, A.; Godwin, M.; Antohe, A.; Teki, R.; Ma, A.; Goodwin, F.; Weaver, A.; Teora, P.

    2012-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the leading next-generation lithography (NGL) technology to succeed optical lithography at the 22 nm node and beyond. EUVL requires a low defect density reflective mask blank, which is considered to be one of the top two critical technology gaps for commercialization of the technology. At the SEMATECH Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC), research on defect reduction in EUV mask blanks is being pursued using the Veeco Nexus deposition tool. The defect performance of this tool is one of the factors limiting the availability of defect-free EUVL mask blanks. SEMATECH identified the key components in the ion beam deposition system that is currently impeding the reduction of defect density and the yield of EUV mask blanks. SEMATECH's current research is focused on in-house tool components to reduce their contributions to mask blank defects. SEMATECH is also working closely with the supplier to incorporate this learning into a next-generation deposition tool. This paper will describe requirements for the next-generation tool that are essential to realize low defect density EUV mask blanks. The goal of our work is to enable model-based predictions of defect performance and defect improvement for targeted process improvement and component learning to feed into the new deposition tool design. This paper will also highlight the defect reduction resulting from process improvements and the restrictions inherent in the current tool geometry and components that are an impediment to meeting HVM quality EUV mask blanks will be outlined.

  15. Extreme ultraviolet emission and confinement of tin plasmas in the presence of a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Amitava, E-mail: roy@fzu.cz, E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.in [School of Nuclear Engineering and Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment(CMUXE), Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); HiLASE Project, Department of Diode-pumped Lasers, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Murtaza Hassan, Syed; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hassanein, Ahmed [School of Nuclear Engineering and Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment(CMUXE), Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas [HiLASE Project, Department of Diode-pumped Lasers, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-15

    We investigated the role of a guiding magnetic field on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and ion emission from a laser produced Sn plasma for various laser pulse duration and intensity. For producing plasmas, planar slabs of pure Sn were irradiated with 1064 nm, Nd:YAG laser pulses with varying pulse duration (5–15 ns) and intensity. A magnetic trap was fabricated with the use of two neodymium permanent magnets which provided a magnetic field strength ∼0.5 T along the plume expansion direction. Our results indicate that the EUV conversion efficiency do not depend significantly on applied axial magnetic field. Faraday Cup ion analysis of Sn plasma show that the ion flux reduces by a factor of ∼5 with the application of an axial magnetic field. It was found that the plasma plume expand in the lateral direction with peak velocity measured to be ∼1.2 cm/μs and reduced to ∼0.75 cm/μs with the application of an axial magnetic field. The plume expansion features recorded using fast photography in the presence and absence of 0.5 T axial magnetic field are simulated using particle-in-cell code. Our simulation results qualitatively predict the plasma behavior.

  16. Kill ratio calculation for in-line yield prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Alfonso; Oter, David; Cruceta, Sergio; Valtuena, Juan F.; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Mata, Carlos

    1999-04-01

    The search for better yields in IC manufacturing calls for a smarter use of the vast amount of data that can be generated by a world class production line.In this scenario, in-line inspection processes produce thousands of wafer maps, number of defects, defect type and pictures every day. A step forward is to correlate these with the other big data- generator area: test. In this paper, we present how these data can be put together and correlated to obtain a very useful yield predicting tool. This correlation will first allow us to calculate the kill ratio, i.e. the probability for a defect of a certain size in a certain layer to kill the die. Then we will use that number to estimate the cosmetic yield that a wafer will have.

  17. Line intensity ratios of helium atom in an ionizing plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Goto, Motoshi; Kato, Takako; Takamura, Shuichi

    1998-10-01

    Effective emission rate coefficients C em eff (λ), line intensity ratios, C em eff (λ 1 )/C em eff (λ 2 ), and S eff /C em eff (λ), with S eff the ionization rate coefficient, are obtained by the collisional radiative model for an ionizing plasma using new excitation and ionization rate coefficients. In the plasma with electron density n e > 10 4 cm -3 , C em eff (λ) for various lines are enlarged, since the normalized population densities for the metastable states, n(2 1,3 S)/n He , becomes large, and the excitation rate coefficients from 2 1,3 S, C 21,3S→i , are large compared to that from the ground state C 11S→i . In high n e plasma (n e > 10 12 cm -3 ), with frequent electron impacts on the excited heliums, n(i)/n He become constant to n e , which results in the decrease of C em eff (λ). Hot electrons and resonance scattering, which are often important for the experimental applications, are included in this model. A small amount of hot electrons (several percents) can enhance the line emission and ionization rates for low electron temperature plasma with T e (T e 1 S - n 1 P) and enlarges n 1 P and 2 1 S populations when the column density of helium gas n He x L exceeds 2x10 13 [cm -2 ]. (author)

  18. Extreme ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy of pure and core-shell rare gas clusters at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroedter, Lasse

    2013-08-15

    The interaction of rare gas clusters with short-wavelength radiation of free-electron lasers (FELs) has been studied extensively over the last decade by means of electron and ion time-of-flight spectroscopy. This thesis describes the design and construction of a fluorescence spectrometer for the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range and discusses the cluster experiments performed at FLASH, the Free-electron LAser in Hamburg. Fluorescence of xenon and of argon clusters was studied, both in dependence on the FEL pulse intensity and on the cluster size. The FEL wavelength was set to the giant 4d-resonance of xenon at 13.5 nm and the FEL pulse intensity reached peak values of 2.7.10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. For xenon clusters, charge states of at least 11+ were identified. For argon, charge states up to 7+ were detected. The cluster-size dependent study revealed a decrease of the fluorescence yield per atom with increasing cluster size. This decrease is explained with the help of a geometric model. It assumes that virtually the entire fluorescence yield stems from shells of ions on the cluster surface, whereas ions in the cluster core predominantly recombine non-radiatively with electrons. However, the detailed analysis of fluorescence spectra from clusters consisting of a core of Xe atoms and a surrounding shell of argon atoms shows that, in fact, a small fraction of the fluorescence signal comes from Xe ions in the cluster core. Interestingly, these ions are as highly charged as the ions in the shells of a pure Xe cluster. This result goes beyond the current understanding of charge and energy transfer processes in these systems and points toward the observation of ultrafast charging dynamics in a time window where mass spectrometry is inherently blind. (orig.)

  19. Extreme ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy of pure and core-shell rare gas clusters at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroedter, Lasse

    2013-08-01

    The interaction of rare gas clusters with short-wavelength radiation of free-electron lasers (FELs) has been studied extensively over the last decade by means of electron and ion time-of-flight spectroscopy. This thesis describes the design and construction of a fluorescence spectrometer for the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range and discusses the cluster experiments performed at FLASH, the Free-electron LAser in Hamburg. Fluorescence of xenon and of argon clusters was studied, both in dependence on the FEL pulse intensity and on the cluster size. The FEL wavelength was set to the giant 4d-resonance of xenon at 13.5 nm and the FEL pulse intensity reached peak values of 2.7.10 15 W/cm 2 . For xenon clusters, charge states of at least 11+ were identified. For argon, charge states up to 7+ were detected. The cluster-size dependent study revealed a decrease of the fluorescence yield per atom with increasing cluster size. This decrease is explained with the help of a geometric model. It assumes that virtually the entire fluorescence yield stems from shells of ions on the cluster surface, whereas ions in the cluster core predominantly recombine non-radiatively with electrons. However, the detailed analysis of fluorescence spectra from clusters consisting of a core of Xe atoms and a surrounding shell of argon atoms shows that, in fact, a small fraction of the fluorescence signal comes from Xe ions in the cluster core. Interestingly, these ions are as highly charged as the ions in the shells of a pure Xe cluster. This result goes beyond the current understanding of charge and energy transfer processes in these systems and points toward the observation of ultrafast charging dynamics in a time window where mass spectrometry is inherently blind. (orig.)

  20. Ionization and dissociation dynamics of vinyl bromide probed by femtosecond extreme ultraviolet transient absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ming-Fu; Neumark, Daniel M.; Gessner, Oliver; Leone, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Strong-field induced ionization and dissociation dynamics of vinyl bromide, CH 2 =CHBr, are probed using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy. Strong-field ionization is initiated with an intense femtosecond, near infrared (NIR, 775 nm) laser field. Femtosecond XUV pulses covering the photon energy range of 50-72 eV probe the subsequent dynamics by measuring the time-dependent spectroscopic features associated with transitions of the Br (3d) inner-shell electrons to vacancies in molecular and atomic valence orbitals. Spectral signatures are observed for the depletion of neutral C 2 H 3 Br, the formation of C 2 H 3 Br + ions in their ground (X ~ ) and first excited (A ~ ) states, the production of C 2 H 3 Br ++ ions, and the appearance of neutral Br ( 2 P 3/2 ) atoms by dissociative ionization. The formation of free Br ( 2 P 3/2 ) atoms occurs on a timescale of 330 ± 150 fs. The ionic A ~ state exhibits a time-dependent XUV absorption energy shift of ∼0.4 eV within the time window of the atomic Br formation. The yield of Br atoms correlates with the yield of parent ions in the A ~ state as a function of NIR peak intensity. The observations suggest that a fraction of vibrationally excited C 2 H 3 Br + (A ~ ) ions undergoes intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution followed by the C–Br bond dissociation. The C 2 H 3 Br + (X ~ ) products and the majority of the C 2 H 3 Br ++ ions are relatively stable due to a deeper potential well and a high dissociation barrier, respectively. The results offer powerful new insights about orbital-specific electronic processes in high field ionization, coupled vibrational relaxation and dissociation dynamics, and the correlation of valence hole-state location and dissociation in polyatomic molecules, all probed simultaneously by ultrafast table-top XUV spectroscopy

  1. THE HIGH-RESOLUTION EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM OF N{sub 2} BY ELECTRON IMPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heays, A. N. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ajello, J. M.; Aguilar, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T., E-mail: heays@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution (FWHM = 0.2 Å) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV, 800-1350 Å) laboratory emission spectra of molecular nitrogen excited by an electron impact at 20 and 100 eV under (mostly) optically thin, single-scattering experimental conditions. A total of 491 emission features were observed from N{sub 2} electronic-vibrational transitions and atomic N I and N II multiplets and their emission cross sections were measured. Molecular emission was observed at vibrationally excited ground-state levels as high as v'' = 17, from the a {sup 1}Π {sub g} , b {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and b'{sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +} excited valence states and the Rydberg series c'{sub n} {sub +1} {sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +}, c{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and o{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} for n between 3 and 9. The frequently blended molecular emission bands were disentangled with the aid of a sophisticated and predictive quantum-mechanical model of excited states that includes the strong coupling between valence and Rydberg electronic states and the effects of predissociation. Improved model parameters describing electronic transition moments were obtained from the experiment and allowed for a reliable prediction of the vibrationally summed electronic emission cross section, including an extrapolation to unobserved emission bands and those that are optically thick in the experimental spectra. Vibrationally dependent electronic excitation functions were inferred from a comparison of emission features following 20 and 100 eV electron-impact collisional excitation. The electron-impact-induced fluorescence measurements are compared with Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph observations of emissions from Titan's upper atmosphere.

  2. An extreme ultraviolet wave associated with a failed eruption observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, R.; Jiang, Y.; Yang, J.; Bi, Y.; Hong, J.; Yang, B.; Yang, D.

    2012-05-01

    Aims: Taking advantage of the high temporal and spatial resolution of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observations, we present an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave associated with a failed filament eruption that generated no coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2011 March 1. We aim at understanding the nature and origin of this EUV wave. Methods: Combining the high-quality observations in the photosphere, the chromosphere, and the corona, we studied the characteristics of the wave and its relations to the associated eruption. Results: The event occurred at an ephemeral region near a small active region. The continuous magnetic flux cancelation in the ephemeral region produced pre-eruption brightenings and two EUV jets, and excited the filament eruption, accompanying it with a microflare. After the eruption, the filament material appeared far from the eruption center, and the ambient loops seemed to be intact. It was evident that the filament eruption had failed and was not associated with a CME. The wave happened just after the north jet arrived, and apparently emanated ahead of the north jet, far from the eruption center. The wave propagated at nearly constant velocities in the range of 260-350 km s-1, with a slight negative acceleration in the last phase. Remarkably, the wave continued to propagate, and a loop in its passage was intact when wave and loop met. Conclusions: Our analysis confirms that the EUV wave is a true wave, which we interpret as a fast-mode wave. In addition, the close temporal and spatial relationship between the wave and the jet provides evidence that the wave was likely triggered by the jet when the CME failed to happen. Three movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. The Sandia laser plasma extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray (XUV) light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooman, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    Laser produced plasmas have been shown to be extremely bright sources of extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray (XUV) radiation; however, certain practical difficulties have hindered the development of this source as a routinely usable laboratory device. To explore solutions to these difficulties, Sandia has constructed an XUV laser plasma source (LASPS) with the intention of developing an instrument that can be used for experiments requiring intense XUV radiation from 50-300 eV. The driving laser for this source is a KrF excimer with a wavelength of 248 nm, divergence of 200 μrad, pulse width of 23 ns at 20 Hz and typical pulse energy of 500 mJ which allows for good energy coupling to the plasma at moderate (10/sup 12/ W cm/sup 2/) power densities. This source has been pulsed approximately 2 x 10/sup 5/ times, demonstrating good tolerance to plasma debris. The source radiates from the visible to well above 1000 eV, however, to date attention has been concentrated on the 50-300 eV region. In this paper, spectral data and plasma images for both stainless steel and gold targets are presented with the gold target yielding a 200 μm plasma and reradiating 3.9% of the pump energy into 15-73 eV band, a flux of 1.22 x 10/sup 13/ photons/pulse/eV into 2π sr. Further efforts will expand these measurements to rare earth targets and to higher spectral energies. A special high throughput wide angle XUV (50-300 eV) monochromator and associated optics is being concurrently developed to collect the plasma radiation, perform energy dispersion and focus the radiation onto the experimental area

  4. An Extreme-ultraviolet Wave Generating Upward Secondary Waves in a Streamer-like Solar Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Wang, Bing; Song, Hongqiang

    2018-05-01

    Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves, spectacular horizontally propagating disturbances in the low solar corona, always trigger horizontal secondary waves (SWs) when they encounter the ambient coronal structure. We present the first example of upward SWs in a streamer-like structure after the passing of an EUV wave. This event occurred on 2017 June 1. The EUV wave happened during a typical solar eruption including a filament eruption, a coronal mass ejection (CME), and a C6.6 flare. The EUV wave was associated with quasi-periodic fast propagating (QFP) wave trains and a type II radio burst that represented the existence of a coronal shock. The EUV wave had a fast initial velocity of ∼1000 km s‑1, comparable to high speeds of the shock and the QFP wave trains. Intriguingly, upward SWs rose slowly (∼80 km s‑1) in the streamer-like structure after the sweeping of the EUV wave. The upward SWs seemed to originate from limb brightenings that were caused by the EUV wave. All of the results show that the EUV wave is a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shock wave, likely triggered by the flare impulses. We suggest that part of the EUV wave was probably trapped in the closed magnetic fields of the streamer-like structure, and upward SWs possibly resulted from the release of slow-mode trapped waves. It is believed that the interplay of the strong compression of the coronal shock and the configuration of the streamer-like structure is crucial for the formation of upward SWs.

  5. Near infrared and extreme ultraviolet light pulses induced modifications of ultrathin Co films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kisielewski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on comparative study of magnetic properties of Pt/Co/Pt trilayers after irradiation with different light sources. Ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt films were deposited by molecular beam epitaxy technique on sapphire (0001 substrates. Pt buffers were grown at room temperature (RT and at 750°C (high temperature, HT. The samples were irradiated with a broad range of light energy densities (up to film ablation using two different single pulse irradiation sources: (i 40 fs laser with 800 nm wavelength and (ii 3 ns laser-plasma source of extreme ultraviolet (EUV with the most intense emission centered at 11 nm. The light pulse-driven irreversible structural and as a consequence, magnetic modifications were investigated using polar magneto-optical Kerr effect-based microscopy and atomic and magnetic force microscopies. The light pulse-induced transitions from the out-of-plane to in-plane magnetization state, and from in-plane to out-of-plane, were observed for both types of samples and irradiation methods. Diagrams of the magnetic states as a function of the Co layer thickness and energy density of the absorbed femtosecond pulses were constructed for the samples with both the RT and HT buffers. The energy density range responsible for the creation of the out-of-plane magnetization was wider for the HT than for RT buffer. This is correlated with the higher (for HT crystalline quality and much smoother Pt/Co surface deduced from the X-ray diffraction studies. Submicrometer magnetic domains were observed in the irradiated region while approaching the out-of-plane magnetization state. Changes of Pt/Co/Pt structures are discussed for both types of light pulses.

  6. Spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet light pulses from high-order harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plötzing, M.; Adam, R., E-mail: r.adam@fz-juelich.de; Weier, C.; Plucinski, L.; Schneider, C. M. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-6), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Eich, S.; Emmerich, S.; Rollinger, M.; Aeschlimann, M. [University of Kaiserslautern and Research Center OPTIMAS, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Mathias, S. [Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, I. Physikalisches Institut, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The fundamental mechanism responsible for optically induced magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films has been under intense debate since almost two decades. Currently, numerous competing theoretical models are in strong need for a decisive experimental confirmation such as monitoring the triggered changes in the spin-dependent band structure on ultrashort time scales. Our approach explores the possibility of observing femtosecond band structure dynamics by giving access to extended parts of the Brillouin zone in a simultaneously time-, energy- and spin-resolved photoemission experiment. For this purpose, our setup uses a state-of-the-art, highly efficient spin detector and ultrashort, extreme ultraviolet light pulses created by laser-based high-order harmonic generation. In this paper, we present the setup and first spin-resolved spectra obtained with our experiment within an acquisition time short enough to allow pump-probe studies. Further, we characterize the influence of the excitation with femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by comparing the results with data acquired using a continuous wave light source with similar photon energy. In addition, changes in the spectra induced by vacuum space-charge effects due to both the extreme ultraviolet probe- and near-infrared pump-pulses are studied by analyzing the resulting spectral distortions. The combination of energy resolution and electron count rate achieved in our setup confirms its suitability for spin-resolved studies of the band structure on ultrashort time scales.

  7. Transition state region in the A-Band photodissociation of allyl iodide—A femtosecond extreme ultraviolet transient absorption study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacherjee, Aditi, E-mail: abhattacherjee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: andrewattar@berkeley.edu; Attar, Andrew R., E-mail: abhattacherjee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: andrewattar@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leone, Stephen R., E-mail: srl@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-28

    Femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy based on a high-harmonic generation source is used to study the 266 nm induced A-band photodissociation dynamics of allyl iodide (CH{sub 2} =CHCH{sub 2}I). The photolysis of the C—I bond at this wavelength produces iodine atoms both in the ground ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}, I) and spin-orbit excited ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}, I*) states, with the latter as the predominant channel. Using XUV absorption at the iodine N{sub 4/5} edge (45–60 eV), the experiments constitute a direct probe of not only the long-lived atomic iodine reaction products but also the fleeting transition state region of the repulsive n{sub I}σ{sup ∗}{sub C—I} excited states. Specifically, three distinct features are identified in the XUV transient absorption spectrum at 45.3 eV, 47.4 eV, and 48.4 eV (denoted transients A, B, and C, respectively), which arise from the repulsive valence-excited nσ{sup ∗} states and project onto the high-lying core-excited states of the dissociating molecule via excitation of 4d(I) core electrons. Transients A and B originate from 4d(I) → n(I) core-to-valence transitions, whereas transient C is best assigned to a 4d(I) →σ{sup ∗}(C—I) transition. The measured differential absorbance of these new features along with the I/I* branching ratios known from the literature is used to suggest a more definitive assignment, albeit provisional, of the transients to specific dissociative states within the A-band manifold. The transients are found to peak around 55 fs–65 fs and decay completely by 145 fs–185 fs, demonstrating the ability of XUV spectroscopy to map the evolution of reactants into products in real time. The similarity in the energies of transients A and B with analogous features observed in methyl iodide [Attar et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 5072, (2015)] together with the new observation of transient C in the present work provides a more complete picture of the valence electronic

  8. A volume-limited ROSAT survey of extreme ultraviolet emission from all nondegenerate stars within 10 parsecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian E.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Kellett, Barry J.; Bromage, Gordon E.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Pye, John P.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a volume-limited ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) survey of all nondegenerate stars within 10 pc. Of the 220 known star systems within 10 pc, we find that 41 are positive detections in at least one of the two WFC filter bandpasses (S1 and S2), while we consider another 14 to be marginal detections. We compute X-ray luminosities for the WFC detections using Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) data, and these IPC luminosities are discussed along with the WFC luminosities throughout the paper for purposes of comparison. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) luminosity functions are computed for single stars of different spectral types using both S1 and S2 luminosities, and these luminosity functions are compared with X-ray luminosity functions derived by previous authors using IPC data. We also analyze the S1 and S2 luminosity functions of the binary stars within 10 pc. We find that most stars in binary systems do not emit EUV radiation at levels different from those of single stars, but there may be a few EUV-luminous multiple-star systems which emit excess EUV radiation due to some effect of binarity. In general, the ratio of X-ray luminosity to EUV luminosity increases with increasing coronal emission, suggesting that coronally active stars have higher coronal temperatures. We find that our S1, S2, and IPC luminosities are well correlated with rotational velocity, and we compare activity-rotation relations determined using these different luminosities. Late M stars are found to be significantly less luminous in the EUV than other late-type stars. The most natural explanation for this results is the concept of coronal saturation -- the idea that late-type stars can emit only a limited fraction of their total luminosity in X-ray and EUV radiation, which means stars with very low bolometric luminosities must have relatively low X-ray and EUV luminosities as well. The maximum level of coronal emission from stars with earlier spectral types is studied

  9. Two-dimensional distribution of electron temperature in ergodic layer of LHD measured from line intensity ratio of CIV and NeVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Erhui; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Murakami, Izumi; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Dong, Chunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional distribution of impurity lines emitted from ergodic layer with stochastic magnetic field lines in Large Helical Device (LHD) has been observed using a space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer. The two-dimensional electron temperature distribution in the ergodic layer is successfully measured using the line intensity ratio of Li-like NeVIII 2s-3p ( 2 S 1/2 - 2 P 3/2 : 88.09 Å, 2 S 1/2 - 2 P 1/2 : 88.13 Å) to 2p-3s ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 102.91 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 103.09 Å) transitions emitted from radial location near Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS). The intensity ratio analyzed with ADAS code shows no dependence on the electron density below 10 14 cm -3 . The result indicates a little higher temperature, i.e., 220 eV, in the poloidal location at high-field side near helical coils called O-point compared to the temperature near X-point, i.e., 170 eV. The electron temperature profile is also measured at the edge boundary of ergodic layer using the line intensity ratio of Li-like CIV 2p-3d ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 D 3/2 : 384.03 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 D 5/2 : 384.18 Å) to 2p-3s ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 419.53 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 419.71 Å) transitions. The intensity ratios analyzed with CHIANTI, ADAS and T.Kawachi codes show a slightly higher temperature near O-point, i.e., 25 eV for CHIANTI, 21 eV for ADAS and 11 eV for T.Kawachi's codes, compared to the temperature at X-point, i.e., 15 - 21 eV for CHIANTI, 9 - 15 eV for ADAS and 6 - 9 eV for T.Kawachi codes. It suggests that the transport coefficient in the ergodic layer is varied with three-dimensional structure. (author)

  10. Progress in coherent lithography using table-top extreme ultraviolet lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei

    Nanotechnology has drawn a wide variety of attention as interesting phenomena occurs when the dimension of the structures is in the nanometer scale. The particular characteristics of nanoscale structures had enabled new applications in different fields in science and technology. Our capability to fabricate these nanostructures routinely for sure will impact the advancement of nanoscience. Apart from the high volume manufacturing in semiconductor industry, a small-scale but reliable nanofabrication tool can dramatically help the research in the field of nanotechnology. This dissertation describes alternative extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography techniques which combine table-top EUV laser and various cost-effective imaging strategies. For each technique, numerical simulations, system design, experiment result and its analysis will be presented. In chapter II, a brief review of the main characteristics of table-top EUV lasers will be addressed concentrating on its high power and large coherence radius that enable the lithography application described herein. The development of a Talbot EUV lithography system which is capable of printing 50nm half pitch nanopatterns will be illustrated in chapter III. A detailed discussion of its resolution limit will be presented followed by the development of X-Y-Z positioning stage, the fabrication protocol for diffractive EUV mask, and the pattern transfer using self- developed ion beam etching, and the dose control unit. In addition, this dissertation demonstrated the capability to fabricate functional periodic nanostructures using Talbot EUV lithography. After that, resolution enhancement techniques like multiple exposure, displacement Talbot EUV lithography, fractional Talbot EUV lithography, and Talbot lithography using 18.9nm amplified spontaneous emission laser will be demonstrated. Chapter IV will describe a hybrid EUV lithography which combines the Talbot imaging and interference lithography rendering a high resolution

  11. Line Ratios for Solar Wind Charge Exchange with Comets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, P. D.; Cumbee, R. S.; Lyons, D.; Shelton, R. L.; Stancil, P. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Center for Simulational Physics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Gu, L.; Kaastra, J., E-mail: pmullen2@illinois.edu [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-07-20

    Charge exchange (CX) has emerged in X-ray emission modeling as a significant process that must be considered in many astrophysical environments—particularly comets. Comets host an interaction between solar wind ions and cometary neutrals to promote solar wind charge exchange (SWCX). X-ray observatories provide astronomers and astrophysicists with data for many X-ray emitting comets that are impossible to accurately model without reliable CX data. Here, we utilize a streamlined set of computer programs that incorporate the multi-channel Landau–Zener theory and a cascade model for X-ray emission to generate cross sections and X-ray line ratios for a variety of bare and non-bare ion single electron capture (SEC) collisions. Namely, we consider collisions between the solar wind constituent bare and H-like ions of C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, and Si and the cometary neutrals H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, OH, and O. To exemplify the application of this data, we model the X-ray emission of Comet C/2000 WM1 (linear) using the CX package in SPEX and find excellent agreement with observations made with the XMM-Newton RGS detector. Our analyses show that the X-ray intensity is dominated by SWCX with H, while H{sub 2}O plays a secondary role. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that CX cross sections have been implemented into a X-ray spectral fitting package to determine the H to H{sub 2}O ratio in cometary atmospheres. The CX data sets are incorporated into the modeling packages SPEX and Kronos .

  12. Temporal variations of electron density and temperature in Kr/Ne/H2 photoionized plasma induced by nanosecond pulses from extreme ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, I.; Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Jarocki, R.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2017-06-01

    Spectral investigations of low-temperature photoionized plasmas created in a Kr/Ne/H2 gas mixture were performed. The low-temperature plasmas were generated by gas mixture irradiation using extreme ultraviolet pulses from a laser-plasma source. Emission spectra in the ultraviolet/visible range from the photoionized plasmas contained lines that mainly corresponded to neutral atoms and singly charged ions. Temporal variations in the plasma electron temperature and electron density were studied using different characteristic emission lines at various delay times. Results, based on Kr II lines, showed that the electron temperature decreased from 1.7 to 0.9 eV. The electron densities were estimated using different spectral lines at each delay time. In general, except for the Hβ line, in which the electron density decreased from 3.78 × 1016 cm-3 at 200 ns to 5.77 × 1015 cm-3 at 2000 ns, most of the electron density values measured from the different lines were of the order of 1015 cm-3 and decreased slightly while maintaining the same order when the delay time increased. The time dependences of the measured and simulated intensities of a spectral line of interest were also investigated. The validity of the partial or full local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions in plasma was explained based on time-resolved electron density measurements. The partial LTE condition was satisfied for delay times in the 200 ns to 1500 ns range. The results are summarized, and the dominant basic atomic processes in the gas mixture photoionized plasma are discussed.

  13. High-resolution extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of G191-B2B: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, M. A.; Cruddace, R. G.; Kowalski, M. P.; Bannister, N. P.; Yentis, D.; Lapington, J. S.; Tandy, J. A.; Hubeny, I.; Schuh, S.; Dreizler, S.; Barbee, T. W.

    2005-10-01

    We have continued our detailed analysis of the high-resolution (R= 4000) spectroscopic observation of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B, obtained by the Joint Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Experiment (J-PEX) normal incidence sounding rocket-borne telescope, comparing the observed data with theoretical predictions for both homogeneous and stratified atmosphere structures. We find that the former models give the best agreement over the narrow waveband covered by J-PEX, in conflict with what is expected from previous studies of the lower resolution but broader wavelength coverage Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer spectra. We discuss the possible limitations of the atomic data and our understanding of the stellar atmospheres that might give rise to this inconsistency. In our earlier study, we obtained an unusually high ionization fraction for the ionized HeII present along the line of sight to the star. In the present paper, we obtain a better fit when we assume, as suggested by Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph results, that this HeII resides in two separate components. When one of these is assigned to the local interstellar cloud, the implied He ionization fraction is consistent with measurements along other lines of sight. However, the resolving power and signal-to-noise available from the instrument configuration used in this first successful J-PEX flight are not sufficient to clearly identify and prove the existence of the two components.

  14. Expansion of Collisional Radiative Model for Helium line ratio spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquegrani, David; Cooper, Chris; Forest, Cary; Milhone, Jason; Munoz-Borges, Jorge; Schmitz, Oliver; Unterberg, Ezekial

    2015-11-01

    Helium line ratio spectroscopy is a powerful technique of active plasma edge spectroscopy. It enables reconstruction of plasma edge parameters like electron density and temperature by use of suitable Collisional Radiative Models (CRM). An established approach is successful at moderate plasma densities (~1018m-3 range) and temperature (30-300eV), taking recombination and charge exchange to be negligible. The goal of this work is to experimentally explore limitations of this approach to CRM. For basic validation the Madison Plasma Dynamo eXperiment (MPDX) will be used. MPDX offers a very uniform plasma and spherical symmetry at low temperature (5-20 eV) and low density (1016 -1017m-3) . Initial data from MPDX shows a deviation in CRM results when compared to Langmuir probe data. This discrepancy points to the importance of recombination effects. The validated model is applied to first time measurement of electron density and temperature in front of an ICRH antenna at the TEXTOR tokamak. These measurements are important to understand RF coupling and PMI physics at the antenna limiters. Work supported in part by start up funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at the UW - Madison, USA and NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210.

  15. Development of a liquid tin microjet target for an efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hamada, Masaya; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-03-01

    A regenerative tin liquid microjet target was developed for a high average power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The diameter of the target was smaller than 160 microm and good vacuum lower than 0.5 Pa was maintained during the operation. A maximum EUV conversion efficiency of 1.8% at the Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser intensity of around 2 x 10(11) Wcm(2) with a spot diameter of 175 microm (full width at half maximum) was observed. The angular distribution of the EUV emission remained almost isotropic, whereas suprathermal ions mainly emerged toward the target normal.

  16. Development of a liquid tin microjet target for an efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hamada, Masaya; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-03-01

    A regenerative tin liquid microjet target was developed for a high average power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The diameter of the target was smaller than 160 μm and good vacuum lower than 0.5 Pa was maintained during the operation. A maximum EUV conversion efficiency of 1.8% at the Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser intensity of around 2×1011 W/cm2 with a spot diameter of 175 μm (full width at half maximum) was observed. The angular distribution of the EUV emission remained almost isotropic, whereas suprathermal ions mainly emerged toward the target normal.

  17. Development of a liquid tin microjet target for an efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hamada, Masaya; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-01-01

    A regenerative tin liquid microjet target was developed for a high average power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The diameter of the target was smaller than 160 μm and good vacuum lower than 0.5 Pa was maintained during the operation. A maximum EUV conversion efficiency of 1.8% at the Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser intensity of around 2x10 11 W/cm 2 with a spot diameter of 175 μm (full width at half maximum) was observed. The angular distribution of the EUV emission remained almost isotropic, whereas suprathermal ions mainly emerged toward the target normal

  18. Spatio-temporal coherence of free-electron laser radiation in the extreme ultraviolet determined by a Michelson interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, V.; Rödel, C.; Zastrau, U., E-mail: ulf.zastrau@uni-jena.de [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Brenner, G.; Düsterer, S.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Harmand, M.; Przystawik, A.; Redlin, H.; Toleikis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Döppner, T.; Ma, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fletcher, L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Förster, E. [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Glenzer, S. H.; Lee, H. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Hartley, N. J. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kazak, L.; Komar, D.; Skruszewicz, S. [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); and others

    2014-09-08

    A key feature of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from free-electron lasers (FELs) is its spatial and temporal coherence. We measured the spatio-temporal coherence properties of monochromatized FEL pulses at 13.5 nm using a Michelson interferometer. A temporal coherence time of (59±8) fs has been determined, which is in good agreement with the spectral bandwidth given by the monochromator. Moreover, the spatial coherence in vertical direction amounts to about 15% of the beam diameter and about 12% in horizontal direction. The feasibility of measuring spatio-temporal coherence properties of XUV FEL radiation using interferometric techniques advances machine operation and experimental studies significantly.

  19. OBSERVATIONS OF FIVE-MINUTE SOLAR OSCILLATIONS IN THE CORONA USING THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETER (ESP) ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT (SDO/EVE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Woods, T.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the detection of oscillations in the corona in the frequency range corresponding to five-minute acoustic modes of the Sun. The oscillations have been observed using soft X-ray measurements from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP) of the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The ESP zeroth-order channel observes the Sun as a star without spatial resolution in the wavelength range of 0.1-7.0 nm (the energy range is 0.18-12.4 keV). The amplitude spectrum of the oscillations calculated from six-day time series shows a significant increase in the frequency range of 2-4 mHz. We interpret this increase as a response of the corona to solar acoustic (p) modes and attempt to identify p-mode frequencies among the strongest peaks. Due to strong variability of the amplitudes and frequencies of the five-minute oscillations in the corona, we study how the spectrum from two adjacent six-day time series combined together affects the number of peaks associated with the p-mode frequencies and their amplitudes. This study shows that five-minute oscillations of the Sun can be observed in the corona in variations of the soft X-ray emission. Further investigations of these oscillations may improve our understanding of the interaction of the oscillation modes with the solar atmosphere, and the interior-corona coupling, in general.

