WorldWideScience

Sample records for extreme weight change

  1. Changes in mortality for extremely low birth weight infants in the 1990s: implications for treatment decisions and resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadow, William; Lee, Grace; Lin, Kathy; Lantos, John

    2004-05-01

    Much has changed in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) care over the past decade. High-frequency oscillation, inhaled nitric oxide, and antenatal corticosteroids are now widely available. We wondered how these medical advances had affected both the epidemiology and ethics of life and death for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants in the NICU. We identified 1142 ELBW infants (birth weight [BW] NICU between 1991 and 2001. We abstracted BW, gestational age, survival or death, and length of stay in the NICU. Statistical analyses were performed by using linear regression and 2-way analysis of variance. Both increasing BW and later year were significantly associated with improved survival. However, for larger ELBW infants, survival was approximately 90% for the entire decade, and large-scale improvement was hardly possible. For smaller infants, greater improvements were both possible and observed, at least early in the decade. From 1991 to 1997, overall ELBW survival increased steadily (approximately 4% per year). However, from 1997 to 2001, there was no significant improvement in survival for ELBW infants. There was no change in the distribution of deaths accounted for by BW subgroups within the ELBW population from 1991 to 2001. Median length of stay for infants who eventually expired before discharge rose from 2 days in 1991 to 10 days in 2001. As a consequence, during the past decade, the percentage of infants whose outcome was "undeclared" by day of life 4 rose from 10% to 20% for ELBW infants overall and to 33% for infants with BWs of 450 to 700 g. The percentage of ELBW NICU bed-days occupied by nonsurvivors remained very low (approximately 7%) from 1991 to 2001. 1) Fewer infants in all ELBW subgroups are dying, compared with a decade ago, and the improvement has been most prominent for BWs of 450 to 700 g, at which mortality was and remains to be greatest. 2) This progress seems to have slowed, or even stopped, by the end of the decade. 3) Although most

  2. Weight Changes in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This PhD thesis is about weight changes. What determines long-term weight changes in the adult general population? Is it possible that weight loss may not always be healthy? The present clinical guidelines for general practice advice most overweight persons and patients with type 2 ...... lifestyle changes like for instance Mediterranean diet and increased exercise....

  3. Climate change & extreme weather vulnerability assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability : Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability : to climate change and extreme weather event...

  4. Reliability, validity, and minimal detectable change of the push-off test scores in assessing upper extremity weight-bearing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh P; George, Hannah R; Goering, Christian A; Shafer, Danielle R; Koester, Alan; Novotny, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Clinical measurement study. The push-off test (POT) was recently conceived and found to be reliable and valid for assessing weight bearing through injured wrist or elbow. However, further research with larger sample can lend credence to the preliminary findings supporting the use of the POT. This study examined the interrater reliability, construct validity, and measurement error for the POT in patients with wrist conditions. Participants with musculoskeletal (MSK) wrist conditions were recruited. The performance on the POT, grip isometric strength of wrist extensors was assessed. The shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and numeric pain rating scale were completed. The intraclass correlation coefficient assessed interrater reliability of the POT. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) examined the concurrent relationships between the POT and other measures. The standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval were assessed as measurement error and index of true change for the POT. A total of 50 participants with different elbow or wrist conditions (age: 48.1 ± 16.6 years) were included in this study. The results of this study strongly supported the interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.96 and 0.93 for the affected and unaffected sides, respectively) of the POT in patients with wrist MSK conditions. The POT showed convergent relationships with the grip strength on the injured side (r = 0.89) and the wrist extensor strength (r = 0.7). The POT showed smaller standard error of measurement (1.9 kg). The minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval for the POT was 4.4 kg for the sample. This study provides additional evidence to support the reliability and validity of the POT. This is the first study that provides the values for the measurement error and true change on the POT scores in patients with wrist MSK conditions. Further research should examine the

  5. Survival of extremely low-birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants in a resource-limited public hospital setting is still low in South. Africa. is study aimed ... Mortality as a result of prematurity is the major contributor to .... reported from a large cohort study that.

  6. Weight Changes in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    This PhD thesis is about weight changes. What determines long-term weight changes in the adult general population? Is it possible that weight loss may not always be healthy? The present clinical guidelines for general practice advice most overweight persons and patients with type 2 diabetes to lose weight. Are the guidelines based on firm evidence?   METHODS: The back-bone of the thesis is constituted by three scientific articles based on three different population based cohort studies. Multivariable modeling and other epidemiological methods were used.   RESULTS: Article 1 examined weight changes in the general population in relation to smoking status, and proposed a graphical 'smoking cessation weight change model', demonstrating the importance of time, age and smoking status in relation to long-term weight changes. Article 2 suggested new methods to improve the processing of dietary data. It was demonstrated how median imputation for missing values and assumptions about standard portion sizes were inferior to stochastic methods conditioning on information about physiology of the individual. Article 3 evaluated the influence of prospectively planned intentional weight loss on long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic intentional weight loss supervised by a medical doctor was not associated with reduced morbidity or mortality. In the general population the dietary intake of fructose and soft drinks sweetened with sugar was not associated with weight change over 9 years. Weight gain rates were large in young adults and incrementally smaller in middle aged adults. Subjects more than 60 years lost weight on average. Historical weight data suggest that the body weight increases throughout life to the age of 60-65years. A study with simulated data indicates that bias in baseline BMI may misleadingly have favored weight loss in earlier cohort studies of intentional weight loss and mortality.   DISCUSSION: The findings regarding

  7. Detecting change-points in extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Dupuis, D. J.; Sun, Ying; Wang, Huixia Judy

    2015-01-01

    Even though most work on change-point estimation focuses on changes in the mean, changes in the variance or in the tail distribution can lead to more extreme events. In this paper, we develop a new method of detecting and estimating the change

  8. Neonatal bartter syndrome in an extremely low birth weight baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeparaj Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of Bartter syndrome (BS in the neonatal period is a clinical challenge, more so in an extremely low birth weight (ELBW baby because of the inherent renal immaturity and the associated difficulty in fluid management. However, once a diagnosis is made, the disorder is known to respond well to fluid and electrolyte management, prostaglandin inhibitors, and potassium-sparing diuretics. Herein, we report a case of neonatal BS in a very premature ELBW infant.

  9. Changing world extreme temperature statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, J. M.; Katz, J. I.

    2018-04-01

    We use the Global Historical Climatology Network--daily database to calculate a nonparametric statistic that describes the rate at which all-time daily high and low temperature records have been set in nine geographic regions (continents or major portions of continents) during periods mostly from the mid-20th Century to the present. This statistic was defined in our earlier work on temperature records in the 48 contiguous United States. In contrast to this earlier work, we find that in every region except North America all-time high records were set at a rate significantly (at least $3\\sigma$) higher than in the null hypothesis of a stationary climate. Except in Antarctica, all-time low records were set at a rate significantly lower than in the null hypothesis. In Europe, North Africa and North Asia the rate of setting new all-time highs increased suddenly in the 1990's, suggesting a change in regional climate regime; in most other regions there was a steadier increase.

  10. Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Katherine [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-31

    A report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes it is now possible to estimate the influence of climate change on some types of extreme events. The science of extreme event attribution has advanced rapidly in recent years, giving new insight to the ways that human-caused climate change can influence the magnitude or frequency of some extreme weather events. This report examines the current state of science of extreme weather attribution, and identifies ways to move the science forward to improve attribution capabilities. Confidence is strongest in attributing types of extreme events that are influenced by climate change through a well-understood physical mechanism, such as, the more frequent heat waves that are closely connected to human-caused global temperature increases, the report finds. Confidence is lower for other types of events, such as hurricanes, whose relationship to climate change is more complex and less understood at present. For any extreme event, the results of attribution studies hinge on how questions about the event's causes are posed, and on the data, modeling approaches, and statistical tools chosen for the analysis.

  11. Detecting change-points in extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Dupuis, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Even though most work on change-point estimation focuses on changes in the mean, changes in the variance or in the tail distribution can lead to more extreme events. In this paper, we develop a new method of detecting and estimating the change-points in the tail of multiple time series data. In addition, we adapt existing tail change-point detection methods to our specific problem and conduct a thorough comparison of different methods in terms of performance on the estimation of change-points and computational time. We also examine three locations on the U.S. northeast coast and demonstrate that the methods are useful for identifying changes in seasonally extreme warm temperatures.

  12. Climate change and extreme events in weather

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    reported that the climate based extreme weather event is increasing throughout the world. One of the major chal- lenges before the scientists is to determine whether the ob- served change in extreme weather events exceeds the vari- ability expected through... was recorded in July 1943 on the hills of Mewar and Merwara. Unprecedent flood in Ajmer and Merwara devasted 50 villages and took a toll of 5000 lives (De et al., 2005). Severe Floods occurred to Godavari and Tungabhadra rivers in the last week of August...

  13. Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R.

    2014-12-01

    Weather is the most significant factor affecting aircraft operations, accounting for 70-80% of passenger delays and costing airlines hundreds of millions of dollars per year in lost revenue. Temperature and airport elevation significantly influence the maximum allowable takeoff weight of an aircraft by changing the surface air density and thus the lift produced at a given speed. For a given runway length, airport elevation, and aircraft type there is a temperature threshold above which the airplane cannot take off at its maximum weight and thus must be weight restricted. The number of summer days necessitating weight restriction has increased since 1980 along with the observed increase in surface temperature. Climate change is projected to increase mean temperatures at all airports and significantly increase the frequency and severity of extreme heat events at some. These changes will negatively affect aircraft performance, leading to increased weight restrictions especially at airports with short runways and little room to expand. For a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, we find that the number of weight restriction days between May and September will increase by 50-100% at four major airports in the United States by 2050-2070 under the RCP8.5 high emissions scenario. These performance reductions may have a significant economic effect on the airline industry, leading to lower profits and higher passenger fares. Increased weight restrictions have previously been identified as potential impacts of climate change, but this study is the first to quantify the effect of higher temperatures on commercial aviation.

  14. Management and outcome of extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Papageorgiou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW and extremely premature (EP infants has shown consistent improvement thanks to advances and innovations in perinatal and neonatal care. Regionalization, with high-risk deliveries in a tertiary perinatal center, offers the coordinated, collaborative, expert and specialized care needed by these mothers and their infants. Despite decreasing rates of the major neonatal morbidities observed in recent years, these continue still to be significant for ELBW/EP infants, impacting their overall prognosis. After NICU discharge and in the first years of life, issues with health, growth and development are common. In school age and adolescence, problems with behavior, socialization and cognition are prevalent. Adult outcomes of ELBW/EP need further clarity, emphasizing the importance for consistent long-term follow-up for this special cohort. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  15. Is prescribed lower extremity weight-bearing status after geriatric lower extremity trauma associated with increased mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitajn, Ida Leah; Connelly, Daniel; Mascarenhas, Daniel; Breazeale, Stephen; Berger, Peter; Schoonover, Carrie; Martin, Brook; O'Toole, Robert V; Pensy, Raymond; Sciadini, Marcus

    2018-02-01

    Evaluate whether mortality after discharge is elevated in geriatric fracture patients whose lower extremity weight-bearing is restricted. Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Urban Level 1 trauma center PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: 1746 patients >65 years of age INTERVENTION: Post-operative lower extremity weight-bearing status MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mortality, as determined by the Social Security Death Index RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients who were weight-bearing as tolerated on bilateral lower extremities (BLE) had significantly higher 5-year mortality compared to patients with restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity and restricted weight-bearing on BLE (30%, 21% and 22% respectively, p bearing as tolerated on BLE, restricted weight-bearing on one lower extremity had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.20, p = 0.76) and restricted weight-bearing in BLE had a HR of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.36, p = 0.73). In geriatric patients, prescribed weight-bearing status did not have a statistically significant association with mortality after discharge, when controlling for age, sex, body mass index, medical comorbidities, Injury Severity Scale (ISS), mechanism of injury, nonoperative treatment and admission GCS. This remained true in when the analysis was restricted to operative injuries only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Employment and weight status: The extreme case of body concern in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung-Yong; Brewis, Alexandra A; SturtzSreetharan, Cindi

    2018-05-01

    For an industrialized nation, obesity rates in South Korea are extremely low. Yet, reflecting an extremely fat-averse, thin-positive society, efforts to lose weight are now reportedly very common. Since the 1980s, South Korea has experienced an increasingly flexible and insecure labor market which was exacerbated by the 1997 economic recession. In this social and economic setting, body shape and weight status, as human capital, may have gained significant bargaining power in the labor market. Consequently, we propose that Koreans, particularly those who are employed in "stable" jobs (i.e., non-manual and regular jobs), would increasingly engage in intense weight management and reduction activities even when not technically overweight or obese as a means to job security and upward mobility. Using nationally-representative data from the Korean Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (KNHANES), we identify the changing role of weight concerns versus actual body weight in predicting South Korean efforts to lose weight between 2001 (KNHANES-phase 1) and 2007-2009 (phase 4). The patterns were examined by occupation type (manual and non-manual jobs) and status (regular and non-regular jobs). Oaxaca decomposition analysis supported that people's perception of being "fat," rather than actual weight status, was crucial to explaining accelerated weight management efforts in South Korea over the decade (coef. = 0.062 and p-value < .0001 for male with regular work; coef. = 0.031 and p-value = .002 for female with regular work). Occupation status, rather than employment in itself, mattered. Job stability predicted increased effort; the pattern of change through time suggests efforts to invest high levels of effort in appearance positively impacts both employment opportunity and stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An Analysis of Weight Change in Filters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reilly, Matthew; Fultz, George; Gschwender, Lois

    2006-01-01

    ... to evaluate possible sources of error. Many sources of weight change exist, including particulate and water accumulation from air, buildup of static electricity causing interference with the metal microbalance pan, and removal...

  18. Climate change, climatic variation and extreme biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Georgina; Platts, Philip J; Brereton, Tom; Chapman, Jason W; Dytham, Calvin; Fox, Richard; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Roy, David B; Hill, Jane K; Thomas, Chris D

    2017-06-19

    Extreme climatic events could be major drivers of biodiversity change, but it is unclear whether extreme biological changes are (i) individualistic (species- or group-specific), (ii) commonly associated with unusual climatic events and/or (iii) important determinants of long-term population trends. Using population time series for 238 widespread species (207 Lepidoptera and 31 birds) in England since 1968, we found that population 'crashes' (outliers in terms of species' year-to-year population changes) were 46% more frequent than population 'explosions'. (i) Every year, at least three species experienced extreme changes in population size, and in 41 of the 44 years considered, some species experienced population crashes while others simultaneously experienced population explosions. This suggests that, even within the same broad taxonomic groups, species are exhibiting individualistic dynamics, most probably driven by their responses to different, short-term events associated with climatic variability. (ii) Six out of 44 years showed a significant excess of species experiencing extreme population changes (5 years for Lepidoptera, 1 for birds). These 'consensus years' were associated with climatically extreme years, consistent with a link between extreme population responses and climatic variability, although not all climatically extreme years generated excess numbers of extreme population responses. (iii) Links between extreme population changes and long-term population trends were absent in Lepidoptera and modest (but significant) in birds. We conclude that extreme biological responses are individualistic, in the sense that the extreme population changes of most species are taking place in different years, and that long-term trends of widespread species have not, to date, been dominated by these extreme changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Controlling for the use of extreme weights in bank efficiency assessments during the financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Zhu, Minyan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for bank efficiency assessment, based on weight restricted DEA, that limits banks’ abilities to use extreme weights, corresponding to extreme judgements of the risk adjusted prices on funding sources and assets. Based on a data set comprising the largest European banks during...... the financial crisis, we illustrate the impact of the proposed weight restrictions in two different efficiency models; one related to banks’ funding mix and one related to their asset mix. The results show that using a more balanced set of weights tend to reduce the estimated efficiency scores more for those...... banks which were bailed out during the crisis, which confirms the potential bias within standard DEA that does not control for extreme weights applied by highly risky banks. We discuss the use of the proposed method as a regulatory tool to constrain discretion when complying with regulatory capital...

  20. Evaluation of climate change impact on extreme hydrological event ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Changes in hydrological extremes will have implications on the design of future hydraulic structures, flood plain development, and water resource management. This study assesses the potential impact of climate change on extreme hydrological events in the Akaki River catchment area in and around Addis Ababa city.

  1. Changes in Indices of Daily Temperature and Precipitation Extremes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It's a known fact that climate change will bring about increases in the occurrence of weather extreme events such as elevated temperature, drought, and floods; most especially in areas classified as hotspots to climate change – such as northwest Nigeria. This study investigates trends in extreme temperature and ...

  2. Changes in extreme regional sea level under global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunnabend, S. E.; Dijkstra, H. A.; Kliphuis, Michael; Bal, Henri E.; Seinstra, Frank J.; van Werkhoven, Ben; Maassen, J.; van Meersbergen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    An important contribution to future changes in regional sea level extremes is due to the changes in intrinsic ocean variability, in particular ocean eddies. Here, we study a scenario of future dynamic sea level (DSL) extremes using a high-resolution version of the Parallel Ocean Program and

  3. Weight changes in euthyroid patients undergoing thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Nsouli-Maktabi, Hala

    2011-12-01

    Thyroidectomized patients frequently report weight gain resistant to weight loss efforts, identifying their thyroidectomy as the event precipitating subsequent weight gain. We wished to determine whether recently thyroidectomized euthyroid patients gained more weight over 1 year than matched euthyroid patients with preexisting hypothyroidism. We performed a retrospective chart review of subjects receiving medical care at an academic medical center. One hundred twenty patients had their weight and thyroid status documented after thyroidectomy and achievement of euthyroidism on thyroid hormone replacement, and one year later. Three additional groups of 120 patients with preexisting hypothyroidism, no thyroid disease, and thyroid cancer were matched for age, gender, menopausal status, height, and weight. Anthropometric data were documented at two time points 1 year apart. We compared the weight changes and body mass index changes occurring over a 1-year period in the four groups. Patients with recent postsurgical hypothyroidism gained 3.1 kg during the year, whereas matched patients with preexisting hypothyroidism gained 2.2 kg. The patients without thyroid disease and those with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism gained 1.3 and 1.2 kg, respectively. The weight gain in the thyroidectomized group was significantly greater than that in the matched hypothyroid group (p-value 0.004), the group without thyroid disease (p-value 0.001), and the patients with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism (p-value 0.001). Within the thyroidectomized group, the weight gain in menopausal women was greater than in either premenopausal women (4.4 vs. 2.3 kg, p-value 0.007) or men (4.4 vs. 2.5 kg, p-value 0.013). Patients who had undergone thyroidectomy in the previous year did, in fact, gain more weight than their matched counterparts with preexisting hypothyroidism. In addition, all patients with hypothyroidism, even though treated to achieve euthyroidism, experienced more weight gain than both

  4. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses...... predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. CONCLUSION: This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models....

  5. Gestational Weight Gain and Interpregnancy Weight Change in Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emily; Armson, B Anthony; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; MacSween, Kayla; Woolcott, Christy

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and interpregnancy weight change (IPWC) in adolescent mothers (younger than 20 years), and to determine if this association differs from adult women (aged 20-35 years). Retrospective cohort study. We included 3055 adolescents and 17,090 adult women with singleton pregnancies recorded in the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database with a subsequent pregnancy occurring between 2003 and 2014. GWG in the first pregnancy was categorized as below, within, or above the current Institute of Medicine recommendations. IPWC was defined as the difference between the prepregnancy weights of the 2 pregnancies. Analyses were adjusted for parity, body mass index in the first pregnancy, and time between pregnancies. Relative to adolescents with GWG within the recommendations, those who gained below had a 2.7 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9) lower mean IPWC whereas those who gained above had a 4.2 kg (95% CI, 3.3-5.1) higher mean IPWC. Smaller differences in IPWC between GWG categories were observed in adult women; relative to those with GWG within the recommendations, adults who gained below had a 1.3 kg (95% CI, 0.9-1.7) lower mean IPWC and those who gained above had a 2.9 kg (95% CI, 2.6-3.2) higher mean IPWC. Mean IPWC differed across GWG categories and the differences were greater in adolescents than in adult women. This difference should be considered when assessing whether specific GWG recommendations are needed for adolescents. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Noise and light exposures for extremely low birth weight newborns during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Robert E; Williams, Amber L

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize noise and light levels for extremely low birth weight newborns throughout their stay in the NICU, evaluate factors influencing noise and light levels, and determine whether exposures meet recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Sound and light were measured inside the beds of extremely low birth weight newborns (n = 22) from birth to discharge. Measurements were recorded for 20 consecutive hours weekly from birth until 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, biweekly until 40 weeks, and every 4 weeks thereafter. Clinical variables including bed type and method of respiratory support were recorded at each session. Age-related changes in respiratory support and bed type explained the weekly increase of 0.22 dB in sound level and 3.67 lux in light level. Old incubators were the noisiest bed types, and new incubators were the quietest. Light levels were significantly higher in open beds than in incubators. The variations in noise and light levels over time were greatest for open beds. Noise and light levels were much less affected by respiratory support in incubators compared with open beds. A typical extremely low birth weight neonate was exposed to noise levels averaging 56.44 dB(A) and light levels averaging 70.56 lux during their stay from 26 to 42 weeks' postmenstrual age in the NICU. Noise levels were rarely within American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations (5.51% of the time), whereas light levels almost always met recommendations (99.37% of the time). Bed type and respiratory support explained differences in noise and light levels that extremely low birth weight newborns experience during their hospital stay. Noise levels exceeded recommendations, although evidence supporting those recommendations is lacking. Well-designed intervention studies are needed to determine the effects of noise reduction on the development of extremely low birth weight newborns.

  7. Haptic biofeedback for improving compliance with lower-extremity partial weight bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Michael C; DeLuke, Levi; Buerba, Rafael A; Fan, Richard E; Zheng, Ying Jean; Leslie, Michael P; Baumgaertner, Michael R; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-11-01

    After lower-extremity orthopedic trauma and surgery, patients are often advised to restrict weight bearing on the affected limb. Conventional training methods are not effective at enabling patients to comply with recommendations for partial weight bearing. The current study assessed a novel method of using real-time haptic (vibratory/vibrotactile) biofeedback to improve compliance with instructions for partial weight bearing. Thirty healthy, asymptomatic participants were randomized into 1 of 3 groups: verbal instruction, bathroom scale training, and haptic biofeedback. Participants were instructed to restrict lower-extremity weight bearing in a walking boot with crutches to 25 lb, with an acceptable range of 15 to 35 lb. A custom weight bearing sensor and biofeedback system was attached to all participants, but only those in the haptic biofeedback group were given a vibrotactile signal if they exceeded the acceptable range. Weight bearing in all groups was measured with a separate validated commercial system. The verbal instruction group bore an average of 60.3±30.5 lb (mean±standard deviation). The bathroom scale group averaged 43.8±17.2 lb, whereas the haptic biofeedback group averaged 22.4±9.1 lb (Phaptic biofeedback group averaged 14.5±6.3% (Phaptic biofeedback to improve compliance with lower-extremity partial weight bearing, haptic biofeedback was superior to conventional physical therapy methods. Further studies in patients with clinical orthopedic trauma are warranted. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Changes in observed climate extremes in global urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vimal; Ganguly, Auroop R; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, Dennis P

    2015-01-01

    Climate extremes have profound implications for urban infrastructure and human society, but studies of observed changes in climate extremes over the global urban areas are few, even though more than half of the global population now resides in urban areas. Here, using observed station data for 217 urban areas across the globe, we show that these urban areas have experienced significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the number of heat waves during the period 1973–2012, while the frequency of cold waves has declined. Almost half of the urban areas experienced significant increases in the number of extreme hot days, while almost 2/3 showed significant increases in the frequency of extreme hot nights. Extreme windy days declined substantially during the last four decades with statistically significant declines in about 60% in the urban areas. Significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the frequency of daily precipitation extremes and in annual maximum precipitation occurred at smaller fractions (17 and 10% respectively) of the total urban areas, with about half as many urban areas showing statistically significant downtrends as uptrends. Changes in temperature and wind extremes, estimated as the result of a 40 year linear trend, differed for urban and non-urban pairs, while changes in indices of extreme precipitation showed no clear differentiation for urban and selected non-urban stations. (letter)

  9. Public perceptions of climate change and extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruine de Bruin, W.; Dessai, S.; Morgan, G.; Taylor, A.; Wong-Parodi, G.

    2013-12-01

    Climate experts face a serious communication challenge. Public debate about climate change continues, even though at the same time people seem to complain about extreme weather events becoming increasingly common. As compared to the abstract concept of ';climate change,' (changes in) extreme weather events are indeed easier to perceive, more vivid, and personally relevant. Public perception research in different countries has suggested that people commonly expect that climate change will lead to increases in temperature, and that unseasonably warm weather is likely to be interpreted as evidence of climate change. However, relatively little is known about whether public concerns about climate change may also be driven by changes in other types of extreme weather events, such as exceptional amounts of precipitation or flooding. We therefore examined how perceptions of and personal experiences with changes in these specific weather events are related to public concerns about climate change. In this presentation, we will discuss findings from two large public perception surveys conducted in flood-prone Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (US) and with a national sample in the UK, where extreme flooding has recently occurred across the country. Participants completed questions about their perceptions of and experiences with specific extreme weather events, and their beliefs about climate change. We then conducted linear regressions to predict individual differences in climate-change beliefs, using perceptions of and experiences with specific extreme weather events as predictors, while controlling for demographic characteristics. The US study found that people (a) perceive flood chances to be increasing over the decades, (b) believe climate change to play a role in increases in future flood chances, and (c) would interpret future increases in flooding as evidence for climate change. The UK study found that (a) UK residents are more likely to perceive increases in ';wet' events such

  10. Past and future changes in extreme sea levels and waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lawe, J.A.; Woodworth, P.L.; Knutson, T.; McDonald, R.E.; Mclnnes, K.L.; Woth, K.; Von Storch, H.; Wolf, J.; Swail, V.; Bernier, N.B.; Gulev, S.; Horsburgh, K.J.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Hunter, J.R.; Weisse, R.

    of Extreme Sea Level 11.3.1 An Introduction to Storms Both mid-latitude and tropical storms are associated with extremes of sea level. Storm surges are generated by low atmospheric pressure and intense winds over the ocean. The latter also cause high wave... timescales, extremes and mean-sea-level change are both major factors in determining coastal evolution including the development of coastal ecosystems. It will be seen below that, although it is difficult to determine how mean sea level has changed...

  11. Early Working Memory in Children Born With Extremely Low Birth Weight: Assessed by Object Permanence

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Jean; MacLean, Peggy C.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Watterberg, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Object permanence is considered the earliest method for assessing working memory. Factors affecting object permanence performance in a sample of two hundred and thirty-three 18- to 22-month olds born with extremely low birth weight were examined. It was hypothesized that object permanence would be directly related to emotional and attention regulation, that children with lower birth weight and higher illness severity would have more difficulty on the object permanence task, and that no ethnic...

  12. Transcriptome and network changes in climbers at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Extreme altitude can induce a range of cellular and systemic responses. Although it is known that hypoxia underlies the major changes and that the physiological responses include hemodynamic changes and erythropoiesis, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating such changes are lar...

  13. Real-time visual biofeedback during weight bearing improves therapy compliance in patients following lower extremity fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaben, Marco; Holtslag, Herman R.; Leenen, Luke P. H.; Augustine, Robin; Blokhuis, Taco J.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with lower extremity fractures are often instructed on how much weight to bear on the affected extremity. Previous studies have shown limited therapy compliance in weight bearing during rehabilitation. In this study we investigated the effect of real-time visual biofeedback on weight

  14. Scrotal enteric fistula in an extremely low birth weight premature neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A. Smith

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital inguinal hernia is a common condition in the pediatric population. Incarceration of inguinal hernias is known to result in significant morbidity such as necrotic bowel, and if not recognized promptly, has the potential to present as a scrotal fecal fistula. We present an extremely low birth weight premature male infant who developed spontaneous fecal drainage from his right scrotum.

  15. Delivery of the extremely low-birth- weight vertex-presenting baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-02

    Dec 2, 2010 ... rise in the caesarean section rate.1 This rise has been disproportionate to ... a possible extremely low-birth-weight infant the risks of mortality and short- and .... the US Health Statistics data from 1999 to 2000 using multivariate ...

  16. General movements in the first fourteen days of life in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, N. K. S.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Bos, A. F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of general movements (GMs) in the first fourteen days of life in relation to obstetric and postnatal risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Study design: The GMs of nineteen infants were assessed on days 2, 4, 6, 10

  17. Serum magnesium in the first week of life in extremely low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, D

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) to women in preterm labor may confer fetal neuroprotection is growing. MgSO(4) crosses the placenta and can affect the neonate. Magnesium homeostasis in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains to be clarified.

  18. Extreme Weight-Control Behaviors and Suicide Risk among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emily R.; Weiler, Robert M.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Pealer, Lisa N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicide is the third leading cause of death for people ages 15-19. Research has established an association across numerous risk factors and suicide, including depression, substance abuse, bullying victimization, and feelings of alienation. However, the connection between disordered eating as manifested in extreme weight-control…

  19. Transcriptome and network changes in climbers at extreme altitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Extreme altitude can induce a range of cellular and systemic responses. Although it is known that hypoxia underlies the major changes and that the physiological responses include hemodynamic changes and erythropoiesis, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating such changes are largely unknown. To obtain a more complete picture of the transcriptional regulatory landscape and networks involved in extreme altitude response, we followed four climbers on an expedition up Mount Xixiabangma (8,012 m, and collected blood samples at four stages during the climb for mRNA and miRNA expression assays. By analyzing dynamic changes of gene networks in response to extreme altitudes, we uncovered a highly modular network with 7 modules of various functions that changed in response to extreme altitudes. The erythrocyte differentiation module is the most prominently up-regulated, reflecting increased erythrocyte differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells, probably at the expense of differentiation into other cell lineages. These changes are accompanied by coordinated down-regulation of general translation. Network topology and flow analyses also uncovered regulators known to modulate hypoxia responses and erythrocyte development, as well as unknown regulators, such as the OCT4 gene, an important regulator in stem cells and assumed to only function in stem cells. We predicted computationally and validated experimentally that increased OCT4 expression at extreme altitude can directly elevate the expression of hemoglobin genes. Our approach established a new framework for analyzing the transcriptional regulatory network from a very limited number of samples.

  20. Climate Change : Behavioral Responses from Extreme Events and Delayed Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghidoni, Riccardo; Calzolari, G.; Casari, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how to sustain cooperation in the climate change global dilemma is crucial to mitigate its harmful consequences. Damages from climate change typically occurs after long delays and can take the form of more frequent realizations of extreme and random events. These features generate a

  1. Climate change : Behavioral responses from extreme events and delayed damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghidoni, Riccardo; Calzolari, Giacomo; Casari, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how to sustain cooperation in the climate change global dilemma is crucial to mitigate its harmful consequences. Damages from climate change typically occur after long delays and can take the form of more frequent realizations of extreme and random events. These features generate a

  2. Early weight loss predicts weight loss treatment response regardless of binge-eating disorder status and pretreatment weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Pittman, Brian P; Grilo, Carlos M

    2018-04-10

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment have diverse pretreatment weight trajectories, and once enrolled, individuals' response to weight loss treatments also varies greatly and may be influenced by the presence of binge-eating disorder (BED). Reported average weight losses may obscure these considerable differences. This study examined whether BED status and different weight-related change variables are associated with successful weight loss treatment outcomes in a controlled treatment study. Participants (N = 89) with overweight/obesity, with and without BED, participated in a 3-month weight loss trial in primary care with 3- and 12-month follow-ups. We tested the prognostic significance of four weight-related change variables (the last supper, early weight loss, pretreatment weight trajectory, weight suppression) on outcomes (weight loss-overall, weight loss-"subsequent," weight loss during second half of treatment). Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-overall at post-treatment, and at 3-month and 12-month follow-up. Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-subsequent at post-treatment only. No other weight-related variables were significantly associated with weight loss. Models including BED status and treatment condition were not significant. Participants with early weight loss were more likely to continue losing weight, regardless of BED status or treatment condition. The results highlight the importance of early dedication to weight loss treatment to increase the likelihood of positive outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of triplets or higher-order extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Rajan; Oh, William; Vohr, Betty R; Wrage, Lisa; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F; Laptook, Abbot R; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J; Walsh, Michele C; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2011-03-01

    Extremely low birth weight twins have a higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment than singletons. Higher-order extremely low birth weight multiple births may have an even higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Extremely low birth weight (birth weight 401-1000 g) multiple births born in participating centers of the Neonatal Research Network between 1996 and 2005 were assessed for death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined by the presence of 1 or more of the following: moderate to severe cerebral palsy; mental developmental index score or psychomotor developmental index score less than 70; severe bilateral deafness; or blindness. Infants who died within 12 hours of birth were excluded. Maternal and infant demographic and clinical variables were compared among singleton, twin, and triplet or higher-order infants. Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish the association between singletons, twins, and triplet or higher-order multiples and death or neurodevelopmental impairment, controlling for confounding variables that may affect death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Our cohort consisted of 8296 singleton, 2164 twin, and 521 triplet or higher-order infants. The risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment was increased in triplets or higher-order multiples when compared with singletons (adjusted odds ratio: 1.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.24]), and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27 [95% confidence: 0.95-1.71]). Triplet or higher-order births are associated with an increased risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age when compared with extremely low birth weight singleton infants, and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins.

  4. Possible future changes in extreme events over Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Erwan; Sokolov, Andrei; Scott, Jeffery

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we investigate possible future climate change over Northern Eurasia and its impact on extreme events. Northern Eurasia is a major player in the global carbon budget because of boreal forests and peatlands. Circumpolar boreal forests alone contain more than five times the amount of carbon of temperate forests and almost double the amount of carbon of the world's tropical forests. Furthermore, severe permafrost degradation associated with climate change could result in peatlands releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide and methane. Meanwhile, changes in the frequency and magnitude of extreme events, such as extreme precipitation, heat waves or frost days are likely to have substantial impacts on Northern Eurasia ecosystems. For this reason, it is very important to quantify the possible climate change over Northern Eurasia under different emissions scenarios, while accounting for the uncertainty in the climate response and changes in extreme events. For several decades, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change has been investigating uncertainty in climate change using the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) framework, an integrated assessment model that couples an earth system model of intermediate complexity (with a 2D zonal-mean atmosphere) to a human activity model. In this study, regional change is investigated using the MIT IGSM-CAM framework that links the IGSM to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). New modules were developed and implemented in CAM to allow climate parameters to be changed to match those of the IGSM. The simulations presented in this paper were carried out for two emission scenarios, a "business as usual" scenario and a 660 ppm of CO2-equivalent stabilization, which are similar to, respectively, the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. Values of climate sensitivity and net aerosol

  5. Asymptotically extremal polynomials with respect to varying weights and application to Sobolev orthogonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Mendoza, C.; Orive, R.; Pijeira Cabrera, H.

    2008-10-01

    We study the asymptotic behavior of the zeros of a sequence of polynomials whose weighted norms, with respect to a sequence of weight functions, have the same nth root asymptotic behavior as the weighted norms of certain extremal polynomials. This result is applied to obtain the (contracted) weak zero distribution for orthogonal polynomials with respect to a Sobolev inner product with exponential weights of the form e-[phi](x), giving a unified treatment for the so-called Freud (i.e., when [phi] has polynomial growth at infinity) and Erdös (when [phi] grows faster than any polynomial at infinity) cases. In addition, we provide a new proof for the bound of the distance of the zeros to the convex hull of the support for these Sobolev orthogonal polynomials.

  6. The importance of extreme weight percentile in postoperative morbidity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stey, Anne M; Moss, R Lawrence; Kraemer, Kari; Cohen, Mark E; Ko, Clifford Y; Lee Hall, Bruce

    2014-05-01

    Anthropometric data are important indicators of child health. This study sought to determine whether anthropometric data of extreme weight were significant predictors of perioperative morbidity in pediatric surgery. This was a cohort study of children 29 days up to 18 years of age undergoing surgical procedures at participating American College of Surgeons' NSQIP Pediatric hospitals in 2011 and 2012. The primary outcomes were composite morbidity and surgical site infection. The primary predictor of interest was weight percentile, which was divided into the following categories: ≤5(th) percentile, 6(th) to 94(th), or ≥95(th) percentile. A hierarchical multivariate logistic model, adjusting for procedure case mix, demographic, and clinical patient characteristic variables, was used to quantify the relationship between weight percentile category and outcomes. Children in the ≤5th weight percentile had 1.19-fold higher odds of overall postoperative morbidity developing than children in the nonextreme range (95% CI, 1.10-1.30) when controlling for clinical variables. Yet these children did not have higher odds of surgical site infection developing. Children in the ≥95(th) weight percentile did not have a significant increase in overall postoperative morbidity. However, they were at 1.35-fold increased odds of surgical site infection compared with those in the nonextreme range when controlling for clinical variables (95% CI, 1.16-1.57). Both extremely high and extremely low weight percentile scores can be associated with increased postoperative complications after controlling for clinical variables. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Mathewson PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST. Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood.

  8. Health-related quality of life for extremely low birth weight adolescents in Canada, Germany, and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, E.; Vogels, T.; Saigal, S.; Wolke, D.; Meyer, R.; Hoult, L.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE.The goal was to compare health-related quality of life of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents born at an extremely low birth weight in regional cohorts from Ontario (Canada), Bavaria (Germany), and the Netherlands. METHODS. Patients were extremely low birth weight survivors from Canada,

  9. Real-time visual biofeedback during weight bearing improves therapy compliance in patients following lower extremity fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaben, Marco; Holtslag, Herman R; Leenen, Luke P H; Augustine, Robin; Blokhuis, Taco J

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with lower extremity fractures are often instructed on how much weight to bear on the affected extremity. Previous studies have shown limited therapy compliance in weight bearing during rehabilitation. In this study we investigated the effect of real-time visual biofeedback

  10. Pneumoretroperitoneum and Perirenal Air Associated With Pneumothorax in an Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belma Saygili Karagol

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pneumothorax-associated pneumoretroperitoneum and perirenal air have rarely been reported in infants. We report a case of an extremely low-birth-weight infant who developed pneumoretroperitoneum and perirenal air associated with tension pneumothorax and deteriorated acutely despite prompt pleural water-seal vacuum drainage system insertion. Our aim in presenting this case report is to emphasize keeping in mind that there could be extrapleural air leaks, such as pneumoretroperitoneum in patients with pneumothorax.

  11. Real-time visual biofeedback during weight bearing improves therapy compliance in patients following lower extremity fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaben, Marco; Holtslag, Herman R; Leenen, Luke P H; Augustine, Robin; Blokhuis, Taco J

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with lower extremity fractures are often instructed on how much weight to bear on the affected extremity. Previous studies have shown limited therapy compliance in weight bearing during rehabilitation. In this study we investigated the effect of real-time visual biofeedback on weight bearing in individuals with lower extremity fractures in two conditions: full weight bearing and touch-down weight bearing. 11 participants with full weight bearing and 12 participants with touch-down weight bearing after lower extremity fractures have been measured with an ambulatory biofeedback system. The participants first walked 15m and the biofeedback system was only used to register the weight bearing. The same protocol was then repeated with real-time visual feedback during weight bearing. The participants could thereby adapt their loading to the desired level and improve therapy compliance. In participants with full weight bearing, real-time visual biofeedback resulted in a significant increase in loading from 50.9±7.51% bodyweight (BW) without feedback to 63.2±6.74%BW with feedback (P=0.0016). In participants with touch-down weight bearing, the exerted lower extremity load decreased from 16.7±9.77kg without feedback to 10.27±4.56kg with feedback (P=0.0718). More important, the variance between individual steps significantly decreased after feedback (P=0.018). Ambulatory monitoring weight bearing after lower extremity fractures showed that therapy compliance is low, both in full and touch-down weight bearing. Real-time visual biofeedback resulted in significantly higher peak loads in full weight bearing and increased accuracy of individual steps in touch-down weight bearing. Real-time visual biofeedback therefore results in improved therapy compliance after lower extremity fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Weight Control: Attitudes of Dieters and Change Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Ellen S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Survey explores attitudes toward weight loss/weight control among 2 groups of change agents--40 dietitians and 42 fitness instructors--and among 96 people trying to lose weight. Significant differences were found in terms of importance in weight control of diet, drugs, exercise, religion, and will power; in importance of being of normal weight;…

  13. College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

  14. Climate Change and Fetal Health: The Impacts of Exposure to Extreme Temperatures in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Horton, Radley M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Climate change is projected to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of heat waves while reducing cold extremes, yet few studies have examined the relationship between temperature and fetal health. Objectives: We estimate the impacts of extreme temperatures on birth weight and gestational age in Manhattan, a borough in New York City, and explore differences by socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: We combine average daily temperature from 1985 to 2010 with birth certificate data in Manhattan for the same time period. We then generate 33 downscaled climate model time series to project impacts on fetal health. Results: We find exposure to an extra day where average temperature 25 F and 85 F during pregnancy is associated with a 1.8 and 1.7 g (respectively) reduction in birth weight, but the impact varies by SES, particularly for extreme heat, where teen mothers seem most vulnerable. We find no meaningful, significant effect on gestational age. Using projections of temperature from these climate models, we project average net reductions in birth weight in the 2070- 2099 period of 4.6 g in the business-as-usual scenario. Conclusions: Results suggest that increasing heat events from climate change could adversely impact birth weight and vary by SES.

  15. A "small-changes" workplace weight loss and maintenance program: examination of weight and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant M; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-10-01

    To compare the effect of "small-changes" and "usual care" workplace interventions on weight loss and to investigate the effect of small changes with or without maintenance on weight and health outcomes. Overweight/obese employees at two New Zealand worksites received a 12-month usual-care intervention (n = 53), followed by a 12-month small-changes intervention (n = 102). Small changes comprised a 12-week component, followed by 9 months of maintenance, implemented at only one worksite. Magnitudes of effects were assessed via a threshold of -5% (weight loss) and standardization (health outcomes). Small changes showed beneficial weight loss relative to usual care in both worksites. For small-changes interventions, worksites reduced weight (12 weeks) and maintained lost weight (12 months). One in every three participants lost 5% or more weight. Some improvements in health outcomes were shown. Regardless of maintenance, the small-changes intervention was successful in sustaining weight loss.

  16. Expected impacts of climate change on extreme climate events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planton, S.; Deque, M.; Chauvin, F.; Terray, L.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the expected change of climate extremes during this century due to greenhouse gases and aerosol anthropogenic emissions is presented. The most commonly used methodologies rely on the dynamical or statistical down-scaling of climate projections, performed with coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. Either of dynamical or of statistical type, down-scaling methods present strengths and weaknesses, but neither their validation on present climate conditions, nor their potential ability to project the impact of climate change on extreme event statistics allows one to give a specific advantage to one of the two types. The results synthesized in the last IPCC report and more recent studies underline a convergence for a very likely increase in heat wave episodes over land surfaces, linked to the mean warming and the increase in temperature variability. In addition, the number of days of frost should decrease and the growing season length should increase. The projected increase in heavy precipitation events appears also as very likely over most areas and also seems linked to a change in the shape of the precipitation intensity distribution. The global trends for drought duration are less consistent between models and down-scaling methodologies, due to their regional variability. The change of wind-related extremes is also regionally dependent, and associated to a poleward displacement of the mid-latitude storm tracks. The specific study of extreme events over France reveals the high sensitivity of some statistics of climate extremes at the decadal time scale as a consequence of regional climate internal variability. (authors)

  17. Projected Changes in Temperature Extremes in China Using PRECIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature extremes can cause disastrous impacts on ecological and social economic systems. China is very sensitive to climate change, as its warming rate exceeds that of the global mean level. This paper focused on the spatial and temporal changes of the temperature extremes characterized by the 95th percentile of maximum temperature (TX95, the 5th percentile of the minimum temperature (TN5, high-temperature days (HTD and low-temperature days (LTD. The daily maximum and minimum temperatures generated by PRECIS under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs are used in the research. The results show that: (1 Model simulation data can reproduce the spatial distribution features of the maximum temperature (Tmax and minimum temperature (Tmin as well as that of the extreme temperature indices; (2 By the end of the 21st century (2070–2099, both the Tmax and Tmin are warmer than the baseline level (1961–1990 in China and the eight sub-regions. However, there are regional differences in the asymmetrical warming features, as the Tmin warms more than the Tmax in the northern part of China and the Tibetan Plateau, while the Tmax warms more than the Tmin in the southern part of China; (3 The frequency of the warm extremes would become more usual, as the HTD characterized by the present-day threshold would increase by 106%, 196% and 346%, under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, while the cold extremes characterized by the LTD would become less frequent by the end of the 21st century, decreasing by 75%, 90% and 98% under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. The southern and eastern parts of the Tibetan Plateau respond sensitively to changes in both the hot and cold extremes, suggesting its higher likelihood to suffer from climate warming; (4 The intensity of the warm (cold extremes would increase (decrease significantly, characterized by the changes in the TX95 (TN5 by the end of the 21st century, and the magnitude of the

  18. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mahmud; M. Hixson; M. J. Kleeman

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for ...

  19. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mahmud; M. Hixson; M. J. Kleeman

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days ...

  20. Climate Extreme Events over Northern Eurasia in Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, O.; Korshunova, N. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    During the period of widespread instrumental observations in Northern Eurasia, the annual surface air temperature has increased by 1.5°C. Close to the north in the Arctic Ocean, the late summer sea ice extent has decreased by 40% providing a near-infinite source of water vapor for the dry Arctic atmosphere in the early cold season months. The contemporary sea ice changes are especially visible in the Eastern Hemisphere All these factors affect the change extreme events. Daily and sub-daily data of 940 stations to analyze variations in the space time distribution of extreme temperatures, precipitation, and wind over Russia were used. Changing in number of days with thaw over Russia was described. The total seasonal numbers of days, when daily surface air temperatures (wind, precipitation) were found to be above (below) selected thresholds, were used as indices of climate extremes. Changing in difference between maximum and minimum temperature (DTR) may produce a variety of effects on biological systems. All values falling within the intervals ranged from the lowest percentile to the 5th percentile and from the 95th percentile to the highest percentile for the time period of interest were considered as daily extremes. The number of days, N, when daily temperatures (wind, precipitation, DTR) were within the above mentioned intervals, was determined for the seasons of each year. Linear trends in the number of days were calculated for each station and for quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. Regional analysis of extreme events was carried out using quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. Maps (climatology, trends) are presented mostly for visualization purposes. Differences in regional characteristics of extreme events are accounted for over a large extent of the Russian territory and variety of its physical and geographical conditions. The number of days with maximum temperatures higher than the 95% percentile has increased in most of Russia and decreased in Siberia in

  1. Weight change and incident diabetes: addressing an unresolved issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-van der Bruggen, M.A.M.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Baal, van P.H.M.; Baan, C.A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Picavet, H.S.J.; A, van der A.D.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of weight change on diabetes incidence remains unclear. To clarify the role of weight change as a risk factor for diabetes, the authors assessed the association between weight change and diabetes incidence conditional upon either initial or attained body mass index (BMI). They used 7,837

  2. Weight Status in the First 2 Years of Life and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Mandy B; Kuban, Karl C K; O'Shea, T Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Engelke, Stephen C; Leviton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To examine the extent to which weight gain and weight status in the first 2 years of life relate to the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely preterm infants. In a cohort of 1070 infants born between 23 and 27 weeks' gestation, we examined weight gain from 7-28 days of life (in quartiles) and weight z-score at 12 and 24 months corrected age (in 4 categories: Weight gain in the lowest quartile from 7-28 days was not associated with higher risk of adverse outcomes. Children with a 12-month weight z-score weight z-score weight z-score at 24 months with adverse outcomes were attenuated with exclusion of children with motor impairment. Excluding children who have gross motor impairment appears to eliminate the association of low weight status with neurodevelopmental impairments at 2 years in extremely preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. THE EXTREME WEIGHTS IN THE INDEX PORTFOLIO OF CONSTANT-PROPORTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury F. Kasimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the optimal of constant proportion index portfolio strategies. They are also called passive strategies which are becoming more common in Russia and abroad. They are significantly cheaper to implement than active strategies. In addition, as practice shows, in the long term they are more profitable and less risky. The main problem in these strategies is the choice of the proportions in which the investor allocates his capital between risky and risk-free assets. In constant proportion index portfolio the weight of risk asset remains constant throughout investment period. For this purpose, the investor with a certain frequency restores the desired balance between risky and risk-free assets. Each period at the beginning of which such recovery occurs is called the re-balancing period. In the case of strategies with index portfolios, risky assets are the shares of the index fund, and risk-free assets are the deposits in reliable bank or government bonds. According on the daily value of units of these funds and the annual interest rate for the 11-year period, using a specially developed program optimal weight index funds in the portfolios has been found. Parameters of the analyzed portfolios are: length of the investment period (from one year to 10 years and the frequency of weight rebalancing (month, quarter, year. The sequence of optimal weights and the corresponding optimum yield for consecutive investment periods with a specified frequency of re-balancing were determined for each fund. It was found that in almost all cases, the optimal weights of fund equals the extreme values 0 or 1. Also, the frequencies of these values in the selected sequence is about the same for all funds. This empiric fact can be conventionally called the principle of extremeness or “all or nothing” principle. 

  4. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000-2006 and 2047-2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV), the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV) and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events. The current study found that the change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations due to climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 within any major sub-region in California was not statistically significant. However, climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; -3%) and organic carbon (OC; -3%) due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (-3%) and food cooking (-4%). In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-yr period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3). In general, climate change caused increased stagnation during future extreme pollution events, leading to higher exposure to diesel engines

  5. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44 global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV, the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events.

    The current study found that the change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations due to climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 within any major sub-region in California was not statistically significant. However, climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; −3% and organic carbon (OC; −3% due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (−3% and food cooking (−4%. In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-yr period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3. In general, climate

  6. Weight Changes following the Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The association between recent and more distant weight changes before and after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes has been little researched. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of patients’ weight history before diabetes diagnosis on the observed 6-year weight changes after...... diagnosis. Methods: A clinical cohort study combined with self-reported past weight history. In total 885 patients aged ≥40 years and newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes were included. Body weight was measured immediately after diabetes diagnosis and again at the 6-year follow up examination...... weight change after diagnosis. Conclusions: During the first on average 5.7 years after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, patients generally follow a course of declining average weight, and these weight developments are related primarily to recent weight changes, body mass index, and age, but not to the more...

  7. Extreme Precipitation and Runoff under Changing Climate in Southern Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Eugene [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jared, Alissa [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahat, Vinod [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Picel, Mark [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Verner, Duane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wall, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moges, Edom M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Demissie, Yonas K. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Pierce, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The quantification of extreme precipitation events is vitally important for designing and engineering water and flood sensitive infrastructure. Since this kind of infrastructure is usually built to last much longer than 10, 50, or even 100 years, there is great need for statistically sound estimates of the intensity of 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year rainstorms and associated floods. The recent assessment indicated that the intensity of the most extreme precipitation events (or the heaviest 1% of all daily events) have increased in every region of the contiguous states since the 1950s (Melillo et al. 2014). The maximum change in precipitation intensity of extreme events occurred in the northeast region reaching 71%. The precipitation extremes can be characterized using intensity-duration-frequency analysis (IDF). However, the current IDFs in this region were developed around the assumption that climate condition remains stationary over the next 50 or 100 years. To better characterize the potential flood risk, this project will (1) develop precipitation IDFs on the basis of both historical observations and future climate projections from dynamic downscaling with Argonne National Laboratory’s (Argonne’s) regional climate model and (2) develop runoff IDFs using precipitation IDFs for the Casco Bay Watershed. IDF development also considers non-stationary distribution models and snowmelt effects that are not incorporated in the current IDFs.

  8. Weight Loss: Ready to Change Your Habits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calories more than you consume each day — through diet and exercise. You might lose weight more quickly if you ... yourself with regular weigh-ins and tracking your diet and activity, which is ... don't have a positive attitude about losing weight, you might not be ready — ...

  9. Efficacy of a "small-changes" workplace weight loss initiative on weight and productivity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant M; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-10-01

    The effect of weight reduction on workplace productivity is unknown. We have investigated a "small-changes" workplace weight loss intervention on weight and productivity outcomes. Overweight/obese employees at two New Zealand worksites (n = 102) received the 12-week intervention. One site received an extra 9-month weight-maintenance component. Magnitudes of effects on weight and productivity were assessed via standardization. Both groups reduced weight at 12 weeks and maintained lost weight at 12 months. There were small possible improvements in productivity at one worksite and trivial reductions at the other by 12 weeks, with little subsequent change during maintenance in either group. At an individual level, weight change was associated with at most only small improvements or small reductions in productivity. Workplace weight loss initiatives may need to be more intensive or multidimensional to enhance productivity.

  10. Early working memory in children born with extremely low birth weight: assessed by object permanence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jean; MacLean, Peggy C; Shaffer, Michele L; Watterberg, Kristi

    2009-04-01

    Object permanence is considered the earliest method for assessing working memory. Factors affecting object permanence performance in a sample of two hundred and thirty-three 18- to 22-month olds born with extremely low birth weight were examined. It was hypothesized that object permanence would be directly related to emotional and attention regulation, that children with lower birth weight and higher illness severity would have more difficulty on the object permanence task, and that no ethnic/racial differences would be found, as this is considered a culturally unbiased task. Attainment of object permanence had a significant positive association with emotional and attention regulation, even after controlling the medical severity and socioeconomic factors. More girls than boys passed the object permanence items. There was no ethnic/racial difference on object permanence. Our findings indicate that object permanence may be a culturally fair way of assessing development, and emotional and attention regulation are potential avenues of intervention for such skill.

  11. Uncertainties in extreme precipitation under climate change conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia

    of adaptation strategies, but these changes are subject to uncertainties. The focus of this PhD thesis is the quantification of uncertainties in changes in extreme precipitation. It addresses two of the main sources of uncertainty in climate change impact studies: regional climate models (RCMs) and statistical...... downscaling methods (SDMs). RCMs provide information on climate change at the regional scale. SDMs are used to bias-correct and downscale the outputs of the RCMs to the local scale of interest in adaptation strategies. In the first part of the study, a multi-model ensemble of RCMs from the European ENSEMBLES...... project was used to quantify the uncertainty in RCM projections over Denmark. Three aspects of the RCMs relevant for the uncertainty quantification were first identified and investigated. These are: the interdependency of the RCMs; the performance in current climate; and the change in the performance...

  12. Outcome of extremely low birth weight infants who received delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Myra H; Salhab, Walid A; Heyne, Roy J; Kendrick, Douglas E; Stoll, Barbara J; Laptook, Abbot R

    2012-02-01

    To determine whether delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DR-CPR) independently predicts morbidities and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight infants. We conducted a cohort study of infants born with birth weight of 401 to 1000 g and gestational age of 23 to 30 weeks. DR-CPR was defined as chest compressions, medications, or both. Logistic regression was used to determine associations among DR-CPR and morbidities, mortality, and NDI at 18 to 24 months of age (Bayley II mental or psychomotor index blindness, or deafness). Data are adjusted ORs with 95% CIs. Of 8685 infants, 1333 (15%) received DR-CPR. Infants who received DR-CPR had lower birth weight (708±141 g versus 764±146g, PCPR had more pneumothoraces (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.48-2.99), grade 3 to 4 intraventricular hemorrhage (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.23-1.74), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13-1.59), death by 12 hours (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 2.98-4.57), and death by 120 days after birth (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.93-2.57). Rates of NDI in survivors (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.49) and death or NDI (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.46-1.99) were higher for DR-CPR infants. Only 14% of DR-CPR recipients with 5-minute Apgar score CPR is a prognostic marker for higher rates of mortality and NDI for extremely low birth weight infants. New DR-CPR strategies are needed for this population. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Weight Change and Risk of Hyperglycemia in Elderly Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk; Neergaard, Jesper; Christiansen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Background Hyperglycaemia increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke, and is influenced by weight. However, the impact of preceding weight change on blood glycemia levels in late-life is less well understood. Aim We studied the interplay between weight change and risk of hype...

  14. Temperature extremes in Europe: mechanisms and responses to climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattiaux, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Europe witnessed a spate of record-breaking warm seasons during the 2000's. As illustrated by the devastating heat-wave of the summer 2003, these episodes induced strong societal and environmental impacts. Such occurrence of exceptional events over a relatively short time period raised up many questionings in the present context of climate change. In particular, can recent temperature extremes be considered as 'previews' of future climate conditions? Do they result from an increasing temperature variability? These questions constitute the main motivations of this thesis. Thus, our work aims to contribute to the understanding of physical mechanisms responsible for seasonal temperature extremes in Europe, in order to anticipate their future statistical characteristics. Involved processes are assessed by both statistical data-analysis of observations and climate projections and regional modeling experiments. First we show that while the inter-annual European temperature variability appears driven by disturbances in the North-Atlantic dynamics, the recent warming is likely to be dissociated with potential circulation changes. This inconsistency climaxes during the exceptionally mild autumn of 2006, whose temperature anomaly is only half explained by the atmospheric flow. Recent warm surface conditions in the North-Atlantic ocean seem to substantially contribute to the European warming in autumn-winter, through the establishment of advective and radiative processes. In spring-summer, since both advection by the westerlies and Atlantic warming are reduced, more local processes appear predominant (e.g. soil moisture, clouds, aerosols). Then the issue of future evolution of the relationship between North-Atlantic dynamics and European temperatures is addressed, based on climate projections of the International Panel on Climate Change. Multi-model analysis, using both flow-analogues and weather regimes methods, show that the inconsistency noticed over recent decades is

  15. Extreme weather events in Iran under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, Omid; Najafi, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    Observations unequivocally show that Iran has been rapidly warming over recent decades, which in sequence has triggered a wide range of climatic impacts. Meteorological records of several ground stations across Iran with daily temporal resolution for the period 1951-2013 were analyzed to investigate the climate change and its impact on some weather extremes. Iran has warmed by nearly 1.3 °C during the period 1951-2013 (+0.2 °C per decade), with an increase of the minimum temperature at a rate two times that of the maximum. Consequently, an increase in the frequency of heat extremes and a decrease in the frequency of cold extremes have been observed. The annual precipitation has decreased by 8 mm per decade, causing an expansion of Iran's dry zones. Previous studies have pointed out that warming is generally associated with more frequent heavy precipitation because a warmer air can hold more moisture. Nevertheless, warming in Iran has been associated with more frequent light precipitation, but less frequent moderate, heavy and extremely heavy precipitation. This is because in the subtropical dry zones, a longer time is required to recharge the atmosphere with water vapour in a warmer climate, causing more water vapour to be transported from the subtropics to high latitudes before precipitations forms. In addition, the altitude of the condensation level increases in a warmer climate in subtropical regions, causing an overall decrease of precipitation. We argue that changing in the frequency of heavy precipitation in response to warming varies depending on the geographical location. Warming over the dry subtropical regions is associated with a decrease in the frequency of heavy precipitation, while an increase is expected over both subpolar and tropical regions. The warmer climate has also led to the increase in the frequency of both thunderstorms (driven by convective heating) and dust events over Iran.

  16. Climate extremes drive changes in functional community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucek, Ross E; Rehage, Jennifer S

    2014-06-01

    The response of communities to climate extremes can be quite variable. Much of this variation has been attributed to differences in community-specific functional trait diversity, as well as community composition. Yet, few if any studies have explicitly tested the response of the functional trait structure of communities following climate extremes (CEs). Recently in South Florida, two independent, but sequential potential CEs took place, a 2010 cold front, followed by a 2011 drought, both of which had profound impacts on a subtropical estuarine fish community. These CEs provided an opportunity to test whether the structure of South Florida fish communities following each extreme was a result of species-specific differences in functional traits. From historical temperature (1927-2012) and freshwater inflows records into the estuary (1955-2012), we determined that the cold front was a statistically extreme disturbance, while the drought was not, but rather a decadal rare disturbance. The two disturbances predictably affected different parts of functional community structure and thus different component species. The cold front virtually eliminated tropical species, including large-bodied snook, mojarra species, nonnative cichlids, and striped mullet, while having little affect on temperate fishes. Likewise, the drought severely impacted freshwater fishes including Florida gar, bowfin, and two centrarchids, with little effect on euryhaline species. Our findings illustrate the ability of this approach to predict and detect both the filtering effects of different types of disturbances and the implications of the resulting changes in community structure. Further, we highlight the value of this approach to developing predictive frameworks for better understanding community responses to global change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Temperature extremes in a changing climate: Drivers and feedbacks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Davin, E. L.; Hirschi, M.; Mueller, B.; Orlowsky, B.; Orth, R.; Wilhelm, M.

    2013-12-01

    Global warming increases the occurrence probability of hot extremes, and improving the predictability of such events is thus becoming of critical importance (e.g. Seneviratne et al. 2012). This presentation provides an overview of past and projected changes in hot extremes on the global and regional scale, and of the respective drivers and feedbacks responsible for their occurrence. In particular, soil moisture-temperature feedbacks have been identified as major drivers for hot extremes (e.g. Seneviratne et al. 2006, 2010; Hirschi et al. 2011). Recently, a global study (Mueller and Seneviratne 2012) has shown that wide areas of the world display a strong relationship between the number of hot days in the regions' hottest month and preceding precipitation deficits. These findings suggest that effects of soil moisture-temperature coupling are geographically more widespread than commonly assumed, with for instance large hot spots of soil moisture-temperature coupling in the Southern Hemisphere. Further results indicate that this relationship could be better used in the context of seasonal forecasting, allowing an early warning of impending hot summers (Mueller and Seneviratne 2012, Orth and Seneviratne 2013). In addition, the role of soil moisture-climate feedbacks for climate projections will also be discussed (e.g. Orlowsky and Seneviratne 2012; Seneviratne et al., 2013). Finally, we will address the relevance of the identified feedbacks in the context of urban climate, as well as potential relevant impacts of other land-climate interactions (e.g. from modifications in surface albedo). References: Hirschi, M., et al., 2011: Observational evidence for soil-moisture impact on hot extremes in southeastern Europe. Nature Geosci., 4, 17-21, doi:10.1038/ngeo1032. Mueller, B., and S.I. Seneviratne, 2012: Hot days induced by precipitation deficits at the global scale. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 109 (31), 12398-12403, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1204330109. Orth, R. and S.I. Seneviratne

  18. Observed change in extreme daily rainfalls in the French Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes, Aurélien; Thao, Soulivanh; Vautard, Robert; Dubuisson, Brigitte; Somot, Samuel; Colin, Jeanne; Planton, Serge; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-01

    In spite of a relatively dry mean climate, the Mediterranean regions in Southern France use to experience heavy rainfalls over short durations - typically a few minutes to one day. Here we examine long-term trends in the historical record of extreme precipitation events occurring over the French Mediterranean area, where many long homogeneous time-series are available. Extreme events are considered in terms of their intensity, frequency, extent and precipitated volume. Changes in intensity are analysed via an original statistical approach where the annual maximum rainfall observed at each measurement station are aggregated into a univariate time-series, according to their statistical dependence. This procedure substantially enhances the signal-to-noise ratio. The mean intensity increase is significant and estimated at +22% (+7% to +39% at the 90% confidence level) over the 1961-2015 period. Given the observed warming over the considered area, this increase is consistent with a rate of about one to three times that implied by the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Changes in frequency and other spatial features are investigated through a Generalised Linear Model. Changes in frequencies for events exceeding high thresholds (about 200mm in one day) are found to be significant, typically near a doubling of the frequency, but with large uncertainties in this risk ratio. The area affected by severe events and the water volume precipitated during those events also exhibit significant trends, with an increase by a factor of about 4 for a 200mm threshold, again with large uncertainties. All diagnoses consistently point toward an intensification of the most extreme events during the last decades. We argue that the diagnosed trends can hardly be explained without invoking the human influence on climate.

  19. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtual screening by a new Clustering-based Weighted Similarity Extreme Learning Machine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupa, Kitsuchart; Kudisthalert, Wasu

    2018-01-01

    Machine learning techniques are becoming popular in virtual screening tasks. One of the powerful machine learning algorithms is Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) which has been applied to many applications and has recently been applied to virtual screening. We propose the Weighted Similarity ELM (WS-ELM) which is based on a single layer feed-forward neural network in a conjunction of 16 different similarity coefficients as activation function in the hidden layer. It is known that the performance of conventional ELM is not robust due to random weight selection in the hidden layer. Thus, we propose a Clustering-based WS-ELM (CWS-ELM) that deterministically assigns weights by utilising clustering algorithms i.e. k-means clustering and support vector clustering. The experiments were conducted on one of the most challenging datasets-Maximum Unbiased Validation Dataset-which contains 17 activity classes carefully selected from PubChem. The proposed algorithms were then compared with other machine learning techniques such as support vector machine, random forest, and similarity searching. The results show that CWS-ELM in conjunction with support vector clustering yields the best performance when utilised together with Sokal/Sneath(1) coefficient. Furthermore, ECFP_6 fingerprint presents the best results in our framework compared to the other types of fingerprints, namely ECFP_4, FCFP_4, and FCFP_6.

  1. Growth Curve Analysis and Change-Points Detection in Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2016-05-15

    The thesis consists of two coherent projects. The first project presents the results of evaluating salinity tolerance in barley using growth curve analysis where different growth trajectories are observed within barley families. The study of salinity tolerance in plants is crucial to understanding plant growth and productivity. Because fully-automated smarthouses with conveyor systems allow non-destructive and high-throughput phenotyping of large number of plants, it is now possible to apply advanced statistical tools to analyze daily measurements and to study salinity tolerance. To compare different growth patterns of barley variates, we use functional data analysis techniques to analyze the daily projected shoot areas. In particular, we apply the curve registration method to align all the curves from the same barley family in order to summarize the family-wise features. We also illustrate how to use statistical modeling to account for spatial variation in microclimate in smarthouses and for temporal variation across runs, which is crucial for identifying traits of the barley variates. In our analysis, we show that the concentrations of sodium and potassium in leaves are negatively correlated, and their interactions are associated with the degree of salinity tolerance. The second project studies change-points detection methods in extremes when multiple time series data are available. Motived by the scientific question of whether the chances to experience extreme weather are different in different seasons of a year, we develop a change-points detection model to study changes in extremes or in the tail of a distribution. Most of existing models identify seasons from multiple yearly time series assuming a season or a change-point location remains exactly the same across years. In this work, we propose a random effect model that allows the change-point to vary from year to year, following a given distribution. Both parametric and nonparametric methods are developed

  2. Body weight changes, haematological and serum biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, platelet, lymphocytes, neutrophil, cholesterol, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) values of the rams fed ammonium sulphate fortified diets were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control. Haemoglobin concentration ...

  3. High frequencies of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and rickets exist in extremely low birth weight infants despite current nutritional support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, <1000 g birth weight) despite current practices of vitamin and mineral supplementation. Few data are available evaluating the usual course of markers of mineral status in this population. Our objectives in this study w...

  4. Gluconeogenesis is not regulated by either glucose or insulin in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine potential factors regulating gluconeogenesis (GNG) in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. Seven infants (birth weight, 0.824 +/- 0.068 kg; gestational age, 25.4 +/- 0.5 weeks; postnatal age, 3.3 +/- 0.2 days) were studied for 11 hou...

  5. Can model weighting improve probabilistic projections of climate change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeisaenen, Jouni; Ylhaeisi, Jussi S. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-10-15

    Recently, Raeisaenen and co-authors proposed a weighting scheme in which the relationship between observable climate and climate change within a multi-model ensemble determines to what extent agreement with observations affects model weights in climate change projection. Within the Third Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) dataset, this scheme slightly improved the cross-validated accuracy of deterministic projections of temperature change. Here the same scheme is applied to probabilistic temperature change projection, under the strong limiting assumption that the CMIP3 ensemble spans the actual modeling uncertainty. Cross-validation suggests that probabilistic temperature change projections may also be improved by this weighting scheme. However, the improvement relative to uniform weighting is smaller in the tail-sensitive logarithmic score than in the continuous ranked probability score. The impact of the weighting on projection of real-world twenty-first century temperature change is modest in most parts of the world. However, in some areas mainly over the high-latitude oceans, the mean of the distribution is substantially changed and/or the distribution is considerably narrowed. The weights of individual models vary strongly with location, so that a model that receives nearly zero weight in some area may still get a large weight elsewhere. Although the details of this variation are method-specific, it suggests that the relative strengths of different models may be difficult to harness by weighting schemes that use spatially uniform model weights. (orig.)

  6. Factors affecting development of motor skills in extremely low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anna R; Birch, Eileen E; Spencer, Rand

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of ophthalmic and neonatal factors on motor development in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) children. Sixty-four ELBW children at least 3 years of age were recruited. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed using the Teller acuity cards (TACs) and a letter test, if possible. A validated questionnaire assessing 25 fine (part A) and 20 gross motor (part B) skills was administered to the parents. Data were collected on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) zone, intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), length of stay in hospital, and number of days on oxygen. Abnormal TAC acuity was associated with significantly lower scores on both parts A and B (part A: 21.5 versus 11.8, p development, particularly fine motor development.

  7. Bordetella bronchiseptica Pneumonia in an Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Joseph Ting

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica, a gram-negative coccobacillus, is a common veterinary pathogen. In both domestic and wild animals, this bacterium causes respiratory infections including infectious tracheobronchitis in dogs and atrophic rhinitis in swine. Human infections are rare and have been documented in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we describe an extremely-low-birth-weight infant with B. bronchiseptica pneumonia. This is the first report that describes the microorganism's responsibility in causing nosocomial infection in a preterm neonate. He recovered uneventfully after a course of meropenem. It is possible that the bacteria colonize the respiratory tracts of our health care workers or parents who may have had contact with pets and then transmitted the bacterium to our patient. Follow-up until 21 months of age showed normal growth and development. He did not suffer from any significant residual respiratory disease.

  8. Disseminated candidemia refractory to caspofungin therapy in an infant with extremely low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ju Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic fungal infections have high morbidity and mortality rates in neonates, especially neonates with an extremely low birth weight (ELBW. Here, we describe a 21-day-old ELBW female infant with an amphotericin B-unresponsive congenital Candida albicans infection that was treated with caspofungin. Blood sterilization was performed during the first episode, but a second episode of candidemia occurred after the discontinuation of caspofungin. Blood sterilization was again performed during the second round of caspofungin treatment, but fungal endocarditis and renal fungal balls still developed during the second episode. Caspofungin can be considered for invasive candidiasis in premature infants, especially in life-threatening situations. As for the focal lesions, more aggressive treatments other than just parenteral antibiotics should be considered. The literature regarding caspofungin therapy for neonatal candidiasis is also reviewed.

  9. Linking Early Adversity, Emotion Dysregulation, and Psychopathology: The Case of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Drvaric

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to regulate emotion is a crucial process that humans utilize in order to adapt to the demands of environmental constraints. Individuals exposed to early adverse life events such as being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 501–1000 g are known to have problems regulating emotion which have been linked to the development of psychopathology in this population. Recent studies have used psychophysiological measures, such as electroencephalogram (EEG and cardiac vagal tone, to index emotion regulatory processes. The purpose of this paper was three-fold: (1 to investigate the relation between ELBW and emotion regulation issues (pathway 1, (2 to review studies investigating the relation between early emotion regulation and later internalizing problems (pathway 2; and (3 to provide a model in which two psychophysiological measures (i.e., frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone are suggested to understand the proposed conceptual pathways in the relation between ELBW and psychopathology.

  10. Weight Watchers on prescription: An observational study of weight change among adults referred to Weight Watchers by the NHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aston Louise M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scale of overweight and obesity in the UK places a considerable burden on the NHS. In some areas the NHS has formed partnerships with commercial companies to offer weight management services, but there has been little evaluation of these schemes. This study is an independent audit of the Weight Watchers NHS Referral scheme and evaluates the weight change of obese and overweight adults referred to Weight Watchers (WW by the NHS. Method Data was obtained from the WW NHS Referral Scheme database for 29,326 referral courses started after 2nd April 2007 and ending before 6th October 2009 [90% female; median age 49 years (IQR 38 - 61 years; median BMI 35.1 kg/m2 (IQR 31.8 - 39.5 kg/m2. Participants received vouchers (funded by the PCT following referral by a healthcare professional to attend 12 WW meetings. Body weight was measured at WW meetings and relayed to the central database. Results Median weight change for all referrals was -2.8 kg [IQR -5.9 - -0.7 kg] representing -3.1% initial weight. 33% of all courses resulted in loss of ≥5% initial weight. 54% of courses were completed. Median weight change for those completing a first course was -5.4 kg [IQR -7.8 - -3.1 kg] or -5.6% of initial weight. 57% lost ≥5% initial weight. Conclusions A third of all patients who were referred to WW through the WW NHS Referral Scheme and started a 12 session course achieved ≥5% weight loss, which is usually associated with clinical benefits. This is the largest audit of NHS referral to a commercial weight loss programme in the UK and results are comparable with other options for weight loss available through primary care.

  11. Extreme Rapid Weight Loss and Rapid Weight Gain Observed in UK Mixed Martial Arts Athletes Preparing for Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joseph John; Nicholas, Ceri

    2017-04-01

    There is a lack of research documenting the weight-making practices of mixed-martial-arts (MMA) competitors. The purpose of the investigation was to quantify the magnitude and identify the methods of rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) in MMA athletes preparing for competition. Seven athletes (mean ± SD, age 24.6 ± 3.5 yrs, body mass 69.9 ± 5.7 kg, competitive experience 3.1 ± 2.2 yrs) participated in a repeated-measures design. Measures of dietary intake, urinary hydration status, and body mass were recorded in the week preceding competition. Body mass decreased significantly (p < .0005) from baseline by 5.6 ± 1.4 kg (8 ± 1.8%). During the RWG period (32 ± 1 hr) body mass increased significantly (p < .001) by 7.4 ± 2.8 kg (11.7 ± 4.7%), exceeding RWL. Mean energy and carbohydrate intake were 3176 ± 482 kcal・day -1 and 471 ± 124 g・day -1 , respectively. At the official weigh-in 57% of athletes were dehydrated (1033 ± 19 mOsmol・kg -1 ) and the remaining 43% were severely dehydrated (1267 ± 47 mOsmol・kg -1 ). Athletes reported using harmful dehydration-based RWL strategies, including sauna (43%) and training in plastic suits (43%). Results demonstrated RWG greater than RWL, this is a novel finding and may be attributable to the 32 hr duration from weigh-in till competition. The observed magnitude of RWL and strategies used are comparable to those which have previously resulted in fatalities. Rule changes which make RWL impractical should be implemented with immediate effect to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of competitors.

  12. The Immediacy of Arctic Change: New 2016-17 Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, J. E.; Kattsov, V.; Olsen, M. S.; Walsh, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Additional recent observations add increased certainty to cryospheric Arctic changes, and trends are very likely to continue past mid-century. Observed and projected Arctic changes are large compared with those at mid-latitude, driven by greenhouse gas (GHG) increase and Arctic feedbacks. Sea ice has undergone a regime shift from mostly multi-year to first-year sea ice, and summer sea ice is likely to be esentially gone within the next few decades. Spring snow cover is decreasing, and Arctic greening is increasing, although somewhat variable. There are potential emerging impacts of Arctic change on mid-latitude weather and sea level rise. Model assessments under different future GHG concentration scenarios show that stabilizing global temperatures near 2° C compliant with Paris agreement could slow, but not halt further major changes in the Arctic before mid- 21st century; foreseeable Arctic temperature changes are 4-5° C for fall/winter by 2040-2050. Substantial and immediate mitigation reductions in GHG emissions (at least at the level of the RCP 4.5 emission scenario) should reduce the risk of further change for most cryospheric components after mid-century, and reduce the likelyhood of potential runaway loss of ice sheets and glaciers and their impact on sea level rise. Extreme winter 2016 Arctic temperatures and a large winter 2017 sea ice deficit demonstrate contemporary climate states outside the envelope of previous experience. While there is confidence in the sign of Arctic changes, recent observations increase uncertainty in projecting the rate for future real world scenarios. Do events return to mean conditions, represent irreversible changes, or contribute to accelerating trends beyond those provided by climate models? Such questions highlight the need for improved quantitative prediction of the cryosphere and its global impacts, crucial for adaptation actions and risk management at local to global scales.

  13. Permissive hypotension in extremely low birth weight infants (≤1000 gm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, Jeong Hee; Sung, Se In; Jung, Ji Mi; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2012-07-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the safety of permissive hypotension management in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs). Medical records of all inborn ELBWIs admitted to Samsung Medical Center from January 2004 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Of a total of 261 ELBWIs, 47 (18%) required treatment for hypotension (group T), 110 (42%) remained normotensive (group N), and 104 (40%) experienced more than one episode of hypotension without treatment (group P) during the first 72 hours of life. Treatment of hypotension included inotropic support and/or fluid loading. Birth weight and Apgar scores were significantly lower in the T group than the other two groups. In the N group, the rate of pathologically confirmed maternal chorioamnionitis was significantly higher than other two groups, and the rate was higher in the P group than the T group. After adjusting for covariate factors, no significant differences in mortality and major morbidities were found between the N and P groups. However, the mortality rate and the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (≥stage 3) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (≥moderate) were significantly higher in the T group than the other two groups. Long term neurodevelopmental outcomes were not significantly different between the N and P groups. Close observation of hypotensive ELBWIs who showed good clinical perfusion signs without intervention allowed to avoid unnecessary medications and resulted in good neurological outcomes.

  14. Modification of Hidden Layer Weight in Extreme Learning Machine Using Gain Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggraeny Fetty Tri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme Learning Machine (ELM is a method of learning feed forward neural network quickly and has a fairly good accuracy. This method is devoted to a feed forward neural network with one hidden layer where the parameters (i.e. weight and bias are adjusted one time randomly at the beginning of the learning process. In neural network, the input layer is connected to all characteristics/features, and the output layer is connected to all classes of species. This research used three datasets from UCI database, which were Iris, Breast Wisconsin, and Dermatology, with each dataset having several features. Each characteristic/feature of the data has a role in the process of classification levels, starting from the most influencing role to non-influencing at all. Gain ratio was used to extract each feature role on each datasets. Gain ratio is a method to extract feature role in order to develop a decision tree structure. In this study, ELM structure has been modified, where the random weights of the hidden layer were adjusted to the level of each feature role in determining the species class, so as to improve the level of training and testing accuracy. The proposed method has higher classification accuracy rate than basic ELM on all three datasets, which were 99%, 96%, and 82%, respectively.

  15. Morbidity in extreme low birth weight newborns hospitalized in a high risk public maternity

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    Derijulie Siqueira Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to determine the prevalence of the most common morbidities in extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants hospitalized in a newborn intensive care unit (NICU and to evaluate the influence of these morbidities through the length of in-hospital stay. Methods: observational, longitudinal, prospective and analytical study in a high risk reference maternity NICU from Sergipe, realized with 158 ELBW infants admitted between March 2014 and April 2015. The analysis of the hospitalization time was realized through the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: the average weight of premature was 785,2g ± 138,2g. The gestational age vary from 22 to 35 weeks and the average was 26,8 weeks. Of those admitted at NICU, sixty three (39,9% were discharged and 95 (60,1% died. The time of hospitalization was influenced for morbidities as: patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication (157 - 99,4%. The incidence of persistent arterial duct, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, hypothermia, hypoglycemia and retinopathy of prematurity was 39,2%, 17,1%, 32,3%,50,3%, 52,3% e 16,6% respectively. Conclusions: the morbidities from respiratory tract, cardiac, neurological and infectious were the most prevalent, whilst PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis were the morbidities that significantly influenced the time of hospitalization.

  16. Risk factors of extubation failure in extremely low birth weight infants: a five year retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yi; Su, Bai-Horng; Lin, Tsung-Wen; Lin, Hung-Chih; Li, Tsai-Chung; Wang, Nai-Phon

    2002-01-01

    Extubation failure is one of the most serious complications in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI) on mechanical ventilation therapy. We performed a 5-year retrospective analysis to realize the status of extubation failure in ELBWI. Extubation failure was defined as requirements of re-intubation within 72 hours after extubation. The extubation failure rate was 21% (29/138). The mean birth body weight was 808.3 +/- 140.4 gm. The mean gestational age was 25.8 +/- 1.2 wks. The incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD) in infants with extubation failure was 100% (29/29). Apnea of prematurity 49% (14/29) and post-extubation atelectasis 39% (11/29) were the most common reasons for reintubation. The major microbiology findings which correlated with nosocomial pneumonia in infants with extubation failure were Acinetobacter baumanni (21%), Klebsiella pneumonia (21%), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (14%), and Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (14%). In conclusion, post-extubation atelectasis and apnea were the most common reasons for reintubation. ELBWI with extubation failure had higher incidences of post-extubation atelectasis, CLD, and nosocomial pneumonia. Further prospective studies are needed in order to clarify the appropriate extubation program for ELBWI and to prevent post-extubation atelectasis and nosocomial pneumonia.

  17. Exposure to overprotective parenting and psychopathology in extremely low birth weight survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, K L; Dobson, K G; Schmidt, L A; Ferro, M A; Saigal, S; Boyle, M H; Van Lieshout, R J

    2018-03-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; overprotective (i.e., controlling and intrusive) parenting, which is hypothesized to contribute to the risk for mental disorders. Despite the increased risk for anxiety disorders and decreased risk for alcohol or substance use disorders seen in ELBW survivors, no research has examined the impact of parenting. This study investigated if overprotective parenting mediates links between ELBW birth status and psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Participants included ELBW survivors born in 1977-1982 and matched normal birth weight (≥2,500 g) control participants (ELBW n = 81; normal birth weight n = 87) prospectively followed in Ontario, Canada. These individuals retrospectively reported on whether either of their parents was overprotective using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Presence of a current anxiety disorder and of current alcohol or substance use disorders was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview at age 29-36 years. Path analysis showed that overprotective parenting was a significant mediator of the association between ELBW status and risk for an anxiety disorder in adulthood and the risk for an alcohol or substance use disorder in adulthood in ELBW survivors. Overprotective parenting accounted for 53% of the association between ELBW status and the risk for an anxiety disorder in adulthood and 26% of the association between ELBW status and alcohol or substance use disorders. Overprotective parenting accounted for a substantial proportion of the increased risk for anxiety and alcohol or substance use disorders in adulthood in ELBW survivors. Despite their perceived vulnerabilities, it is important that the parents of ELBW survivors be supported in their attempts to facilitate their children's pursuit of independence during childhood and beyond. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, L; Nankervis, C A; Delooze, D; Giannone, P J

    2007-03-01

    Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment are common strategies for the prevention or management of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA). To compare the clinical responses of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants to indomethacin prophylaxis with that of other infants who were managed expectantly by being treated with indomethacin or surgically only after an sPDA was detected. Retrospective cohort investigation of 167 ELBW infants who received indomethacin prophylaxis (study) and 167 ELBW infants (control) treated expectantly who were matched by year of birth (1999 to 2006), birth weight, gestational age (GA) and gender. Mothers of the two groups of infants were comparable demographically and on the history of preterm labor, pre-eclampsia, antepartum steroids and cesarean delivery. Study and control infants were similar in birth weight, GA, low 5 min Apgar scores, surfactant administration, the need for arterial blood pressure control, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and neonatal mortality. Necrotizing enterocolitis, spontaneous intestinal perforations, intraventricular hemorrhage grade III to IV, periventricular leukomalacia and stage 3 to 5 retinopathy of prematurity occurred also with similar frequency in both groups of infants. In the indomethacin prophylaxis group, 29% of the infants developed sPDA, and of them 38% responded to indomethacin treatment. In the expectantly treated group, 37% developed sPDA, and of them 59% responded to indomethacin treatment. Overall, surgical ligation rate for sPDA was similar between both groups of patients. In our experience, indomethacin prophylaxis does not show any advantages over expectant early treatment on the management of sPDA in ELBW infants. Although no deleterious effects were observed, prophylaxis exposed a significant number of infants who may have never developed sPDA, to potential indomethacin-related complications.

  19. Prospective Analysis of Pulmonary Hypertension in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ramachandra; Salas, Ariel A.; Foster, Chris; Carlo, Waldemar A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants and contributes to morbidity and mortality. The objective was to determine the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension among ELBW infants by screening echocardiography and evaluate subsequent outcomes. METHODS: All ELBW infants admitted to a regional perinatal center were evaluated for pulmonary hypertension with echocardiography at 4 weeks of age and subsequently if clinical signs suggestive of right-sided heart failure or severe lung disease were evident. Management was at discretion of the clinician, and infants were evaluated until discharge from the hospital or pre-discharge death occurred. RESULTS: One hundred forty-five ELBW infants (birth weight: 755 ± 144 g; median gestational age: 26 weeks [interquartile range: 24–27]) were screened from December 2008 to February 2011. Overall, 26 (17.9%) were diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension at any time during hospitalization (birth weight: 665 ± 140 g; median gestational age: 26 weeks [interquartile range: 24–27]): 9 (6.2%) by initial screening (early pulmonary hypertension) and 17 (11.7%) who were identified later (late pulmonary hypertension). Infants with pulmonary hypertension were more likely to receive oxygen treatment on day 28 compared with those without pulmonary hypertension (96% vs 75%, P Pulmonary hypertension is relatively common, affecting at least 1 in 6 ELBW infants, and persists to discharge in most survivors. Routine screening of ELBW infants with echocardiography at 4 weeks of age identifies only one-third of the infants diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension. Further research is required to determine optimal detection and intervention strategies. PMID:22311993

  20. Screening for autism in preterm children with extremely low and very low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudova, Iva; Kasparova, Martina; Markova, Daniela; Zemankova, Jana; Beranova, Stepanka; Urbanek, Tomas; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of children with very low birth weight (VLBW, 1,000–1,500 g) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW, less than 1,000 g) indicate that this population seems to be at increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods Parents of 101 VLBW and ELBW children (age 2 years, corrected for prematurity) agreed to participate in the study and signed informed consents; however, parents of only 75 children (44 boys, 31 girls) completed the screening questionnaires. The screening battery included the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC), and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP). Children with disabilities were excluded. All children who screened positive on any of the screening tools were subsequently invited for a detailed assessment. Results Thirty-two children (42.7%) screened positive on at least one of the screening questionnaires. The screening tool with the most positive results was the CSBS-DP-ITC (26 positive screens), followed by the M-CHAT (19 positive screens) and the ITSP (11 positive screens). Of the 32 children who tested positive, 19 participated in the detailed follow-up assessment. A diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in eight of the 19 children. ASD prevalence, calculated from those 19 children and those with negative screening results (43 children), yielded a prevalence of 12.9% in the sample. The difference in frequency of positive screens between the tests was significant (P=0.011). In pair comparisons, ITSP was found to be significantly less positive than CSBS-DP-ITC (P=0.032). No significant differences were found between the M-CHAT and CSBS-DP-ITC or between the M-CHAT and ITSP. Conclusion The results strongly support the hypothesis of an increased prevalence of autism in children with a birth weight less than 1,500 g. PMID:24627633

  1. Financial market response to extreme events indicating climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila-Hughes, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    A variety of recent extreme climatic events are considered to be strong evidence that the climate is warming, but these incremental advances in certainty often seem ignored by non-scientists. I identify two unusual types of events that are considered to be evidence of climate change, announcements by NASA that the global annual average temperature has set a new record, and the sudden collapse of major polar ice shelves, and then conduct an event study to test whether news of these events changes investors' valuation of energy companies, a subset of firms whose future performance is closely tied to climate change. I find evidence that both classes of events have influenced energy stock prices since the 1990s, with record temperature announcements on average associated with negative returns and ice shelf collapses associated with positive returns. I identify a variety of plausible mechanisms that may be driving these differential responses, discuss implications for energy markets' views on long-term regulatory risk, and conclude that investors not only pay attention to scientifically significant climate events, but discriminate between signals carrying different information about the nature of climatic change.

  2. [Changes in body weight of the university students at university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Ruiz, María Nelia; Aguinaga Ontonso, Inés; Canga Armayor, Navidad; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Hermoso de Mendoza, Juana; Serrano Monzo, Inmaculada; Marín Fernández, Blanca

    2015-06-01

    One of the strategies for the prevention of the obesity is the identification of critical periods of gain weight. Some studies confirm gain weight during the university period. The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in the body weight of the university students in Navarre. Prospective cohort study. Public University of Navarre and the University of Navarre, in Pamplona. Study examined weight change among 452 students attending at university in Pamplona, during first and third course. Four hundred and fifty two students completed the questionnaire. Weight and height were measures and body mass index was calculated. The mean body weight increased 0,600 kg, 1,8 kg for males and no change in body weight was observed in female. 44,7 % of students gained weight (60,8 % of men and 36,8 % of women), and the gain weight was of 3,4 kg. University years are a critical factor for the gain weight, particularly males. Consideration of this, is necessary the development of effective weight gain prevention strategies during the university. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in the probability of co-occurring extreme climate events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme climate events such as floods, droughts, heatwaves, and severe storms exert acute stresses on natural and human systems. When multiple extreme events co-occur, either in space or time, the impacts can be substantially compounded. A diverse set of human interests - including supply chains, agricultural commodities markets, reinsurance, and deployment of humanitarian aid - have historically relied on the rarity of extreme events to provide a geographic hedge against the compounded impacts of co-occuring extremes. However, changes in the frequency of extreme events in recent decades imply that the probability of co-occuring extremes is also changing, and is likely to continue to change in the future in response to additional global warming. This presentation will review the evidence for historical changes in extreme climate events and the response of extreme events to continued global warming, and will provide some perspective on methods for quantifying changes in the probability of co-occurring extremes in the past and future.

  4. Weight loss methods and changes in eating habits among successful weight losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Sirpa; Mustajoki, Pertti; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-01-01

    Changes in several lifestyle related factors are required for successful long-term weight loss. Identification of these factors is of major importance from a public health point of view. This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), a web-based registry. In total, 316 people were recruited and 184 met the study inclusion criteria. The aims of this study were to assess means and typical changes in eating habits associated with successful long-term weight loss. Half of the participants (48%) reported that they lost weight slowly primarily with dietary changes. Self-weighing frequency was high, 92% was weighing themselves at least once a week during the weight loss phase, and 75% during the maintenance phase. Dietary aspects associated with successful weight loss and weight maintenance included an increase in intake of vegetables, a reduction in frequency of eating candies and fast food, regular meal frequency and application of the Plate model. Both slow and fast weight loss may lead to successful long-term results and weight maintenance. A decrease in energy intake was achieved by reducing intake of energy-dense food, applying the Plate model and by regular meal frequency. Key messages Successful long-term weight loss is associated with a reduction in intake of energy-dense food. A more regular meal frequency and a high frequency of self-weighing seem to be helpful.

  5. Permissive weight bearing in trauma patients with fracture of the lower extremities: prospective multicenter comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmet, Pishtiwan H S; Meys, Guido; V Horn, Yvette Y; Evers, Silvia M A A; Seelen, Henk A M; Hustinx, Paul; Janzing, Heinrich; Vd Veen, Alexander; Jaspars, Coen; Sintenie, Jan Bernard; Blokhuis, Taco J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2018-02-02

    The standard aftercare treatment in surgically treated trauma patients with fractures around or in a joint, known as (peri)- or intra-articular fractures of the lower extremities, is either non-weight bearing or partial weight bearing. We have developed an early permissive weight bearing post-surgery rehabilitation protocol in surgically treated patients with fractures of the lower extremities. In this proposal we want to compare our early permissive weight bearing protocol to the existing current non-weight bearing guidelines in a prospective comparative cohort study. The study is a prospective multicenter comparative cohort study in which two rehabilitation aftercare treatments will be contrasted, i.e. permissive weight bearing and non-weight bearing according to the AO-guideline. The study population consists of patients with a surgically treated fracture of the pelvis/acetabulum or a surgically treated (peri)- or intra-articular fracture of the lower extremities. The inclusion period is 12 months. The duration of follow up is 6 months, with measurements taken at baseline, 2,6,12 and 26 weeks post-surgery. ADL with Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Outcome variables for compliance, as measured with an insole pressure measurement system, encompass peak load and step duration. This study will investigate the (cost-) effectiveness of a permissive weight bearing aftercare protocol. The results will provide evidence whether a permissive weight bearing protocol is more effective than the current non-weight bearing protocol. The study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR6077 ). Date of registration: 01-09-2016.

  6. Percutaneous evacuation of diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture in a baby with extremely low birth weight: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Masahiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation and can become life-threatening if progression occurs. Therapeutic lung puncture is a treatment option for severe pulmonary interstitial emphysema but has a limited use in babies with extremely low birth weight. We present a case of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a Japanese baby (1-day-old boy with extremely low birth weight. The emphysema was successfully decompressed by therapeutic lung puncture performed with a trocar catheter. Case presentation The baby was born with a weight of 420g, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the lowest reported birth weight among babies with pulmonary interstitial emphysema. A chest X-ray on postnatal day 2 revealed pulmonary interstitial emphysema, which gradually progressed to diffuse pseudocystic changes. His condition became life-threatening despite the use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and lateral decubitus positioning. We evacuated the pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture with a trocar catheter to avoid respiratory and cardiovascular collapse. This resulted in adequate evacuation of the emphysema and a dramatic improvement in his clinical condition. Conclusions Therapeutic lung puncture performed with a trocar catheter is beneficial in babies with extremely low birth weight and diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema. This treatment option may be broadly applicable, especially in an emergency situation.

  7. Prognostic value of weight change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Almdal, T; Mikkelsen, K L

    2002-01-01

    An association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been found in a number of studies. The prevalence and prognostic importance of weight change in unselected subjects with COPD was examined. Subjects with COPD...... change: in the normal-to-underweight (BMI or = 25), best survival was seen in stable weight. A high proportion of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experienced a significant weight loss......, which was associated with increased mortality. The results support further intervention studies that aim at avoiding weight loss in normal-to-underweight chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients....

  8. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  9. Peritoneal drainage does not stabilize extremely low birth weight infants with perforated bowel: data from the NET Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare M; Eaton, Simon; Khoo, A Kate; Kiely, Edward M; Pierro, Agostino

    2010-02-01

    Proponents of peritoneal drainage (PD) hypothesize that it allows stabilization before laparotomy. We examined this hypothesis by comparing clinical status before and after either PD or primary laparotomy (LAP). In an ethically approved, international, prospective randomized controlled trial (2002-2006), extremely low birth weight (drainage does not immediately improve clinical status in extremely low birth weight infants with bowel perforation. The use of PD as a stabilizing or temporizing measure is not supported by these results. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effect of extensively hydrolyzed formula on growth and development of infants with very/extremely low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Yan; Jiang, Hui-Fen; Wang, Jin-Xiu

    2017-08-01

    To study the effect of extensively hydrolyzed formula on the growth and development in very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. A total of 375 VLBW or ELBW infants were enrolled and divided into an observation group (187 infants) and a control group (188 infants) using a random number table. The infants in the observation group were given extensively hydrolyzed formula, and when the amount of extensively hydrolyzed formula reached 10 mL/time, it was changed to the standard formula for preterm infants. The infants in the control group were given standard formula for preterm infants. Both groups were fed for 4 consecutive weeks and were compared in terms of incidence rate of feeding intolerance, time to establish full enteral feeding, time to complete meconium excretion, number of spontaneous bowel movements, growth and development, motilin level at 4 and 10 days after feeding, and incidence rate of infection. Compared with the control group, the observation group had a lower rate of feeding intolerance (Pdevelopment, and reduce the incidence of infection in VLBW and ELBW infants.

  11. Early docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid supplementation in extremely-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel T; Caplan, Michael; Carlson, Susan E; Yoder, Rachel; Murthy, Karna; Frost, Brandy

    2016-10-01

    Extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants accrue large deficits in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) and require improved supplementation strategies. We hypothesized that once daily DHA+ARA drops applied to buccal mucosa will increase blood levels. Thirty ELBW infants were randomized to receive DHA 20 mg/kg/d + ARA 40 or 60 mg/kg/d + ARA 120 mg/kg/d or placebo within 72 h of age for 8 wk duration. Red blood cell phospholipid levels of DHA (primary) and ARA (secondary) were measured at 2 and 8 wk of age. Twenty-eight survivors with a median birth weight of 806 g completed dosing and sampling. Red blood cell levels were similar between the three groups at 2 wk (DHA: 4.62 wt% (interquartile range (IQR) 4.1-5.5) for all, P = 0.29 between groups; ARA: 21.1 wt% (IQR 18.78-22.6) for all, P = 0.41 between groups) and 8 wk (DHA: 6.0 wt% (IQR 5.1-7.1) for all, P = 0.57 between groups; ARA: 20.1 wt% (IQR 18.3-23.1) for all, P = 0.63 between groups). DHA in all infants showed a median increase of 31% from 2 to 8 wk (P 0.6). Daily buccal DHA and ARA supplements did not affect fatty acid levels in ELBW infants.

  12. Early-Onset Invasive Candidiasis in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: Perinatal Acquisition Predicts Poor Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michelle; Shen, Alex; O'Brien, Karel; Robinson, Joan L; Davies, H Dele; Simpson, Kim; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Langley, Joanne; Le Saux, Nicole; Sauve, Reginald; Synnes, Anne; Tan, Ben; de Repentigny, Louis; Rubin, Earl; Hui, Chuck; Kovacs, Lajos; Yau, Yvonne C W; Richardson, Susan E

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal invasive candidiasis (IC) presenting in the first week of life is less common and less well described than later-onset IC. Risk factors, clinical features, and disease outcomes have not been studied in early-onset disease (EOD, ≤7 days) or compared to late-onset disease (LOD, >7 days). All extremely low birth weight (ELBW, candidiasis enrolled from 2001 to 2003 were included in this study. Factors associated with occurrence and outcome of EOD in ELBW infants were determined. Forty-five ELBW infants and their 84 matched controls were included. Fourteen (31%) ELBW infants had EOD. Birth weight <750 g, gestation <25 weeks, chorioamnionitis, and vaginal delivery were all strongly associated with EOD. Infection with Candida albicans, disseminated disease, pneumonia, and cardiovascular disease were significantly more common in EOD than in LOD. The EOD case fatality rate (71%) was higher than in LOD (32%) or controls (15%) (P = .0001). The rate of neurodevelopmental impairment and mortality combined was similar in EOD (86%) and LOD (72%), but higher than in controls (32%; P = .007). ELBW infants with EOD have a very poor prognosis compared to those with LOD. The role of perinatal transmission in EOD is supported by its association with chorioamnionitis, vaginal delivery, and pneumonia. Dissemination and cardiovascular involvement are common, and affected infants often die. Empiric treatment should be considered for ELBW infants delivered vaginally who have pneumonia and whose mothers have chorioamnionitis or an intrauterine foreign body. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Socioeconomic Attainment of Extremely Low Birth Weight Survivors: The Role of Early Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Kathleen G; Ferro, Mark A; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A; Saigal, Saroj; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-03-01

    To determine: (1) if childhood cognitive and academic abilities mediate the association between being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and socioeconomic attainment at age 29 to 36 years; (2) which cognitive abilities (IQ, verbal abilities, fluid intelligence, mathematical abilities, or academic achievement) most strongly mediate this association; and (3) if the mediating role of cognition is different in ELBW survivors with significant neurosensory impairment (NSI). A prospective, longitudinal cohort of 100 Canadian ELBW survivors born between 1977 and 1982 and 89 normal birth weight comparison participants were used to examine the mediating role of childhood cognition by using 5 cognitive mediators assessed at age 8 years (overall IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ, quantitative ability, and academic achievement) on socioeconomic attainment at adulthood. Socioeconomic attainment was defined as personal annual earnings and full-time employment assessed via self-report at age 29 to 36 years. Mediation models revealed that childhood cognition mediated the association between ELBW status and income attainment, with mathematical abilities and overall IQ each accounting for 26% of the direct effect. Mediated effects were not statistically significant in full-time employment models. For both outcomes, the mediating effect of cognition was stronger for ELBW survivors with NSI. Childhood cognitive abilities partially mediate associations between ELBW status and adult income attainment. Early life cognition is a critical predictor of socioeconomic attainment in ELBW survivors, particularly in those born with NSI. Interventions aimed at enhancing early cognition in ELBW survivors may help optimize their later socioeconomic attainment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Van Dongen, Jenny; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg...... were not significant. However, a meta-analysis across the four independent samples, in total 216 birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs, showed a significant positive association between birth weight and DNA methylation differences at IGF1R (random-effects meta-analysis p = .04), and the effect...... was particularly pronounced in older twins (random-effects meta-analysis p = .008, 98 older birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs). The results suggest that severe intra-uterine growth differences (birth weight discordance >20%) are associated with methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in adulthood, independent...

  15. Visual memory and learning in extremely low-birth-weight/extremely preterm adolescents compared with controls: a geographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Carly S; Wilson-Ching, Michelle; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Vicki A; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Contemporary data on visual memory and learning in survivors born extremely preterm (EP; Visual learning and memory data were available for 221 (74.2%) EP/ELBW subjects and 159 (60.7%) controls. EP/ELBW adolescents exhibited significantly poorer performance across visual memory and learning variables compared with controls. Visual learning and delayed visual memory were particularly problematic and remained so after controlling for visual-motor integration and visual perception and excluding adolescents with neurosensory disability, and/or IQ visual memory and learning outcomes compared with controls, which cannot be entirely explained by poor visual perceptual or visual constructional skills or intellectual impairment.

  16. Decadal changes in extreme daily precipitation in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Nastos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes in daily precipitation totals in Greece, during the 45-year period (1957–2001 are examined. The precipitation datasets concern daily totals recorded at 21 surface meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, which are uniformly distributed over the Greek region. First and foremost, the application of Factor Analysis resulted in grouping the meteorological stations with similar variation in time. The main sub groups represent the northern, southern, western, eastern and central regions of Greece with common precipitation characteristics. For representative stations of the extracted sub groups we estimated the trends and the time variability for the number of days (% exceeding 30 mm (equal to the 95% percentile of daily precipitation for eastern and western regions and equal to the 97.5% percentile for the rest of the country and 50 mm which is the threshold for very extreme and rare events. Furthermore, the scale and shape parameters of the well fitted gamma distribution to the daily precipitation data with respect to the whole examined period and to the 10-year sub periods reveal the changes in the intensity of the precipitation.

  17. Changes in body weight and pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Finer, N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined the rela......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined...... the relationship between early changes (both increases and decreases) in pulse rate, and the impact of these changes on subsequent cardiovascular outcome events in both the placebo and sibutramine groups. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 9804 males and females, aged ⩾55 years, with a body mass index of 27-45 kg m(-)(2) were...... included in this current subanalysis of the SCOUT trial. Subjects were required to have a history of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, to assess cardiovascular outcomes. The primary outcome event (POE) was a composite of nonfatal myocardial...

  18. Early Conventional MRI for Prediction of Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Laurel A; Bonfante-Mejia, Eliana; Hintz, Susan R; Dvorchik, Igor; Parikh, Nehal A

    2016-01-01

    Extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW; ≤1,000 g) infants are at high risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. Conventional brain MRI at term-equivalent age is increasingly used for prediction of outcomes. However, optimal prediction models remain to be determined, especially for cognitive outcomes. The aim was to evaluate the accuracy of a data-driven MRI scoring system to predict neurodevelopmental impairments. 122 ELBW infants had a brain MRI performed at term-equivalent age. Conventional MRI findings were scored with a standardized algorithm and tested using a multivariable regression model to predict neurodevelopmental impairment, defined as one or more of the following at 18-24 months' corrected age: cerebral palsy, bilateral blindness, bilateral deafness requiring amplification, and/or cognitive/language delay. Results were compared with a commonly cited scoring system. In multivariable analyses, only moderate-to-severe gyral maturational delay was a significant predictor of overall neurodevelopmental impairment (OR: 12.6, 95% CI: 2.6, 62.0; p neurodevelopmental impairment/death. Diffuse cystic abnormality was a significant predictor of cerebral palsy (OR: 33.6, 95% CI: 4.9, 229.7; p neurodevelopmental impairment. In our cohort, conventional MRI at term-equivalent age exhibited high specificity in predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, sensitivity was suboptimal, suggesting additional clinical factors and biomarkers are needed to enable accurate prognostication. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Anatomy-driven design of a prototype video laryngoscope for extremely low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Katherine; Tremblay, Eric; Karp, Jason; Ford, Joseph; Finer, Neil; Rich, Wade

    2010-11-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants frequently require endotracheal intubation for assisted ventilation or as a route for administration of drugs or exogenous surfactant. In adults and less premature infants, the risks of this intubation can be greatly reduced using video laryngoscopy, but current products are too large and incorrectly shaped to visualize an ELBW infant's airway anatomy. We design and prototype a video laryngoscope using a miniature camera set in a curved acrylic blade with a 3×6-mm cross section at the tip. The blade provides a mechanical structure for stabilizing the tongue and acts as a light guide for an LED light source, located remotely to avoid excessive local heating at the tip. The prototype is tested on an infant manikin and found to provide sufficient image quality and mechanical properties to facilitate intubation. Finally, we show a design for a neonate laryngoscope incorporating a wafer-level microcamera that further reduces the tip cross section and offers the potential for low cost manufacture.

  20. Gender-related clinical and immunological features of extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Chistyakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinations were made in 35 boys and 39 girls with extremely low birth weight in order to identify gender-related clinical and immunological features. A comparison group consisted of 31 full-term newborns with early uncomplicated adaptation. The investigators determined the number of lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokine-producing cells (CD3+INF-γ+, CD3+IL-4+ by flow cytometry and the serum levels of cytokines (IL-4, IFN-γ and neopterin by enzyme immunoassay. A study of immunological parameters revealed that the boys had a smaller number of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ subpopulations, a reduced content of CD3+IL-4+ cells at birth, and low IL-4 production on the first day of life compared to the full-term neonates. The girls were recorded to have higher levels of neopterin and B cells on the first day of life, the quantitative characteristics of T lymphocytes were consistent with those in the full-term infants. The findings are indicative of the greater functional immaturity of the immune system in the preterm boys. 

  1. Screening for autism in preterm children with extremely low and very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudova I

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iva Dudova,1 Martina Kasparova,2 Daniela Markova,3 Jana Zemankova,4 Stepanka Beranova,1 Tomas Urbanek,5 Michal Hrdlicka1 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Pediatrics, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Charles University First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 4Department of Pediatrics, Charles University Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 5Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Background: Studies of children with very low birth weight (VLBW, 1,000–1,500 g and extremely low birth weight (ELBW, less than 1,000 g indicate that this population seems to be at increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Methods: Parents of 101 VLBW and ELBW children (age 2 years, corrected for prematurity agreed to participate in the study and signed informed consents; however, parents of only 75 children (44 boys, 31 girls completed the screening questionnaires. The screening battery included the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT, Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC, and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP. Children with disabilities were excluded. All children who screened positive on any of the screening tools were subsequently invited for a detailed assessment. Results: Thirty-two children (42.7% screened positive on at least one of the screening questionnaires. The screening tool with the most positive results was the CSBS-DP-ITC (26 positive screens, followed by the M-CHAT (19 positive screens and the ITSP (11 positive screens. Of the 32 children who tested positive, 19 participated in the detailed follow-up assessment. A

  2. Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, K.T.B.; Slump, E.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Brouwer, M.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. This study was undertaken to identify predictors of body weight change in nursing home patients with possible to severe dementia. Methods. For 24 weeks, 108 elderly residents of a nursing home were followed. Body weight was measured every 2 weeks. Other anthropometric characteristics,

  3. Reference chart for relative weight change to detect hypernatraemic dehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Wouwe, J.P. van; Breuning-Boers, J.M.; Buuren, S. van; Verkerk, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The validity of the rule of thumb that infants may have a weight loss of 10% in the first days after birth is unknown. We assessed the validity of this and other rules to detect breast-fed infants with hypernatraemic dehydration. Design: A reference chart for relative weight change was

  4. Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes observed in Modena, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolari, M.; Malmusi, S.