  20. Galaxy emission line classification using three-dimensional line ratio diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Sutherland, Ralph S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Scharwächter, Julia [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA (CNRS: UMR8112), 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Basurah, Hassan M.; Ali, Alaa; Amer, Morsi A., E-mail: frederic.vogt@anu.edu.au [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams have become a key tool in understanding the excitation mechanisms of galaxies. The curves used to separate the different regions—H II-like or excited by an active galactic nucleus (AGN)—have been refined over time but the core technique has not evolved significantly. However, the classification of galaxies based on their emission line ratios really is a multi-dimensional problem. Here we exploit recent software developments to explore the potential of three-dimensional (3D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We introduce the ZQE diagrams, which are a specific set of 3D diagrams that separate the oxygen abundance and the ionization parameter of H II region-like spectra and also enable us to probe the excitation mechanism of the gas. By examining these new 3D spaces interactively, we define the ZE diagnostics, a new set of 2D diagnostics that can provide the metallicity of objects excited by hot young stars and that cleanly separate H II region-like objects from the different classes of AGNs. We show that these ZE diagnostics are consistent with the key log [N II]/Hα versus log [O III]/Hβ diagnostic currently used by the community. They also have the advantage of attaching a probability that a given object belongs to one class or the other. Finally, we discuss briefly why ZQE diagrams can provide a new way to differentiate and study the different classes of AGNs in anticipation of a dedicated follow-up study.

  1. Wavefront measurement of single-mode quantum cascade laser beam for seed application in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Krzysztof M; Ohta, Takeshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Yokotsuka, Toshio; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2012-12-01

    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a very attractive seed source for a multikilowatt pulsed CO2 lasers applied for driving extreme ultraviolet emitting plasmas. In this Letter, we investigate output beam properties of a QCL designed to address P18 and P20 lines of 10.6 micron band of CO2 molecule. In particular, output beam quality and stability are investigated for the first time. A well-defined linear polarization and a single-mode operation enabled a use of phase retrieval method for full description of QCL output beam. A direct, multi-image numerical phase retrieval technique was developed and successfully applied to the measured intensity patterns of a QCL beam. Very good agreement between the measured and reconstructed beam profiles was observed at distances ranging from QCL aperture to infinity, proving a good understanding of the beam propagation. The results also confirm a high spatial coherence and high stability of the beam parameters, the features expected from an excellent seed source.

  2. The Ratio of the Resonance Line to Intercombination Line in Neonlike Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, D.; Andrianarijaona, Vm; Brown, Gv; Hell, N.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2017-04-01

    We present the measurement results of the intensity ratios of astrophysically important 1s22s22p1/2 53d3/2 -> 1s22s22p6 resonance line to the 1s2 2s2 2p3/253d5/2 -> 1s22s22p6 intercombination line for Ne-like Kr26+ and Mo32+. The experiment was done at the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and utilized an x-ray microcalorimeter. The Mo32+ experiment is the highest Z-measurement of such type to date, where the dominant role of the intercombination line, known to increase with Z, puts our measurement firmly into the relativistic regime. Compared to the earlier measurements of ions with lower atomic numbers, the measurement for Mo32+ shows much a closer agreement with theory. Our results support the hypothesis that the disagreement should narrow with atomic number. This implies that the disagreement with theory may be confined to the range of atomic numbers where the correlation effects are largest. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by LLNL, contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and was supported in part by NASA's APRA program and by the ESA, contract 4000114313/15/NL/CB.

  3. Slowly varying component of extreme ultraviolet solar radiation and its relation to solar radio radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R. D.; Neupert, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    A study of the correlations between solar EUV line fluxes and solar radio fluxes has been carried out. A calibration for the Goddard Space Flight Center EUV spectrum is suggested. The results are used to obtain an equation for the absolute EUV flux for several lines in the 150- to 400-A region and the total flux of 81 intense lines in the region, the 2800-MHz radio flux being used as independent variable.

  4. Spatial-Resolved Measurement and Analysis of Extreme-Ultraviolet Emission Spectra from Laser-Produced Al Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Shi-Quan; Su Mao-Gen; Sun Dui-Xiong; Min Qi; Dong Chen-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced Al plasma is experimentally and theoretically investigated. Spatial-evolution emission spectra are measured by using the spatio-temporally resolved laser produced plasma technique. Based on the assumptions of a normalized Boltzmann distribution among the excited states and a steady-state collisional-radiative model, we succeed in reproducing the spectra at different detection positions, which are in good agreement with experiments. The decay curves about the electron temperature and electron density, as well as the fractions of individual Al ions and average ionization stage with increasing the detection distance are obtained by comparison with the experimental measurements. These parameters are critical points for deeply understanding the expanding and cooling of laser produced plasmas in vacuum. (paper)

  5. Efficient extreme ultraviolet plasma source generated by a CO2 laser and a liquid xenon microjet target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Ariga, Tatsuya; Soumagne, George; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kubodera, Shoichi; Pogorelsky, Igor; Pavlishin, Igor; Stolyarov, Daniil; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2007-05-01

    We demonstrated efficacy of a CO2-laser-produced xenon plasma in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region at 13.5nm at variable laser pulse widths between 200ps and 25ns. The plasma target was a 30μm liquid xenon microjet. To ensure the optimum coupling of CO2 laser energy with the plasma, they applied a prepulse yttrium aluminum garnet laser. The authors measured the conversion efficiency (CE) of the 13.5nm EUV emission for different pulse widths of the CO2 laser. A maximum CE of 0.6% was obtained for a CO2 laser pulse width of 25ns at an intensity of 5×1010W/cm2.

  6. Efficient extreme ultraviolet plasma source generated by a CO2 laser and a liquid xenon microjet target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Ariga, Tatsuya; Soumagne, George; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kubodera, Shoichi; Pogorelsky, Igor; Pavlishin, Igor; Stolyarov, Daniil; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrated efficacy of a CO 2 -laser-produced xenon plasma in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region at 13.5 nm at variable laser pulse widths between 200 ps and 25 ns. The plasma target was a 30 μm liquid xenon microjet. To ensure the optimum coupling of CO 2 laser energy with the plasma, they applied a prepulse yttrium aluminum garnet laser. The authors measured the conversion efficiency (CE) of the 13.5 nm EUV emission for different pulse widths of the CO 2 laser. A maximum CE of 0.6% was obtained for a CO 2 laser pulse width of 25 ns at an intensity of 5x10 10 W/cm 2

  7. Characteristics of soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) emission from laser-produced highly charged rhodium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barte, Ellie Floyd; Hara, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Toshiki; Gisuji, Takuya; Chen, When-Bo; Lokasani, Ragava; Hatano, Tadashi; Ejima, Takeo; Jiang, Weihua; Suzuki, Chihiro; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sasaki, Akira; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Limpouch, Jiří

    2018-05-01

    We have characterized the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) emission of rhodium (Rh) plasmas produced using dual pulse irradiation by 150-ps or 6-ns pre-pulses, followed by a 150-ps main pulse. We have studied the emission enhancement dependence on the inter-pulse time separation and found it to be very significant for time separations less than 10 ns between the two laser pulses when using 6-ns pre-pulses. The behavior using a 150-ps pre-pulse was consistent with such plasmas displaying only weak self-absorption effects in the expanding plasma. The results demonstrate the advantage of using dual pulse irradiation to produce the brighter plasmas required for XUV applications.

  8. Plasma radiation dynamics with the upgraded Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet tomographical system in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tal, B.; Nagy, D.; Veres, G. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Association EURATOM, P. O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Labit, B.; Chavan, R.; Duval, B. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, EPFL SB CRPP, Station 13, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    We introduce an upgraded version of a tomographical system which is built up from Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet-type (AXUV) detectors and has been installed on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV). The system is suitable for the investigation of fast radiative processes usually observed in magnetically confined high-temperature plasmas. The upgrade consists in the detector protection by movable shutters, some modifications to correct original design errors and the improvement in the data evaluation techniques. The short-term sensitivity degradation of the detectors, which is caused by the plasma radiation itself, has been monitored and found to be severe. The results provided by the system are consistent with the measurements obtained with the usual plasma radiation diagnostics installed on TCV. Additionally, the coupling between core plasma radiation and plasma-wall interaction is revealed. This was impossible with other available diagnostics on TCV.

  9. The Formation of a Power Multi-Pulse Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation in the Pulse Plasma Diode of Low Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievgeniia V. Borgun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results are presented on experimental studies of the temporal characteristics of spike extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation in the spectral range of 12.2 ÷ 15.8 nm from the anode region of high-current (I = 40 kA pulsed discharges in tin vapor. It is observed that the intense multi-spike radiation in this range arises at an inductive stage of the discharge. It has been shown that the radiation spikes correlate with the sharp increase of active resistance and of pumped power, due to plasma heating by an electron beam, formed in the double layer of charged particles. It has been observed that for large number of spikes the conversion efficiency of pumped energy into radiationat double layer formation is essentially higher in comparison with collisional heating.

  10. Initiation and early evolution of the coronal mass ejection on 2009 May 13 from extreme-ultraviolet and white-light observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of the observations of a coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2009 May 13. The most important feature of these observations is that the CME was observed from the very early stage (the solar surface) up to a distance of 15 solar radii (R ☉ ). Below 2 R ☉ , we used the data from the TESIS extreme-ultraviolet telescopes obtained in the Fe 171 Å and He 304 Å lines, and above 2 R ☉ , we used the observations of the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. The CME was formed at a distance of 0.2-0.5R ☉ from the Sun's surface as a U-shaped structure, which was observed both in the 171 Å images and in the white light. Observations in the He 304 Å line showed that the CME was associated with an erupting prominence, which was not located above—as the standard model predicts—but rather in the lowest part of the U-shaped structure close to the magnetic X point. The prominence location can be explained with the CME breakout model. Estimates showed that CME mass increased with time. The CME trajectory was curved—its heliolatitude decreased with time. The CME started at a latitude of 50° and reached the ecliptic plane at distances of 2.5 R ☉ . The CME kinematics can be divided into three phases: initial acceleration, main acceleration, and propagation with constant velocity. After the CME, onset GOES registered a sub-A-class flare.

  11. Initiation and Early Evolution of the Coronal Mass Ejection on 2009 May 13 from Extreme-ultraviolet and White-light Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2014-10-01

    We present the results of the observations of a coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2009 May 13. The most important feature of these observations is that the CME was observed from the very early stage (the solar surface) up to a distance of 15 solar radii (R ⊙). Below 2 R ⊙, we used the data from the TESIS extreme-ultraviolet telescopes obtained in the Fe 171 Å and He 304 Å lines, and above 2 R ⊙, we used the observations of the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. The CME was formed at a distance of 0.2-0.5R ⊙ from the Sun's surface as a U-shaped structure, which was observed both in the 171 Å images and in the white light. Observations in the He 304 Å line showed that the CME was associated with an erupting prominence, which was not located above—as the standard model predicts—but rather in the lowest part of the U-shaped structure close to the magnetic X point. The prominence location can be explained with the CME breakout model. Estimates showed that CME mass increased with time. The CME trajectory was curved—its heliolatitude decreased with time. The CME started at a latitude of 50° and reached the ecliptic plane at distances of 2.5 R ⊙. The CME kinematics can be divided into three phases: initial acceleration, main acceleration, and propagation with constant velocity. After the CME, onset GOES registered a sub-A-class flare.

  12. Initiation and early evolution of the coronal mass ejection on 2009 May 13 from extreme-ultraviolet and white-light observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reva, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.; Kuzin, S. V., E-mail: reva.antoine@gmail.com [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 53 Leninskij Prospekt, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-01

    We present the results of the observations of a coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2009 May 13. The most important feature of these observations is that the CME was observed from the very early stage (the solar surface) up to a distance of 15 solar radii (R {sub ☉}). Below 2 R {sub ☉}, we used the data from the TESIS extreme-ultraviolet telescopes obtained in the Fe 171 Å and He 304 Å lines, and above 2 R {sub ☉}, we used the observations of the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs. The CME was formed at a distance of 0.2-0.5R {sub ☉} from the Sun's surface as a U-shaped structure, which was observed both in the 171 Å images and in the white light. Observations in the He 304 Å line showed that the CME was associated with an erupting prominence, which was not located above—as the standard model predicts—but rather in the lowest part of the U-shaped structure close to the magnetic X point. The prominence location can be explained with the CME breakout model. Estimates showed that CME mass increased with time. The CME trajectory was curved—its heliolatitude decreased with time. The CME started at a latitude of 50° and reached the ecliptic plane at distances of 2.5 R {sub ☉}. The CME kinematics can be divided into three phases: initial acceleration, main acceleration, and propagation with constant velocity. After the CME, onset GOES registered a sub-A-class flare.

  13. FIBRILLAR CHROMOSPHERIC SPICULE-LIKE COUNTERPARTS TO AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET AND SOFT X-RAY BLOWOUT CORONAL JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Harra, Louise K.

    2010-01-01

    We observe an erupting jet feature in a solar polar coronal hole, using data from Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), and X-Ray Telescope (XRT), with supplemental data from STEREO/EUVI. From extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) images we identify the erupting feature as a blowout coronal jet: in SXRs it is a jet with a bright base, and in EUV it appears as an eruption of relatively cool (∼50,000 K) material of horizontal size scale ∼30'' originating from the base of the SXR jet. In SOT Ca II H images, the most pronounced analog is a pair of thin (∼1'') ejections at the locations of either of the two legs of the erupting EUV jet. These Ca II features eventually rise beyond 45'', leaving the SOT field of view, and have an appearance similar to standard spicules except that they are much taller. They have velocities similar to that of 'type II' spicules, ∼100 km s -1 , and they appear to have spicule-like substructures splitting off from them with horizontal velocity ∼50 km s -1 , similar to the velocities of splitting spicules measured by Sterling et al. Motions of splitting features and of other substructures suggest that the macroscopic EUV jet is spinning or unwinding as it is ejected. This and earlier work suggest that a subpopulation of Ca II type II spicules are the Ca II manifestation of portions of larger scale erupting magnetic jets. A different subpopulation of type II spicules could be blowout jets occurring on a much smaller horizontal size scale than the event we observe here.

  14. Derivation of electron density and temperature from (S II) and (O II) line intensity ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J; Meaburn, J; Theokas, A C [Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept of Astronomy; Elliott, K H [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia)

    1980-12-01

    Line intensity ratios for (S II) and (O II) due to collisional de-excitation are briefly discussed. Comparison is made between various reaction rate parameters presented by separate investigators. Included are observations of ratios obtained from the Orion nebula which experimentally confirm the reaction rates of Pradhan as best representing the observed distribution of these ratios. (O II) and (S II) contour plots are also presented, which allow effective electron temperatures and densities to be estimated from pairs of line ratios.

  15. Low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-05-01

    We demonstrated a low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles. By using a low SnO2 concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris.

  16. Low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated a low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles. By using a low SnO 2 concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris

  17. Optical properties and electronic transitions of zinc oxide, ferric oxide, cerium oxide, and samarium oxide in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauly, N; Yubero, F; Espinós, J P

    2017-01-01

    Optical properties and electronic transitions of four oxides, namely zinc oxide, ferric oxide, cerium oxide, and samarium oxide, are determined in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy using primary electron energies in the range 0.3-2.0 ke...

  18. Cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy for diagnostics of high harmonics of the extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser light source at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.-J.; Fukuzawa, H.; Pruemper, G.; Ueda, K.; Okunishi, M.; Shimada, K.; Motomura, K.; Saito, N.; Iwayama, H.; Nagaya, K.; Yao, M.; Rudenko, A.; Ullrich, J.; Foucar, L.; Czasch, A.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Doerner, R.; Nagasono, M.; Higashiya, A.; Yabashi, M.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy apparatus dedicated to the experiments using the extreme-ultraviolet light pulses at the free-electron laser facility, SPring-8 Compact SASE Source test accelerator, in Japan and used it to measure spatial distributions of fundamental, second, and third harmonics at the end station.

  19. Responsivity calibration of the extreme ultraviolet spectrometer in the range of 175-435 Å

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We reported the relative responsivity calibration of the grazing-incidence flat-field EUV spectrometer between 175 and 435 Å by means of two methods. The first method is implemented by measuring the diffraction efficiency of the grating with synchrotron radiation light source. Considering the transmission efficiency and quantum efficiency of the other optical components in the spectrometer, the total responsivity was then obtained. The second one was carried out by measuring line emissions from C3+, N4+ and O3+ ions at Shanghai high temperature super conductor electron beam ion trap (SH-HtscEBIT. The EUV spectra were also simulated theoretically via a collisional radiative model. In the calculation, the second-order relativistic many-body perturbation theory approach based on the flexible atomic code was used to calculate the energy levels and transition rates; the close-coupling R-matrix approach and relativistic distorted wave method were utilized to calculate the collision strength of electron impact excitation. In comparison with the spectroscopic measurements at EBIT device, the differences between the measured and simulated relative line intensities were obtained. The responsivity calibration for the spectrometer was then achieved by a 3rd degree polynomial function fitting. Our measurement shows that the responsivity between 175 and 435 Å varies by factor of ∼ 46. The two results of calibration demonstrated a consistency within an average deviation of 24%. In addition, an evaluation of our calculations on C iv, N v and O iv line emissions in this wavelength region was given.

  20. Design, conception, and metrology of Extreme Ultraviolet multilayers mirrors resistant environments of space and EUV sources; Conception, realisation et metrologie de miroirs multicouches pour l'extreme ultraviolet resistants aux environnements du spatial et des sources EUV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecquet, Ch.

    2009-03-15

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum (EUV) wavelengths, which range between 13 nm and 40 nm, have many applications in science and technology. These have been developed for example in plasma physics (high order harmonics sources, X ray lasers). The work presented is about the design, the fabrication and the metrology of periodic multilayer mirrors. The main motivation of this study is to establish a cycle of development taking into account both the optical properties of reflective coatings (reflectivity, spectral selectivity, attenuation) and their behaviour under various environments. To improve the spectral selectivity, new multilayer periodic structures have been developed. They are characterized by a bimodal reflectance profile with adjustable attenuation. The effect of environment on the stability of performance is especially critical for the optical collection. The addition of material barriers has stabilized the performance of the peak reflectivity for over 200 h at 400 C deg. and it reduces the influence of other factors of instability on the reflectance. In addition, all structures have been fabricated successfully and evaluated in severe environments. (author)

  1. The extreme ultraviolet albedos of the planet Mercury and of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. H.; Broadfoot, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The albedo of the moon in the far UV was measured by Mariner 10 at a solar phase angle of 74 deg, and the geometric albedo of Mercury was measured in same wavelength range (584-1657 A) at solar phase angles ranging from 50 to 120 deg. For both the moon and Mercury there is a general increase in albedo for wavelengths decreasing from 1657 to 584 A. The ratio of the albedos of Mercury and the moon increases from about 0.6 to 0.8 in the range 600-1600 A. This merely points to a difference in the surfaces of the moon and Mercury, there being insufficient data to make any conclusions regarding the nature of the difference.

  2. Development of a thinned back-illuminated CMOS active pixel sensor for extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging in space science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltham, N.R.; Prydderch, M.; Mapson-Menard, H.; Pool, P.; Harris, A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe our programme to develop a large-format, science-grade, monolithic CMOS active pixel sensor for future space science missions, and in particular an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrograph for solar physics studies on ESA's Solar Orbiter. Our route to EUV sensitivity relies on adapting the back-thinning and rear-illumination techniques first developed for CCD sensors. Our first large-format sensor consists of 4kx3k 5 μm pixels fabricated on a 0.25 μm CMOS imager process. Wafer samples of these sensors have been thinned by e2v technologies with the aim of obtaining good sensitivity at EUV wavelengths. We present results from both front- and back-illuminated versions of this sensor. We also present our plans to develop a new sensor of 2kx2k 10 μm pixels, which will be fabricated on a 0.35 μm CMOS process. In progress towards this goal, we have designed a test-structure consisting of six arrays of 512x512 10 μm pixels. Each of the arrays has been given a different pixel design to allow verification of our models, and our progress towards optimizing a design for minimal system readout noise and maximum dynamic range. These sensors will also be back-thinned for characterization at EUV wavelengths

  3. A study of the terrestrial thermosphere by remote sensing of OI dayglow in the far and extreme ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The upper region of the Earth's atmosphere, the thermosphere, is a key part of the coupled solar-terrestrial system. An important method of obtaining information in the this region is through analysis of radiation excited through the interactions of the thermosphere with solar ionizing, extreme and far ultraviolet radiation. This dissertation presents one such study by the remote sensing of OI in the far and extreme ultraviolet dayglow. The research program included the development construction, and flight of a sounding rocket spectrometer to test this current understanding of the excitation and transport mechanisms of the OI 1356, 1304, 1027, and 989 angstrom emissions. This data set was analyzed using current electron and radiative transport models with the purpose of checking the viability of OI remote sensing; that is, whether existing models and input parameters are adequate to predict these detailed measurements. From discrepancies between modeled and measured emissions, inferences about these input parameters were made. Among other things, the data supports a 40% optically thick cascade contribution to the 1304 angstrom emission. From upper lying states corresponding to 1040, 1027 and 989 angstrom about half of this cascade has been accounted for in this study. There is also evidence that the Lyman β airglow from the geo-corona contributes a significant proportion (30-50%) to the OI 1027 angstrom feature. Furthermore, the photoelectron contribution to the 1027 angstrom feature appears to be underestimated in the current models by a factor of 20

  4. Extreme Ultraviolet Process Optimization for Contact Layer of 14 nm Node Logic and 16 nm Half Pitch Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-En; Chen, Alek

    2012-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is considered the most promising single exposure technology at the 27 nm half-pitch node and beyond. The imaging performance of ASML TWINSCAN NXE:3100 has been demonstrated to be able to resolve 26 nm Flash gate layer and 16 nm static random access memory (SRAM) metal layer with a 0.25 numerical aperture (NA) and conventional illumination. Targeting for high volume manufacturing, ASML TWINSCAN NXE:3300B, featuring a 0.33 NA lens with off-axis illumination, will generate a higher contrast aerial image due to improved diffraction order collection efficiency and is expected to reduce target dose via mask biasing. This work performed a simulation to determine how EUV high NA imaging benefits the mask rule check trade-offs required to achieve viable lithography solutions in two device application scenarios: a 14 nm node 6T-SRAM contact layer and a 16 nm half-pitch NAND Flash staggered contact layer. In each application, the three-dimensional mask effects versus Kirchhoff mask were also investigated.

  5. Radiation damage resistance of AlGaN detectors for applications in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkusky, Frank; Peth, Christian; Bayer, Armin; Mann, Klaus [Laser-Laboratorium-Goettingen e.V., Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); John, Joachim; Malinowski, Pawel E. [Interuniversity MicroElectronic Center (IMEC), Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-09-15

    We report on the fabrication of aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) Schottky-photodiode-based detectors. AlGaN layers were grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on Si(111) wafers. The diodes were characterized at a wavelength of 13.5 nm using a table-top extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiation source, consisting of a laser-produced xenon plasma and a Schwarzschild objective. The responsivity of the diodes was tested between EUV energies ranging from 320 nJ down to several picojoules. For low fluences, a linear responsivity of 7.14 mAs/J could be determined. Saturation starts at approximately 1 nJ, merging into a linear response of 0.113 mAs/J, which could be attributed to the photoeffect on the Au electrodes on top of the diode. Furthermore, degradation tests were performed up to an absolute dose of 3.3x10{sup 19} photons/cm{sup 2}. AlGaN photodiodes were compared to commercially available silicon-based photodetectors. For AlGaN diodes, responsivity does not change even for the highest EUV dose, whereas the response of the Si diode decreases linearly to {approx}93% after 2x10{sup 19} photons/cm{sup 2}.

  6. Sparkling extreme-ultraviolet bright dots observed with Hi-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Régnier, S.; Alexander, C. E.; Walsh, R. W.; Winebarger, A. R.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; Korreck, K. E.; Weber, M.; Mitchell, N.; Platt, S.; De Pontieu, B.; Title, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Kuzin, S.; DeForest, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    Observing the Sun at high time and spatial scales is a step toward understanding the finest and fundamental scales of heating events in the solar corona. The high-resolution coronal (Hi-C) instrument has provided the highest spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in the EUV wavelength range to date. Hi-C observed an active region on 2012 July 11 that exhibits several interesting features in the EUV line at 193 Å. One of them is the existence of short, small brightenings 'sparkling' at the edge of the active region; we call these EUV bright dots (EBDs). Individual EBDs have a characteristic duration of 25 s with a characteristic length of 680 km. These brightenings are not fully resolved by the SDO/AIA instrument at the same wavelength; however, they can be identified with respect to the Hi-C location of the EBDs. In addition, EBDs are seen in other chromospheric/coronal channels of SDO/AIA, which suggests a temperature between 0.5 and 1.5 MK. Based on their frequency in the Hi-C time series, we define four different categories of EBDs: single peak, double peak, long duration, and bursty. Based on a potential field extrapolation from an SDO/HMI magnetogram, the EBDs appear at the footpoints of large-scale, trans-equatorial coronal loops. The Hi-C observations provide the first evidence of small-scale EUV heating events at the base of these coronal loops, which have a free magnetic energy of the order of 10 26 erg.

  7. Counter-streaming flows in a giant quiet-Sun filament observed in the extreme ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diercke, A.; Kuckein, C.; Verma, M.; Denker, C.

    2018-03-01

    processes, i.e., spectral line absorption and absorption by hydrogen and helium continua, respectively. The horizontal flows reach mean flow speeds of about 0.5 km s-1 for all wavelength bands. The highest horizontal flow speeds are identified in the λ171 Å band with flow speeds of up to 2.5 km s-1. The results are averaged over a time series of 90 minutes. Because the LCT sampling window has finite width, a spatial degradation cannot be avoided leading to lower estimates of the flow velocities as compared to feature tracking or Doppler measurements. The counter-streaming flows cover about 15-20% of the whole area of the EUV filament channel and are located in the central part of the spine. Conclusions: Compared to the ground-based observations, the absence of seeing effects in AIA observations reveal counter-streaming flows in the filament even with a moderate image scale of 0. ''6 pixel-1. Using a contrast enhancement technique, these flows can be detected and quantified with LCT in different wavelengths. We confirm the omnipresence of counter-streaming flows also in giant quiet-Sun filaments. A movie associated to Fig. 6 is available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  8. Enhancement of conversion efficiency of extreme ultraviolet radiation from a liquid aqueous solution microjet target by use of dual laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Kawasaki, Keita; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-03-01

    We demonstrated a debris-free, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO II) nano-particles. By using a low SnO II concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris.

  9. Determination of the mass-ratio distribution, I: single-lined spectroscopic binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    For single-lined spectroscopic binary stars (sbi), the mass ratio q = Msec=Mprim is calculated from the mass function f(m), which is determined from observations. For statistical investigations of the mass-ratio distribution, the term sin^3 i, that remains in the cubic equation from which q is

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION ON THE STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J. H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011 (China); Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi, E-mail: guojh@ynao.ac.cn, E-mail: bjaffel@iap.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6 et CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2016-02-20

    By varying the profiles of stellar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we tested the influences of stellar EUV SEDs on the physical and chemical properties of an escaping atmosphere. We apply our model to study four exoplanets: HD 189733b, HD 209458b, GJ 436b, and Kepler-11b. We find that the total mass loss rates of an exoplanet, which are determined mainly by the integrated fluxes, are moderately affected by the profiles of the EUV SED, but the composition and species distributions in the atmosphere can be dramatically modified by the different profiles of the EUV SED. For exoplanets with a high hydrodynamic escape parameter (λ), the amount of atomic hydrogen produced by photoionization at different altitudes can vary by one to two orders of magnitude with the variation of stellar EUV SEDs. The effect of photoionization of H is prominent when the EUV SED is dominated by the low-energy spectral region (400–900 Å), which pushes the transition of H/H{sup +} to low altitudes. In contrast, the transition of H/H{sup +} moves to higher altitudes when most photons are concentrated in the high-energy spectral region (50–400 Å). For exoplanets with a low λ, the lower temperatures of the atmosphere make many chemical reactions so important that photoionization alone can no longer determine the composition of the escaping atmosphere. For HD 189733b, it is possible to explain the time variability of Lyα between 2010 and 2011 by a change in the EUV SED of the host K-type star, yet invoking only thermal H i in the atmosphere.

  11. Study of CD variation caused by the black border effect and out-of-band radiation in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weimin; Niroomand, Ardavan; Lorusso, Gian F.; Boone, Robert; Lucas, Kevin; Demmerle, Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    Although extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) remains a promising candidate for semiconductor device manufacturing of the 1× nm half pitch node and beyond, many technological burdens have to be overcome. The "field edge effect" in EUVL is one of them. The image border region of an EUV mask, also known as the "black border" (BB), reflects a few percent of the incident EUV light, resulting in a leakage of light into neighboring exposure fields, especially at the corner of the field where three adjacent exposures take place. This effect significantly impacts on critical dimension (CD) uniformity (CDU) across the exposure field. To avoid this phenomenon, a light-shielding border is introduced by etching away the entire absorber and multilayer at the image border region of the EUV mask. We present a method of modeling the field edge effect (also called the BB effect) by using rigorous lithography simulation with a calibrated resist model. An additional "flare level" at the field edge is introduced on top of the exposure tool flare map to account for the BB effect. The parameters in this model include the reflectivity and the width of the BB, which are mainly determining the leakage of EUV light and its influence range, respectively. Another parameter is the transition width which represents the half shadow effect of the reticle masking blades. By setting the corresponding parameters, the simulation results match well the experimental results obtained at the IMEC's NXE:3100 EUV exposure tool. Moreover, these results indicate that the out-of-band (OoB) radiation also contributes to the CDU. Using simulation, we can also determine the OoB effect rigorously using the methodology of an "effective mask blank." The study demonstrates that the impact of BB and OoB effects on CDU can be well predicted by simulations.

  12. Extreme ultraviolet interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-01

    EUV lithography is a promising and viable candidate for circuit fabrication with 0.1-micron critical dimension and smaller. In order to achieve diffraction-limited performance, all-reflective multilayer-coated lithographic imaging systems operating near 13-nm wavelength and 0.1 NA have system wavefront tolerances of 0.27 nm, or 0.02 waves RMS. Owing to the highly-sensitive resonant reflective properties of multilayer mirrors and extraordinarily tight tolerances set forth for their fabrication, EUV optical systems require at-wavelength EUV interferometry for final alignment and qualification. This dissertation discusses the development and successful implementation of high-accuracy EUV interferometric techniques. Proof-of-principle experiments with a prototype EUV point-diffraction interferometer for the measurement of Fresnel zoneplate lenses first demonstrated sub-wavelength EUV interferometric capability. These experiments spurred the development of the superior phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI), which has been implemented for the testing of an all-reflective lithographic-quality EUV optical system. Both systems rely on pinhole diffraction to produce spherical reference wavefronts in a common-path geometry. Extensive experiments demonstrate EUV wavefront-measuring precision beyond 0.02 waves RMS. EUV imaging experiments provide verification of the high-accuracy of the point-diffraction principle, and demonstrate the utility of the measurements in successfully predicting imaging performance. Complementary to the experimental research, several areas of theoretical investigation related to the novel PS/PDI system are presented. First-principles electromagnetic field simulations of pinhole diffraction are conducted to ascertain the upper limits of measurement accuracy and to guide selection of the pinhole diameter. Investigations of the relative merits of different PS/PDI configurations accompany a general study of the most significant sources of systematic measurement errors. To overcome a variety of experimental difficulties, several new methods in interferogram analysis and phase-retrieval were developed: the Fourier-Transform Method of Phase-Shift Determination, which uses Fourier-domain analysis to improve the accuracy of phase-shifting interferometry; the Fourier-Transform Guided Unwrap Method, which was developed to overcome difficulties associated with a high density of mid-spatial-frequency blemishes and which uses a low-spatial-frequency approximation to the measured wavefront to guide the phase unwrapping in the presence of noise; and, finally, an expedient method of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization which facilitates polynomial basis transformations in wave-front surface fitting procedures.

  13. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey - III. An Observed Link Between AGN Eddington Ratio and Narrow-Emission-Line Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Schawinski, Kevin; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lamperti, Isabella; Ricci, Claudio; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Berney, Simon; Crenshaw, D. Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the observed relationship between black hole mass (M(sub BH)), bolometric luminosity (L(sub bol)) and Eddington ratio (lambda(sub Edd)) with optical emission-line ratios ([N II] lambda6583/Halpha, [S II]lambda-lamda6716, 6731/Halpha, [O I] lamda6300/Halpha, [O III] lamda5007/Hbeta, [Ne III] lamda3869/Hbeta and He II lamda4686/Hbeta) of hard X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. We show that the [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio exhibits a significant correlation with lamda(sub Edd) (R(sub Pear) = -0.44, p-value 3 x 10(exp. -13) sigma = 0.28 dex), and the correlation is not solely driven by M(sub BH) or L(sub bol). The observed correlation between [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio and M(sub BH) is stronger than the correlation with L(sub bol), but both are weaker than the lamda(sub Edd) correlation. This implies that the large-scale narrow lines of AGN host galaxies carry information about the accretion state of the AGN central engine. We propose that [N II] lamda6583/Halpha is a useful indicator of Eddington ratio with 0.6 dex of rms scatter, and that it can be used to measure lambda(sub Edd) and thus M(sub BH) from the measured L(sub bol), even for high-redshift obscured AGN. We briefly discuss possible physical mechanisms behind this correlation, such as the mass-metallicity relation, X-ray heating, and radiatively driven outflows.

  14. Millimeter-wave Line Ratios and Sub-beam Volume Density Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronmico Nacional (IGN), C/Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Schruba, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bigiel, Frank [Institute für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Schinnerer, Eva [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kepley, Amanda [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Blanc, Guillermo A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy, Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and Joint Space Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cormier, Diane; Jiménez-Donaire, Maria J. [Max Planck Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Hughes, Annie [CNRS, IRAP, 9 av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2017-02-01

    We explore the use of mm-wave emission line ratios to trace molecular gas density when observations integrate over a wide range of volume densities within a single telescope beam. For observations targeting external galaxies, this case is unavoidable. Using a framework similar to that of Krumholz and Thompson, we model emission for a set of common extragalactic lines from lognormal and power law density distributions. We consider the median density of gas that produces emission and the ability to predict density variations from observed line ratios. We emphasize line ratio variations because these do not require us to know the absolute abundance of our tracers. Patterns of line ratio variations have the potential to illuminate the high-end shape of the density distribution, and to capture changes in the dense gas fraction and median volume density. Our results with and without a high-density power law tail differ appreciably; we highlight better knowledge of the probability density function (PDF) shape as an important area. We also show the implications of sub-beam density distributions for isotopologue studies targeting dense gas tracers. Differential excitation often implies a significant correction to the naive case. We provide tabulated versions of many of our results, which can be used to interpret changes in mm-wave line ratios in terms of adjustments to the underlying density distributions.

  15. Electron-impact excitation collision strengths and theoretical line intensities for transitions in S III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieve, M. F. R.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Hudson, C. E. [Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Keenan, F. P., E-mail: c.ramsbottom@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    We present Maxwellian-averaged effective collision strengths for the electron-impact excitation of S III over a wide range of electron temperatures of astrophysical importance, log T{sub e} (K) = 3.0-6.0. The calculation incorporates 53 fine-structure levels arising from the six configurations—3s {sup 2}3p {sup 2}, 3s3p {sup 3}, 3s {sup 2}3p3d, 3s {sup 2}3p4s, 3s {sup 2}3p4p, and 3s {sup 2}3p4d—giving rise to 1378 individual lines and is undertaken using the recently developed RMATRX II plus FINE95 suite of codes. A detailed comparison is made with a previous R-matrix calculation and significant differences are found for some transitions. The atomic data are subsequently incorporated into the modeling code CLOUDY to generate line intensities for a range of plasma parameters, with emphasis on allowed ultraviolet extreme-ultraviolet emission lines detected from the Io plasma torus. Electron density-sensitive line ratios are calculated with the present atomic data and compared with those from CHIANTI v7.1, as well as with Io plasma torus spectra obtained by Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer. The present line intensities are found to agree well with the observational results and provide a noticeable improvement on the values predicted by CHIANTI.

  16. On the line intensity ratios of prominent Si II, Si III, and Si IV multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djenize, S.; Sreckovic, A.; Bukvic, S.

    2010-01-01

    Line intensities of singly, doubly and triply ionized silicon (Si II, Si III, and Si IV, respectively) belonging to the prominent higher multiplets, are of interest in laboratory and astrophysical plasma diagnostics. We measured these line intensities in the emission spectra of pulsed helium discharge. The Si II line intensity ratios in the 3s3p 22 D-3s 2 4p 2 P o , 3s 2 3d 2 D-3s 2 4f 2 F o , and 3s 2 4p 2 P o -3s 2 4d 2 D transitions, the Si III line intensity ratios in the 3s3d 3 D-3s4p 3 P o , 3s4p 3 P o -3s4d 3 D, 3s4p 3 P o -3s5s 3 S, 3s4s 3 S-3s4p 3 P o , and 3s4f 3 F o -3s5g 3 G transitions, and the Si IV line intensity ratios in the 4p 2 P o -4d 2 D and 4p 2 P o -5s 2 S transitions were obtained in a helium plasma at an electron temperature of about 17,000 ± 2000 K. Line shapes were recorded using a spectrograph and an ICCD camera as a highly-sensitive detection system. The silicon atoms were evaporated from a Pyrex discharge tube designed for the purpose. They represent impurities in the optically thin helium plasma at the silicon ionic wavelengths investigated. The line intensity ratios obtained were compared with those available in the literature, and with values calculated on the basis of available transition probabilities. The experimental data corresponded well with line intensity ratios calculated using the transition probabilities obtained from a Multi Configuration Hartree-Fock approximation for Si III and Si IV spectra. We recommend corrections of some Si II transition probabilities.

  17. Anomalously high intercombination line ratios in symbiotic stars; extreme Bowen pumping?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastner, S.O.; Bhatia, A.K.; Feibelman, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    We assemble International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of the ratio of the O III intercombination lines near 1660 A, showing that the observed ratios in symbiotic stars are significantly higher than the theoretically predicted optically thin limit of 2.5. The presence of an enhancing physical process is thereby indicated. It is suggested that Bowen pumping of the lower level of the 1666.2 A line in an 'external saturation' limit, coupled with appreciable optical depth, could logically explain the high ratios. Some tentative evidence for this is presented and the relevance of far-infrared observations of the O III 51.8 and 88.3 μm lines in symbiotic sources is emphasized. (author)

  18. Orientation of X Lines in Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection-Mass Ratio Dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M.

    2015-01-01

    Using fully kinetic simulations, we study the X line orientation of magnetic reconnection in an asymmetric configuration. A spatially localized perturbation is employed to induce a single X line, which has sufficient freedom to choose its orientation in three-dimensional systems. The effect of ion to electron mass ratio is investigated, and the X line appears to bisect the magnetic shear angle across the current sheet in the large mass ratio limit. The orientation can generally be deduced by scanning through the corresponding 2-D simulations to find the reconnection plane that maximizes the peak reconnection electric field. The deviation from the bisection angle in the lower mass ratio limit is consistent with the orientation shift of the most unstable linear tearing mode in an electron-scale current sheet.

  19. Temperature Measurements in the Solar Transition Region Using N III Line Intensity Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, R.; Doschek, G. A.; Laming, J. M.; Feldman, U.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    UV emission from B-like N and O ions a rather rare opportunity for recording spectral lines in a narrow wavelength range that can potentially be used to derive temperatures relevant to the solar transition region. In these ions, the line intensity ratios of the type (2s2p(sup 2) - 2p(sup 3)) / (2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2)) are very sensitive to the electron temperature. Additionally, the lines involving the ratios fall within a range of only - 12 A; in N III the lines fall in the 980 - 992 A range and in O IV in the 780 - 791 A range. In this work, we explore the use of these atomic systems, primarily in N III, for temperature diagnostics of the transition region by analyzing UV spectra obtained by the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer flown on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The N III temperature-sensitive line ratios are measured in more than 60 observations. Most of the measured ratios correspond to temperatures in the range 5.7x10(exp 4) - 6.7x10(exp 4) K. This range is considerably lower than the calculated temperature of maximum abundance of N III, which is approx. 7.6x10(exp 4) K. Detailed analysis of the spectra further indicates that the measured ratios are probably somewhat overestimated due to resonant scattering effects in the 2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2) lines and small blends in the 2s2p(sup 2) - 2p3 lines. Actual lower ratios would only increase the disagreement between the ionization balance calculations and present temperature measurements based on a collisional excitation model. In the case of the O IV spectra, we determined that due to the close proximity in wavelength of the weak line (2s2p(sup 2)-2p3 transitions) to a strong Ne VIII line, sufficiently accurate ratio measurements cannot be obtained. Subject headings: atomic data --- atomic processes --- Sun: transition region --- Sun: U V radiation --- techniques: spectroscopic

  20. The measurement and interpretation of Ne VII spectral line intensity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, J.

    1983-03-01

    Results are presented for the measurement, using the branching ratios calibration method, of the spectral intensities of Ne VII lines emitted from a theta-pinch plasma whose electron temperature and density have been found by laser scattering and alternate techniques. (author)

  1. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of nightglow emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric night airglow emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been studied with spectrochemical light sources together with a spectrometer. A linear graph was obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. To study this effect data from a number of different photometer investigations of night airglow emissions at different times and places have been used. (author)

  2. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experimental Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang, E-mail: yjshi@snu.ac.kr; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Chung, Kyoung-Jae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soo-Ghee [Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advanced Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of H{sub α} and H{sub β} radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  3. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of auroral emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric auroral emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been found in nightglow emissions from photometer measurements and in the spectrochemical field from studies of optical light sources. Linear graphs have been obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. This new effect has been studied with a spectrophotometer in auroral emissions, where linear graphs have been obtained on different auroral occasions. By doing such studies of auroral light it is possible to see the importance of the inelastic scattering cross section between electrons - atoms and electrons - molecules. In this way it has shown to be possible to determine the mean energy of the interacting thermal electrons that are active in the different auroral phases. (author)

  4. On the Use of Line Depth Ratios to Measure Starspot Properties on Magnetically Active Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic techniques have proven to be effective ways to measure the properties of dark, cool starspots on magnetically active stars. Recently, a technique was introduced using atomic line depth ratios (LDRs) to measure starspot properties. Carefully reproducing this technique using a new set of spectroscopic observations of active stars, we find that the LDR technique encounters difficulties, specifically by overestimating spot temperatures (because the atomic lines blend with titanium oxide absorption in cooler spots) and by not tightly constraining the filling factor of spots. While the use of LDRs for active star studies has great promise, we believe that these concerns need to be addressed before the technique is more widely applied. This paper includes data taken at McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  5. Optimization of Sex Ratio in a Selection Plan for Palas Prolificacy Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Popa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper work is to optimize the sex ratio in a selection plan, according to model developed by King (1961, which will be proposed to be applied for prolificacy improvement in Prolific Line Palas. The method used in this paper work is modeling, which exist in the most animal breeding scientifically papers. After the simulations, we observed that the most convenient variant was that which prefigure use of 13 rams on reproduction activity. This variant offer a genetic gain per generation by 0.47497 additive standard deviations.

  6. Harmonium: A pulse preserving source of monochromatic extreme ultraviolet (30–110 eV radiation for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ojeda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A tuneable repetition rate extreme ultraviolet source (Harmonium for time resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids is presented. High harmonic generation produces 30–110 eV photons, with fluxes ranging from ∼2 × 1011 photons/s at 36 eV to ∼2 × 108 photons/s at 100 eV. Four different gratings in a time-preserving grating monochromator provide either high energy resolution (0.2 eV or high temporal resolution (40 fs between 30 and 110 eV. Laser assisted photoemission was used to measure the temporal response of the system. Vibrational progressions in gas phase water were measured demonstrating the ∼0.2 eV energy resolution.

  7. The Dual-channel Extreme Ultraviolet Continuum Experiment: Sounding Rocket EUV Observations of Local B Stars to Determine Their Potential for Supplying Intergalactic Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Nicholas; Green, James C.; France, Kevin; Stocke, John T.; Nell, Nicholas

    2018-06-01

    We describe the scientific motivation and technical development of the Dual-channel Extreme Ultraviolet Continuum Experiment (DEUCE). DEUCE is a sounding rocket payload designed to obtain the first flux-calibrated spectra of two nearby B stars in the EUV 650-1150Å bandpass. This measurement will help in understanding the ionizing flux output of hot B stars, calibrating stellar models and commenting on the potential contribution of such stars to reionization. DEUCE consists of a grazing incidence Wolter II telescope, a normal incidence holographic grating, and the largest (8” x 8”) microchannel plate detector ever flown in space, covering the 650-1150Å band in medium and low resolution channels. DEUCE will launch on December 1, 2018 as NASA/CU sounding rocket mission 36.331 UG, observing Epsilon Canis Majoris, a B2 II star.

  8. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON AND EMISSION LINE RATIOS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STARBURST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Riffel, R.

    2010-01-01

    We study the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands, ionic emission lines, and mid-infrared continuum properties in a sample of 171 emission line galaxies taken from the literature plus 15 new active galactic nucleus (AGN) Spitzer spectra. We normalize the spectra at λ = 23 μm and grouped them according to the type of nuclear activity. The continuum shape steeply rises for longer wavelengths and can be fitted with a warm blackbody distribution of T ∼ 150-300 K. The brightest PAH spectral bands (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μm) and the forbidden emission lines of [Si II] 34.8 μm, [Ar II] 6.9 μm, [S III] 18.7 and 33.4 μm were detected in all the starbursts and in ∼80% of the Seyfert 2. Taking under consideration only the PAH bands at 7.7 μm, 11.3 μm, and 12.7 μm, we find that they are present in ∼80% of the Seyfert 1, while only half of this type of activity show the 6.2 μm and 8.6 μm PAH bands. The observed intensity ratios for neutral and ionized PAHs (6.2 μm/7.7 μm x 11.3 μm/7.7 μm) were compared to theoretical intensity ratios, showing that AGNs have higher ionization fraction and larger PAH molecules (≥180 carbon atoms) than SB galaxies. The ratio between the ionized (7.7 μm) and the neutral PAH bands (8.6 μm and 11.3 μm) are distributed over different ranges for AGNs and SB galaxies, suggesting that these ratios could depend on the ionization fraction, as well as on the hardness of the radiation field. The ratio between the 7.7 μm and 11.3 μm bands is nearly constant with the increase of [Ne III]15.5 μm/[Ne II] 12.8 μm, indicating that the fraction of ionized to neutral PAH bands does not depend on the hardness of the radiation field. The equivalent width of both PAH features show the same dependence (strongly decreasing) with [Ne III]/[Ne II], suggesting that the PAH molecules, emitting either ionized (7.7 μm) or neutral (11.3 μm) bands, may be destroyed with the increase of the hardness of the radiation field.

  9. Dual-Frequency Impedance Transformer Using Coupled-Line For Ultra-High Transforming Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Barik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new type of dual-frequency impedance transformer is presented for ultra-high transforming ratio. The proposed configuration consists of parallel coupled-line, series transmission lines and short-ended stubs. The even and odd-mode analysis is applied to obtain the design equations and hence to provide an accurate solution. Three examples of the dual-frequency transformer with load impedance of 500, 1000 and 1500 Ω are designed to study the matching capability and bandwidth property. To prove the frequency agility of the proposed network, three prototypes of dual-frequency impedance transformer with transforming ratio of 10, 20 and 30 are fabricated and tested. The measured return loss is greater than 15 dB at two operating frequencies for all the prototypes. Also, the bandwidth is more than 60 MHz at each frequency band for all the prototypes. The measured return loss is found in good agreement with the circuit and full-wave simulations.

  10. Electron temperature measurement by a helium line intensity ratio method in helicon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, R.F.; Kline, J.L.; Scime, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    Electron temperature measurements in helicon plasmas are difficult. The presence of intense rf fields in the plasma complicates the interpretation of Langmuir probe measurements. Furthermore, the non-negligible ion temperature in the plasma considerably shortens the lifetime of conventional Langmuir probes. A spectroscopic technique based on the relative intensities of neutral helium lines is used to measure the electron temperature in the HELIX (Hot hELicon eXperiment) plasma [P. A. Keiter et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 2741 (1997)]. This nonintrusive diagnostic is based on the fact that electron impact excitation rate coefficients for helium singlet and triplet states differ as a function of the electron temperature. The different aspects related to the validity of this technique to measure the electron temperature in rf generated plasmas are discussed in this paper. At low plasma density (n e ≤10 11 cm -3 ), this diagnostic is believed to be very reliable since the population of the emitting level can be easily estimated with reasonable accuracy by assuming that all excitation originates from the ground state (steady-state corona model). At higher density, secondary processes (excitation transfer, excitation from metastable, cascading) become more important and a more complex collisional radiative model must be used to predict the electron temperature. In this work, different helium transitions are examined and a suitable transition pair is identified. For an electron temperature of 10 eV, the line ratio is measured as a function of plasma density and compared to values predicted by models. The measured line ratio function is in good agreement with theory and the data suggest that the excitation transfer is the dominant secondary process in high-density plasmas

  11. Stellar and Laboratory XUV/EUV Line Ratios in Fe XVIII and Fe XIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träbert, Elmar; Beiersdorfer, P.; Clementson, J.

    2011-09-01

    A so-called XUV excess has been suspected with the relative fluxes of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX lines in XUV and EUV spectra of the star Capella as observed by the Chandra spacecraft [1] when comparing the observations with simulations of stellar spectra based on APEC or FAC. We have addressed this problem by laboratory studies using the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT). Our understanding of the EBIT spectrum is founded on work by Brown et al. [2]. The electron density of the electron beam in an EBIT is compatible to the density in energetic stellar flares. In our experiments, the relative detection efficiencies of two flat-field grating spectrographs operating in the EUV (near 100 Å) and XUV (near 16 Å) ranges have been determined using the calculated branching ratio of 1-3 and 2-3 transition in the H-like spectrum O VIII. FAC calculations assuming several electron beam energies and electron densities serve to correct the EBIT observations for the Maxwellian excitation in a natural plasma. In the EUV, the line intensity pattern predicted by FAC agrees reasonably well with the laboratory and Capella observations. In the XUV wavelength range, agreement of laboratory and astrophysical line intensities is patchy. The spectral simulation results from FAC are much closer to stellar and laboratory observation than those obtained by APEC. Instead of claiming an XUV excess, the XUV/EUV line intensities can be explained by a somewhat higher temperature of Capella than the previously assumed T=6 MK. This work was performed under the auspices of the USDoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and was supported by the NASA under work order NNH07AF81I issued by the APRA Program. E.T. acknowledges support by DFG Germany. 1. P. Desai et al., ApJ 625, L59 (2005). 2. G. V. Brown et al., ApJS 140, 589 (2002).

  12. Spectral filter for splitting a beam with electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft X-Ray (Soft X) and the infrared (IR) wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik; van den Boogaard, Toine; van den Boogaard, A.J.R.; van der Meer, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral filter for splitting the primary radiation from a generated beam with primary electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation) or soft X-ray (soft X) wavelength range and parasitic radiation having a wavelength in the infrared wavelength range (IR

  13. Thermal transport studies using extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy: Final report for the period 31 August 1984-1 January 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.

    1986-12-01

    In view of the crucial importance of thermal transport for the hydrodynamic efficiency of inertial fusion, a complementary approach to the well established x-ray method for burnthrough measurements had been proposed using longer wavelength lines. Basically, this will allow access to a lower temperature region, possibly including some preheat. As proposed, a theoretical program was initiated to enhance the University of Rochester computer code by adding the various atomic processes needed to calculate quantitatively lithium-like line spectra. We contributed to the University of Rochester program through our various tests of atomic physics packages in LILAC. In April 1986, successful measurements were made for aluminum and titanium targets overcoated with up to 9 to 11 μm, respectively, of CH. A description of these measurements and of the conclusions reached by comparison with the code simulation constitutes the bulk of this report

  14. Spectroscopic diagnostics of NIF ICF implosions using line ratios of Kr dopant in the ignition capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Arati; Ouart, Nicholas; Giuiani, John; Clark, Robert; Schneider, Marilyn; Scott, Howard; Chen, Hui; Ma, Tammy

    2017-10-01

    X ray spectroscopy is used on the NIF to diagnose the plasma conditions in the ignition target in indirect drive ICF implosions. A platform is being developed at NIF where small traces of krypton are used as a dopant to the fuel gas for spectroscopic diagnostics using krypton line emissions. The fraction of krypton dopant was varied in the experiments and was selected so as not to perturb the implosion. Our goal is to use X-ray spectroscopy of dopant line ratios produced by the hot core that can provide a precise measurement of electron temperature. Simulations of the krypton spectra using a 1 in 104 atomic fraction of krypton in direct-drive exploding pusher with a range of electron temperatures and densities show discrepancies when different atomic models are used. We use our non-LTE atomic model with a detailed fine-structure level atomic structure and collisional-radiative rates to investigate the krypton spectra at the same conditions. Synthetic spectra are generated with a detailed multi-frequency radiation transport scheme from the emission regions of interest to analyze the experimental data with 0.02% Kr concentration and compare and contrast with the existing simulations at LLNL. Work supported by DOE/NNSA; Part of this work was also done under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. On-line component ratio measurement of oil/gas/water mixtures using an admittance sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J A

    1984-01-01

    The operator of a production platform is primarily interested in which types of fluids a well is producing and how quickly these different components are being produced. The component ratio and production rate of a well vary during the life of a field. To optimize production, measurement of each well's output is thus desirable. Current designs for subsea production systems lack means of continuously measuring three-component flows. A new method of component ratio measurement is described. The fraction of oil, gas and water flowing between two insulated electrode plates is determined by measuring both the electrical conductance and suseptance across the sensor. A preliminary evaluation of the new measurement system has been performed using a process oil/ water/air mixture. The method is not limited to small pipe diameters. The only possible limitation is that for low velocities in very large pipe diameters an in-line mixer may be required. Advantages of this new system are that real-time measurement of void fraction and water content is possible if a non-intrusive rugged sensor is used, and there are no range limitations, as each component may be measured for any given concentration. 4 references.

  16. What makes red quasars red?. Observational evidence for dust extinction from line ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin

    2018-02-01

    Red quasars are very red in the optical through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which is possibly due to dust extinction in their host galaxies as expected in a scenario in which red quasars are an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies and unobscured type 1 quasars. However, alternative mechanisms also exist to explain their red colors: (i) an intrinsically red continuum; (ii) an unusual high covering factor of the hot dust component, that is, CFHD = LHD/Lbol, where the LHD is the luminosity from the hot dust component and the Lbol is the bolometric luminosity; and (iii) a moderate viewing angle. In order to investigate why red quasars are red, we studied optical and NIR spectra of 20 red quasars at z 0.3 and 0.7, where the usage of the NIR spectra allowed us to look into red quasar properties in ways that are little affected by dust extinction. The Paschen to Balmer line ratios were derived for 13 red quasars and the values were found to be 10 times higher than unobscured type 1 quasars, suggesting a heavy dust extinction with AV > 2.5 mag. Furthermore, the Paschen to Balmer line ratios of red quasars are difficult to explain with plausible physical conditions without adopting the concept of the dust extinction. The CFHD of red quasars are similar to, or marginally higher than, those of unobscured type 1 quasars. The Eddington ratios, computed for 19 out of 20 red quasars, are higher than those of unobscured type 1 quasars (by factors of 3-5), and hence the moderate viewing angle scenario is disfavored. Consequently, these results strongly suggest the dust extinction that is connected to an enhanced nuclear activity as the origin of the red color of red quasars, which is consistent with the merger-driven quasar evolution scenario. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A31

  17. THE MUSCLES TREASURY SURVEY. II. INTRINSIC LY α AND EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF K AND M DWARFS WITH EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Redfield, Seth [Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459-0123 (United States); Schneider, P. Christian [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Wood, Brian E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Froning, Cynthia [Dept. of Astronomy C1400, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Miguel, Yamila [Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, CNRS, Blvd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice cedex 4 (France); Rugheimer, Sarah [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Irvine Building, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9AL (United Kingdom); Walkowicz, Lucianne, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [The Adler Planetarium, 1300 S Lakeshore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of low-mass (K- and M-type) stars play a critical role in the heating and chemistry of exoplanet atmospheres, but are not observationally well-constrained. Direct observations of the intrinsic flux of the Ly α line (the dominant source of UV photons from low-mass stars) are challenging, as interstellar H i absorbs the entire line core for even the closest stars. To address the existing gap in empirical constraints on the UV flux of K and M dwarfs, the MUSCLES Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Survey has obtained UV observations of 11 nearby M and K dwarfs hosting exoplanets. This paper presents the Ly α and extreme-UV spectral reconstructions for the MUSCLES targets. Most targets are optically inactive, but all exhibit significant UV activity. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to correct the observed Ly α profiles for interstellar absorption, and we employ empirical relations to compute the extreme-UV SED from the intrinsic Ly α flux in ∼100 Å bins from 100–1170 Å. The reconstructed Ly α profiles have 300 km s{sup −1} broad cores, while >1% of the total intrinsic Ly α flux is measured in extended wings between 300 and 1200 km s{sup −1}. The Ly α surface flux positively correlates with the Mg ii surface flux and negatively correlates with the stellar rotation period. Stars with larger Ly α surface flux also tend to have larger surface flux in ions formed at higher temperatures, but these correlations remain statistically insignificant in our sample of 11 stars. We also present H i column density measurements for 10 new sightlines through the local interstellar medium.

  18. Reply to “Comment on ‘Ultrafast Demagnetization Measurements Using Extreme Ultraviolet Light: Comparison of Electronic and Magnetic Contributions’ ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Turgut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the following, we show that the conclusions of our article titled “Ultrafast Demagnetization Measurements Using Extreme Ultraviolet Light: Comparison of Electronic and Magnetic Contributions” are correct. The Comment of Vodungbo et al. argues that a unique determination of the refractive index variation over time is not possible using the data set presented in our paper. Furthermore, it was suggested that the lack of uniqueness allows for the possibility of a very specific time-dependent trajectory of the refractive index in the complex plane that could give rise to a large nonmagnetic modulation of the measured asymmetry, in spite of a negligible change in the s-polarized reflectivity. In this Reply, we conclusively show that any nonmagnetic contribution to the measured asymmetry is indeed negligible (<2%, below the noise level of the magnetic-asymmetry measurements. First, we use a few additional measurements to unambiguously rule out the presence of any nonmagnetic contributions to the signal. Second, we show that the scenario proposed by Vodungbo et al. would require both exotic time and energy dependences of the refractive index near the M edge that are extremely unlikely (virtually impossible in real materials. Thus, the conclusions of our original article are preserved.

  19. High brightness extreme ultraviolet (at 13.5 nm) emission from time-of-flight controlled discharges with coaxial fuel injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Hotta, Eiki; Yokoyama, Takuma; Sato, Hiroto; Zhidkov, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from discharge produced plasma with the coaxial injection of fuel vapor (tin and lithium) produced by laser ablation is experimentally studied. Multiple plasma pinches preceding a strong and long recombination radiation of EUV are observed in the first half cycle of a sinusoidal discharge current. Due to the time-of-flight control type of the discharge, the shape of pinch radiation pulses is almost identical. With the coaxial injection of time-of-flight controlled discharges, the highest brightness of EUV emission (maximum extracted energy of 244.3 mJ/2π sr per pulse with the emitter size of ∼1x0.3 mm 2 in full width at half maximum) is provided with efficiency exceeding 2% of deposited energy into the plasma (or 1% of dissipated energy in the discharge) due to a much better matching with the optimal plasma parameters in the recombination regime and a decrease in the off-duty factor. Stability of emitting plasma of the repetitive pinches is essentially improved with use of a second laser pulse

  20. Photoionization of resonantly driven atomic states by an extreme ultraviolet-free-electron laser: intensity dependence and renormalization of Rabi frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, B; Brand, A; Glässl, M; Vagov, A; Axt, V M; Pietsch, U

    2013-01-01

    We analyze theoretically the high intensity photoionization dynamics of a system with two atomic states resonantly coupled by coherent extreme ultraviolet laser radiation that also gives rise to the ionization. The ground state occupation of such a system is shown to exhibit damped Rabi oscillations. The corresponding ionization, which is responsible for the damping, scales almost linearly with the field intensity when the pulse length exceeds the Rabi period. For shorter pulses a quadratic scaling is found. The Rabi frequency is shifted compared to its value for an isolated two-level system. The shift increases with excitation intensity and can acquire a high percentage of the unrenormalized frequency at high intensities. Analytical results obtained within a simplified solvable model demonstrate that the damping and the shift both result from the coupling of the discrete states to the ionization continuum and are therefore closely related. Numerical simulations for a two-electron system reveal at high intensities the importance of off-resonant ionization channels. (paper)

  1. High-order nonlinear optical processes in ablated carbon-containing materials: Recent approaches in development of the nonlinear spectroscopy using harmonic generation in the extreme ultraviolet range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeev, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    The nonlinear spectroscopy using harmonic generation in the extreme ultraviolet range became a versatile tool for the analysis of the optical, structural and morphological properties of matter. The carbon-contained materials have shown the advanced properties among other studied species, which allowed both the definition of the role of structural properties on the nonlinear optical response and the analysis of the fundamental features of carbon as the attractive material for generation of coherent short-wavelength radiation. We review the studies of the high-order harmonic generation by focusing ultrashort pulses into the plasmas produced during laser ablation of various organic compounds. We discuss the role of ionic transitions of ablated carbon-containing molecules on the harmonic yield. We also show the similarities and distinctions of the harmonic and plasma spectra of organic compounds and graphite. We discuss the studies of the generation of harmonics up to the 27th order (λ = 29.9 nm) of 806 nm radiation in the boron carbide plasma and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this target compared with the ingredients comprising B4C (solid boron and graphite) by comparing plasma emission and harmonic spectra from three species. We also show that the coincidence of harmonic and plasma emission wavelengths in most cases does not cause the enhancement or decrease of the conversion efficiency of this harmonic.

  2. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, S. M.; Eparvier, F.; McCaffrey, M.; Murillo, M.

    2007-12-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA SDO Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement MESA) program. For many of the students, this was the only science option available to them due to language limitations. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post-assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The MESA-EVE course won recognition as a Colorado MESA Program of Excellence and is being offered again in 2007-08. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Other EVE EPO includes professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  3. A Partnership between English Language Learners and a Team of Rocket Scientists: EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, S. M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Eparvier, F.; Murillo, M.

    2008-05-01

    Recent immigrant high school students were successfully engaged in learning about Sun-Earth connections through a partnership with the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) project. The students were enrolled in a pilot course as part of the Math, Engineering and Science Achievement (MESA) program. The English Language Learner (ELL) students doubled their achievement on a pre- and post- assessment on the content of the course. Students learned scientific content and vocabulary in English with support in Spanish, attended field trips, hosted scientist speakers, built antenna and deployed space weather monitors as part of the Stanford SOLAR project, and gave final presentations in English, showcasing their new computer skills. Teachers who taught the students in other courses noted gains in the students' willingness to use English in class and noted gains in math skills. The course has been broken into modules for use in shorter after-school environments, or for use by EVE scientists who are outside of the Boulder area. Video footage of "The Making of a Satellite", and "All About EVE" is completed for use in the kits. Other EVE EPO includes upcoming professional development for teachers and content workshops for journalists.

  4. Sub-50-as isolated extreme ultraviolet continua generated by 1.6-cycle near-infrared pulse combined with double optical gating scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Katsuya; Mashiko, Hiroki; Ogawa, Tatsuya; Hanada, Yasutaka; Nakano, Hidetoshi; Gotoh, Hideki

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the generation of ultrabroad bandwidth attosecond continua extending to sub-50-as duration in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region based on a 1.6-cycle Ti:sapphire laser pulse. The combination of the amplitude gating scheme with a sub-two-cycle driver pulse and the double optical gating scheme achieves the continuum generation with a bandwidth of 70 eV at the full width at half maximum near the peak photon energy of 140 eV, which supports a Fourier-transform-limited pulse duration as short as 32 as. The carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) dependence of the attosecond continua shows a single-peak structure originating from the half-cycle cut-off at appropriate CEP values, which strongly indicates the generation of a single burst of an isolated attosecond pulse. Our approach suggests a possibility for isolated sub-50-as pulse generation in the EUV region by compensating for the intrinsic attosecond chirp with a Zr filter.

  5. Application of Laser Plasma Sources of Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) in Imaging, Processing Materials and Photoionization Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P. W.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Ahad, I. U.; Fok, T.; Szczurek, A.; Wȩgrzyński, Ł.

    In the paper we present new applications of laser plasma sources of soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) in various areas of plasma physics, nanotechnology and biomedical engineering. The sources are based on a gas puff target irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses from commercial Nd: YAG lasers, generating pulses with time duration from 1 to 10 ns and energies from 0.5 to 10 J at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The targets are produced with the use of a double valve system equipped with a special nozzle to form a double-stream gas puff target which allows for high conversion efficiency of laser energy into soft X-rays and EUV without degradation of the nozzle. The sources are equipped with various optical systems to collect soft X-ray and EUV radiation and form the radiation beam. New applications of these sources in imaging, including EUV tomography and soft X-ray microscopy, processing of materials and photoionization studies are presented.

  6. Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufarová, M.; Hájková, V.; Chalupský, J.; Burian, T.; Vacík, J.; Vorlíček, V.; Vyšín, L.; Gaudin, J.; Medvedev, N.; Ziaja, B.; Nagasono, M.; Yabashi, M.; Sobierajski, R.; Krzywinski, J.; Sinn, H.; Störmer, M.; Koláček, K.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Juha, L.

    2017-12-01

    All carbon materials, e.g., amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings and C60 fullerene thin films, play an important role in short-wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) research motivated by FEL optics development and prospective nanotechnology applications. Responses of a-C and C60 layers to the extreme ultraviolet (SPring-8 Compact SASE Source in Japan) and soft x-ray (free-electron laser in Hamburg) free-electron laser radiation are investigated by Raman spectroscopy, differential interference contrast, and atomic force microscopy. A remarkable difference in the behavior of covalent (a-C) and molecular (C60) carbonaceous solids is demonstrated under these irradiation conditions. Low thresholds for ablation of a fullerene crystal (estimated to be around 0.15 eV/atom for C60 vs 0.9 eV/atom for a-C in terms of the absorbed dose) are caused by a low cohesive energy of fullerene crystals. An efficient mechanism of the removal of intact C60 molecules from the irradiated crystal due to Coulomb repulsion of fullerene-cage cation radicals formed by the ionizing radiation is revealed by a detailed modeling.

  7. Nonlinear Dichroism in Back-to-Back Double Ionization of He by an Intense Elliptically Polarized Few-Cycle Extreme Ultraviolet Pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoko Djiokap, J M; Manakov, N L; Meremianin, A V; Hu, S X; Madsen, L B; Starace, Anthony F

    2014-11-28

    Control of double ionization of He by means of the polarization and carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of an intense, few-cycle extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse is demonstrated numerically by solving the six-dimensional two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation for He interacting with an elliptically polarized XUV pulse. Guided by perturbation theory (PT), we predict the existence of a nonlinear dichroic effect (∝I^{3/2}) that is sensitive to the CEP, ellipticity, peak intensity I, and temporal duration of the pulse. This dichroic effect (i.e., the difference of the two-electron angular distributions for opposite helicities of the ionizing XUV pulse) originates from interference of first- and second-order PT amplitudes, allowing one to probe and control S- and D-wave channels of the two-electron continuum. We show that the back-to-back in-plane geometry with unequal energy sharing is an ideal one for observing this dichroic effect that occurs only for an elliptically polarized, few-cycle attosecond pulse.

  8. On-line determination of ammonia at low pptv mixing ratios in the CLOUD chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, F; Mathot, S; Baltensperger, U

    2012-01-01

    A new instrument for the on-line determination of ammonia was developed. Since ammonia is a rather sticky compound, sampling losses were minimised with a new sam- pling device where the ammonia was transferred to the liq- uid phase only 5 mm after the inlet tip. The liquid phase was then analyzed by long pathlength absorption spectrophotom- etry using the Berthelot reaction with phenol and hypochlo- rite as reagents. The measurements were made during the CLOUD3 campaign at CERN where the influence of ammo- nia on the nucleation rate was studied. At stable conditions the detection limit reached with this instrument was 35 pptv (air flow rate of 2 l min − 1 , liquid flow rate of 0.3 ml min − 1 ), although occasionally the instrument was affected by back- ground problems. The range of mixing ratios during this campaign was varied from the background contamination ( < 35 pptv) up to around 2 ppbv. The measured ammonia concentration was correlated with the rate of ammonia in- jected into the chamber, but wi...

  9. A comparison of theoretical and solar-flare intensity ratios for the Fe XIX X-ray lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.K.; Mason, H.E.; Fawcett, B.C.; Phillips, K.J.H.

    1989-04-01

    Atomic data consisting of energy levels, g f-values and wavelengths are presented for the Fe XIX 2s 2 2p 4 -2s 2 2p 3 3s, 2s 2 2p 3 3d arrays that give rise to lines in solar flare and active-region X-ray spectra. Collision strengths and theoretical intensity ratios are given for the 2s 2 2p 4 -2s 2 2p 3 3d lines, which occur in the 13.2-14.3 A range. Solar spectra in this range include a large number of other intense lines, notably those due to He-like Ne (Ne IX). Although the Ne IX lines are potentially the most useful indicators of electron density in solar X-ray spectra, blending with the Fe XIX lines has been a major problem for previous analyses. Comparison of observed spectra with those calculated from the Fe XIX atomic data presented here and Ne IX lines from other work indicates that there is generally good agreement. We use the calculated Fe XIX and Ne IX line spectra and several observed spectra during a flare previously analysed to estimate electron density from Ne IX line ratios, thus for the first time properly taking into account blends with Fe XIX lines. (author)

  10. Utilizing the ratio and the summation of two spectral lines for estimation of optical depth: Focus on thick plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a study is performed on the spectral lines of plasma radiations created from focusing of the Nd:YAG laser on Al standard alloys at atmospheric air pressure. A new theoretical method is presented to investigate the evolution of the optical depth of the plasma based on the radiative transfer equation, in LTE condition. This work relies on the Boltzmann distribution, lines broadening equations, and as well as the self-absorption relation. Then, an experimental set-up is devised to extract some of plasma parameters such as temperature from modified line ratio analysis, electron density from Stark broadening mechanism, line intensities of two spectral lines in the same order of ionization from similar species, and the plasma length from the shadowgraphy section. In this method, the summation and the ratio of two spectral lines are considered for evaluation of the temporal variations of the plasma parameters in a LIBS homogeneous plasma. The main advantage of this method is that it comprises the both of thin and thick laser induced plasmas without straight calculation of self-absorption coefficient. Moreover, the presented model can also be utilized for evaluation the transition of plasma from the thin condition to the thick one. The results illustrated that by measuring the line intensities of two spectral lines at different evolution times, the plasma cooling and the growth of the optical depth can be followed.