    2013-03-01

    Climate changes has become one of the most analysed subjects from researchers community, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that hit the globe. To have a better view of climate changes and trends, long observations time series are needed. During last decade a lot of Italian time series, concerning several surface meteorological variables, have been analysed and published. No one of them includes one of the longest record in Italy, the time series of the Geophysical Observatory of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Measurements, collected since early 19th century, always in the same position, except for some months during the second world war, embrace daily temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity, pressure, cloudiness and other variables. In this work we concentrated on the analysis of yearly and seasonal trends and climate extremes of temperature, both minimum and maximum, and precipitation time series, for the periods 1861-2010 and 1831-2010 respectively, in which continuous measurements are available. In general, our results confirm quite well those reported by IPCC and in many other studies over Mediterranean area. In particular, we found that minimum temperature has a non significant positive trend of + 0.1 °C per decade considering all the period, the value increases to 0.9 °C per decade for 1981-2010. For maximum temperature we observed a non significant + 0.1 °C trend for all the period, while + 0.8 °C for the last thirty years. On the other hand precipitation is decreasing, -6.3 mm per decade, considering all the analysed period, while the last thirty years are characterised by a great increment of 74.8 mm per decade. For both variables several climate indices have been analysed and they confirm what has been found for minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation. In particular, during last 30 years frost days and ice days are decreasing, whereas summer days are increasing. During the last 30-year tropical nights

  5. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( cows had the lowest ( cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( cow weight, 7.9 ± 3.0 to 15.8 ± 5.0 kg for cow weight change, and 0.07 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.1 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. Direct Romosinuano effects ranged from 14.8 ± 4.2 to 49.8 ± 7.7 kg for cow weight change and 0.2 ± 0.04 to 0.51 ± 0.14 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. The adaptive

  6. Changes in Extreme Events and the Potential Impacts on National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme weather and climate events affect human health by causing death, injury, and illness, as well as having large socio-economic impacts. Climate change has caused changes in extreme event frequency, intensity and geographic distribution, and will continue to be a driver for changes in the future. Some of the extreme events that have already changed are heat waves, droughts, wildfires, flooding rains, coastal flooding, storm surge, and hurricanes. The pathways connecting extreme events to health outcomes and economic losses can be diverse and complex. The difficulty in predicting these relationships comes from the local intricacies of societal and environmental factors that influences the level of exposure. The goal of this presentation is to discuss the national security implications of changes in extreme weather events and demonstrate how changes in extremes can lead to a host cascading issues. To illustrate this point, this presentation will provide examples of the various pathways that extreme events can increase disease burden and cause economic stress.

  7. Early corticosteroid treatment does not affect severity of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Bos, Arend F.; Anttila, Eija; Hallman, Mikko; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    Aim: To determine the relationship between early postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment and the severity of hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants. Methods: In 54 ELBW preterm infants, total serum bilirubin concentrations (TSB) and phototherapy (PT) data during the

  8. Three-year weight change in successful weight losers who lost weight on a low-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wyatt, Holly; Nassery, Shirine; Dibello, Julia; Fava, Joseph L; Hill, James O; Wing, Rena R

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term weight loss and eating and exercise behaviors of successful weight losers who lost weight using a low-carbohydrate diet. This study examined 3-year changes in weight, diet, and physical activity in 891 subjects (96 low-carbohydrate dieters and 795 others) who enrolled in the National Weight Control Registry between 1998 and 2001 and reported >or=30-lb weight loss and >or=1 year weight loss maintenance. Only 10.8% of participants reported losing weight after a low-carbohydrate diet. At entry into the study, low-carbohydrate diet users reported consuming more kcal/d (mean +/- SD, 1,895 +/- 452 vs. 1,398 +/- 574); fewer calories in weekly physical activity (1,595 +/- 2,499 vs. 2,542 +/- 2,301); more calories from fat (64.0 +/- 7.9% vs. 30.9 +/- 13.1%), saturated fat (23.8 +/- 4.1 vs. 10.5 +/- 5.2), monounsaturated fat (24.4 +/- 3.7 vs. 11.0 +/- 5.1), and polyunsaturated fat (8.6 +/- 2.7 vs. 5.5 +/- 2.9); and less dietary restraint (10.8 +/- 2.9 vs. 14.9 +/- 3.9) compared with other Registry members. These differences persisted over time. No differences in 3-year weight regain were observed between low-carbohydrate dieters and other Registry members in intent-to-treat analyses (7.0 +/- 7.1 vs. 5.7 +/- 8.7 kg). It is possible to achieve and maintain long-term weight loss using a low-carbohydrate diet. The long-term health effects of weight loss associated with a high-fat diet and low activity level merits further investigation.

  9. The 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of Extremely Low Birth-Weight Infants (ETTNO)' Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Jes; Veiergang, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infants with extremely low birth weight uniformly develop anemia of prematurity and frequently require red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs). Although RBCT is widely practiced, the indications remain controversial in the absence of conclusive data on the long-term effects of RBCT....... Objectives: To summarize the current equipoise and to outline the study protocol of the 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of extremely low birth-weight infants (ETTNO)' study. Methods: Review of the literature and design of a large pragmatic randomized controlled trial...... of restrictive versus liberal RBCT guidelines enrolling 920 infants with birth weights of 400-999 g with long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up. Results and Conclusions: The results of ETTNO will provide definite data about the efficacy and safety of restrictive versus liberal RBCT guidelines in very preterm...

  10. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology...... analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss......A1c (pweight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization. Monitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  11. Parental motivation to change body weight in young overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A

    2015-07-01

    To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P < 0.001), those who were less physically active (P = 0.002) and more sedentary (P < 0.001), and in parents who were more concerned about their child's weight (P < 0.001) or who used greater food restriction (P < 0.001). Low levels of parental motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.

  12. Physical activity, obesity, weight change, and risk of atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R; Misialek, Jeffrey R; Agarwal, Sunil K; Loehr, Laura R; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Chen, Lin Y; Alonso, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) has previously been suggested to attenuate the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) conferred by excess body weight and weight gain. We prospectively examined the relationship between body size, weight change, and level of PA in a biracial cohort of middle-aged men and women. Baseline characteristics on risk factor levels were obtained on 14 219 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. AF incidence was ascertained from 1987 to 2009. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the associations between body mass index, waist circumference, relative weight change, and PA level with incident AF. During follow-up, there were 1775 cases of incident AF. Body mass index and waist circumference were positively associated with AF as was weight loss/gain of >5% initial body weight. An ideal level of PA had a small protective effect on AF risk and partially attenuated the risk of AF associated with excess weight in men but not women: compared with men with a normal body mass index, the risk of AF in obese men with an ideal, intermediate, and poor level of PA at baseline was increased by 37%, 129%, and 156% (Pinteraction=0.04). During follow-up, PA did not modify the association between weight gain and risk of AF. Obesity and extreme weight change are risk factors for incident AF, whereas being physically active is associated with a small reduction in risk. In men only, being physically active offset some, but not all, of the risk incurred with excess body weight. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthoff, David [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany); Hepburn, Cameron [Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, and James Martin Institute, Said Business School, University of Oxford, and New College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Tol, Richard S.J. [The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland)]|[Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Climate change will give rise to different impacts in different countries, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. This paper analyses the impact of equity weighting on the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions, and reaches four main conclusions. First, equity-weighted estimates are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may even change the sign of the social cost estimates. Second, estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region to which the equity weights are normalised. Third, equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to the resolution of the impact estimates. Depending on the assumed intra-regional income distribution, estimates may be more than twice as high if national rather than regional impacts are aggregated. Fourth, variations in the assumed inequality aversion have different impacts in different scenarios, not only because different scenarios have different emissions and hence warming, but also because different scenarios have different income differences, different growth rates, and different vulnerabilities. (author)

  14. Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthoff, David; Hepburn, Cameron; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change will give rise to different impacts in different countries, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. This paper analyses the impact of equity weighting on the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions, and reaches four main conclusions. First, equity-weighted estimates are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may even change the sign of the social cost estimates. Second, estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region to which the equity weights are normalised. Third, equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to the resolution of the impact estimates. Depending on the assumed intra-regional income distribution, estimates may be more than twice as high if national rather than regional impacts are aggregated. Fourth, variations in the assumed inequality aversion have different impacts in different scenarios, not only because different scenarios have different emissions and hence warming, but also because different scenarios have different income differences, different growth rates, and different vulnerabilities. (author)

  15. Dietary patterns and changes in body weight in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Matthias B; Fung, Teresa T; Manson, Joann E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2006-08-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between adherence to dietary patterns and weight change in women. Women (51,670, 26 to 46 years old) in the Nurses' Health Study II were followed from 1991 to 1999. Dietary intake and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. A Western pattern, characterized by high intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts, and potatoes, and a prudent pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, poultry, and salad dressing, were identified with principal component analysis, and associations between patterns and change in body weight were estimated. Women who increased their Western pattern score had greater weight gain (multivariate adjusted means, 4.55 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 2.86 kg for 1995 to 1999) than women who decreased their Western pattern score (2.70 and 1.37 kg for the two time periods), adjusting for baseline lifestyle and dietary confounders and changes in confounders over time (p < 0.001 for both time periods). Furthermore, among women who increased their prudent pattern score, weight gain was smaller (multivariate-adjusted means, 1.93 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 0.66 kg for 1995 to 1999) than among women who decreased their prudent pattern score (4.83 and 3.35 kg for the two time periods) (p < 0.001). The largest weight gain between 1991 and 1995 and between 1995 and 1999 was observed among women who decreased their prudent pattern score while increasing their Western pattern score (multivariate adjusted means, 6.80 and 4.99 kg), whereas it was smallest for the opposite change in patterns (0.87 and -0.64 kg) (p < 0.001). Adoption of a Western dietary pattern is associated with larger weight gain in women, whereas a prudent dietary pattern may facilitate weight maintenance.

  16. Evolution of extreme rainfall in France with a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Veysseire, Jean-Michel; Gouget, Viviane; Neppel, Luc; Tramblay, Yves; Carreau, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses a synthesis of the works led within the framework of the French project ANR/Extraflo on the evolution of the daily (and infra daily) extreme rainfall in France. An important dataset of more than 900 series was used. It was shown that a majority of series presented a not significant upward trend in particular in Mediterranean area, in relation with various recent exceptional extreme events. An interesting way to characterize this evolution consists in identifying climatic co-variables associated to heavy rainfall events (weather patterns, average temperatures, flow of humidity) and in taking into account them with a non stationary POT model. The application of this method with climatic projections under scenario A2 from IPCC could lead to a possible increase on extreme precipitation quantiles on the horizon 2070. (authors)

  17. Incidence and outcomes of acute kidney injury in extremely-low-birth-weight infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common event in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, especially in extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW infants. This cohort study investigated the incidence of and risk factors for AKI in ELBW infants and their overall survival at the postmenstrual age (PMA of 36 weeks.All ELBW infants admitted to our NICU between January 2010 and December 2013 were enrolled. Those who died prior to 72 hours of life, had congenital renal abnormality, or had only one datum of the serum creatinine (SCr level after the first 24 hours of life were excluded. The criteria used for the diagnosis of AKI was set according to the modified neonatal KDIGO AKI definition.AKI occurred in 56% of 276 infants. Specifically, stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 AKI occurred in 30%, 17%, and 9% of ELBW infants, respectively. High-frequency ventilation support (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78-6.67, p< 0.001, the presence of patent ductus arteriosus (adjusted OR: 4.3, 95% CI: 2.25-8.07, p < 0.001, lower gestational age (adjusted OR for gestational age: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.58-0.83, < 0.001, and inotropic agent use (adjusted OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.31-5.21, p = 0.006 were independently associated with AKI. Maternal pre-eclampsia was a protective factor (adjusted OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.14-0.97, p = 0.044. Infants with AKI had higher mortality before the PMA of 36 weeks with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR of 5.34 (95% CI: 1.21-23.53, p = 0.027. Additionally, infants with stage 3 AKI had a highest HR of 10.60, 95% CI: 2.09-53.67, p = 0.004.AKI was a very common event (56% in ELBW infants and was associated with a lower GA, high-frequency ventilation support, the presence of PDA, and inotropic agent use. AKI reduced survival of ELBW infants before the PMA of 36 weeks.

  18. Height, weight, weight change and risk of breast cancer in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Bezerra de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The relationship between body size and breast cancer still remains controversial in considering menopausal status. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of height, weight and weight changes with breast cancer in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: National Cancer Institute (INCA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. SAMPLE: 177 incident cases of invasive breast cancer admitted to the main hospital of INCA between May 1995 and February 1996, and 377 controls recruited from among female visitors to the same hospital. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Height and weight were measured and information on maximum weight, weight at ages 18 and 30 years, and potential risk factors were ascertained by interview at the hospital. RESULTS: Height was not related to risk of breast cancer among both pre and postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, women in this study were shorter than in studies that have found a positive association. Premenopausal women in the upper quartile of recent body mass index (BMI and maximum BMI showed a reduced risk of breast cancer (P for trend <= 0.03. Weight loss between ages 18 and 30 years and from 18 years to present was also associated with breast cancer among premenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may merely indicate the known association between leanness and breast cancer. Further studies should explore the role of weight loss on breast cancer risk.

  19. Future changes in hydro-climatic extremes in the Upper Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra River basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaard, René R; Lutz, Arthur F; Nepal, Santosh; Khanal, Sonu; Pradhananga, Saurav; Shrestha, Arun B; Immerzeel, Walter W

    2017-01-01

    Future hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, may pose serious threats for the livelihoods in the upstream domains of the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra. For this reason, the impacts of climate change on future hydrological extremes is investigated in these river basins. We use a fully-distributed cryospheric-hydrological model to simulate current and future hydrological fluxes and force the model with an ensemble of 8 downscaled General Circulation Models (GCMs) that are selected from the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The model is calibrated on observed daily discharge and geodetic mass balances. The climate forcing and the outputs of the hydrological model are used to evaluate future changes in climatic extremes, and hydrological extremes by focusing on high and low flows. The outcomes show an increase in the magnitude of climatic means and extremes towards the end of the 21st century where climatic extremes tend to increase stronger than climatic means. Future mean discharge and high flow conditions will very likely increase. These increases might mainly be the result of increasing precipitation extremes. To some extent temperature extremes might also contribute to increasing discharge extremes, although this is highly dependent on magnitude of change in temperature extremes. Low flow conditions may occur less frequently, although the uncertainties in low flow projections can be high. The results of this study may contribute to improved understanding on the implications of climate change for the occurrence of future hydrological extremes in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region.

  20. Future changes in hydro-climatic extremes in the Upper Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra River basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René R Wijngaard

    Full Text Available Future hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, may pose serious threats for the livelihoods in the upstream domains of the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra. For this reason, the impacts of climate change on future hydrological extremes is investigated in these river basins. We use a fully-distributed cryospheric-hydrological model to simulate current and future hydrological fluxes and force the model with an ensemble of 8 downscaled General Circulation Models (GCMs that are selected from the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The model is calibrated on observed daily discharge and geodetic mass balances. The climate forcing and the outputs of the hydrological model are used to evaluate future changes in climatic extremes, and hydrological extremes by focusing on high and low flows. The outcomes show an increase in the magnitude of climatic means and extremes towards the end of the 21st century where climatic extremes tend to increase stronger than climatic means. Future mean discharge and high flow conditions will very likely increase. These increases might mainly be the result of increasing precipitation extremes. To some extent temperature extremes might also contribute to increasing discharge extremes, although this is highly dependent on magnitude of change in temperature extremes. Low flow conditions may occur less frequently, although the uncertainties in low flow projections can be high. The results of this study may contribute to improved understanding on the implications of climate change for the occurrence of future hydrological extremes in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region.

  1. Chorioamnionitis and lung damage in the extremely low birth weight infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rocha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Some experimental work suggests that exposure to intrauterine infection is associated, not only, with lung maturation and a reduced risk of respiratory distress syndrome, but also, with delayed alveolarization and increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Aim: To evaluate the association between histological chorioamnionitis and lung disease in extremely low birth weight preterm infants. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 63 less than 1000 g birthweight, appropriated for gestational age neonates, delivered at three tertiary medical centers in the north of Portugal, between 2001 and 2002. The association between histological chorioamnionitis and lung damage (respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia was evaluated through the calculation of crude and adjusted odds ratio. Results: There were 32 newborns from mothers with histological chorioamnionitis and 31 without the condition. The association between histological chorioamnionitis and respiratory distress syndrome was OR 0.23 (95% CI 0.01 – 2.51. The association between chorioamnionitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia was OR 1.61 (95% CI 0.38 – 6.97. The association between histological chorioamnionitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia when adjusted for gestational age, multiple birth and C-section revealed no statistical significance: OR 2.66 (95% CI 0.36 – 19.60 for chorioamnionitis without funisitis or vasculitis and OR 1.68 (95% CI 0.25 – 11.18 for funisitis and/or vasculitis. Conclusion: In this study we could not confirm a decreased risk of respiratory distress syndrome nor an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight preterm neonates with histological chorioamnionitis. Resumo: Alguns estudos experimentais sugerem que a exposição a infecção intra-uterina associa-se, não só, a maturação pulmonar e menor risco de doença das membranas hialinas, mas também a atraso na forma

  2. Assessing changes in extreme convective precipitation from a damage perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Tye, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Projected increases in high-intensity short-duration convective precipitation are expected even in regions that are likely to become more arid. Such high intensity precipitation events can trigger hazardous flash floods, debris flows and landslides that put people and local assets at risk. However, the assessment of local scale precipitation extremes is hampered by its high spatial and temporal variability. In addition to which, not only are extreme events rare, but such small scale events are likely to be underreported where they don't coincide with the observation network. Rather than focus solely on the convective precipitation, understanding the characteristics of these extremes which drive damage may be more effective to assess future risks. Two sources of data are used in this study. First, sub-daily precipitation observations over the Southern Alps enable an examination of seasonal and regional patterns in high-intensity convective precipitation and their relationship with weather types. Secondly, reports of private loss and damage on a household scale are used to identify which events are most damaging, or what conditions potentially enhance the vulnerability to these extremes.This study explores the potential added value from including recorded loss and damage data to understand the risks from summertime convective precipitation events. By relating precipitation generating weather types to the severity of damage we hope to develop a mechanism to assess future risks. A further benefit would be to identify from damage reports the likely occurrence of precipitation extremes where no direct observations are available and use this information to validate remotely sensed observations.

  3. Weighted Moments Estimators of the Parameters for the Extreme Value Distribution Based on the Multiply Type II Censored Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Wuu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the weighted moments estimators (WMEs of the location and scale parameters for the extreme value distribution based on the multiply type II censored sample. Simulated mean squared errors (MSEs of best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE and exact MSEs of WMEs are compared to study the behavior of different estimation methods. The results show the best estimator among the WMEs and BLUE under different combinations of censoring schemes.

  4. Vulnerability of solar energy infrastructure and output to extreme events: Climate change implications (Conference paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Patt, A.; Pfenninger, S.; Lilliestam, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential vulnerability of solar energy systems to future extreme event risks as a consequence of climate change. We describe the three main technologies likely to be used to harness sunlight -- thermal heating, photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) -- and identify critical extreme event vulnerabilities for each one. We then compare these vulnerabilities with assessments of future changes in extreme event risk levels. We do not identify any vulnerabili...

  5. Projecting changes in regional temperature and precipitation extremes in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Justin T. Schoof; Scott M. Robeson

    2016-01-01

    Regional and local climate extremes, and their impacts, result from the multifaceted interplay between large-scale climate forcing, local environmental factors (physiography), and societal vulnerability. In this paper, we review historical and projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in the United States, with a focus on strengths and weaknesses of (1) commonly used definitions for extremes such as thresholds and percentiles, (2) statistical approaches to quantifying change...

  6. Extreme daily precipitation in Western Europe with climate change at appropriate spatial scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Martijn J.

    2002-01-01

    Extreme daily precipitation for the current and changed climate at appropriate spatial scales is assessed. This is done in the context of the impact of climate change on flooding in the river Meuse in Western Europe. The objective is achieved by determining and comparing extreme precipitation from

  7. Haematology, serum biochemistry and organ weight changes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of fifty Wistar albino rats weighing 50-60g were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design to investigate the haematology, serum biochemistry and organ weight changes on diets containing processed dehulled jack bean. Four diets containing 10% crude protein were formulated ...

  8. Impact of weight change on albuminuria in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello, Aminu K.; de Zeeuw, Dick; El Nahas, Meguid; Brantsma, Auke H.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.

    Background. Increased levels of albuminuria have been recognized as a feature of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular and renal disease. The impact of weight change on albuminuria and its possible mechanism has not been studied yet in the

  9. Weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to assess weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the first year of university life in Malawi. Setting: The setting was Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi. Subjects: The subjects were first-year students (n = 47) enrolled for the 2008/2009 academic year.

  10. Riparian responses to extreme climate and land-use change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Climate change will induce alterations in the hydrological and landscape patterns with effects on riparian ecotones. In this study we assess the combined effect of an extreme climate and land-use change scenario on riparian woody structure and how this will translate into a future risk of riparian functionality loss. The study was conducted in the Tâmega catchment of the Douro basin. Boosted Regression Trees (BRTs) were used to model two riparian landscape indicators related with the degree of connectivity (Mean Width) and complexity (Area Weighted Mean Patch Fractal Dimension). Riparian data were extracted by planimetric analysis of high spatial-resolution Word Imagery Layer (ESRI). Hydrological, climatic and land-use variables were obtained from available datasets and generated with process-based modeling using current climate data (2008-2014), while also considering the high-end RCP8.5 climate-change and "Icarus" socio-economic scenarios for the 2046-2065 time slice. Our results show that hydrological and land-use changes strongly influence future projections of riparian connectivity and complexity, albeit to diverse degrees and with differing effects. A harsh reduction in average flows may impair riparian zones while an increase in extreme rain events may benefit connectivity by promoting hydrologic dynamics with the surrounding floodplains. The expected increase in broad-leaved woodlands and mixed forests may enhance the riparian galleries by reducing the agricultural pressure on the area in the vicinity of the river. According to our results, 63% of river segments in the Tâmega basin exhibited a moderate risk of functionality loss, 16% a high risk, and 21% no risk. Weaknesses and strengths of the method are highlighted and results are discussed based on a resilience perspective with regard to riparian ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate change impacts on extreme events in the United States: an uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extreme weather and climate events, such as heat waves, droughts and severe precipitation events, have substantial impacts on ecosystems and the economy. However, future climate simulations display large uncertainty in mean changes. As a result, the uncertainty in future changes ...

  12. Influence of diseases and metabolic disorders on cow weight changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Podlahová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Requirements on increasing economic efficiency of cattle breeding force farmers to use the latest up-to-datetechnology for monitoring and management of farming quality. Regular weighing and data processing can forinstance discover mistakes that can indicate defects, e.g. nutrition deficiencies, incorrect embryonic development,health problems, demanding nursing intervention. The aim of the research was to monitor manifestations of diseasesand metabolic disorders in the course of weight curve based on data from an automated system for weighing the liveweight of dairy cows. There was used in the weighing unit for milking robots Astronaut A3 (Lely company to obtainweight data of individual cows. There were selected dairy cows with the longest period of lactation or already dryingoff, and especially dairy cows with various health problems for study. Limiting values of weight changes wereestablished after assembling a general equation of mass curve. In the sphere of the diseases there was manifestedonly ketosis in the weight curves with a loss of 10.2 kg / day (38% weight loss. The results of the study will beapplied for compiling algorithm that will be implemented in the complete management system of cattle breeding,monitoring the dairy cows every day and highlight possible deviations exceeding of physiological changes in weight.

  13. Inpatient weight loss as a precursor to bariatric surgery for adolescents with extreme obesity: optimizing bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, Emily; Davenport, Katherine; Barefoot, Leah C; Qureshi, Faisal G; Davidow, Daniel; Nadler, Evan P

    2013-07-01

    As the obesity epidemic takes its toll on patients stricken with the disease and our health care system, debate continues regarding the use of weight loss surgery and its long-term consequences, especially for adolescents. One subset of patients regarding whom there is increased controversy is adolescents with extreme obesity (BMI > 60 kg/m(2)) because the risk of complications in this weight category is higher than for others undergoing bariatric surgery. Several strategies have been suggested for this patient group, including staged operations, combined operations, intragastric balloon use, and endoluminal sleeve placement. However, the device options are often not available to adolescents, and there are no data regarding staged or combined procedures in this age group. All adolescents with BMI >60 kg/m(2) referred to our program were evaluated for inpatient medical weight loss prior to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. The program utilizes a multidisciplinary approach with a protein-sparing modified fast diet, exercise, and behavioral modification. Three patients completed the program, and each achieved significant preoperative weight loss through the inpatient program and successfully underwent bariatric surgery. Presurgical weight loss via an inpatient program for adolescents with a BMI >60 kg/m(2) results in total weight loss comparable to a primary surgical procedure alone, with the benefit of decreasing the perioperative risk.

  14. Research frontiers in climate change: Effects of extreme meteorological events on ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentsch, A.; Jentsch, A.; Beierkuhnlein, C.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change will increase the recurrence of extreme weather events such as drought and heavy rainfall. Evidence suggests that modifications in extreme weather events pose stronger threats to ecosystem functioning than global trends and shifts in average conditions. As ecosystem functioning is connected with ecological services, this has far-reaching effects on societies in the 21. century. Here, we: (i) present the rationale for the increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events in the near future; (ii) discuss recent findings on meteorological extremes and summarize their effects on ecosystems and (iii) identify gaps in current ecological climate change research. (authors)

  15. Climate variations and changes in extreme climate events in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulygina, O N; Razuvaev, V N; Korshunova, N N; Groisman, P Ya

    2007-01-01

    Daily temperature (mean, minimum and maximum) and atmospheric precipitation data from 857 stations are used to analyze variations in the space-time distribution of extreme temperatures and precipitation across Russia during the past six decades. The seasonal numbers of days (N) when daily air temperatures (diurnal temperature range, precipitation) were higher or lower than selected thresholds are used as indices of climatic extremes. Linear trends in N are calculated for each station for the time period of interest. The seasonal numbers of days (for each season) with maximum temperatures higher than the 95th percentile have increased over most of Russia, with minimum temperatures lower than the 5th percentile having decreased. A tendency for the decrease in the number of days with abnormally high diurnal temperature range is observed over most of Russia. In individual regions of Russia, however, a tendency for an increasing number of days with a large diurnal amplitude is found. The largest tendency for increasing number of days with heavy precipitation is observed in winter in Western Siberia and Yakutia

  16. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    based on automatic milking (AMS). The objective was to examine the relationship between feed intake and live weight changes in response to the three feeding strategies examined. All cows were allowed a combination of a mixed ration (MR) and individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in the AMS......) or late (MR2-L) change to a low energy ration. The early and late change was defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum of 15 and 35 kg respectively for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg respectively for DJ. Peak energy intake obtained by primiparous cows and cows of DJ was not significantly higher......Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...

  17. Climate change impact assessment of extreme precipitation on urban flash floods – case study, Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Rosbjerg, Dan

    projections for estimation of changes in extreme rainfall characteristics. Climate model projections from 20 regional climate models (RCM) from the ENSEMBLES data archive were used in the analysis. Two different estimation methods were applied, using, respectively, a direct estimation of the changes...... in the extreme value statistics of the RCM data, and application of a stochastic weather generator fitted to the changes in rainfall characteristics from the RCM data. The results show a large variability in the projected changes in extreme precipitation between the different RCMs and the two estimation methods...

  18. Introduction to the special issue: Observed and projected changes in weather and climate extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue documents not only the more recent progress made in detecting and attributing changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in the observational record, but also in projecting changes in such extremes at regional and local scales. It also deals with the impacts and other consequences and implications of both the historic and anticipated changes in extreme weather and climate events. Impact assessments using both dynamical downscaling and statistical modelling for two tropical cyclones are reported, as well as for storm surge and extreme wave changes. The Special Issue concludes with a consideration of some policy implications and practical applications arising from our relatively robust understanding of how the build up of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere affects weather and climate extremes.

  19. Trajectories of psychopathology in extremely low birth weight survivors from early adolescence to adulthood: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Ferro, Mark A; Schmidt, Louis A; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Mathewson, Karen J

    2018-04-18

    Individuals born extremely preterm are exposed to significant perinatal stresses that are associated with an increased risk of psychopathology. However, a paucity of longitudinal studies has prevented the empirical examination of long-term, dynamic effects of perinatal adversity on mental health. Here, internalizing and externalizing problems from adolescence through adulthood were compared in individuals born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 2,500 g). Internalizing and externalizing data were collected over 20 years in three waves, during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood. Growth models were used to compare longitudinal trajectories in a geographically based sample of 151 ELBW survivors and 137 NBW control participants born between 1977 and 1982 matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status at age 8. After adjusting for sex, socioeconomic and immigrant status, and family functioning, ELBW survivors failed to show the normative, age-related decline in internalizing problems over time relative to their NBW peers (β = .21; p Self-esteem (but not physical health, IQ, or maternal mood) partially mediated the association between ELBW status and internalizing problems. Extremely low birth weight survivors experienced a blunting of the expected improvement in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood. These findings suggest that altered physiological regulatory systems supporting emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the maintenance of internalizing problems in this population. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Maternal weight change from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Stovring, Henrik; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied the influence of maternal behavior on weight change from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum. METHODS: We used linear regression to study the independent and combined associations between self-reported behavior in pregnancy (dietary intake, leisure-time exercise, sedentary...... activity, smoking) and postpartum (breastfeeding duration and smoking) on weights at 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years postpartum. RESULTS: Women's average 7-year weight gain was 2.07 kg, with 23% gaining >5 kg. Multivariable analyses suggested that women with healthier dietary intake, more leisure......-time exercise, less sedentary behavior, and longer duration of breastfeeding on average gained 1.66 kg [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40; 1.91] with a significantly reduced odds [OR 0.56 (95% CI: 0.49; 0.64)] of gaining >5 kg from prepregnancy to 7 years postpartum compared to women with none or one...

  1. Diffusion-weighted imaging of tumor recurrencies and posttherapeutical soft-tissue changes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Huber, A.; Reiser, M.; Arbogast, S.; Duerr, H.R.; Zysk, S.; Wendtner, C.; Deimling, M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine soft tissue tumor recurrences and posttherapeutic soft tissue changes in humans with a diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequence. Twenty-four patients with 29 pathologies of the pelvis or the extremities were examined. The lesions were classified as follows: group 1, recurrent viable tumors (n = 10); group 2, postoperative hygromas (n = 7); and group 3, posttherapeutic reactive inflammatory muscle changes (n = 12). The sequence protocol in these patients consisted of short tau inversion recovery images, T2-weighted spin-echo (SE), pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted SE images and the diffusion-weighted SSFP sequence. The signal loss on diffusion-weighting was evaluated visually on a four-grade scale and quantitatively. The signal intensities were measured in regions of interest and a regression analysis was performed. Statistical analyses was performed utilizing the Student's t-test. The signal loss was significantly higher for hygromas and edematous muscle changes than for recurrent tumors (p < 0.001) indicating higher diffusion of water protons. The regression coefficient was -0.11 (mean) for tumors. Hygromas had a significantly higher signal loss than inflammatory edematous muscle changes (p < 0.01). The regression coefficients were -0.29 (mean) for hygromas and -0.22 (mean) for edematous muscle changes. The SSFP sequence seems to be a suitable method for diffusion-weighted imaging of the musculoskeletal system in humans. These preliminary results suggest that the signal loss and the regression coefficients can be used to characterize different types of tissue. (orig.)

  2. Extreme heat in India and anthropogenic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Philip, Sjoukje; Kew, Sarah; van Weele, Michiel; Uhe, Peter; Otto, Friederike; Singh, Roop; Pai, Indrani; Cullen, Heidi; AchutaRao, Krishna

    2018-01-01

    On 19 May 2016 the afternoon temperature reached 51.0 °C in Phalodi in the northwest of India - a new record for the highest observed maximum temperature in India. The previous year, a widely reported very lethal heat wave occurred in the southeast, in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, killing thousands of people. In both cases it was widely assumed that the probability and severity of heat waves in India are increasing due to global warming, as they do in other parts of the world. However, we do not find positive trends in the highest maximum temperature of the year in most of India since the 1970s (except spurious trends due to missing data). Decadal variability cannot explain this, but both increased air pollution with aerosols blocking sunlight and increased irrigation leading to evaporative cooling have counteracted the effect of greenhouse gases up to now. Current climate models do not represent these processes well and hence cannot be used to attribute heat waves in this area. The health effects of heat are often described better by a combination of temperature and humidity, such as a heat index or wet bulb temperature. Due to the increase in humidity from irrigation and higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs), these indices have increased over the last decades even when extreme temperatures have not. The extreme air pollution also exacerbates the health impacts of heat. From these factors it follows that, from a health impact point of view, the severity of heat waves has increased in India. For the next decades we expect the trend due to global warming to continue but the surface cooling effect of aerosols to diminish as air quality controls are implemented. The expansion of irrigation will likely continue, though at a slower pace, mitigating this trend somewhat. Humidity will probably continue to rise. The combination will result in a strong rise in the temperature of heat waves. The high humidity will make health effects worse, whereas decreased air pollution

  3. Extreme heat in India and anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. van Oldenborgh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On 19 May 2016 the afternoon temperature reached 51.0 °C in Phalodi in the northwest of India – a new record for the highest observed maximum temperature in India. The previous year, a widely reported very lethal heat wave occurred in the southeast, in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, killing thousands of people. In both cases it was widely assumed that the probability and severity of heat waves in India are increasing due to global warming, as they do in other parts of the world. However, we do not find positive trends in the highest maximum temperature of the year in most of India since the 1970s (except spurious trends due to missing data. Decadal variability cannot explain this, but both increased air pollution with aerosols blocking sunlight and increased irrigation leading to evaporative cooling have counteracted the effect of greenhouse gases up to now. Current climate models do not represent these processes well and hence cannot be used to attribute heat waves in this area. The health effects of heat are often described better by a combination of temperature and humidity, such as a heat index or wet bulb temperature. Due to the increase in humidity from irrigation and higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs, these indices have increased over the last decades even when extreme temperatures have not. The extreme air pollution also exacerbates the health impacts of heat. From these factors it follows that, from a health impact point of view, the severity of heat waves has increased in India. For the next decades we expect the trend due to global warming to continue but the surface cooling effect of aerosols to diminish as air quality controls are implemented. The expansion of irrigation will likely continue, though at a slower pace, mitigating this trend somewhat. Humidity will probably continue to rise. The combination will result in a strong rise in the temperature of heat waves. The high humidity will make health effects worse

  4. Impact of climate change on extreme rainfall events and flood risk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The analysis of the frequency of rainy days, rain days and heavy rainfall days as well as one-day extreme rainfall and return period has been carried out in this study to observe the impact of climate change on extreme rainfall events and flood risk in India. The frequency of heavy rainfall events are decreasing in major parts ...

  5. Postpartum Maternal Weight Changes: Implications for Military Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abrams, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    .... Multivariate analysis suggested that high level of maternal weight gain during pregnancy, history of weight cycling, postpartum depression, and financial insecurity were associated with increased weight after birth...

  6. Projections of future extreme weather losses under changes in climate and exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Many attempts are made to assess future changes in extreme weather events due to anthropogenic climate change, but few studies have estimated the potential change in economic losses from such events. Projecting losses is more complex as it requires insight into the change in the weather hazard but

  7. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Jia; Du, Li-Zhong; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Shi, Li-Ping; Pan, Jia-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Li, Qiu-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Yi, Bing; Liu, Ling; Chen, Yun-Bing; Wei, Qiu-Fen; Wu, Hui-Qing; Li, Mei; Liu, Cui-Qing; Gao, Xi-Rong; Xia, Shi-Wen; Li, Wen-Bin; Yan, Chao-Ying; He, Ling; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Han, Shu-Ping; Lyu, Qin; Qiu, Yin-Ping; Li, Wen; Chen, Dong-Mei; Lu, Hong-Ru; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Hong; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Jun; Xiong, Hong; Yue, Shao-Jie; Zhuang, Si-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed countries. PMID:26481740

  8. Extreme climatic events in relation to global change and their impact on life histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan MORENO, Anders Pape Møller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions occur at an increasing rate as evidenced by higher frequency of hurricanes and more extreme precipitation and temperature anomalies. Such extreme environmental conditions will have important implications for all living organisms through greater frequency of reproductive failure and reduced adult survival. We review examples of reproductive failure and reduced survival related to extreme weather conditions. Phenotypic plasticity may not be sufficient to allow adaptation to extreme weather for many animals. Theory predicts reduced reproductive effort as a response to increased stochasticity. We predict that patterns of natural selection will change towards truncation selection as environmental conditions become more extreme. Such changes in patterns of selection may facilitate adaptation to extreme events. However, effects of selection on reproductive effort are difficult to detect. We present a number of predictions for the effects of extreme weather conditions in need of empirical tests. Finally, we suggest a number of empirical reviews that could improve our ability to judge the effects of extreme environmental conditions on life history [Current Zoology 57 (3: 375–389, 2011].

  9. Trends in survival among extremely-low-birth-weight infants (less than 1000 g without significant bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botet Francesc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution from 1997 to 2009 of survival without significant (moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (SWsBPD in extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW infants and to determine the influence of changes in resuscitation, nutrition and mechanical ventilation on the survival rate. Study design In this study, 415 premature infants with birth weights below 1000 g (ELBW were divided into three chronological subgroups: 1997 to 2000 (n = 65, 2001 to 2005 (n = 178 and 2006 to 2009 (n = 172. Between 1997 and 2000, respiratory resuscitation in the delivery room was performed via a bag and mask (Ambu®, Ballerup, Sweden with 40-50% oxygen. If this procedure was not effective, oral endotracheal intubation was always performed. Pulse oximetry was never used. Starting on January 1, 2001, a change in the delivery room respiratory policy was established for ELBW infants. Oxygenation and heart rate were monitored using a pulse oximeter (Nellcor® attached to the newborn’s right hand. If resuscitation was required, ventilation was performed using a face mask, and intermittent positive pressure was controlled via a ventilator (Babylog2, Drägger. In 2001, a policy of aggressive nutrition was also initiated with the early provision of parenteral amino acids. We used standardized parenteral nutrition to feed ELBW infants during the first 12–24 hours of life. Lipids were given on the first day. The glucose concentration administered was increased by 1 mg/kg/minute each day until levels reached 8 mg/kg/minute. Enteral nutrition was started with trophic feeding of milk. In 2006, volume guarantee treatment was instituted and administered together with synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV + VG. The complications of prematurity were treated similarly throughout the study period. Patent ductus arteriosus was only treated when hemodynamically significant. Surgical closure of the

  10. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Interaction Between Orexin-A and Sleep Quality in Females in Extreme Weight Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauchelli, Sarah; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-García, Jose C; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; Tinahones, Francisco J; Casanueva, Felipe F; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Crujeiras, Ana B; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Frühbeck, Gema; Granero, Roser; Ortega, Francisco J; Rodríguez, Amaia; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E; Menchón, Jose M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    The current study examined the relationship between plasma orexin-A and sleep in obesity. Concentrations of orexin-A and sleep were evaluated in 26 obese, 40 morbid obese and 32 healthy-weight participants. The sleep monitor Actiwatch AW7 and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to evaluate sleep. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised was administered to assess symptoms of psychopathology. A higher weight status was associated with elevated orexin-A levels (p = .050), greater depression, anxiety and somatization symptoms (all: p quality (p quality, which in turn was associated with elevated body mass index. Our data confirm an interaction between elevated plasma orexin-A concentrations and poor sleep that contributes to fluctuations in body mass index. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. Radiation exposure from conventional radiographic examinations in very and extremely low birth weight patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, M. L. C.; Schelin, H. R.; Denyak, V.; Bunick, A. P.; Legnani, A.; Paschuk, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    The survival of very premature neonates has improved significantly at the last decades owing to the utilization of modern intensive care interventions that usually requires prolonged hospitalisation and are accompanied by frequent radiographic examinations. Their elevated radiosensitivity and numerous examinations combined with their greater remaining lifetime raise the issue of high risk for radiation-induced malignancies. Because it is presently impossible to substitute this type of examinations with others that do not involve radiation exposure, investigations on a hospital's routine practices becomes relevant. In this work, we present the results of an investigation on the radiation exposure of patients with birth weight lower than 1500 g in one paediatric hospital in Brazil. We analyse some important patient characteristics, like weight, gestational age, length of stay, and number of radiographs performed in the neonatal intensive care unit, in connection with the patient dose. The obtained results are compared with the existing information from other studies.

  13. Perfluoroalkyl substances and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate in response to weight-loss diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Dhana, Klodian; Furtado, Jeremy D

    2018-01-01

    in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline...... and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months (weight-loss period) and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight during the period of 6-24 months (weight regain period). After multivariate adjustment, baseline PFAS concentrations were...... not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations...

  14. Changes in extreme events and the potential impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jesse E; Brown, Claudia Langford; Conlon, Kathryn; Herring, Stephanie; Kunkel, Kenneth E; Lawrimore, Jay; Luber, George; Schreck, Carl; Smith, Adam; Uejio, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    Extreme weather and climate-related events affect human health by causing death, injury, and illness, as well as having large socioeconomic impacts. Climate change has caused changes in extreme event frequency, intensity, and geographic distribution, and will continue to be a driver for change in the future. Some of these events include heat waves, droughts, wildfires, dust storms, flooding rains, coastal flooding, storm surges, and hurricanes. The pathways connecting extreme events to health outcomes and economic losses can be diverse and complex. The difficulty in predicting these relationships comes from the local societal and environmental factors that affect disease burden. More information is needed about the impacts of climate change on public health and economies to effectively plan for and adapt to climate change. This paper describes some of the ways extreme events are changing and provides examples of the potential impacts on human health and infrastructure. It also identifies key research gaps to be addressed to improve the resilience of public health to extreme events in the future. Extreme weather and climate events affect human health by causing death, injury, and illness, as well as having large socioeconomic impacts. Climate change has caused changes in extreme event frequency, intensity, and geographic distribution, and will continue to be a driver for change in the future. Some of these events include heat waves, droughts, wildfires, flooding rains, coastal flooding, surges, and hurricanes. The pathways connecting extreme events to health outcomes and economic losses can be diverse and complex. The difficulty in predicting these relationships comes from the local societal and environmental factors that affect disease burden.

  15. Changing precipitation extremes and flood risk over the conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    On the basis of first principles, precipitation extremes should increase in a warming climate. Effectively, the atmospheric "heat engine" is expected to turn over more rapidly as the climate warms, due to increased water holding capacity of the atmosphere. Most climate models reflect this behavior, and project that precipitation extremes should increase, at roughly the Clausius-Clapyron rate. From a societal standpoint though, changing precipitation extremes in and of themselves aren't necessarily a concern - rather, the question of societal interest is "are and/or will flood extremes change". Flood extremes of course respond to precipitation extremes, but they are affected by a number of other factors, among them being the duration of precipitation relative to catchment size and channel features, storm orientation relative to catchment orientation, soil characteristics, and antecedent hydrologic conditions. Various studies have shown that over both the conterminous U.S. and globally, there have been slight increases in precipitation extremes (i.e., more than would be expected due to chance. On the other hand, evidence for increases in flooding are less pervasive. I review past work in this area, and suggest the nature of studies that might be conducted going forward to better understand the likely signature of changing precipitation extremes on flooding.

  16. Identification of Climate Change with Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) Distribution Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahayu, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Some events are difficult to avoid and gives considerable influence to humans and the environment is extreme weather and climate change. Many of the problems that require knowledge about the behavior of extreme values and one of the methods used are the Extreme Value Theory (EVT). EVT used to draw up reliable systems in a variety of conditions, so as to minimize the risk of a major disaster. There are two methods for identifying extreme value, Block Maxima with Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution approach and Peaks over Threshold (POT) with Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) approach. This research in Indramayu with January 1961-December 2003 period, the method used is Block Maxima with GEV distribution approach. The result showed that there is no climate change in Indramayu with January 1961-December 2003 period.

  17. Spillway design implications resulting from changes in rainfall extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzik, I.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to determine how serious implications regarding spillway design of small dams would result from changes in flood frequencies and magnitudes, because of changes in rainfall regime in turn brought on by climate change due to carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere. The region selected for study was the central Alberta foothills and adjacent prairie environment. A study watershed, representative of the region, was chosen to assess the present and possible future flood frequency-magnitude relationships. A Monte Carlo simulation method was used in conjunction with rainfall-runoff modelling of the study watershed to generate data for flood frequency analysis of maximum annual flood series corresponding to the present and future climate scenarios. The impact of resulting differences in design floods for small dams on spillway design was investigated using the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration small dam design method. Changes in the mean and standard deviation of rainfall depth of design storms in a region will result in new probability distributions of the maximum annual flood flows. A 25% increase in the mean and standard deviation of design rainfall depth resulted in greater increases of 1:2 and 1:100 flood flows than a 50% increase in the standard deviation alone did. Under scenario 1, the 1:2 flood flows increased more than did the 1:100 flows. Scenario 2 produced opposite results, whereby the 1:100 flows increased more than did the 1:2 flows. It seems that a climate change of the type of scenario 1 would result in a more severe increase in flood flows than scenario 2 would. Retrofitting existing spillways of small dams would in most cases require increasing flow capacities of both operating and auxilliary spillways. 23 refs

  18. Transportation system resilience, extreme weather and climate change : a thought leadership series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes key findings from the Transportation System Resilience, Extreme Weather and Climate Change thought leadership series held at Volpe, the National Transportation Systems Center from fall 2013 to spring 2014.

  19. Impact of Early Nutrition on Body Composition in Children Aged 9.5 Years Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Stutte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01. Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05, but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.. In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001. Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05, whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05. Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children.

  20. Weighted Domain Transfer Extreme Learning Machine and Its Online Version for Gas Sensor Drift Compensation in E-Nose Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning approaches have been widely used to tackle the problem of sensor array drift in E-Nose systems. However, labeled data are rare in practice, which makes supervised learning methods hard to be applied. Meanwhile, current solutions require updating the analytical model in an offline manner, which hampers their uses for online scenarios. In this paper, we extended Target Domain Adaptation Extreme Learning Machine (DAELM_T to achieve high accuracy with less labeled samples by proposing a Weighted Domain Transfer Extreme Learning Machine, which uses clustering information as prior knowledge to help select proper labeled samples and calculate sensitive matrix for weighted learning. Furthermore, we converted DAELM_T and the proposed method into their online learning versions under which scenario the labeled data are selected beforehand. Experimental results show that, for batch learning version, the proposed method uses around 20% less labeled samples while achieving approximately equivalent or better accuracy. As for the online versions, the methods maintain almost the same accuracies as their offline counterparts do, but the time cost remains around a constant value while that of offline versions grows with the number of samples.

  1. Effects of land cover change on temperature and rainfall extremes in multi-model ensemble simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Pitman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of historical land use induced land cover change (LULCC on regional-scale climate extremes is examined using four climate models within the Land Use and Climate, IDentification of robust impacts project. To assess those impacts, multiple indices based on daily maximum and minimum temperatures and daily precipitation were used. We contrast the impact of LULCC on extremes with the impact of an increase in atmospheric CO2 from 280 ppmv to 375 ppmv. In general, consistent changes in both high and low temperature extremes are similar to the simulated change in mean temperature caused by LULCC and are restricted to regions of intense modification. The impact of LULCC on both means and on most temperature extremes is statistically significant. While the magnitude of the LULCC-induced change in the extremes can be of similar magnitude to the response to the change in CO2, the impacts of LULCC are much more geographically isolated. For most models, the impacts of LULCC oppose the impact of the increase in CO2 except for one model where the CO2-caused changes in the extremes are amplified. While we find some evidence that individual models respond consistently to LULCC in the simulation of changes in rainfall and rainfall extremes, LULCC's role in affecting rainfall is much less clear and less commonly statistically significant, with the exception of a consistent impact over South East Asia. Since the simulated response of mean and extreme temperatures to LULCC is relatively large, we conclude that unless this forcing is included, we risk erroneous conclusions regarding the drivers of temperature changes over regions of intense LULCC.

  2. Changes of the Temperature and Precipitation Extremes on Homogenized Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKATOS, Mónika

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate indices to detect changes have been defined in several international projects onclimate change. Climate index calculations require at least daily resolution of time series withoutinhomogeneities, such as transfer of stations, changes in observation practice. In many cases thecharacteristics of the estimated linear trends, calculated from the original and from the homogenizedtime series are significantly different. The ECA&D (European Climate Assessment & Dataset indicesand some other special temperature and precipitation indices of own development were applied to theClimate Database of the Hungarian Meteorological Service. Long term daily maximum, minimum anddaily mean temperature data series and daily precipitation sums were examined. The climate indexcalculation processes were tested on original observations and on homogenized daily data fortemperature; in the case of precipitation a complementation process was performed to fill in the gapsof missing data. Experiences of comparing the climate index calculation results, based on original andcomplemented-homogenized data, are reported in this paper. We present the preliminary result ofclimate index calculations also on gridded (interpolated daily data.

  3. Impact of extreme weather events and climate change for health and social care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Sarah; Fair, Alistair; Wistow, Jonathan; Val, Dimitri V; Oven, Katie

    2017-12-05

    This review, commissioned by the Research Councils UK Living With Environmental Change (LWEC) programme, concerns research on the impacts on health and social care systems in the United Kingdom of extreme weather events, under conditions of climate change. Extreme weather events considered include heatwaves, coldwaves and flooding. Using a structured review method, we consider evidence regarding the currently observed and anticipated future impacts of extreme weather on health and social care systems and the potential of preparedness and adaptation measures that may enhance resilience. We highlight a number of general conclusions which are likely to be of international relevance, although the review focussed on the situation in the UK. Extreme weather events impact the operation of health services through the effects on built, social and institutional infrastructures which support health and health care, and also because of changes in service demand as extreme weather impacts on human health. Strategic planning for extreme weather and impacts on the care system should be sensitive to within country variations. Adaptation will require changes to built infrastructure systems (including transport and utilities as well as individual care facilities) and also to institutional and social infrastructure supporting the health care system. Care sector organisations, communities and individuals need to adapt their practices to improve resilience of health and health care to extreme weather. Preparedness and emergency response strategies call for action extending beyond the emergency response services, to include health and social care providers more generally.

  4. Temporal changes in morality attributed to heat extremes for 57 cities in Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whanhee; Choi, Hayon Michelle; Kim, Dahye; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Kim, Ho

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have reported that heat-related mortality decreased by adaptation during decades. However, since the frequency of extreme heat events is increasing, it is difficult to conclude with certainty that the heat mortality burden is decreasing. To examine temporal changes in mortality attributed to heat extremes in Northeast Asia, we collected temperature and mortality data covering the years 1972-2012 from 57 cities of 3 countries (Taiwan, Korea, and Japan) in Northeast Asia. Poisson regression curves were fitted to the data from each city. The temporal changes in heat-mortality association were estimated with a time-varying distributed lag non-linear model. Heat extremes were defined as temperatures greater than the 97.5th percentiles of city-specific average temperatures. Attributable deaths were calculated considering temporal variations in exposure and relative risk. The estimates were then pooled through meta-analysis. The results show that the mortality risk on extreme heat days declined during the study period in all countries. However, as summer temperatures in Japan have shown more heat extremes over time, the mortality risk attributed to heat increased during 2003-2012 (0.32%) compared with 1972-1981 (0.19%). Thus, to assess the total health burden due to heat extremes related to climate change, public health strategies should focus on the temporal variation in heat-mortality association as well as changes in the distribution of heat extremes overtime. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceived weight status may contribute to education inequalities in five-year weight change among mid-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Jessica; Giskes, Katrina; Shaw, Jonathan; Turrell, Gavin

    2011-06-01

    To examine education differences in five-year weight change among mid-aged adults, and to ascertain if this may be due to socioeconomic differences in perceived weight status or weight control behaviours (WCBs). Data were used from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. Mid-aged men and women with measured weights at both baseline (1999-2000) and follow-up (2004-2005) were included. Percent weight change over the five-year interval was calculated and perceived weight status, WCBs and highest attained education were collected at baseline. Low-educated men and women were more likely to be obese at baseline compared to their high-educated counterparts. Women with a certificate-level education had a greater five-year weight gain than those with a bachelor degree or higher. Perceived weight status or WCBs did not differ by education among men and women, however participants that perceived themselves as very overweight had less weight gain than those perceiving themselves as underweight or normal weight. WCBs were not associated with five-year weight change. The higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among low-educated women may be a consequence of greater weight gain in mid-adulthood. Education inequalities in overweight/obesity among men and women made be due (in part) to overweight or obese individuals in low-educated groups not perceiving themselves as having a weight problem. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Azithromycin in the extremely low birth weight infant for the prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anstead Michael I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin reduces the severity of illness in patients with inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a pulmonary disorder which causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. BPD is pathologically characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and impaired alveolar development. The purpose of this study was to obtain pilot data on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic azithromycin in reducing the incidence and severity of BPD in an extremely low birth weight (≤ 1000 grams population. Methods Infants ≤ 1000 g birth weight admitted to the University of Kentucky Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (level III, regional referral center from 9/1/02-6/30/03 were eligible for this pilot study. The pilot study was double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Infants were randomized to treatment or placebo within 12 hours of beginning mechanical ventilation (IMV and within 72 hours of birth. The treatment group received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days followed by 5 mg/kg/day for the duration of the study. Azithromycin or placebo was continued until the infant no longer required IMV or supplemental oxygen, to a maximum of 6 weeks. Primary endpoints were incidence of BPD as defined by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks gestation, post-natal steroid use, days of IMV, and mortality. Data was analyzed by intention to treat using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results A total of 43 extremely premature infants were enrolled in this pilot study. Mean gestational age and birth weight were similar between groups. Mortality, incidence of BPD, days of IMV, and other morbidities were not significantly different between groups. Post-natal steroid use was significantly less in the treatment group [31% (6/19] vs. placebo group [62% (10/16] (p = 0.05. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly less in treatment survivors, with a median of 13 days (1–47

  7. Optimal adaptation to extreme rainfalls under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    2017-04-01

    More intense and frequent rainfalls have increased the number of urban flooding events in recent years, prompting adaptation efforts. Economic optimization is considered an efficient tool to decide on the design level for adaptation. The costs associated with a flooding to the T-year level and the annual capital and operational costs of adapting to this level are described with log-linear relations. The total flooding costs are developed as the expected annual damage of flooding above the T-year level plus the annual capital and operational costs for ensuring no flooding below the T-year level. The value of the return period T that corresponds to the minimum of the sum of these costs will then be the optimal adaptation level. The change in climate, however, is expected to continue in the next century, which calls for expansion of the above model. The change can be expressed in terms of a climate factor (the ratio between the future and the current design level) which is assumed to increase in time. This implies increasing costs of flooding in the future for many places in the world. The optimal adaptation level is found for immediate as well as for delayed adaptation. In these cases the optimum is determined by considering the net present value of the incurred costs during a sufficiently long time span. Immediate as well as delayed adaptation is considered.