  11. The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen in interstellar space. IV - The lines of sight to Delta, Epsilon, and Iota Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; York, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium absorption features in spectra of Delta, Epsilon, and Iota Ori obtained with Copernicus are analyzed. The Iota Ori line-of-sight analysis, which is quite detailed because of the high-velocity H I components superposed on the deuterium features, gives a D/H ratio (which is uncertain because of a complex profile) of 0.000014. A D/H ratio of the order of 7 millionths is determined for Delta and Epsilon Ori. For the complex line profiles involved, one may regard this as a formal lower limit. Several attempts were made to increase the ratio N(D I)/N(H I) in the context of reasonable models for the line of sight, but with no success; the derived values are therefore regarded as actual values, not lower limits. Since the derived value is an average on the line of sight, the possibility cannot be ruled out that the true ratios N(D I)/N(H I) in individual nearby components differ from the mean values. The mean value for these two directions is lower by a factor of 4 than the best value for the Zeta Pup line of sight (the highest yet derived for path lengths greater than 50 pc).

  12. Ratio of deuterium to hydrogen in interstellar space. IV. The lines of sight to delta, epsilon, and iota Orionis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; York, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    We have analyzed the deuterium absorption features in the spectra of delta, epsilon, and iota Ori obtained with Copernicus. The iota Ori line-of-sight analysis, which is quite detailed because of the high-velocity H I components superposed on the deuterium features, gives a D/H ratio (which is uncertain because of a complex profile) of 1.4 x 10 -5 . We determined a D/H ratio of the order of 7 x 10 -6 for delta and epsilon Ori. For the complex line profiles involved, one may regard this as a formal lower limit. Several attempts were made to increase the ratio N (DI)/N (H I) in the context of reasonable models for the line of sight, but with no success; we therefore regard the derived values as actual values, not lower limits. Since our derived value is an average on the line of sight, we cannot rule out the possibility that the true ratios N (D I)/N (H I) in individual nearby components (Δν -1 ) differ from the mean values. Our mean value for these two directions is lower by a factor of 4 than our best value for the zeta Pup line of sight

  13. Probing the Production of Extreme-ultraviolet Late-phase Solar Flares Using the Model Enthalpy-based Thermal Evolution of Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Ding, Mingde

    2018-04-01

    Recent observations in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths reveal an EUV late phase in some solar flares that is characterized by a second peak in warm coronal emissions (∼3 MK) several tens of minutes to a few hours after the soft X-ray (SXR) peak. Using the model enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops (EBTEL), we numerically probe the production of EUV late-phase solar flares. Starting from two main mechanisms of producing the EUV late phase, i.e., long-lasting cooling and secondary heating, we carry out two groups of numerical experiments to study the effects of these two processes on the emission characteristics in late-phase loops. In either of the two processes an EUV late-phase solar flare that conforms to the observational criteria can be numerically synthesized. However, the underlying hydrodynamic and thermodynamic evolutions in late-phase loops are different between the two synthetic flare cases. The late-phase peak due to a long-lasting cooling process always occurs during the radiative cooling phase, while that powered by a secondary heating is more likely to take place in the conductive cooling phase. We then propose a new method for diagnosing the two mechanisms based on the shape of EUV late-phase light curves. Moreover, from the partition of energy input, we discuss why most solar flares are not EUV late flares. Finally, by addressing some other factors that may potentially affect the loop emissions, we also discuss why the EUV late phase is mainly observed in warm coronal emissions.

  14. A Compact Extreme Ultraviolet Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Just how far can one shrink a solar/heliospheric image??? — Can you shrink it small enough to fit on a cube-sat? What can we image — successfully — from a cube-sat?...

  15. Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemen, J. R.; Freeland, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    Efforts concentrated on development and implementation of the SolarSoft (SSW) data analysis system. From an EIT analysis perspective, this system was designed to facilitate efficient reuse and conversion of software developed for Yohkoh/SXT and to take advantage of a large existing body of software developed by the SDAC, Yohkoh, and SOHO instrument teams. Another strong motivation for this system was to provide an EIT analysis environment which permits coordinated analysis of EIT data in conjunction with data from important supporting instruments, including Yohkoh/SXT and the other SOHO coronal instruments; CDS, SUMER, and LASCO. In addition, the SSW system will support coordinated EIT/TRACE analysis (by design) when TRACE data is available; TRACE launch is currently planned for March 1998. Working with Jeff Newmark, the Chianti software package (K.P. Dere et al) and UV /EUV data base was fully integrated into the SSW system to facilitate EIT temperature and emission analysis.

  16. Evidence of Decay of Flux Ratio of Fe to Fe–Ni Line Features with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-08-18

    Aug 18, 2010 ... measuring of the intensity and mean energy of the Fe and Fe–Ni line ... The instrumentation of the SLD payload, its in-flight calibration and operation ... reconnection process and also decays faster compared to many other ... measure vary over time and these factors mainly control the shape of the line. The.

  17. Molecular hydrogen line ratios in four regions of shock-excited gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Five emission lines of molecular hydrogen, with wavelengths in the ranges of 2.10-2.25 and 3.80-3.85 μm, have been observed in four objects of different type in which the line emission is believed to be excited by shocks. (author)

  18. Germ-line origins of mutation in families with hemophilia B: The sex ratio varies with the type of mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.; Bottema, C.D.K.; Schaid, D.J.; Sommer, S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)); Cohen, M.P. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)); Sexauer, C.L. (Children' s Hospital, Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Previous epidemiological and biochemical studies have generated conflicting estimates of the sex ratio of mutation. Direct genomic sequencing in combination with haplotype analysis extends previous analyses by allowing the precise mutation to be determined in a given family. From analysis of the factor IX gene of 260 consecutive families with hemophilia B, the authors report the germ-line origin of mutation in 25 families. When combined with 14 origins of mutation reported by others and with 4 origins previously reported by them, a total of 25 occur in the female germ line, and 18 occur in the male germ line. The excess of germ-line origins in females does not imply an overall excess mutation rate per base pair in the female germ line. Bayesian analysis of the data indicates that the sex ratio varies with the type of mutation. The aggregate of single-base substitutions shows a male predominance of germ-line mutations (P < .002). The maximum-likelihood estimate of the male predominance is 3.5-fold. Of the single-base substitutions, deletions display a sex ratio of unity. Analysis of the parental age at transmission of a new mutation suggests that germ-line mutations are associated with a small increase in parental age in females but little, if any, increase in males. Although direct genomic sequencing offers a general method for defining the origin of mutation in specific families, accurate estimates of the sex ratios of different mutational classes require large sample sizes and careful correction for multiple biases of ascertainment. The biases in the present data result in an underestimate of the enhancement of mutation in males. 62 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  19. Off-Design Considerations through the Properties of Some Pressure-Ratio Line of Radial Inflow Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Binder

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial turbines are commonly used in applications involving operation through severe off-design conditions. The emergence of variable-geometry systems leads to the distinction between two off-design concepts: operational and geometric off-designs. Both of these operating constraints should be integrated in the design procedure. Recent developments in prediction and optimization methods allowed such an integration, but involving complex algorithms is coupled with semiempiric loss models. This paper provides a basis to obtain simple information from an existing or predesigned machine, for both operational and geometric off-design conditions. An alternative turbine map is defined using loading and flow coefficients. A one-dimensional analysis shows that the constant pressure-ratio lines are straight lines whose slope is remarkably correlated with the pressure-ratio value and geometrical characteristics. This theoretical approach is validated against the experimentation of two machines, the linearity is observed in both cases. The direct influence of the stator configuration on the pressure-ratio lines confirms the applicability of this work to variable-geometry stages. A dimensionless cross-section of the stator is thus defined. However, the unexpected displacement of the intercept of the pressure-ratio lines limits the application field of this method. Nevertheless, a simple performance prediction analysis is proposed for blocked mass flow operation.

  20. FeII/MgII Emission Line Ratio in High Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Appenzeller, I.

    2003-01-01

    the evolution of the FeII/MgII ratio over a wider range in cosmic time, we measured this ratio for composite quasar spectra which cover a redshift range of 0 4 quasars must have started already at an epoch corresponding to z_f = 6 to 9, when the age of the universe was ~0.5 Gyr (H_o = 72 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0...

  1. The constancy of the ratio of the molecular hydrogen lines at 3.8 μm in Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, P.W.J.L.; Toner, M.P.; Williams, P.M.; Burton, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The 1-0 O(7) and O-O S(13) lines of H 2 , at 3.807 and 3.846 μm, have been mapped over the region of the Orion molecular outflow. The intensity ratio of these lines is found to be independent of position in the outflow. From this it is inferred that the structure of the shocks and their cooling flows in Orion may be more akin to hydrodynamic shocks than the low-temperature C-shocks that are currently favoured. (author)

  2. The case for cases B and C: intrinsic hydrogen line ratios of the broad-line region of active galactic nuclei, reddenings, and accretion disc sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2017-05-01

    Low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with extremely blue optical spectral indices are shown to have a mean, velocity-averaged, broad-line Hα/Hβ ratio of ≈2.72 ± 0.04, consistent with a Baker-Menzel Case B value. Comparison of a wide range of properties of the very bluest AGNs with those of a luminosity-matched subset of the Dong et al. blue AGN sample indicates that the only difference is the internal reddening. Ultraviolet fluxes are brighter for the bluest AGNs by an amount consistent with the flat AGN reddening curve of Gaskell et al. The lack of a significant difference in the GALEX (far-ultraviolet-near-ultraviolet) colour index strongly rules out a steep Small Magellanic Cloud-like reddening curve and also argues against an intrinsically harder spectrum for the bluest AGNs. For very blue AGNs, the Ly α/Hβ ratio is also consistent with being the Case B value. The Case B ratios provide strong support for the self-shielded broad-line model of Gaskell, Klimek & Nazarova. It is proposed that the greatly enhanced Ly α/Hβ ratio at very high velocities is a consequence of continuum fluorescence in the Lyman lines (Case C). Reddenings of AGNs mean that the far-UV luminosity is often underestimated by up to an order of magnitude. This is a major factor causing the discrepancies between measured accretion disc sizes and the predictions of simple accretion disc theory. Dust covering fractions for most AGNs are lower than has been estimated. The total mass in lower mass supermassive black holes must be greater than hitherto estimated.

  3. Spectrometer sensitivity calibration in the extreme uv by means of branching ratios of magnetic dipole lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denne, B.; Hinnov, E.

    1984-04-01

    Relative intensity measurements of various line pairs resulting from magnetic dipole transitions within the configurations s 2 p 2 and s 2 p 4 , in conjunction with calculated transition probabilities, have been used to determine the wavelength dependence of the sensitivity of a grazing incidence spectrometer, in the range 400 to 1000 A. Emissions from Cr XIX, Fe XXI, Ni XXI and XXIII, Cu XXIV, and Zr XXVII ions in PLT tokamak discharges were used for this purpose. Absolute sensitivity of the spectrometer at selected wavelengths had been determined by the traditional hydrogen, helium, carbon, and oxygen electric-dipole line pairs from the same discharges. Similar attempts to use transitions in the s 2 p 3 configurations in Cr XVIII, Zr XXVI, and Mo XXVIII ions resulted in significant discrepancies that are ascribed to uncertainties in the corresponding calculated transition probabilities

  4. Theoretical emission line ratios for [Fe III] and [Fe VII] applicable to the optical and infrared spectra of gaseous nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F P; Aller, L H; Ryans, R S; Hyung, S

    2001-08-14

    Recent calculations of electron impact excitation rates and Einstein A-coefficients for transitions among the 3d(6) levels of Fe III and among the 3d(2) levels of Fe VII are used to derive theoretical emission line ratios applicable to the optical and infrared spectra of gaseous nebulae. Results for [Fe III] are generated for electron temperatures T(e) = 7,000-20,000 K and densities N(e) = 10(2)-10(8) cm(-3), whereas those for [Fe VII] are provided for T(e) = 10,000-30,000 K and N(e) = 10(2)-10(8) cm(-3). The theoretical line ratios are significantly different in some instances from earlier calculations and resolve discrepancies between theory and observation found for the planetary nebulae IC 4997 and NGC 7027.

  5. Properties of laser-produced GaAs plasmas measured from highly resolved X-ray line shapes and ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, J. F.; Fein, J.; Manuel, M.; Keiter, P.; Drake, P.; Kuranz, C.; Belancourt, Patrick; Ralchenko, Yu.; Hudson, L.; Feldman, U.

    2018-03-01

    The properties of hot, dense plasmas generated by the irradiation of GaAs targets by the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were determined by the analysis of high resolution K shell spectra in the 9 keV to 11 keV range. The laser parameters, such as relatively long pulse duration and large focal spot, were chosen to produce a steady-state plasma with minimal edge gradients, and the time-integrated spectra were compared to non-LTE steady state spectrum simulations using the FLYCHK and NOMAD codes. The bulk plasma streaming velocity was measured from the energy shifts of the Ga He-like transitions and Li-like dielectronic satellites. The electron density and the electron energy distribution, both the thermal and the hot non-thermal components, were determined from the spectral line ratios. After accounting for the spectral line broadening contributions, the plasma turbulent motion was measured from the residual line widths. The ionization balance was determined from the ratios of the He-like through F-like spectral features. The detailed comparison of the experimental Ga spectrum and the spectrum simulated by the FLYCHK code indicates two significant discrepancies, the transition energy of a Li-like dielectronic satellite (designated t) and the calculated intensity of a He-like line (x), that should lead to improvements in the kinetics codes used to simulate the X-ray spectra from highly-charged ions.

  6. Observation of High Transformer Ratio of Shaped Bunch Generated by an Emittance-Exchange Beam Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Ha, G; Jing, C; Antipov, S P; Power, J G; Conde, M; Gai, W; Chen, H; Shi, J; Wisniewski, E E; Doran, D S; Liu, W; Whiteford, C E; Zholents, A; Piot, P; Baturin, S S

    2018-03-16

    Collinear wakefield acceleration has been long established as a method capable of generating ultrahigh acceleration gradients. Because of the success on this front, recently, more efforts have shifted towards developing methods to raise the transformer ratio (TR). This figure of merit is defined as the ratio of the peak acceleration field behind the drive bunch to the peak deceleration field inside the drive bunch. TR is always less than 2 for temporally symmetric drive bunch distributions and therefore recent efforts have focused on generating asymmetric distributions to overcome this limitation. In this Letter, we report on using the emittance-exchange method to generate a shaped drive bunch to experimentally demonstrate a TR≈5 in a dielectric wakefield accelerator.

  7. On-line validation of linear process models using generalized likelihood ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1981-12-01

    A real-time method for testing the validity of linear models of nonlinear processes is described and evaluated. Using generalized likelihood ratios, the model dynamics are continually monitored to see if the process has moved far enough away from the nominal linear model operating point to justify generation of a new linear model. The method is demonstrated using a seventh-order model of a natural circulation steam generator

  8. A statistical study of high coronal densities from X-ray line-ratios of Mg XI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, G. A.; Lemen, J. R.; Strong, K. T.

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray line-ratio density diagnostic was applied to 50 Mg XI spectra of flaring active regions on the sun recorded by the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on the SMM. The plasma density is derived from R, the flux ratio of the forbidden to intercombination lines of the He-like ion, Mg XI. The R ratio for Mg XI is only density sensitive when the electron density exceeds a critical value (about 10 to the 12th/cu cm), the low-density limit (LDL). This theoretical value of the low-density limit is uncertain as it depends on complex atomic theory. Reported coronal densities above 10 to the 12th/cu cm are uncommon. In this study, the distribution of R ratio values about the LDL is estimated and the empirical values are derived for the 1st and 2nd moments of this distribution from 50 Mg XI spectra. From these derived parameters, the percentage of observations is derived which indicated densities above this limit.

  9. INCLUSION RATIO BASED ESTIMATOR FOR THE MEAN LENGTH OF THE BOOLEAN LINE SEGMENT MODEL WITH AN APPLICATION TO NANOCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Niilo-Rämä

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel estimator for estimating the mean length of fibres is proposed for censored data observed in square shaped windows. Instead of observing the fibre lengths, we observe the ratio between the intensity estimates of minus-sampling and plus-sampling. It is well-known that both intensity estimators are biased. In the current work, we derive the ratio of these biases as a function of the mean length assuming a Boolean line segment model with exponentially distributed lengths and uniformly distributed directions. Having the observed ratio of the intensity estimators, the inverse of the derived function is suggested as a new estimator for the mean length. For this estimator, an approximation of its variance is derived. The accuracies of the approximations are evaluated by means of simulation experiments. The novel method is compared to other methods and applied to real-world industrial data from nanocellulose crystalline.

  10. Synthetic nebular emission from massive galaxies - I: origin of the cosmic evolution of optical emission-line ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Michaela; Charlot, Stephane; Feltre, Anna; Naab, Thorsten; Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2017-12-01

    Galaxies occupy different regions of the [O III]λ5007/H β-versus-[N II]λ6584/H α emission-line ratio diagram in the distant and local Universe. We investigate the origin of this intriguing result by modelling self-consistently, for the first time, nebular emission from young stars, accreting black holes (BHs) and older, post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stellar populations in galaxy formation simulations in a full cosmological context. In post-processing, we couple new-generation nebular-emission models with high-resolution, cosmological zoom-in simulations of massive galaxies to explore which galaxy physical properties drive the redshift evolution of the optical-line ratios [O III]λ5007/H β, [N II]λ6584/H α, [S II]λλ6717, 6731/H α and [O I]λ6300/H α. The line ratios of simulated galaxies agree well with observations of both star-forming and active local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. Towards higher redshifts, at fixed galaxy stellar mass, the average [O III]/H β is predicted to increase and [N II]/H α, [S II]/H α and [O I]/H α to decrease - widely consistent with observations. At fixed stellar mass, we identify star formation history, which controls nebular emission from young stars via the ionization parameter, as the primary driver of the cosmic evolution of [O III]/H β and [N II]/H α. For [S II]/H α and [O I]/H α, this applies only to redshifts greater than z = 1.5, the evolution at lower redshift being driven in roughly equal parts by nebular emission from active galactic nuclei and post-AGB stellar populations. Instead, changes in the hardness of ionizing radiation, ionized-gas density, the prevalence of BH accretion relative to star formation and the dust-to-metal mass ratio (whose impact on the gas-phase N/O ratio we model at fixed O/H) play at most a minor role in the cosmic evolution of simulated galaxy line ratios.

  11. Rapid age determination of oysters using LA-ICP-MS line scans of shell Mg/Ca ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillikin, D. P.; Durham, S. R.; Goodwin, D. H.

    2016-02-01

    Magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) ratios exhibit a strong temperature dependence in foraminifera and corals, but not in bivalve mollusks. Various studies have reported Mg/Ca-temperature relationships with R2 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.8 and significantly different relationships for bivalves growing at different salinities. However, this poor temperature correlation does not render Mg/Ca data useless. A weak temperature dependence would allow time (seasons and years) to be determined along the growth axis of shells. This would provide information about age, growth rate and also allow other proxies to be aligned with time. Typically, oxygen isotopes (δ18O) are used to age shells without clear periodic growth lines, which is time consuming and expensive. Line scans using laser ablation systems can cover several centimeters of shell in a few minutes. We test this method on the resilifer of two oyster species (Crassostrea gigas and C. virginica) using a 193 nm Laser-Ablation-ICP-MS. Living oysters were collected from San Francisco Bay, North Carolina, South Carolina, and the Gulf of Mexico; fossil shells (Pleistocene) were also collected in South Carolina. Shells were sampled for δ18O values and Mg/Ca ratios. We use annual cycles in δ18O values to confidently determine age, then apply the Mg/Ca technique. Shells of both species exhibit annual cyclicity in Mg/Ca ratios using spot and line scan laser sampling, which matche the seasonal cyclicity determined using δ18O values. Results show a good correlation between ages determined using the different methods. We conclude that LA-ICP-MS line scans offer a rapid and inexpensive technique for determining age, growth rate, and timing of shell growth in oyster reslifers.

  12. Determination of Monomers Reactivity Ratios in Ethyl Acrylate-Methacrylic Acid Copolymerization by Off-Line 1H NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ashenagar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of polymer systems depend on the micro-structural characteristics of their macromolecular chains. Along with the most characteristic kinetic parameters in copolymerization reactions are the reactivity ratios, which give a clear idea of the average composition and the monomer sequence distribution in copolymer systems. This research studies the solution radical copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA-ethyl acrylate (EA system at low conversion with 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as thermal initiator at 60°C in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d6 as a reaction solvent. In this case, the monomer reactivity ratios were determined using linear off-line 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR methods such as Mayo-Louis, Finemann-Ross, Inverted Finemann-Ross , Ezrielev-Brokhina-Roskin, Joshi-Joshi, Kelen-Tudos, extended Kelen- Tudos, Mao-Huglin at low and high conversions. The next estimation process in off-line 1H NMR methods were performed by applying techniques based on ordinary least square (OLS and generalized least square (GLS. The results showed that the GLS approach compared to the OLS increased regression coefficients (R2 and the order of magnitude of parameter variances obtained from GLS was many times lower than that obtained from OLS. In addition, the monomer reactivity ratios obtained by the Mao-Huglin method and the GLS approach showed the best linear estimation.

  13. PUMPING UP THE [N I] NEBULAR LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferland, G. J.; Porter, R. L.; Henney, W. J.; O'Dell, C. R.; Van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.

    2012-01-01

    The optical [N I] doublet near 5200 Å is anomalously strong in a variety of emission-line objects. We compute a detailed photoionization model and use it to show that pumping by far-ultraviolet (FUV) stellar radiation previously posited as a general explanation applies to the Orion Nebula (M42) and its companion M43; but, it is unlikely to explain planetary nebulae and supernova remnants. Our models establish that the observed nearly constant equivalent width of [N I] with respect to the dust-scattered stellar continuum depends primarily on three factors: the FUV to visual-band flux ratio of the stellar population, the optical properties of the dust, and the line broadening where the pumping occurs. In contrast, the intensity ratio [N I]/Hβ depends primarily on the FUV to extreme-ultraviolet ratio, which varies strongly with the spectral type of the exciting star. This is consistent with the observed difference of a factor of five between M42 and M43, which are excited by an O7 and B0.5 star, respectively. We derive a non-thermal broadening of order 5 km s –1 for the [N I] pumping zone and show that the broadening mechanism must be different from the large-scale turbulent motions that have been suggested to explain the line widths in this H II region. A mechanism is required that operates at scales of a few astronomical units, which may be driven by thermal instabilities of neutral gas in the range 1000-3000 K. In an Appendix A, we describe how collisional and radiative processes are treated in the detailed model N I atom now included in the CLOUDY plasma code.

  14. Hollow-cathode lamps as optical frequency standards: the influence of optical imaging on the line-strength ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huke, Philipp; Tal-Or, Lev; Sarmiento, Luis Fernando; Reiners, Ansgar

    2016-07-01

    Hollow cathode discharge lamps (HCLs) have been successfully used in recent years as calibration sources of optical astronomical spectrographs. The numerous narrow metal lines have stable wavelengths, which makes them well suited for m/s calibration accuracy of high-resolution spectrographs, while the buffer-gas lines are less stable and less useful. Accordingly, an important property is the metal-to-gas line-strength ratio (Rmetal/gas). Processes inside the lamp cause the light to be emitted from different regions between the cathode and the anode leaing to the emission of different beams with different values of Rmetal/gas. We used commercially- available HCLs to measure and characterize these beams with respect to their spatial distribution, their angle of propagation relative to the optical axis, and their values of Rmetal/gas. We conclude that a good imaging of an HCL into a fiber-fed spectrograph would consist of an aperture close to its front window in order to filter out the parts of the beam with low Rmetal/gas, and of a lens to collimate the important central beam. We show that Rmetal/gas can be further improved with only minor adjustments of the imaging parameters, and that the imaging scheme that yields the highest Rmetal/gas does not necessarily provide the highest flux.

  15. On-line coupling of the MAT 251 with a Carlo Erba elemental analyzer for carbon isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.

    1986-06-01

    For carbon isotope investigations with a moderate precision demand of about 0.2 per mil in the isotope ratio fast and reliable results are attained by on line combination of the ANA 1500 Elemental Analyzer and the MAT 251 Isotope Mass Spectrometer. The crucial point hereof is the gas splitting device. By proper design and adjustment of the analytical parameters, good sample efficiency and a sharp CO 2 bulk within the He stream is reached. The main characteristics of this combined equipment are described and some isotopic results of organic and anorganic carbon in lake sediment-samples are given as well as deltasup1 3 C-analyses of spiritous liquors. (Author)

  16. EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-SELECTED BROAD-LINE AGNs AT 1.0 < z < 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Hyewon; Hasinger, Günther; Steinhardt, Charles; Silverman, John D.; Schramm, Malte

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the redshift range 1.0 < z < 2.2, where the number density of AGNs peaks. Combining the optical and Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-infrared spectroscopy, we estimate black hole masses for broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z ≲ 2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the “AGN cosmic downsizing” phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the comoving number density at the bright end of the AGN luminosity function, together with the corresponding selection effects. However, one might need to consider a correlation between the AGN luminosity and the accretion rate of black holes, in which luminous AGNs have higher Eddington ratios than low-luminosity AGNs, in order to understand the relatively small fraction of low-luminosity AGNs with high accretion rates in this epoch. Therefore, the observed downsizing trend could be interpreted as massive black holes with low accretion rates, which are relatively fainter than less-massive black holes with efficient accretion

  17. Implementation of intensity ratio change and line-of-sight rate change algorithms for imaging infrared trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, C. R.

    2012-06-01

    The use of the intensity change and line-of-sight (LOS) change concepts have previously been documented in the open-literature as techniques used by non-imaging infrared (IR) seekers to reject expendable IR countermeasures (IRCM). The purpose of this project was to implement IR counter-countermeasure (IRCCM) algorithms based on target intensity and kinematic behavior for a generic imaging IR (IIR) seeker model with the underlying goal of obtaining a better understanding of how expendable IRCM can be used to defeat the latest generation of seekers. The report describes the Intensity Ratio Change (IRC) and LOS Rate Change (LRC) discrimination techniques. The algorithms and the seeker model are implemented in a physics-based simulation product called Tactical Engagement Simulation Software (TESS™). TESS is developed in the MATLAB®/Simulink® environment and is a suite of RF/IR missile software simulators used to evaluate and analyze the effectiveness of countermeasures against various classes of guided threats. The investigation evaluates the algorithm and tests their robustness by presenting the results of batch simulation runs of surface-to-air (SAM) and air-to-air (AAM) IIR missiles engaging a non-maneuvering target platform equipped with expendable IRCM as self-protection. The report discusses how varying critical parameters such track memory time, ratio thresholds and hold time can influence the outcome of an engagement.

  18. Periodic TiO2 Nanostructures with Improved Aspect and Line/Space Ratio Realized by Colloidal Photolithography Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Berthod

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents substantial improvements of the colloidal photolithography technique (also called microsphere lithography with the goal of better controlling the geometry of the fabricated nano-scale structures—in this case, hexagonally arranged nanopillars—printed in a layer of directly photopatternable sol-gel TiO2. Firstly, to increase the achievable structure height the photosensitive layer underneath the microspheres is deposited on a reflective layer instead of the usual transparent substrate. Secondly, an increased width of the pillars is achieved by tilting the incident wave and using multiple exposures or substrate rotation, additionally allowing to better control the shape of the pillar’s cross section. The theoretical analysis is carried out by rigorous modelling of the photonics nanojet underneath the microspheres and by optimizing the experimental conditions. Aspect ratios (structure height/lateral structure size greater than 2 are predicted and demonstrated experimentally for structure dimensions in the sub micrometer range, as well as line/space ratios (lateral pillar size/distance between pillars greater than 1. These nanostructures could lead for example to materials exhibiting efficient light trapping in the visible and near-infrared range, as well as improved hydrophobic or photocatalytic properties for numerous applications in environmental and photovoltaic systems.

  19. Femtosecond induced transparency and absorption in the extreme ultraviolet by coherent coupling of the He 2s2p (1Po) and 2p2 (1Se) double excitation states with 800 nm light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, Z.-H.; Greene, C.H.; Leone, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy is used to observe electromagnetically induced transparency-like behavior as well as induced absorption in the extreme ultraviolet by laser dressing of the He 2s2p ( 1 P 0 ) and 2p 2 ( 1 S e ) double excitation states with an intense 800 nm field. Probing in the vicinity of the 1s 2 → 2s2p transition at 60.15 eV reveals the formation of an Autler-Townes doublet due to coherent coupling of the double excitation states. Qualitative agreement with the experimental spectra is obtained only when optical field ionization of both double excitation states into the N = 2 continuum is included in the theoretical model. Because the Fano q-parameter of the unperturbed probe transition is finite, the laser-dressed He atom exhibits both enhanced transparency and absorption at negative and positive probe energy detunings, respectively

  20. SDSS-IV MaNGA: the impact of diffuse ionized gas on emission-line ratios, interpretation of diagnostic diagrams and gas metallicity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew; Haffner, L. Matthew; Walterbos, René; Maiolino, Roberto; Tremonti, Christy; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Jones, Amy; Belfiore, Francesco; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Nitschelm, Christian; Andrews, Brett; Brinkmann, Jon; Brownstein, Joel R.; Cheung, Edmond; Li, Cheng; Law, David R.; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Storchi Bergmann, Thaisa; Simmons, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse ionized gas (DIG) is prevalent in star-forming galaxies. Using a sample of 365 nearly face-on star-forming galaxies observed by Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO, we demonstrate how DIG in star-forming galaxies impacts the measurements of emission-line ratios, hence the interpretation of diagnostic diagrams and gas-phase metallicity measurements. At fixed metallicity, DIG-dominated low ΣHα regions display enhanced [S II]/Hα, [N II]/Hα, [O II]/Hβ and [O I]/Hα. The gradients in these line ratios are determined by metallicity gradients and ΣHα. In line ratio diagnostic diagrams, contamination by DIG moves H II regions towards composite or low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LI(N)ER)-like regions. A harder ionizing spectrum is needed to explain DIG line ratios. Leaky H II region models can only shift line ratios slightly relative to H II region models, and thus fail to explain the composite/LI(N)ER line ratios displayed by DIG. Our result favours ionization by evolved stars as a major ionization source for DIG with LI(N)ER-like emission. DIG can significantly bias the measurement of gas metallicity and metallicity gradients derived using strong-line methods. Metallicities derived using N2O2 are optimal because they exhibit the smallest bias and error. Using O3N2, R23, N2 = [N II]/Hα and N2S2Hα to derive metallicities introduces bias in the derived metallicity gradients as large as the gradient itself. The strong-line method of Blanc et al. (IZI hereafter) cannot be applied to DIG to get an accurate metallicity because it currently contains only H II region models that fail to describe the DIG.

  1. Absolute Quantification of the Host-To-Parasite DNA Ratio in Theileria parva-Infected Lymphocyte Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotia, Hanzel T; Munro, James B; Knowles, Donald P; Daubenberger, Claudia A; Bishop, Richard P; Silva, Joana C

    2016-01-01

    Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted intracellular apicomplexan pathogen of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa that causes East Coast fever (ECF). ECF is an acute fatal disease that kills over one million cattle annually, imposing a tremendous burden on African small-holder cattle farmers. The pathology and level of T. parva infections in its wildlife host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and in cattle are distinct. We have developed an absolute quantification method based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) in which recombinant plasmids containing single copy genes specific to the parasite (apical membrane antigen 1 gene, ama1) or the host (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, hprt1) are used as the quantification reference standards. Our study shows that T. parva and bovine cells are present in similar numbers in T. parva-infected lymphocyte cell lines and that consequently, due to its much smaller genome size, T. parva DNA comprises between 0.9% and 3% of the total DNA samples extracted from these lines. This absolute quantification assay of parasite and host genome copy number in a sample provides a simple and reliable method of assessing T. parva load in infected bovine lymphocytes, and is accurate over a wide range of host-to-parasite DNA ratios. Knowledge of the proportion of target DNA in a sample, as enabled by this method, is essential for efficient high-throughput genome sequencing applications for a variety of intracellular pathogens. This assay will also be very useful in future studies of interactions of distinct host-T. parva stocks and to fully characterize the dynamics of ECF infection in the field.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: X-ray line ratios for diverse ion collisions (Mullen+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, P. D.; Cumbee, R. S.; Lyons, D.; Gu, L.; Kaastra, J.; Shelton, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Charge exchange (CX) has emerged in X-ray emission modeling as a significant process that must be considered in many astrophysical environments- particularly comets. Comets host an interaction between solar wind ions and cometary neutrals to promote solar wind charge exchange (SWCX). X-ray observatories provide astronomers and astrophysicists with data for many X-ray emitting comets that are impossible to accurately model without reliable CX data. Here, we utilize a streamlined set of computer programs that incorporate the multi-channel Landau-Zener theory and a cascade model for X-ray emission to generate cross sections and X-ray line ratios for a variety of bare and non-bare ion single electron capture (SEC) collisions. Namely, we consider collisions between the solar wind constituent bare and H-like ions of C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, and Si and the cometary neutrals H2O, CO, CO2, OH, and O. To exemplify the application of this data, we model the X-ray emission of Comet C/2000 WM1 (linear) using the CX package in SPEX and find excellent agreement with observations made with the XMM-Newton RGS detector. Our analyses show that the X-ray intensity is dominated by SWCX with H, while H2O plays a secondary role. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that CX cross sections have been implemented into a X-ray spectral fitting package to determine the H to H2O ratio in cometary atmospheres. The CX data sets are incorporated into the modeling packages SPEX and Kronos. (1 data file).