  8. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  9. Polycythemia, capillary rarefaction, and focal glomerulosclerosis in two adolescents born extremely low birth weight and premature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Nariaki; Tsukahara, Takanori; Furuhata, Megumi; Matsuoka, Daisuke; Noda, Shunsuke; Naganuma, Kuniaki; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Awazu, Midori

    2017-07-01

    Low birthweight infants have a reduced number of nephrons and are at high risk of chronic kidney disease. Preterm birth and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may also affect peritubular capillary development, as has been shown in other organs. We report two patients with a history of preterm birth and extremely low birthweight who showed polycythemia and renal capillary rarefaction. Patient 1 and 2, born at 25 weeks of gestation with a birthweight of 728 and 466 g, showed mild proteinuria at age 8 and 6 years, respectively. In addition to increasing proteinuria, hemoglobin levels became elevated towards adolescence and their serum erythropoietin (EPO) was high despite polycythemia. Light microscopic examination of renal biopsy specimens showed glomerular hypertrophy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and only mild tubulointerstitial fibrosis. A decrease in the immunohistochemical staining of CD31 and CD34 endothelial cells in renal biopsy specimens was consistent with peritubular capillary rarefaction. Since kidney function was almost normal and fibrosis was not severe, we consider that the capillary rarefaction and polycythemia associated with elevated EPO levels were largely attributable to preterm birth and/or IUGR.

  10. Blood Cytokine Profiles Associated with Distinct Patterns of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angio, Carl T; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A; McDonald, Scott A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M; Shankaran, Seetha; Goldberg, Ronald N; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Tyson, Jon E; Stoll, Barbara J; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2016-07-01

    To explore differences in blood cytokine profiles among distinct bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patterns. We evaluated blood spots collected from 943 infants born at ≤1000 g and surviving to 28 days on postnatal days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 for 25 cytokines. Infants were assigned to the following lung disease patterns: (1) no lung disease (NLD); (2) respiratory distress syndrome without BPD; (3) classic BPD (persistent exposure to supplemental oxygen until 28 days of age); or (4) atypical BPD (period without supplemental oxygen before 28 days). Median cytokine levels for infants with BPD were compared with the IQR of results among infants with NLD. The distribution of enrolled infants by group was as follows: 69 (NLD), 73 (respiratory distress syndrome), 381 (classic BPD), and 160 (atypical BPD). The remaining 260 infants could not be classified because of missing data (104) or not fitting a predefined pattern (156). Median levels of 3 cytokines (elevated interleukin [IL]-8, matrix metalloproteinase-9; decreased granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) fell outside the IQR for at least 2 time points in both infants with atypical and classic BPD. Profiles of 7 cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, C-reactive protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) differed between infants with classic and atypical BPD. Blood cytokine profiles may differ between infants developing classic and atypical BPD. These dissimilarities suggest the possibility that differing mechanisms could explain the varied patterns of pathophysiology of lung disease in extremely premature infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate Change: A New Metric to Measure Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Temperatures using Record Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, L.; Jun, T.; Rind, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Consensus on global warming is the result of multiple and varying lines of evidence, and one key ramification is the increase in frequency of extreme climate events including record high temperatures. Here we develop a metric- called "record equivalent draws" (RED)-based on record high (low) temperature observations, and show that changes in RED approximate changes in the likelihood of extreme high (low) temperatures. Since we also show that this metric is independent of the specifics of the underlying temperature distributions, RED estimates can be aggregated across different climates to provide a genuinely global assessment of climate change. Using data on monthly average temperatures across the global landmass we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures increased 10-fold between the first three decades of the last century (1900-1929) and the most recent decade (1999-2008). A more disaggregated analysis shows that the increase in frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the tropics than in higher latitudes, a pattern that is not indicated by changes in mean temperature. Our RED estimates also suggest concurrent increases in the frequency of both extreme high and extreme low temperatures during 2002-2008, a period when we observe a plateauing of global mean temperature. Using daily extreme temperature observations, we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the daily minimum temperature time-series compared to the daily maximum temperature time-series. There is no such observable difference in the frequency of extreme low temperatures between the daily minimum and daily maximum.

  12. Postpartum Maternal Weight Changes: Implications for Military Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abrams, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    .... One in 5 who began pregnancy normal weight became overweight (BMI>25). Despite physical training and emphasis on meeting weight standards, weight retention was as common among active duty women as among military dependents...

  13. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  14. The nonstationary impact of local temperature changes and ENSO on extreme precipitation at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiaohong; Miao, Chiyuan; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Qingyun

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and local temperature are important drivers of extreme precipitation. Understanding the impact of ENSO and temperature on the risk of extreme precipitation over global land will provide a foundation for risk assessment and climate-adaptive design of infrastructure in a changing climate. In this study, nonstationary generalized extreme value distributions were used to model extreme precipitation over global land for the period 1979-2015, with ENSO indicator and temperature as covariates. Risk factors were estimated to quantify the contrast between the influence of different ENSO phases and temperature. The results show that extreme precipitation is dominated by ENSO over 22% of global land and by temperature over 26% of global land. With a warming climate, the risk of high-intensity daily extreme precipitation increases at high latitudes but decreases in tropical regions. For ENSO, large parts of North America, southern South America, and southeastern and northeastern China are shown to suffer greater risk in El Niño years, with more than double the chance of intense extreme precipitation in El Niño years compared with La Niña years. Moreover, regions with more intense precipitation are more sensitive to ENSO. Global climate models were used to investigate the changing relationship between extreme precipitation and the covariates. The risk of extreme, high-intensity precipitation increases across high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but decreases in middle and lower latitudes under a warming climate scenario, and will likely trigger increases in severe flooding and droughts across the globe. However, there is some uncertainties associated with the influence of ENSO on predictions of future extreme precipitation, with the spatial extent and risk varying among the different models.

  15. Lack of Melanopsin Is Associated with Extreme Weight Loss in Mice upon Dietary Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Göz Aytürk

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders have been established as major risk factors for ocular complications and poor vision. However, little is known about the inverse possibility that ocular disease may cause metabolic dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the metabolic consequences of a robust dietary challenge in several mouse models suffering from retinal mutations. To this end, mice null for melanopsin (Opn4-/-, the photopigment of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs, were subjected to five weeks of a ketogenic diet. These mice lost significantly more weight than wild-type controls or mice lacking rod and cone photoreceptors (Pde6brd1/rd1. Although ipRGCs are critical for proper circadian entrainment, and circadian misalignment has been implicated in metabolic pathology, we observed no differences in entrainment between Opn4-/- and control mice. Additionally, we observed no differences in any tested metabolic parameter between these mouse strains. Further studies are required to establish the mechanism giving rise to this dramatic phenotype observed in melanopsin-null mice. We conclude that the causality between ocular disease and metabolic disorders merits further investigation due to the popularity of diets that rely on the induction of a ketogenic state. Our study is a first step toward understanding retinal pathology as a potential cause of metabolic dysfunction.

  16. The push-off test: development of a simple, reliable test of upper extremity weight-bearing capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Joshua I; MacDermid, Joy C; Michlovitz, Susan L; Rafuse, Richard; Wells-Rowsell, Christina; Wong, Owen; Bisbee, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal clinical measurement study. The push-off test (POT) is a novel and simple measure of upper extremity weight-bearing that can be measured with a grip dynamometer. There are no published studies on the validity and reliability of the POT. The relationship between upper extremity self-report activity/participation and impairment measures remain an unexplored realm. The primary purpose of this study is to estimate the intra and inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the POT. The secondary purpose is to estimate the relationship between upper extremity self-report activity/participation questionnaires and impairment measures. A convenience sample of 22 patients with wrist or elbow injuries were tested for POT, wrist/elbow range of motion (ROM), isometric wrist extension strength (WES) and grip strength; and completed two self-report activity/participation questionnaires: Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and the Hand (DASH) and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ-26). POT's inter and intra-rater reliability and construct validity was tested. Pearson's correlations were run between the impairment measures and self-report questionnaires to look into the relationship amongst them. The POT demonstrated high inter-rater reliability (ICC affected = 0.97; 95% C.I. 0.93-0.99; ICC unaffected = 0.85; 95% C.I. 0.68-0.94) and intra-rater reliability (ICC affected = 0.96; 95% C.I. 0.92-0.97; ICC unaffected = 0.92; 95% C.I. 0.85-0.97). The POT was correlated moderately with the DASH (r = -0.47; p = 0.03). While examining the relationship between upper extremity self-reported activity/participation questionnaires and impairment measures the strongest correlation was between the DASH and the POT (r = -0.47; p = 0.03) and none of the correlations with the other physical impairment measures reached significance. At-work disability demonstrated insignificant correlations with physical impairments. The POT test provides a reliable and easily

  17. Assessing future climatic changes of rainfall extremes at small spatio-temporal scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to influence the occurrence and magnitude of rainfall extremes and hence the flood risks in cities. Major impacts of an increased pluvial flood risk are expected to occur at hourly and sub-hourly resolutions. This makes convective storms the dominant rainfall type...... in relation to urban flooding. The present study focuses on high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) skill in simulating sub-daily rainfall extremes. Temporal and spatial characteristics of output from three different RCM simulations with 25 km resolution are compared to point rainfall extremes estimated...... from observed data. The applied RCM data sets represent two different models and two different types of forcing. Temporal changes in observed extreme point rainfall are partly reproduced by the RCM RACMO when forced by ERA40 re-analysis data. Two ECHAM forced simulations show similar increases...

  18. Special health care needs explains the effect of extremely low birth weight on math but not language achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Hack, Maureen

    2017-12-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; math achievement compared to normal birth weight (NBW) peers. SHCN are associated with poor academic achievement among NBW children. We hypothesize that SHCN explain the effect of ELBW on math achievement. We compared age 14 Woodcock-Johnson Calculation standard scores between 181 ELBW infants and 115 NBW controls. Persistent SHCN included: 1) prescription medication or equipment use, 2) subspecialty or therapeutic service use, or 3) hospitalization. We used nonlinear marginal effects models to decompose the total effect of ELBW on math into the following 4 components: the effect of ELBW controlling for SHCN, the effect of SHCN controlling for ELBW, effect modification by SHCN, and mediated interaction where SHCN is both causal mediator and effect modifier. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors. ELBW adolescents had lower mean math scores than NBW peers (81.3 vs. 96.4). SHCN were more common among ELBW adolescents (54.1% vs. 27%). The total effect of ELBW on math scores was -15.7 points (95% CI -21.0, -10.5). The effect of birth weight alone was -7.6 points (95% CI -13.7, -1.4); the effect of SHCN alone was negligible. SHCN interaction and mediated interaction effects each accounted for 25% of the total effect. Birth weight alone explains only half of the effect of ELBW on math achievement. We found evidence of effect modification and mediation by SHCN. Understanding these explanatory pathways may lead to targeted interventions for improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Factors affecting successful closure of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus with indomethacin in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Zhong; Lee, Jiun

    2008-05-01

    The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is high in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Indomethacin has been widely used in the prophylaxis and treatment of hemodynamically significant PDA. This retrospective study was undertaken to identify factors such as birth weight, gestational age, gender, fetal growth retardation, ductal size, timing of the first dose of indomethacin and side effects of indomethacin, which may affect the successful closure of the PDA with indomethacin in ELBW infants. A cohort of 139 ELBW infants who had received indomethacin treatment for PDA during a consecutive period of more than three years (September 2000 to December 2003) was retrospectively analyzed. Administration of indomethacin was associated with closure of PDA in 108 (77.7%) of 139 ELBW infants, and only 19.4% of infants required surgical ligation of the ductus eventually. There was no significant relationship between closure of PDA with gestational age, gender, fetal growth retardation, and ductal size. A higher birth weight and early use of indomethacin after birth could significantly increase the closure rate of PDA (P<0.05). Side effects of indomethacin such as transient oliguria and hyponatremia during indomethacin therapy did not affect PDA closure. Indomethacin is effective for the treatment of PDA in ELBW infants. A higher rate of ductal closure is related to the increase of birth weight. PDA closure with indomethacin is age-related, and early administration of indomethacin could increase PDA closure and reduce the incidence of hyponatremia. There is no significant difference in major morbidities such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) after early treatment. Early screening for hemodynamically significant PDA in ELBW infants and early treatment with indomethacin are recommended.

  20. The effects of a 12-week program of static upper extremity weight bearing exercises on weight bearing in children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jayaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The  major  objective  of  this  study  was  to  quantify  the  effects  of a  12-week  program  of  weight  bearing  exercises  on  weight  borne  through  the hand and grip pressures in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. This study also sought to monitor the change in spasticity immediately following weight-bearing  exercises.  A  quasi-experimental,  one  group  pre-test,  post-test  study  was used. Eleven children with hemiplegic type of cerebral palsy from a special school in KwaZulu Natal participated after fully informed written consent. The intervention consisted of a 12-week program of weight bearing. The Tekscan Grip system was used to quantify weight borne through the hand during extended arm prone and quadruped positions and whilst holding a pencil and a tumbler. The modified Ashworth grading of spasticity was used to monitor spasticity. The data was analysed using the random effects GLS model Wald Chi Square test. Significant increases in contact pressure in extended arms prone (p=0,012 and quadruped (p=0,002 and when holding a pencil (p=0,045 was noted post-test compared to pre-test. Significant increases in contact area of the hand was also noted in prone (p=0,000, quadruped (p=0, 03 at assessment 7 and when holding a pencil (p=0,035.  A significant decrease in spasticity during elbow extension (p=0,004, and wrist flexion (p=0,026 and extension (p=0,004 was noted. An overall significant effect of static weight bearing exercises on weight borne through the hands, grip strength and spasticity justifies the use of static weight-bearing in therapy.

  1. Hospital outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants after introduction of donor milk to supplement mother's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verd, Sergio; Porta, Roser; Botet, Francesc; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Ginovart, Gemma; Barbero, Ana Herranz; Ciurana, Anna; Plata, Isabel Iglesias

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the impact of an exclusive human milk diet to nourish extremely low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. This multicenter pre-post retrospective study included all inborn infants milk policy. The feeding protocol was unchanged in both periods. Collected data included maternal/infant demographics, infant clinical data, and enteral intake as mother's own milk, donor milk, and formula. Two hundred one infants were enrolled. Infant growth and other clinical outcomes were similar in both groups. Exposure to mother's own milk at discharge was not different. Median time in oxygen and duration of mechanical ventilation were significantly higher among formula-fed infants (63 versus 192 hours [p=0.046] and 24 versus 60 hours [p=0.016], respectively). Our results add evidence supporting the safety of donor milk. This study also found an association between exposure to formula in preterm infants and the requirement for respiratory support, a finding that warrants further investigation.

  2. Is there any role for terlipressin in the extremely low birth weight infant with refractory septic shock?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bissolo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terlipressin, a synthetic long-acting analogue of vasopressin, has been investigated as a second line vasopressor in adults and children with refractory septic shock, i.e. not responding to fluid resuscitation and high-dose catecholamine administration. Little experience is available about the safety and efficacy of terlipressin in term and preterm newborns. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight infant with severe septic shock, unresponsive to fluids, noradrenalin and hydrocortisone, in whom terlipressin was attempted as a rescue drug. Despite three doses of terlipressin, administered 6-hourly, the patient remained profoundly hypotensive and eventually died. Further studies are required before any recommendation on the use of terlipressin in term or preterm newborns with septic shock can be made.

  3. High Flow Nasal Cannula Use Is Associated with Increased Morbidity and Length of Hospitalization in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Dalal K; Kornhauser, Michael; Greenspan, Jay S; Dysart, Kevin C; Aghai, Zubair H

    2016-06-01

    To determine differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death in extremely low birth weight infants managed on high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) vs continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This is a retrospective data analysis from the Alere Neonatal Database for infants born between January 2008 and July 2013, weighing ≤1000 g at birth, and received HFNC or CPAP. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were compared between the infants who received CPAP and HFNC, or HFNC ± CPAP. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to control for the variables that differ in bivariate analysis. A total of 2487 infants met the inclusion criteria (941 CPAP group, 333 HFNC group, and 1546 HFNC ± CPAP group). The primary outcome of BPD or death was significantly higher in the HFNC group (56.8%) compared with the CPAP group (50.4%, P CPAP group compared with the CPAP group (OR 1.085, 95% CI 1.035-1.137, P = .001). The number of ventilator days, postnatal steroid use, days to room air, days to initiate or reach full oral feeds, and length of hospitalization were significantly higher in the HFNC and HFNC ± CPAP groups compared with the CPAP group. In this retrospective study, use of HFNC in extremely low birth weight infants is associated with a higher risk of death or BPD, increased respiratory morbidities, delayed oral feeding, and prolonged hospitalization. A large clinical trial is needed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of HFNC in preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High Flow Nasal Cannula Use Is Associated with Increased Morbidity and Length of Hospitalization in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Dalal K.; Kornhauser, Michael; Greenspan, Jay S.; Dysart, Kevin C.; Aghai, Zubair H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death in extremely low birth weight infants managed on high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) vs continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Study design This is aretrospective data analysis from the Alere Neonatal Database for infants born between January 2008 and July 2013, weighing ≤ 1000 g at birth, and received HFNC or CPAP. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were compared between the infants who received CPAP and HFNC, or HFNC ± CPAP. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to control for the variables that differ in bivariate analysis. Results A total of 2487 infants met the inclusion criteria (941 CPAP group, 333 HFNC group, and 1546 HFNC ± CPAP group). The primary outcome of BPD or death was significantly higher in the HFNC group (56.8%) compared with the CPAP group (50.4%, P < .05). Similarly, adjusted odds of developing BPD or death was greater in the HFNC ± CPAP group compared with the CPAP group (OR 1.085, 95% CI 1.035–1.137, P = .001). The number of ventilator days, postnatal steroid use, days to room air, days to initiate or reach full oral feeds, and length of hospitalization were significantly higher in the HFNC and HFNC ± CPAP groups compared with the CPAP group. Conclusions In this retrospective study, use of HFNC in extremely low birth weight infants is associated with a higher risk of death or BPD, increased respiratory morbidities, delayed oral feeding, and prolonged hospitalization. A large clinical trial is needed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of HFNC in preterm infants. PMID:27004673

  5. Extreme Events in China under Climate Change: Uncertainty and related impacts (CSSP-FOREX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Befort, Daniel J.; Hodges, Kevin I.

    2016-04-01

    Suitable adaptation strategies or the timely initiation of related mitigation efforts in East Asia will strongly depend on robust and comprehensive information about future near-term as well as long-term potential changes in the climate system. Therefore, understanding the driving mechanisms associated with the East Asian climate is of major importance. The FOREX project (Fostering Regional Decision Making by the Assessment of Uncertainties of Future Regional Extremes and their Linkage to Global Climate System Variability for China and East Asia) focuses on the investigation of extreme wind and rainfall related events over Eastern Asia and their possible future changes. Here, analyses focus on the link between local extreme events and their driving weather systems. This includes the coupling between local rainfall extremes and tropical cyclones, the Meiyu frontal system, extra-tropical teleconnections and monsoonal activity. Furthermore, the relation between these driving weather systems and large-scale variability modes, e.g. NAO, PDO, ENSO is analysed. Thus, beside analysing future changes of local extreme events, the temporal variability of their driving weather systems and related large-scale variability modes will be assessed in current CMIP5 global model simulations to obtain more robust results. Beyond an overview of FOREX itself, first results regarding the link between local extremes and their steering weather systems based on observational and reanalysis data are shown. Special focus is laid on the contribution of monsoonal activity, tropical cyclones and the Meiyu frontal system on the inter-annual variability of the East Asian summer rainfall.

  6. Weight change in a commercial web-based weight loss program and its association with website use: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Melinda; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

    2011-10-12

    There is a paucity of information in the scientific literature on the effectiveness of commercial weight loss programs, including Web-based programs. The potential of Web-based weight loss programs has been acknowledged, but their ability to achieve significant weight loss has not been proven. The objectives were to evaluate the weight change achieved within a large cohort of individuals enrolled in a commercial Web-based weight loss program for 12 or 52 weeks and to describe participants' program use in relation to weight change. Participants enrolled in an Australian commercial Web-based weight loss program from August 15, 2007, through May 31, 2008. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 12- and 52-week subscriptions. The primary analysis estimated weight change using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) for all participants who subscribed for 12 weeks and also for those who subscribed for 52 weeks. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using the last observation carried forward (LOCF) method. Website use (ie, the number of days participants logged on, made food or exercise entries to the Web-based diary, or posted to the discussion forum) was described from program enrollment to 12 and 52 weeks, and differences in website use by percentage weight change category were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test for equality of populations. Participants (n = 9599) had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 35.7 (9.5) years and were predominantly female (86% or 8279/9599) and obese (61% or 5866/9599). Results from the primary GLMM analysis including all enrollees found the mean percentage weight change was -6.2% among 12-week subscribers (n = 6943) and -6.9% among 52-week subscribers (n = 2656). Sensitivity analysis using LOCF revealed an average weight change of -3.0% and -3.5% after 12 and 52 weeks respectively. The use of all website features increased significantly (P Web-based weight loss program is likely to be in the range of

  7. Changes in Climate Extremes and Catastrophic Events in the Mongolian Plateau from 1951 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Yao, Zhi-Jun; Jiang, Liguang

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal changes in 21 indices of extreme temperature and precipitation for the Mongolian Plateau from 1951 to 2012 were investigated on the basis of daily temperature and precipitation data from 70 meteorological stations. Changes in catastrophic events, such as droughts, floods, and s...

  8. Spatiotemporal Variations of Extreme Precipitation under a Changing Climate in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingquan Lü

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Dam (TGD is one of the largest hydroelectric projects in the world. Monitoring the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme precipitation offers valuable information for adaptation and mitigation strategies and reservoir management schemes. This study examined variations in extreme precipitation over the Three Gorges Reservoir area (TGRA in China to investigate the potential role of climate warming and Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR. The trends in extreme precipitation over the TGRA were investigated using the iterative-based Mann–Kendall (MK test and Sen’s slope estimator, based on weather station daily data series and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data series. The mean and density distribution of extreme precipitation indices between pre-dam and post-dam, pre-1985 and post-1985, and near and distant reservoir area were assessed by the Mann–Whitney test and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. The ratio of extreme precipitation to non-extreme precipitation became larger. The precipitation was characterized by increases in heavy precipitation as well as decreases in light and moderate rain. Comparing extreme precipitation indices between pre-1985 (cooling and post-1985 (warming indicated extreme precipitation has changed to become heavier. Under climate warming, the precipitation amount corresponding to more than the 95th percentile increased at the rate of 6.48%/°C. Results from comparing extreme precipitation for the pre- and post-dam, near reservoir area (NRA and away from the reservoir area (ARA imply an insignificant role of the TGR on rainfall extremes over the TGRA. Moreover, the impoundment of TGR did not exert detectable impacts on the surface relative humidity (RH and water vapor pressure (WP.

  9. Climate Extremes and Land-Use Change: Effects on Ecosystem Processes and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Michael; Erb, Karlheinz; Hasibeder, Roland; Mayr, Stefan; Niedertscheider, Maria; Oberhuber, Walter; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Tasser, Erich; Viovy, Nicolas; Wieser, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Extreme climatic events, in particular droughts and heatwaves, have significant impacts on ecosystem carbon and water cycles and a range of related ecosystem services. It is expected that in the coming decades the return intervals and severities of extreme droughts will increase substantially and may result in the passing of thresholds of ecosystem functioning, potentially causing legacy effects, which are so far poorly understood. Observational evidence suggests that different land cover types (forest, grassland) are differently influenced by extreme drought, but there is a lack of knowledge whether and how future, increasingly severe climate extremes will affect their concurrent and lagged responses, as well as land-use decisions determining future shifts in land cover. The ClimLUC project aims to understand how extreme summer drought affects carbon and water dynamics of mountain ecosystems under different land uses, and to analyse implications for ecosystem service provisioning. Overall, we hypothesize that land-use change alters the effects of extreme summer drought on ecosystem processes and the related services, grassland responding more rapidly and strongly but being more resilient to extreme drought than forest. To address the aims and hypotheses, we will 1) test experimentally how (a) a managed, (b) an abandoned mountain grassland and (c) an adjacent subalpine forest respond to a progressive extreme drought and will analyse threshold responses of carbon and water dynamics and their implications for ecosystem services (timber and fodder production, carbon sequestration, water provisioning); 2) quantify carry-over effects of the extreme event on ecosystem processes and services; 3) project and attribute future carbon and water cycle responses to extreme drought and related socio-economic changes, based on a process-based dynamic general vegetation model; 4) analyse the interrelation between land-use changes and the occurrence and severity of past and future

  10. Generalization of unconstrained reaching with hand-weight changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Wang, Qining; Lu, Zhengchuan; Stevenson, Ian H; Körding, Konrad; Wei, Kunlin

    2013-01-01

    Studies of motor generalization usually perturb hand reaches by distorting visual feedback with virtual reality or by applying forces with a robotic manipulandum. Whereas such perturbations are useful for studying how the central nervous system adapts and generalizes to novel dynamics, they are rarely encountered in daily life. The most common perturbations that we experience are changes in the weights of objects that we hold. Here, we use a center-out, free-reaching task, in which we can manipulate the weight of a participant's hand to examine adaptation and generalization following naturalistic perturbations. In both trial-by-trial paradigms and block-based paradigms, we find that learning converges rapidly (on a timescale of approximately two trials), and this learning generalizes mostly to movements in nearby directions with a unimodal pattern. However, contrary to studies using more artificial perturbations, we find that the generalization has a strong global component. Furthermore, the generalization is enhanced with repeated exposure of the same perturbation. These results suggest that the familiarity of a perturbation is a major factor in movement generalization and that several theories of the neural control of movement, based on perturbations applied by robots or in virtual reality, may need to be extended by incorporating prior influence that is characterized by the familiarity of the perturbation.

  11. Extreme Drought-induced Trend Changes in MODIS EVI Time Series in Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kaicheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Extreme climatic events triggered by global climate change are expected to increase significantly hence research into vegetation response is crucial to evaluate environmental risk. Yunnan province, locating in southwest China, experienced an extreme drought event (from autumn of 2009 to spring of 2010), with the lowest percentage rainfall anomaly and the longest non-rain days in the past 50 years. This study aimed to explore the characteristics and differences in the response to drought of four land cover types in Yunnan province, including forest, grassland, shrub, and cropland during the period 2001-2011. We used remote sensing data, MODIS-derived EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) to study the vegetation responses to this extreme drought event. The EVI time series were decomposed into trend, seasonal and remainder components using BFAST (Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend) which accounts for seasonality and enables the detection of trend changes within the time series. The preliminary results showed that: (1) BFAST proved to be capable of detecting drought-induced trend changes in EVI time series. (2) Changes in the trend component over time consisted of both gradual and abrupt changes. (3) Different spatial patterns were found for abrupt and gradual changes. (4) Cropland exhibited an abrupt change, due to its sensitivity to severe drought, while the forest seemed least affected by the extreme drought

  12. Changes in precipitation extremes projected by a 20-km mesh global atmospheric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Kitoh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution modeling is necessary to project weather and climate extremes and their future changes under global warming. A global high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model with grid size about 20 km is able to reproduce climate fields as well as regional-scale phenomena such as monsoonal rainfall, tropical and extratropical cyclones, and heavy precipitation. This 20-km mesh model is applied to project future changes in weather and climate extremes at the end of the 21st century with four different spatial patterns in sea surface temperature (SST changes: one with the mean SST changes by the 28 models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP-8.5 scenario, and the other three obtained from a cluster analysis, in which tropical SST anomalies derived from the 28 CMIP5 models were grouped. Here we focus on future changes in regional precipitation and its extremes. Various precipitation indices averaged over the Twenty-two regional land domains are calculated. Heavy precipitation indices (maximum 5-day precipitation total and maximum 1-day precipitation total increase in all regional domains, even where mean precipitation decrease (Southern Africa, South Europe/Mediterranean, Central America. South Asia is the domain of the largest extreme precipitation increase. In some domains, different SST patterns result in large precipitation changes, possibly related to changes in large-scale circulations in the tropical Pacific.

  13. High incidence of rickets in extremely low birth weight infants with severe parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Min; Namgung, Ran; Park, Min Soo; Eun, Ho Sun; Park, Kook In; Lee, Chul

    2012-12-01

    Risk factors for rickets of prematurity have not been re-examined since introduction of high mineral formula, particularly in ELBW infants. We analyzed the incidence and the risk factors of rickets in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. As a retrospective case-control study from 2004 to 2008, risk factors were analyzed in 24 patients with rickets versus 31 patients without. The frequency of rickets in ELBW infants was 24/55 (44%). Infants with rickets were diagnosed at 48.2 ± 16.1 days of age, and improved by 85.3 ± 25.3 days. By radiologic evaluation, 29% were grade 1 rickets, 58% grade 2 and 13% grade 3. In univariate analysis, infants with rickets had significantly higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC), severe PNAC and moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In multiple regression analysis, after adjustment for gestation and birth weight, rickets significantly correlated with severe PNAC and with moderate/severe BPD. Serum peak alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly elevated in rickets (P rickets of prematurity remains high and the incidence of severe PNAC and moderate/severe BPD was significantly increased 18 and 3 times, respectively.

  14. Regional Brain Biometrics at Term-Equivalent Age and Developmental Outcome in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, Launice; Murnick, Jonathan; Chang, Taeun; Glass, Penny; Massaro, An N

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate individual regional brain biometrics and their association with developmental outcome in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants. This is a retrospective study evaluating term-equivalent magnetic resonance imaging (TE-MRI) from 27 ELBW infants with known developmental outcomes beyond 12 months corrected age. Regional biometric measurements were performed by a pediatric neuroradiologist blinded to outcome data. Measures included biparietal width, transcerebellar diameter (TCD), deep gray matter area (DGMA), ventricular dilatation, corpus callosum, and interhemispheric distance. The relationship between regional biometrics and Bayley-II developmental scores were evaluated with linear regression models. The study cohort had an average±standard deviation birth weight of 684±150 g, gestational age of 24.6±2 weeks and 48% males. DGMA was significantly associated with both cognitive and motor outcomes. Significant associations were also observed between TCD and corpus callosum splenium with cognitive and motor outcomes, respectively. Other biometric measures were not associated with outcome (p>0.05). DGMAbiometrics reflecting impaired deep gray matter, callosal, and cerebellar size is associated with worse early childhood cognitive and motor outcomes. DGMA may be the most robust single biometric measure to predict adverse developmental outcome in preterm survivors. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Influence of climate variability versus change at multi-decadal time scales on hydrological extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that rainfall and hydrological extremes do not randomly occur in time, but are subject to multidecadal oscillations. In addition to these oscillations, there are temporal trends due to climate change. Design statistics, such as intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) for extreme rainfall or flow-duration-frequency (QDF) relationships, are affected by both types of temporal changes (short term and long term). This presentation discusses these changes, how they influence water engineering design and decision making, and how this influence can be assessed and taken into account in practice. The multidecadal oscillations in rainfall and hydrological extremes were studied based on a technique for the identification and analysis of changes in extreme quantiles. The statistical significance of the oscillations was evaluated by means of a non-parametric bootstrapping method. Oscillations in large scale atmospheric circulation were identified as the main drivers for the temporal oscillations in rainfall and hydrological extremes. They also explain why spatial phase shifts (e.g. north-south variations in Europe) exist between the oscillation highs and lows. Next to the multidecadal climate oscillations, several stations show trends during the most recent decades, which may be attributed to climate change as a result of anthropogenic global warming. Such attribution to anthropogenic global warming is, however, uncertain. It can be done based on simulation results with climate models, but it is shown that the climate model results are too uncertain to enable a clear attribution. Water engineering design statistics, such as extreme rainfall IDF or peak or low flow QDF statistics, obviously are influenced by these temporal variations (oscillations, trends). It is shown in the paper, based on the Brussels 10-minutes rainfall data, that rainfall design values may be about 20% biased or different when based on short rainfall series of 10 to 15 years length, and

  16. Climate Change Extreme Events: Meeting the Information Needs of Water Resource Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, R.; Garfin, G. M.; Dominguez, F.; Hirschboeck, K. K.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Guido, Z.; White, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Information about climate has long been used by water managers to develop short term and long term plans and strategies for regional and local water resources. Inherent within longer term forecasts is an element of uncertainty, which is particularly evident in Global Climate model results for precipitation. For example in the southwest estimates in the flow of the Colorado River based on GCM results indicate changes from 120% or current flow to 60%. Many water resource managers are now using global climate model down scaled estimates results as indications of potential climate change as part of that planning. They are addressing the uncertainty within these estimates by using an anticipatory planning approach looking at a range of possible futures. One aspect of climate that is important for such planning are estimates of future extreme storm (short term) and drought (long term) events. However, the climate science of future possible changes in extreme events is less mature than general climate change science. At a recent workshop among climate scientists and water managers in the southwest, it was concluded the science of climate change extreme events is at least a decade away from being robust enough to be useful for water managers in their water resource management activities. However, it was proposed that there are existing estimates and records of past flooding and drought events that could be combined with general climate change science to create possible future events. These derived events could be of sufficient detail to be used by water resource managers until such time that the science of extreme events is able to provide more detailed estimates. Based on the results of this workshop and other work being done by the Decision Center for a Desert City at Arizona State University and the Climate Assessment for the Southwest center at University of Arizona., this article will 1) review what are the extreme event data needs of Water Resource Managers in the

  17. Past and future climate change in the context of memorable seasonal extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Matthews

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that direct personal experience of extreme weather events could result in greater public engagement and policy response to climate change. Based on this premise, we present a set of future climate scenarios for Ireland communicated in the context of recent, observed extremes. Specifically, we examine the changing likelihood of extreme seasonal conditions in the long-term observational record, and explore how frequently such extremes might occur in a changed Irish climate according to the latest model projections. Over the period (1900–2014 records suggest a greater than 50-fold increase in the likelihood of the warmest recorded summer (1995, whilst the likelihood of the wettest winter (1994/95 and driest summer (1995 has respectively doubled since 1850. The most severe end-of-century climate model projections suggest that summers as cool as 1995 may only occur once every ∼7 years, whilst winters as wet as 1994/95 and summers as dry as 1995 may increase by factors of ∼8 and ∼10 respectively. Contrary to previous research, we find no evidence for increased wintertime storminess as the Irish climate warms, but caution that this conclusion may be an artefact of the metric employed. It is hoped that framing future climate scenarios in the context of extremes from living memory will help communicate the scale of the challenge climate change presents, and in so doing bridge the gap between climate scientists and wider society.

  18. Cyclones and extreme windstorm events over Europe under climate change: Global and regional climate model diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckebusch, G. C.; Ulbrich, U.

    2003-04-01

    More than any changes of the climate system mean state conditions, the development of extreme events may influence social, economic and legal aspects of our society. This linkage results from the impact of extreme climate events (natural hazards) on environmental systems which again are directly linked to human activities. Prominent examples from the recent past are the record breaking rainfall amounts of August 2002 in central Europe which produced widespread floodings or the wind storm Lothar of December 1999. Within the MICE (Modelling the Impact of Climate Extremes) project framework an assessment of the impact of changes in extremes will be done. The investigation is carried out for several different impact categories as agriculture, energy use and property damage. Focus is laid on the diagnostics of GCM and RCM simulations under different climate change scenarios. In this study we concentrate on extreme windstorms and their relationship to cyclone activity in the global HADCM3 as well as in the regional HADRM3 model under two climate change scenarios (SRESA2a, B2a). In order to identify cyclones we used an objective algorithm from Murry and Simmonds which was widely tested under several different conditions. A slight increase in the occurrence of systems is identified above northern parts of central Europe for both scenarios. For more severe systems (core pressure Spain) a shift to more deep cyclones connected with an increasing number of strong wind events is found.

  19. Future changes in Asian summer monsoon precipitation extremes as inferred from 20-km AGCM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Yuk Sing; Tam, Chi-Yung; Lau, Ngar-Cheung

    2018-04-01

    This study examines the impacts of climate change on precipitation extremes in the Asian monsoon region during boreal summer, based on simulations from the 20-km Meteorological Research Institute atmospheric general circulation model. The model can capture the summertime monsoon rainfall, with characteristics similar to those from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation. By comparing the 2075-2099 with the present-day climate simulations, there is a robust increase of the mean rainfall in many locations due to a warmer climate. Over southeastern China, the Baiu rainband, Bay of Bengal and central India, extreme precipitation rates are also enhanced in the future, which can be inferred from increases of the 95th percentile of daily precipitation, the maximum accumulated precipitation in 5 consecutive days, the simple daily precipitation intensity index, and the scale parameter of the fitted gamma distribution. In these regions, with the exception of the Baiu rainband, most of these metrics give a fractional change of extreme rainfall per degree increase of the lower-tropospheric temperature of 5 to 8.5% K-1, roughly consistent with the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. However, over the Baiu area extreme precipitation change scales as 3.5% K-1 only. We have also stratified the rainfall data into those associated with tropical cyclones (TC) and those with other weather systems. The AGCM gives an increase of the accumulated TC rainfall over southeastern China, and a decrease in southern Japan in the future climate. The latter can be attributed to suppressed TC occurrence in southern Japan, whereas increased accumulated rainfall over southeastern China is due to more intense TC rain rate under global warming. Overall, non-TC weather systems are the main contributor to enhanced precipitation extremes in various locations. In the future, TC activities over southeastern China tend to further

  20. Interactions of Mean Climate Change and Climate Variability on Food Security Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alexander C.; McDermid, Sonali; Mavromatis, Theodoros; Hudson, Nicholas; Morales, Monica; Simmons, John; Prabodha, Agalawatte; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahuja, Laj R.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing that climate change will affect agricultural systems both through mean changes and through shifts in climate variability and associated extreme events, we present preliminary analyses of climate impacts from a network of 1137 crop modeling sites contributed to the AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP). At each site sensitivity tests were run according to a common protocol, which enables the fitting of crop model emulators across a range of carbon dioxide, temperature, and water (CTW) changes. C3MP can elucidate several aspects of these changes and quantify crop responses across a wide diversity of farming systems. Here we test the hypothesis that climate change and variability interact in three main ways. First, mean climate changes can affect yields across an entire time period. Second, extreme events (when they do occur) may be more sensitive to climate changes than a year with normal climate. Third, mean climate changes can alter the likelihood of climate extremes, leading to more frequent seasons with anomalies outside of the expected conditions for which management was designed. In this way, shifts in climate variability can result in an increase or reduction of mean yield, as extreme climate events tend to have lower yield than years with normal climate.C3MP maize simulations across 126 farms reveal a clear indication and quantification (as response functions) of mean climate impacts on mean yield and clearly show that mean climate changes will directly affect the variability of yield. Yield reductions from increased climate variability are not as clear as crop models tend to be less sensitive to dangers on the cool and wet extremes of climate variability, likely underestimating losses from water-logging, floods, and frosts.

  1. Interdecadal Change in Extreme Precipitation over South China and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Liang; QIAN Yongfu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the daily precipitation data taken from 17 stations over South China during the period of 1961 2003, a sudden change in summer extreme precipitation events over South China in the early 1990s along with the possible mechanism connected with the anomalies of the latent heat flux over the South China Sea and the sensible heat flux over the Indochina peninsula are examined. The results show that both the annual and summer extreme precipitation events have obvious interdecadal variations and have increased significantly since the early 1990s. Moreover, the latent heat flux over the South China Sea and the sensible heat flux over the Indochina peninsula also have obvious interdecadal variations consistent with that of the extreme precipitation, and influence different months' extreme precipitation, respectively. Their effects are achieved by the interdecadal increases of the strengthening convection over South China through the South China Sea Summer Monsoon.

  2. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Ppressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all P<0.05). In this diet-induced weight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4 predicted more weight loss, but not weight regain among overweight and obese adults with normal thyroid function. These findings reveal a novel role of thyroid hormones in body weight regulation and may help identify individuals more responsive to weight loss diets.

  3. Quantifying the consequences of changing hydroclimatic extremes on protection levels for the Rhine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Hegnauer, Mark; Buiteveld, Hendrik; Lammersen, Rita; van den Boogaard, Henk; Beersma, Jules

    2017-04-01

    The Dutch method for quantifying the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of discharge extremes in the Rhine basin and the potential influence of climate change hereon are presented. In the Netherlands flood protection design requires estimates of discharge extremes for return periods of 1000 up to 100,000 years. Observed discharge records are too short to derive such extreme return discharges, therefore extreme value assessment is based on very long synthetic discharge time-series generated with the Generator of Rainfall And Discharge Extremes (GRADE). The GRADE instrument consists of (1) a stochastic weather generator based on time series resampling of historical f rainfall and temperature and (2) a hydrological model optimized following the GLUE methodology and (3) a hydrodynamic model to simulate the propagation of flood waves based on the generated hydrological time-series. To assess the potential influence of climate change, the four KNMI'14 climate scenarios are applied. These four scenarios represent a large part of the uncertainty provided by the GCMs used for the IPCC 5th assessment report (the CMIP5 GCM simulations under different climate forcings) and are for this purpose tailored to the Rhine and Meuse river basins. To derive the probability distributions of extreme discharges under climate change the historical synthetic rainfall and temperature series simulated with the weather generator are transformed to the future following the KNMI'14 scenarios. For this transformation the Advanced Delta Change method, which allows that the changes in the extremes differ from those in the means, is used. Subsequently the hydrological model is forced with the historical and future (i.e. transformed) synthetic time-series after which the propagation of the flood waves is simulated with the hydrodynamic model to obtain the extreme discharge statistics both for current and future climate conditions. The study shows that both for 2050 and 2085 increases in discharge

  4. Impacts of climate change on rainfall extremes and urban drainage systems: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Willems, P.; Olsson, J.

    2013-01-01

    A review is made of current methods for assessing future changes in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due to anthropogenic-induced climate change. The review concludes that in spite of significant advances there are still many limitations in our understanding of...... drainage infrastructure considering climate change impacts and co-optimizing these with other objectives will become ever more important to keep our cities habitable into the future. © IWA Publishing 2013....

  5. The role of body weight, fat distribution and weight change in ethnic differences in the 9-year incidence of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootveld, Laura R.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanne K.; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of body composition (body weight, fat distribution and weight change over time) in ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension in an ethnic Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background population living in the Netherlands. We included 361

  6. Have human activities changed the frequencies of absolute extreme temperatures in eastern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tett, Simon F. B.; Yan, Zhongwei; Feng, Jinming

    2018-01-01

    Extreme temperatures affect populous regions, like eastern China, causing substantial socio-economic losses. It is beneficial to explore whether the frequencies of absolute or threshold-based extreme temperatures have been changed by human activities, such as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this study, we compared observed and multi-model-simulated changes in the frequencies of summer days, tropical nights, icy days and frosty nights in eastern China for the years 1960-2012 by using an optimal fingerprinting method. The observed long-term trends in the regional mean frequencies of these four indices were +2.36, +1.62, -0.94, -3.02 days decade-1. The models performed better in simulating the observed frequency change in daytime extreme temperatures than nighttime ones. Anthropogenic influences are detectable in the observed frequency changes of these four temperature extreme indices. The influence of natural forcings could not be detected robustly in any indices. Further analysis found that the effects of GHGs changed the frequencies of summer days (tropical nights, icy days, frosty nights) by +3.48 ± 1.45 (+2.99 ± 1.35, -2.52 ± 1.28, -4.11 ± 1.48) days decade-1. Other anthropogenic forcing agents (dominated by anthropogenic aerosols) offset the GHG effect and changed the frequencies of these four indices by -1.53 ± 0.78, -1.49 ± 0.94, +1.84 ± 1.07, +1.45 ± 1.26 days decade-1, respectively. Little influence of natural forcings was found in the observed frequency changes of these four temperature extreme indices.

  7. Mortality and morbidity risks vary with birth weight standard deviation score in growth restricted extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Takuji; Itabashi, Kazuo; Kusuda, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    To assess whether the mortality and morbidity risks vary with birth weight standard deviation score (BWSDS) in growth restricted extremely preterm infants. This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study using the database of the Neonatal Research Network of Japan and including 9149 infants born between 2003 and 2010 at <28 weeks gestation. According to the BWSDSs, the infants were classified as: <-2.0, -2.0 to -1.5, -1.5 to -1.0, -1.0 to -0.5, and ≥-0.5. Infants with BWSDS≥-0.5 were defined as non-growth restricted group. After adjusting for covariates, the risks of mortality and some morbidities were different among the BWSDS groups. Compared with non-growth restricted group, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for mortality [aOR, 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-2.12] and chronic lung disease (CLD) (aOR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.54) were higher among the infants with BWSDS -1.5 to <-1.0. The aOR for severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.09-1.71) and sepsis (aOR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.32-2.24) were higher among the infants with BWSDS -2.0 to <-1.5. The aOR for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (aOR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.64-3.55) was increased at a BWSDS<-2.0. Being growth restricted extremely preterm infants confer additional risks for mortality and morbidities such as CLD, ROP, sepsis and NEC, and these risks may vary with BWSDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal and Spatial Pattern of Changes of Extreme Precipitation in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River Basin (YRB) during 1960 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Wu, S.; Wen, J.; Xu, M.; Tan, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Yangtze River is the longest river in China, with its river basin covering an area of 1.8 million sq km, encompassing about one fifth of China's total territory, one third of the nation's total population, and one quarter of its total arable land. Flooding resulted from extreme precipitation has always been a major problem for the middle and lower part of the YRB, particularly during the monsoon season of eastern China from May to August. Meanwhile, the relatively dense population and large cities in this region make the floods more deadly and costly. In this study we aim to establish the temporal and spatial patterns of changes in extreme precipitation in the middle and lower YRB using daily precipitation data from 71 stations in the area from 1960 to 2012. It is hoped that this study will provide useful information for better flood control. In this study, we defined and examined three major indices. Extreme precipitation frequency is defined as number of days per year with precipitation exceeding the 95th percentile for the base period of 1961 - 1990. Extreme precipitation amount is defined as the total amount of precipitation from these days. Extreme precipitation intensity is defined as the amount divided by frequency. We used non-parametric Thiel-Sen method to estimate the rate of change at each station, and Mann-Kendall test for the significance of the trend. Using Thiessen polygons, we also calculated the area-weighted mean of station trends to get the total trend for the entire study area. Abrupt changes in the time series was detected by using Mann-Kendall test and the Moving-t test methods. Our results show that there is an increasing trend of for the frequency, amount, and intensity of extreme precipitation in the study region. Of the three indicators, the extreme precipitation amount increased most, and its abrupt change point happened in1987. Between the period before and after 1987, the mean annual amount, intensity and frequency of extreme

  9. Analyses of Observed and Anticipated Changes in Extreme Climate Events in the Northwest Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmaveer Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, past (1970-2005 as well as future long term (2011-2099 trends in various extreme events of temperature and precipitation have been investigated over selected hydro-meteorological stations in the Sutlej river basin. The ensembles of two Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 models: third generation Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model and Hadley Centre Coupled Model have been used for simulation of future daily time series of temperature (maximum and minimum and precipitation under A2 emission scenario. Large scale atmospheric variables of both models and National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data sets have been downscaled using statistical downscaling technique at individual stations. A total number of 25 extreme indices of temperature (14 and precipitation (11 as specified by the Expert Team of the World Meteorological Organization and Climate Variability and Predictability are derived for the past and future periods. Trends in extreme indices are detected over time using the modified Mann-Kendall test method. The stations which have shown either decrease or no change in hot extreme events (i.e., maximum TMax, warm days, warm nights, maximum TMin, tropical nights, summer days and warm spell duration indicators for 1970–2005 and increase in cold extreme events (cool days, cool nights, frost days and cold spell duration indicators are predicted to increase and decrease respectively in the future. In addition, an increase in frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events is also predicted.

  10. Ghrelin gene: identification of missense variants and a frameshift mutation in extremely obese children and adolescents and healthy normal weight students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Anke; Hoch, Anne; Geller, Frank; Schäfer, Helmut; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Goldschmidt, Hanspeter; Remschmidt, Helmut; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2002-06-01

    Ghrelin induces obesity via central and peripheral mechanisms. Administration of ghrelin leads to increased food intake and decreased fat utilisation in rodents. Ghrelin levels are decreased in obese individuals. Recently, a polymorphism (Arg-51-Gln) within the ghrelin gene (GHRL) was described to be associated with obesity. We screened the GHRL coding region in 215 extremely obese German Children and adolescents (study group 1) and 93 normal weight students (study group 2) by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP). We found the two previously described single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP: Arg-51-Gln and Leu-72-Met) in similar frequencies in study groups 1 and 2 (allele frequencies were: 0.019 and 0.016 for the 51-Gln allele and 0.091 and 0.086 for the 72-Met allele, respectively). Hence, we could not confirm the previous finding. Additionally, two novel variants were identified within the coding region: (1) We detected one healthy normal weight individual with a frameshift mutation (2bp deletion at codon 34). This frameshift mutation affects the coding region of the mature ghrelin. Hence, it is highly likely that the normal weight student is haplo-insufficient for ghrelin. (2) An A to T transversion leads to an amino acid exchange from Gln to Leu at amino acid position 90. The frequency of the 90-Leu allele was significantly higher in the extremely obese children and adolescents (0.063) than in the normal weight students (0.016; nominal p = 0.011). Additionally, we genotyped 134 underweight students and 44 normal weight adults for this SNP. Genotype frequencies were similar in extremely obese children and adolescents, underweight students and normal weight adults (p > 0.8). In conclusion, we identified four sequence variants in the coding region of the ghrelin gene in individuals belonging to different weight extremes. A frameshift mutation was detected in a normal weight individual. None of the variants seem to influence weight regulation.

  11. Dynamically-downscaled projections of changes in temperature extremes over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junhong; Huang, Guohe; Wang, Xiuquan; Li, Yongping; Lin, Qianguo

    2018-02-01

    In this study, likely changes in extreme temperatures (including 16 indices) over China in response to global warming throughout the twenty-first century are investigated through the PRECIS regional climate modeling system. The PRECIS experiment is conducted at a spatial resolution of 25 km and is driven by a perturbed-physics ensemble to reflect spatial variations and model uncertainties. Simulations of present climate (1961-1990) are compared with observations to validate the model performance in reproducing historical climate over China. Results indicate that the PRECIS demonstrates reasonable skills in reproducing the spatial patterns of observed extreme temperatures over the most regions of China, especially in the east. Nevertheless, the PRECIS shows a relatively poor performance in simulating the spatial patterns of extreme temperatures in the western mountainous regions, where its driving GCM exhibits more uncertainties due to lack of insufficient observations and results in more errors in climate downscaling. Future spatio-temporal changes of extreme temperature indices are then analyzed for three successive periods (i.e., 2020s, 2050s and 2080s). The projected changes in extreme temperatures by PRECIS are well consistent with the results of the major global climate models in both spatial and temporal patterns. Furthermore, the PRECIS demonstrates a distinct superiority in providing more detailed spatial information of extreme indices. In general, all extreme indices show similar changes in spatial pattern: large changes are projected in the north while small changes are projected in the south. In contrast, the temporal patterns for all indices vary differently over future periods: the warm indices, such as SU, TR, WSDI, TX90p, TN90p and GSL are likely to increase, while the cold indices, such as ID, FD, CSDI, TX10p and TN10p, are likely to decrease with time in response to global warming. Nevertheless, the magnitudes of changes in all indices tend to

  12. A longitudinal study to explain strategies to change weight and muscles among normal weight and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M P; Ricciardelli, L A; Holt, K

    2005-12-01

    Previous research has indicated that both boys and girls strive for a slim body, with boys having an additional focus on a muscular body build. The current study was designed to evaluate the utility of a biopsychosocial model to explain body image and body change strategies among children. The study evaluated changes over time in body image and strategies to lose weight and increase muscles among 132 normal weight and 67 overweight boys (mean age = 9.23 years) and 158 normal weight and 55 overweight girls (mean age = 9.33 years). The predictive role of BMI, positive and negative affect, self-esteem and perceived sociocultural pressures to lose weight or increase muscle on body image and body change strategies over a 16 month period was evaluated. All participants completed the questionnaire on both occasions. The results demonstrated that both overweight boys and girls were more likely to be dissatisfied with their weight, place more importance on their weight, engage in more strategies to lose weight as well as perceive more pressure to lose weight. Overweight boys and girls were also more likely to report lower levels of self-esteem and positive affect, and higher levels of negative affect, and reported a reduction in their self-esteem over time. Regression analyses demonstrated that among overweight boys, low self-esteem and high levels of perceived pressure to lose weight predicted weight dissatisfaction; for overweight girls, weight dissatisfaction was also predicted by low levels of self-esteem. The implication of these findings in terms of factors contributing to the adoption of health risk behaviors among children is discussed.

  13. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  14. Linking increases in hourly precipitation extremes to atmospheric temperature and moisture changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenderink, Geert; Van Meijgaard, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Relations between hourly precipitation extremes and atmospheric temperature and moisture derived for the present-day climate are studied with the aim of understanding the behavior (and the uncertainty in predictions) of hourly precipitation extremes in a changing climate. A dependency of hourly precipitation extremes on the daily mean 2 m temperature of approximately two times the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation is found for temperatures above 10 deg. C. This is a robust relation obtained in four observational records across western Europe. A dependency following the CC relation can be explained by the observed increase in atmospheric (absolute) humidity with temperature, whereas the enhanced dependency (compared to the CC relation) appears to be caused by dynamical feedbacks owing to excess latent heat release in extreme showers. Integrations with the KNMI regional climate model RACMO2 at 25 km grid spacing show that changes in hourly precipitation extremes may indeed considerably exceed the prediction from the CC relation. The results suggests that increases of + 70% or even more are possible by the end of this century. However, a different regional model (CLM operated at ETHZ) predicts much smaller increases; this is probably caused by a too strong sensitivity of this model to a decrease in relative humidity.

  15. Climate change scenarios of precipitation extremes in Central Europe from ENSEMBLES regional climate models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaál, Ľ.; Beranová, R.; Hlavčová, K.; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 943487 (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 1687-9309 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:68378289 Keywords : precipitation extremes * regional climate models * climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.946, year: 2014

  16. Evaluation of modeled changes in extreme precipitation in Europe and the Rhine basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, van R.; Oldenborgh, van G.J.; Lenderink, G.; Hazeleger, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the change in multi-day precipitation extremes in late winter in Europe using observations and climate models. The objectives of the analysis are to determine whether climate models can accurately reproduce observed trends and, if not, to find the causes of the

  17. Potential impacts of climate change on extreme precipitation over four African coastal cities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abiodun, BJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impacts of climate change on characteristics of extreme precipitation events over four African coastal cities (Cape Town, Maputo, Lagos and Port Said) under two future climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Fourteen indices...

  18. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  19. Changes in management policies for extremely preterm births and neonatal outcomes from 2003 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonet, Mercedes; Cuttini, M; Piedvache, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate changes in maternity and neonatal unit policies towards extremely preterm infants (EPTI) between 2003 and 2012 and concurrent trends in their mortality and morbidity in ten European regions. DESIGN: population-based cohort studies in 2003 (MOSAIC study) and 2011/12 (EPIC...

  20. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  1. Estimation of the impact of climate change-induced extreme precipitation events on floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavčová, Kamila; Lapin, Milan; Valent, Peter; Szolgay, Ján; Kohnová, Silvia; Rončák, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In order to estimate possible changes in the flood regime in the mountainous regions of Slovakia, a simple physically-based concept for climate change-induced changes in extreme 5-day precipitation totals is proposed in the paper. It utilizes regionally downscaled scenarios of the long-term monthly means of the air temperature, specific air humidity and precipitation projected for Central Slovakia by two regional (RCM) and two global circulation models (GCM). A simplified physically-based model for the calculation of short-term precipitation totals over the course of changing air temperatures, which is used to drive a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, was proposed. In the paper a case study of this approach in the upper Hron river basin in Central Slovakia is presented. From the 1981-2010 period, 20 events of the basin's most extreme average of 5-day precipitation totals were selected. Only events with continual precipitation during 5 days were considered. These 5-day precipitation totals were modified according to the RCM and GCM-based scenarios for the future time horizons of 2025, 2050 and 2075. For modelling runoff under changed 5-day precipitation totals, a conceptual rainfall-runoff model developed at the Slovak University of Technology was used. Changes in extreme mean daily discharges due to climate change were compared with the original flood events and discussed.

  2. A plant's perspective of extremes: terrestrial plant responses to changing climatic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Christopher P O; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Rammig, Anja; Wolf, Annett; Bartholomeus, Ruud P; Bonfante, Antonello; de Lorenzi, Francesca; Dury, Marie; Gloning, Philipp; Abou Jaoudé, Renée; Klein, Tamir; Kuster, Thomas M; Martins, Monica; Niedrist, Georg; Riccardi, Maria; Wohlfahrt, Georg; de Angelis, Paolo; de Dato, Giovanbattista; François, Louis; Menzel, Annette; Pereira, Marízia

    2013-01-01

    We review observational, experimental, and model results on how plants respond to extreme climatic conditions induced by changing climatic variability. Distinguishing between impacts of changing mean climatic conditions and changing climatic variability on terrestrial ecosystems is generally underrated in current studies. The goals of our review are thus (1) to identify plant processes that are vulnerable to changes in the variability of climatic variables rather than to changes in their mean, and (2) to depict/evaluate available study designs to quantify responses of plants to changing climatic variability. We find that phenology is largely affected by changing mean climate but also that impacts of climatic variability are much less studied, although potentially damaging. We note that plant water relations seem to be very vulnerable to extremes driven by changes in temperature and precipitation and that heat-waves and flooding have stronger impacts on physiological processes than changing mean climate. Moreover, interacting phenological and physiological processes are likely to further complicate plant responses to changing climatic variability. Phenological and physiological processes and their interactions culminate in even more sophisticated responses to changing mean climate and climatic variability at the species and community level. Generally, observational studies are well suited to study plant responses to changing mean climate, but less suitable to gain a mechanistic understanding of plant responses to climatic variability. Experiments seem best suited to simulate extreme events. In models, temporal resolution and model structure are crucial to capture plant responses to changing climatic variability. We highlight that a combination of experimental, observational, and/or modeling studies have the potential to overcome important caveats of the respective individual approaches. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. A plant’s perspective of extremes: Terrestrial plant responses to changing climatic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, C.; Leuzinger, S.; Rammig, A.; Wolf, A.; Bartholomeus, R. P.; Bonfante, A.; de Lorenzi, F.; Dury, M.; Gloning, P.; Abou Jaoudé, R.; Klein, T.; Kuster, T. M.; Martins, M.; Niedrist, G.; Riccardi, M.; Wohlfahrt, G.; de Angelis, P.; de Dato, G.; François, L.; Menzel, A.; Pereira, M.

    2013-01-01

    We review observational, experimental and model results on how plants respond to extreme climatic conditions induced by changing climatic variability. Distinguishing between impacts of changing mean climatic conditions and changing climatic variability on terrestrial ecosystems is generally underrated in current studies. The goals of our review are thus (1) to identify plant processes that are vulnerable to changes in the variability of climatic variables rather than to changes in their mean, and (2) to depict/evaluate available study designs to quantify responses of plants to changing climatic variability. We find that phenology is largely affected by changing mean climate but also that impacts of climatic variability are much less studied but potentially damaging. We note that plant water relations seem to be very vulnerable to extremes driven by changes in temperature and precipitation and that heatwaves and flooding have stronger impacts on physiological processes than changing mean climate. Moreover, interacting phenological and physiological processes are likely to further complicate plant responses to changing climatic variability. Phenological and physiological processes and their interactions culminate in even more sophisticated responses to changing mean climate and climatic variability at the species and community level. Generally, observational studies are well suited to study plant responses to changing mean climate, but less suitable to gain a mechanistic understanding of plant responses to climatic variability. Experiments seem best suited to simulate extreme events. In models, temporal resolution and model structure are crucial to capture plant responses to changing climatic variability. We highlight that a combination of experimental, observational and /or modeling studies have the potential to overcome important caveats of the respective individual approaches. PMID:23504722

  4. Detection and Attribution of Climate Change : From global mean temperature change to climate extremes and high impact weather.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This talk will describe how evidence has grown in recent years for a human influence on climate and explain how the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that it is extremely likely (>95% probability) that human influence on climate has been the dominant cause of the observed global-mean warming since the mid-20th century. The fingerprint of human activities has also been detected in warming of the ocean, in changes in the global water cycle, in reductions in snow and ice, and in changes in some climate extremes. The strengthening of evidence for the effects of human influence on climate extremes is in line with long-held basic understanding of the consequences of mean warming for temperature extremes and for atmospheric moisture. Despite such compelling evidence this does not mean that every instance of high impact weather can be attributed to anthropogenic climate change, because climate variability is often a major factor in many locations, especially for rain...

  5. Neurodevelopmental sequelae in premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight at two years of age who left the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins 2009-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fernández Sierra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the neurodevelopmental sequelae in premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight at two years of age who left the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins. Materials and methods: A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study in a population of 190 premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight born from January 2009 to June 2014 who left the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and took part in the follow-up program. The psychomotor development, sensorineural hearing loss, retinopathy of prematurity, presence of cerebral palsy and convulsive syndrome were assessed. Results: The average weight at birth was 1,180.53 ± 212.40 grams with a gestational age of 29.86 ± 2.33 weeks, and 51.58% of the newborns were male. Forty-two point six three percent (42.63% of the premature newborns with very low weight showed retardation of psychomotor development; 25.26%, retinopathy; 13.68%, sensorineural hearing loss; 3.68%, cerebral palsy; and 3.68%, convulsive syndrome. Fifty-two point two seven percent (52.27% of the premature newborns with extremely low weight showed retardation of psychomotor development; 50%, retinopathy; 15.91%, sensorineural hearing loss; and 2.27%, convulsive syndrome. Conclusions: Retardation of psychomotor development and retinopathy were the most important complications shown by premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight at two years of age.

  6. Development of body weight support gait training system using pneumatic Mckibben actuators -control of lower extremity orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Dzahir, M A; Nobutomo, T; Yamamoto, S I

    2013-01-01

    Recently, robot assisted therapy devices are increasingly used for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in assisting handicapped patients to regain their impaired movements. Assistive robotic systems may not be able to cure or fully compensate impairments, but it should be able to assist certain impaired functions and ease movements. In this study, the control system of lower extremity orthosis for the body weight support gait training system which implements pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) is proposed. The hip and knee joint angles of the gait orthosis system are controlled based on the PAM coordinates information from the simulation. This information provides the contraction data for the mono- and bi-articular PAMs that are arranged as posterior and anterior actuators to simulate the human walking motion. The proposed control system estimates the actuators' contraction as a function of hip and knee joint angles. Based on the contraction model obtained, input pressures for each actuators are measured. The control system are performed at different gait cycles and two PMA settings for the mono- and bi-articular actuators are evaluated in this research. The results showed that the system was able to achieve the maximum muscle moment at the joints, and able to perform the heel contact movement. This explained that the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular actuators worked effectively.

  7. Early corticosteroid treatment does not affect severity of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulzebos, Christian V; Bos, Arend F; Anttila, Eija; Hallman, Mikko; Verkade, Henkjan J

    2011-02-01

    To determine the relationship between early postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment and the severity of hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants. In 54 ELBW preterm infants, total serum bilirubin concentrations (TSB) and phototherapy (PT) data during the first 10 days were evaluated retrospectively. ELBW infants had participated in a randomized controlled trial of early DXM treatment which aimed to assess effects on chronic lung disease. Infants had been treated with DXM (0.25 mg/kg twice daily at postnatal day 1 and 2) or with placebo (normal saline). Analysis was performed on an intention to treat basis. Twenty-five Infants had been randomized into the DXM group; 29 into the placebo group. Mean (±SD) TSB [120 (±19) μmol/L vs. 123 (±28) μmol/L, DXM versus placebo, respectively] and maximum TSB [178 (±23) μmol/L vs. 176 (±48), DXM versus placebo, respectively] concentrations were similar. TSB concentrations peaked 30 h earlier in the DXM group (p ≤ 0.05). The need for PT as well as the duration of PT was similar in both groups. Early DXM treatment does not affect the severity of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in ELBW preterm infants. Our results seem compatible with the concept that factors other than bilirubin conjugation capacity are important for the pathophysiology of neonatal jaundice in ELBW preterm infants. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  8. High frequencies of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and rickets exist in extremely low birth weight infants despite current nutritional support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Bruce R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, Methods We evaluated all ELBW infants admitted to Texas Children's Hospital NICU in 2006 and 2007. Of 211 admissions, we excluded 98 patients who were admitted at >30 days of age or did not survive/stay for >6 weeks. Bone radiographs obtained in 32 infants were reviewed by a radiologist masked to laboratory values. Results In this cohort of 113 infants, P-APA was found to have a significant inverse relationship with BW, gestational age and serum phosphorus. In paired comparisons, P-APA of infants Conclusion Elevation of P-APA >600 IU/L was very common in ELBW infants. BW was significantly inversely related to both P-APA and radiologic rickets. No single value of P-APA was related to radiological findings of rickets. Given the very high risk of osteopenia and rickets among ELBW infants, we recommend consideration of early screening and early mineral supplementation, especially among infants

  9. Attribution of Extreme Rainfall from Landfalling Tropical Cyclones to Climate Change for the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Yang, L.; Smith, J. A.; Vecchi, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme rainfall and flooding associated with landfalling tropical cyclones (TC) is responsible for vast socioeconomic losses and fatalities. Landfalling tropical cyclones are an important element of extreme rainfall and flood peak distributions in the eastern United States. Record floods for USGS stream gauging stations over the eastern US are closely tied to landfalling hurricanes. A small number of storms account for the largest record floods, most notably Hurricanes Diane (1955) and Agnes (1972). The question we address is: if the synoptic conditions accompanying those hurricanes were to be repeated in the future, how would the thermodynamic and dynamic storm properties and associated extreme rainfall differ in response to climate change? We examine three hurricanes: Diane (1955), Agnes (1972) and Irene (2011), due to the contrasts in structure/evolution properties and their important roles in dictating the upper tail properties of extreme rainfall and flood frequency over eastern US. Extreme rainfall from Diane is more localized as the storm maintains tropical characteristics, while synoptic-scale vertical motion associated with extratropical transition is a central feature for extreme rainfall induced by Agnes. Our analyses are based on ensemble simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, considering combinations of different physics options (i.e., microphysics, boundary layer schemes). The initial and boundary conditions of WRF simulations for the present-day climate are using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20thCR). A sub-selection of GCMs is used, as part of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), to provide future climate projections. For future simulations, changes in model fields (i.e., temperature, humidity, geopotential height) between present-day and future climate are first derived and then added to the same 20thCR initial and boundary data used for the present-day simulations, and the ensemble is

  10. Weight change and all-cause mortality in older adults: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This meta-analysis of observational cohort studies examined the association between weight change (weight loss, weight gain, and weight fluctuation) and all-cause mortality among older adults. We used PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify prospective studies published in...

  11. Adiposity, post-diagnosis weight change, and risk of cardiovascular events among early-stage breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Kwan, Marilyn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Weltzien, Erin K; Castillo, Adrienne L; Caan, Bette J

    2017-04-01

    Little research examines whether adiposity or post-diagnosis weight changes influence Cardiovascular disease (CVD) among breast cancer patients for whom effects may differ due to treatment and recovery. We studied Stage I-III breast cancer survivors 18 to  diagnosis and weight and waist circumference (WC) around 24 months post diagnosis. Using Cox models for time to incident coronary artery disease, heart failure, valve abnormality, arrhythmia, stroke, or CVD death, we examined at-diagnosis body mass index (BMI, n = 3109) and post-diagnosis WC (n = 1898) and weight change (n = 1903, stable, ±5 to  diagnosis, 25% of women gained and 14% lost ≥10-lbs; mean (SD) WC was 90 (15) cm. Over a median of 8.28 years, 915 women developed CVD. BMI 25-30-kg/m 2 (vs. BMI diagnosis weight change had no association with CVD. Extreme adiposity and any elevation in WC increased risk of CVD among breast cancer survivors; however, changes in weight in the early post-diagnosis period were not associated with CVD. Survivors with high WC and existing CVD risk factors should be monitored.

  12. Contributions of natural climate changes and human activities to the trend of extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Huang, Jie; Chen, Xingwei; Chen, Ying; Liu, Meibing

    2018-06-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of the nonstationarity characteristics of extreme precipitation and their attributions in the southeastern coastal region of China. The maximum daily precipitation (MDP) series is extracted from observations at 79 meteorological stations in the study area during the first flood season (April-June) from 1960 to 2012. The trends of the mean (Mn) and variance (Var) of MDP are detected using the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape parameters (GAMLSS) and Mann-Kendall test. The contributions of natural climate change and human activities to the Mn and Var changes of MDP are investigated using six large-scale circulation variables and emissions of four greenhouse gases based on GAMLSS and a contribution analysis method. The results demonstrate that the nonstationarity of extreme precipitation on local scales is significant. The Mn and Var of extreme precipitation increase in the north of Zhejiang, the middle of Fujian, and the south of Guangdong. In general, natural climate change contributes more to Mn from 1960 to 2012 than to Var. However, human activities cause a greater Var in the rapid socioeconomic development period (1986-2012) than in the slow socioeconomic development period (1960-1985), especially in Zhejiang and Guangdong. The community should pay more attention to the possibility of extreme precipitation events and associated disasters triggered by human activities.

  13. Evaluation of modeled changes in extreme precipitation in Europe and the Rhine basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haren, Ronald van; Oldenborgh, Geert Jan van; Lenderink, Geert; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the change in multi-day precipitation extremes in late winter in Europe using observations and climate models. The objectives of the analysis are to determine whether climate models can accurately reproduce observed trends and, if not, to find the causes of the difference in trends. Similarly to an earlier finding for mean precipitation trends, and despite a lower signal to noise ratio, climate models fail to reproduce the increase in extremes in much of northern Europe: the model simulations do not cover the observed trend in large parts of this area. A dipole in the sea-level pressure trend over continental Europe causes positive trends in extremes in northern Europe and negative trends in the Iberian Peninsula. Climate models have a much weaker pressure trend dipole and as a result a much weaker (extreme) precipitation response. The inability of climate models to correctly simulate observed changes in atmospheric circulation is also primarily responsible for the underestimation of trends in the Rhine basin. When it has been adjusted for the circulation trend mismatch, the observed trend is well within the spread of the climate model simulations. Therefore, it is important that we improve our understanding of circulation changes, in particular related to the cause of the apparent mismatch between observed and modeled circulation trends over the past century. (letter)

  14. Observed changes in seasonal heat waves and warm temperature extremes in the Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Dana; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cheval, Sorin

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high temperature have a large impact on environment and human activities, especially in high elevation areas particularly sensitive to the recent climate warming. The climate of the Romanian Carpathians became warmer particularly in winter, spring and summer, exibiting a significant increasing frequency of warm extremes. The paper investigates the seasonal changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves in relation to the shifts in the daily distribution of maximum temperatures over a 50-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2010). The paper uses the heat wave definition recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and exploits the gridded daily dataset of maximum temperature at 0.1° resolution (~10 km) developed in the framework of the CarpatClim project (www.carpatclim.eu). The seasonal changes in heat waves behavior were identified using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test. The results suggest an increase in heat wave frequency and a lengthening of intervals affected by warm temperature extremes all over the study region, which are explained by the shifts in the upper (extreme) tail of the daily maximum temperature distribution in most seasons. The trends are consistent across the region and are well correlated to the positive phases of the East Atlantic Oscillation. Our results are in good agreement with the previous temperature-related studies concerning the Carpathian region. This study was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM, financed by UEFISCDI, code PN-II 151/2014.

  15. 21st Century Changes in Precipitation Extremes Based on Resolved Atmospheric Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Schlosser, C. A.; O'Gorman, P. A.; Monier, E.

    2014-12-01

    Global warming is expected to alter the frequency and/or magnitude of extreme precipitation events. Such changes could have substantial ecological, economic, and sociological consequences. However, climate models in general do not correctly reproduce the frequency distribution of precipitation, especially at the regional scale. In this study, a validated analogue method is employed to diagnose the potential future shifts in the probability of extreme precipitation over the United States under global warming. The method is based on the use of the resolved large-scale meteorological conditions (i.e. flow features, moisture supply) to detect the occurrence of extreme precipitation. The CMIP5 multi-model projections have been compiled for two radiative forcing scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5). We further analyze the accompanying circulation features and their changes that may be responsible for shifts in extreme precipitation in response to changed climate. The application of such analogue method to detect other types of hazard events, i.e. landslides is also explored. The results from this study may guide hazardous weather watches and help society develop adaptive strategies for preventing catastrophic losses.

  16. Changes in job strain and subsequent weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2018-01-01

    in 1999 between those who were rarely v. sometimes v. often busy in 1993 (P=0·03), with the largest weight gain in individuals with sustained high busyness in both years. Loss of influence between 1993 and 1999 was associated with larger subsequent weight gain than sustained high influence (P=0......Objective: Obesity as well as job strain is increasing, and job strain might contribute to weight gain. The objective of the current study was to examine associations between longitudinal alterations in the components of job strain and subsequent weight gain. Design: The study was designed...... as a prospective cohort study with three questionnaire surveys enabling measurement of job-strain alterations over 6 years and subsequent measurements of weight gain after further 10 years of follow-up. ANCOVA and trend analyses were conducted. Job demands were measured as job busyness and speed, and control...

  17. Cluster analysis of behavioural weight management strategies and associations with weight change in young women: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, C D; Daley, A J; Kabir, E; Aveyard, P; Brown, W

    2015-11-01

    Maintaining a healthy weight is important for the prevention of many chronic diseases. Little is known about the strategies used by young women to manage their weight, or the effectiveness of these in preventing weight gain. We aimed to identify clusters of weight control strategies used by women and to determine the average annual weight change among women in each cluster from 2000 to 2009. Latent cluster analysis of weight control strategies reported by 8125 participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Analyses were performed in March-November 2014. Weight control strategies were used by 79% of the women, and four unique clusters were found. The largest cluster group (39.7%) was named dieters as 90% had been on a diet in the past year, and half of these women had lost 5 kg on purpose. Women cut down on size of meals, fats and sugars and took part in vigorous physical activity. Additionally 20% had used a commercial programme. The next largest cluster (30.2%) was the healthy living group who followed the public health messages of 'eat less and move more'. The do nothing group (20%) did not actively control their weight whereas the perpetual dieters group (10.7%) used all strategies, including unhealthy behaviours. On average women gained 700 g per year (over 9 years); however, the perpetual dieters group gained significantly more weight (210 g) than the do nothing group (Phealth guidelines on health eating and physical activity.

  18. Changes and Attribution of Extreme Precipitation in Climate Models: Subdaily and Daily Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Villarini, G.; Scoccimarro, E.; Vecchi, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events are responsible for numerous hazards, including flooding, soil erosion, and landslides. Because of their significant socio-economic impacts, the attribution and projection of these events is of crucial importance to improve our response, mitigation and adaptation strategies. Here we present results from our ongoing work.In terms of attribution, we use idealized experiments [pre-industrial control experiment (PI) and 1% per year increase (1%CO2) in atmospheric CO2] from ten general circulation models produced under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and the fraction of attributable risk to examine the CO2 effects on extreme precipitation at the sub-daily and daily scales. We find that the increased CO2 concentration substantially increases the odds of the occurrence of sub-daily precipitation extremes compared to the daily scale in most areas of the world, with the exception of some regions in the sub-tropics, likely in relation to the subsidence of the Hadley Cell. These results point to the large role that atmospheric CO2 plays in extreme precipitation under an idealized framework. Furthermore, we investigate the changes in extreme precipitation events with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) climate experiments using the scenarios consistent with the 1.5°C and 2°C temperature targets. We find that the frequency of annual extreme precipitation at a global scale increases in both 1.5°C and 2°C scenarios until around 2070, after which the magnitudes of the trend become much weaker or even negative. Overall, the frequency of global annual extreme precipitation is similar between 1.5°C and 2°C for the period 2006-2035, and the changes in extreme precipitation in individual seasons are consistent with those for the entire year. The frequency of extreme precipitation in the 2°C experiments is higher than for the 1.5°C experiment after the late 2030s, particularly for the period 2071-2100.

  19. Extreme wildfire events are linked to global-change-type droughts in the northern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffault, Julien; Curt, Thomas; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K.; Moron, Vincent; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2018-03-01

    Increasing drought conditions under global warming are expected to alter the frequency and distribution of large and high-intensity wildfires. However, our understanding of the impact of increasing drought on extreme wildfires events remains incomplete. Here, we analyzed the weather conditions associated with the extreme wildfires events that occurred in Mediterranean France during the exceptionally dry summers of 2003 and 2016. We identified that these fires were related to two distinct shifts in the fire weather space towards fire weather conditions that had not been explored before and resulting from specific interactions between different types of drought and different fire weather types. In 2016, a long-lasting press drought intensified wind-driven fires. In 2003, a hot drought combining a heat wave with a press drought intensified heat-induced fires. Our findings highlight that increasing drought conditions projected by climate change scenarios might affect the dryness of fuel compartments and lead to a higher frequency of extremes wildfires events.

  20. Projected changes in climate extremes over Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundeti, K.; Kanikicharla, K. K.; Al sulaiti, M.; Khulaifi, M.; Alboinin, N.; Kito, A.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the State of Qatar and the adjacent region is dominated by subtropical dry, hot desert climate with low annual rainfall, very high temperatures in summer and a big difference between maximum and minimum temperatures, especially in the inland areas. The coastal areas are influenced by the Arabian Gulf, and have lower maximum, but higher minimum temperatures and a higher moisture percentage in the air. The global warming can have profound impact on the mean climate as well as extreme weather events over the Arabian Peninsula that may affect both natural and human systems significantly. Therefore, it is important to assess the future changes in the seasonal/annual mean of temperature and precipitation and also the extremes in temperature and wind events for a country like Qatar. This study assesses the performance of the Coupled Model Inter comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations in present and develops future climate scenarios. The changes in climate extremes are assessed for three future periods 2016-2035, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099 with respect to 1986-2005 (base line) under two RCPs (Representative Concentrate Pathways) - RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We analyzed the projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes using several indices including those that capture heat stress. The observations show an increase in warm extremes over many parts in this region that are generally well captured by the models. The results indicate a significant change in frequency and intensity of both temperature and precipitation extremes over many parts of this region which may have serious implications on human health, water resources and the onshore/offshore infrastructure in this region. Data from a high-resolution (20km) AGCM simulation from Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency for the present (1979-2003) and a future time slice (2075-2099) corresponding to RCP8.5 have also been utilized to assess the impact of climate change on

  1. Addressing extreme precipitation change under future climates in the Upper Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Yuan, Z.; Gao, X.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating the impact of climate change on extreme precipitation accurately is of importance for application purposes such as flooding mitigation and urban drainage system design. In this paper, a systematical analysis framework to assess the impact of climate change on extreme precipitation events is developed and practiced in the Upper Yangtze River Basin (UYRB) in China. Firstly, the UYRB is gridded and five extreme precipitation indices (annual maximum 3- 5- 7- 15- and 30-day precipitation) are selected. Secondly, with observed precipitation from China's Ground Precipitation 0.5°×0.5° Gridded Dataset (V2.0) and simulated daily precipitation from ten general circulation models (GCMs) of CMIP5, A regionally efficient GCM is selected for each grid by the skill score (SS) method which maximizes the overlapped area of probability density functions of extreme precipitation indices between observations and simulations during the historical period. Then, simulations of assembled efficient GCMs are bias corrected by Equidistant Cumulative Distribution Function method. Finally, the impact of climate change on extreme precipitation is analyzed. The results show that: (1) the MRI-CGCM3 and MIROC-ESM perform better in the UYRB. There are 19.8 to 20.9% and 14.2 to 18.7% of all grids regard this two GCMs as regionally efficient GCM for the five indices, respectively. Moreover, the regionally efficient GCMs are spatially distributed. (2) The assembled GCM performs much better than any single GCM, with the SS>0.8 and SS>0.6 in more than 65 and 85 percent grids. (3) Under the RCP4.5 scenario, the extreme precipitation of 50-year and 100-year return period is projected to increase in most areas of the UYRB in the future period, with 55.0 to 61.3% of the UYRB increasing larger than 10 percent for the five indices. The changes are spatially and temporal distributed. The upstream region of the UYRB has a relatively significant increase compared to the downstream basin, while

  2. Diet quality, physical activity, smoking status, and weight fluctuation are associated with weight change in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Newby, P K; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Jasuja, Guneet K; Pencina, Michael J; McKeon-O'Malley, Catherine; Fox, Caroline S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Millen, Barbara E

    2010-07-01

    The effect of diet quality on weight change, relative to other body weight determinants, is insufficiently understood. Furthermore, research on long-term weight change in U.S. adults is limited. We evaluated prospectively patterns and predictors of weight change in Framingham Offspring/Spouse (FOS) women and men (n = 1515) aged > or =30 y with BMI > or = 18.5 kg/m2 and without cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline over a 16-y period. Diet quality was assessed using the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score. In women, older age (P Diet quality interacted with former smoking status (P-interaction = 0.02); former smokers with lower diet quality gained an additional 5.2 kg compared with those with higher diet quality (multivariable-adjusted P-trend = 0.06). Among men, older age (P smoking (P smoking status (P smoking status in men were stronger predictors of weight change than diet quality among FOS adults. Women who stopped smoking over follow-up and had poor diet quality gained the most weight. Preventive interventions need to be sex-specific and consider lifestyle factors.

  3. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate change impact assessment on urban rainfall extremes and urban drainage: Methods and shortcomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, P.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Olsson, J.

    2012-01-01

    Cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding because of rapid urbanization, installation of complex infrastructure, and changes in the precipitation patterns caused by anthropogenic climate change. The present paper provides a critical review of the current state-of-the-art methods...... for assessing the impacts of climate change on precipitation at the urban catchment scale. Downscaling of results from global circulation models or regional climate models to urban catchment scales are needed because these models are not able to describe accurately the rainfall process at suitable high temporal...... and spatial resolution for urban drainage studies. The downscaled rainfall results are however highly uncertain, depending on the models and downscaling methods considered. This uncertainty becomes more challenging for rainfall extremes since the properties of these extremes do not automatically reflect those...

  5. Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in western central Africa, Guinea Conakry, and Zimbabwe, 1955-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, E.; Aziz Barry, A.; Brunet, M.; Ekang, L.; Fernandes, A.; Massoukina, M.; Mbah, J.; Mhanda, A.; Do Nascimento, D. J.; Peterson, T. C.; Thamba Umba, O.; Tomou, M.; Zhang, X.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how extremes are changing globally, regionally, and locally is an important first step for planning appropriate adaptation measures, as changes in extremes have major impacts. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's synthesis of global extremes was not able to say anything about western central Africa, as no analysis of the region was available nor was there an adequate internationally exchanged long-term daily data set available to use for analysis of extremes. This paper presents the first analysis of extremes in this climatically important region along with analysis of Guinea Conakry and Zimbabwe. As per many other parts of the world, the analysis shows a decrease in cold extremes and an increase in warm extremes. However, while the majority of the analyzed world has shown an increase in heavy precipitation over the last half century, central Africa showed a decrease. Furthermore, the companion analysis of Guinea Conakry and Zimbabwe showed no significant increases.

  6. Does gastric bypass surgery change body weight set point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z; Mumphrey, M B; Morrison, C D; Münzberg, H; Ye, J; Berthoud, H R

    2016-12-01

    The relatively stable body weight during adulthood is attributed to a homeostatic regulatory mechanism residing in the brain which uses feedback from the body to control energy intake and expenditure. This mechanism guarantees that if perturbed up or down by design, body weight will return to pre-perturbation levels, defined as the defended level or set point. The fact that weight re-gain is common after dieting suggests that obese subjects defend a higher level of body weight. Thus, the set point for body weight is flexible and likely determined by the complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Unlike dieting, bariatric surgery does a much better job in producing sustained suppression of food intake and body weight, and an intensive search for the underlying mechanisms has started. Although one explanation for this lasting effect of particularly Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is simple physical restriction due to the invasive surgery, a more exciting explanation is that the surgery physiologically reprograms the body weight defense mechanism. In this non-systematic review, we present behavioral evidence from our own and other studies that defended body weight is lowered after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy. After these surgeries, rodents return to their preferred lower body weight if over- or underfed for a period of time, and the ability to drastically increase food intake during the anabolic phase strongly argues against the physical restriction hypothesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Although the mechanism involves central leptin and melanocortin signaling pathways, other peripheral signals such as gut hormones and their neural effector pathways likely contribute. Future research using both targeted and non-targeted 'omics' techniques in both humans and rodents as well as modern, genetically targeted, neuronal manipulation techniques in rodents will be necessary.

  7. The Relationship of Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Pregnancy Weight Gain to Neurocognitive Function at Age 10 Years among Children Born Extremely Preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Elizabeth T; van der Burg, Jelske W; O'Shea, Thomas M; Joseph, Robert M; Allred, Elizabeth N; Heeren, Tim; Leviton, Alan; Kuban, Karl C K

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and adequacy of pregnancy weight gain in relation to neurocognitive function in school-aged children born extremely preterm. STUDY DESIGN: Study participants were 535 ten-year-old children enrolled previously in the

  8. Change in Body Weight Does Not Mediate the Relationship Between Exercise and Smoking Cessation Among Weight-Concerned Women Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Rebecca L; Levine, Michele D; Cheng, Yu; Marcus, Marsha D

    2015-09-01

    Exercise has received attention as a method to prevent or reduce postcessation weight gain. However, little is known about how weight changes following quit attempts contribute to the relationship between exercise and smoking cessation. The present study assessed how exercise relates to cessation and whether initial changes in exercise after quitting smoking promote cessation through attenuated weight gain. Weight-concerned women smokers (N = 342) receiving cessation treatment provided biochemical validation of cessation, reported weekly exercise activities, and were weighed at 1, 3, and 6 months following treatment initiation. Survival analyses were used to determine time to and risk of relapse among women who reported engaging in varied levels of exercise at baseline. A mediation analysis was used to examine whether the effect of initial changes in exercise on longer-term cessation was driven by change in weight. All analyses were adjusted for relevant covariates. Women smokers who reported high levels of exercise at baseline were less likely to relapse and returned to smoking more gradually than did women who reported low levels of exercise. Change in weight did not mediate the relationship between exercise and cessation. Cessation interventions utilizing an exercise component may have to develop exercise regimens of either higher duration or greater intensity to produce beneficial cessation outcomes, particularly when targeting sedentary smokers. Given that change in weight did not mediate the relationship between exercise and cessation, it is likely that other mediational processes are involved. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A system for automatically recording weight changes in sapling trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold F. Haupt; Bud L. Jeffers

    1967-01-01

    Describes an accurate and simple system for taking continuous weight records of sapling-size trees. Measurements obtained using this system have helped in describing the mechanism of interception storage in tree crowns during snowfall.

  10. Will climate change increase the risk for critical infrastructure failures in Europe due to extreme precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Katrin; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    An event based detection algorithm for extreme precipitation is applied to a multi-model ensemble of regional climate model simulations. The algorithm determines extent, location, duration and severity of extreme precipitation events. We assume that precipitation in excess of the local present-day 10-year return value will potentially exceed the capacity of the drainage systems that protect critical infrastructure elements. This assumption is based on legislation for the design of drainage systems which is in place in many European countries. Thus, events exceeding the local 10-year return value are detected. In this study we distinguish between sub-daily events (3 hourly) with high precipitation intensities and long-duration events (1-3 days) with high precipitation amounts. The climate change simulations investigated here were conducted within the EURO-CORDEX framework and exhibit a horizontal resolution of approximately 12.5 km. The period between 1971-2100 forced with observed and scenario (RCP 8.5 and RCP 4.5) greenhouse gas concentrations was analysed. Examined are changes in event frequency, event duration and size. The simulations show an increase in the number of extreme precipitation events for the future climate period over most of the area, which is strongest in Northern Europe. Strength and statistical significance of the signal increase with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. This work has been conducted within the EU project RAIN (Risk Analysis of Infrastructure Networks in response to extreme weather).

  11. Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Human Health Implications in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina

    2016-03-01

    The Asia Pacific region is regarded as the most disaster-prone area of the world. Since 2000, 1.2 billion people have been exposed to hydrometeorological hazards alone through 1215 disaster events. The impacts of climate change on meteorological phenomena and environmental consequences are well documented. However, the impacts on health are more elusive. Nevertheless, climate change is believed to alter weather patterns on the regional scale, giving rise to extreme weather events. The impacts from extreme weather events are definitely more acute and traumatic in nature, leading to deaths and injuries, as well as debilitating and fatal communicable diseases. Extreme weather events include heat waves, cold waves, floods, droughts, hurricanes, tropical cyclones, heavy rain, and snowfalls. Globally, within the 20-year period from 1993 to 2012, more than 530 000 people died as a direct result of almost 15 000 extreme weather events, with losses of more than US$2.5 trillion in purchasing power parity. © 2015 APJPH.

  12. Antarctic Climate Change: Extreme Events Disrupt Plastic Phenotypic Response in Adélie Penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroël, Amélie; Ballard, Grant; Grémillet, David; Authier, Matthieu; Ainley, David G.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of predicted alteration of sea ice cover and increased frequency of extreme events, it is especially timely to investigate plasticity within Antarctic species responding to a key environmental aspect of their ecology: sea ice variability. Using 13 years of longitudinal data, we investigated the effect of sea ice concentration (SIC) on the foraging efficiency of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) breeding in the Ross Sea. A ‘natural experiment’ brought by the exceptional presence of giant icebergs during 5 consecutive years provided unprecedented habitat variation for testing the effects of extreme events on the relationship between SIC and foraging efficiency in this sea-ice dependent species. Significant levels of phenotypic plasticity were evident in response to changes in SIC in normal environmental conditions. Maximum foraging efficiency occurred at relatively low SIC, peaking at 6.1% and decreasing with higher SIC. The ‘natural experiment’ uncoupled efficiency levels from SIC variations. Our study suggests that lower summer SIC than currently observed would benefit the foraging performance of Adélie penguins in their southernmost breeding area. Importantly, it also provides evidence that extreme climatic events can disrupt response plasticity in a wild seabird population. This questions the predictive power of relationships built on past observations, when not only the average climatic conditions are changing but the frequency of extreme climatic anomalies is also on the rise. PMID:24489657

  13. Antarctic climate change: extreme events disrupt plastic phenotypic response in Adélie penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Lescroël

    Full Text Available In the context of predicted alteration of sea ice cover and increased frequency of extreme events, it is especially timely to investigate plasticity within Antarctic species responding to a key environmental aspect of their ecology: sea ice variability. Using 13 years of longitudinal data, we investigated the effect of sea ice concentration (SIC on the foraging efficiency of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae breeding in the Ross Sea. A 'natural experiment' brought by the exceptional presence of giant icebergs during 5 consecutive years provided unprecedented habitat variation for testing the effects of extreme events on the relationship between SIC and foraging efficiency in this sea-ice dependent species. Significant levels of phenotypic plasticity were evident in response to changes in SIC in normal environmental conditions. Maximum foraging efficiency occurred at relatively low SIC, peaking at 6.1% and decreasing with higher SIC. The 'natural experiment' uncoupled efficiency levels from SIC variations. Our study suggests that lower summer SIC than currently observed would benefit the foraging performance of Adélie penguins in their southernmost breeding area. Importantly, it also provides evidence that extreme climatic events can disrupt response plasticity in a wild seabird population. This questions the predictive power of relationships built on past observations, when not only the average climatic conditions are changing but the frequency of extreme climatic anomalies is also on the rise.

  14. Changes in muscle strength after diet-induced weight reduction in adult men with obesity: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim B

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bokun Kim,1 Takehiko Tsujimoto,2,3 Rina So,4 Xiaoguang Zhao,5 Sechang Oh,6,7 Kiyoji Tanaka2 1Faculty of Sports Health Care, Inje University, Gyeongsangnamdo, Republic of Korea; 2Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 3Faculty of Human Sciences, Shimane University, Shimane, 4Research Center for Overwork-Related Disorders, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 5Doctoral Program in Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, 6Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 7The Center of Sports Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Tsukuba Hospital, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Background and objective: The benefits of weight reduction for musculoskeletal disorders are well understood. Steep declines in muscle mass following considerable weight reduction can decrease muscle strength and, consequently, physical performance. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the changes in muscle mass and strength in the context of interventional weight reduction programs. Thus, we investigated the influence of muscle mass decrease caused by diet-induced weight reduction on muscle strength in obese men.Methods: A total of 24 men with obesity (body mass index [BMI]: 29.2 ± 2.6 kg/m2; age: 52.4 ± 10.0 years attended a 12-week weight reduction program that implemented dietary restrictions. Each participant underwent assessments of body weight (by a digital scale, body composition (by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA], and upper and lower extremity muscle strength (by a hand-held dynamometer and a Biodex System 3 dynamometer, respectively before and after the program.Results: The program led to significant reductions of 10.5% of weight and 6.1% of lower extremity muscle mass. Similarly, lower extremity muscle strength (measured using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer was significantly decreased (isometric 60° peak torque decreased by 10% and

  15. Postpartum behaviour as predictor of weight change from before pregnancy to one year postpartum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althuizen, E.; Poppel, M.N.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.; Mechelen, van W.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Postpartum weight retention affects many women and increases the risk of becoming overweight. The research objective was to study modifiable factors contributing to weight change at one year postpartum. Methods - In this prospective cohort, postpartum behavior, such as physical

  16. Statistical assessment of changes in extreme maximum temperatures over Saudi Arabia, 1985-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggad, Bechir

    2018-05-01

    In this study, two statistical approaches were adopted in the analysis of observed maximum temperature data collected from fifteen stations over Saudi Arabia during the period 1985-2014. In the first step, the behavior of extreme temperatures was analyzed and their changes were quantified with respect to the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection Monitoring indices. The results showed a general warming trend over most stations, in maximum temperature-related indices, during the period of analysis. In the second step, stationary and non-stationary extreme-value analyses were conducted for the temperature data. The results revealed that the non-stationary model with increasing linear trend in its location parameter outperforms the other models for two-thirds of the stations. Additionally, the 10-, 50-, and 100-year return levels were found to change with time considerably and that the maximum temperature could start to reappear in the different T-year return period for most stations. This analysis shows the importance of taking account the change over time in the estimation of return levels and therefore justifies the use of the non-stationary generalized extreme value distribution model to describe most of the data. Furthermore, these last findings are in line with the result of significant warming trends found in climate indices analyses.

  17. Expected changes in future temperature extremes and their elevation dependency over the Yellow River source region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM and the outputs from two global climate models, we investigate possible changes in mean and extreme temperature indices and their elevation dependency over the Yellow River source region for the two future periods 2046–2065 and 2081–2100 under the IPCC SRES A2, A1B and B1 emission scenarios. Changes in interannual variability of mean and extreme temperature indices are also analyzed. The validation results show that SDSM performs better in reproducing the maximum temperature-related indices than the minimum temperature-related indices. The projections show that by the middle and end of the 21st century all parts of the study region may experience increases in both mean and extreme temperature in all seasons, along with an increase in the frequency of hot days and warm nights and with a decrease in frost days. By the end of the 21st century, interannual variability increases in all seasons for the frequency of hot days and warm nights and in spring for frost days while it decreases for frost days in summer. Autumn demonstrates pronounced elevation-dependent changes in which around six out of eight indices show significant increasing changes with elevation.

  18. An 8-month history of meningitis in an extremely low birth weight infant? - Long-lasting Infection with Ureaplasma parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, K; Wohlleben, M; Speer, C P

    2015-02-01

    Ureaplasma spp. have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both preterm labor and neonatal morbidity including pneumonia and sepsis and the development of chronic lung disease of prematurity. Data on Ureaplasma meningitis are limited and partly controversially discussed. We report the unique case of a 9-month-old infant with progressive internal hydrocephalus of unknown origin and developmental delay due to a history of>200 days of inflammation of the central nervous system. The female extremely low birth weight infant had been referred to our hospital for ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation. She had been born at 26+3 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 940 g. With the exception of a moderate respiratory distress syndrome, postnatal period had been reported uneventful. However, internal hydrocephalus had become manifest at 4 weeks of postnatal age. Intraventricular hemorrhage had not been documented by cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis had repetitively revealed pronounced inflammation reflected by pleocytosis (50-86 leukocytes/μL, 60% lymphocytes), CSF protein levels of 578-1,026 mg/dL and undetectable CSF glucose. Although suggesting bacterial meningitis, microbial diagnostics had not been indicative, and empirical antibiotics had not affected the CSF findings. On admission to our hospital, CSF analysis still documented significant inflammation (125 leukocytes/μL, CSF protein 565 mg/dL, CSF glucoseUreaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis. U. parvum was detected in CSF by culture and PCR, no other pathogens were isolated. On intravenous treatment with chloramphenicol, CSF profile continuously normalized, and cultures and PCR became negative. Treatment was continued for 3 weeks, and the infant was discharged after uncomplicated ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. During a 12-month observation period she has shown encouraging recovery. In preterm infants, in particular, internal hydrocephalus of

  19. Effects of Progressive Body Weight Support Treadmill Forward and Backward Walking Training on Stroke Patients' Affected Side Lower Extremity's Walking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Lee, Kyoungbo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of progressive body weight supported treadmill forward and backward walking training (PBWSTFBWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill forward walking training (PBWSTFWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill backward walking training (PBWSTBWT), on stroke patients' affected side lower extremity's walking ability. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 36 chronic stroke patients were divided into three groups with 12 subjects in each group. Each of the groups performed one of the progressive body weight supported treadmill training methods for 30 minute, six times per week for three weeks, and then received general physical therapy without any other intervention until the follow-up tests. For the assessment of the affected side lower extremity's walking ability, step length of the affected side, stance phase of the affected side, swing phase of the affected side, single support of the affected side, and step time of the affected side were measured using optogait and the symmetry index. [Results] In the within group comparisons, all the three groups showed significant differences between before and after the intervention and in the comparison of the three groups, the PBWSTFBWT group showed more significant differences in all of the assessed items than the other two groups. [Conclusion] In the present study progressive body weight supported treadmill training was performed in an environment in which the subjects were actually walked, and PBWSTFBWT was more effective at efficiently training stroke patients' affected side lower extremity's walking ability.

  20. The Future of Coral Reefs Subject to Rapid Climate Change: Lessons from Natural Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. Camp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change and localized anthropogenic stressors are driving rapid declines in coral reef health. In vitro experiments have been fundamental in providing insight into how reef organisms will potentially respond to future climates. However, such experiments are inevitably limited in their ability to reproduce the complex interactions that govern reef systems. Studies examining coral communities that already persist under naturally-occurring extreme and marginal physicochemical conditions have therefore become increasingly popular to advance ecosystem scale predictions of future reef form and function, although no single site provides a perfect analog to future reefs. Here we review the current state of knowledge that exists on the distribution of corals in marginal and extreme environments, and geographic sites at the latitudinal extremes of reef growth, as well as a variety of shallow reef systems and reef-neighboring environments (including upwelling and CO2 vent sites. We also conduct a synthesis of the abiotic data that have been collected at these systems, to provide the first collective assessment on the range of extreme conditions under which corals currently persist. We use the review and data synthesis to increase our understanding of the biological and ecological mechanisms that facilitate survival and success under sub-optimal physicochemical conditions. This comprehensive assessment can begin to: (i highlight the extent of extreme abiotic scenarios under which corals can persist, (ii explore whether there are commonalities in coral taxa able to persist in such extremes, (iii provide evidence for key mechanisms required to support survival and/or persistence under sub-optimal environmental conditions, and (iv evaluate the potential of current sub-optimal coral environments to act as potential refugia under changing environmental conditions. Such a collective approach is critical to better understand the future survival of

  1. Body Weight Can Change How Your Emotions Are Perceived.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujung Oh

    Full Text Available Accurately interpreting other's emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions. We hypothesized that the weight perceived in a face would bias the assessment of an emotional expression, with overweight faces generally more likely to be perceived as having more positive and less negative expressions than healthy weight faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants were asked to sort the emotional expressions of overweight and healthy weight facial stimuli that had been gradually morphed across six emotional intensity levels into one of two categories-"neutral vs. happy" (Experiment 1 and "neutral vs. sad" (Experiment 2. As predicted, our results demonstrated that overweight faces were more likely to be categorized as happy (i.e., lower happy decision threshold and less likely to be categorized as sad (i.e., higher sad decision threshold compared to healthy weight faces that had the same levels of emotional intensity. The neutral-sad decision threshold shift was negatively correlated with participant's own fear of becoming fat, that is, those without a fear of becoming fat more strongly perceived overweight faces as sad relative to those with a higher fear. These findings demonstrate that the weight of the face systematically influences how its emotional expression is interpreted, suggesting that being overweight may make emotional expressions appear more happy and less sad than they really are.

  2. Wearing a safety harness during treadmill walking influences lower extremity kinematics mainly through changes in ankle regularity and local stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decker Leslie M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wearing a harness during treadmill walking ensures the subject's safety and is common practice in biomedical engineering research. However, the extent to which such practice influences gait is unknown. This study investigated harness-related changes in gait patterns, as evaluated from lower extremity kinematics during treadmill walking. Findings Healthy subjects (n = 10 walked on a treadmill at their preferred speed for 3 minutes with and without wearing a harness (LiteGait®, Mobility Research, Inc.. In the former condition, no weight support was provided to the subjects. Lower extremity kinematics was assessed in the sagittal plane from the mean (meanRoM, standard deviation (SDRoM and coefficient of variation (CoVRoM of the hip, knee, and ankle ranges of motion (RoM, as well as from the sample entropy (SampEn and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE of the joints' angles. Wearing the harness increased the meanRoM of the hip, the SDRoM and the CoVRoM of the knee, and the SampEn and the LyE of the ankle. In particular, the harness effect sizes for both the SampEn and the LyE of the ankle were large, likely reflecting a meaningful decline in the neuromuscular stabilizing control of this joint. Conclusions Wearing a harness during treadmill walking marginally influences lower extremity kinematics, resulting in more or less subtle changes in certain kinematic variables. However, in cases where differences in gait patterns would be expressed through modifications in these variables, having subjects walk with a harness may mask or reinforce such differences.

  3. Projected changes to short- and long-duration precipitation extremes over the Canadian Prairie Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, M. B.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.

    2017-09-01

    The effects of climate change on April-October short- and long-duration precipitation extremes over the Canadian Prairie Provinces were evaluated using a multi-Regional Climate Model (RCM) ensemble available through the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Simulations considered include those performed with six RCMs driven by the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis II product for the 1981-2000 period and those driven by four Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) for the current 1971-2000 and future 2041-2070 periods (i.e. a total of 11 current-to-future period simulation pairs). A regional frequency analysis approach was used to develop 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, and 50-year return values of precipitation extremes from NCEP and AOGCM-driven current and future period simulations that respectively were used to study the performance of RCMs and projected changes for selected return values at regional, grid-cell and local scales. Performance errors due to internal dynamics and physics of RCMs studied for the 1981-2000 period reveal considerable variation in the performance of the RCMs. However, the performance errors were found to be much smaller for RCM ensemble averages than for individual RCMs. Projected changes in future climate to selected regional return values of short-duration (e.g. 15- and 30-min) precipitation extremes and for longer return periods (e.g. 50-year) were found to be mostly larger than those to the longer duration (e.g. 24- and 48-h) extremes and short return periods (e.g. 2-year). Overall, projected changes in precipitation extremes were larger for southeastern regions followed by southern and northern regions and smaller for southwestern and western regions of the study area. The changes to return values were also found to be statistically significant for the majority of the RCM-AOGCM simulation pairs. These projections might be useful as a key input for the future planning of urban

  4. Estimating 4D-CBCT from prior information and extremely limited angle projections using structural PCA and weighted free-form deformation for lung radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendy; Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using structural-based principal component analysis (PCA) motion-modeling and weighted free-form deformation to estimate on-board 4D-CBCT using prior information and extremely limited angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy. A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In the previous method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT was generated by deforming a prior CT volume. The DFM was solved by a motion model extracted by a global PCA and free-form deformation (GMM-FD) technique, using a data fidelity constraint and deformation energy minimization. In this study, a new structural PCA method was developed to build a structural motion model (SMM) by accounting for potential relative motion pattern changes between different anatomical structures from simulation to treatment. The motion model extracted from planning 4DCT was divided into two structures: tumor and body excluding tumor, and the parameters of both structures were optimized together. Weighted free-form deformation (WFD) was employed afterwards to introduce flexibility in adjusting the weightings of different structures in the data fidelity constraint based on clinical interests. XCAT (computerized patient model) simulation with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respiratory changes from planning 4D-CT to on-board volume to evaluate the method. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by the volume percent difference (VPD)/center-of-mass-shift (COMS) between lesions in the estimated and "ground-truth" on-board 4D-CBCT. Different on-board projection acquisition scenarios and projection noise levels were simulated to investigate their effects on the estimation accuracy. The method was also evaluated against three lung patients. The SMM-WFD method achieved substantially better accuracy than the GMM-FD method for CBCT estimation using extremely

  5. Global crop yield response to extreme heat stress under multiple climate change futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryng, D.; Conway, D.; Ramankutty, N.; Price, J.; Warren, R.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme heat stress during the crop reproductive period can be critical for crop productivity. Projected changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events are expected to negatively impact crop yields and global food production. This study applies the global crop model PEGASUS to quantify, for the first time at the global scale, impacts of extreme heat stress on maize, spring wheat and soybean yields resulting from 72 climate change scenarios for the 21st century. Our results project maize to face progressively worse impacts under a range of RCPs but spring wheat and soybean to improve globally through to the 2080s due to CO2 fertilization effects, even though parts of the tropic and sub-tropic regions could face substantial yield declines. We find extreme heat stress at anthesis (HSA) by the 2080s (relative to the 1980s) under RCP 8.5, taking into account CO2 fertilization effects, could double global losses of maize yield (dY = -12.8 ± 6.7% versus -7.0 ± 5.3% without HSA), reduce projected gains in spring wheat yield by half (dY = 34.3 ± 13.5% versus 72.0 ± 10.9% without HSA) and in soybean yield by a quarter (dY = 15.3 ± 26.5% versus 20.4 ± 22.1% without HSA). The range reflects uncertainty due to differences between climate model scenarios; soybean exhibits both positive and negative impacts, maize is generally negative and spring wheat generally positive. Furthermore, when assuming CO2 fertilization effects to be negligible, we observe drastic climate mitigation policy as in RCP 2.6 could avoid more than 80% of the global average yield losses otherwise expected by the 2080s under RCP 8.5. We show large disparities in climate impacts across regions and find extreme heat stress adversely affects major producing regions and lower income countries.

  6. Air pollution or global warming: Attribution of extreme precipitation changes in eastern China—Comments on "Trends of extreme precipitation in Eastern China and their possible causes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan

    2015-10-01

    The recent study "Trends of Extreme Precipitation in Eastern China and Their Possible Causes" attributed the observed decrease/increase of light/heavy precipitation in eastern China to global warming rather than the regional aerosol effects. However, there exist compelling evidence from previous long-term observations and numerical modeling studies, suggesting that anthropogenic pollution is closely linked to the recent changes in precipitation intensity because of considerably modulated cloud physical properties by aerosols in eastern China. Clearly, a quantitative assessment of the aerosol and greenhouse effects on the regional scale is required to identify the primary cause for the extreme precipitation changes.