  3. Line-depth-ratio temperatures for the close binary ν Octantis: new evidence supporting the conjectured circumstellar retrograde planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    We explore the possibly that either star-spots or pulsations are the cause of a periodic radial velocity (RV) signal (P ˜ 400 d) from the K-giant binary ν Octantis (P ˜ 1050 d, e ˜ 0.25), alternatively conjectured to have a retrograde planet. Our study is based on temperatures derived from 22 line-depth ratios (LDRs) for ν Oct and 20 calibration stars. Empirical evidence and stability modelling provide unexpected support for the planet since other standard explanations (star-spots, pulsations and additional stellar masses) each have credibility problems. However, the proposed system presents formidable challenges to planet formation and stability theories: it has by far the smallest stellar separation of any claimed planet-harbouring binary (a_{_bin} ˜ 2.6 au) and an equally unbelievable separation ratio (a_{_pl}/a_{_bin} ˜ 0.5), hence the necessity that the circumstellar orbit be retrograde. The LDR analysis of 215 ν Oct spectra acquired between 2001 and 2007, from which the RV perturbation was first revealed, have no significant periodicity at any frequency. The LDRs recover the original 21 stellar temperatures with an average accuracy of 45 ± 25 K. The 215 ν Oct temperatures have a standard deviation of only 4.2 K. Assuming the host primary is not pulsating, the temperatures converted to magnitude differences strikingly mimic the very stable photometric Hipparcos observations 15 years previously, implying the long-term stability of the star and demonstrating a novel use of LDRs as a photometric gauge. Our results provide substantial new evidence that conventional star-spots and pulsations are unlikely causes of the RV perturbation. The controversial system deserves continued attention, including with higher resolving-power spectra for bisector and LDR analyses.

  4. Brain stem/brain stem occipital bone ratio and the four-line view in nuchal translucency images of fetuses with open spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica; Piras, Alessandra; Arras, Maurizio; Monni, Giovanni

    2014-09-10

    Abstract Objective: Brain stem depth/brain stem occipital bone distance (BS/BSOB ratio) and the four-line view, in images obtained for nuchal translucency (NT) screening in fetuses with open spina bifida (OSB). Methods: Single center, retrospective study based on the assessment of NT screening images of fetuses with OSB. A ratio between the BS depth and the BSOB distance was calculated (BS/BSOB ratio) and the four-line view observed, and the sensitivity for a BS/BSOB ratio superior/equal to 1, and for the lack of detection of the four-line view were calculated. Results: There were 17 cases of prenatal diagnosis OSB. In six cases, the suspicion on OSB was raised during NT screening, in six cases, the diagnosis was made before 20 weeks and in five cases during anomaly scan. The BS/BSOB ratio was superior/equal to 1 in all 17 cases, and three lines, were visualized in 15/17 images of the OSB cases, being the sensitivity 100% (95% CI, 81 to 100%) and 88% (95% CI, 65 to 96%). Conclusion: Assessment of BS/BSOB ratio and four-line view in NT images is feasible detecting affected by OSB with high sensitivity. The presence of associated anomalies or of an enlarged NT enhances the early detection.

  5. Time-dependent analysis of visible helium line-ratios for electron temperature and density diagnostic using synthetic simulations on NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz Burgos, J. M., E-mail: jmunozbu@pppl.gov; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Barbui, T.; Schmitz, O. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Helium line-ratios for electron temperature (T{sub e}) and density (n{sub e}) plasma diagnostic in the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL) and edge regions of tokamaks are widely used. Due to their intensities and proximity of wavelengths, the singlet, 667.8 and 728.1 nm, and triplet, 706.5 nm, visible lines have been typically preferred. Time-dependency of the triplet line (706.5 nm) has been previously analyzed in detail by including transient effects on line-ratios during gas-puff diagnostic applications. In this work, several line-ratio combinations within each of the two spin systems are analyzed with the purpose of eliminating transient effects to extend the application of this powerful diagnostic to high temporal resolution characterization of plasmas. The analysis is done using synthetic emission modeling and diagnostic for low electron density NSTX SOL plasma conditions by several visible lines. Quasi-static equilibrium and time-dependent models are employed to evaluate transient effects of the atomic population levels that may affect the derived electron temperatures and densities as the helium gas-puff penetrates the plasma. The analysis of a wider range of spectral lines will help to extend this powerful diagnostic to experiments where the wavelength range of the measured spectra may be constrained either by limitations of the spectrometer or by other conflicting lines from different ions.

  6. Feedwater line break accident analysis for SMART in the view point of minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Soo Hyoung; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Young Jong; Kim, Keung Koo

    2012-01-01

    KAERI and KEPCO consortium had performed standard design of SMART(System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) from 2009 to 2011 and obtained standard design approval in July 2012. To confirm the safety of SMART design, all of the safety related design basis events were analyzed. A feedwater line break (FLB) is a postulated accident and is a limiting accident for a decrease in the heat removal by the secondary system in the view point of the peak RCS pressure. It is well known that departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) increases with the increase of the system pressure for conventional nuclear power plants. But SMART has comparatively lower RCS flow rate, and there is a possibility to show different DNBR behavior depending on the system pressure. To confirm that SMART is safe in case of FLB accident, the Korean nuclear regulatory body required to perform the safety analysis in the view point of minimum DNBR (MDNBR) during the licensing review process for standard design approval (SDA) of SMART design. In this paper, the safety analysis results of the FLB accident for SMART in the view point of MDNBR is described

  7. Feedwater line break accident analysis for SMART in the view point of minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Soo Hyoung; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Young Jong; Kim, Keung Koo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    KAERI and KEPCO consortium had performed standard design of SMART(System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) from 2009 to 2011 and obtained standard design approval in July 2012. To confirm the safety of SMART design, all of the safety related design basis events were analyzed. A feedwater line break (FLB) is a postulated accident and is a limiting accident for a decrease in the heat removal by the secondary system in the view point of the peak RCS pressure. It is well known that departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) increases with the increase of the system pressure for conventional nuclear power plants. But SMART has comparatively lower RCS flow rate, and there is a possibility to show different DNBR behavior depending on the system pressure. To confirm that SMART is safe in case of FLB accident, the Korean nuclear regulatory body required to perform the safety analysis in the view point of minimum DNBR (MDNBR) during the licensing review process for standard design approval (SDA) of SMART design. In this paper, the safety analysis results of the FLB accident for SMART in the view point of MDNBR is described.

  8. Absolute calibration of a SPRED [Spectrometer Recording Extended Domain] EUV [extreme ultraviolet] spectrograph for use on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.D.; Allen, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    We have performed an absolute intensity calibration of a SPRED multichannel EUV spectrograph using synchrotron radiation from the NBS SURF-II electron storage ring. The calibration procedure and results for both a survey grating (450 g/mm) and a high-resolution (2100 g/mm) grating are presented. The spectrograph is currently in use on the DIII-D tokamak with a tangential line-of-sight at the plasma midplane. Data is first acquired and processed by a microcomputer; the absolute line intensities are then sent to the DIII-D database for comparison with data from other diagnostics. Representative data from DIII-D plasma operations will be presented. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Application and Analysis of the Isoelectronic Line Ratio Temperature Diagnostic in a Planar Ablating-Plasma Experiment at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Solodov, A. A.; Myatt, J. F.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Hohenberger, M.; Barrios, M. A.; Moody, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    The Mn/Co isoelectronic emission-line ratio from a microdot source in planar CH foil targets was measured to infer the electron temperature (Te) in the ablating plasma during two-plasmon-decay experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We examine the systematic uncertainty in the Te estimate based on the temperature and density sensitivities of the line ratio in conjunction with plausible density constraints, and its contribution to the total Te estimate uncertainty. The potential advantages of alternative microdot elements (e.g., Ti/Cr and Sc/V) are considered. The microdot mass was selected to provide ample line strength while minimizing the effect of self-absorption on the line emission, which is of particular concern, given the narrow linewidths of mid- Z emitters at subcritical electron densities. Atomic line-formation theory and detailed atomic-radiative simulations show that the straight forward interpretation of the isoelectronic ratio solely in terms of its temperature independence remains valid with lines of moderate optical thickness (up to ~ 10) at line center. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  10. Spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars. I. Optical line strengths and the hydrogen-to-helium ratios in WN type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Leep, E.M.; Perry, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    We begin a series of systematic studies of spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars by examining the optical line strengths of WN stars in the Galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud to see what similarities and differences exist among them. Tables of equivalent widths extracted from spectra are presented and some conclusions are drawn. We have found that there is a wide dispersion, up to a factor of 10 or more, in line strengths for all ions even among stars of the same subtype, with WN 7 stars weaker overall than surrounding types. Type-to-type trends are consistent with changing ionization balance in the stellar wind. Nitrogen line ratios indicate that the WN subtypes represent an ionization sequence, but one with considerable overlap: the classification scheme is not single valued; other physical parameters must play a role. The line strength dispersion does not appear to be primarily due to ionization, or luminosity. The Balmer-Pickering decrement has been used to estimate the H/He ratio for most of the WN stars with available spectra; semiquantitative results are presented. Significant differences in H/He are observed (10 stars may have H/He>2). At a given subclass, the strongest line stars have no detectable H. The abundance of H probably relates to structural differences in the winds that, in part, give rise to a dispersion in observed line strengths. Finally, we have estimated the C/N ratio from the C IV lambda5805/N IV lambda4057 line ratio. In most cases our observations suggest that the C/N ratio is consistent with ''evolved'' models for WN stars. A few stars show strong C IV implying much larger values for C/N, but hydrogen was not detected in them. These stars may be in transition from the WN to WC classes

  11. Qualitative tissue differentiation by analysing the intensity ratios of atomic emission lines using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): prospects for a feedback mechanism for surgical laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Mahari, Fanuel; Klämpfl, Florian; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper focuses on qualitative tissue differentiation by monitoring the intensity ratios of atomic emissions using 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS) on the plasma plume created during laser tissue ablation. The background of this study is to establish a real time feedback control mechanism for clinical laser surgery systems during the laser ablation process. Ex-vivo domestic pig tissue samples (muscle, fat, nerve and skin) were used in this experiment. Atomic emission intensity ratios were analyzed to find a characteristic spectral line for each tissue. The results showed characteristic elemental emission intensity ratios for the respective tissues. The spectral lines and intensity ratios of these specific elements varied among the different tissue types. The main goal of this study is to qualitatively and precisely identify different tissue types for tissue specific laser surgery. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag.

  12. Photodissociation of aligned CH3I and C6H3F2I molecules probed with time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging by site-selective extreme ultraviolet ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Kasra; Savelyev, Evgeny; Brauße, Felix; Berrah, Nora; Bomme, Cédric; Brouard, Mark; Burt, Michael; Christensen, Lauge; Düsterer, Stefan; Erk, Benjamin; Höppner, Hauke; Kierspel, Thomas; Krecinic, Faruk; Lauer, Alexandra; Lee, Jason W L; Müller, Maria; Müller, Erland; Mullins, Terence; Redlin, Harald; Schirmel, Nora; Thøgersen, Jan; Techert, Simone; Toleikis, Sven; Treusch, Rolf; Trippel, Sebastian; Ulmer, Anatoli; Vallance, Claire; Wiese, Joss; Johnsson, Per; Küpper, Jochen; Rudenko, Artem; Rouzée, Arnaud; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Rolles, Daniel; Boll, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    We explore time-resolved Coulomb explosion induced by intense, extreme ultraviolet (XUV) femtosecond pulses from a free-electron laser as a method to image photo-induced molecular dynamics in two molecules, iodomethane and 2,6-difluoroiodobenzene. At an excitation wavelength of 267 nm, the dominant reaction pathway in both molecules is neutral dissociation via cleavage of the carbon-iodine bond. This allows investigating the influence of the molecular environment on the absorption of an intense, femtosecond XUV pulse and the subsequent Coulomb explosion process. We find that the XUV probe pulse induces local inner-shell ionization of atomic iodine in dissociating iodomethane, in contrast to non-selective ionization of all photofragments in difluoroiodobenzene. The results reveal evidence of electron transfer from methyl and phenyl moieties to a multiply charged iodine ion. In addition, indications for ultrafast charge rearrangement on the phenyl radical are found, suggesting that time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging is sensitive to the localization of charge in extended molecules.

  13. Formation of a fine-dispersed liquid-metal target under the action of femto- and picosecond laser pulses for a laser-plasma radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinokhodov, A Yu; Krivokorytov, M S [EUV Labs, Ltd., Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Koshelev, K N; Krivtsun, V M; Sidelnikov, Yu V; Medvedev, V V; Kompanets, V O; Melnikov, A A; Chekalin, S V [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    We report the results of studying the dynamics of deformation and fragmentation of liquid-metal droplets under the action of ultrashort laser pulses. The experiments have been performed to optimise the shape of the droplet target used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation sources based on the laser-produced plasma using the pre-pulse technology. The pre-pulse is generated by a system incorporating a master Ti : sapphire oscillator and a regenerative amplifier, allowing one to vary the pulse duration from 50 fs to 50 ps. The power density of laser radiation at the droplet target, averaged over the pulse duration and spatial coordinates, has reached 3 × 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. The production of liquid-metal droplets has been implemented by means of a droplet generator based on a nozzle with a ring piezoceramic actuator. The droplet material is the eutectic indium – tin alloy. The droplet generator could operate in the droplet and jet regime with a maximal rate of stable operation 5 and 150 kHz, respectively. The spatial stability of droplet position σ = 1% – 2% of its diameter is achieved. The size of the droplets varied within 30 – 70 μm, their velocity was 2 – 8 m s{sup -1} depending on the operation regime. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  14. Fiscal 2000 survey and research achievement report on the survey and research on next-generation EUVL (extreme ultraviolet lithography) technology; 2000 nendo jisedai EUVL (Extreme Ultra-Violet Lithography) gijutsu chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    While surveys of technical progress and tasks of EUVL in Japan and overseas are under way for submitting a proposition for the industrialization of EUVL technology by expatiating the results of the EUVL research and development program scheduled to be complete in fiscal 2001, the future of EUVL is considered. The survey results are summarized in five chapters which involve (1) the outlines of survey and research results, (2) technical trends of lithography, (3) systems for EUVL research and development in the world, and (5) the conclusion. In chapter (4), light sources, systems (exposure devices), masks, resists, and other element technologies are investigated. The survey results about light sources involve the background against which their development is described, performance that an extreme ultraviolet ray source is requested to have, candidate EUVL light sources, their technical features and tasks they present, and the latest trends overseas. Concerning the exposure device, the body (device constitution), stage, sensor, projection system, and the irradiation system are investigated. As for masks, the outline of a EUVL mask, masking substrate, multilayer film fabrication, masking pattern formation, and other tasks for development are investigated. (NEDO)

  15. Spectroscopy of the extreme ultraviolet dayglow at 6.5A resolution - Atomic and ionic emissions between 530 and 1240A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentieu, E. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Meier, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    EUV spectra (530-1500A) of the day airglow in up, down and horizontal aspect orientations have been obtained with 6.5A resolution and a limiting sensitivity of 5R from a rocket experiment. Below 834A the spectrum is rich in previously unobserved OII transitions connecting with 4S(0), 2D(0), and 2P(0) states. Recent broad-band photometric observations of geocoronal HeI 584A emission in terms of the newly observed OII emissions are shown. The OI 989A and OI 1304A emissions exhibit similar dependence on altitude and viewing geometry with the OI 989A brightness 1/15 that of OI 1340. Emission at 1026A is identified as geocoronal HI Lyman beta rather than OI multiplet emission and observed intensities agree well with model estimates. An unexpectedly high NI 1200/NI 1134A brightness ratio is evidence of a significant contribution from photodissociative excitation of N2 to the NI 1200A source function.

  16. Development of acoustically lined ejector technology for multitube jet noise suppressor nozzles by model and engine tests over a wide range of jet pressure ratios and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atvars, J.; Paynter, G. C.; Walker, D. Q.; Wintermeyer, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental program comprising model nozzle and full-scale engine tests was undertaken to acquire parametric data for acoustically lined ejectors applied to primary jet noise suppression. Ejector lining design technology and acoustical scaling of lined ejector configurations were the major objectives. Ground static tests were run with a J-75 turbojet engine fitted with a 37-tube, area ratio 3.3 suppressor nozzle and two lengths of ejector shroud (L/D = 1 and 2). Seven ejector lining configurations were tested over the engine pressure ratio range of 1.40 to 2.40 with corresponding jet velocities between 305 and 610 M/sec. One-fourth scale model nozzles were tested over a pressure ratio range of 1.40 to 4.0 with jet total temperatures between ambient and 1088 K. Scaling of multielement nozzle ejector configurations was also studied using a single element of the nozzle array with identical ejector lengths and lining materials. Acoustic far field and near field data together with nozzle thrust performance and jet aerodynamic flow profiles are presented.

  17. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  18. Non-equilibrium Modeling of the Fe XVII 3C/3D Line Ratio in an Intense X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Excited Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Li, Y.; Fogle, M.; Fontes, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurements using an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and an Electron Beam Ion Trap at the Linac Coherent Light Source facility highlighted large discrepancies between the observed and theoretical values for the Fe xvii 3C/3D line intensity ratio. This result raised the question of whether the theoretical oscillator strengths may be significantly in error, due to insufficiencies in the atomic structure calculations. We present time-dependent spectral modeling of this experiment and show that non-equilibrium effects can dramatically reduce the predicted 3C/3D line intensity ratio, compared with that obtained by simply taking the ratio of oscillator strengths. Once these non-equilibrium effects are accounted for, the measured line intensity ratio can be used to determine a revised value for the 3C/3D oscillator strength ratio, giving a range from 3.0 to 3.5. We also provide a framework to narrow this range further, if more precise information about the pulse parameters can be determined. We discuss the implications of the new results for the use of Fe xvii spectral features as astrophysical diagnostics and investigate the importance of time-dependent effects in interpreting XFEL-excited plasmas.

  19. Prognostic impact of the pretreatment aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio in patients treated with first-line systemic tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minyong; Yu, Jiwoong; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Park, Se Hoon; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Seo, Seong Il

    2018-05-13

    To examine the prognostic role of the pretreatment aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase or De Ritis ratio in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving first-line systemic tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. We retrospectively searched the medical records of 579 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who visited Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, from January 2001 through August 2016. After excluding 210 patients, we analyzed 360 patients who received first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Cancer-specific survival and overall survival were defined as the primary and secondary end-points, respectively. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent prognosticators of survival outcomes. The overall population was divided into two groups according to the pretreatment De Ritis ratio as an optimal cut-off value of 1.2, which was determined by a time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Patients with a higher pretreatment De Ritis ratio (≥1.2) had worse cancer-specific survival and overall survival outcomes, compared with those with a lower De Ritis ratio (<1.2). Notably, a higher De Ritis ratio (≥1.2) was found to be an independent predictor of both cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.30) and overall survival outcomes (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.39), along with male sex, multiple metastasis (≥2), non-clear cell histology, advanced pT stage (≥3), previous metastasectomy and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk classification. Our findings show that the pretreatment De Ritis ratio can provide valuable information about the survival outcomes of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients receiving first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. The Interplay of In Situ Stress Ratio and Transverse Isotropy in the Rock Mass on Prestressed Concrete-Lined Pressure Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, T. D. Y. F.; Marence, M.; Schleiss, A. J.; Mynett, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of passively prestressed concrete-lined pressure tunnels embedded in elastic transversely isotropic rocks subjected to non-uniform in situ stresses. Two cases are distinguished based on whether the in situ vertical stress in the rock mass is higher, or lower than the in situ horizontal stress. A two-dimensional finite element model was used to study the influence of dip angle, α, and horizontal-to-vertical stress ratio, k, on the bearing capacity of prestressed concrete-lined pressure tunnels. The study reveals that the in situ stress ratio and the orientation of stratifications in the rock mass significantly affect the load sharing between the rock mass and the lining. The distribution of stresses and deformations as a result of tunnel construction processes exhibits a symmetrical pattern for tunnels embedded in a rock mass with either horizontal or vertical stratification planes, whereas it demonstrates an unsymmetrical pattern for tunnels embedded in a rock mass with inclined stratification planes. The results obtained for a specific value α with coefficient k are identical to that for α + 90° with coefficient 1/ k by rotating the tunnel axis by 90°. The maximum internal water pressure was determined by offsetting the prestress-induced hoop strains at the final lining intrados against the seepage-induced hoop strains. As well as assessing the internal water pressure, this approach is capable of identifying potential locations where longitudinal cracks may occur in the final lining.

  1. Laser techniques for extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.; Young, J.F.; Caro, R.G.; Falcone, R.W.; Holmgren, D.E.; Walker, D.J.; Wang, J.C.; Rothenberg, J.E.; Willison, J.R.

    1983-06-01

    In this paper we describe several techniques for using lasers to study core-excited energy levels in the spectral region between 10 eV and 100 eV. We are particularly interested in levels that are metastable against autoionization and, in some cases, against both autoionization and radiation

  2. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a low-aspect-ratio missile model with wing and tail controls and with tails in line and interdigitated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    A study has been made to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a low-aspect ratio cruciform missile model with all-movable wings and tails. The configuration was tested at Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.63 with the wings in the vertical and horizontal planes and with the wings in a 45 deg roll plane with tails in line and interdigitated.

  3. THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF BROAD-LINE QUASARS IN THE MASS-LUMINOSITY PLANE. II. BLACK HOLE MASS AND EDDINGTON RATIO FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Brandon C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States); Shen, Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We employ a flexible Bayesian technique to estimate the black hole (BH) mass and Eddington ratio functions for Type 1 (i.e., broad line) quasars from a uniformly selected data set of {approx}58, 000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. We find that the SDSS becomes significantly incomplete at M {sub BH} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} or L/L {sub Edd} {approx}< 0.07, and that the number densities of Type 1 quasars continue to increase down to these limits. Both the mass and Eddington ratio functions show evidence of downsizing, with the most massive and highest Eddington ratio BHs experiencing Type 1 quasar phases first, although the Eddington ratio number densities are flat at z < 2. We estimate the maximum Eddington ratio of Type 1 quasars in the observable universe to be L/L {sub Edd} {approx} 3. Consistent with our results in Shen and Kelly, we do not find statistical evidence for a so-called sub-Eddington boundary in the mass-luminosity plane of broad-line quasars, and demonstrate that such an apparent boundary in the observed distribution can be caused by selection effect and errors in virial BH mass estimates. Based on the typical Eddington ratio in a given mass bin, we estimate growth times for the BHs in Type 1 quasars and find that they are comparable to or longer than the age of the universe, implying an earlier phase of accelerated (i.e., with higher Eddington ratios) and possibly obscured growth. The large masses probed by our sample imply that most of our BHs reside in what are locally early-type galaxies, and we interpret our results within the context of models of self-regulated BH growth.

  4. A Novel High-Frequency Voltage Standing-Wave Ratio-Based Grounding Electrode Line Fault Supervision in Ultra-High Voltage DC Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Teng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the fault monitoring performance of grounding electrode lines in ultra-high voltage DC (UHVDC transmission systems, a novel fault monitoring approach based on the high-frequency voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR is proposed in this paper. The VSWR is defined considering a lossless transmission line, and the characteristics of the VSWR under different conditions are analyzed. It is shown that the VSWR equals 1 when the terminal resistance completely matches the characteristic impedance of the line, and when a short circuit fault occurs on the grounding electrode line, the VSWR will be greater than 1. The VSWR will approach positive infinity under metallic earth fault conditions, whereas the VSWR in non-metallic earth faults will be smaller. Based on these analytical results, a fault supervision criterion is formulated. The effectiveness of the proposed VSWR-based fault supervision technique is verified with a typical UHVDC project established in Power Systems Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC(PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can reliably identify the grounding electrode line fault and has strong anti-fault resistance capability.

  5. SHOCKED POSTSTARBUST GALAXY SURVEY. I. CANDIDATE POST-STARBUST GALAXIES WITH EMISSION LINE RATIOS CONSISTENT WITH SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Rich, Jeffrey A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cales, Sabrina L. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Appleton, Philip N.; Lanz, Lauranne [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kewley, Lisa J.; Medling, Anne M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Lacy, Mark; Nyland, Kristina, E-mail: kalatalo@carnegiescience.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    There are many mechanisms by which galaxies can transform from blue, star-forming spirals, to red, quiescent early-type galaxies, but our current census of them does not form a complete picture. Recent observations of nearby case studies have identified a population of galaxies that quench “quietly.” Traditional poststarburst searches seem to catch galaxies only after they have quenched and transformed, and thus miss any objects with additional ionization mechanisms exciting the remaining gas. The Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey (SPOGS) aims to identify transforming galaxies, in which the nebular lines are excited via shocks instead of through star formation processes. Utilizing the Oh-Sarzi-Schawinski-Yi (OSSY) measurements on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 catalog, we applied Balmer absorption and shock boundary criteria to identify 1067 SPOG candidates (SPOGs*) within z = 0.2. SPOGs* represent 0.2% of the OSSY sample galaxies that exceed the continuum signal-to-noise cut (and 0.7% of the emission line galaxy sample). SPOGs* colors suggest that they are in an earlier phase of transition than OSSY galaxies that meet an “E+A” selection. SPOGs* have a 13% 1.4 GHz detection rate from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters Survey, higher than most other subsamples, and comparable only to low-ionization nuclear emission line region hosts, suggestive of the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). SPOGs* also have stronger Na i D absorption than predicted from the stellar population, suggestive of cool gas being driven out in galactic winds. It appears that SPOGs* represent an earlier phase in galaxy transformation than traditionally selected poststarburst galaxies, and that a large proportion of SPOGs* also have properties consistent with disruption of their interstellar media, a key component to galaxy transformation. It is likely that many of the known pathways to transformation undergo a SPOG phase. Studying this sample of

  6. Distribution of natural radionuclides and uranium activity ratio in Gulf of Thailand sediments as base line data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Hideki, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Kritsananuwat, R.; Fukushi, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Chanyotha, S.; Pangza, K. [Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides and uranium activity ratio in marine sediments from selected coast, along the Gulf of Thailand to establish baseline data. Thailand has a plan to construct nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as coal-fired thermal power plants to generate adequate and reliable electricity supply for rapid growth of industrialization. Therefore, it is important to focus not only on security and adequacy of power system but also on environmental protection and monitoring and risk assessment. To carry out environmental monitoring, baseline data plays a significant role. These data should be established and available before set up of mega projects that could impact the environment and health. Therefore, we have collected samples from five areas in the Gulf of Thailand, which are proposed as potential sites, to set up power plants by Thailand government. A total number of fifty-four marine sediment samples were collected. Gamma spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides e.g. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 40}K. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 40}K vary from 2.91-67.17 Bq/kg with an average of 26.64±14.57 Bq/kg, 4.42-109.17 Bq/kg with an average of 43.79±23.92 Bq/kg and 3.36-1004.56 Bq/kg with an average of 393.56±208.04 Bq/kg, respectively. The radiation hazard parameters including absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), radium equivalent activity (AGDE) and external hazard index (Hex) were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. We have noticed that sediments from two sites characterized by similar geological nature of landforms with a rocky coast have higher concentration of natural radionuclides. Concentration of uranium was determined using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotopic composition of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U were determined using

  7. Combination of e+/e- ratio from AMS-02 and gamma ray line from Fermi-LAT with implication for Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shiyuan; Luo, Yonggang

    2013-01-01

    The precise AMS-02 data provide definite information for the e+/e- ratio in 100 - 350 GeV region. Assuming that the recent gamma ray line observed by Fermi-LAT experiment is product of dark matter in space and taken as input. We make a global fit for the AMS-02 e+/e- spectrum with both dark matter and pulsar contribution. For this spectrum over 130 GeV, pulsar is the dominant contribution. We also investigate the constrains on hadron production from dark matter annihilation.

  8. A on-line method for the determination of lead and lead isotope ratios in fresh and saline waters by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halicz, Ludwik; Lam, J.W.H.; McLaren, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A previously reported on-line ICP-MS method for the determination of lead and other trace elements in seawater has been re-examined to determine its suitability for the determination of lead isotope ratios ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 207 Pb/ 208 Pb) in fresh and saline natural waters. A detection limit of 0.9 ng/1 for total lead (for a 5 ml sample) was achieved. Precision of isotope ratio data was 0.2-0.3% RSD at a Pb concentration of 1 μg/l, and was still better than 2% at concentrations of only 10-40 ng/1 in seawater certified reference materials (CRMs). For all three natural water CRMs examined, measured precision was very close to the limit predicted by counting statistics. (Author)

  9. Experiments of flow-induced in-line oscillation of a circular cylinder in a water tunnel. 2. Influence of the aspect ratio of a cantilevered circular cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira; Okajima, Atsushi; Kosugi, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    The flow-induced in-line oscillation of a cantilevered circular cylinder was experimentally studied through free-oscillation tests in a water tunnel. The response displacement amplitude at a circular cylinder tip was measured at reduced velocity from 1.0 to 4.0. A cantilevered cylinder was supported by a plate spring mounted on the water tunnel wall. The cylinder aspect ratio was varied from 5 to 21 to investigate the effect of aspect ratio on the response displacement. It is found that cylinders with aspect ratios of 5 and 10 have one excitation region, while cylinders with aspect ratios of 14 and 21 have two excitation regions. The aspect ratio, therefore, affects the amplitude of the excitation regions. The influence of end-effect was also investigated using cylinders with an end plate attached to the free end. Since the cylinders with an end plate show two excitation regions, even at an aspect ratio of 5, the flow around the free end of a cantilevered cylinder causes the end-effect. The mechanism of vibration was investigated using a cylinder with a splitter plate in wake to prevent alternate vortices. The amplitude is greater than those of a normal cylinder without a splitter plate, especially at V r =2.3 to 3.0, where a cylinder with an end plate shows the second excitation region. In order words, the alternate vortices suppress the amplitude in this range. The maximum amplitude of each excitation region decreases in proportion to C n and the amplitude of the first excitation is more sensitive to C n . (author)

  10. THE AKARI 2.5-5.0 μm SPECTRAL ATLAS OF TYPE-1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATOR, LINE RATIO, AND HOT DUST TEMPERATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Ji Hoon; Jun, Hyunsung David; Lee, Seong-Kook [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Shillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jong-Hak; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Shillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Takagi, Toshinobu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Oyabu, Shinki [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Ohyama, Youichi, E-mail: dohyeong@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-01

    We present 2.5-5.0 μm spectra of 83 nearby (0.002 < z < 0.48) and bright (K < 14 mag) type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) taken with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. The 2.5-5.0 μm spectral region contains emission lines such as Brβ (2.63 μm), Brα (4.05 μm), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3.3 μm), which can be used for studying the black hole (BH) masses and star formation activity in the host galaxies of AGNs. The spectral region also suffers less dust extinction than in the ultra violet (UV) or optical wavelengths, which may provide an unobscured view of dusty AGNs. Our sample is selected from bright quasar surveys of Palomar-Green and SNUQSO, and AGNs with reverberation-mapped BH masses from Peterson et al. Using 11 AGNs with reliable detection of Brackett lines, we derive the Brackett-line-based BH mass estimators. We also find that the observed Brackett line ratios can be explained with the commonly adopted physical conditions of the broad line region. Moreover, we fit the hot and warm dust components of the dust torus by adding photometric data of SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and ISO to the AKARI spectra, finding hot and warm dust temperatures of ∼1100 K and ∼220 K, respectively, rather than the commonly cited hot dust temperature of 1500 K.

  11. Strong nebular line ratios in the spectra of z ∼ 2-3 star forming galaxies: first results from KBSS-MOSFIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.; Strom, Allison L.; Trainor, Ryan F.; Konidaris, Nicholas P.; Matthews, Keith; Pettini, Max; Reddy, Naveen A.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kulas, Kristin R.; Mace, Gregory; McLean, Ian S.; Erb, Dawn K.; Turner, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    We present initial results of a deep near-IR spectroscopic survey covering the 15 fields of the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey using the recently commissioned MOSFIRE spectrometer on the Keck 1 telescope. We focus on a sample of 251 galaxies with redshifts 2.0 < z < 2.6, star formation rates (SFRs) 2 ≲ SFR ≲ 200 M ☉ yr –1 , and stellar masses 8.6 < log (M * /M ☉ ) < 11.4, with high-quality spectra in both H- and K-band atmospheric windows. We show unambiguously that the locus of z ∼ 2.3 galaxies in the 'BPT' nebular diagnostic diagram exhibits an almost entirely disjointed, yet similarly tight, relationship between the line ratios [N II] λ6585/Hα and [O III]/Hβ as compared to local galaxies. Using photoionization models, we argue that the offset of the z ∼ 2.3 BPT locus relative to that at z ∼ 0 is caused by a combination of harder stellar ionizing radiation field, higher ionization parameter, and higher N/O at a given O/H compared to most local galaxies, and that the position of a galaxy along the z ∼ 2.3 star-forming BPT locus is surprisingly insensitive to gas-phase oxygen abundance. The observed nebular emission line ratios are most easily reproduced by models in which the net stellar ionizing radiation field resembles a blackbody with effective temperature T eff = 50, 000-60, 000 K, the gas-phase oxygen abundances lie in the range 0.2 < Z/Z ☉ < 1.0, and the ratio of gas-phase N/O is close to the solar value. We critically assess the applicability at high redshift of commonly used strong line indices for estimating gas-phase metallicity, and consider the implications of the small intrinsic scatter of the empirical relationship between excitation-sensitive line indices and M * (i.e., the 'mass-metallicity' relation) at z ≅ 2.3.

  12. Strong nebular line ratios in the spectra of z ∼ 2-3 star forming galaxies: first results from KBSS-MOSFIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.; Strom, Allison L.; Trainor, Ryan F.; Konidaris, Nicholas P.; Matthews, Keith [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard., MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pettini, Max [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Reddy, Naveen A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Shapley, Alice E.; Kulas, Kristin R.; Mace, Gregory; McLean, Ian S. [University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Erb, Dawn K. [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology, and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Turner, Monica L. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-11-10

    We present initial results of a deep near-IR spectroscopic survey covering the 15 fields of the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey using the recently commissioned MOSFIRE spectrometer on the Keck 1 telescope. We focus on a sample of 251 galaxies with redshifts 2.0 < z < 2.6, star formation rates (SFRs) 2 ≲ SFR ≲ 200 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, and stellar masses 8.6 < log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) < 11.4, with high-quality spectra in both H- and K-band atmospheric windows. We show unambiguously that the locus of z ∼ 2.3 galaxies in the 'BPT' nebular diagnostic diagram exhibits an almost entirely disjointed, yet similarly tight, relationship between the line ratios [N II] λ6585/Hα and [O III]/Hβ as compared to local galaxies. Using photoionization models, we argue that the offset of the z ∼ 2.3 BPT locus relative to that at z ∼ 0 is caused by a combination of harder stellar ionizing radiation field, higher ionization parameter, and higher N/O at a given O/H compared to most local galaxies, and that the position of a galaxy along the z ∼ 2.3 star-forming BPT locus is surprisingly insensitive to gas-phase oxygen abundance. The observed nebular emission line ratios are most easily reproduced by models in which the net stellar ionizing radiation field resembles a blackbody with effective temperature T {sub eff} = 50, 000-60, 000 K, the gas-phase oxygen abundances lie in the range 0.2 < Z/Z {sub ☉} < 1.0, and the ratio of gas-phase N/O is close to the solar value. We critically assess the applicability at high redshift of commonly used strong line indices for estimating gas-phase metallicity, and consider the implications of the small intrinsic scatter of the empirical relationship between excitation-sensitive line indices and M {sub *} (i.e., the 'mass-metallicity' relation) at z ≅ 2.3.