  7. Means and extremes: building variability into community-level climate change experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross M; Beardall, John; Beringer, Jason; Grace, Mike; Sardina, Paula

    2013-06-01

    Experimental studies assessing climatic effects on ecological communities have typically applied static warming treatments. Although these studies have been informative, they have usually failed to incorporate either current or predicted future, patterns of variability. Future climates are likely to include extreme events which have greater impacts on ecological systems than changes in means alone. Here, we review the studies which have used experiments to assess impacts of temperature on marine, freshwater and terrestrial communities, and classify them into a set of 'generations' based on how they incorporate variability. The majority of studies have failed to incorporate extreme events. In terrestrial ecosystems in particular, experimental treatments have reduced temperature variability, when most climate models predict increased variability. Marine studies have tended to not concentrate on changes in variability, likely in part because the thermal mass of oceans will moderate variation. In freshwaters, climate change experiments have a much shorter history than in the other ecosystems, and have tended to take a relatively simple approach. We propose a new 'generation' of climate change experiments using down-scaled climate models which incorporate predicted changes in climatic variability, and describe a process for generating data which can be applied as experimental climate change treatments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Factors Associated With Weight Change in Online Weight Management Communities: A Case Study in the LoseIt Reddit Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Gisele Lobo; Cunha, Tiago Oliveira; Bicalho, Paulo Viana; Ribeiro, Antonio; Couto Silva, Ana Paula; Meira, Wagner; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende

    2017-01-16

    Recent research has shown that of the 72% of American Internet users who have looked for health information online, 22% have searched for help to lose or control weight. This demand for information has given rise to many online weight management communities, where users support one another throughout their weight loss process. Whether and how user engagement in online communities relates to weight change is not totally understood. We investigated the activity behavior and analyze the semantic content of the messages of active users in LoseIt (r/loseit), a weight management community of the online social network Reddit. We then explored whether these features are associated with weight loss in this online social network. A data collection tool was used to collect English posts, comments, and other public metadata of active users (ie, users with at least one post or comment) on LoseIt from August 2010 to November 2014. Analyses of frequency and intensity of user interaction in the community were performed together with a semantic analysis of the messages, done by a latent Dirichlet allocation method. The association between weight loss and online user activity patterns, the semantics of the messages, and real-world variables was found by a linear regression model using 30-day weight change as the dependent variable. We collected posts and comments of 107,886 unique users. Among these, 101,003 (93.62%) wrote at least one comment and 38,981 (36.13%) wrote at least one post. Median percentage of days online was 3.81 (IQR 9.51). The 10 most-discussed semantic topics on posts were related to healthy food, clothing, calorie counting, workouts, looks, habits, support, and unhealthy food. In the subset of 754 users who had gender, age, and 30-day weight change data available, women were predominant and 92.9% (701/754) lost weight. Female gender, body mass index (BMI) at baseline, high levels of online activity, the number of upvotes received per post, and topics discussed

  9. Changes of micronutrients, dry weight and plant development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... This study was carried out to determine the effects of salt stress on the growth, dry weights and micronutrient contents of canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars grown in greenhouse ... crop productivity in the arid and semiarid regions of the ... fertilizer equivalent to 150 kg ha-1 and triple-superphosphate (80 kg.

  10. Spatial and temporal variations of Norwegian geohazards in a changing climate, the GeoExtreme Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jaedicke

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Various types of slope processes, mainly landslides and avalanches (snow, rock, clay and debris pose together with floods the main geohazards in Norway. Landslides and avalanches have caused more than 2000 casualties and considerable damage to infrastructure over the last 150 years. The interdisciplinary research project "GeoExtreme" focuses on investigating the coupling between meteorological factors and landslides and avalanches, extrapolating this into the near future with a changing climate and estimating the socioeconomic implications. The main objective of the project is to predict future geohazard changes in a changing climate. A database consisting of more than 20 000 recorded historical events have been coupled with a meteorological database to assess the predictability of landslides and avalanches caused by meteorological conditions. Present day climate and near future climate scenarios are modelled with a global climate model on a stretched grid, focusing on extreme weather events in Norway. The effects of climate change on landslides and avalanche activity are studied in four selected areas covering the most important climatic regions in Norway. The statistical analysis of historical landslide and avalanche events versus weather observations shows strong regional differences in the country. Avalanches show the best correlation with weather events while landslides and rockfalls are less correlated. The new climate modelling approach applying spectral nudging to achieve a regional downscaling for Norway proves to reproduce extreme events of precipitation much better than conventional modelling approaches. Detailed studies of slope stabilities in one of the selected study area show a high sensitivity of slope stability in a changed precipitation regime. The value of elements at risk was estimated in one study area using a GIS based approach that includes an estimation of the values within given present state hazard zones. The ongoing

  11. Limitations and pitfalls of climate change impact analysis on urban rainfall extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, P.; Olsson, J.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    Under the umbrella of the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, the International Working Group on Urban Rainfall (IGUR) has reviewed existing methodologies for the analysis of long-term historical and future trends in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due...... to anthropogenic climate change. Current practices have several limitations and pitfalls, which are important to be considered by trend or climate change impact modellers and users of trend/impact results. Climate change may well be the driver that ensures that changes in urban drainage paradigms are identified...... and suitable solutions implemented. Design and optimization of urban drainage infrastructure considering climate change impacts and co-optimizing with other objectives will become ever more important to keep our cities liveable into the future....

  12. Climate Change Impacts on the Upper Indus Hydrology: Sources, Shifts and Extremes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F Lutz

    Full Text Available The Indus basin heavily depends on its upstream mountainous part for the downstream supply of water while downstream demands are high. Since downstream demands will likely continue to increase, accurate hydrological projections for the future supply are important. We use an ensemble of statistically downscaled CMIP5 General Circulation Model outputs for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 to force a cryospheric-hydrological model and generate transient hydrological projections for the entire 21st century for the upper Indus basin. Three methodological advances are introduced: (i A new precipitation dataset that corrects for the underestimation of high-altitude precipitation is used. (ii The model is calibrated using data on river runoff, snow cover and geodetic glacier mass balance. (iii An advanced statistical downscaling technique is used that accounts for changes in precipitation extremes. The analysis of the results focuses on changes in sources of runoff, seasonality and hydrological extremes. We conclude that the future of the upper Indus basin's water availability is highly uncertain in the long run, mainly due to the large spread in the future precipitation projections. Despite large uncertainties in the future climate and long-term water availability, basin-wide patterns and trends of seasonal shifts in water availability are consistent across climate change scenarios. Most prominent is the attenuation of the annual hydrograph and shift from summer peak flow towards the other seasons for most ensemble members. In addition there are distinct spatial patterns in the response that relate to monsoon influence and the importance of meltwater. Analysis of future hydrological extremes reveals that increases in intensity and frequency of extreme discharges are very likely for most of the upper Indus basin and most ensemble members.

  13. Climate Change Impacts on the Upper Indus Hydrology: Sources, Shifts and Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerzeel, W. W.; Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.; Shrestha, A. B.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Indus basin heavily depends on its upstream mountainous part for the downstream supply of water while downstream demands are high. Since downstream demands will likely continue to increase, accurate hydrological projections for the future supply are important. We use an ensemble of statistically downscaled CMIP5 General Circulation Model outputs for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 to force a cryospheric-hydrological model and generate transient hydrological projections for the entire 21st century for the upper Indus basin. Three methodological advances are introduced: (i) A new precipitation dataset that corrects for the underestimation of high-altitude precipitation is used. (ii) The model is calibrated using data on river runoff, snow cover and geodetic glacier mass balance. (iii) An advanced statistical downscaling technique is used that accounts for changes in precipitation extremes. The analysis of the results focuses on changes in sources of runoff, seasonality and hydrological extremes. We conclude that the future of the upper Indus basin’s water availability is highly uncertain in the long run, mainly due to the large spread in the future precipitation projections. Despite large uncertainties in the future climate and long-term water availability, basin-wide patterns and trends of seasonal shifts in water availability are consistent across climate change scenarios. Most prominent is the attenuation of the annual hydrograph and shift from summer peak flow towards the other seasons for most ensemble members. In addition there are distinct spatial patterns in the response that relate to monsoon influence and the importance of meltwater. Analysis of future hydrological extremes reveals that increases in intensity and frequency of extreme discharges are very likely for most of the upper Indus basin and most ensemble members. PMID:27828994

  14. Climate Change Impacts on the Upper Indus Hydrology: Sources, Shifts and Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, A F; Immerzeel, W W; Kraaijenbrink, P D A; Shrestha, A B; Bierkens, M F P

    2016-01-01

    The Indus basin heavily depends on its upstream mountainous part for the downstream supply of water while downstream demands are high. Since downstream demands will likely continue to increase, accurate hydrological projections for the future supply are important. We use an ensemble of statistically downscaled CMIP5 General Circulation Model outputs for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 to force a cryospheric-hydrological model and generate transient hydrological projections for the entire 21st century for the upper Indus basin. Three methodological advances are introduced: (i) A new precipitation dataset that corrects for the underestimation of high-altitude precipitation is used. (ii) The model is calibrated using data on river runoff, snow cover and geodetic glacier mass balance. (iii) An advanced statistical downscaling technique is used that accounts for changes in precipitation extremes. The analysis of the results focuses on changes in sources of runoff, seasonality and hydrological extremes. We conclude that the future of the upper Indus basin's water availability is highly uncertain in the long run, mainly due to the large spread in the future precipitation projections. Despite large uncertainties in the future climate and long-term water availability, basin-wide patterns and trends of seasonal shifts in water availability are consistent across climate change scenarios. Most prominent is the attenuation of the annual hydrograph and shift from summer peak flow towards the other seasons for most ensemble members. In addition there are distinct spatial patterns in the response that relate to monsoon influence and the importance of meltwater. Analysis of future hydrological extremes reveals that increases in intensity and frequency of extreme discharges are very likely for most of the upper Indus basin and most ensemble members.

  15. Structural changes in the knee during weight loss maintenance after a significant weight loss in obese patients with osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M; Christensen, R; Hunter, D J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare structural knee joint changes in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) that after an intensive weight loss therapy were randomized to continuous dietetic support, a specialized knee exercise program, or 'no attention' for 1 year. METHODS: 192 obese individuals with knee...... OA underwent an intensive 16-week weight loss program with subsequent randomization to one of the three treatment groups. Changes in cartilage loss, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), synovitis, and effusion were assessed using semi quantitative assessments of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained...... (difference: -0.21 [95%CI -0.40:-0.03]) and "no attention" (difference: -0.26 [95%CI -0.44:-0.07]) groups. CONCLUSION: In this 1 year follow-up after weight-loss in obese knee OA patients, we found a potentially increased number of BMLs in the exercise group compared to the diet and no attention groups...

  16. Comparison of Oral Ibuprofen and Intravenous Indomethacin for the Treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are few published reports concerning the efficacy of oral ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants. Oral ibuprofen was compared to intravenous indomethacin regarding efficacy and safety in the treatment of PDA in infants weighting less than 1,000 g at birth. Method: This was a retrospective study in a single center. Data on ELBW infants who had an echocardiographically confirmed PDA were collected. The infants were treated with either intravenous indomethacin or oral ibuprofen. Rate of ductal closure, need for additional treatment, drug-related side effects or complications, and mortality were compared between the two treatment groups. Result: 26 infants who received indomethacin and 22 infants who received ibuprofen were studied. The overall rate of ductal closure was similar between the two treatments: it occurred in 23 of 26 infants (88.5% treated with indomethacin, and in 18 of 22 infants (81.8% treated with ibuprofen (p = 0.40. The rate of surgical ligation (11.5% versus 18.2%; p = 0.40 did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. No significant difference was found in post-treatment serum creatinine concentrations between the two groups. There were no significant differences regarding additional side effects or complications. Conclusion: In ELBW infants, oral ibuprofen is as efficacious as intravenous indomethacin for the treatment of PDA. There were no differences between the two drugs with respect to safety. Oral ibuprofen could be used as an alternative agent for the treatment of PDA in ELBW infants. Resumo: Objetivo: Existem poucos relatórios publicados com relação à eficácia do ibuprofeno via oral no tratamento da persistência do canal arterial (PCA em neonatos com extremo baixo peso ao nascer (EBPN. Comparamos o ibuprofeno via oral à indometacina intrave- nosa no que diz respeito à eficácia e segurança no tratamento de

  17. Identifying evidence of climate change impact on extreme events in permeable chalk catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. P.; Nubert, S.

    2009-12-01

    The permeable chalk catchments of southern England are vital for the economy and well being of the UK. Not only important as a water resource, their freely draining soils support intensive agricultural production, and the rolling downs and chalk streams provide important habitants for many protected plant and animal species. Consequently, there are concerns about the potential impact of climate change on such catchments, particularly in relation to groundwater recharge. Of major concern are possible changes in extreme events, such as groundwater floods and droughts, as any increase in the frequency and/or severity of these has important consequences for water resources, ecological systems and local infrastructure. Studies of climate change impact on extreme events for such catchments have indicated that, under medium and high emissions scenarios, droughts are likely to become more severe whilst floods less so. However, given the uncertainties in such predictions and the inherent variability in historic data, producing definitive evidence of changes in flood/drought frequency/severity poses a significant challenge. Thus, there is a need for specific extreme event statistics that can be used as indicators of actual climate change in streamflow and groundwater level observations. Identifying such indicators that are sufficiently robust requires catchments with long historic time series data. One such catchment is the River Lavant, an intermittent chalk stream in West Sussex, UK. Located within this catchment is Chilgrove House, the site of the UK’s longest groundwater monitoring well (with a continuous record of water level observations of varying frequency dating back to 1836). Using a variety of meteorological datasets, the behaviour of the catchment has been modelled, from 1855 to present, using a 'leaky aquifer' conceptual model. Model calibration was based on observed daily streamflow, at a gauging station just outside the town of Chichester, from 1970. Long

  18. The impact of anthropogenic land use and land cover change on regional climate extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, Kirsten L; Berg, Alexis; Gentine, Pierre; Krasting, John P; Lintner, Benjamin R; Malyshev, Sergey; Santanello, Joseph A; Shevliakova, Elena

    2017-10-20

    Land surface processes modulate the severity of heat waves, droughts, and other extreme events. However, models show contrasting effects of land surface changes on extreme temperatures. Here, we use an earth system model from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory to investigate regional impacts of land use and land cover change on combined extremes of temperature and humidity, namely aridity and moist enthalpy, quantities central to human physiological experience of near-surface climate. The model's near-surface temperature response to deforestation is consistent with recent observations, and conversion of mid-latitude natural forests to cropland and pastures is accompanied by an increase in the occurrence of hot-dry summers from once-in-a-decade to every 2-3 years. In the tropics, long time-scale oceanic variability precludes determination of how much of a small, but significant, increase in moist enthalpy throughout the year stems from the model's novel representation of historical patterns of wood harvesting, shifting cultivation, and regrowth of secondary vegetation and how much is forced by internal variability within the tropical oceans.

  19. Electric-field-induced extremely large change in resistance in graphene ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu

    2018-01-01

    A colossal magnetoresistance (˜100×10^3% ) and an extremely large magnetoresistance (˜1×10^6% ) have been previously explored in manganite perovskites and Dirac materials, respectively. However, the requirement of an extremely strong magnetic field (and an extremely low temperature) makes them not applicable for realistic devices. In this work, we propose a device that can generate even larger changes in resistance in a zero-magnetic field and at a high temperature. The device is composed of graphene under two strips of yttrium iron garnet (YIG), where two gate voltages are applied to cancel the heavy charge doping in the YIG-induced half-metallic ferromagnets. By calculations using the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, we demonstrate that, when a proper gate voltage is applied on the free ferromagnet, changes in resistance up to 305×10^6% (16×10^3% ) can be achieved at the liquid helium (nitrogen) temperature and in a zero magnetic field. We attribute such a remarkable effect to a gate-induced full-polarization reversal in the free ferromagnet, which results in a metal-state to insulator-state transition in the device. We also find that the proposed effect can be realized in devices using other magnetic insulators, such as EuO and EuS. Our work should be helpful for developing a realistic switching device that is energy saving and CMOS-technology compatible.

  20. Climate change impacts on rainfall extremes and urban drainage: state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick; Olsson, Jonas; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Beecham, Simon; Pathirana, Assela; Bülow Gregersen, Ida; Madsen, Henrik; Nguyen, Van-Thanh-Van

    2013-04-01

    Under the umbrella of the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, the International Working Group on Urban Rainfall (IGUR) has reviewed existing methodologies for the analysis of long-term historical and future trends in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due to anthropogenic climate change. Current practises have several limitations and pitfalls, which are important to be considered by trend or climate change impact modellers and users of trend/impact results. The review considers the following aspects: Analysis of long-term historical trends due to anthropogenic climate change: influence of data limitation, instrumental or environmental changes, interannual variations and longer term climate oscillations on trend testing results. Analysis of long-term future trends due to anthropogenic climate change: by complementing empirical historical data with the results from physically-based climate models, dynamic downscaling to the urban scale by means of Limited Area Models (LAMs) including explicitly small-scale cloud processes; validation of RCM/GCM results for local conditions accounting for natural variability, limited length of the available time series, difference in spatial scales, and influence of climate oscillations; statistical downscaling methods combined with bias correction; uncertainties associated with the climate forcing scenarios, the climate models, the initial states and the statistical downscaling step; uncertainties in the impact models (e.g. runoff peak flows, flood or surcharge frequencies, and CSO frequencies and volumes), including the impacts of more extreme conditions than considered during impact model calibration and validation. Implications for urban drainage infrastructure design and management: upgrading of the urban drainage system as part of a program of routine and scheduled replacement and renewal of aging infrastructure; how to account for the uncertainties; flexible and sustainable solutions

  1. Weight change and physical function in older women: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, C L; Snowdon, D A

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the association between change in weight and decline in physical function in older women. Longitudinal study of a defined population of Catholic sisters (nuns) whose weight and function were assessed twice, an average of 584 days apart. Unique life communities (convents) located throughout the United States. 475 Catholic sisters who were 75 to 99 years of age (M = 82.1, SD = 4.8) and were independent in at least one Activity of Daily Living (ADL) at the first assessment of weight and function. None. At each assessment, weight, ADLs, and cognitive function were evaluated as part of the Nun Study--a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Annual percent weight change was calculated using weights from the two assessments, as well as the number of days that elapsed between assessments. Mean weight at first assessment was 140 pounds (range 78 to 232, SD = 27). The mean annual percent weight change was 0.1% (range 22% loss to 16% gain, SD = 3.8). Age- and initial weight-adjusted findings indicated that those participants with an annual percent weight loss of 3% or greater had 2.7 to 3.9 times the risk of becoming dependent in each ADL, compared to the sisters with no weight change. The elevated risk persisted in those who were mentally intact or were independent in their eating habits. Monitoring of weight may be an easy and inexpensive method of identifying older individuals at increased risk of disability.

  2. RISK FACTORS FOR THE EARLY NEONATAL MORTALITY IN NEWBORNS WITH VERY LOW AND EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to assess the association of perinatal factors with the early neonatal mortality in newborns with very low (VLBW and extremely low birth weight (ELBW.Methods: The statistical data was carried out, that is analysis of 17 perinatal factors of 28 newborns with an ELBW with gestation of 23–27 weeks and 18 newborns with a VLBW with gestation of 28–32 weeks, who died in the first 7 days of life. The comparison group consisted of 25 newborns with an ELBW and 56 children with a VLBW with gestation of 25–27 and 28–32 weeks, respectively, who survived the early neonatal period. The association of risk factors with the early neonatal mortality was assessed by means of a multiple-factor logistic regression analysis. A critical p error level was set equal to 0.05. Results: In newborns with a VLBW the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality depended on a gestation term (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.56–11.71; р = 0.002 and emergency Caesarean section (OR 7.48, 95% CI 1.28–43.74; р = 0.008. A vaginal birth increased the survival chance (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01–0.86; р = 0.032. Newborns with an ELBW had the following factors of the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality: gestational age (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.06–7.73; р = 0.038, Apgar score at the 5th minute (OR 1.91, 95% CI 0.99–3.69; р = 0.050 and presence of chorioamnionitis (OR 5.45, 95% CI 1.0–29.53; p = 0.048. An elective Caesarean section increased the survival chance (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.001–0.44; p = 0.048. Conclusion: Summarizing the obtained data, we can conclude that besides a gestational age the risk of early neonatal mortality in newborns with a VLBW may be increased due to the emergency Caesarean section, with an ELBW — due to a low Apgar score at the 5th minute and the presence of mother's chorioamnionitis. A vaginal birth in newborns with a VLBW and an elective Caesarean section in children with an ELBW increase survival chances.

  3. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  4. Climatic changes of extreme precipitation in Denmark from 1872 to 2100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia

    of climate change impacts from anthropogenic effects can be established based on projections of daily precipitation. These estimates have then been further downscaled to enable urban pluvial inundation calculations using different statistical downscaling and extreme value analysis techniques. . From...... of precipitation extremes. The objective is to establish cities that are resilient to pluvial floods by means of a gradual upgrading of the drainage capacity in combination with a structured risk management approach. Using the regional climate model (RCM) data repositories from PRUDENCE and ENSEMBLES, estimates....... These results are important for the extrapolation to future events. Currently efforts are dedicated to constructing similar models based on outputs from climate models, but the models are complicated due to the fact that the correlation structure of high-resolution precipitation in the climate models deviates...

  5. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, Marga B M; Koppes, Lando L J; Rodenburg, Wendy; van Steeg, Harry; Proper, Karin I

    2015-04-01

    To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable night or shift work, from day work to night or shift work, from night or shift work to day work, and no night or shift work in 2008 and 2009. Regression analyses were used to study association changes in night and shift work with weight change and changes in lifestyle behaviors. A larger weight change was seen in normal-weight workers changing from day to shift work (β = 0.93%; 95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 1.85) compared with stable no shift workers. No further associations of night and shift work with weight change were observed, neither in normal-weight, overweight, and obese workers. Despite the fact that starting night or shift work is associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits, this study did not confirm a positive association of night and shift work with weight change over 1 year, except for normal-weight workers moving from day to shift work.

  6. Reduced brachial flow-mediated vasodilation in young adult ex extremely low birth weight preterm: a condition predictive of increased cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassareo, P P; Fanos, V; Puddu, M; Demuru, P; Cadeddu, F; Balzarini, M; Mercuro, G

    2010-10-01

    Sporadic data present in literature report how preterm birth and low birth weight constitute the risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases in later life. To assess the presence of potential alterations to endothelial function in young adults born preterm at extremely low birth weight (Cesarea, Israel). Endothelial function was significantly reduced in ex-ELBW subjects compared to C (1.94 +/- 0.37 vs. 2.68 +/- 0.41, p < 0.0001). Moreover, this function correlated significantly with gestational age (r = 0.56, p < 0.0009) and birth weight (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001). The results obtained reveal a significant decrease in endothelial function of ex-ELBW subjects compared to controls, underlining a probable correlation with preterm birth and low birth weight. Taken together, these results suggest that an ELBW may underlie the onset of early circulatory dysfunction predictive of increased cardiovascular risk.

  7. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Martha Marie; Orth, René; Cheruy, Frederique; Hagemann, Stefan; Lorenz, Ruth; van den Hurk, Bart; Seneviratne, Sonia Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate here the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multi-model experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate physical processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America and between 42%-52% in Amazonia, Northern Australia and Southern Africa. Soil moisture trends (multi-decadal soil moisture variability) are more important for this response than short-term (e.g. seasonal, interannual) soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections. Vogel, M.M. et al.,2017. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, accepted.

  8. Gene expression changes governing extreme dehydration tolerance in an Antarctic insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Nicholas M.; Peyton, Justin T.; Colinet, Herve; Renault, David; Kelley, Joanna L.; Kawarasaki, Yuta; Lee, Richard E.; Denlinger, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Among terrestrial organisms, arthropods are especially susceptible to dehydration, given their small body size and high surface area to volume ratio. This challenge is particularly acute for polar arthropods that face near-constant desiccating conditions, as water is frozen and thus unavailable for much of the year. The molecular mechanisms that govern extreme dehydration tolerance in insects remain largely undefined. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to quantify transcriptional mechanisms of extreme dehydration tolerance in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica, the world’s southernmost insect and only insect endemic to Antarctica. Larvae of B. antarctica are remarkably tolerant of dehydration, surviving losses up to 70% of their body water. Gene expression changes in response to dehydration indicated up-regulation of cellular recycling pathways including the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome and autophagy, with concurrent down-regulation of genes involved in general metabolism and ATP production. Metabolomics results revealed shifts in metabolite pools that correlated closely with changes in gene expression, indicating that coordinated changes in gene expression and metabolism are a critical component of the dehydration response. Finally, using comparative genomics, we compared our gene expression results with a transcriptomic dataset for the Arctic collembolan, Megaphorura arctica. Although B. antarctica and M. arctica are adapted to similar environments, our analysis indicated very little overlap in expression profiles between these two arthropods. Whereas several orthologous genes showed similar expression patterns, transcriptional changes were largely species specific, indicating these polar arthropods have developed distinct transcriptional mechanisms to cope with similar desiccating conditions. PMID:23197828

  9. Detecting and taking into account possible impacts of climate change on hydrological extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, B.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is widely considered as a reality by scientists. Nevertheless, impacts on hydrological extremes are more difficult to observe and to forecast. The aim of this thesis is to answer the following questions: How to detect changes in hydro-climatic series? What are the observed changes for extreme discharges in France? How to take into account possible changes in frequency analysis? These objectives refer to both local and regional scales. This paper describes the developments related to the third question. In a first step, the concept of return period is revisited in a non-stationary context. Frequency analysis methods are then updated in order to account for evolutions in time. This is achieved by modelling trends affecting the distribution parameters. Parameter estimation uses the Bayesian formalism, which is a convenient tool for quantifying the uncertainty related to the stationarity hypothesis. This approach can be generalized at the regional scale, by means of non-stationary regional models. Such models are more general than the model underlying the index flood method. However, results of such a regional analysis are affected by the spatial dependence existing between studied sites. Impacts of this dependence on quantile estimates are highlighted, and a first approach is proposed in order to explicitly model spatial dependence. (author)

  10. Bone metabolism in adolescent girls with eating disorders and weight loss: independent effects of weight change, insulin-like growth factor-1 and oestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenne, Ingemar; Stridsberg, Mats

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents with eating disorders (ED) are at risk of developing osteoporosis if weight is not recovered. Previous investigations do not separate the effects of weight change per se from those of concomitant hormonal changes. In this investigation serum osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide of collagen (CTX), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and oestradiol were measured at assessment of 498 girls with ED and during weight gain of 59 girls. At assessment, OC concentrations were associated independently with weight (change), IGF-1 and oestradiol. Low weight, a high rate of weight loss and the hormone concentrations were associated with low OC. Low weight and high rate of weight loss were associated with high CTX concentrations but there were no associations independent of weight (change) with the hormones. During weight recovery, OC and CTX were independently and positively associated with weight, weight gain, IGF-1 and oestradiol. Bone metabolism markers are related to weight change independently of IGF-1 and oestradiol during both weight loss and weight gain. During weight gain, when pubertal development and growth are resumed there is an additional independent positive association between the markers and IGF-1 and oestradiol. These relationships are strongest in premenarcheal girls.

  11. Weight change and workplace absenteeism in the HealthWorks study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Linde, Jennifer A; Harnack, Lisa J; Stovitz, Steven D; Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and workplace absenteeism. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which weight change predicted 2-year absenteeism. A longitudinal analysis of 1,228 employees enrolled in a worksite-randomized controlled trial was performed. Participants were all working adults in the Minneapolis, MN, area (USA). The final model indicated a significant interaction between weight change and baseline BMI. The difference in absenteeism ranged from (mean ± SE) 3.2 ± 1.2 days among healthy weight employees who maintained their weight to 6.6 ± 1.1 days among obese employees who gained weight (and slightly higher among healthy weight employees who lost weight). The adjusted model also indicated that participants who were male, not depressed, nonsmokers, and had lower baseline absenteeism had significantly less workplace absenteeism relative to participants who were female, depressed, smokers, and had higher baseline absenteeism. Absenteeism was generally low in this sample, but healthy weight employees who maintained their body weight over 2 years had the fewest number of sick days. More research is needed in this area, but future workforce attendance interventions may be improved by focusing on the primary prevention of weight gain in healthy weight employees. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  12. Weight Change and Workplace Absenteeism in the HealthWorks Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Stovitz, Steven D.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the relationship between weight change and workplace absenteeism. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which weight change predicted 2-year absenteeism. Methods A longitudinal analysis of 1,228 employees enrolled in a worksite-randomized controlled trial was performed. Participants were all working adults in the Minneapolis, MN, area (USA). Results The final model indicated a significant interaction between weight change and baseline BMI. The difference in absenteeism ranged from (mean ± SE) 3.2 ± 1.2 days among healthy weight employees who maintained their weight to 6.6 ± 1.1 days among obese employees who gained weight (and slightly higher among healthy weight employees who lost weight). The adjusted model also indicated that participants who were male, not depressed, nonsmokers, and had lower baseline absenteeism had significantly less workplace absenteeism relative to participants who were female, depressed, smokers, and had higher baseline absenteeism. Conclusion Absenteeism was generally low in this sample, but healthy weight employees who maintained their body weight over 2 years had the fewest number of sick days. More research is needed in this area, but future workforce attendance interventions may be improved by focusing on the primary prevention of weight gain in healthy weight employees. PMID:23108493

  13. Local changes in bone marrow at MRI after treatment of extremity soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sinchun; Lefkowitz, Robert; Landa, Jonathan; Akin, Oguz; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Cassie, Conrad; Panicek, David M.; Healey, John H.; Alektiar, Kaled M.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and appearance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal changes that occur in local bone marrow after radiation therapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy for extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Seventy patients with primary STS at the level of a long bone who also had undergone pretreatment MRI and at least one post-treatment MRI of the tumor bed were identified. MRIs of each patient were retrospectively reviewed for new changes in marrow signal in the region of the tumor bed and for the morphology, relative signal intensities, heterogeneity, and progression or regression of changes over time. Focal signal changes in marrow were observed in 26/70 patients (37%) at a median of 9.5 months after RT and/or chemotherapy and diffuse changes in seven (10%) at a median of 8 months. Patients who received neither RT nor chemotherapy did not develop marrow changes. Mean RT doses in patients with changes and those without were 5,867 and 6,076 cGy, respectively. In most patients with focal changes, changes were seen in all sequences and were linear-curvilinear, patchy, or mixed at the level of the tumor bed. Predominant signal intensity of changes was between muscle and fat at T1WI and between muscle and fluid at fat-saturated T2WI or short tau inversion recovery. Most focal changes enhanced heterogeneously and increased or fluctuated in size over time. Changes in MRI appearance of long bone marrow frequently are evident after combined RT and chemotherapy for STS and most commonly increase or fluctuate in size over time. These changes have various non-mass-like configurations and often show signal intensities similar to those of red marrow and thus should not be mistaken for metastases. The marrow changes might represent an early stage of gelatinous transformation of marrow. (orig.)

  14. The Associations of Maternal Weight Change with Breastfeeding, Diet and Physical Activity During the Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olmedo, Nancy; Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; Neufeld, Lynnette M; García-Guerra, Armando; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    To determine the association between breastfeeding practices, diet and physical activity and maternal postpartum weight. This was a secondary data analysis of a randomized community trial on beneficiaries of the Programa de Desarrollo Humano Oportunidades, recently renamed Prospera (n = 314 pregnant women), without any diseases that could affect body weight. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the association between postpartum weight change and changes in diet, physical activity and type of breastfeeding. The mean postpartum weight change from the first to the third month was 0.6 ± 2.2 kg. Women who breastfed exclusively for 3 months had a 4.1 (SE = 1.9) kg weight reduction in comparison with women who did not provide exclusive breastfeeding or who discontinued breastfeeding before 3 months (p = 0.04). There was no association between postpartum weight change and physical activity (p = 0.24) or energy intake (p = 0.06). Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with maternal postpartum weight reduction. These results reinforce the World Health Organization recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life in order to reduce the risk of weight retention or weight gain in postpartum women. It has been well established that exclusive breastfeeding is beneficial for both infants and mothers, but promoting breastfeeding as a strategy to promote postpartum weight loss is of paramount importance, especially in countries like Mexico where excessive weight in women of reproductive age is a public health problem.

  15. Extremes temperatures and enthalpy in Finland and Sweden in a changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venaelaeinen, A.; Saku, S.; Jylhae, K. (Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland)); Nikulin, G.; Kjellstroem, E.; Baerring, L. (Swedish Meteorological Institute (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Though risks caused by harsh weather conditions are taken into account in the planning of nuclear power plants, some exceptional weather events or combination of different events may prevent normal power operation and simultaneously endanger safe shutdown of the plant. Extreme weather events could influence, for example, the external power grid connection, emergency diesel generators (blockage of air intakes), ventilation and cooling of electric and electronics equipment rooms and the seawater intake. Due to the influence of an intensified greenhouse effect the climate is changing rapidly during the coming decades and this change is expected to have an influence also on the occurrence of extreme weather events. In this report we have examined extreme temperatures. Enthalpy is a parameter that combines air temperature and air humidity and it is used in the design of air conditioning systems. Therefore, we have included also return levels of enthalpy in our analysis. The influence of climate change on extreme temperatures is analysed based on regional climate model simulations. The reoccurrence times of high temperatures combined with high air humidity was analysed based on measurements made at five Finnish and three Swedish meteorological stations. Based on the observational records we find the 10 year return level of daily maximum temperature to be around 32 deg. C and the 100 year return level around 35 deg. C. If we look the return levels of warm and humid conditions then for example in Helsinki the 10 year return level of one week mean temperature in case mean air humidity is above 80% is 20.1 deg. C. The 10 year return level of daily maximum enthalpy is around 60 kJ/kg and the 100 year return level almost 70 kJ/kg. According to the climate model simulations the largest increase of 50-year return level of daily maximum temperature is found in southern Sweden and south-western Finland. By the end of this century the increase can be 3-5 deg. C. The largest change

  16. Extremes temperatures and enthalpy in Finland and Sweden in a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venaelaeinen, A.; Saku, S.; Jylhae, K.; Nikulin, G.; Kjellstroem, E.; Baerring, L.

    2009-06-01

    Though risks caused by harsh weather conditions are taken into account in the planning of nuclear power plants, some exceptional weather events or combination of different events may prevent normal power operation and simultaneously endanger safe shutdown of the plant. Extreme weather events could influence, for example, the external power grid connection, emergency diesel generators (blockage of air intakes), ventilation and cooling of electric and electronics equipment rooms and the seawater intake. Due to the influence of an intensified greenhouse effect the climate is changing rapidly during the coming decades and this change is expected to have an influence also on the occurrence of extreme weather events. In this report we have examined extreme temperatures. Enthalpy is a parameter that combines air temperature and air humidity and it is used in the design of air conditioning systems. Therefore, we have included also return levels of enthalpy in our analysis. The influence of climate change on extreme temperatures is analysed based on regional climate model simulations. The reoccurrence times of high temperatures combined with high air humidity was analysed based on measurements made at five Finnish and three Swedish meteorological stations. Based on the observational records we find the 10 year return level of daily maximum temperature to be around 32 deg. C and the 100 year return level around 35 deg. C. If we look the return levels of warm and humid conditions then for example in Helsinki the 10 year return level of one week mean temperature in case mean air humidity is above 80% is 20.1 deg. C. The 10 year return level of daily maximum enthalpy is around 60 kJ/kg and the 100 year return level almost 70 kJ/kg. According to the climate model simulations the largest increase of 50-year return level of daily maximum temperature is found in southern Sweden and south-western Finland. By the end of this century the increase can be 3-5 deg. C. The largest change

  17. Changes of extreme precipitation and nonlinear influence of climate variables over monsoon region in China

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tao; Wang, Huixia Judy; Zhou, Tianjun

    2017-01-01

    of precipitation extremes over monsoon regions in China (MRC). However, research on monsoon extremes in China and their associations with climate variables is limited. In this study, we examine the space-time variations of extreme precipitation across the MRC

  18. N-of-1 study of weight loss maintenance assessing predictors of physical activity, adherence to weight loss plan and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals to achieve clinically significant weight loss, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) is less often attained. This study examined predictive variables associated with WLM. N-of-1 study with daily ecological momentary assessment combined with objective measurement of weight and physical activity, collected with wireless devices (Fitbit™) for six months. Eight previously obese adults who had lost over 5% of their body weight in the past year took part. Data were analysed using time series methods. Predictor variables were based on five theoretical themes: maintenance motives, self-regulation, personal resources, habits, and environmental influences. Dependent variables were: objectively estimated step count and weight, and self-reported WLM plan adherence. For all participants, daily fluctuations in self-reported adherence to their WLM plan were significantly associated with most of the explanatory variables, including maintenance motivation and satisfaction with outcomes, self-regulation, habit, and stable environment. Personal resources were not a consistent predictor of plan adherence. This is the first study to assess theoretical predictions of WLM within individuals. WLM is a dynamic process including the interplay of motivation, self-regulation, habit, resources, and perceptions of environmental context. Individuals maintaining their weight have unique psychological profiles which could be accounted for in interventions.

  19. Defining the role of dietary intake in determining weight change in patients with cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrah, R; Kanbalian, M; Van Der Borch, C; Swinton, N; Wing, S; Jagoe, R T

    2018-02-01

    Weight loss is a cardinal feature of cachexia and is frequently associated with reduced food intake and anorexia. It is still unclear how much reduced food intake contributes to cancer-related weight loss and how effective increasing dietary energy and protein is in combating this weight loss. The relationship between weight change and both diet and change in dietary intake, was examined in patients with advanced stage cancer referred to a multidisciplinary clinic for management of cancer cachexia. A retrospective study of data for each of the first three clinic visits for patients seen between 2009 and 2015. Data on weight change, dietary intake and change in dietary intake were compared. Regression analysis was used to determine independent explanatory factors for weight change, including the impact of appetite level and a marker of systemic inflammation. Of 405 eligible patients, 320 had data on dietary intake available. Dietary intake varied widely at baseline: 26.9% reported very poor diet and only 17% were consuming recommended levels of energy and protein. A highly significant positive correlation was found between dietary energy or protein intake and weight change, both before and after being seen in the clinic. Anorexia was also significantly correlated with weight loss at each clinic visit. However, there was no similar overall correlation between change in dietary intake and change in weight. Many patients with advanced cancer and weight loss are consuming diets that would likely be insufficient to maintain weight even in healthy individuals. Higher consumption of protein and energy correlates with greater weight gain, but it is impossible to predict the response to increased nutritional intake when patients are first assessed. There is a pressing need to improve understanding of factors that modulate metabolic responses to dietary intake in patients with cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  20. Associations between change in sedentary behavior and outcome in standard behavioral weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Stephanie G; Call, Christine; Schaumberg, Katherine; Forman, Evan; Butryn, Meghan L

    2018-03-01

    Sedentary behavior, particularly in prolonged periods, is an important determinant of health. Little research exploring changes in sedentary behavior during behavioral weight loss programs exists. This study evaluated the magnitude of changes in total and prolonged sedentary behavior and how these changes related to changes in weight and cardiovascular outcomes during a behavioral weight loss program. Participants (n = 450) in two lifestyle modification programs underwent assessments of sedentary behavior (by accelerometry), weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and resting heart rate at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Sedentary behavior was defined as both total and prolonged (≥30 continuous minutes) sedentary minutes/day. Reductions in total and prolonged sedentary time were significant and were accounted for by increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Only changes in MVPA significantly predicted change in weight when entered into a model simultaneously with changes in sedentary behavior. Changes in total and prolonged sedentary time were not associated with changes in waist circumference, heart rate, or blood pressure. Change in sedentary time was not independently associated with change in health outcomes during a behavioral weight loss treatment. High variability in changes in sedentary time indicate that individual differences may be important to examine. Reducing sedentary time may not be powerful enough to impact these health outcomes above the effects of other changes made during these programs; alternatively, it may be that increasing focus in treatment on reducing sedentary time may engender greater decreases in sedentariness, which could lead to better health outcomes.

  1. Inverse relationship between changes of maximal aerobic capacity and changes in walking economy after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliano H; Carter, Stephen J; Singh, Harshvardhan; Hunter, Gary R

    2018-05-16

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine the relationships between maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2max ) and walking economy during non-graded and graded walking among overweight women and (2) examine potential differences in [Formula: see text]O 2max and walking economy before and after weight loss. One-hundred and twenty-four premenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) between 27 and 30 kg/m 2 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) diet only; (b) diet and aerobic exercise training; and (c) diet and resistance exercise training. All were furnished with standard, very-low calorie diet to reduce BMI to < 25 kg/m 2 . [Formula: see text]O 2max was measured using a modified-Bruce protocol while walking economy (1-net [Formula: see text]O 2 ) was obtained during fixed-speed (4.8 k·h -1 ), steady-state treadmill walking at 0% grade and 2.5% grade. Assessments were conducted before and after achieving target BMI. Prior to weight loss, [Formula: see text]O 2max was inversely related (P < 0.05) with non-graded and graded walking economy (r = - 0.28 to - 0.35). Similar results were also observed following weight loss (r = - 0.22 to - 0.28). Additionally, we also detected a significant inverse relationship (P < 0.05) between the changes (∆, after weight loss) in ∆[Formula: see text]O 2max , adjusted for fat-free mass, with non-graded and graded ∆walking economy (r = - 0.37 to - 0.41). Our results demonstrate [Formula: see text]O 2max and walking economy are inversely related (cross-sectional) before and after weight loss. Importantly though, ∆[Formula: see text]O 2max and ∆walking economy were also found to be inversely related, suggesting a strong synchrony between maximal aerobic capacity and metabolic cost of exercise.

  2. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekary, Rania A; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body ...

  3. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paluch Rocco A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. Results The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. Conclusions These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00962247

  4. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A

    2011-02-22

    Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. © 2011 Epstein et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. Association of dietary patterns and weight change in rural older adults 75 years and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and dietary patterns (DP) in older adults, especially in those of advanced age (_75 years). We examined the association of DP with obesity and five-year weight change in community-dwelling older adults (n=270; mean±SD age: 78.6±3.9 years)....

  6. Observed changes in extreme precipitation in Poland: 1991-2015 versus 1961-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pińskwar, Iwona; Choryński, Adam; Graczyk, Dariusz; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.

    2018-01-01

    Several episodes of extreme precipitation excess and extreme precipitation deficit, with considerable economic and social impacts, have occurred in Europe and in Poland in the last decades. However, the changes of related indices exhibit complex variability. This paper analyses changes in indices related to observed abundance and deficit of precipitated water in Poland. Among studied indices are maximum seasonal 24-h precipitation for the winter half-year (Oct.-March) and the summer half-year (Apr.-Sept.), maximum 5-day precipitation, maximum monthly precipitation and number of days with intense or very intense precipitation (respectively, in excess of 10 mm or 20 mm per day). Also, the warm-seasonal maximum number of consecutive dry days (longest period with daily precipitation below 1 mm) was examined. Analysis of precipitation extremes showed that daily maximum precipitation for the summer half-year increased for many stations, and increases during the summer half-year are more numerous than those in the winter half-year. Also, analysis of 5-day and monthly precipitation sums show increases for many stations. Number of days with intense precipitation increases especially in the north-western part of Poland. The number of consecutive dry days is getting higher for many stations in the summer half-year. Comparison of these two periods: colder 1961-1990 and warmer 1991-2015, revealed that during last 25 years most of statistical indices, such as 25th and 75th percentiles, median, mean and maximum are higher. However, many changes discussed in this paper are weak and statistically insignificant. The findings reported in this paper challenge results based on earlier data that do not include 2007-2015.

  7. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M. M.; Orth, R.; Cheruy, F.; Hagemann, S.; Lorenz, R.; Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-02-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multimodel experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of the hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America. Soil moisture trends are more important for this response than short-term soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections.

  8. Public health and climate change. The example of extreme weather events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, M.; Pirard, P.; Medina, S.; Viso, A.C.; Caserio-Schonemann, C.; Beaudeau, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change may be considered as a key factor for environmental change, exposure to health risks and pathogens, consequently impairing the state of health among populations. Health surveillance Systems can be used 1) to trigger early warning Systems, 2) to create databases which improve scientific knowledge about the health impacts of climate change, 3) to identify and prioritize needs for intervention and adaptation measures, and 4) to evaluate these measures. InVS proposed a method to identify possible health risks and to assess the needs for strengthened health surveillance Systems, taking into account environment, individual and social behaviors, demography and health state. Extreme climate events are illustrated here. These events have short, medium and long term impacts that could be reduced through efficient prevention. To better understand these impacts and orientate prevention, interdisciplinary studies will be needed. (authors)

  9. Effects of climate change on streamflow extremes and implications for reservoir inflow in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Bibi S.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Gao, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of hydrometeorological extremes are expected to increase in the conterminous United States (CONUS) over the rest of this century, and their increase will significantly impact water resource management. While previous efforts focused on the effects of reservoirs on downstream discharge, the effects of climate change on reservoir inflows in upstream areas are not well understood. We evaluated the large-scale climate change effects on extreme hydrological events and their implications for reservoir inflows in 178 headwater basins across CONUS using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The VIC model was forced with a 10-member ensemble of global circulation models under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 that were dynamically downscaled using a regional climate model (RegCM4) and bias-corrected to 1/24° grid cell resolution. The results projected an increase in the likelihood of flood risk by 44% for a majority of subbasins upstream of flood control reservoirs in the central United States and increased drought risk by 11% for subbasins upstream of hydropower reservoirs across the western United States. Increased risk of both floods and droughts can potentially make reservoirs across CONUS more vulnerable to future climate conditions. In conclusion, this study estimates reservoir inflow changes over the next several decades, which can be used to optimize water supply management downstream.

  10. Global crop yield response to extreme heat stress under multiple climate change futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deryng, Delphine; Warren, Rachel; Conway, Declan; Ramankutty, Navin; Price, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Extreme heat stress during the crop reproductive period can be critical for crop productivity. Projected changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events are expected to negatively impact crop yields and global food production. This study applies the global crop model PEGASUS to quantify, for the first time at the global scale, impacts of extreme heat stress on maize, spring wheat and soybean yields resulting from 72 climate change scenarios for the 21st century. Our results project maize to face progressively worse impacts under a range of RCPs but spring wheat and soybean to improve globally through to the 2080s due to CO 2 fertilization effects, even though parts of the tropic and sub-tropic regions could face substantial yield declines. We find extreme heat stress at anthesis (HSA) by the 2080s (relative to the 1980s) under RCP 8.5, taking into account CO 2 fertilization effects, could double global losses of maize yield (ΔY = −12.8 ± 6.7% versus − 7.0 ± 5.3% without HSA), reduce projected gains in spring wheat yield by half (ΔY = 34.3 ± 13.5% versus 72.0 ± 10.9% without HSA) and in soybean yield by a quarter (ΔY = 15.3 ± 26.5% versus 20.4 ± 22.1% without HSA). The range reflects uncertainty due to differences between climate model scenarios; soybean exhibits both positive and negative impacts, maize is generally negative and spring wheat generally positive. Furthermore, when assuming CO 2 fertilization effects to be negligible, we observe drastic climate mitigation policy as in RCP 2.6 could avoid more than 80% of the global average yield losses otherwise expected by the 2080s under RCP 8.5. We show large disparities in climate impacts across regions and find extreme heat stress adversely affects major producing regions and lower income countries. (paper)

  11. Decision strategies for handling the uncertainty of future extreme rainfall under the influence of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Several extraordinary rainfall events have occurred in Denmark within the last few years. For each event, problems in urban areas occurred as the capacity of the existing drainage systems were exceeded. Adaptation to climate change is necessary but also very challenging as urban drainage systems...... are characterized by long technical lifetimes and high, unrecoverable construction costs. One of the most important barriers for the initiation and implementation of the adaptation strategies is therefore the uncertainty when predicting the magnitude of the extreme rainfall in the future. This challenge is explored...

  12. The Relationship of Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Pregnancy Weight Gain to Neurocognitive Function at Age 10 Years among Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Elizabeth T; van der Burg, Jelske W; O'Shea, Thomas M; Joseph, Robert M; Allred, Elizabeth N; Heeren, Tim; Leviton, Alan; Kuban, Karl C K

    2017-08-01

    To assess the association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and adequacy of pregnancy weight gain in relation to neurocognitive function in school-aged children born extremely preterm. Study participants were 535 ten-year-old children enrolled previously in the prospective multicenter Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns cohort study who were products of singleton pregnancies. Soon after delivery, mothers provided information about prepregnancy weight. Prepregnancy body mass index and adequacy of weight gain were characterized based on this information. Children underwent a neurocognitive evaluation at 10 years of age. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with increased odds of a lower score for Differential Ability Scales-II Verbal IQ, for Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment-II measures of processing speed and visual fine motor control, and for Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-III Spelling. Children born to mothers who gained an excessive amount of weight were at increased odds of a low score on the Oral and Written Language Scales Oral Expression assessment. Conversely, children whose mother did not gain an adequate amount of weight were at increased odds of a lower score on the Oral and Written Language Scales Oral Expression and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-III Word Reading assessments. In this cohort of infants born extremely preterm, maternal obesity was associated with poorer performance on some assessments of neurocognitive function. Our findings are consistent with the observational and experimental literature and suggest that opportunities may exist to mitigate risk through education and behavioral intervention before pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Weight change from 3-year observational data: findings from the worldwide schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushe, Chris J; Slooff, Cees J; Haddad, Peter M; Karagianis, Jamie L

    2012-06-01

    Weight change data from randomized clinical trials are often of limited duration and trials do not always report a full range of clinically relevant categorical end points. We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from the observational Worldwide Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes database (2000-2005) on weight change in 4,626 patients completing 3 years of antipsychotic monotherapy with amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and oral and depot first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Reported outcomes included mean and categorical weight changes and the trajectories of different measures of weight change. Mean weight gain was lowest with amisulpride (1.8 kg; 95% CI, 0.2-3.3) and highest with olanzapine (4.2 kg; 95% CI, 3.9-4.5). Weight change for all antipsychotics was most rapid during the first 6 months; subsequent weight change was slower but did not plateau. All drugs showed considerable individual variation in weight change. The proportion losing ≥7% of their baseline bodyweight was highest with quetiapine (10%; 95% CI, 7%-16%) and lowest with depot FGAs (5%; 95% CI, 3%-10%). Between 7% and 15% of patients moved into an overweight or obese body mass index (kg/m2)category (≥25). The degree of weight gain varied between antipsychotics. All antipsychotics were associated with significant (≥7%) weight loss and gain from baseline. The mean rate of weight gain was maximal during the first 6 months but continued over 3 years without a plateau in this specific cohort. Patients should receive regular monitoring of weight throughout treatment. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Tackling air pollution and extreme climate changes in China: Implementing the Paris climate change agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Duo-Quan, Wang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-10-01

    China still depends on coal for more than 60% of its power despite big investments in the process of shifting to nuclear, solar and wind power renewable energy resources alignment with Paris climate change agreement (Paris CCA). Chinese government through the Communist Party Central Committee (CPCC) ascribes great importance and commitment to Paris CCA legacy and history landmark implementation at all levels. As the world's biggest carbon dioxide emitter, China has embarked on "SMART" pollution and climate changes programs and measures to reduce coal-fired power plants to less than 50% in the next five years include: new China model of energy policies commitment on CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions reductions to less than 20% non-fossil energy use by 2030 without undermining their economic growth, newly introduced electric vehicles transportation benefits, interactive and sustained air quality index (AQI) monitoring systems, decreasing reliance on fossil fuel economic activities, revision of energy price reforms and renewable energy to less energy efficient technologies development. Furthermore, ongoing CPCC improved environmental initiatives, implemented strict regulations and penalties on local companies and firms' pollution production management, massive infrastructures such as highways to reduce CO2 expansion of seven regional emissions trading markets and programs for CO2 emissions and other pollutants are being documented. Maximizing on the centralized nature of the China's government, implemented Chinese pollution, climate changes mitigation and adaptation initiatives, "SMART" strategies and credible measures are promising. A good and practical example is the interactive and dynamic website and database covering 367 Chinese cities and providing real time information on environmental and pollution emissions AQI. Also, water quality index (WQI), radiation and nuclear safety monitoring and management systems over time and space. These are ongoing Chinese

  15. Seniors' body weight dissatisfaction and longitudinal associations with weight changes, anorexia of aging, and obesity: results from the NuAge Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mathieu; Shatenstein, Bryna; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Morais, José A; Payette, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    We examined longitudinal associations between weight dissatisfaction, weight changes, anorexia of aging, and obesity among 1,793 seniors followed over 4 years between 2003 and 2009. Obesity prevalence (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30) and prevalence/incidence of weight dissatisfaction, anorexia of aging (self-reported appetite loss), and weight changes ≥5% were assessed. Predictors of weight loss ≥5%, anorexia of aging, and weight dissatisfaction were examined using logistic regressions. Half of seniors experienced weight dissatisfaction (50.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [48.1, 53.1]). Anorexia of aging and obesity prevalence was 7.0% (95% CI = [5.7, 8.3]) and 25.1% (95% CI = [22.9, 27.3]), whereas incidence of weight gain/loss ≥5% was 6.6% (95% CI = [1.3, 11.9]) and 8.8% (95% CI = [3.3, 14.3]). Weight gain ≥5% predicts men's subsequent weight dissatisfaction (odds ratio [OR] = 6.66, 95% CI = [2.06, 21.60]). No other association was observed. Weight dissatisfaction is frequent but not associated with subsequent eating disorders. In men, weight gain predicted weight dissatisfaction. Seniors' weight dissatisfaction does not necessarily equate weight changes. Due to its high prevalence, it is of public health interest to understand how seniors' weight dissatisfaction may impact health. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The relative importance among anthropogenic forcings of land use/land cover change in affecting temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2018-05-01

    Land use/land cover change (LULCC) exerts significant influence on regional climate extremes, but its relative importance compared with other anthropogenic climate forcings has not been thoroughly investigated. This study compares land use forcing with other forcing agents in explaining the simulated historical temperature extreme changes since preindustrial times in the CESM-Last Millennium Ensemble (LME) project. CESM-LME suggests that the land use forcing has caused an overall cooling in both warm and cold extremes, and has significantly decreased diurnal temperature range (DTR). Due to the competing effects of the GHG and aerosol forcings, the spatial pattern of changes in 1850-2005 climatology of temperature extremes in CESM-LME can be largely explained by the land use forcing, especially for hot extremes and DTR. The dominance of land use forcing is particularly evident over Europe, eastern China, and the central and eastern US. Temporally, the land-use cooling is relatively stable throughout the historical period, while the warming of temperature extremes is mainly influenced by the enhanced GHG forcing, which has gradually dampened the local dominance of the land use effects. Results from the suite of CMIP5 experiments partially agree with the local dominance of the land use forcing in CESM-LME, but inter-model discrepancies exist in the distribution and sign of the LULCC-induced temperature changes. Our results underline the overall importance of LULCC in historical temperature extreme changes, implying land use forcing should be highlighted in future climate projections.

  17. Mapping probabilities of extreme continental water storage changes from space gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusche, J.; Eicker, A.; Forootan, E.; Springer, A.; Longuevergne, L.

    2016-12-01

    Using data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, we derive statistically robust 'hotspot' regions of high probability of peak anomalous - i.e. with respect to the seasonal cycle - water storage (of up to 0.7 m one-in-five-year return level) and flux (up to 0.14 m/mon). Analysis of, and comparison with, up to 32 years of ERA-Interim reanalysis fields reveals generally good agreement of these hotspot regions to GRACE results, and that most exceptions are located in the Tropics. However, a simulation experiment reveals that differences observed by GRACE are statistically significant, and further error analysis suggests that by around the year 2020 it will be possible to detect temporal changes in the frequency of extreme total fluxes (i.e. combined effects of mainly precipitation and floods) for at least 10-20% of the continental area, assuming that we have a continuation of GRACE by its follow-up GRACE-FO. J. Kusche et al. (2016): Mapping probabilities of extreme continental water storage changes from space gravimetry, Geophysical Research Letters, accepted online, doi:10.1002/2016GL069538

  18. Spatiotemporal patterns of precipitation extremes in the Poyang Lake basin, China: Changing properties and causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M.

    2016-12-01

    Under the background of climate change, extensive attentions have been paid on the increased extreme precipitation from the public and government. To analyze the influences of large-scale climate indices on the precipitation extremes, the spatiotemporal patterns of precipitation extremes in the Poyang Lake basin have been investigated using the Bayesian hierarchical method. The seasonal maximum one-day precipitation amount (Rx1day) was used to represent the seasonal precipitation extremes. Results indicated that spring Rx1day was affected by El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a positive ENSO event in the same year tends to decrease the spring Rx1day in the northern part of Poyang Lake Basin while increase the spring Rx1day in southeastern Poyang Lake Basin, a positive NAO events in the same year tends to increase the spring Rx1day in the southwest and northwest part of Poyang Lake basin while decrease the spring Rx1day in the eastern part of Poyang Lake basin; summer Rx1day was affected by Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), positive IOD events in the same year tend to increase the summer Rx1day of northern Poyang Lake basin while decrease summer Rx1day of southern Poyang Lake basin; autumn Rx1day was affected by ENSO, positive ENSO events in the same year tend to mainly increase the autumn Rx1day in the west part of Poyang Lake basin; winter Rx1day was mainly affected by the NAO, positive NAO events in the same year tend to mainly increase the winter Rx1day of southern Poyang Lake basin, while positive NAO events in the previous year tend to mainly increase the winter Rx1day in the central and northeast part of Poyang Lake basin. It is considered that the region with the negative vertical velocity is dominated by more precipitation and vice versa. Furthermore, field patterns of 500 hPa vertical velocity anomalies related to each climate index have further corroborated the influences of climate indices on the seasonal Rx1day, and

  19. Reprogramming the body weight set point by a reciprocal interaction of hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and Pomc gene expression reverts extreme obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavaljit H. Chhabra

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Pomc reactivation in previously obese, calorie-restricted ArcPomc−/− mice normalized energy homeostasis, suggesting that their body weight set point was restored to control levels. In contrast, massively obese and hyperleptinemic ArcPomc−/− mice or those weight-matched and treated with PASylated leptin to maintain extreme hyperleptinemia prior to Pomc reactivation converged to an intermediate set point relative to lean control and obese ArcPomc−/− mice. We conclude that restoration of hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and Pomc expression is necessary for obese ArcPomc−/− mice to achieve and sustain normal metabolic homeostasis; whereas deficits in either parameter set a maladaptive allostatic balance that defends increased adiposity and body weight.

  20. Changes in Weight, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity during the School Year and Summer Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Tanaka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine bidirectional associations between body weight and objectively assessed sedentary behaviour (SB and physical activity (PA during the school year and summer vacation. Methods: Participants were 209 Japanese boys and girls (9.0 ± 1.8 years at baseline. SB and PA were measured using triaxial accelerometry that discriminated between ambulatory and non-ambulatory PA, screen time measured by questionnaire during the school-term was evaluated in May and the summer vacation, and relative body weight measured in May and just after the end of summer vacation. Results: There were no significant relationships between changes in SB or PA and changes in body weight. However, higher relative body weight at baseline was associated with decreased non-ambulatory moderate PA (p = 0.049, but this association was slightly diminished after adjusting for change in SB (p = 0.056. Longer screen time at baseline was also associated with increased relative body weight (p = 0.033. Conclusions: The present study revealed that body weight might be particularly influential on non-ambulatory moderate PA while SB, PA or changes in these variables did not predict changes in body weight. Moreover, screen time during the school year is a predictor of change in relative body weight during the subsequent summer vacation.

  1. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekary, Rania A; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B

    2015-02-01

    Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations were used. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend weight training (-0.67 cm, 95% CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33 cm, 95% CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16 cm, 95% CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08 cm, 95% CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23 kg, 95% CI -0.29, -0.17). Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency/volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  2. Weight change associated with the use of migraine-preventive medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2008-06-01

    Medications administered long term, such as those used for migraine prophylaxis, are often associated with weight change as a side effect. Such effects may compromise general health status, exacerbate coexisting medical conditions, and affect medication adherence. Weight gain should be of particular concern in patients with migraine, as there is evidence that overweight and obese patients with migraine are at risk for an increased frequency and severity of migraine attacks. This article reviews weight-change data from recent clinical studies of migraine-preventive medications in children, adolescents, and adults with migraine. A PubMed search was conducted for English-language articles published between January 1970 and November 2007. Among the search terms were migraine prevention, migraine prophylaxis, migraine treatment, antidepressant drug, beta-adrenergic-receptor blockers, antiepileptic drug, anticonvulsant drug, weight gain, and weight loss. Studies that reported weight-change data (gain, loss, or neutral) were included. When available, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were selected for review. Open-label, retrospective or prospective trials may also have been included. Most of the migraine-preventive medications classified by the United States Headache Consortium as group 1 based on the high level of evidence for their efficacy--for instance, amitriptyline, propranolol, and divalproex sodium-have been associated with varying degrees of weight gain. The exceptions are timolol, which is weight neutral, and topiramate, which is associated with weight loss. Among the drugs that have been associated with weight gain, a higher incidence of weight gain was observed with amitriptyline and divalproex sodium than with propranolol. Weight-change effects require careful consideration when selecting migraine-preventive medications, and weight should be monitored carefully over the course of any migraine treatment plan.

  3. Weight changes and their associations with demographic and clinical characteristics in risperidone maintenance treatment for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Y-T; Wang, C-Y; Ungvari, G S; Kreyenbuhl, J A; Chiu, H F K; Lai, K Y C; Lee, E H M; Bo, Q-J; Dixon, L B

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize weight changes in schizophrenia patients taking risperidone as part of a randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial. A total of 374 patients with schizophrenia who had been clinically stabilized following an acute episode were randomly assigned to a 'no-dose-reduction' group (initial optimal therapeutic doses continued throughout the study), a '4-week group' (initial optimal therapeutic doses continued for 4 weeks followed by a half dose reduction that was maintained until the end of the study) or a '26-week group' (initial optimal therapeutic doses continued for 26 weeks followed by a half dose reduction until the end of the study). Participants were assessed monthly using standardized assessment instruments during the first 6 months, and then every 2 months until the last recruited patient completed the 1-year follow-up. Weight gain was defined as gaining at least 7% of initial body weight, weight loss as losing at least 7% of initial body weight. A BMI weight loss compared to being normal weight. No correlation was found between weight change and dose reduction. Weight change is a common, long-term, but heterogeneous side effect in risperidone maintenance treatment for stable schizophrenia patients. Special attention should be paid to fluctuations in weight that may occur throughout the course of treatment with risperidone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Psychological changes following weight loss in overweight and obese adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Jackson

    Full Text Available Participation in weight loss programs is often associated with improved wellbeing alongside reduced cardio-metabolic risk. In contrast, population-based analyses have found no evidence of psychological benefits of weight loss, but this may be due to inclusion of healthy-weight individuals. We therefore examined cardio-metabolic and psychological changes following weight loss in a cohort of overweight/obese adults.Data were from 1,979 overweight and obese adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2; age ≥ 50 y, free of long-standing illness or clinical depression at baseline, from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Participants were grouped according to four-year weight change into those losing ≥ 5% weight, those gaining ≥ 5%, and those whose weight was stable within 5%. Logistic regression examined changes in depressed mood (eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score ≥ 4, low wellbeing (Satisfaction With Life Scale score <20, hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or anti-hypertensives, and high triglycerides (≥ 1.7 mmol/l, controlling for demographic variables, weight loss intention, and baseline characteristics.The proportion of participants with depressed mood increased more in the weight loss than weight stable or weight gain groups (+289%, +86%, +62% respectively; odds ratio [OR] for weight loss vs. weight stable = 1.78 [95% CI 1.29-2.47]. The proportion with low wellbeing also increased more in the weight loss group (+31%, +22%, -4%, but the difference was not statistically significant (OR = 1.16 [0.81-1.66]. Hypertension and high triglyceride prevalence decreased in weight losers and increased in weight gainers (-28%, 4%, +18%; OR = 0.61 [0.45-0.83]; -47%, -13%, +5%; OR = 0.41 [0.28-0.60]. All effects persisted in analyses adjusting for illness and life stress during the weight loss period.Weight loss over four years in initially healthy overweight/obese older adults was associated with reduction in cardio

  5. Environmental Sustainability of Agriculture Stressed by Changing Extremes of Drought and Excess Moisture: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Wheaton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the climate changes, the effects of agriculture on the environment may change. In the future, an increasing frequency of climate extremes, such as droughts, heat waves, and excess moisture, is expected. Past research on the interaction between environment and resources has focused on climate change effects on various sectors, including agricultural production (especially crop production, but research on the effects of climate change using agri-environmental indicators (AEI of environmental sustainability of agriculture is limited. The aim of this paper was to begin to address this knowledge gap by exploring the effects of future drought and excess moisture on environmental sustainability of agriculture. Methods included the use of a conceptual framework, literature reviews, and an examination of the climate sensitivities of the AEI models. The AEIs assessed were those for the themes of soil and water quality, and farmland management as developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Additional indicators included one for desertification and another for water supply and demand. The study area was the agricultural region of the Canadian Prairie Provinces. We found that the performance of several indicators would likely decrease in a warming climate with more extremes. These indicators with declining performances included risks for soil erosion, soil salinization, desertification, water quality and quantity, and soil contamination. Preliminary trends of other indicators such as farmland management were not clear. AEIs are important tools for measuring climate impacts on the environmental sustainability of agriculture. They also indicate the success of adaptation measures and suggest areas of operational and policy development. Therefore, continued reporting and enhancement of these indicators is recommended.

  6. Longitudinal impact of weight misperception and intent to change weight on body mass index of adolescents and young adults with overweight or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Diana; Thurston, Idia B; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Milliren, Carly E; Richmond, Tracy K

    2017-12-01

    Accurate perception of one's weight status is believed to be necessary to motivate weight loss intention and subsequent weight loss among those with overweight/obesity. This proposed pathway, however, is understudied in longitudinal research. This study examined the indirect effect of weight change intention on the relationship between weight status perception and BMI change among adolescents with overweight/obesity. Participants included 2664 adolescents with overweight/obesity (52% female) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Longitudinal associations between Wave II weight status perception (accurate versus misperception) and intent to change weight (i.e., gain, lose, stay the same) on BMI change (Wave II-Wave IV) were examined using multiple linear regression. Indirect effects of weight change intention were investigated using the Monte Carlo method. Analyses were stratified by gender. Accurate perceivers (81.0% female; 60.1% male) were more likely than misperceivers (i.e., perception of "about the right weight") to report weight loss intention (p<0.001). Among females, weight status misperception and weight loss intention individually were associated with smaller (β=-1.37, 95% CI [-2.64, -0.10]) and greater (β=1.18, 95% CI [0.11, 2.25]) BMI gains, respectively. Among males, fully adjusted models suggested that weight status misperception was associated with significantly smaller gains in BMI over time (β=-1.51, 95% CI [-2.38, -0.63]). Weight change intention did not emerge as an indirect effect for either gender. Although weight status misperception was protective against weight gain, weight change intention did not provide an explanation for this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intensity changes in future extreme precipitation: A statistical event-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manola, Iris; van den Hurk, Bart; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    Short-lived precipitation extremes are often responsible for hazards in urban and rural environments with economic and environmental consequences. The precipitation intensity is expected to increase about 7% per degree of warming, according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. However, the observations often show a much stronger increase in the sub-daily values. In particular, the behavior of the hourly summer precipitation from radar observations with the dew point temperature (the Pi-Td relation) for the Netherlands suggests that for moderate to warm days the intensification of the precipitation can be even higher than 21% per degree of warming, that is 3 times higher than the expected CC relation. The rate of change depends on the initial precipitation intensity, as low percentiles increase with a rate below CC, the medium percentiles with 2CC and the moderate-high and high percentiles with 3CC. This non-linear statistical Pi-Td relation is suggested to be used as a delta-transformation to project how a historic extreme precipitation event would intensify under future, warmer conditions. Here, the Pi-Td relation is applied over a selected historic extreme precipitation event to 'up-scale' its intensity to warmer conditions. Additionally, the selected historic event is simulated in the high-resolution, convective-permitting weather model Harmonie. The initial and boundary conditions are alternated to represent future conditions. The comparison between the statistical and the numerical method of projecting the historic event to future conditions showed comparable intensity changes, which depending on the initial percentile intensity, range from below CC to a 3CC rate of change per degree of warming. The model tends to overestimate the future intensities for the low- and the very high percentiles and the clouds are somewhat displaced, due to small wind and convection changes. The total spatial cloud coverage in the model remains, as also in the statistical

  8. Drought, deluge and declines: the impact of precipitation extremes on amphibians in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C.; Barichivich, William J.; Brown, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The Class Amphibia is one of the most severely impacted taxa in an on-going global biodiversity crisis. Because amphibian reproduction is tightly associated with the presence of water, climatic changes that affect water availability pose a particularly menacing threat to both aquatic and terrestrial-breeding amphibians. We explore the impacts that one facet of climate change—that of extreme variation in precipitation—may have on amphibians. This variation is manifested principally as increases in the incidence and severity of both drought and major storm events. We stress the need to consider not only total precipitation amounts but also the pattern and timing of rainfall events. Such rainfall “pulses” are likely to become increasingly more influential on amphibians, especially in relation to seasonal reproduction. Changes in reproductive phenology can strongly influence the outcome of competitive and predatory interactions, thus potentially altering community dynamics in assemblages of co-existing species. We present a conceptual model to illustrate possible landscape and metapopulation consequences of alternative climate change scenarios for pond-breeding amphibians, using the Mole Salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, as an example. Although amphibians have evolved a variety of life history strategies that enable them to cope with environmental uncertainty, it is unclear whether adaptations can keep pace with the escalating rate of climate change. Climate change, especially in combination with other stressors, is a daunting challenge for the persistence of amphibians and, thus, the conservation of global biodiversity.

  9. Abrupt state change of river water quality (turbidity): Effect of extreme rainfalls and typhoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chiang, Hui-Min

    2016-07-01

    River turbidity is of dynamic nature, and its stable state is significantly changed during the period of heavy rainfall events. The frequent occurrence of typhoons in Taiwan has caused serious problems in drinking water treatment due to extremely high turbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate impact of typhoons on river turbidity. The statistical methods used included analyses of paired annual mean and standard deviation, frequency distribution, and moving standard deviation, skewness, and autocorrelation; all clearly indicating significant state changes of river turbidity. Typhoon Morakot of 2009 (recorded high rainfall over 2000mm in three days, responsible for significant disaster in southern Taiwan) is assumed as a major initiated event leading to critical state change. In addition, increasing rate of turbidity in rainfall events is highly and positively correlated with rainfall intensity both for pre- and post-Morakot periods. Daily turbidity is also well correlated with daily flow rate for all the eleven events evaluated. That implies potential prediction of river turbidity by river flow rate during rainfall and typhoon events. Based on analysis of stable state changes, more effective regulations for better basin management including soil-water conservation in watershed are necessary. Furthermore, municipal and industrial water treatment plants need to prepare and ensure the adequate operation of water treatment with high raw water turbidity (e.g., >2000NTU). Finally, methodology used in the present of this study can be applied to other environmental problems with abrupt state changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Observed changes in extremes of daily rainfall and temperature in Jemma Sub-Basin, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Gebrekidan; Teferi, Ermias; Bantider, Amare; Dile, Yihun T.

    2018-02-01

    Climate variability has been a threat to the socio-economic development of Ethiopia. This paper examined the changes in rainfall, minimum, and maximum temperature extremes of Jemma Sub-Basin of the Upper Blue Nile Basin for the period of 1981 to 2014. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall, seasonal Mann-Kendall, and Sen's slope estimator were used to estimate annual trends. Ten rainfall and 12 temperature indices were used to study changes in rainfall and temperature extremes. The results showed an increasing trend of annual and summer rainfall in more than 78% of the stations and a decreasing trend of spring rainfall in most of the stations. An increase in rainfall extreme events was detected in the majority of the stations. Several rainfall extreme indices showed wetting trends in the sub-basin, whereas limited indices indicated dryness in most of the stations. Annual maximum and minimum temperature and extreme temperature indices showed warming trend in the sub-basin. Presence of extreme rainfall and a warming trend of extreme temperature indices may suggest signs of climate change in the Jemma Sub-Basin. This study, therefore, recommended the need for exploring climate induced risks and implementing appropriate climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  11. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants...... in the associations between social network, economic hardship and weight gain or obesity. The number of psychosocial risk factors, as an indicator for clustering, was not associated with weight gain or obesity. In conclusion, major life events and vital exhaustion seem to play a role for weight gain and risk...

  12. Acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children: Evidence from the ECLS-K:2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Cassandra S; Baranowski, Tom; Kimbro, Rachel T

    2017-06-01

    Despite relatively low rates of overweight and obesity among Asian-American children, disparities exist based on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and Asian ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children. Secondary aims were to compare changes by Asian ethnic group and acculturation x socioeconomic status. Participants included 1200 Asian-American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11, a longitudinal study of U.S. children attending kindergarten in 2010-2011. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to predict weight change based on body mass indices in kindergarten (spring 2011) and second grade (spring 2013): consistently healthy weight, consistently overweight/obese, healthy weight change, and unhealthy weight change. Models included demographic, household, socioeconomic status, and acculturation measures, specifically mother's English proficiency and percentage of life spent in the U.S. Overall, 72.3% of children were at healthy weights in kindergarten and second grade. Of all Asian ethnic groups, Filipino children had the highest rate of being consistently overweight/obese (24.8%) and the lowest rate of being consistently healthy weight (62.9%). In addition, mother's English proficiency predicted unhealthy weight change (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75-0.92) and healthy weight change (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.65-0.86), relative to "consistently healthy weight." English proficiency also predicted being consistently overweight/obese for children with less educated mothers. Findings enhance our understanding of obesity disparities within Asian Americans and highlight the need to disaggregate the population. Obesity interventions are needed for Filipino children and families with low socioeconomic status but high English proficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in lower extremity movement and power absorption during forefoot striking and barefoot running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D S Blaise; Green, Douglas H; Wurzinger, Brian

    2012-10-01

    Both forefoot strike shod (FFS) and barefoot (BF) running styles result in different mechanics when compared to rearfoot strike (RFS) shod running. Additionally, running mechanics of FFS and BF running are similar to one another. Comparing the mechanical changes occurring in each of these patterns is necessary to understand potential benefits and risks of these running styles. The authors hypothesized that FFS and BF conditions would result in increased sagittal plane joint angles at initial contact and that FFS and BF conditions would demonstrate a shift in sagittal plane joint power from the knee to the ankle when compared to the RFS condition. Finally, total lower extremity power absorption will be least in BF and greatest in the RFS shod condition. The study included 10 male and 10 female RFS runners who completed 3-dimensional running analysis in 3 conditions: shod with RFS, shod with FFS, and BF. Variables were the angles of plantarflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion at initial contact and peak sagittal plane joint power at the hip, knee, and ankle during stance phase. Running with a FFS pattern and BF resulted in significantly greater plantarflexion and significantly less negative knee power (absorption) when compared to shod RFS condition. FFS condition runners landed in the most plantarflexion and demonstrated the most peak ankle power absorption and lowest knee power absorption between the 3 conditions. BF and FFS conditions demonstrated decreased total lower extremity power absorption compared to the shod RFS condition but did not differ from one another. BF and FFS running result in reduced total lower extremity power, hip power and knee power and a shift of power absorption from the knee to the ankle. Alterations associated with BF running patterns are present in a FFS pattern when wearing shoes. Additionally, both patterns result in increased demand at the foot and ankle as compared to the knee.

  14. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Predicts Future Weight Change in the Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    These unhealthy behaviors, such as using laxatives, skipping meals, or increasing consumption of fast food and soda, may cause weight loss or gain...12. Hirth JM, Rahman M, Berenson AB. The association of posttraumatic stress disorder with fast food and soda consumption and unhealthy weight loss...weight changes in individuals with PTSD: (1) sleep deprivation caused by PTSD, as shorter sleep duration has been linked to higher obesity prevalence

  15. Mortality gradients within and among dominant plant populations as barometers of ecosystem change during extreme drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Alicyn R; Sthultz, Christopher M; Bowker, Matthew A; Stumpf, Stacy; Paxton, Kristina L; Kennedy, Karla; Muñoz, Axhel; Bailey, Joseph K; Whitham, Thomas G

    2006-10-01

    Understanding patterns of plant population mortality during extreme weather events is important to conservation planners because the frequency of such events is expected to increase, creating the need to integrate climatic uncertainty into management. Dominant plants provide habitat and ecosystem structure, so changes in their distribution can be expected to have cascading effects on entire communities. Observing areas that respond quickly to climate fluctuations provides foresight into future ecological changes and will help prioritize conservation efforts. We investigated patterns of mortality in six dominant plant species during a drought in the southwestern United States. We quantified population mortality for each species across its regional distribution and tested hypotheses to identify ecological stress gradients for each species. Our results revealed three major patterns: (1) dominant species from diverse habitat types (i.e., riparian, chaparral, and low- to high-elevation forests) exhibited significant mortality, indicating that the effects of drought were widespread; (2) average mortality differed among dominant species (one-seed juniper[Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.] 3.3%; manzanita[Arctostaphylos pungens Kunth], 14.6%; quaking aspen[Populus tremuloides Michx.], 15.4%; ponderosa pine[Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson], 15.9%; Fremont cottonwood[Populus fremontii S. Wats.], 20.7%; and pinyon pine[Pinus edulis Engelm.], 41.4%); (3) all dominant species showed localized patterns of very high mortality (24-100%) consistent with water stress gradients. Land managers should plan for climatic uncertainty by promoting tree recruitment in rare habitat types, alleviating unnatural levels of competition on dominant plants, and conserving sites across water stress gradients. High-stress sites, such as those we examined, have conservation value as barometers of change and because they may harbor genotypes that are adapted to climatic extremes.

  16. Prospective weight change and colon cancer risk in male US health professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies are remarkably consistent, especially among men, in showing that overweight and obesity [body mass index (BMI) >25] are associated with increased risk of colon cancer. However, no prospective studies address the influence of weight change in adulthood on subsequent colon...... cancer risk. In this study, we investigated whether weight change influences colon cancer risk utilizing prospectively collected weight data. We included 46,349 men aged 40-75 participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Questionnaires including items on weight were completed every second......-year period, we documented 765 cases of colon cancer. Cumulative mean BMI >22.5 was associated with significantly increased risk of colon cancer. The short-term weight change in the prior 2 to 4 years was positively and significantly associated with risk [HR = 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 1...

  17. Do changes in the frequency, magnitude and timing of extreme climatic events threaten the population viability of coastal birds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Ens, Bruno J.; Heg, Dik; Brouwer, Lyanne; Krol, Johan; Maier, Martin; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Oosterbeek, Kees; Lok, Tamar; Eising, Corine M.; Koffijberg, Kees

    P>1. Climate change encompasses changes in both the means and the extremes of climatic variables, but the population consequences of the latter are intrinsically difficult to study. 2. We investigated whether the frequency, magnitude and timing of rare but catastrophic flooding events have changed

  18. Influence of Anthropogenic Climate Change on Planetary Wave Resonance and Extreme Weather Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael E; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Kornhuber, Kai; Steinman, Byron A; Miller, Sonya K; Coumou, Dim

    2017-03-27

    Persistent episodes of extreme weather in the Northern Hemisphere summer have been shown to be associated with the presence of high-amplitude quasi-stationary atmospheric Rossby waves within a particular wavelength range (zonal wavenumber 6-8). The underlying mechanistic relationship involves the phenomenon of quasi-resonant amplification (QRA) of synoptic-scale waves with that wavenumber range becoming trapped within an effective mid-latitude atmospheric waveguide. Recent work suggests an increase in recent decades in the occurrence of QRA-favorable conditions and associated extreme weather, possibly linked to amplified Arctic warming and thus a climate change influence. Here, we isolate a specific fingerprint in the zonal mean surface temperature profile that is associated with QRA-favorable conditions. State-of-the-art ("CMIP5") historical climate model simulations subject to anthropogenic forcing display an increase in the projection of this fingerprint that is mirrored in multiple observational surface temperature datasets. Both the models and observations suggest this signal has only recently emerged from the background noise of natural variability.

  19. Vulnerability to extreme heat and climate change: is ethnicity a factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Alana; Bi, Linda; Saniotis, Arthur; Nitschke, Monika

    2013-07-29

    With a warming climate, it is important to identify sub-populations at risk of harm during extreme heat. Several international studies have reported that individuals from ethnic minorities are at increased risk of heat-related illness, for reasons that are not often discussed. The aim of this article is to investigate the underpinning reasons as to why ethnicity may be associated with susceptibility to extreme heat, and how this may be relevant to Australia's population. Drawing upon literary sources, the authors provide commentary on this important, yet poorly understood area of heat research. Social and economic disparities, living conditions, language barriers, and occupational exposure are among the many factors contributing to heat-susceptibility among minority ethnic groups in the United States. However, there is a knowledge gap about socio-cultural influences on vulnerability in other countries. More research needs to be undertaken to determine the effects of heat on tourists, migrants, and refugees who are confronted with a different climatic environment. Thorough epidemiological investigations of the association between ethnicity and heat-related health outcomes are required, and this could be assisted with better reporting of nationality data in health statistics. Climate change adaptation strategies in Australia and elsewhere need to be ethnically inclusive and cognisant of an upward trend in the proportion of the population who are migrants and refugees.

  20. Vulnerability to extreme heat and climate change: is ethnicity a factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Hansen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With a warming climate, it is important to identify sub-populations at risk of harm during extreme heat. Several international studies have reported that individuals from ethnic minorities are at increased risk of heat-related illness, for reasons that are not often discussed. Objective: The aim of this article is to investigate the underpinning reasons as to why ethnicity may be associated with susceptibility to extreme heat, and how this may be relevant to Australia's population. Design: Drawing upon literary sources, the authors provide commentary on this important, yet poorly understood area of heat research. Results: Social and economic disparities, living conditions, language barriers, and occupational exposure are among the many factors contributing to heat-susceptibility among minority ethnic groups in the United States. However, there is a knowledge gap about socio-cultural influences on vulnerability in other countries. Conclusion: More research needs to be undertaken to determine the effects of heat on tourists, migrants, and refugees who are confronted with a different climatic environment. Thorough epidemiological investigations of the association between ethnicity and heat-related health outcomes are required, and this could be assisted with better reporting of nationality data in health statistics. Climate change adaptation strategies in Australia and elsewhere need to be ethnically inclusive and cognisant of an upward trend in the proportion of the population who are migrants and refugees.

  1. Scale orientated analysis of river width changes due to extreme flood hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krapesch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the morphological effects of extreme floods (recurrence interval >100 years and examines which parameters best describe the width changes due to erosion based on 5 affected alpine gravel bed rivers in Austria. The research was based on vertical aerial photos of the rivers before and after extreme floods, hydrodynamic numerical models and cross sectional measurements supported by LiDAR data of the rivers. Average width ratios (width after/before the flood were calculated and correlated with different hydraulic parameters (specific stream power, shear stress, flow area, specific discharge. Depending on the geomorphological boundary conditions of the different rivers, a mean width ratio between 1.12 (Lech River and 3.45 (Trisanna River was determined on the reach scale. The specific stream power (SSP best predicted the mean width ratios of the rivers especially on the reach scale and sub reach scale. On the local scale more parameters have to be considered to define the "minimum morphological spatial demand of rivers", which is a crucial parameter for addressing and managing flood hazards and should be used in hazard zone plans and spatial planning.

  2. The role of body weight, fat distribution and weight change in ethnic differences in the 9-year incidence of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootveld, Laura R; Van Valkengoed, Irene G M; Peters, Ron J G; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanne K; Brewster, Lizzy M; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the role of body composition (body weight, fat distribution and weight change over time) in ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension in an ethnic Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background population living in the Netherlands. We included 361 participants without hypertension at baseline (147 ethnic Dutch, 82 South Asian Surinamese, 132 African Surinamese), aged 35-60 years, in whom anthropometric measurements and blood pressures were measured at baseline and after mean 9 years of follow-up. Data were analysed using logistic regression analyses, with hypertension at follow up as a dependent variable. Body weight, fat distribution and weight gain were positively associated with the risk of developing hypertension; these associations did not statistically significantly differ between ethnic groups [odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence interval (95% CI) per SD: BMI 1.5 (1.2-2.0); waist circumference 1.5 (1.2-1.9); waist to hip ratio (WHR) 1.4 (1.1-1.9), weight gain of 1-2.9 kg/m 1.8 (0.9-3.8)]. As compared with Dutch, a higher incidence of hypertension was found among South Asian Surinamese [OR 2.6 (1.4-4.8)] and in particular among African Surinamese [OR 3.1 (1.76-5.30)]. Among South Asian Surinamese, adjustment for WHR attenuated the OR the most [OR 1.9 (1.0-3.7)]; among African Surinamese, the strongest effect was observed for adjustment by BMI and WHR simultaneously [OR 2.5 (1.4-4.4)]. The ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension among a middle-aged group with a Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background were partly explained by body composition. This suggests that other factors may be involved, including genetic factors or unidentified other determinants.

  3. Features of Physical and Neuro-Psychological Development of Children with Low, Very Low and Extremely Low Birth Weight in Different Age Periods of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Deev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of features of physical and neuro-psychological development of children with low, very low and extremely low birth weight in different age periods is carried out according to cohort studies of newborns with different gestational age and birth weight, presented in electronic databases PubMed and Medscape. It is revealed that the overwhelming number of children with low, very low and extremely low birth weight, gain physical and neuro- psychological development impairments, hearing and vision disorders of varying severity, violation of motor function, intelligence and cognitive skills infringement in an older age. In this regard, it is actual not only to develop new neonatal reanimation and intensive care technologies, but also to ensure adequate prevention of preterm birth in the group of women with a high degree of perinatal risk. All this will further allow preventing increase in children with disabling conditions number among premature infants.

  4. Strategic Planning for Land Use under Extreme Climate Changes: A Case Study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather caused by global climate change affects slope-land in Taiwan, causing soil loss, floods, and sediment hazards. Although Taiwan is a small island, the population density is ranked second highest worldwide. With three-fourths of the island area being slope-land, soil and water conservation (SWC is crucial. Therefore, because of the impact of climate and social change, the means of maintaining sustainable development of slope-land and the safety of the living environment in Taiwan is a developing and crucial issue. This study applied four foresight analysis tools that covered both qualitative and quantitative aspects, including international trend analysis, a focus group, the Delphi method, and a strategy roadmap. By combining the four analysis tools, we developed corresponding strategies to address climate change for use as references for policy-makers. The findings of this study can contribute to consensus-forming among multiple stakeholders on the sustainable development of soil and water resources and to devising foresight strategies for SWC in short-term, middle-term, and long-term bases. Ultimately, the goal of “considering climate and socioeconomic change, watershed resources being managed on a multiple-use basis to avoid disasters and to sustain SWC” can be realized by the year 2025.

  5. Extreme vulnerability of smallholder farmers to agricultural risks and climate change in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Celia A; Rakotobe, Zo Lalaina; Rao, Nalini S; Dave, Radhika; Razafimahatratra, Hery; Rabarijohn, Rivo Hasinandrianina; Rajaofara, Haingo; Mackinnon, James L

    2014-04-05

    Across the tropics, smallholder farmers already face numerous risks to agricultural production. Climate change is expected to disproportionately affect smallholder farmers and make their livelihoods even more precarious; however, there is limited information on their overall vulnerability and adaptation needs. We conducted surveys of 600 households in Madagascar to characterize the vulnerability of smallholder farmers, identify how farmers cope with risks and explore what strategies are needed to help them adapt to climate change. Malagasy farmers are particularly vulnerable to any shocks to their agricultural system owing to their high dependence on agriculture for their livelihoods, chronic food insecurity, physical isolation and lack of access to formal safety nets. Farmers are frequently exposed to pest and disease outbreaks and extreme weather events (particularly cyclones), which cause significant crop and income losses and exacerbate food insecurity. Although farmers use a variety of risk-coping strategies, these are insufficient to prevent them from remaining food insecure. Few farmers have adjusted their farming strategies in response to climate change, owing to limited resources and capacity. Urgent technical, financial and institutional support is needed to improve the agricultural production and food security of Malagasy farmers and make their livelihoods resilient to climate change.

  6. Future changes in precipitation and impacts on extreme streamflow over Amazonian sub-basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimberteau, M; Ronchail, J; Lengaigne, M; Sultan, B; Drapeau, G; Espinoza, J C; Polcher, J; Guyot, J-L; Ducharne, A; Ciais, P

    2013-01-01

    Because of climate change, much attention is drawn to the Amazon River basin, whose hydrology has already been strongly affected by extreme events during the past 20 years. Hydrological annual extreme variations (i.e. low/high flows) associated with precipitation (and evapotranspiration) changes are investigated over the Amazon River sub-basins using the land surface model ORCHIDEE and a multimodel approach. Climate change scenarios from up to eight AR4 Global Climate Models based on three emission scenarios were used to build future hydrological projections in the region, for two periods of the 21st century. For the middle of the century under the SRESA1B scenario, no change is found in high flow on the main stem of the Amazon River (Óbidos station), but a systematic discharge decrease is simulated during the recession period, leading to a 10% low-flow decrease. Contrasting discharge variations are pointed out depending on the location in the basin. In the western upper part of the basin, which undergoes an annual persistent increase in precipitation, high flow shows a 7% relative increase for the middle of the 21st century and the signal is enhanced for the end of the century (12%). By contrast, simulated precipitation decreases during the dry seasons over the southern, eastern and northern parts of the basin lead to significant low-flow decrease at several stations, especially in the Xingu River, where it reaches −50%, associated with a 9% reduction in the runoff coefficient. A 18% high-flow decrease is also found in this river. In the north, the low-flow decrease becomes higher toward the east: a 55% significant decrease in the eastern Branco River is associated with a 13% reduction in the runoff coefficient. The estimation of the streamflow elasticity to precipitation indicates that southern sub-basins (except for the mountainous Beni River), that have low runoff coefficients, will become more responsive to precipitation change (with a 5 to near 35

  7. Climate Change and Health Risks from Extreme Heat and Air Pollution in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, V.; Vargo, J.; Harkey, M.; Holloway, T.; Meier, P.; Patz, J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate health risks from exposure to extreme heat and air pollution through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Directly, warmer ambient temperatures promote biogenic emissions of ozone precursors and favor the formation of ground-level ozone, while an anticipated increase in the frequency of stagnant air masses will allow fine particulates to accumulate. Indirectly, warmer summertime temperatures stimulate energy demand and exacerbate polluting emissions from the electricity sector. Thus, while technological adaptations such as air conditioning can reduce risks from exposures to extreme heat, they can trigger downstream damage to air quality and public health. Through an interdisciplinary modeling effort, we quantify the impacts of climate change on ambient temperatures, summer energy demand, air quality, and public health. The first phase of this work explores how climate change will directly impact the burden of heat-related mortality. Climatic patterns, demographic trends, and epidemiologic risk models suggest that populations in the eastern United States are likely to experience an increasing heat stress mortality burden in response to rising summertime air temperatures. We use North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program modeling data to estimate mid-century 2-meter air temperatures and humidity across the eastern US from June-August, and quantify how long-term changes in actual and apparent temperatures from present-day will affect the annual burden of heat-related mortality across this region. With the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program, we estimate health risks using concentration-response functions, which relate temperature increases to changes in annual mortality rates. We compare mid-century summertime temperature data, downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting model, to 2007 baseline temperatures at a 12 km resolution in order to estimate

  8. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  9. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  10. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change: a prospective study among Danish health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang; Aust, Birgit; Borg, Vilhelm; Bjorner, Jakob B

    2013-01-17

    Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses examined change in BMI (more than +/- 2 kg/m(2)) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands, type of work position and seniority). Among women, high role conflicts predicted weight gain, while high role clarity predicted both weight gain and weight loss. Living alone also predicted weight gain among women, while older age decreased the odds of weight gain. High leadership quality predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models.

  11. Relationship of Night and Shift Work With Weight Change and Lifestyle Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; van Steeg, H.; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable

  12. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  13. Night eating and weight change in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Stunkard, Albert J.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2004-01-01

    -94 too. Subjects working night shifts were excluded. MEASUREMENTS: Night eating in 1987-88, 5-y preceding and 6-y subsequent weight change. RESULTS: In total, 9.0% women and 7.4% men reported 'getting up at night to eat'. Obese women with night eating experienced an average 6-y weight gain of 5.2 kg (P=0...

  14. Impact of Climate Change on Hydrologic Extremes in the Upper Basin of the Yellow River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the revolution law of hydrologic extremes in the next 50 years and analyze the impact of climate change on hydrologic extremes, the following main works were carried on: firstly, the long duration (15 d, 30 d, and 60 d rainfall extremes according to observed time-series and forecast time-series by dynamical climate model product (BCC-CSM-1.1 were deduced, respectively, on the basis that the quantitative estimation of the impact of climate change on rainfall extremes was conducted; secondly, the SWAT model was used to deduce design flood with the input of design rainfall for the next 50 years. On this basis, quantitative estimation of the impact of climate change on long duration flood volume extremes was conducted. It indicates that (1 the value of long duration rainfall extremes for given probabilities (1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% of the Tangnaihai basin will rise with slight increasing rate from 1% to 6% in the next 50 years and (2 long duration flood volume extremes of given probabilities of the Tangnaihai basin will rise with slight increasing rate from 1% to 6% in the next 50 years. The conclusions may provide technical supports for basin level planning of flood control and hydropower production.

  15. Evaluation of Weight Change During Carboplatin Therapy in Dogs With Appendicular Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, A L; Boston, S E; Kilkenny, J J; Singh, A; Woods, J P; Culp, W T N; Skorupski, K A; Lu, X

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of cancer cachexia in veterinary medicine has not been studied widely, and as of yet, no definitive diagnostic criteria effectively assess this syndrome in veterinary patients. (1) To determine the patterns of weight change in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated with amputation and single-agent carboplatin during the course of adjuvant chemotherapy; and (2) to determine whether postoperative weight change is a negative prognostic indicator for survival time in dogs with osteosarcoma. Eighty-eight dogs diagnosed with appendicular osteosarcoma. Animals were accrued from 3 veterinary teaching hospitals. Retrospective, multi-institutional study. Dogs diagnosed with appendicular osteosarcoma and treated with limb amputation followed by a minimum of 4 doses of single-agent carboplatin were included. Data analyzed in each patient included signalment, tumor site, preoperative serum alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), and body weight (kg) at each carboplatin treatment. A slight increase in weight occurred over the course of chemotherapy, but this change was not statistically significant. Weight change did not have a significant effect on survival. Institution, patient sex, and serum ALP activity did not have a significant effect on survival. Weight change was not a prognostic factor in these dogs, and weight loss alone may not be a suitable method of determining cancer cachexia in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Seasonal changes in meat weight and biochemical composition in the Black Clam Villorita cyprinoides (Grey)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    Seasonal changes in meat weight and biochemical composition are associated with reproduction, storage and utilization of reserves. The main period of increase in biochemical constituents corresponds to gametogenesis and maturation of gonads just...

  17. Extreme Morphologic and Venting Changes in Methane Seeps at Southern Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, K.; Kelley, D. S.; Solomon, E. A.; Delaney, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Two highly active methane hydrate seeps have been visited over a 7-year period as part of the construction and operation of NSF's Ocean Observatory Initiative's Regional Cable Array at Southern Hydrate Ridge. The site is located 90 km west of Newport, Oregon, at a water depth of 800 m. The seeps, Einstein's Grotto (OOI instrument deployment site) and Smokey Tavern (alternate site to the north), have been visited yearly from 2010 to 2017 with ROVs. Additionally, a digital still camera deployed from 2014 to 2017 at Einstein's Grotto, has been documenting the profound morphologic and biological changes at this site. A cabled pressure sensor, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, hydrophone, seismometer array, and uncabled fluid samplers have also been operational at the site for the duration of the camera's deployment. During this time, Einstein's Grotto has evolved from a gentle mound with little venting, to a vigorously bubbling pit bounded by a near vertical wall. Early on bubble emissions blew significant amounts of sediment into the water column and thick Beggiatoa mats coverd the mound. Most recently the face of the pit has collapsed, although bubble plumes are still emitted from the site. The Smokey Tavern site has undergone more extreme changes. Similar to Einstein's Grotto it was first characterized by gentle hummocks with dispersed bacterial mats. In subsequent years, it developed an extremely rugged, elongated collapsed area with vertical walls and jets of methane bubbles rising from small pits near the base of the collapse zone. Meter-across nearly sediment-free blocks of methane hydrate were exposed on the surface and in the walls of the collapse zone. In 2016, this area was unrecognizable with a much more subdued topography, and weak venting of bubbles. Exposed methane hydrate was not visible. From these observations new evolutionary models for methane seeps are being developed for Southern Hydrate Ridge.

  18. Changes in body weight, body composition, and eating attitudes in high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka Humenikova; Betts, Nancy Mulhollen; Payton, Mark Edward

    2009-08-01

    Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid "weight cutting" throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weight-management practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule. Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT). No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to off-season, 60% reported "thinking about burning up calories when exercising" during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during, off-season (p < .05). The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.

  19. Uncertainty in projected point precipitation extremes for hydrological impact analysis of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Uytven, Els; Willems, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Current trends in the hydro-meteorological variables indicate the potential impact of climate change on hydrological extremes. Therefore, they trigger an increased importance climate adaptation strategies in water management. The impact of climate change on hydro-meteorological and hydrological extremes is, however, highly uncertain. This is due to uncertainties introduced by the climate models, the internal variability inherent to the climate system, the greenhouse gas scenarios and the statistical downscaling methods. In view of the need to define sustainable climate adaptation strategies, there is a need to assess these uncertainties. This is commonly done by means of ensemble approaches. Because more and more climate models and statistical downscaling methods become available, there is a need to facilitate the climate impact and uncertainty analysis. A Climate Perturbation Tool has been developed for that purpose, which combines a set of statistical downscaling methods including weather typing, weather generator, transfer function and advanced perturbation based approaches. By use of an interactive interface, climate impact modelers can apply these statistical downscaling methods in a semi-automatic way to an ensemble of climate model runs. The tool is applicable to any region, but has been demonstrated so far to cases in Belgium, Suriname, Vietnam and Bangladesh. Time series representing future local-scale precipitation, temperature and potential evapotranspiration (PET) conditions were obtained, starting from time series of historical observations. Uncertainties on the future meteorological conditions are represented in two different ways: through an ensemble of time series, and a reduced set of synthetic scenarios. The both aim to span the full uncertainty range as assessed from the ensemble of climate model runs and downscaling methods. For Belgium, for instance, use was made of 100-year time series of 10-minutes precipitation observations and daily

  20. Como minimizar a lesão pulmonar no prematuro extremo: propostas Strategies to minimize lung injury in extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Suguihara

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão das principais causas da nova displasia broncopulmonar e as estratégias utilizadas para diminuir sua incidência nos prematuros extremos. FONTES DOS DADOS: Para essa revisão, pesquisas foram feitas na MEDLINE (1996 a outubro de 2004, no Cochrane Database, em resumos da Society for Pediatric Research e recentes conferências sobre o tema. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A tecnologia e os novos conhecimentos científicos têm aumentado significantemente a sobrevida de prematuros extremos. Esse aumento da sobrevida resultou em aumento da incidência de displasia broncopulmonar. Atualmente, a displasia broncopulmonar é mais freqüentemente observada em recém-nascidos OBJECTIVE: To review the main causes of new bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the strategies utilized to decrease its incidence in extremely low birth weight infants. DATA SOURCES: For this review a MEDLINE search from 1966 to October 2004, the Cochrane Database, abstracts from the Society for Pediatric Research and recent meetings on the topic were used. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: The survival of extremely low birth weight infants has increased significantly due to improvement in both scientific knowledge and technology. This improvement in survival has therefore resulted in an increased incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The characteristics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight infants, the so called "new" bronchopulmonary dysplasia are quite different from the classic bronchopulmonary dysplasia described by Northway. This new bronchopulmonary dysplasia has a multifactorial etiology, which includes volutrauma, atelectrauma, oxygen toxicity and lung inflammation. Therapy such as prenatal corticosteroids, exogenous surfactant, nasal continuous positive airway pressure, new mechanical ventilation modalities and gentle ventilation have been used in attempts to decrease lung injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: In order to prevent lung injury in

  1. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    early or late (strategy MR2-E and MR2-L). The early and late changes were defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum at 15 and 35 kg, respectively, for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg, respectively, for DJ. When MR energy concentration was changed, cows on the MR2 strategies were offered 3 kg per...

  2. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participa...

  3. Language changes coincide with motor and fMRI changes following upper extremity motor therapy for hemiparesis: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Stacy; Meinzer, Marcus; Trinastic, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, David; Page, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    To formally assess changes in language, affected UE movement, and motor functional activation changes via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following participation in motor therapy without any accompanying language intervention. Pre-post case series. Five subjects with stroke exhibiting chronic, stable UE hemiparesis. The upper extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer (FM), the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), administered during performance of an affected UE motor task. All subjects were administered six weeks of repetitive task specific training (RTP), performed for approximately 2.5 hours per day, split into two sessions. For the first four weeks of the intervention period, RTP was administered every weekday, whereas, for the subsequent two weeks, RTP was administered 3 days/week. Epidural cortical stimulation was co-administered with the RTP via an electrode array and implanted pulse generator. For all sessions, one subject worked with a single therapist. Four weeks before and four weeks after the intervention period, all subjects were administered the FM, WAB, and fMRI. Three of the subjects exhibited clinically significant language changes on the WAB. These individuals exhibited the largest motor changes as measured by the FM. Functional MRI revealed distinct motor activation patterns in these subjects, characterized by more strongly right lateralized focal BOLD activity or a shift in activation toward the right hemisphere. Language changes appear to co-occur with motor changes after UE RTP. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of these findings may lead to more efficient and synergistic rehabilitative therapy delivery.

  4. Characterizing long-term patterns of weight change in China using latent class trajectory modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Paynter

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, obesity-related diseases have increased tremendously in China, and are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Patterns of weight change can be used to predict risk of obesity-related diseases, increase understanding of etiology of disease risk, identify groups at particularly high risk, and shape prevention strategies.Latent class trajectory modeling was used to compute weight change trajectories for adults aged 18 to 66 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS data (n = 12,611. Weight change trajectories were computed separately for males and females by age group at baseline due to differential age-related patterns of weight gain in China with urbanization. Generalized linear mixed effects models examined the association between weight change trajectories and baseline characteristics including urbanicity, BMI category, age, and year of study entry.Trajectory classes were identified for each of six age-sex subgroups corresponding to various degrees of weight loss, maintenance and weight gain. Baseline BMI status was a significant predictor of trajectory membership for all age-sex subgroups. Baseline overweight/obesity increased odds of following 'initial loss with maintenance' trajectories. We found no significant association between baseline urbanization and trajectory membership after controlling for other covariates.Trajectory analysis identified patterns of weight change for age by gender groups. Lack of association between baseline urbanization status and trajectory membership suggests that living in a rural environment at baseline was not protective. Analyses identified age-specific nuances in weight change patterns, pointing to the importance of subgroup analyses in future research.

  5. Comparison of weight changes following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS for advanced PD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eric M; Kurundkar, Ashish; Cutter, Gary R; Huang, He; Guthrie, Barton L; Watts, Ray L; Walker, Harrison C

    2011-09-01

    Unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) result in weight gain in the initial postoperative months, but little is known about the changes in weight following unilateral and staged bilateral STN DBS over longer time intervals. A case-control comparison evaluated weight changes over 2 years in 43 consecutive unilateral STN DBS patients, among whom 25 elected to undergo staged bilateral STN DBS, and 21 age-matched and disease severity matched PD controls without DBS. Regression analyses incorporating age, gender, and baseline weight in case or control were conducted to assess weight changes 2 years after the initial unilateral surgery. Unilateral STN DBS and staged bilateral STN DBS patients gained 3.9 ± 2.0 kg and 5.6 ± 2.1 kg versus their preoperative baseline weight (P < 0.001, respectively) while PD controls without DBS lost 0.8 ± 1.1 kg. Although bilateral STN DBS patients gained 1.7 kg more than unilateral STN DBS patients at 2 years, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.885). Although there was a trend toward greater weight gain in staged bilateral STN DBS patients versus unilateral patients, we found no evidence for an equivalent or synergistic increase in body weight following placement of the second DBS electrode.

  6. Changes in skeletal muscle gene expression consequent to altered weight bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.; Kirby, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a dynamic organ that adapts to alterations in weight bearing. This brief review examines changes in muscle gene expression resulting from the removal of weight bearing by hindlimb suspension and from increased weight bearing due to eccentric exercise. Acute (less than or equal to 2 days) non-weight bearing of adult rat soleus muscle alters only the translational control of muscle gene expression, while chronic (greater than or equal to 7 days) removal of weight bearing appears to influence pretranslational, translational, and posttranslational mechanisms of control. Acute and chronic eccentric exercise are associated with alterations of translational and posttranslational control, while chronic eccentric training also alters the pretranslational control of muscle gene expression. Thus alterations in weight bearing influence multiple sites of gene regulation.

  7. Genetic and environmental relationships between change in weight and insulin resistance: the Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Sung, Joohon

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between weight change from 20 years of age and insulin resistance (IR), and genetic and environmental relationships between these traits. In 594 Korean twins and family members (209 men, 385 women, 44.0 ± 10.8 years old), the percentage of weight change was calculated using self-reported body weight at 20 years of age and currently measured bodyweight. IR traits were assessed using fasting plasma glucose and insulin, the homeostasis model assessment of IR index (HOMA-IR), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Linear mixed analysis was applied after adjusting for household, body mass index (BMI) at the age of 20 years, age, sex, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, and caloric intake. Heritabilities and genetic and environmental correlations were estimated after adjusting for covariates. In 55 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for HOMA-IR level by >0.3, a conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted regarding weight change. Increases in glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR and a decrease in QUICKI were associated with a higher percentage of weight change (p change since 20 years old, after adjusting for lifestyle-related factors. In conclusion, both genetic and environmental influences played significant roles in the positive association between weight change from 20 years of age and IR.

  8. Association Between Use of Cannabis in Adolescence and Weight Change into Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Lexie Zhiyan; Rangan, Anna; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis use has been found to stimulate appetite and potentially promote weight gain via activation of the endocannabinoid system. Despite the fact that the onset of cannabis use is typically during adolescence, the association between adolescence cannabis use and long-term change in body weight...... is generally unknown. This study aims to examine the association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change to midlife, while accounting for the use of other substances. The study applied 20 to 22 years of follow-up data on 712 Danish adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years at baseline. Self......-reported height and weight, cannabis, cigarette and alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. In total 19.1% (n = 136) of adolescents reported having used/using cannabis. Weight...

  9. Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Evans

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the major chemical processes leading to acid extremes in a small, moorland stream in mid-Wales, UK, which has been monitored since 1979. Results suggest that base cation (mainly calcium dilution, the "sea-salt effect", and elevated nitrate pulses, are the major causes of seasonal/episodic minima in acid neutralising capacity (ANC, and that the relative importance of these drivers has remained approximately constant during 25 years of decreasing acid deposition and associated long-term chemical recovery. Many of the chemical variations causing short-term reductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increases, are closely related to changes in water-flowpath and therefore to stream discharge. Changes in the observed pH-discharge relationship over time indicate that high-flow pH has increased more rapidly than mean-flow pH, and therefore that episodes have decreased in magnitude since 1980. However a two-box application of the dynamic model MAGIC, whilst reproducing this trend, suggests that it will not persist in the long term, with mean ANC continuing to increase until 2100, but the ANC of the upper soil (the source of relatively acid water during high-flow episodes stabilising close to zero beyond 2030. With climate change predicted to lead to an increase in maximum flows in the latter half of the century, high-flow related acid episodes may actually become more rather than less severe in the long term, although the model suggests that this effect may be small. Two other predicted climatic changes could also detrimentally impact on acid episodes: increased severity of winter "sea-salt" episodes due to higher wind speeds during winter storms; and larger sulphate pulses due to oxidation of reduced sulphur held in organic soils, during more extreme summer droughts. At the Gwy, the near-coastal location and relatively small extent of peat soils suggest that sea-salt episodes may have the

  10. Effects of social contact and zygosity on 21-y weight change in male twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Jeanne M; Franz, Carol E; Jacobson, Kristen; Leahey, Tricia M; Xian, Hong; Wing, Rena R; Lyons, Michael J; Kremen, William S

    2011-08-01

    Recent evidence indicates that social contact is related to similarities in weight gain over time. However, no studies have examined this effect in a twin design, in which genetic and other environmental effects can also be estimated. We determined whether the frequency of social contact is associated with similarity in weight change from young adulthood (mean age: 20 y) to middle age (mean age: 41 y) in twins and quantified the percentage of variance in weight change attributable to social contact, genetic factors, and other environmental influences. Participants were 1966 monozygotic and 1529 dizygotic male twin pairs from the Vietnam-Era Twin Registry. Regression models tested whether frequency of social contact and zygosity predicted twin pair similarity in body mass index (BMI) change and weight change. Twin modeling was used to partition the percentage variance attributable to social contact, genetic, and other environmental effects. Twins gained an average of 3.99 BMI units, or 13.23 kg (29.11 lb), over 21 y. In regression models, both zygosity (P social contact (P change. In twin modeling, social contact between twins contributed 16% of the variance in BMI change (P change. Frequency of social contact significantly predicted twin pair similarity in BMI and weight change over 21 y, independent of zygosity and other shared environmental influences.