  13. Method to estimate the effective temperatures of late-type giants using line-depth ratios in the wavelength range 0.97-1.32 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Daisuke; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Naoto; Fukue, Kei; Hamano, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yuji; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kondo, Sohei; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Yasui, Chikako

    2018-02-01

    The effective temperature, one of the most fundamental atmospheric parameters of a star, can be estimated using various methods; here, we focus on a method using line-depth ratios (LDRs). This method combines low- and high-excitation lines and makes use of relations between LDRs of these line pairs and the effective temperature. It has an advantage, for example, of being minimally affected by interstellar reddening, which changes stellar colours. We report 81 relations between LDRs and effective temperature established with high-resolution, λ/Δλ ∼ 28 000, spectra of nine G- to M-type giants in the Y and J bands. Our analysis gives the first comprehensive set of LDR relations for this wavelength range. The combination of all these relations can be used to determine the effective temperatures of stars that have 3700 < Teff < 5400 K and -0.5 < [Fe/H] < +0.3 dex, to a precision of ±10 K in the best cases.

  14. Optimization of on-line hydrogen stable isotope ratio measurements of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds using elemental analyzer-chromium/high-temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Geilmann, Heike; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Kümmel, Steffen; Ivdra, Natalija; Brand, Willi A; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2017-03-30

    Accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organics has not been possible with traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) because the formation of hydrogen-bearing reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) is responsible for non-quantitative H 2 yields and possible hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Our previously introduced, new chromium-based EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (Elemental Analyzer-Chromium/High-Temperature Conversion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) technique focused primarily on nitrogen-bearing compounds. Several technical and analytical issues concerning halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples, however, remained unresolved and required further refinement of the reactor systems. The EA-Cr/HTC reactor was substantially modified for the conversion of halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples. The performance of the novel conversion setup for solid and liquid samples was monitored and optimized using a simultaneously operating dual-detection system of IRMS and ion trap MS. The method with several variants in the reactor, including the addition of manganese metal chips, was evaluated in three laboratories using EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (on-line method) and compared with traditional uranium-reduction-based conversion combined with manual dual-inlet IRMS analysis (off-line method) in one laboratory. The modified EA-Cr/HTC reactor setup showed an overall H 2 -recovery of more than 96% for all halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds. All results were successfully normalized via two-point calibration with VSMOW-SLAP reference waters. Precise and accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis was achieved for a variety of organics containing F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, and S-bearing heteroelements. The robust nature of the on-line EA-Cr/HTC technique was demonstrated by a series of 196 consecutive measurements with a single reactor filling. The optimized EA-Cr/HTC reactor design can be implemented in existing analytical equipment using commercially available material and

  15. A statistical study of coronal densities from X-ray line ratios of helium-like ions - Ne IX and Mg XI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, G. A.; Lemen, J. R.; Strong, K. T.

    1988-01-01

    Since the repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft, the Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS) has recorded many high temperature spectra of helium-like ions under a wide variety of coronal conditions including active regions, long duration events, compact events, and double flares. The plasma density and temperature are derived from the ratios R and G, where R = f/i, G = (f + i)/r, and r, f, and i denote the resonance, forbidden, and intercombination line fluxes. A new method for obtaining the density and temperature for events observed with the FCS aboard SMM is presented. The results for these events are presented and compared to earlier results, and the method is evaluated based on these comparisons.

  16. CONSTRAINTS ON BLACK HOLE GROWTH, QUASAR LIFETIMES, AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE SDSS BROAD-LINE QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Hernquist, Lars; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan Xiaohui; Hopkins, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We present an estimate of the black hole mass function of broad-line quasars (BLQSOs) that self-consistently corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates, based on a sample of 9886 quasars at 1 1 it is highly incomplete at M BH ∼ 9 M sun and L/L Edd ∼ BL > 150 ± 15 Myr for black holes at z = 1 with a mass of M BH = 10 9 M sun , and we constrain the maximum mass of a black hole in a BLQSO to be ∼3 x 10 10 M sun . Our estimated distribution of BLQSO Eddington ratios peaks at L/L Edd ∼ 0.05 and has a dispersion of ∼0.4 dex, implying that most BLQSOs are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit; however, the location of the peak is subject to considerable uncertainty. The steep increase in number density of BLQSOs toward lower Eddington ratios is expected if the BLQSO accretion rate monotonically decays with time. Furthermore, our estimated lifetime and Eddington ratio distributions imply that the majority of the most massive black holes spend a significant amount of time growing in an earlier obscured phase, a conclusion which is independent of the unknown obscured fraction. These results are consistent with models for self-regulated black hole growth, at least for massive systems at z > 1, where the BLQSO phase occurs at the end of a fueling event when black hole feedback unbinds the accreting gas, halting the accretion flow.

  17. Comparing UV/EUV line parameters and magnetic field in a quiescent prominence with tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N.; Schmieder, B.; López Ariste, A.; Fletcher, L.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Understanding the relationship between plasma and the magnetic field is important for describing and explaining the observed dynamics of solar prominences. Aims: We determine if a close relationship can be found between plasma and magnetic field parameters, measured at high resolution in a well-observed prominence. Methods: A prominence observed on 15 July 2014 by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), Hinode, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Télescope Héliographique pour l'Étude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires (THEMIS) is selected. We perform a robust co-alignment of data sets using a 2D cross-correlation technique. Magnetic field parameters are derived from spectropolarimetric measurements of the He I D3 line from THEMIS. Line ratios and line-of-sight velocities from the Mg II h and k lines observed by IRIS are compared with magnetic field strength, inclination, and azimuth. Electron densities are calculated using Fe xii line ratios from the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer, which are compared to THEMIS and IRIS data. Results: We find Mg II k/h ratios of around 1.4 everywhere, similar to values found previously in prominences. Also, the magnetic field is strongest ( 30 G) and predominantly horizontal in the tornado-like legs of the prominence. The k3 Doppler shift is found to be between ±10 km s-1 everywhere. Electron densities at a temperature of 1.5 × 106 K are found to be around 109 cm-3. No significant correlations are found between the magnetic field parameters and any of the other plasma parameters inferred from spectroscopy, which may be explained by the large differences in the temperatures of the lines used in this study. Conclusions: This is the first time that a detailed statistical study of plasma and magnetic field parameters has been performed at high spatial resolution in a prominence. Our results provide important constraints on future models of the plasma and magnetic field in

  18. On-line gas chromatography combustion/pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christina; Richling, Elke; Elss, Sandra; Appel, Markus; Heckel, Frank; Hartlieb, Ariane; Schreier, Peter

    2003-12-31

    By use of extracts prepared by liquid-liquid separation of the volatiles from self-prepared juices of pineapple fruits (Ananas comosus) (n = 14) as well as commercial pineapple recovery aromas/water phases (n = 3), on-line capillary gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry was employed in the combustion (C) and the pyrolysis (P) modes (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) to determine the delta(13)C(VPDB) and delta(2)H(VSMOW) values of selected pineapple flavor constituents. In addition to methyl 2-methylbutanoate 1, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate 2, methyl hexanoate 3, ethyl hexanoate 4, and 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3[2H]-furanone 5, each originating from the fruit, the delta(13)C(VPDB) and delta(2)H(VSMOW) data of commercial synthetic 1-5 and "natural" (biotechnologically derived) 1-4 were determined. With delta(13)C(VPDB) data of pineapple volatiles 1-4 varying from -12.8 to -24.4 per thousand, the range expected for CAM metabolism was observed. Compound 5 showed higher depletion from -20.9 to -28.6 per thousand. A similar situation was given for the delta(2)H(VSMOW) values of 3-5 from pineapple ranging from -118 to -191 per thousand, whereas 1 and 2 showed higher depleted values from -184 to -263 per thousand. In nearly all cases, analytical differentiation of 1-5 from pineapple and natural as well as synthetic origin was possible. In general, natural and synthetic 1-5 exhibited delta(13)C(VPDB) data ranging from -11.8 to -32.2 per thousand and -22.7 to -35.9 per thousand, respectively. Their delta(2)H(VSMOW) data were in the range from -242 to -323 per thousand and -49 to -163 per thousand, respectively.

  19. Combination of the ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios from two test elements for the diagnostic of plasma temperature and electron number density in Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognoni, E. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: tognoni@ipcf.cnr.it; Hidalgo, M.; Canals, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Salvetti, A.; Palleschi, V. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    In Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) spectrochemical analysis, the MgII(280.270 nm)/MgI(285.213 nm) ionic to atomic line intensity ratio is commonly used as a monitor of the robustness of operating conditions. This approach is based on the univocal relationship existing between intensity ratio and plasma temperature, for a pure argon atmospheric ICP in thermodynamic equilibrium. In a multi-elemental plasma in the lower temperature range, the measurement of the intensity ratio may not be sufficient to characterize temperature and electron density. In such a range, the correct relationship between intensity ratio and plasma temperature can be calculated only when the complete plasma composition is known. We propose the combination of the line intensity ratios of two test elements (double ratio) as an effective diagnostic tool for a multi-elemental low temperature LTE plasma of unknown composition. In particular, the variation of the double ratio allows us discriminating changes in the plasma temperature from changes in the electron density. Thus, the effects on plasma excitation and ionization possibly caused by introduction of different samples and matrices in non-robust conditions can be more accurately interpreted. The method is illustrated by the measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in a specific analytic case.

  20. A behavior of O/M ratio and its effect for Material Accounting in feed preparation process of MOX fabrication line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuba, Meiji; Kashimura, Motoaki; Suzuki, Toru; Yamaguchi, Toshihiro; Deguchi, Morimoto; Otani, Tetsuo

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation test to investigate the behavior of the Oxygen to Metal ratio (O/M ratio) drift and its effect to material accounting in Feed preparation process was carried out in operational MOX fuel fabrication process, Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). The test results clearly show the transition of O/M ratio along the Feed preparation process flow and it was increased gradually according to the progress of process steps. It leveled off after Feed lot blending operation and then it remained stable around 2.25. Analytical result of plutonium concentration after the correction with the changes of moisture concentration on the same sample as O/M ratio analysis has strong correlation with O/M ratio result as the theory. Therefore, it was confirmed that the plutonium concentration of the MOX should be corrected on the basis of the changes in O/M ratio and moisture concentration. Sample taking after blending operation was carried out at Cross Blending process step. An analysis of variance for plutonium concentration using two-way layout, whose factors are feed blending batch (factor A) and container (factor B), is carried out. Since no significant difference was observed in factor A nor B, the test concludes that a sample taken after blending operation can be considered as representative for the whole material blended by cross blending operation. Now the software of 'Material Accounting System' is being modified to improved one, that is, the plutonium concentration after the intermediate storage and after treatment in a process glove box is corrected with the change of O/M ratio and moisture concentration. (J.P.N.)

  1. Optimization of on-line hydrogen stable isotope ratio measurements of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds using elemental analyzer–chromium/high-temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Geilmann, Heike; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Kümmel, Steffen; Ivdra, Natalija; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organics has not been possible with traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) because the formation of hydrogen-bearing reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H2) is responsible for non-quantitative H2 yields and possible hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Our previously introduced, new chromium-based EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (Elemental Analyzer–Chromium/High-Temperature Conversion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) technique focused primarily on nitrogen-bearing compounds. Several technical and analytical issues concerning halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples, however, remained unresolved and required further refinement of the reactor systems.

  2. Electric field measurements from satellites-to-forbidden line ratios in an Omega-Upgrade laser-produced plasma. Semi-annual report, February 1--May 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.; Elton, R.C.; Welch, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Under this FY-96 NLUF program, the authors began their search for satellite lines to forbidden transitions for localized laser-induced electric field measurements by preparing in their laboratory a flat-field grazing incidence spectrograph for use on the OMEGA-Upgrade facility. This involved wavelength calibration using a (small) laser-produced plasma, as well as designing and constructing a mounting table compatible with the large 60-beam target chamber at LLE. Beginning in April 1996 they installed and aligned the spectrograph at LLE. Following final alignment on Monday, April 29, they obtained the following day their first time-integrated spectral data in the 30--250 angstrom range. A total of 28 successful shots were obtained. For most shots, two beams of the OMEGA-Upgrade laser were used at nominal uv-pulse widths of 1.1 ns and energies ranging from 76--470 J/beam, with focal spots of 80--450 microm and irradiances covering approximately 10 14 --10 16 Watt/cm 2 . Planar targets used consisted of Mg and NaF, as well as boron mounted on a plastic film, with some of the former two overcoated with 5 microm of CH on each side for containing the plasma, at least during the early portion of the pulse. Preliminary analyses indicate that they do indeed observe the desired Li-like L-shell spectra for oxygen, fluorine, sodium and magnesium, as well as L-shell lines in the corresponding H-(Balmer) and He-like species. Similarly, they recorded K-shell lines from B and C. Sample traces for Mg and Na fluoride from their soft x-ray spectrograph are shown. Both of these shots were obtained at a rather low applied irradiance of 2 X 10 14 W/cm 2 , and were chosen mainly for line identification. The parent Li-like 2s-3p allowed lines corresponding to the forbidden-line satellites sought for E-field determinations are clearly present. The calculated satellite line intensity relative to the intensity from this 2s-3p transition is ∼ 3%

  3. The prothrombin time/international normalised ratio (PT/INR) line: derivation of local INR with commercial thromboplastins and coagulometers – two independent studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poller, Leon; Ibrahim, S.; Keown, M.

    2011-01-01

    reagents, and from 7.0% to 2.6% with rabbit reagents. In the second study, deviation was reduced from 11.2% to 0.4% with human reagents by both local ISI calibration and the PT/INR Line. With rabbit reagents, 10.4% deviation was reduced to 1.1% with both procedures; 4.9% deviation was reduced to 0.5......Background: The WHO scheme for prothrombin time (PT) standardization has been limited in application, because of its difficulties in implementation, particularly the need for mandatory manual PT testing and for local provision of thromboplastin international reference preparations (IRP). Methods...... thromboplastins and coagulometers. INRs were compared with manual certified values with thromboplastin IRP from expert centres and in the second study also with INRs from local ISI calibrations. Results: In the first study with the PT/INR Line, 8.7% deviation from certified INRs was reduced to 1.1% with human...

  4. Los resonance lines in promethiumlike heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Murakami, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the ns - np resonance lines in alkali-metal-like ions is an important issue in fusion plasma science in the view of spectroscopic diagnostics and radiation power loss. Whereas for n=2, 3 and 4 these resonances are prominent and well studied, so far no one could clearly identify the resonance lines for n=5 in the promethiumlike sequence. We have now experimentally clarified the reason for the 'lost resonance lines. In the present study, highly-charged bismuth ions have been studied using a compact electron beam ion trap (EBIT). Extreme ultraviolet emission from the bismuth ions produced and trapped in the EBIT is observed with a grazing-incidence flat-field spectrometer. The energy dependent spectra are compared with a collisional-radiative model calculation, and we show that the 5s - 5p resonance lines are very weak in plasma with a wide range of electron density due to the presence of a long-lived metastable state. (author)

  5. On-line measurement of 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios by E/A-diluter-IRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, H.; Boner, M.; Prast, H.

    2001-01-01

    Efficient food control requires rapid procedures for testing source authenticity. Food is produced inside a closed 'isotopic environment' from where it inherits a specific isotopic composition or fingerprint. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) measures isotopic compositions using simple gases like CO 2 or N 2 exclusively. From food samples these gases may be produced by combustion in a commercial CHN analyser (Elemental Analyser, EA). Following GC separation of the combustion gases the elemental content is determined using a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) . The effluent of the EA is coupled to the mass spectrometer via an open split. Because the relative amounts of the bio-elements vary significantly, (often C/N is 25/1 or larger), the amount of analyte gas produced from a single sample must be adjusted e.g. using a diluter. Our diluter configuration can be adjusted to measure repeatedly the 13 C/ 12 C ratio of carbon dioxide in mineral waters, as well as to measure 15 N/ 14 N and 13 C/ 12 C ratios from biological or soil samples simultaneously. In the first application different types of carbon dioxide, produced naturally (well) or technically (process), can be distinguished. The second application offers the possibility to trace the fate of a fertilizer in vineyards by determining the isotopic variation of nitrogen and carbon in soil and vines. (author)

  6. Development of an on-line flow injection Sr/matrix separation method for accurate, high-throughput determination of Sr isotope ratios by multiple collector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Patrick; Limbeck, Andreas; Boulyga, Sergei F; Stingeder, Gerhard; Hirata, Takafumi; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    This work introduces a newly developed on-line flow injection (FI) Sr/Rb separation method as an alternative to the common, manual Sr/matrix batch separation procedure, since total analysis time is often limited by sample preparation despite the fast rate of data acquisition possible by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometers (ICPMS). Separation columns containing approximately 100 muL of Sr-specific resin were used for on-line FI Sr/matrix separation with subsequent determination of (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios by multiple collector ICPMS. The occurrence of memory effects exhibited by the Sr-specific resin, a major restriction to the repetitive use of this costly material, could successfully be overcome. The method was fully validated by means of certified reference materials. A set of two biological and six geological Sr- and Rb-bearing samples was successfully characterized for its (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios with precisions of 0.01-0.04% 2 RSD (n = 5-10). Based on our measurements we suggest (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios of 0.713 15 +/- 0.000 16 (2 SD) and 0.709 31 +/- 0.000 06 (2 SD) for the NIST SRM 1400 bone ash and the NIST SRM 1486 bone meal, respectively. Measured (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios for five basalt samples are in excellent agreement with published data with deviations from the published value ranging from 0 to 0.03%. A mica sample with a Rb/Sr ratio of approximately 1 was successfully characterized for its (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope signature to be 0.718 24 +/- 0.000 29 (2 SD) by the proposed method. Synthetic samples with Rb/Sr ratios of up to 10/1 could successfully be measured without significant interferences on mass 87, which would otherwise bias the accuracy and uncertainty of the obtained data.

  7. The isotopic abundance ratio 12C/13C in the solar atmosphere determined from CH-lines in the photospheric spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, Oe.

    1976-01-01

    The R-branch of the (0,0) vibrational band of the violet electronic transition A 2 Δ-X 2 PI of CH is analysed. Isotope wavelength shifts were measured on laboratory spectrograms. The method of synthesising the spectrum was used, and the molecular dissociation equilibrium through the photosphere was computed. 13 CH is not definitely identified in the photospheric spectrum and only upper limits of the 13 C abundance are deduced. The upper limits are sensitive to the local continuum level. A photospheric abundance ratio 12 C/ 13 C greater than the terrestrial value of 90 seems highly probable. (Auth.)

  8. Assessment of the excitation temperatures and Mg II:I line ratios of the direct current (DC) arc source for the analysis of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manard, B.T.; Matonic, John; Montoya, Dennis; Jump, Robert; Castro, Alonso; Ning Xu

    2017-01-01

    The direct current (DC) arc plasma has been assessed with an emphasis on excitation temperature (T_e_x_e) and ionization/excitation efficiency by monitoring magnesium ionic:atomic ratios (Mg II:I). The primary goal is to improve the analytical performance of the DC arc instrumentation such that more sensitive and reproducible measurements can be achieved when analyzing trace impurities in nuclear materials. Due to the variety of sample types requiring DC arc analysis, an understanding of the plasma's characteristics will significantly benefit the experimental design when moving forward with LANL's capabilities for trace metal analysis of plutonium metals. (author)

  9. Elemental ratios for characterization of quantum-dots populations in complex mixtures by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation on-line coupled to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Arguelles, Maria T.; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M.; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hyphenated system allows unequivocal identification of nanoparticle populations. • AF4 separation permitted detection of unexpected nanosized species in a sample. • ICP-QQQ provides elemental ratios with adequate accuracy in every nanoparticle. • Purity and chemical composition of different quantum dot samples were assessed. - Abstract: Separation and identification of nanoparticles of different composition, with similar particle diameter, coexisting in heterogeneous suspensions of polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been thoroughly assessed by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled on-line to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detectors. Chemical characterization of any previously on-line separated nanosized species was achieved by the measurement of the elemental molar ratios of every element involved in the synthesis of the QDs, using inorganic standards and external calibration by flow injection analysis (FIA). Such elemental molar ratios, strongly limited so far to pure single nanoparticles suspensions, have been achieved with adequate accuracy by coupling for the first time an ICP-QQQ instrument to an AF4 system. This hyphenation turned out to be instrumental to assess the chemical composition of the different populations of nanoparticles coexisting in the relatively complex mixtures, due to its capabilities to detect the hardly detectable elements involved in the synthesis. Interestingly such information, complementary to that obtained by fluorescence, was very valuable to detect and identify unexpected nanosized species, present at significant level, produced during QDs synthesis and hardly detectable by standard approaches

  10. Differential Ratios of Omega Fatty Acids (AA/EPA+DHA Modulate Growth, Lipid Peroxidation and Expression of Tumor Regulatory MARBPs in Breast Cancer Cell Lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash P Mansara

    Full Text Available Omega 3 (n3 and Omega 6 (n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been reported to exhibit opposing roles in cancer progression. Our objective was to determine whether different ratios of n6/n3 (AA/EPA+DHA FAs could modulate the cell viability, lipid peroxidation, total cellular fatty acid composition and expression of tumor regulatory Matrix Attachment Region binding proteins (MARBPs in breast cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous, MCF10A cells. Low ratios of n6/n3 (1:2.5, 1:4, 1:5, 1:10 FA decreased the viability and growth of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 significantly compared to the non-cancerous cells (MCF10A. Contrarily, higher n6/n3 FA (2.5:1, 4:1, 5:1, 10:1 decreased the survival of both the cancerous and non-cancerous cell types. Lower ratios of n6/n3 selectively induced LPO in the breast cancer cells whereas the higher ratios induced in both cancerous and non-cancerous cell types. Interestingly, compared to higher n6/n3 FA ratios, lower ratios increased the expression of tumor suppressor MARBP, SMAR1 and decreased the expression of tumor activator Cux/CDP in both breast cancer and non-cancerous, MCF10A cells. Low n6/n3 FAs significantly increased SMAR1 expression which resulted into activation of p21WAF1/CIP1 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7, the increase being ratio dependent in MDA-MB-231. These results suggest that increased intake of n3 fatty acids in our diet could help both in the prevention as well as management of breast cancer.

  11. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  12. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  13. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  14. X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission from comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.; Cravens, T. E.; Dennerl, K.

    The discovery of high energy X-ray emission in 1996 from C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) has created a surprising new class of X-ray emitting objects. The original discovery (Lisse et al., 1996) and subsequent detection of X-rays from 17 other comets (Table 1) have shown that the very soft (E < 1 keV) emission is due to an interaction between the solar wind and the comet's atmosphere, and that X-ray emission is a fundamental property of comets. Theoretical and observational work has demonstrated that charge exchange collisions of highly charged solar wind ions with cometary neutral species is the best explanation for the emission. Now a rapidly changing and expanding field, the study of cometary X-ray emission appears to be able to lead us to a better understanding of a number of physical phenomena: the nature of the cometary coma, other sources of X-ray emission in the solar system, the structure of the solar wind in the heliosphere, and the source of the local soft X-ray background.

  15. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

    1993-05-18

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 [mu]m, and preferably less than 100 [mu]m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 [mu]m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm [times] 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  16. Extreme ultraviolet resist materials for sub-7 nm patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li; Liu, Xuan; Pal, Shyam; Wang, Shulan; Ober, Christopher K.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2017-01-01

    Continuous ongoing development of dense integrated circuits requires significant advancements in nanoscale patterning technology. As a key process in semiconductor high volume manufacturing (HVM), high resolution lithography is crucial in keeping with Moore's law. Currently, lithography technology for the sub-7 nm node and beyond has been actively investigated approaching atomic level patterning. EUV technology is now considered to be a potential alternative to HVM for replacing in some cases ArF immersion technology combined with multi-patterning. Development of innovative resist materials will be required to improve advanced fabrication strategies. In this article, advancements in novel resist materials are reviewed to identify design criteria for establishment of a next generation resist platform. Development strategies and the challenges in next generation resist materials are summarized and discussed.

  17. The Extreme Ultraviolet Flux of Very Low Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2017-09-01

    The X-ray and EUV emission of stars is vital for understanding the atmospheres and evolution of their planets. The coronae of dwarf stars later than M6 behave differently to those of earlier spectral types and are more X-ray dim and radio bright. Too faint to have been observed by EUVE, their EUV behavior is currently highly uncertain. We propose to observe a small sample of late M dwarfs using the off-axis HRC-S thin Al" filter that is sensitive to EUV emission in the 50-200 A range. The measured fluxes will be used to understand the amount of cooler coronal plasma present, and extend X-ray-EUV flux relations to the latest stellar types.

  18. X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Attwood, David

    2016-01-01

    With this fully updated second edition, readers will gain a detailed understanding of the physics and applications of modern X-ray and EUV radiation sources. Taking into account the most recent improvements in capabilities, coverage is expanded to include new chapters on free electron lasers (FELs), laser high harmonic generation (HHG), X-ray and EUV optics, and nanoscale imaging; a completely revised chapter on spatial and temporal coherence; and extensive discussion of the generation and applications of femtosecond and attosecond techniques. Readers will be guided step by step through the mathematics of each topic, with over 300 figures, 50 reference tables and 600 equations enabling easy understanding of key concepts. Homework problems, a solutions manual for instructors, and links to YouTube lectures accompany the book online. This is the 'go-to' guide for graduate students, researchers and industry practitioners interested in X-ray and EUV interaction with matter.

  19. Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) induced surface chemistry on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Feng; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    EUV photon induced surface chemistry can damage multilayer mirrors causing reflectivity loss and faster degradation. EUV photo chemistry involves complex processes including direct photon induced surface chemistry and secondary electron radiation chemistry. Current cleaning techniques include dry

  20. Extreme ultraviolet resist materials for sub-7 nm patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Xuan; Pal, Shyam; Wang, Shulan; Ober, Christopher K; Giannelis, Emmanuel P

    2017-08-14

    Continuous ongoing development of dense integrated circuits requires significant advancements in nanoscale patterning technology. As a key process in semiconductor high volume manufacturing (HVM), high resolution lithography is crucial in keeping with Moore's law. Currently, lithography technology for the sub-7 nm node and beyond has been actively investigated approaching atomic level patterning. EUV technology is now considered to be a potential alternative to HVM for replacing in some cases ArF immersion technology combined with multi-patterning. Development of innovative resist materials will be required to improve advanced fabrication strategies. In this article, advancements in novel resist materials are reviewed to identify design criteria for establishment of a next generation resist platform. Development strategies and the challenges in next generation resist materials are summarized and discussed.

  1. Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor (AESSIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    molecular constituents [Meier 1991]. This radiation is the principal source of energy for producing and maintaining the complex, time-dependent, thermal...158.4 nm emisions for interstellar wind studies. After -2005, there is unlikely to be sufficient power to provide the requisite heating of the scan

  2. Extreme ultraviolet resist materials for sub-7 nm patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li

    2017-06-26

    Continuous ongoing development of dense integrated circuits requires significant advancements in nanoscale patterning technology. As a key process in semiconductor high volume manufacturing (HVM), high resolution lithography is crucial in keeping with Moore\\'s law. Currently, lithography technology for the sub-7 nm node and beyond has been actively investigated approaching atomic level patterning. EUV technology is now considered to be a potential alternative to HVM for replacing in some cases ArF immersion technology combined with multi-patterning. Development of innovative resist materials will be required to improve advanced fabrication strategies. In this article, advancements in novel resist materials are reviewed to identify design criteria for establishment of a next generation resist platform. Development strategies and the challenges in next generation resist materials are summarized and discussed.

  3. Elemental ratios for characterization of quantum-dots populations in complex mixtures by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation on-line coupled to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Arguelles, Maria T; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-08-11

    Separation and identification of nanoparticles of different composition, with similar particle diameter, coexisting in heterogeneous suspensions of polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been thoroughly assessed by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled on-line to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detectors. Chemical characterization of any previously on-line separated nanosized species was achieved by the measurement of the elemental molar ratios of every element involved in the synthesis of the QDs, using inorganic standards and external calibration by flow injection analysis (FIA). Such elemental molar ratios, strongly limited so far to pure single nanoparticles suspensions, have been achieved with adequate accuracy by coupling for the first time an ICP-QQQ instrument to an AF4 system. This hyphenation turned out to be instrumental to assess the chemical composition of the different populations of nanoparticles coexisting in the relatively complex mixtures, due to its capabilities to detect the hardly detectable elements involved in the synthesis. Interestingly such information, complementary to that obtained by fluorescence, was very valuable to detect and identify unexpected nanosized species, present at significant level, produced during QDs synthesis and hardly detectable by standard approaches. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. EUV mask defect inspection and defect review strategies for EUV pilot line and high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. David; Rastegar, Abbas; Yun, Henry; Putna, E. Steve; Wurm, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    Reducing mask blank and patterned mask defects is the number one challenge for extreme ultraviolet lithography. If the industry succeeds in reducing mask blank defects at the required rate of 10X every year for the next 2-3 years to meet high volume manufacturing defect requirements, new inspection and review tool capabilities will soon be needed to support this goal. This paper outlines the defect inspection and review tool technical requirements and suggests development plans to achieve pilot line readiness in 2011/12 and high volume manufacturing readiness in 2013. The technical specifications, tooling scenarios, and development plans were produced by a SEMATECH-led technical working group with broad industry participation from material suppliers, tool suppliers, mask houses, integrated device manufacturers, and consortia. The paper summarizes this technical working group's assessment of existing blank and mask inspection/review infrastructure capabilities to support pilot line introduction and outlines infrastructure development requirements and tooling strategies to support high volume manufacturing.

  5. Baseline and Trend of Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio as Prognostic Factors in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with First-Line Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mu Chen

    Full Text Available Patients with early-stage lung cancer who have a high baseline lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR have a favorable prognosis. However, the prognostic significance of LMR in patients with advanced-stage EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC receiving first-line epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs has not been established. We conducted a retrospective analysis to investigate the influence of LMR on clinical outcomes including progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS in EGFR-mutant patients with NSCLC.Of 1310 lung cancer patients diagnosed between January 2011 and October 2013, 253 patients receiving first-line EGFR-TKIs for EGFR-mutant NSCLC were included. The cut-off values for baseline and the 1-month-to-baseline ratio of LMR (MBR, determined by using receiver operating characteristic curves, were 3.29 and 0.63, respectively. Patients were divided into 3 prognostic groups: high LMR and MBR, high LMR or MBR, and low LMR and MBR.The mean patient age was 65.2 years, and 41% were men. The median PFS and OS were 10.3 and 22.0 months, respectively. The PFS in patients with high LMR and MBR, high LMR or MBR, and low LMR and MBR were 15.4, 7.1, and 2.0 months, respectively (p < 0.001, whereas the OS were 32.6, 13.7, and 5.1 months, respectively (p < 0.001.A combination of baseline and trend of LMR can be used to identify patients with a high mortality risk in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients receiving first-line EGFR-TKIs.

  6. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  7. Fingerprinting the type of line edge roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Herrero, A.; Pflüger, M.; Scholze, F.; Soltwisch, V.

    2017-06-01

    Lamellar gratings are widely used diffractive optical elements and are prototypes of structural elements in integrated electronic circuits. EUV scatterometry is very sensitive to structure details and imperfections, which makes it suitable for the characterization of nanostructured surfaces. As compared to X-ray methods, EUV scattering allows for steeper angles of incidence, which is highly preferable for the investigation of small measurement fields on semiconductor wafers. For the control of the lithographic manufacturing process, a rapid in-line characterization of nanostructures is indispensable. Numerous studies on the determination of regular geometry parameters of lamellar gratings from optical and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) scattering also investigated the impact of roughness on the respective results. The challenge is to appropriately model the influence of structure roughness on the diffraction intensities used for the reconstruction of the surface profile. The impact of roughness was already studied analytically but for gratings with a periodic pseudoroughness, because of practical restrictions of the computational domain. Our investigation aims at a better understanding of the scattering caused by line roughness. We designed a set of nine lamellar Si-gratings to be studied by EUV scatterometry. It includes one reference grating with no artificial roughness added, four gratings with a periodic roughness distribution, two with a prevailing line edge roughness (LER) and another two with line width roughness (LWR), and four gratings with a stochastic roughness distribution (two with LER and two with LWR). We show that the type of line roughness has a strong impact on the diffuse scatter angular distribution. Our experimental results are not described well by the present modelling approach based on small, periodically repeated domains.

  8. Atomic structure calculations and identification of EUV and SXR spectral lines in Sr XXX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Arun; Khatri, Indu; Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, A.K.; Mohan, Man

    2015-01-01

    We report an extensive theoretical study of atomic data for Sr XXX in a wide range with L-shell electron excitations to the M-shell. We have calculated energy levels, wave-function compositions and lifetimes for lowest 113 fine structure levels and wavelengths of an extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) transitions. We have employed multi-configuration Dirac Fock method (MCDF) approach within the framework of Dirac–Coulomb Hamiltonian including quantum electrodynamics (QED) and Breit corrections. We have also presented the radiative data for electric and magnetic dipole (E1, M1) and quadrupole (E2, M2) transitions from the ground state. We have made comparisons with available energy levels compiled by NIST and achieve good agreement. But due to inadequate data in the literature, analogous relativistic distorted wave calculations have also been performed using flexible atomic code (FAC) to assess the reliability and accuracy of our results. Additionally, we have provided new atomic data for Sr XXX which is not published elsewhere in the literature and we believe that our results may be beneficial in fusion plasma research and astrophysical investigations and applications. - Highlights: • 113 Lowest levels for Sr XXX are calculated. • Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft-X ray (SXR) spectral lines are identified. • Wavelengths of EUV and SXR spectral lines are reported. • E1, E2, M1 and M2 transition rates, oscillator strengths and lines strengths for lowest 113 levels are presented. • Lifetimes for lowest 113 fine structure levels are provided

  9. Development of a minicomputer system for on-line processing of gamma--gamma coincidence events and measurements of E2/M1 mixing ratios in 110Cd and 134Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.

    1977-12-01

    A megachannel pulse-height analysis system using a 32,000-word PDP-8/E minicomputer and two moving-head disk memories was developed. The system has a storage capacity of 2 18 events at any of 2 20 data locations, is capable of processing 1,040 events/s, and provides on-line sorting and disk storage. An X- or Y- pulse-height spectrum in coincidence with one to four arithmetically combined pulse-height windows can be assembled in core for scope display and spectral analysis within 2 to 20 seconds. The software for the system was written extensively in machine language. Excellent energy and timing resolution were achieved. An energy resolution of 2.3 keV fwhm and a timing resolution of 8.5 ns fwhm were obtained for 60 Co at a singles rate of 10,000 counts/s. The prompt timing peak remained Gaussian down to the fwtm by gating the TAC with SCAs which discriminated against low-energy events. The coincidence electronics also allowed on-line subtraction of accidental coincidence events. Alignment of the detectors and tests of the system's performance were made by measuring solid-angle correction factors for the Ge(Li) detectors through the correlation measurements of the 0 + --2 + --0 + cascade in 106 Pd, and by measuring the angular spread of positron annihilation radiation coincidences. Results were in excellent agreement with theoretical solid-angle correction factors calculated for the detector and source sizes used. Directional correlation data were obtained for gamma-ray cascades in 134 Ba and 110 Cd. Analyses of these data gave E2/M1 mixing ratios which are in excellent agreement with results obtained by other investigators. The improved resolution and data processing capabilities of this system gave new results for the 563-keV transition in 134 Ba and the 1505-keV transition in 110 Cd. E2/M1 mixing ratios of 13.3/sup +2.3/sub -1.8/ for the 563-keV transition and -1.24 +- 0.20 for the 1505-keV transition were measured

  10. Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes Using Iron Forbidden Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.

    2016-05-01

    In this Letter, we present Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Fe xxi 1354.08 Å forbidden line emission of two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that caused two fast coronal mass ejections with velocities of ≥1000 km s-1 and strong flares (X1.6 and M6.5) on 2014 September 10 and 2015 June 22, respectively. The extreme-ultraviolet images at the 131 and 94 Å passbands provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal that both MFRs initially appear as suspended hot channel-like structures. Interestingly, part of the MFRs is also visible in the Fe xxi 1354.08 forbidden line, even prior to the eruption, e.g., for the SOL2014-09-10 event. However, the line emission is very weak and that only appears at a few locations but not the whole structure of the MFRs. This implies that the MFRs could be comprised of different threads with different temperatures and densities, based on the fact that the formation of the Fe xxi forbidden line requires a critical temperature (˜11.5 MK) and density. Moreover, the line shows a non-thermal broadening and a blueshift in the early phase. It suggests that magnetic reconnection at that time has initiated; it not only heats the MFR and, at the same time, produces a non-thermal broadening of the Fe xxi line but also produces the poloidal flux, leading to the ascension of the MFRs.

  11. SPECTROSCOPIC DIAGNOSTICS OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES USING IRON FORBIDDEN LINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we present Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Fe xxi 1354.08 Å forbidden line emission of two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that caused two fast coronal mass ejections with velocities of ≥1000 km s"−"1 and strong flares (X1.6 and M6.5) on 2014 September 10 and 2015 June 22, respectively. The extreme-ultraviolet images at the 131 and 94 Å passbands provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal that both MFRs initially appear as suspended hot channel-like structures. Interestingly, part of the MFRs is also visible in the Fe xxi 1354.08 forbidden line, even prior to the eruption, e.g., for the SOL2014-09-10 event. However, the line emission is very weak and that only appears at a few locations but not the whole structure of the MFRs. This implies that the MFRs could be comprised of different threads with different temperatures and densities, based on the fact that the formation of the Fe xxi forbidden line requires a critical temperature (∼11.5 MK) and density. Moreover, the line shows a non-thermal broadening and a blueshift in the early phase. It suggests that magnetic reconnection at that time has initiated; it not only heats the MFR and, at the same time, produces a non-thermal broadening of the Fe xxi line but also produces the poloidal flux, leading to the ascension of the MFRs.

  12. SPECTROSCOPIC DIAGNOSTICS OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES USING IRON FORBIDDEN LINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D., E-mail: xincheng@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-05-20

    In this Letter, we present Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Fe xxi 1354.08 Å forbidden line emission of two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that caused two fast coronal mass ejections with velocities of ≥1000 km s{sup −1} and strong flares (X1.6 and M6.5) on 2014 September 10 and 2015 June 22, respectively. The extreme-ultraviolet images at the 131 and 94 Å passbands provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal that both MFRs initially appear as suspended hot channel-like structures. Interestingly, part of the MFRs is also visible in the Fe xxi 1354.08 forbidden line, even prior to the eruption, e.g., for the SOL2014-09-10 event. However, the line emission is very weak and that only appears at a few locations but not the whole structure of the MFRs. This implies that the MFRs could be comprised of different threads with different temperatures and densities, based on the fact that the formation of the Fe xxi forbidden line requires a critical temperature (∼11.5 MK) and density. Moreover, the line shows a non-thermal broadening and a blueshift in the early phase. It suggests that magnetic reconnection at that time has initiated; it not only heats the MFR and, at the same time, produces a non-thermal broadening of the Fe xxi line but also produces the poloidal flux, leading to the ascension of the MFRs.

  13. ON THE ANTI-CORRELATION BETWEEN SPECTRAL LINE BROADENING AND INTENSITY IN CORONAL STRUCTURES OBSERVED WITH EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    The advance in spectral resolution of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EIS) spectrometer on board Hinode has allowed for more detailed analysis of coronal spectral lines. Large line broadening and blueshifted velocities have been found in the periphery of active region (AR) cores and near the footpoints of coronal loops. This line broadening is yet to be understood. We study the correlation of intensity and line width for entire ARs and sub-regions selected to include coronal features. The results show that although a slight positive correlation can be found when considering whole images, many sub-regions have a negative correlation between intensity and line width. Sections of a coronal loop display some of the largest anti-correlations found for this study with the increased line broadening occurring directly adjacent to the footpoint section of the loop structure, not at the footpoint itself. The broadened lines may be due to a second Doppler-shifted component that is separate from the main emitting feature such as a coronal loop, but related in their excitation. The small size of these features forces the considerations of investigator and instrumental effects. Preliminary analyses are shown that indicate the possibility of a point-spread function that is not azimuthally symmetric and may affect velocity and line profile measurements.

  14. Discovery of New Coronal Lines at 2.843 and 2.853 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jenna E.; Judge, Philip G.; DeLuca, Edward E.; Hannigan, James W.

    2018-04-01

    Two new emission features were observed during the 2017 August 21 total solar eclipse by a novel spectrometer, the Airborne Infrared Spectrometer (AIR-Spec), flown at 14.3 km altitude aboard the NCAR Gulfstream-V aircraft. We derive wavelengths in air of 2.8427 ± 0.00009 μm and 2.8529 ± 0.00008 μm. One of these lines belongs to the 3{{{p}}}53{{d}}{}3{{{F}}}3^\\circ \\to 3{{{p}}}53{{d}}{}3{{{F}}}4^\\circ transition in Ar-like Fe IX. This appears to be the first detection of this transition from any source. Minimization of residual wavelength differences using both measured wavelengths, together with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, does not clearly favor assignment to Fe IX. However, the shorter wavelength line appears more consistent with other observed features formed at similar temperatures to Fe IX. The transition occurs between two levels within the excited 3{{{p}}}53{{d}} configuration, 429,000 cm‑1 above the ground level. The line is therefore absent in photo-ionized coronal-line astrophysical sources such as the Circinus Galaxy. Data from a Fourier transform interferometer (FTIR) deployed from Wyoming show that both lines are significantly attenuated by telluric H2O, even at dry sites. We have been unable to identify the longer wavelength transition.

  15. Coronal Physics and the Chandra Emission Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickhouse, N. S.; Drake, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    With the launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, high resolution X-ray spectroscopy of cosmic sources has begun. Early, deep observations of three stellar coronal sources Capella, Procyon, and HR 1099 are providing not only invaluable calibration data, but also benchmarks for plasma spectral models. These models are needed to interpret data from stellar coronae, galaxies and clusters of galaxies, supernova, remnants and other astrophysical sources. They have been called into question in recent years as problems with understanding low resolution ASCA and moderate resolution Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) data have arisen. The Emission Line Project is a collaborative effort, to improve the models, with Phase I being the comparison of models with observed spectra of Capella, Procyon, and HR 1099. Goals of these comparisons are (1) to determine and verify accurate and robust diagnostics and (2) to identify and prioritize issues in fundamental spectroscopy which will require further theoretical and/or laboratory work. A critical issue in exploiting the coronal data for these purposes is to understand the extent, to which common simplifying assumptions (coronal equilibrium, negligible optical depth) apply. We will discuss recent, advances in our understanding of stellar coronae, in this context.

  16. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  17. Enhancing the wettability of high aspect-ratio through-silicon vias lined with LPCVD silicon nitride or PE-ALD titanium nitride for void-free bottom-up copper electroplating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saadaoui, M.; Zeijl, H. van; Wien, W.H.A.; Pham, H.T.M.; Kwakernaak, C.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Erwin Kessels, W.M.M.; Sanden, R.M.C.M. van de; Voogt, F.C.; Roozeboom, F.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the critical steps toward producing void-free and uniform bottom-up copper electroplating in high aspect-ratio (AR) through-silicon vias (TSVs) is the ability of the copper electrolyte to spontaneously flow through the entire depth of the via. This can be accomplished by reducing the

  18. Enhancing the Wettability of High Aspect-Ratio Through-Silicon Vias Lined with LPCVD Silicon Nitride or PE-ALD Titanium Nitride for Void-Free Bottom-Up Copper Electroplating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saadaoui, M.; van Zeijl, H.; Wien, W. H. A.; Pham, H. T. M.; Kwakernaak, C.; Knoops, H. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.; R. van de Sanden,; Voogt, F. C.; Roozeboom, F.; Sarro, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the critical steps toward producing void-free and uniform bottom-up copper electroplating in high aspect-ratio (AR) through-silicon vias (TSVs) is the ability of the copper electrolyte to spontaneously flow through the entire depth of the via. This can be accomplished by reducing the

  19. Liquidity ratios. A structural and dynamic analysis, during 2006-2012, of the companies having the business line in industry and construction, listed and traded on the Bucharest Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Elena VASIU; Nicolae BALTEȘ; Iulian Nicolae GHEORGHE

    2015-01-01

    Liquidity ratios are used to measure a company’s ability to pay short-term debt, assessing the amount of cash and cash equivalents that it has on the short term. Considering the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange among the best performing, due to the high requirements imposed by a stock market, in this paper has been analyzed the way the financial crisis affected the liquidity of companies listed on BSE, acting in industry and construction domains.

  20. Non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres of hot stars. 2: Hot, metal-rich white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, T.; Hubeny, I.

    1995-01-01

    We present several model atmospheres for a typical hot metal-rich DA white dwarf, T(sub eff) = 60,000 K, log g = 7.5. We consider pure hydrogen models, as well as models with various abundances of two typical 'trace' elements-carbon and iron. We calculte a number of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE models, taking into account the effect of numerous lines of these elements on the atmospheric structure. We demostrate that while the non-LTE effects are notvery significant for pure hydrogen models, except for describing correctly the central emission in H-alpha they are essential for predicting correctly the ionization balance of metals, such as carbon and iron. Previously reported discrepancies in LTE abundances determinations using C III and C IV lines are easily explained by non-LTE effects. We show that if the iron abundance is larger than 10(exp -5), the iron line opacity has to be considered not only for the spectrum synthesis, but also in the model construction itself. For such metal abundances, non-LTE metal line-blanketed models are needed for detailed abundance studies of hot, metal-rich white dwarfs. We also discuss the predicted Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum and show that it is very sensitive to metal abundances, as well as to non-LTE effects.

  1. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS BY VECTOR TOMOGRAPHY OF THE CORONAL EMISSION LINE POLARIZATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramar, M.; Lin, H.; Tomczyk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first direct “observation” of the global-scale, 3D coronal magnetic fields of Carrington Rotation (CR) Cycle 2112 using vector tomographic inversion techniques. The vector tomographic inversion uses measurements of the Fe xiii 10747 Å Hanle effect polarization signals by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) and 3D coronal density and temperature derived from scalar tomographic inversion of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) coronal emission lines (CELs) intensity images as inputs to derive a coronal magnetic field model that best reproduces the observed polarization signals. While independent verifications of the vector tomography results cannot be performed, we compared the tomography inverted coronal magnetic fields with those constructed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations based on observed photospheric magnetic fields of CR 2112 and 2113. We found that the MHD model for CR 2112 is qualitatively consistent with the tomography inverted result for most of the reconstruction domain except for several regions. Particularly, for one of the most noticeable regions, we found that the MHD simulation for CR 2113 predicted a model that more closely resembles the vector tomography inverted magnetic fields. In another case, our tomographic reconstruction predicted an open magnetic field at a region where a coronal hole can be seen directly from a STEREO-B/EUVI image. We discuss the utilities and limitations of the tomographic inversion technique, and present ideas for future developments

  2. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  3. EUV lines observed with EIS/Hinode in a solar prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, N.; Schmieder, B.; Heinzel, P.; Watanabe, T.

    2011-07-01

    Context. During a multi-wavelength observation campaign with Hinode and ground-based instruments, a solar prominence was observed for three consecutive days as it crossed the western limb of the Sun in April 2007. Aims: We report on observations obtained on 26 April 2007 using EIS (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer) on Hinode. They are analysed to provide a qualitative diagnostic of the plasma in different parts of the prominence. Methods: After correcting for instrumental effects, the rasters at different wavelengths are presented. Several regions within the same prominence are identified for further analysis. Selected profiles for lines with formation temperatures between log (T) = 4.7 and log (T) = 6.3, as well as their integrated intensities, are given. The profiles of coronal, transition region, and He ii lines are discussed. We pay special attention to the He ii line, which is blended with coronal lines. Results: Some quantitative results are obtained by analysing the line profiles. They confirm that depression in EUV lines can be interpreted in terms of two mechanisms: absorption of coronal radiation by the hydrogen and neutral helium resonance continua, and emissivity blocking. We present estimates of the He ii line integrated intensity in different parts of the prominence according to different scenarios for the relative contribution of absorption and emissivity blocking to the coronal lines blended with the He ii line. We estimate the contribution of the He ii 256.32 Å line to the He ii raster image to vary between ~44% and 70% of the raster's total intensity in the prominence according to the different models used to take into account the blending coronal lines. The inferred integrated intensities of the He ii 256 Å line are consistent with the theoretical intensities obtained with previous 1D non-LTE radiative transfer calculations, yielding a preliminary estimate of the central temperature of 8700 K, a central pressure of 0.33 dyn cm-2, and a

  4. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  5. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  6. Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuy, B.L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12 C: 13 C and 24 Mg: 25 Mg: 26 Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author) [pt

  7. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  8. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  9. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  10. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  13. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  14. Determination of line profiles on nano-structured surfaces using EUV and x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltwisch, Victor; Wernecke, Jan; Haase, Anton; Probst, Jürgen; Schoengen, Max; Krumrey, Michael; Scholze, Frank; Pomplun, Jan; Burger, Sven

    2014-09-01

    Non-imaging techniques like X-ray scattering are supposed to play an important role in the further development of CD metrology for the semiconductor industry. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) provides directly assessable information on structure roughness and long-range periodic perturbations. The disadvantage of the method is the large footprint of the X-ray beam on the sample due to the extremely shallow angle of incidence. This can be overcome by using wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range, EUV small angle scattering (EUVSAS), which allows for much steeper angles of incidence but preserves the range of momentum transfer that can be observed. Generally, the potentially higher momentum transfer at shorter wavelengths is counterbalanced by decreasing diffraction efficiency. This results in a practical limit of about 10 nm pitch for which it is possible to observe at least the +/- 1st diffraction orders with reasonable efficiency. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the available photon energy range extends from 50 eV up to 10 keV at two adjacent beamlines. PTB commissioned a new versatile Ellipso-Scatterometer which is capable of measuring 6" square substrates in a clean, hydrocarbon-free environment with full flexibility regarding the direction of the incident light polarization. The reconstruction of line profiles using a geometrical model with six free parameters, based on a finite element method (FEM) Maxwell solver and a particle swarm based least-squares optimization yielded consistent results for EUV-SAS and GISAXS. In this contribution we present scatterometry data for line gratings and consistent reconstruction results of the line geometry for EUV-SAS and GISAXS.

  15. Wavelength selection for multilayer coatings for the lithography generation beyond extreme ultraviolet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makhotkin, Igor Alexandrovich; Zoethout, E.; Louis, Eric; Yakunin, A.M.; Muellender, S.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the operating wavelength in advanced photolitho- graphy while maintaining the lithography machine’s produc- tivity has been a traditional way to enable improved imaging for the last 20 years. The transition from 13.5 nm to 6.5 to 6.9 nm optical lithography offers a possibility to combine

  16. Free-electron laser emission architecture impact on extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Erik R.; Wood, Obert R.; Barletta, William A.

    2017-10-01

    Laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV sources have demonstrated ˜125 W at customer sites, establishing confidence in EUV lithography (EUVL) as a viable manufacturing technology. However, for extension to the 3-nm technology node and beyond, existing scanner/source technology must enable higher-NA imaging systems (requiring increased resist dose and providing half-field exposures) and/or EUV multipatterning (requiring increased wafer throughput proportional to the number of exposure passes). Both development paths will require a substantial increase in EUV source power to maintain the economic viability of the technology, creating an opportunity for free-electron laser (FEL) EUV sources. FEL-based EUV sources offer an economic, high-power/single-source alternative to LPP EUV sources. Should FELs become the preferred next-generation EUV source, the choice of FEL emission architecture will greatly affect its operational stability and overall capability. A near-term industrialized FEL is expected to utilize one of the following three existing emission architectures: (1) self-amplified spontaneous emission, (2) regenerative amplifier, or (3) self-seeding. Model accelerator parameters are put forward to evaluate the impact of emission architecture on FEL output. Then, variations in the parameter space are applied to assess the potential impact to lithography operations, thereby establishing component sensitivity. The operating range of various accelerator components is discussed based on current accelerator performance demonstrated at various scientific user facilities. Finally, comparison of the performance between the model accelerator parameters and the variation in parameter space provides a means to evaluate the potential emission architectures. A scorecard is presented to facilitate this evaluation and provides a framework for future FEL design and enablement for EUVL applications.

  17. Chirped pulse amplification in an extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gauthier, D.; Allaria, E.; Coreno, M.; Cudin, I.; Dacasa, H.; Danailov, M.B.; Demidovich, A.; Di Mitri, S.; Diviacco, B.; Ferrari, E.; Finetti, P.; Frassetto, F.; Garzella, D.; Künzel, S.; Leroux, Vincent; Mahieu, B.; Mahne, N.; Meyer, M.; Mazza, T.; Miotti, P.; Penco, G.; Raimondi, L.; Ribič, P.R.; Richter, R.; Roussel, E.; Schulz, S.; Sturari, L.; Svetina, C.; Trovo, M.; Walker, P.A.; Zangrando, M.; Callegari, C.; Fajardo, M.; Poletto, L.; Zeitoun, P.; Giannessi, L.; De Ninno, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, Dec (2016), s. 1-5, č. článku 13688. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1606; GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : FEL * compression * radiation * coherent * proposal Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  18. Characterization of extreme ultraviolet emission from tin-droplets irradiated with Nd:YAG laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aota, T; Nakai, Y; Fujioka, S; Shimomura, M; Nishimura, H; Nishihara, N; Miyanaga, N; Izawa, Y; Mima, K; Fujiwara, E

    2008-01-01

    EUV emission from spherical and planer targets were precisely characterized as an experimental database for use in EUV source generation at high repetition rates. In the single-shot base experiments, conversion efficiency as high as those for the plasma geometry has been demonstrated. The integrated experiment was made with 10 Hz plasma generation, obtained conversion efficiency is low mainly due to unstable positioning of the droplets

  19. Breaking DNA strands by extreme-ultraviolet laser pulses in vacuum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Eva; Vyšín, Luděk; Burian, Tomáš; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie; Múčka, V.; Čuba, V.; Grisham, M. E.; Heinbuch, S.; Rocca, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 4 (2015), "042718-1"-"042718-8" ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GA13-28721S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : XUV * DNA damages * single- strand breaks (SSBs) * double- strand breaks (DSBs) Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2014

  20. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of G191-B2B - Direct observation of ionization edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Erik; Green, James C.; Cash, Webster

    1992-01-01

    We present the first spectrum of the hot, DA white dwarf G191-B2B (wd 0501 + 527) between 200 and 330 A. The spectrum, which has about 2 A resolution, was obtained with a sounding rocket-borne, grazing incidence spectrograph. The spectrum shows no evidence of He II, the expected primary opacity source in this wavelength region. Three ionization edges and one absorption feature were observed and are suggestive of O III existing in the photosphere of G191-B2B. Also noted is a broad spectral depression that may result from Fe VI in the photosphere.

  1. Nano-structuring of solid surface by extreme ultraviolet Ar8+ laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Štraus, Jaroslav; Schmidt, Jiří; Frolov, Oleksandr; Prukner, Václav; Shukurov, A.; Holý, V.; Sobota, Jaroslav; Fořt, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2012), s. 57-63 ISSN 0263-0346. [International Conference on the Frontiers of Plasma Physics and Technology/5./. Singapore , 18.04.2011-22.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08024; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA AV ČR KAN300100702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : Ablation by EUV radiation * application of Ar8+ laser * nano-patterning by EUV radiation * , nano-structuring by EUV radiation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (UPT-D) Impact factor: 2.016, year: 2012

  2. ULTRAVIOLET AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET EMISSIONS AT THE FLARE FOOTPOINTS OBSERVED BY ATMOSPHERE IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Jiong; Longcope, Dana W.; Liu Wenjuan [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Sturrock, Zoe [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Klimchuk, James A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A solar flare is composed of impulsive energy release events by magnetic reconnection, which forms and heats flare loops. Recent studies have revealed a two-phase evolution pattern of UV 1600 A emission at the feet of these loops: a rapid pulse lasting for a few seconds to a few minutes, followed by a gradual decay on timescales of a few tens of minutes. Multiple band EUV observations by the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly further reveal very similar signatures. These two phases represent different but related signatures of an impulsive energy release in the corona. The rapid pulse is an immediate response of the lower atmosphere to an intense thermal conduction flux resulting from the sudden heating of the corona to high temperatures (we rule out energetic particles due to a lack of significant hard X-ray emission). The gradual phase is associated with the cooling of hot plasma that has been evaporated into the corona. The observed footpoint emission is again powered by thermal conduction (and enthalpy), but now during a period when approximate steady-state conditions are established in the loop. UV and EUV light curves of individual pixels may therefore be separated into contributions from two distinct physical mechanisms to shed light on the nature of energy transport in a flare. We demonstrate this technique using coordinated, spatially resolved observations of UV and EUV emissions from the footpoints of a C3.2 thermal flare.

  3. Modelling of capillary Z-pinch recombination pumping of boron extreme ultraviolet laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V.; Vrbová, M.; Hübner, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 7 (2009), 073105 1-073105 11 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/07/0275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Boron * capillary * discharges (electric * laser ablation * optical pumping * plasma heating by laser * plasma kinetic theory * plasma magnetohydrodynamics * Z pinch Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.475, year: 2009 http://link.aip.org/link/? PHP /16/073105

  4. Photoionized argon plasmas induced with intense soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, L.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dudžák, Roman; Dostál, Jan; Krouský, Eduard; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 014009. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-plasma * plasma radiation * photoionization * Argon plasma * Nd:YAG laser * PALS iodine laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics); Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0741-3335/58/1/014009

  5. Influence of extreme ultraviolet radiation on the P v ionization fraction in hot star winds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtička, J.; Kubát, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 427, č. 1 (2012), s. 84-90 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0003 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : hydrodynamics * early-type stars * mass-loss Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.521, year: 2012

  6. Numerical evaluation of a 13.5-nm high-brightness microplasma extreme ultraviolet source

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hara, H.; Arai, G.; Dinh, T.H.; Jiang, W.; Miura, T.; Endo, Akira; Ejima, T.; Li, B.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.; Sunahara, A.; Higashiguchi, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 19 (2015), s. 1-7, č. článku 193301. ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-produced plasmas * 4D-4F emissions resonances * collisions * dynamics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2015

  7. Langmuir probe measurement of the bismuth plasma plume formed by an extreme-ultraviolet pulsed laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pira, P.; Burian, T.; Kolpaková, A.; Tichý, M.; Kudrna, P.; Daniš, S.; Juha, Libor; Lančok, Ján; Vyšín, Luděk; Civiš, Svatopluk; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Kubát, Pavel; Wild, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 40 (2014), 1-6 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : XUV laser * pulsed laser deposition * Langmuir probe * plasma plume Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2014

  8. Desorption/ablation of lithium fluoride induced by extreme ultraviolet laser radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blejchař, T.; Nevrlý, V.; Vašinek, M.; Dostál, M.; Kozubková, M.; Dlabka, J.; Stachoň, M.; Juha, Libor; Bitala, P.; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Pira, Peter; Wild, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 131-138 ISSN 0029-5922. [PLASMA 2015 : International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas. Warsaw, 07.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : desorption * fluid dynamics * lithium fluoride * numerical simulation * plume expansion * pulsed laser ablation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 0.760, year: 2016

  9. Influence of laser pulse duration on extreme ultraviolet and ion emission features from tin plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roy, Amitava; Harilal, S.S.; Polek, M.P.; Hassan, S.M.; Endo, Akira; Hassanein, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2014), "033109-1"-"033109-7" ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0057 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143; OP VK 4 POSTDOK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0057 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : width * efficiency * clusters * targets Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014

  10. Extreme ultraviolet emission and confinement of tin plasmas in the resenceof a magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roy, Amitava; Hassan, S.M.; Harilal, S.S.; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomáš; Hassanein, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2014), "053106-1"-"053106-11" ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0057 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143; OP VK 4 POSTDOK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0057 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * debris mitigation * dynamics * targets Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014

  11. Nanometer-scale ablation using focused, coherent extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menoni, Carmen S [Fort Collins, CO; Rocca, Jorge J [Fort Collins, CO; Vaschenko, Georgiy [San Diego, CA; Bloom, Scott [Encinitas, CA; Anderson, Erik H [El Cerrito, CA; Chao, Weilun [El Cerrito, CA; Hemberg, Oscar [Stockholm, SE

    2011-04-26

    Ablation of holes having diameters as small as 82 nm and having clean walls was obtained in a poly(methyl methacrylate) on a silicon substrate by focusing pulses from a Ne-like Ar, 46.9 nm wavelength, capillary-discharge laser using a freestanding Fresnel zone plate diffracting into third order is described. Spectroscopic analysis of light from the ablation has also been performed. These results demonstrate the use of focused coherent EUV/SXR light for the direct nanoscale patterning of materials.

  12. An extreme ultraviolet Michelson interferometer for experiments at free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbert, Vinzenz; Fuchs, Silvio; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Zastrau, Ulf; Blinne, Alexander; Feigl, Torsten; Kämpfer, Tino; Rödel, Christian; Uschmann, Ingo; Wünsche, Martin; Förster, Eckhart

    2013-01-01

    We present a Michelson interferometer for 13.5 nm soft x-ray radiation. It is characterized in a proof-of-principle experiment using synchrotron radiation, where the temporal coherence is measured to be 13 fs. The curvature of the thin-film beam splitter membrane is derived from the observed fringe pattern. The applicability of this Michelson interferometer at intense free-electron lasers is investigated, particularly with respect to radiation damage. This study highlights the potential role of such Michelson interferometers in solid density plasma investigations using, for instance, extreme soft x-ray free-electron lasers. A setup using the Michelson interferometer for pseudo-Nomarski-interferometry is proposed

  13. An extreme ultraviolet Michelson interferometer for experiments at free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Vinzenz; Blinne, Alexander; Fuchs, Silvio; Feigl, Torsten; Kämpfer, Tino; Rödel, Christian; Uschmann, Ingo; Wünsche, Martin; Paulus, Gerhard G; Förster, Eckhart; Zastrau, Ulf

    2013-09-01

    We present a Michelson interferometer for 13.5 nm soft x-ray radiation. It is characterized in a proof-of-principle experiment using synchrotron radiation, where the temporal coherence is measured to be 13 fs. The curvature of the thin-film beam splitter membrane is derived from the observed fringe pattern. The applicability of this Michelson interferometer at intense free-electron lasers is investigated, particularly with respect to radiation damage. This study highlights the potential role of such Michelson interferometers in solid density plasma investigations using, for instance, extreme soft x-ray free-electron lasers. A setup using the Michelson interferometer for pseudo-Nomarski-interferometry is proposed.

  14. EPO for the NASA SDO Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Learning Suite for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellagher, Emily; Scherrer, D. K.

    2013-07-01

    EVE Education and Public Outreach (EPO) promotes an understanding of the process of science and concepts within solar science and sun-earth connections. EVE EPO also features working scientists, current research and career awareness. One of the highlights for of this years projects is the digitization of solar lessons and the collaboration with the other instrument teams to develop new resources for students and educators. Digital lesson suite: EVE EPO has taken the best solar lessons and reworked then to make then more engaging, to reflect SDO data and made them SMARTboard compatible. We are creating a website that Students and teachers can access these lesson and use them online or download them. Project team collaboration: The SDO instruments (EVE, AIA and HMI) teams have created a comic book series for upper elementary and middle school students with the SDO mascot Camilla. These comics may be printed or read on mobile devices. Many teachers are looking for resources to use with their students via the Ipad so our collaboration helps supply teachers with a great resource that teachers about solar concepts and helps dispel solar misconceptions.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): EVE Education and Public Outreach (EPO) promotes an understanding of the process of science and concepts within solar science and sun-earth connections. EVE EPO also features working scientists, current research and career awareness. One of the highlights for of this years projects is the digitization of solar lessons and the collaboration with the other instrument teams to develop new resources for students and educators. Digital lesson suite: EVE EPO has taken the best solar lessons and reworked then to make then more engaging, to reflect SDO data and made them SMARTboard compatible. We are creating a website that Students and teachers can access these lesson and use them online or download them. Project team collaboration: The SDO instruments (EVE, AIA and HMI) teams have created a comic book series for upper elementary and middle school students with the SDO mascot Camilla. These comics may be printed or read on mobile devices. Many teachers are looking for resources to use with their students via the Ipad so our collaboration helps supply teachers with a great resource that teachers about solar concepts and helps dispel solar misconceptions.

  15. Development of the RAIDS extreme ultraviolet wedge and strip detector. [Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detector System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, D. C.; Chater, W. T.; Christensen, A. B.; Howey, C. K.; Pranke, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    In the next few years the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detector System (RAIDS) package will be flown on a Tiros spacecraft. The EUV spectrometer experiment contains a position-sensitive detector based on wedge and strip anode technology. A detector design has been implemented in brazed alumina and kovar to provide a rugged bakeable housing and anode. A stack of three 80:1 microchannel plates is operated at 3500-4100 V. to achieve a gain of about 10 to the 7th. The top MCP is to be coated with MgF for increased quantum efficiency in the range of 50-115 nm. A summary of fabrication techniques and detector performance characteristics is presented.

  16. Generation of Bright Phase-matched Circularly-polarized Extreme Ultraviolet High Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-08

    1995). 42. Eichmann , H. et al. Polarization-dependent high-order two-color mixing. Phys. Rev. A 51, R3414–R3417 (1995). 43. Fleischer, A., Kfir, O...calculations of polarization-dependent two- color high-harmonic generation. Phys. Rev. A 52, 2262–2278 (1995). 10. Eichmann , H. et al. polarization

  17. Optical technologies for extreme-ultraviolet and soft X-ray coherent sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canova, Federico; Poletto, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The book reviews the most recent achievements in optical technologies for XUV and X-ray coherent sources. Particular attention is given to free-electron-laser facilities, but also to other sources available at present, such as synchrotrons, high-order laser harmonics and X-ray lasers. The optical technologies relevant to each type of source are discussed. In addition, the main technologies used for photon handling and conditioning, namely multilayer mirrors, adaptive optics, crystals and gratings are explained. Experiments using coherent light received during the last decades a lot of attention for the X-ray regime. Strong efforts were taken for the realization of almost fully coherent sources, e.g. the free-electron lasers, both as independent sources in the femtosecond and attosecond regimes and as seeding sources for free-electron-lasers and X-ray gas lasers. In parallel to the development of sources, optical technologies for photon handling and conditioning of such coherent and intense X-ray beams advanced. New problems were faced for the realization of optical components of beamlines demanding to manage coherent X-ray photons, e.g. the preservation of coherence and time structure of ultra short pulses.

  18. Systematic investigation of resonance-induced single-harmonic enhancement in the extreme-ultraviolet range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Kieffer, J.-C.; Ozaki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate the intensity enhancement of single harmonics in high-order harmonic generation from laser plasma. We identified several targets (In, Sn, Sb, Cr, and Mn) that demonstrate resonance-induced enhancement of single harmonic, that are spectrally close to ionic transitions with strong oscillator strengths. We optimized and obtained enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 21st, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from the above targets, by varying the chirp of the 800 nm wavelength femtosecond laser. We also observe harmonic enhancement by using frequency-doubled pump laser (400 nm wavelength). For Mn plasma pumped by the 400 nm wavelength laser, the maximum order of the enhanced harmonic observed was the 17th order (λ=23.5 nm), which corresponds to the highest photon energy (52.9 eV) reported for an enhanced single harmonic

  19. Reduction of Line Edge Roughness of Polystyrene-block-Poly(methyl methacrylate) Copolymer Nanopatterns By Introducing Hydrogen Bonding at the Junction Point of Two Block Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Seong; Lee, Jaeyong; Kwak, Jongheon; Moon, Hong Chul; Kim, Jin Kon

    2017-09-20

    To apply well-defined block copolymer nanopatterns to next-generation lithography or high-density storage devices, small line edge roughness (LER) of nanopatterns should be realized. Although polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer (PS-b-PMMA) has been widely used to fabricate nanopatterns because of easy perpendicular orientation of the block copolymer nanodomains and effective removal of PMMA block by dry etching, the fabricated nanopatterns show poorer line edge roughness (LER) due to relatively small Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) between PS and PMMA chains. Here, we synthesized PS-b-PMMA with urea (U) and N-(4-aminomethyl-benzyl)-4-hydroxymethyl-benzamide (BA) moieties at junction of PS and PMMA chains (PS-U-BA-PMMA) to improve the LER. The U-BA moieties serves as favorable interaction (hydrogen bonding) sites. The LER of PS line patterns obtained from PS-U-BA-PMMA was reduced ∼25% compared with that obtained from neat PS-b-PMMA without BA and U moieties. This is attributed to narrower interfacial width induced by hydrogen bonding between two blocks, which is confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering. This result implies that the introduction of hydrogen bonding into block copolymer interfaces offers an opportunity to fabricate well-defined nanopatterns with improved LER by block copolymer self-assembly, which could be a promising alternative to next-generation extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  20. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  1. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  2. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  3. D/H ratio for Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Schempp, W.V.; Baines, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter's spectrum near the R5(0) HD line at 6063.88 A are reported. A feature with an equivalent width of 0.065 + or - 0.021 mA is coincident with the expected line. This feature is compared with HD profiles computed for inhomogeneous scattering models for Jupiter to yield a range for the Jovian D/H ratio of 1.0-2.9 x 10 to the -5th. This D/H ratio is in the lower range of previously reported D/H values for Jupiter and corresponds to an essentially solar D/H ratio for Jupiter. The detection of HD features in the presence of probable blends with spectral features of minor atmospheric hydrocarbon molecules is discussed. Such blends may make unambiguous identification of HD features difficult. 26 references

  4. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  5. Radiosensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haekkinen, A.M.; Laasonen, A.; Linnainmaa, K.; Mattson, K.; Pyrhoenen, S.

    1996-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to examine the radiosensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. Cell kinetics, radiation-induced delay of the cell cycle and DNA ploidy of the cell lines were also determined. For comparison an HeLa and a human foetal fibroblast cell line were simultaneously explored. Six previously cytogenetically and histologically characterized mesothelioma tumor cell lines were applied. A rapid tiazolyl blue microtiter (MTT) assay was used to analyze radiosensitivity and cell kinetics and DNA ploidy of the cultured cells were determined by flow cytometry. The survival fraction after a dose of 2 Gy (SF2), parameters α and β of the linear quadratic model (LQ-model) and mean inactivation dose (D MID ) were also estimated. The DNA index of four cell lines equaled 1.0 and two cell lines equaled 1.5 and 1.6. Different mesothelioma cell lines showed a great variation in radiosensitivity. Mean survival fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.60 and ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 and mean α value was 0.26 (range 0.48-0.083). The SF2 of the most sensitive diploid mesothelioma cell line was 0.36: Less than that of the foetal fibroblast cell line (0.49). The survival fractions (0.81 and 0.74) of the two most resistant cell lines, which also were aneuploid, were equal to that of the HeLa cell line (0.78). The α/β ratios of the most sensitive cell lines were almost an order of magnitude greater than those of the two most resistant cell lines. Radiation-induced delay of the most resistant aneuploid cell line was similar to that of HeLa cells but in the most sensitive (diploid cells) there was practically no entry into the G1 phase following the 2 Gy radiation dose during 36 h. (orig.)

  6. Theoretical study of fabrication of line-and-space patterns with 7 nm quarter-pitch using electron beam lithography with chemically amplified resist process: III. Post exposure baking on quartz substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    Electron beam (EB) lithography is a key technology for the fabrication of photomasks for ArF immersion and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography and molds for nanoimprint lithography. In this study, the temporal change in the chemical gradient of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch (7 nm space width and 21 nm line width) was calculated until it became constant, independently of postexposure baking (PEB) time, to clarify the feasibility of single nano patterning on quartz substrates using EB lithography with chemically amplified resist processes. When the quencher diffusion constant is the same as the acid diffusion constant, the maximum chemical gradient of the line-and-space pattern with a 7 nm quarter-pitch did not differ much from that with a 14 nm half-pitch under the condition described above. Also, from the viewpoint of process control, a low quencher diffusion constant is considered to be preferable for the fabrication of line-and-space patterns with a 7 nm quarter-pitch on quartz substrates.

  7. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  8. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  9. QSOs with narrow emission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.A.; Mcmahon, R.; Hazard, C.; Williams, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of two new high-redshift, narrow-lined QSOs (NLQSOs) are presented and discussed together with observations of similar objects reported in the literature. Gravitational lensing is ruled out as a possible means of amplifying the luminosity for one of these objects. It is found that the NLQSOs have broad bases on their emission lines as well as the prominent narrow cores which define this class. Thus, these are not pole-on QSOs. The FWHM of the emission lines fits onto the smoothly falling tail of the lower end of the line-width distribution for complete QSO samples. The equivalent widths of the combined broad and narrow components of the lines are normal for QSOs of the luminosity range under study. However, the NLQSOs do show ionization differences from broader-lined QSOs; most significant, the semiforbidden C III/C IV intensity ratio is unusually low. The N/C abundance ratio in these objects is found to be normal; the Al/C abundance ratio may be quite high. 38 references

  10. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new

  11. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  12. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  13. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  14. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  15. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  16. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  17. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  18. Ratio asymptotics of Hermite-Pade polynomials for Nikishin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptekarev, A I; Lopez, Guillermo L; Rocha, I A

    2005-01-01

    The existence of ratio asymptotics is proved for a sequence of multiple orthogonal polynomials with orthogonality relations distributed among a system of m finite Borel measures with support on a bounded interval of the real line which form a so-called Nikishin system. For m=1 this result reduces to Rakhmanov's celebrated theorem on the ratio asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials on the real line.

  19. A tangent subsolar merging line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooker, N.U.; Siscoe, G.L.; Toffoletto, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe a global magnetospheric model with a single subsolar merging line whose position is determined neither locally by the relative orientations and strengths of the merging fields nor globally by the orientation of a separator line--the governing parameters of most previous models--but by the condition of tangential contact between the external field and the magnetopause. As in previous models, the tilt of the merging line varies with IMF orientation, but here it also depends upon the ratio of Earth's magnetic flux that leaks out of the magnetopause to IMF flux that penetrates in. In the limiting case treated by Alekseyev and Belen'kaya, with no leakage of Earth's field and total IMF penetration, the merging line forms a great circle around a spherical magnetosphere where undeviated IMF lines lie tangent to its surface. This tangent merging line lies perpendicular to the IMF. They extend their work to the case of finite leakage and partial penetration, which distort the IMF into a draped pattern, thus changing the locus of tangency to the sphere. In the special case where the penetrating IMF flux is balanced by an equal amount of Earth flux leakage, the tangent merging line bisects the angle between the IMF and Earth's northward subsolar field. This result is identical to the local merging line model result for merging fields with equal magnitude. Here a global flux balance condition replaces the local equal magnitude condition

  20. Plasmonic enhancement of High Harmonic Generation revisited: Predominance of Atomic Line Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropers C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate nanostructure-enhanced extreme ultraviolet fluorescence from noble gases driven by low-energy, few-cycle light pulses. Despite sufficient local intensities, plasmon-enhanced high harmonic generation is not observed, which follows from the small, nanometer-size coherent source volume.

  1. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  2. The U-line line balancing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  3. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  4. Starlight excitation of permitted lines in the Orion Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandi, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    From an idealized model of the Orion Nebula and from an analysis of line ratios it is shown that direct starlight excitation of the permitted O I line dominates over recombination and Lyman line fluorescence. The line strengths predicted by this mechanism agree reasonably well with those observed in the Orion Nebula. The application of direct starlight excitation to other ions is also discussed

  5. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  6. Radiosensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haekkinen, A.M. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Laasonen, A. [Dept. of Pathology, Central Hospital of Etelae-Pohjanmaa, Seinaejoki (Finland); Linnainmaa, K. [Dept. of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Mattson, K. [Dept. Pulmonary Medicine, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Pyrhoenen, S. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    The present study was carried out in order to examine the radiosensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. Cell kinetics, radiation-induced delay of the cell cycle and DNA ploidy of the cell lines were also determined. For comparison an HeLa and a human foetal fibroblast cell line were simultaneously explored. Six previously cytogenetically and histologically characterized mesothelioma tumor cell lines were applied. A rapid tiazolyl blue microtiter (MTT) assay was used to analyze radiosensitivity and cell kinetics and DNA ploidy of the cultured cells were determined by flow cytometry. The survival fraction after a dose of 2 Gy (SF2), parameters {alpha} and {beta} of the linear quadratic model (LQ-model) and mean inactivation dose (D{sub MID}) were also estimated. The DNA index of four cell lines equaled 1.0 and two cell lines equaled 1.5 and 1.6. Different mesothelioma cell lines showed a great variation in radiosensitivity. Mean survival fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.60 and ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 and mean {alpha} value was 0.26 (range 0.48-0.083). The SF2 of the most sensitive diploid mesothelioma cell line was 0.36: Less than that of the foetal fibroblast cell line (0.49). The survival fractions (0.81 and 0.74) of the two most resistant cell lines, which also were aneuploid, were equal to that of the HeLa cell line (0.78). The {alpha}/{beta} ratios of the most sensitive cell lines were almost an order of magnitude greater than those of the two most resistant cell lines. Radiation-induced delay of the most resistant aneuploid cell line was similar to that of HeLa cells but in the most sensitive (diploid cells) there was practically no entry into the G1 phase following the 2 Gy radiation dose during 36 h. (orig.).

  7. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  8. UV line emission of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, H.

    1982-01-01

    General characteristics of emission line spectra from symbiotic stars are outlined. Data from some special line ratios in the 1000 A - 3000 A range, and others connecting the visual and the far UV lines are presented, and their application to symbiotic stars is discussed. Integrated fractional abundances for ions easily observed in the far UV are given to facilitate abundance determinations for nebular conditions. It is found that the physical conditions of the regions emitting the emission line spectra differ considerably among different symbiotic stars. (Auth.)

  9. Chromospherically active stars. 12: ADS 11060 C: A double lined K dwarf binary in a quintuple system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Hampton, Melissa L.; Fried, Robert; Morton, Mary D.

    1994-01-01

    ADS 11060 C is a double lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 25.7631 days and an eccentricity of 0.565. Spectral types of the two stars are estimated as K7 V and MO V with a magnitude difference of about 0.55 mag in V. The stars appear to be somewhat metal rich with respect to the Sun. Despite the relatively large masses of 0.53 and 0.51 solar mass, our photometric observations find no evidence for eclipses and we estimate an inclination of 77 deg plus or minus 11 deg. ADS 11060 C is, however, photometrically variable with a period of 9 plus or minus 1 day and an amplitude of 0.05 mag in V. Thus, it is a newly identified BY Draconis variable. The center-of-mass velocity of ADS 11060 C and an estimated parallax of 0.030 sec support its physical association with ADS 11060 AB, making this a quintuple system. The projected separation of the AB-C system is nearly 1200 AU. Although the log lithium abundances of the two components of ADS 11060 C are only upper limits, less than or equal to -0.14, lithium abundances of the AB-C components appear to be consistent with those of similar stars in the alpha Persei and Pleiades clusters, suggesting an age of about 70 Myr for ADS 11060 AB-C. The system is a possible member of the Pleiades moving group. Listed as an optical counterpart to a source in the ROSAT Wide Field Camera extreme-ultraviolet bright source catalog, both ADS 11060 AB and C may contribute to the observed flux.

  10. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  11. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  12. Cable line engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hak Sin; Kim, Sin Yeong

    1998-02-01

    This book is about cable line engineering. It is comprised of nine chapters, which deals with summary of cable communication such as way, process of cable communication and optical communication, Line constant of transmission on primary constant, reflection and crosstalk, communication cable line of types like flat cable, coaxial cable and loaded cable, Install of communication line with types and facility of aerial line, construction method of communication line facility, Measurement of communication line, Carrier communication of summary, PCM communication with Introduction, regeneration relay system sampling and quantization and Electric communication service and general information network with mobile communication technique and satellite communication system.

  13. A statistical strategy to assess cleaning level of surfaces using fluorescence spectroscopy and Wilks’ ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoica, Iuliana-Madalina; Babamoradi, Hamid; van den Berg, Frans

    2017-01-01

    •A statistical strategy combining fluorescence spectroscopy, multivariate analysis and Wilks’ ratio is proposed.•The method was tested both off-line and on-line having riboflavin as a (controlled) contaminant.•Wilks’ ratio signals unusual recordings based on shifts in variance and covariance...... structure described in in-control data....

  14. Explorations in statistics: the analysis of ratios and normalized data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This ninth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the analysis of ratios and normalized-or standardized-data. As researchers, we compute a ratio-a numerator divided by a denominator-to compute a proportion for some biological response or to derive some standardized variable. In each situation, we want to control for differences in the denominator when the thing we really care about is the numerator. But there is peril lurking in a ratio: only if the relationship between numerator and denominator is a straight line through the origin will the ratio be meaningful. If not, the ratio will misrepresent the true relationship between numerator and denominator. In contrast, regression techniques-these include analysis of covariance-are versatile: they can accommodate an analysis of the relationship between numerator and denominator when a ratio is useless.

  15. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  16. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.

  17. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  18. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  19. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  20. Iron and zinc availability in maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the Zn and Fe availability by phytic acid/Zn and phytic acid/Fe molar ratios, in 22 tropical maize inbred lines with different genetic backgrounds. The Zn and Fe levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the P through colorimetry method. Three screening methods for phytic acid (Phy analysis were tested and one, based on the 2,2'-bipyridine reaction, was select. There was significant variability in the contents of zinc (17.5 to 42 mg.kg-1, iron (12.2 to 36.7 mg.kg-1, phosphorus (230 to 400 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid (484 to 1056 mg.100 g-1, phytic acid P (140 to 293 mg.100 g-1 and available-P (43.5 to 199.5 mg.100 g-1, and in the available-P/total-P ratio (0.14 to 0.50, Phy/Zn (18.0 to 43.5 and Phy/Fe (16.3 to 45.5 molar ratios. Lines 560977, 560978 and 560982 had greater availability of Zn and lines 560975, 560977, 561010 and 5610111 showed better Fe availability. Lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 also showed better available-P/total-P ratio. Thus, the lines 560975, 560977 and 560978 were considered to have the potential for the development of cultivars of maize with high availability of Fe and/or Zn.

  1. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  2. Line strengths in WN stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leep, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The author has analyzed high-dispersion spectra of over 100 WN stars in the Galaxy and the Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC). Most of the spectra were obtained through 4-m telescopes (Conti, Leep, and Perry 1981). The measured strengths of the WN classification lines N III lambdalambda4634-41, N IV lambda4057, N V lambda4604 (Smith 1968) for stars on WN subtypes 2.5-8 are shown. The assignments of WN subtypes are based on visual estimates of ratios of line strengths according to the scheme of Smith (1968), except that stars appearing to be earlier than WN3 are classified as WN2 or WN2.5 as explained by van der Hucht et al. (1981) and by Conti, Leep and Perry (1981). (Auth.)

  3. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  4. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  5. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  6. Homotopic Polygonal Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski

    This thesis presents three contributions to the area of polygonal line simplification, or simply line simplification. A polygonal path, or simply a path is a list of points with line segments between the points. A path can be simplified by morphing it in order to minimize some objective function...

  7. Microbial survival of space vacuum and extreme ultraviolet irradiation: strain isolation and analysis during a rocket flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffary, Roya; Nandakumar, Renu; Spencer, Dennis; Robb, Frank T; Davila, Joseph M; Swartz, Marvin; Ofman, Leon; Thomas, Roger J; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2002-09-24

    We have recovered new isolates from hot springs, in Yellowstone National Park and the Kamchatka Peninsula, after gamma-irradiation and exposure to high vacuum (10(-6) Pa) of the water and sediment samples. The resistance to desiccation and ionizing radiation of one of the isolates, Bacillus sp. strain PS3D, was compared to that of the mesophilic bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans, a species well known for its extraordinary resistance to desiccation and high doses of ionizing radiation. Survival of these two microorganisms was determined in real and simulated space conditions, including exposure to extreme UV radiation (10-100 nm) during a rocket flight. We found that up to 15 days of desiccation alone had little effect on the viability of either bacterium. In contrast, exposure to space vacuum ( approximately 10(-6) Pa) decreased cell survival by two and four orders of magnitude for Bacillus sp. strain PS3D and D. radiodurans, respectively. Simultaneous exposure to space vacuum and extreme UV radiation further decreased the survival of both organisms, compared to unirradiated controls. This is the first report on the isolated effect of extreme UV at 30 nm on cell survival. Extreme UV can only be transmitted through high vacuum, therefore its penetration into the cells may only be superficial, suggesting that in contrast to near UV, membrane proteins rather than DNA were damaged by the radiation.

  8. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar spectral irradiance (SSI) for ionospheric application - history and contemporary state-of-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, G.; Jacobi, Ch.; Nikutowski, B.; Erhardt, Ch.

    2014-11-01

    After a historical survey of space related EUV measurements in Germany and the role of Karl Rawer in pursuing this work, we describe present developments in EUV spectroscopy and provide a brief outlook on future activities. The group of Karl Rawer has performed the first scientific space project in Western Europe on 19th October 1954. Then it was decided to include the field of solar EUV spectroscopy in ionospheric investigations. Starting in 1957 an intensified development of instrumentation was going on to explore solar EUV radiation, atmospheric airglow and auroral emissions until the institute had to stop space activities in the early nineteen-eighties. EUV spectroscopy was continued outside of the institute during eight years. This area of work was supported again by the institute developing the Auto-Calibrating Spectrometers (SolACES) for a mission on the International Space Station (ISS). After more than six years in space the instrument is still in operation. Meanwhile the work on the primary task also to validate EUV data available from other space missions has made good progress. The first results of validating those data and combine them into one set of EUV solar spectral irradiance are very promising. It will be recommended for using it by the science and application community. Moreover, a new low-cost type of an EUV spectrometer is presented for monitoring the solar EUV radiation. It shall be further developed for providing EUV-TEC data to be applied in ionospheric models replacing the Covington index F10.7. Applying these data for example in the GNSS signal evaluation a more accurate determination of GNSS receiver positions is expected for correcting the propagation delays of navigation signals traveling through the ionosphere from space to earth. - Latest results in the field of solar EUV spectroscopy are discussed, too.

  9. SWAP OBSERVATIONS OF THE LONG-TERM, LARGE-SCALE EVOLUTION OF THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SOLAR CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaton, Daniel B.; De Groof, Anik; Berghmans, David; Nicula, Bogdan [Royal Observatory of Belgium-SIDC, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Shearer, Paul [Department of Mathematics, 2074 East Hall, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1043 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) EUV solar telescope on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy 2 spacecraft has been regularly observing the solar corona in a bandpass near 17.4 nm since 2010 February. With a field of view of 54 × 54 arcmin, SWAP provides the widest-field images of the EUV corona available from the perspective of the Earth. By carefully processing and combining multiple SWAP images, it is possible to produce low-noise composites that reveal the structure of the EUV corona to relatively large heights. A particularly important step in this processing was to remove instrumental stray light from the images by determining and deconvolving SWAP's point-spread function from the observations. In this paper, we use the resulting images to conduct the first-ever study of the evolution of the large-scale structure of the corona observed in the EUV over a three year period that includes the complete rise phase of solar cycle 24. Of particular note is the persistence over many solar rotations of bright, diffuse features composed of open magnetic fields that overlie polar crown filaments and extend to large heights above the solar surface. These features appear to be related to coronal fans, which have previously been observed in white-light coronagraph images and, at low heights, in the EUV. We also discuss the evolution of the corona at different heights above the solar surface and the evolution of the corona over the course of the solar cycle by hemisphere.

  10. Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, G; Garzella, D; Labat, M; Carre, B; Bougeard, M; Salieres, P; Merdji, H; Gobert, O [CEA Saclay, DSM, DRECAM, Serv. Photons Atomes Mol., F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, (France); Lambert, G; Hara, T; Tanikawa, T; Kitamura, H; Shintake, T; Tanaka, Y; Tahara, K [RIKEN SPring Centre, Harima Inst., Hyogo 679-5148, (Japan); Lambert, G; Labat, M; Chubar, O; Couprie, M E [Groupe Magnetisme et Insertion, Synchrotron Soleil, F-91192 Gif sur Yvette, (France); Hara, T; Kitamura, H; Shintake, T; Inoue, S; Tanaka, Y [XFEL Project Head Office, RIKEN, Hyogo 679-5148, (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Conventional synchrotron radiation sources enable the structure of matter to be studied at near-atomic spatial resolution and picosecond temporal resolution. Free-electron lasers promise to extend this down to femtosecond timescales. The process by which free-electron lasers amplify synchrotron light-known as self-amplified spontaneous emission - is only partially temporally coherent, but this can be improved by seeding it with an external laser. Here we explore the use of seed light produced by high-order harmonic generation in a gas, covering wavelengths from the ultraviolet to soft X-rays. Using the SPring-8 Compact SASE Source test accelerator, we demonstrate an increase of three orders of magnitude in the intensity of the fundamental radiation at 160 nm, halving of the free-electron laser saturation length, and the generation of nonlinear harmonics at 54 nm and 32 nm. The low seed level used in this demonstration suggests that nonlinear harmonic schemes should enable the generation of fully coherent soft X-rays at wavelengths down to the so-called 'water window', vital for the study of biological samples. (authors)

  11. Extreme Ultraviolet to Visible Dispersed Single Photon Detection for Highly Sensitive Sensing of Fundamental Processes in Diverse Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hans

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The detection of a single photon is the most sensitive method for sensing of photon emission. A common technique for single photon detection uses microchannel plate arrays combined with photocathodes and position sensitive anodes. Here, we report on the combination of such detectors with grating diffraction spectrometers, constituting a low-noise wavelength resolving photon spectroscopy apparatus with versatile applicability. We recapitulate the operation principle of such detectors and present the details of the experimental set-up, which we use to investigate fundamental mechanisms in atomic and molecular systems after excitation with tuneable synchrotron radiation. Extensions for time and polarization resolved measurements are described and examples of recent applications in current research are given.

  12. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  13. Surface modification of organic polymer by dual action of extreme ultraviolet/visible-near infrared ultrashort pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mocek, Tomáš; Polan, Jiří; Homer, Pavel; Jakubczak, Krzysztof; Rus, Bedřich; Kim, I. J.; Kim, C. M.; Lee, G.H.; Nam, C. H.; Hájková, Věra; Chalupský, Jaromír; Juha, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 2 (2009), 026105/1-026105/3 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024; GA ČR GC202/07/J008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : high-speed optical techniques * polymers * surface structure * ultraviolet radiation effects Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.072, year: 2009

  14. Landslide Prediction Capability by Comparison of Frequency Ratio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8

    3.2.2.1.4 Curvature: The surface curvature at a point is the curvature of a line formed .... (Pham et al, 2017) or by saturating the lower part of the material in a .... In order to fuzzy analysis, at first, the weights of frequency ratio was standardized.

  15. The relative worst order ratio applied to paging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, Joan; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Larsen, Kim Skak

    2007-01-01

    The relative worst order ratio, a new measure for the quality of on-line algorithms, was recently defined and applied to two bin packing problems. Here, we apply it to the paging problem and obtain the following results: We devise a new deterministic paging algorithm, Retrospective-LRU, and show...

  16. Recent interstellar molecular line work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnewisser, G.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of recent interstellar molecular line work is presented. Transitions of the following molecules have been detected in Sgr B2: Vinylcyanide, H 2 C 2 HCN, formic acid, HCOOH, dimethyl ether (CH 3 ) 2 O and isotopically labelled cyanoacetylene- 13 C,HC 13 CCN and HCC 13 CN. The data on cyanoacetylene give an upper limit to the abundance ratio 12 C/ 13 C of 36 +- 5. A short discussion of the interstellar chemistry leads to the conclusion that hydrocarbons such as acetylene, HCCH, ethylen, H 2 CCH 2 and ethane H 3 CCH 3 should be present in interstellar clouds. 13 refs

  17. Correction of UBV Photometry for Emission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skopal A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect on U,B,V magnitudes of the removal of emission lines from the spectra of some symbiotic stars and novae during their nebular phases. We approach this problem by the precise reconstruction of the composite UV/optical continuum and the line spectrum. The corrections ΔU, ΔB and ΔV are determined from the ratio of fluxes with and without emission lines. We demonstrate the effect for symbiotic nova V1016 Cyg during its nebular phase. We find that about 68%, 78% and 66% of the observed flux in the U, B and V filters is radiated in the emission lines. The effect should be taken into account before using the observed color indices of emission-line objects for diagnosis of their radiation in the continuum.

  18. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  19. Separation of magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-01-01

    The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor σ, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e 2σ , and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e σ . Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/ω pe , which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if σ becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R ⊙ =7×10 10 cm is about e 23 times larger, so when σ≳23, two lines separated by c/ω pe at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, σ, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

  20. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  1. Directed line liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamien, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point

  2. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  3. Critical Line of the Deconfinement Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenstein, Mark I.

    Phase diagram of strongly interacting matter is discussed within the exactly solvable statistical model of the quark-gluon bags. The model predicts two phases of matter: the hadron gas at a low temperature T and baryonic chemical potential μ B , and the quark-gluon gas at a high T and/or μ B . The nature of the phase transition depends on a form of the bag massvolume spectrum (its pre-exponential factor), which is expected to change with the μ B /T ratio. It is therefore likely that the line of the 1 st order transition at a high μ B/T ratio is followed by the line of the 2 nd order phase transition at an intermediate μ B/T, and then by the lines of "higher order transitions" at a low μ B /T. This talk is based on a recent paper (Gorenstein, Gaździcki, and Greiner, 2005).

  4. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  5. Properties of Narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Stalin, Chelliah Subramonian; Chand, Hum; Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2018-04-01

    Narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies constitute a class of active galactic nuclei characterized by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the Hα broad emission line 10 pixel-1. A strong correlation between the Hα and Hα emission lines is found both in the FWHM and flux. The nuclear continuum luminosity is found to be strongly correlated with the luminosity of Hα, Hα and [O III] emission lines. The black hole mass in NLSy1 galaxies is lower compared to their broad line counterparts. Compared to BLSy1 galaxies, NLSy1 galaxies have a stronger FeII emission and a higher Eddington ratio that place them in the extreme upper right corner of the R4570 - λEdd diagram. The distribution of the radio-loudness parameter (R) in NLSy1 galaxies drops rapidly at R>10 compared to the BLSy1 galaxies that have powerful radio jets. The soft X-ray photon index in NLSy1 galaxies is on average higher (2.9 ± 0.9) than BLSy1 galaxies (2.4 ± 0.8). It is anti-correlated with the Hα width but correlated with the FeII strength. NLSy1 galaxies on average have a lower amplitude of optical variability compared to their broad lines counterparts. These results suggest Eddington ratio as the main parameter that drives optical variability in these sources.

  6. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  7. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  8. High aspect ratio spheromak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.; Schmid, P.

    1987-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP (R/a = 50cm/8cm) has been operated as an ohmically heated spheromak of high aspect ratio. We find that the dynamo can drive the toroidal field upward at rates as high as 10 6 G/sec. Discharges can be initiated and ramped upward from seed fields as low as 50 G. Small toroidal bias fields of either polarity (-0.2 < F < 0.2) do not significantly affect operation. 5 refs., 3 figs

  9. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the determination of 13C-valine isotopic ratios in complex biological samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godin, Jean-Philippe; Breuillé, Denis; Obled, Christiane; Papet, Isabelle; Schierbeek, Henk; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Fay, Laurent-Bernard

    2008-01-01

    On-line gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is commonly used to measure isotopic ratios at natural abundance as well as for tracer studies in nutritional and medical research. However, high-precision (13)C isotopic enrichment can also be measured by liquid

  10. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  11. Database of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  12. Interpretation of the [ClIII] Lines in Gaseous Nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H; Czyzak, S J; Walker, M F; Krueger, T K

    1970-05-01

    The intensity ratio of the green lambdalambda5517 and 5537 lines of [ClIII] serves as an indicatrix of the electron density in many gaseous nebulae whose spectra can be observed with an image converter. Quantitative interpretation of the line ratio requires accurate values of the collisional strengths and transition probabilities. With improved values of these parameters we have revised electron densities for a number of nebulae; the results seem to be in good accord with those derived from other criteria.

  13. Reproducibility of isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of an accelerator as part of a mass spectrometer has improved the sensitivity for measuring low levels of long-lived radionuclides by several orders of magnitude. However, the complexity of a large tandem accelerator and beam transport system has made it difficult to match the precision of low energy mass spectrometry. Although uncertainties for accelerator measured isotope ratios as low as 1% have been obtained under favorable conditions, most errors quoted in the literature for natural samples are in the 5 to 20% range. These errors are dominated by statistics and generally the reproducibility is unknown since the samples are only measured once

  14. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  15. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  16. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  17. Gamma-ray line intensities for depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the gamma-ray line intensities from depleted uranium allowed us to determine which of two conflicting previous experiments was correct. For the 1001-keV line we obtain a branching ratio of 0.834 +- 0.007, in good agreement with one of the previous experiments. A table compares our intensities for several lines with those obtained in previous experiments. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. H/He ratios for WN stars in the LMC and the galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.N.; Conti, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    In the visible, most of the He II lines of WR stars are due to the Pickering series (n-4). Though there are significant problems with using the Pickering decrement the authors have utilized it to find H/He ratios for 21 WN stars in the LMC, and 38 stars in the Galaxy. They have additionally extended the analysis to include the derivation of the H/He ratio if the lines are optically thick. (Auth.)

  19. Veterans Crisis Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  20. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  1. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  2. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  3. Spectral classification of emission-line galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veilleux, S.; Osterbrock, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    A revised method of classification of narrow-line active galaxies and H II region-like galaxies is proposed. It involves the line ratios which take full advantage of the physical distinction between the two types of objects and minimize the effects of reddening correction and errors in the flux calibration. Large sets of internally consistent data are used, including new, previously unpublished measurements. Predictions of recent photoionization models by power-law spectra and by hot stars are compared with the observations. The classification is based on the observational data interpreted on the basis of these models. 63 references

  4. An analytical theory of transmission line shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Per

    1993-01-01

    The classical electrogeometric model of shielding failure flashovers on transmission lines is investigated by analytical methods. Most of the basic elements that has appeared in the literature on the subject have been incorporated and put into a comprehensive model. These elements are: tower top geometry, structure height above ground, line insulation, lateral slope of ground, probability distribution of lightning currents, ratio of striking distances to ground wire and earth relative to conductor, and probability distribution of lightning leader approach angle to ground. Departing from a basic idealistic case, the sensitivity of the model to variations in these parameters is studied. Numerical examples are given. 8 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  5. SAF line powder operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  6. Capital Improvements Business Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    NAVFAC Southwest Dan Waid Program & Business Mgmt NAVFAC SW Capital Improvements Business Line NAVFAC SW 8 August 2012 1 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Capital Improvements Business Line 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 2012 Navy Gold Coast Small Business

  7. Nasca Lines, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Line formation in microturbulent magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domke, H.; Pavlov, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of Zeeman lines in Gaussian microturbulent magnetic fields is considered assuming LTE. General formulae are derived for the local mean values of the transfer matrix elements. The cases of one-dimensional (longitudinal), isotropic, and two-dimensional (transversal) magnetic microturbulence are studied in some detail. Asymptotic formulae are given for small mean as well as for small microturbulent magnetic fields. Characteristic effects of magnetic microturbulence on the transfer coefficients are: (i) the broadening of the frequency contours, although only for the case of longitudinal Zeeman effect and longitudinal magnetic microturbulence this effect can be described analogous to Doppler broadening, (ii) the appearance of a pseudo-Zeeman structure for nonlongitudinal magnetic microturbulence, (iii) the reduction of maximal values of circular polarization, and (iv) the appearance of characteristic linear polarization effects due to the anisotropy of the magnetic microturbulence. Line contours and polarization of Zeeman triplets are computed for Milne-Eddington atmospheres. It is shown that magnetic intensification due to microturbulent magnetic fields may be much more efficient than that due to regular fields. The gravity center of a Zeeman line observed in circularly polarized light remains a reasonable measure of the line of sight component of the mean magnetic field for a line strength eta 0 < approx. 2. For saturated lines, the gravity center distance depends significantly on the magnetic microturbulence and its anisotropy. The influence of magnetic microturbulence on the ratio of longitudinal field magnetographic signals shows that unique conclusions about the magnetic microstructure can be drawn from the line ratio measurements only in combination with further spectroscopic data or physical reasoning. (orig.)

  9. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  10. Optical Variability of Narrow-line and Broad-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Stalin, C. S.

    2017-06-01

    We studied the optical variability (OV) of a large sample of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLSy1) galaxies with z anti-correlated with Fe II strength but correlated with the width of the Hβ line. The well-known anti-correlation of variability-luminosity and the variability-Eddington ratio is present in our data. Among the radio-loud sample, variability amplitude is found to be correlated with radio-loudness and radio-power, suggesting that jets also play an important role in the OV in radio-loud objects, in addition to the Eddington ratio, which is the main driving factor of OV in radio-quiet sources.

  11. Rotor aerodynamic power limits at low tip speed ratio using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sarmast, Sasan; Henningson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    . In the present work we study in detail, using a CFD actuator line model, the flow behavior for rotors at small tip speed ratios. It is shown that the excessive swirl appearing towards the rotor center at small tip speed ratios generates vortex breakdown, causing a recirculating zone in the wake that limits...

  12. Along the line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2011-01-01

    Embarking on a work of art constitutes a reduction of information – because we grasp the diversity and plurality of the manifestations we encounter by abstracting them and transforming them into manageable concepts; as we do when we draw contour lines on the landscape – they are imaginary...... and invisible but an abstraction essential for noting a difference or marking a place on a map. In the same way, a stroke in a sketch or a line in the sand is a manifestation of our ability to draw a boundary that both includes and excludes information. Where the line makes the birth of an idea visible......, it expresses through movement our tendency to mark a difference by drawing attention to and enclosing a whole series of relations that confront our preconceived notions. It is in the process of transformation in which we reduce the complexity of how we work, and rethink our ideas anew by refining the very same...

  13. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  14. Stokes line width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiskov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of Stokes line width is introduced for the asymptotic expansions of functions near an essential singularity. Explicit expressions are found for functions (switching functions) that switch on the exponentially small terms for the Dawson integral, Airy function, and the gamma function. A different, more natural representation of a function, not associated with expansion in an asymptotic series, in the form of dominant and recessive terms is obtained by a special division of the contour integral which represents the function into contributions of higher and lower saddle points. This division leads to a narrower, natural Stokes line width and a switching function of an argument that depends on the topology of the lines of steepest descent from the saddle point

  15. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  16. VT Digital Line Graph Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...

  17. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  18. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  19. Medication possession ratio predicts antiretroviral regimens persistence in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jorge L; Alave, Jorge L; Westfall, Andrew O; Paz, Jorge; Moran, Fiorella; Carbajal-Gonzalez, Danny; Callacondo, David; Avalos, Odalie; Rodriguez, Martin; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; Willig, James H

    2013-01-01

    In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs) in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru. Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010). Three OPs were defined: 1) Medication possession ratio (MPR): days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2) Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3) Clinic visit constancy (CVC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH) models (one per OP) were fit for (1) time of first-line ART persistence and (2) time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. 856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%). In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71) and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96) were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99). The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes.

  20. The 12C/13C ratio in stellar atmospheres. VI. Five luminous cool stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkle, K.H.; Lambert, D.L.; Snell, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The isotopic abundance ratio, 12 C/ 13 C, is derived from the CO vibration rotation lines at 1.6 and 2.3 μ for five cool luminous stars by a simple curve-of-growth technique. A new analysis of CN lines at 8000 A is also described for α Sco and α Ori. Results derived independently from CO and CN are in agreement. Final results are 12 C/ 13 C=7 +- 2(α Ori), 12 +- 3(α Sco), 7 +- 3(β Peg), 25 +- 7(chi Cyg), 17 +- 4(α Her), and 7 +- 1.5(α Boo). The α Boo analysis provides a check on the CO curve-of-growth technique; the 12 C/ 13 C ratio from the 2.3 μ CO lines is in good agreement with the previously determined ratio from CN and CH lines