  11. Assessment of climate change impact on hydrological extremes in two source regions of the Nile River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Taye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of climate change was investigated on the hydrological extremes of Nyando River and Lake Tana catchments, which are located in two source regions of the Nile River basin. Climate change scenarios were developed for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (ETo, considering 17 General Circulation Model (GCM simulations to better understand the range of possible future change. They were constructed by transferring the extracted climate change signals to the observed series using a frequency perturbation downscaling approach, which accounts for the changes in rainfall extremes. Projected changes under two future SRES emission scenarios A1B and B1 for the 2050s were considered. Two conceptual hydrological models were calibrated and used for the impact assessment. Their difference in simulating the flows under future climate scenarios was also investigated.

    The results reveal increasing mean runoff and extreme peak flows for Nyando catchment for the 2050s while unclear trend is observed for Lake Tana catchment for mean volumes and high/low flows. The hydrological models for Lake Tana catchment, however, performed better in simulating the hydrological regimes than for Nyando, which obviously also induces a difference in the reliability of the extreme future projections for both catchments. The unclear impact result for Lake Tana catchment implies that the GCM uncertainty is more important for explaining the unclear trend than the hydrological models uncertainty. Nevertheless, to have a better understanding of future impact, hydrological models need to be verified for their credibility of simulating extreme flows.

  12. How do pregnancy-related weight changes and breastfeeding relate to maternal weight and BMI-adjusted waist circumference 7 y after delivery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Stovring, Henrik; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    of breastfeeding are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine how prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, postpartum weight changes, and breastfeeding influence maternal weight and body mass index-adjusted waist circumference (WCBMI) 7 y after delivery. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study......; 87% of this effect was mediated through later weight changes. For both outcomes, a small inverse association was observed for breastfeeding duration. This was strongest for WCBMI, for which 97% of the effect was direct, ie, not mediated through postpartum weight. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show...... that postpartum weight retention at 6 mo and weight gain from 6 to 18 mo postpartum contribute equally to adverse maternal anthropometric measures 7 y after delivery. Breastfeeding duration may have a beneficial effect....

  13. Association between Anxiety Levels and Weight Change in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rieke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between anxiety and weight change in a multiethnic cohort followed for approximately 10 years. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis who met specified inclusion criteria (n = 5,799. Weight was measured at baseline and four subsequent follow-up exams. Anxiety was analyzed as sex-specific anxiety quartiles (QANX. The relationship between anxiety level and weight change was examined using a mixed-effect model with weight as the dependent variable, anxiety and time as the independent variables, and adjusted for covariates. Results. Average annual weight change (range was −0.17 kg (−6.04 to 4.38 kg for QANX 1 (lowest anxiety, −0.16 kg (−10.71 to 4.45 kg for QANX 2, −0.15 kg (−8.69 to 6.39 kg for QANX 3, and −0.20 kg (−7.12 to 3.95 kg for QANX 4 (highest anxiety. No significant association was noted between QANX and weight change. However, the highest QANX was associated with a −2.48 kg (95% CI = −3.65, −1.31 lower baseline weight compared to the lowest QANX after adjustment for all covariates. Conclusions. Among adults, age 45–84, higher levels of anxiety, defined by the STPI trait anxiety scale, are associated with lower average baseline weight but not with weight change.

  14. Comparison of different statistical downscaling methods to estimate changes in hourly extreme precipitation using RCM projections from ENSEMBLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    change method for extreme events, a weather generator combined with a disaggregation method and a climate analogue method. All three methods rely on different assumptions and use different outputs from the regional climate models (RCMs). The results of the three methods point towards an increase...... in extreme precipitation but the magnitude of the change varies depending on the RCM used and the spatial location. In general, a similar mean change is obtained for the three methods. This adds confidence in the results as each method uses different information from the RCMs. The results of this study...

  15. ‘Small Changes' to Diet and Physical Activity Behaviors for Weight Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Hills

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous short- and long-term health consequences. Low levels of physical activity and poor dietary habits are consistent with an increased risk of obesity in an obesogenic environment. Relatively little research has investigated associations between eating and activity behaviors by using a systems biology approach and by considering the dynamics of the energy balance concept. A significant body of research indicates that a small positive energy balance over time is sufficient to cause weight gain in many individuals. In contrast, small changes in nutrition and physical activity behaviors can prevent weight gain. In the context of weight management, it may be more feasible for most people to make small compared to large short-term changes in diet and activity. This paper presents a case for the use of small and incremental changes in diet and physical activity for improved weight management in the context of a toxic obesogenic environment.

  16. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  17. Changes in extreme regional sea surface height due to an abrupt weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunnabend, S.-E.; Dijkstra, H. A.; Kliphuis, M. A.; van Werkhoven, B.J.C.; Bal, H. E.; Seinstra, F.; Maassen, J.; van Meersbergen, M.

    2014-01-01

    As an extreme scenario of dynamical sea level changes, regional sea surface height (SSH) changes that occur in the North Atlantic due to an abrupt weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) are simulated. Two versions of the same ocean-only model are used to study the effect

  18. Changes in perinatal care and survival in very preterm and extremely preterm infants in the Netherlands between 1983 and 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthony, S.; Ouden, L.D.; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, P.; Gravenhorst, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in obstetrical and neonatal care for very preterm and extremely preterm infants between 1983 and 1995 in The Netherlands and to evaluate the effect of those changes. Study design: Data on all very preterm or VLBW infants from the linked national obstetrical and

  19. Preoperative factors and 3-year weight change in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcoulas, Anita P; Christian, Nicholas J; O'Rourke, Robert W; Dakin, Greg; Patchen Dellinger, E; Flum, David R; Melissa Kalarchian, Ph D; Mitchell, James E; Patterson, Emma; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter J; Spaniolas, Konstantinos; Steffen, Kristine; Wolfe, Bruce M; Belle, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Limited data guide the prediction of weight loss success or failure after bariatric surgery according to presurgery factors. There is significant variation in weight change after bariatric surgery and much interest in identifying preoperative factors that may contribute to these differences. This report evaluates the associations of a comprehensive set of baseline factors and 3-year weight change. Ten hospitals in 6 geographically diverse clinical centers in the United States. Adults undergoing a first bariatric surgical procedure as part of clinical care by participating surgeons were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Participants completed research assessments utilizing standardized and detailed data collection on over 100 preoperative and operative parameters for individuals undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Weight was measured 3 years after surgery. Percent weight change for RYGB or LAGB from baseline to 3 years was analyzed as both a continuous and dichotomous outcome with cut points at 25% for RYGB and 10% for LAGB. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to identify independent baseline predictors of the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. The median weight loss 3 years after surgery for RYGB (n = 1513) participants was 31.5% (IQR: 24.6%-38.4%; range, 59.2% loss to .9% gain) of baseline weight and 16.0% (IQR: 8.1%-23.1%; range, 56.1% loss to 12.5% gain) for LAGB (n = 509) participants. The median age was 46 years for RYGB and 48 years for LAGB; 80% of RYGB participants and 75% of LAGB participants were female; and the median baseline body mass index (BMI) was 46 kg/m(2) for RYGB and 44 kg/m(2) for LAGB. For RYGB, black participants lost 2.7% less weight compared with whites and participants with diabetes at baseline had 3.7% less weight loss at year 3 than those without diabetes at baseline. There were small but statistically significant differences in weight

  20. Preoperative Factors and Three Year Weight Change in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcoulas, Anita P.; Christian, Nicholas J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.; Dakin, Greg; Dellinger, E. Patchen; Flum, David Reed; Kalarchian, Melissa; Mitchell, James E.; Patterson, Emma; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter J.; Spaniolas, Konstantinos; Steffen, Kristine; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Belle, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited data guide the prediction of weight loss success or failure following bariatric surgery according to pre-surgery factors. There is significant variation in weight change following bariatric surgery and much interest in identifying pre-operative factors that may contribute to these differences. OBJECTIVE This report evaluates the associations of a comprehensive set of baseline factors and three-year weight change. SETTING Ten hospitals in six geographically diverse clinical centers in the United States. METHODS: PARTICIPANTS and INTERVENTIONS Adults undergoing a first bariatric surgical procedure as part of clinical care by participating surgeons were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Participants completed research assessments utilizing standardized and detailed data collection on over 100 preoperative and operative parameters for individuals undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Weight was measured 3 years following surgery. METHODS: MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Percent weight change for RYGB or LAGB from baseline to 3 years was analyzed as both a continuous and dichotomous outcome with cut points at 25% for RYGB and 10% for LAGB. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to identify independent baseline predictors of the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. RESULTS The median weight loss 3 years following surgery for RYGB (n=1513) participants was 31.5% (IQR: 24.6%–38.4%; range, 59.2% loss to 0.9% gain) of baseline weight and 16.0% (IQR: 8.1%–23.1%; range, 56.1% loss to 12.5% gain) for LAGB (n=509) participants. The median age was 46 years for RYGB and 48 years for LAGB; 80% of RYGB participants and 75% of LAGB participants were female; and the median baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) was 46 kg/m2 for RYGB and 44 kg/m2 for LAGB. For RYGB, Black participants lost 2.7% less weight compared to Whites and participants with diabetes at baseline had 3.7% less weight

  1. Hemoglobin system of Sparus aurata: Changes in fishes farmed under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Salvatore; Nastasi, Giancarlo; D'Ascola, Angela; Campo, Giuseppe M.; Avenoso, Angela; Traina, Paola; Calatroni, Alberto; Burrascano, Emanuele; Ferlazzo, Alida; Lupidi, Giulio; Gabbianelli, Rosita; Falcioni, Giancarlo

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain more knowledge on the stress responses of gilhead seabream (Sparus aurata) under extreme conditions, this study investigated the functional properties of the hemoglobin system and globin gene expression under hypoxia and low salinity. The oxygen affinity for the two hemoglobin components present inside the S. aurata erythrocyte was practically identical as was the influence of protons and organic phosphates (Root effect). The quantification of S. aurata hemoglobin fractions performed by HPLC and the data on gene expression of globin chains assayed by PCR indicate that under hypoxia and low salinity there is a change in the ratio between the two different hemoglobin components. The result indicating that the distinct hemoglobins present in S. aurata erythrocyte have almost identical functional properties, does not explain the adaptive response (expression change) following exposure of the animal to hypoxia or low salinity on the basis of their function as oxygen transporter. We hypothesize that other parallel biological functions that the hemoglobin molecule is known to display within the erythrocyte are involved in adaptive molecular mechanisms. The autoxidation-reduction cycle of hemoglobin could be involved in the response to particular living conditions

  2. Postdiagnosis Weight Change and Survival Following a Diagnosis of Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Kroenke, Candyce H; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Chen, Wendy Y; Prado, Carla M; Weltzien, Erin K; Castillo, Adrienne L; Caan, Bette J

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a healthy weight is recommended for all breast cancer survivors. Previous research on postdiagnosis weight change and mortality had conflicting results. We examined whether change in body weight in the 18 months following diagnosis is associated with overall and breast cancer-specific mortality in a cohort of n = 12,590 stage I-III breast cancer patients at Kaiser Permanente using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. Follow-up was from the date of the postdiagnosis weight at 18 months until death or June 2015 [median follow-up (range): 3 (0-9) years]. We divided follow-up into earlier (18-54 months) and later (>54 months) postdiagnosis periods. Mean (SD) age-at-diagnosis was 59 (11) years. A total of 980 women died, 503 from breast cancer. Most women maintained weight within 5% of diagnosis body weight; weight loss and gain were equally common at 19% each. Compared with weight maintenance, large losses (≥10%) were associated with worse survival, with HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all-cause death of 2.63 (2.12-3.26) earlier and 1.60 (1.14-2.25) later in follow-up. Modest losses (>5%-breast cancer-specific death. Large postdiagnosis weight loss is associated with worse survival in both earlier and later postdiagnosis periods, independent of treatment and prognostic factors. Weight loss and gain are equally common after breast cancer, and weight loss is a consistent marker of mortality risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 44-50. ©2016 AACR SEE ALL THE ARTICLES IN THIS CEBP FOCUS SECTION, "THE OBESITY PARADOX IN CANCER EVIDENCE AND NEW DIRECTIONS". ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Self-esteem and quality of life in adolescents with extreme obesity in Saudi Arabia: the effect of weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaqal, Saleh M; Sehlo, Mohammad G

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the self-esteem and quality of life in adolescents with extreme obesity before and one year after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as obesity is a major challenging medical problem, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. In a prospective cohort study, 32 adolescents (aged 13-17 years) with extreme obesity (Group 1) presenting for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) were compared with 32 matched, healthy, nonobese adolescents (aged 14-17 years) (Group 2) with regards to self-esteem and quality of life. Assessment was done using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0 (self- and parent report), respectively. Body mass index (BMI) Z scores were calculated for both groups. We found significantly poor self-esteem and impairment in all domains of quality of life (self- and parent report) in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (Pself-esteem (R2=0.28 and P=.003) and quality of life (R(2)=0.67 and Padolescents with extreme obesity: LSG leads to weight loss, with subsequent improvement in self-esteem and quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y, participating in a 16-week University-based weight control program. Body weight and a comprehensive psychometric battery were assessed at baseline and at program's end. Results Weight decreased significantly (-3.6 ± 3.4%, p Conclusion The present models were able to predict 20–30% of variance in short-term weight loss and changes in weight management self-efficacy accounted for a large share of the predictive power. As expected from previous studies, exercise variables were only moderately associated with short-term outcomes; they are expected to play a larger explanatory role in longer-term results.

  5. Weight change in middle adulthood and breast cancer risk in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Marleen J; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F

    2014-01-01

    .3 years. Annual weight change was categorized using quintiles taking quintile 2 and 3 as the reference category (-0.44 to 0.36 kg/year). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine the association. 205,723 women were included and 4,663 incident breast cancer cases were......Long-term weight gain (i.e., weight gain since age 20) has been related to higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but a lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The effect of weight change in middle adulthood is unclear. We investigated the association between weight change in middle...... diagnosed during a median follow-up of 7.5 years (from second weight assessment onward). High weight gain (Q5: 0.83-4.98 kg/year) was related to a slightly, but significantly higher breast cancer risk (HRQ5_versus_Q2/3 : 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). The association was more pronounced for breast cancer...

  6. Adolescent smoking, weight changes, and binge-purge behavior: associations with secondary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J; Whitaker, A H

    1992-01-01

    The association of secondary amenorrhea with extreme forms of substance use, weight control, and exercise in nonrepresentative samples raises questions as to whether adolescents in the general population who engage in these behaviors are at increased risk for secondary amenorrhea. We examined the prevalence and behavioral correlates of secondary amenorrhea in a county-wide high school population of 2544 girls aged 13 to 18. A survey questionnaire, which elicited menstrual history as well as weight history, weight control practices, level of exercise, and use of cigarettes, wine, and beer, was administered during school hours; absentees were also surveyed. The completion rate was 91%. The 1-year prevalence of secondary amenorrhea was 8.5%. Secondary amenorrhea was associated with smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day (adjusted relative risk [RRa] = 1.96, 1.21-3.10), with multiple binge-eating behaviors in combination with laxative use or self-induced vomiting (RRa = 4.17, 2.54-6.32), and with weight fluctuation due to weight control (RRa = 2.59, 1.33-4.79). There was no association between amenorrhea and alcohol consumption or exercise level. Estimates of attributable risk are provided and indicate that bulimic behaviors and cigarette smoking may result in a considerable excess of cases of secondary amenorrhea in an adolescent population.

  7. Processes of behavior change and weight loss in a theory-based weight loss intervention program: a test of the process model for lifestyle behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona; Stathi, Afroditi; Reddy, Prasuna; Perry, Rachel; Taylor, Gordon; Bennett, Paul; Dunbar, James; Greaves, Colin

    2015-01-16

    Process evaluation is important for improving theories of behavior change and behavioral intervention methods. The present study reports on the process outcomes of a pilot test of the theoretical model (the Process Model for Lifestyle Behavior Change; PMLBC) underpinning an evidence-informed, theory-driven, group-based intervention designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity for people with high cardiovascular risk. 108 people at high risk of diabetes or heart disease were randomized to a group-based weight management intervention targeting diet and physical activity plus usual care, or to usual care. The intervention comprised nine group based sessions designed to promote motivation, social support, self-regulation and understanding of the behavior change process. Weight loss, diet, physical activity and theoretically defined mediators of change were measured pre-intervention, and after four and 12 months. The intervention resulted in significant improvements in fiber intake (M between-group difference = 5.7 g/day, p behavior change, and the predicted mechanisms of change specified in the PMBLC were largely supported. Improvements in self-efficacy and understanding of the behavior change process were associated with engagement in coping planning and self-monitoring activities, and successful dietary change at four and 12 months. While participants reported improvements in motivational and social support variables, there was no effect of these, or of the intervention overall, on physical activity. The data broadly support the theoretical model for supporting some dietary changes, but not for physical activity. Systematic intervention design allowed us to identify where improvements to the intervention may be implemented to promote change in all proposed mediators. More work is needed to explore effective mechanisms within interventions to promote physical activity behavior.

  8. Assessment of Processes of Change for Weight Management in a UK Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Ana; Saldaña, Carmina; Beeken, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to validate the English version of the Processes of Change questionnaire in weight management (P-Weight). Methods Participants were 1,087 UK adults, including people enrolled in a behavioural weight management programme, university students and an opportunistic sample. The mean age of the sample was 34.80 (SD = 13.56) years, and 83% were women. BMI ranged from 18.51 to 55.36 (mean = 25.92, SD = 6.26) kg/m2. Participants completed both the stages and processes questionnaires in weight management (S-Weight and P-Weight), and subscales from the EDI-2 and EAT-40. A refined version of the P-Weight consisting of 32 items was obtained based on the item analysis. Results The internal structure of the scale fitted a four-factor model, and statistically significant correlations with external measures supported the convergent validity of the scale. Conclusion The adequate psychometric properties of the P-Weight English version suggest that it could be a useful tool to tailor weight management interventions. PMID:25765163

  9. Regional climate change trends and uncertainty analysis using extreme indices: A case study of Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi, Tara; Switzman, Harris; Arain, Altaf; Coulibaly, Paulin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide a deeper understanding of the level of uncertainty associated with the development of extreme weather frequency and intensity indices at the local scale. Several different global climate models, downscaling methods, and emission scenarios were used to develop extreme temperature and precipitation indices at the local scale in the Hamilton region, Ontario, Canada. Uncertainty associated with historical and future trends in extreme indices and future climate projectio...

  10. A longitudinal study of childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance in Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end of each grade. Weight and height were measured at the beginning of each grade. A weight change variable was created based on each child's weight status difference at grades 1 and 6. A multivariate linear regression model for predicting academic performance at grade 6 was developed with adjustment for individual characteristics and family factors. A latent growth curve (LGC) showed the association between changes in body mass index (BMI) and in academic performance across a 6-year period. BMI in children increased significantly across 6 years. The rate of increase in BMI over 6 years was higher for children with higher baseline BMIs than it was for children with lower baseline BMIs. However, BMI changes were not significantly associated with changes of academic performance. There was no significant relationship between initial obesity or change in weight status and subsequent academic performance. It appears that either being or becoming overweight/obese did not impact academic achievement for these Taiwanese children. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  11. Changes in parental weight and smoking habits and offspring adiposity: data from the HUNT-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasting, Magnus Hølmo; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Vik, Torstein

    2011-06-01

    Adverse parental life-style habits are associated with offspring adiposity, but it is unclear how changes in these habits affect offspring adiposity. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess how parental change in body weight, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were associated with adiposity in their children. The study population consisted of 3 681 adolescents and their parents from the Nord-Trøndelag-Health-Study (HUNT). The parents participated in the two first waves of HUNT (HUNT-1:1984-86, HUNT-2:1995-97), where information on anthropometry, smoking habits and physical activity were obtained. The adolescents participated in the Youth-Part of HUNT-2. We used logistic regression to calculate odds-ratios (ORs) for adolescent offspring overweight according to parental change in body-weight, smoking habits and physical activity, adjusting for these factors in both parents, as well as for socioeconomic status and adolescent age and sex. Children of parents who changed weight from normal weight to overweight from HUNT-1 to HUNT-2 had higher OR for overweight in adolescence than children of parents who remained normal weight (mothers: 1.9 [95% CI: 1.4,2.5], fathers: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.5,3.0]). Children of mothers who reduced their weight from overweight to normal weight had no higher OR for overweight in adolescence than mothers who remained normal weight (OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.2, 4.7). Children of mothers who quit smoking (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8) had lower OR for overweight in adolescence than children of mothers who persisted in smoking. Healthy changes in parental life-style during childhood are associated with lower occurrence of offspring overweight in adolescence.

  12. Association between FTO variant and change in body weight and its interaction with dietary factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Ängquist, Lars; Hansen, Rikke D

    2012-01-01

    Although FTO is an established obesity-susceptibility locus, it remains unknown whether it influences weight change in adult life and whether diet attenuates this association. Therefore, we investigated the association of FTO-rs9939609 with changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) during 6......-analyses, FTO-rs9939609 was associated with BMI (β (SE), 0.17 (0.08) kg·m(-2)/allele; P = 0.034) and WC (0.47 (0.21) cm/allele; P = 0.026) at baseline, but not with weight change (5.55 (12.5) g·year(-1)/allele; P = 0.66) during follow up. In the CNC-analysis, FTO-rs9939609 was associated with increased risk...... of being a weight-gainer (OR: 1.1; P = 0.045). We observed no interaction between FTO-rs9939609 and dietary fat, protein and carbohydrate, and GI on BMI and WC at baseline or on change in weight and WC. FTO-rs9939609 is associated with BMI and WC at baseline, but association with weight gain is weak...

  13. Land use/cover changes, extreme events and ecohydrological responses in the Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. B.

    1998-10-01

    Land use describes human activities on the earth, and forms a major element of the terrestrial ecosystem modified by humans in the Himalayan region, where developmental activities are increasing rapidly to support the tourism infrastructure. The unprecedented growth in population is putting extremely high pressure on the limited land available for cultivation. Land use and agricultural practices have undergone drastic changes since the mid-1960s through the introduction of development programmes and the application of various newly developed techniques in agrosciences. An analysis of the land use as it has occurred over the last 70 years suggests that it and property rights in the Upper Beas Basin are complex and dynamic. For example, people are giving importance to orchards because of their high profitability. Thus, some agricultural land has been encroached on by orchards. In addition, wastelands are now being used by people for orchards, agriculture and residential and commercial building. Since the Upper Beas River Basin is mountainous, it is fragile and prone to processes like soil erosion, slope instability, landslides and floods. Risks from natural hazards are increasing. However, the state of ecohydrological responses highlight that human-induced ecological changes can be largely proved at the microwatershed level. The findings are not extended to the Himalayan scale. There is also an uncertain correlation between anthropogenic activities (deforestation) in the mountains and hazards in the plains such as floods. Owing to a lack of basic research, there is little effective information which cannot be used for long-term effective monitoring of ecological and hydrological responses to global change. Such an uncertain situation calls for integrated watershed management and development using geographical information systems (GISs).

  14. 21st Century Changes in Precipitation Extremes Over the United States: Can Climate Analogues Help or Hinder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Global warming is expected to alter the frequency and/or magnitude of extreme precipitation events. Such changes could have substantial ecological, economic, and sociological consequences. However, climate models in general do not correctly reproduce the frequency and intensity distribution of precipitation, especially at the regional scale. In this study, gridded data from a dense network of surface precipitation gauges and a global atmospheric analysis at a coarser scale are combined to develop a diagnostic framework for the large-scale meteorological conditions (i.e. flow features, moisture supply) that dominate during extreme precipitation. Such diagnostic framework is first evaluated with the late 20th century simulations from an ensemble of climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), and is found to produce more consistent (and less uncertain) total and interannaul number of extreme days with the observations than the model-based precipitation over the south-central United States and the Western United States examined in this study. The framework is then applied to the CMIP5 multi-model projections for two radiative forcing scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5) to assess the potential future changes in the probability of precipitation extremes over the same study regions. We further analyze the accompanying circulation features and their changes that may be responsible for shifts in extreme precipitation in response to changed climate. The results from this study may guide hazardous weather watches and help society develop adaptive strategies for preventing catastrophic losses.

  15. Investigating Changes in Weight and Body Composition Among Women in Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Delmar, Charlotte; Lörincz, Tamás

    2018-01-01

    for attention on younger premenopausal women given chemotherapy. Weight need to be monitored for at least 2 years as short-term changes may be caused by increased body water, whereas long-term changes seem to be related with increased fat mass essential for risking recurrence and early death. IMPLICATIONS...... as free text, 19 articles were selected for further investigation. RESULTS: The scoping review illustrates how findings in weight and body composition changes fluctuate over time as illustrated in 4 measure points: short term, 1 year, 18 months/2 years, and long term. The studies displayed differences...

  16. Changes in bone marrow lesions in response to weight-loss in obese knee osteoarthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbergsen, Henrik; Boesen, Mikael; Christensen, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Patients are susceptible for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) with increasing age and obesity and KOA is expected to become a major disabling disease in the future. An important feature of KOA on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is changes in the subchondral bone, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), which...... are related to the future degeneration of the knee joint as well as prevalent clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in BMLs after a 16-week weight-loss period in obese subjects with KOA and relate changes in BMLs to the effects of weight-loss on clinical symptoms....

  17. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on health impacts of extreme weather events in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, G; McGeehin, M; Bernard, S M; Trtanj, J; Riad, J; Engelberg, D

    2001-05-01

    Extreme weather events such as precipitation extremes and severe storms cause hundreds of deaths and injuries annually in the United States. Climate change may alter the frequency, timing, intensity, and duration of these events. Increases in heavy precipitation have occurred over the past century. Future climate scenarios show likely increases in the frequency of extreme precipitation events, including precipitation during hurricanes, raising the risk of floods. Frequencies of tornadoes and hurricanes cannot reliably be projected. Injury and death are the direct health impacts most often associated with natural disasters. Secondary effects, mediated by changes in ecologic systems and public health infrastructure, also occur. The health impacts of extreme weather events hinge on the vulnerabilities and recovery capacities of the natural environment and the local population. Relevant variables include building codes, warning systems, disaster policies, evacuation plans, and relief efforts. There are many federal, state, and local government agencies and nongovernmental organizations involved in planning for and responding to natural disasters in the United States. Future research on health impacts of extreme weather events should focus on improving climate models to project any trends in regional extreme events and as a result improve public health preparedness and mitigation. Epidemiologic studies of health effects beyond the direct impacts of disaster will provide a more accurate measure of the full health impacts and will assist in planning and resource allocation.

  19. Weight-Control Methods, 3-Year Weight Change, and Eating Behaviors: A Prospective Nationwide Study of Middle-Aged New Zealand Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sook Ling; Gray, Andrew; Haszard, Jillian; Horwath, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of women's weight-control methods and the influences of dieting on eating behaviors remain unclear. Our aim was to determine the association of various weight-control methods at baseline with weight change to 3 years, and examine the association between baseline weight-control status (trying to lose weight, trying to prevent weight gain or no weight-control attempts) and changes in intuitive eating and binge eating at 3 years. A nationally representative sample of 1,601 New Zealand women (40 to 50 years) was recruited and completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline regarding use of variety of weight-control methods. Information on demographic characteristics, weight, height, food habits, binge eating, and intuitive eating were collected at baseline and 3 years. Linear and logistic regression models examined associations between both weight status and weight-control methods at baseline and weight change to 3 years; and baseline weight-control status and change in intuitive eating from baseline to 3 years and binge eating at 3 years. χ(2) tests were used to cross-sectionally compare food habits across the weight status categories at both baseline and 3 years. Trying to lose weight and the use of weight-control methods at baseline were not associated with change in body weight to 3 years. There were a few differences in the frequency of consumption of high-energy-density foods between those trying to lose or maintain weight and those not attempting weight control. Trying to lose weight at baseline was associated with a 2.0-unit (95% CI 0.7 to 3.4, P=0.003) reduction in intuitive eating scores by 3 years (potential range=21 to 105), and 224% (odds ratio=3.24; 95% CI 1.69 to 6.20; Pfoods. Dieting may reduce women's ability to recognize hunger and satiety cues and place women at increased risk of binge eating. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diet Change After Sleeve Gastrectomy Is More Effective for Weight Loss Than Surgery Only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Joana; González, Marta; Mestres, Núria; Pardina, Eva; Ricart-Jané, David; Peinado-Onsurbe, Julia; Baena-Fustegueras, Juan Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Bariatric surgery with or without diet change has become one of the most effective treatments for obesity. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and diet change in Sprague-Dawley rats on both body and tissue weights. Eighteen rats were fed with a standard chow diet (SCD) (C group), and 36 rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) (diet-induced obesity (DIO) group). After 8 weeks, the animals underwent VSG, sham surgery or no surgery (NS). After surgery, a third of the rats fed with the HFD changed to the SCD (DIO + C group). Body weight, food and energy intake were recorded daily during the experiment (12 weeks). Food efficiency (%) (FE) was determined from weekly weight gain and weekly kilocalorie consumed measurements. The DIO group had higher and significant weight gain than the C group at the time of surgery (p weight loss (WL) was observed in the DIO + C-VSG group, during the 4 weeks after surgery. Adipose tissues in the DIO + C-VSG group were drastically reduced and had a weight similar to those in the C-VSG group. VSG and the diet change combination led to a greater WL, which was maintained during the 4 weeks post-surgery, leading to a normalization of body weight. VSG and diet change also affected most of the tissues, not only adipose, showing a global change in whole body composition.

  1. Changes in working conditions and major weight gain among normal- and overweight midlife employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Riikka; Holstila, Ansku; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea

    2017-11-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine the association between changes in psychosocial working conditions and major weight gain among midlife women and men. Furthermore, we examined the associations separately among normal- and overweight participants. Methods We used survey data among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, from 2000-2002 (phase 1, N=8960), 2007 (phase 2, N=7332), and 2012 (phase 3, N=6814), with a final study sample of 4369 participants. We examined changes in job strain, job demands, and job control from phase 1 to 2. We defined major weight gain as ≥10% weight gain between phases 1 and 3 based on self-reported weight (kg). We performed logistic regression analysis adjusting for baseline age, marital status, and occupational class, stratifying by gender and by baseline body mass index. Results Job demands among both genders and job strain among women was associated with major weight gain. Furthermore, increased job demands [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% CI 1.05-2.20] or increased job strain (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.11) was associated with major weight gain among overweight women. Normal-weight men reporting decreased job demands (OR 4.11, 95% CI 1.48-11.40) and overweight men reporting increasing job demands (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.26-6.82) exhibited higher odds of major weight gain. Conclusions Associations between working conditions and weight gain appeared primarily weak. Our study suggests that overweight individuals might be at a higher risk of weight gain when facing psychosocial strain in the workplace.

  2. Changes in birth weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    Full Text Available Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China.We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28-41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA and large (LGA for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups.The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, -25 g; 95% CI, -30 to -19. The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (-6 g from 2002 to 2012 after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28-31 weeks, while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories.Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  3. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Washburn

    Full Text Available Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain.To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors.PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013 for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review.Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included.Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc. and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up.Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

  4. Changes of extreme precipitation and nonlinear influence of climate variables over monsoon region in China

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tao

    2017-07-19

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) are well understood to be major drivers for the variability of precipitation extremes over monsoon regions in China (MRC). However, research on monsoon extremes in China and their associations with climate variables is limited. In this study, we examine the space-time variations of extreme precipitation across the MRC, and assess the time-varying influences of the climate drivers using Bayesian dynamic linear regression and their combined nonlinear effects through fitting generalized additive models. Results suggest that the central-east and south China is dominated by less frequent but more intense precipitation. Extreme rainfalls show significant positive trends, coupled with a significant decline of dry spells, indicating an increasing chance of occurrence of flood-induced disasters in the MRC during 1960–2014. Majority of the regional indices display some abrupt shifts during the 1990s. The influences of climate variables on monsoon extremes exhibit distinct interannual or interdecadal variations. IOD, ENSO and AMO have strong impacts on monsoon and extreme precipitation, especially during the 1990s, which is generally consistent with the abrupt shifts in precipitation regimes around this period. Moreover, ENSO mainly affects moderate rainfalls and dry spells, while IOD has a more significant impact on precipitation extremes. These findings could be helpful for improving the forecasting of monsoon extremes in China and the evaluations of climate models.

  5. Long-term weight changes in obese young adult men and subsequent all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Berentzen, T L; Ängquist, Lars Henrik

    2013-01-01

    change and all-cause mortality in a broad range of body mass index (BMI) in young men.METHODS:Among 362200 Danish draftees, examined between 1943 and 1977, all obese (BMI 31.0 kg m(-2); n=1930), and a random 1% sample of the others (n=3601) were identified at a mean age of 20 years (range: 18-25 years......BACKGROUND:Although the expectation is that weight gain increases mortality and weight loss among those overweight reduces mortality, results on weight gain and mortality in young adults are conflicting, and weight loss is less explored. We investigated the association between long-term weight......). All the obese and half the controls were re-examined between 4 and 40 years later (mean age 35 years). Weight changes were defined as: weight loss 0.1 kg m(-2) per year. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression.RESULTS:Among the 908 obese and 1073...

  6. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, M.B.M; Koppes, L.L.J.; Rodenburg, W.; Steeg, H. van; Proper, K.I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Methods: Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable night or shift work, from day work to night or shift work, from night or shift work to day work, and no night or shift work in 2008 and 2009. Regression analyses were used to study association chan...

  7. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge José Marciano; Fernando de Sá Del Fiol; Alessandra Cristina Marciano Tardelli Ferreira; Maria Cláudia Marques; Luciane Lopes Santana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus) into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobac...

  8. Trends in low birth weight infants and changes in Baltimore's childbearing population, 1972–77

    OpenAIRE

    Strobino, Donna M.

    1982-01-01

    Linked birth and death records provided the population for a study of trends in low birth weight (LBW) rates in Baltimore between 1972 and 1977 and of the effect of changes in the characteristics of the childbearing population on these trends. The impact of shifts in the birth weight distribution on neonatal mortality rates was also investigated. Trends were analyzed for unstandardized LBW rates as well as for rates standardized on the distributions of maternal age, education, gravidity, prio...

  9. Designing for psychological change: individuals' reward and cost valuations in weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Anne; Blandford, Ann

    2014-06-26

    Knowledge of the psychological constructs that underlie behavior offers valuable design opportunities for persuasive systems. We use the decision theory, which describes how behavior is underpinned by reward-cost valuations, as a framework for investigating such psychological constructs to deliver design objectives for weight management technologies. We applied a decision theory-based analysis in the domain of weight management to understand the rewards and costs that surround individuals' weight management behaviors, with the aim of uncovering design opportunities for weight management technologies. We conducted qualitative interviews with 15 participants who were or had been trying to lose weight. Thematic analysis was used to extract themes that covered the rewards and costs surrounding weight management behaviors. We supplemented our qualitative study with a quantitative survey of 100 respondents investigating the extent to which they agreed with statements reflecting themes from the qualitative study. The primary obstacles to weight management were the rewards associated with unhealthy choices, such as the pleasures of unhealthy foods and unrestricted consumption in social situations, and the significant efforts required to change habits, plan, and exercise. Psychological constructs that supported positive weight management included feeling good after making healthy choices, being good to oneself, experiencing healthy yet still delicious foods, and receiving social support and encouraging messages (although opinions about encouraging messages was mixed). A rewards-costs driven enquiry revealed a wide range of psychological constructs that contribute to discouraging and supporting weight management. The constructs extracted from our qualitative study were verified by our quantitative survey, in which the majority of respondents also reported similar thoughts and feelings. This understanding of the rewards and costs surrounding weight management offers a range

  10. Polar Microalgae: New Approaches towards Understanding Adaptations to an Extreme and Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara R. Lyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polar Regions are unique and highly prolific ecosystems characterized by extreme environmental gradients. Photosynthetic autotrophs, the base of the food web, have had to adapt physiological mechanisms to maintain growth, reproduction and metabolic activity despite environmental conditions that would shut-down cellular processes in most organisms. High latitudes are characterized by temperatures below the freezing point, complete darkness in winter and continuous light and high UV in the summer. Additionally, sea-ice, an ecological niche exploited by microbes during the long winter seasons when the ocean and land freezes over, is characterized by large salinity fluctuations, limited gas exchange, and highly oxic conditions. The last decade has been an exciting period of insights into the molecular mechanisms behind adaptation of microalgae to the cryosphere facilitated by the advancement of new scientific tools, particularly “omics” techniques. We review recent insights derived from genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics studies. Genes, proteins and pathways identified from these highly adaptable polar microbes have far-reaching biotechnological applications. Furthermore, they may provide insights into life outside this planet, as well as glimpses into the past. High latitude regions also have disproportionately large inputs into global biogeochemical cycles and are the region most sensitive to climate change.

  11. Changing Weather Extremes Call for Early Warning of Potential for Catastrophic Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Matthias M.; Nolan, Rachael H.; Resco De Dios, Víctor; Clarke, Hamish; Price, Owen F.; Bradstock, Ross A.

    2017-12-01

    Changing frequencies of extreme weather events and shifting fire seasons call for enhanced capability to forecast where and when forested landscapes switch from a nonflammable (i.e., wet fuel) state to the highly flammable (i.e., dry fuel) state required for catastrophic forest fires. Current forest fire danger indices used in Europe, North America, and Australia rate potential fire behavior by combining numerical indices of fuel moisture content, potential rate of fire spread, and fire intensity. These numerical rating systems lack the physical basis required to reliably quantify forest flammability outside the environments of their development or under novel climate conditions. Here, we argue that exceedance of critical forest flammability thresholds is a prerequisite for major forest fires and therefore early warning systems should be based on a reliable prediction of fuel moisture content plus a regionally calibrated model of how forest fire activity responds to variation in fuel moisture content. We demonstrate the potential of this approach through a case study in Portugal. We use a physically based fuel moisture model with historical weather and fire records to identify critical fuel moisture thresholds for forest fire activity and then show that the catastrophic June 2017 forest fires in central Portugal erupted shortly after fuels in the region dried out to historically unprecedented levels.

  12. Association Between Use of Cannabis in Adolescence and Weight Change into Midlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexie Zhiyan Jin

    Full Text Available Cannabis use has been found to stimulate appetite and potentially promote weight gain via activation of the endocannabinoid system. Despite the fact that the onset of cannabis use is typically during adolescence, the association between adolescence cannabis use and long-term change in body weight is generally unknown. This study aims to examine the association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change to midlife, while accounting for the use of other substances. The study applied 20 to 22 years of follow-up data on 712 Danish adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years at baseline. Self-reported height and weight, cannabis, cigarette and alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. In total 19.1% (n = 136 of adolescents reported having used/using cannabis. Weight gain between adolescence and midlife was not related to cannabis exposure during adolescence in either crude or adjusted models, and associations were not modified by baseline alcohol intake or smoking. However, cannabis use was significantly associated with cigarette smoking (p<0.001 and alcohol intake (p<0.001 and inversely associated with physical activity levels (p = 0.04. In conclusion, this study does not provide evidence of an association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change from adolescence to midlife.

  13. Cascading effects of climate extremes on vertebrate fauna through changes to low-latitude tree flowering and fruiting phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Nathalie; Seabrook, Leonie; Maron, Martine; Law, Bradley S; Dawson, Terence P; Syktus, Jozef; McAlpine, Clive A

    2015-09-01

    Forest vertebrate fauna provide critical services, such as pollination and seed dispersal, which underpin functional and resilient ecosystems. In turn, many of these fauna are dependent on the flowering phenology of the plant species of such ecosystems. The impact of changes in climate, including climate extremes, on the interaction between these fauna and flora has not been identified or elucidated, yet influences on flowering phenology are already evident. These changes are well documented in the mid to high latitudes. However, there is emerging evidence that the flowering phenology, nectar/pollen production, and fruit production of long-lived trees in tropical and subtropical forests are also being impacted by changes in the frequency and severity of climate extremes. Here, we examine the implications of these changes for vertebrate fauna dependent on these resources. We review the literature to establish evidence for links between climate extremes and flowering phenology, elucidating the nature of relationships between different vertebrate taxa and flowering regimes. We combine this information with climate change projections to postulate about the likely impacts on nectar, pollen and fruit resource availability and the consequences for dependent vertebrate fauna. The most recent climate projections show that the frequency and intensity of climate extremes will increase during the 21st century. These changes are likely to significantly alter mass flowering and fruiting events in the tropics and subtropics, which are frequently cued by climate extremes, such as intensive rainfall events or rapid temperature shifts. We find that in these systems the abundance and duration of resource availability for vertebrate fauna is likely to fluctuate, and the time intervals between episodes of high resource availability to increase. The combined impact of these changes has the potential to result in cascading effects on ecosystems through changes in pollinator and seed

  14. Introduction of percutaneous-tunneled transfontanellar external ventricular drainage in the management of hydrocephalus in extremely low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchelli, Mino; Lefosse, Mariella; Corvaglia, Luigi; Martini, Silvia; Sandri, Fabrizio; Soffritti, Silvia; Ancora, Gina; Mammoliti, Palma; Gargano, Giancarlo; Galassi, Ercole

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Hydrocephalus treatment in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants still represents a challenge for the pediatric neurosurgeon, particularly when the patient weighs far less than 1000 g. In such cases, the benefits in terms of neurological outcome following early treatment do not always outweigh the surgical risks, especially considering the great difference in the surgical risk before patient weight increases. To assess the efficacy and reliability of a percutaneous-tunneled, transfontanellar external ventricular drain (PTTEVD) in ELBW infants, the authors started a new protocol for the early surgical treatment of hydrocephalus. METHODS Ten cases of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) in ELBW infants (5 cases CSF leakage (due to insufficient CSF removal). In another patient Enterococcus in the CSF sample was detected the day after abdominal surgery with ileostomy (infection resolved with intrathecal vancomycin). One patient died of Streptococcus sepsis, a systemic infection existing prior to drain placement that never resolved. One patient had Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis prior to drain insertion; a PTTEVD was implanted, the infection resolved, and the hydrocephalus was treated in the same way as with a traditional EVD, while the advantages of a quick, minimally invasive, bedside procedure were maintained. Once a patient reached 1 kg in weight, when necessary, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was implanted and the PTTEVD was removed. CONCLUSIONS The introduction of PTTEVD placement in our standard protocol for the management of PHH has proved to be a wise option for small patients.

  15. Targeting 2.5 versus 4 g/kg/day of amino acids for extremely low birth weight infants: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, Ilaria; Bellagamba, Maria Paola; Spagnoli, Cristina; D'Ascenzo, Rita; Mazzoni, Nadia; Peretti, Anna; Cogo, Paola E; Carnielli, Virgilio P

    2013-11-01

    To compare the effect of 2.5 vs 4 g/kg/d of amino acid (AA) in parenteral nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants on metabolic tolerance, short-term growth, and neurodevelopment. One hundred thirty-one infants with birth weight between 500 and 1249 g were randomized to 2.5 (standard AA [SAA] group) or 4 (high AA [HAA] group) g/kg/d AA intake, with equal nonprotein energy. The primary outcome was body size at 36 weeks. One hundred thirty-one patients were randomized and 114 analyzed (58 SAA group and 56 HAA group). Study groups had similar demographics and clinical characteristics. Elevated blood urea (BU >70 mg/dL = BU nitrogen >32.6 mg/dL) occurred in 24% vs 59% (P = .000) and hyperglycemia (>175 mg/dL) in 34% vs 11% (P = .003) of the SAA and HAA patients, respectively. Body weight, length, and head circumference at 36 weeks and 2 years were similar between groups. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition score was 94 ± 13 in the SAA group and 97 ± 15 in the HAA group (P = .35). The HAA group had higher BU levels and better glucose control. An extra 8 g/kg of AA over the first 10 days of life did not improve growth and neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Water-Borne Diseases and Extreme Weather Events in Cambodia: Review of Impacts and Implications of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace I. Davies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  17. Water-borne diseases and extreme weather events in Cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Grace I; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

    2014-12-23

    Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  18. Climate change scenarios of extreme temperatures and atmospheric humidity for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda-Martinez, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: atejeda@uv.mx; Conde-Alvarez, C. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Valencia-Treviso, L.E. [Departamento de Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    The following study explores climatic change scenarios of extreme temperature and atmospheric humidity for the 2020 and 2050 decades. They were created for Mexico through the GFDLR30, ECHAM4 and HadCM2 general circulation models. Base scenario conditions were associated with the normal climatological conditions for the period 1961-1990, with a database of 50 surface observatories. It was necessary to empirically estimate the missing data in approximately half of the pressure measurements. For the period 1961-1990, statistical models of the monthly means of maximum and minimum temperatures and atmospheric humidity (relative and specific) were obtained from the observed data of temperature, solar radiation and precipitation. Based on the simulations of the GFDLR30, ECHAM4 and HADCM2 models, a future scenario of monthly means of maximum and minimum temperatures and humidity in climatic change conditions was created. The results shown are for the representative months of winter (January) and summer (July). [Spanish] En este articulo se presentan escenarios de cambio climatico referidos a temperaturas extremas y humedad atmosferica para las decadas de 2020 y 2050. Fueron generados para Mexico a partir de los modelos de circulacion general GFDLR30, ECHAM4 y HADCM2. El escenario base corresponde a las normales climatologicas del periodo 1961-1990 para 50 observatorios de superficie. Para la mitad de ellos fue necesario estimar empiricamente la presion atmosferica a partir de la altitud y para la totalidad se obtuvieron modelos estadisticos de los promedios mensuales de temperaturas maxima y minima asi como de humedad atmosferica (relativa y especifica). Esos modelos estadisticos, combinados con las salidas de los modelos de circulacion general mencionados, produjeron escenarios futuros de medias mensuales de temperaturas extremas y de humedad bajo condiciones de cambio climatico. Se mostraran los resultados para un mes representativo del invierno (enero) y otro del verano

  19. Spatiotemporal changes in precipitation extremes over Yangtze River basin, China, considering the rainfall shift in the late 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tao; Xie, Lian

    2016-12-01

    Precipitation extremes are the dominated causes for the formation of severe flood disasters at regional and local scales under the background of global climate change. In the present study, five annual extreme precipitation events, including 1, 7 and 30 day annual maximum rainfall and 95th and 97.5th percentile threshold levels, are analyzed relating to the reference period 1960-2011 from 140 meteorological stations over Yangtze River basin (YRB). A generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is applied to fit annual and percentile extreme precipitation events at each station with return periods up to 200 years. The entire time period is divided into preclimatic (preceding climatic) period 1960-1980 and aftclimatic (after climatic) period 1981-2011 by considering distinctly abrupt shift of precipitation regime in the late 1970s across YRB. And the Mann-Kendall trend test is adopted to conduct trend analysis during pre- and aftclimatic periods, respectively, for the purpose of exploring possible increasing/decreasing patterns in precipitation extremes. The results indicate that the increasing trends for return values during aftclimatic period change significantly in time and space in terms of different magnitudes of extreme precipitation, while the stations with significantly positive trends are mainly distributed in the vicinity of the mainstream and major tributaries as well as large lakes, this would result in more tremendous flood disasters in the mid-lower reaches of YRB, especially in southeast coastal regions. The increasing/decreasing linear trends based on annual maximum precipitation are also investigated in pre- and aftclimatic periods, respectively, whereas those changes are not significantly similar to the variations of return values during both subperiods. Moreover, spatiotemporal patterns of precipitation extremes become more uneven and unstable in the second half period over YRB.

  20. Responses in live weight change to net energy intake in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Bertilsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to estimate the effect of increased energy intake on daily live weight changes during the first 100 days of lactation of primiparous and multiparous cows. A data set with 78 observations (treatment means) was compiled from 6 production trials from Denmark, Norway...... or multiparous. Feed ration energy values were recalculated by use of NorFor to obtain consistent energy expression in all trials as opposed to the varying feed evaluation systems used in original analysis of trials. Regression analysis with linear and quadratic effects were performed on live weight...... change were made by linear mixed effects model with trial as random factor. For both primiparous and multiparous cows there was an increasing curvilinear response at a decreasing rate to increased net energy intake and the daily live weight change at day 30 was negative and at day 90 it was positive...

  1. Changes in glucose-elicited blood metabolite responses following weight loss and long term weight maintenance in obese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidenstam, Nina; Danielsson, Anders P H; Spégel, Peter; Ridderstråle, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), but the long term dynamic effects on blood metabolites other than glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), are largely unknown. Here, we studied changes in OGTT-elicited metabolite patterns in obese subjects during a diet-induced weight loss study. Blood samples from 14 obese individuals with IGT were collected at 0, 30 and 120 min during a standard 75 g OGTT at baseline (BMI 44 ± 2 kg/m(2)), after weight loss (BMI 36 ± 2 kg/m(2)) and after weight maintenance (BMI 35 ± 2 kg/m(2)). Serum metabolite levels were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and compared to a lean glucose tolerant group. Changes in the OGTT-elicited metabolite patterns occurred differentially during weight loss and weight maintenance. Enhanced suppression of aromatic amino acids were associated with decreased insulinogenic index observed after weight loss (tyrosine: r=0.72, p=0.013; phenylalanine: r=0.63, p=0.039). The OGTT-elicited suppression and/or lack of increase in levels of glutamate, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, and the fatty acids laurate, oleate and palmitate, improved towards the lean profile after weight maintenance, paralleling an improvement in glucose tolerance. The greater heterogeneity in the response before and after weight loss in the obese, compared to lean subjects, was markedly reduced after weight maintenance. Diet-induced weight loss followed by weight maintenance results in changes in metabolite profiles associated with either hepatic insulin sensitivity or peripheral glucose tolerance. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the effects of weight loss and weight maintenance separately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement of Zinc Coating Weight Control for Transition of Target Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien Ming; Lin, Jeong Hwa; Hsu, Tse Wei; Lin, Rui Rong [China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung (China)

    2010-06-15

    The product specification of the Continuous Hot Dip Galvanizing Line (CGL) changes and varies constantly with different customers' requirements, especially in the zinc coating weight which is from 30 to 150 g/m{sup 2} on each side. Since the coating weight of zinc changes often, it is very important to reduce time spent in the transfer of target values changed for low production cost and yield loss. The No.2 CGL in China Steel Corporation (CSC) has improved the control of the air knife which is designed by Siemens VAI. CSC proposed an experiment design which is an L{sub 9}(3{sup 4}) orthogonal array to find the relations between zinc coating weight and the process parameters, such as the line speed, air pressure, gap of air knife and air knife position. A non-linear regression formula was derived from the experimental results and applied in the mathematical model. A new air knife feedforward control system, which is coupled with the regression formula, the air knife control system and the process computer, is implemented into the line. The practical plant operation results have been presented to show the transfer time is obviously shortened while zinc coating weight target changing and the product rejected ratio caused by zinc coating weight out of specification is significantly reduced from 0.5% to 0.15%.

  3. Changes in health-related behaviors and their effect on dissatisfaction with body weight in youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16s1p79 The aim of the present study was to establish whether changes in health related behaviors are associated with changes in the satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight in youths. It was a prospective study that performed a secondary analysis of data from Project “Saúde na Boa”, which included youths attending night classes in secondary public schools in Recife in the state of Pernambuco and Florianópolis in the state of Santa Catarina. Data on the youths’ body type (thinness or excess weight and degree of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight and lifestyle (level of physical activity, participation in physical education classes, sedentary behavior and snacks, soda and alcohol intake were collected at 10 schools from each town (five in the intervention group and five in the control group. The percentages of youths dissatisfied with their body weight were 50.5% and 48.6% at baseline and after intervention, respectively. The percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness decreased (21.4% vs. 16.5%, while the percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to excess weight increased (29.1% vs. 32.1%. Approximately 41.2% of the youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness and 18.3% of those dissatisfied due to excess weight became satisfied with their body weight after intervention. The intervention targeting health-related behaviors induced changes in the youths’ degree of satisfaction with their body weight.

  4. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  5. Climate Change and Hydrological Extreme Events - Risks and Perspectives for Water Management in Bavaria and Québec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, R.

    2017-12-01

    There is as yet no confirmed knowledge whether and how climate change contributes to the magnitude and frequency of hydrological extreme events and how regional water management could adapt to the corresponding risks. The ClimEx project (2015-2019) investigates the effects of climate change on the meteorological and hydrological extreme events and their implications for water management in Bavaria and Québec. High Performance Computing is employed to enable the complex simulations in a hydro-climatological model processing chain, resulting in a unique high-resolution and transient (1950-2100) dataset of climatological and meteorological forcing and hydrological response: (1) The climate module has developed a large ensemble of high resolution data (12km) of the CRCM5 RCM for Central Europe and North-Eastern North America, downscaled from 50 members of the CanESM2 GCM. The dataset is complemented by all available data from the Euro-CORDEX project to account for the assessment of both natural climate variability and climate change. The large ensemble with several thousand model years provides the potential to catch rare extreme events and thus improves the process understanding of extreme events with return periods of 1000+ years. (2) The hydrology module comprises process-based and spatially explicit model setups (e.g. WaSiM) for all major catchments in Bavaria and Southern Québec in high temporal (3h) and spatial (500m) resolution. The simulations form the basis for in depth analysis of hydrological extreme events based on the inputs from the large climate model dataset. The specific data situation enables to establish a new method for `virtual perfect prediction', which assesses climate change impacts on flood risk and water resources management by identifying patterns in the data which reveal preferential triggers of hydrological extreme events. The presentation will highlight first results from the analysis of the large scale ClimEx model ensemble, showing the

  6. Clinical and metabolic effects associated with weight changes and obeticholic acid in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, B; Terrault, N A; Gill, R M; Loomba, R; Chalasani, N; Hoofnagle, J H; Van Natta, M L

    2018-03-01

    In a 72-week, randomised controlled trial of obeticholic acid (OCA) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), OCA was superior to placebo in improving serum ALT levels and liver histology. OCA therapy also reduced weight. Because weight loss by itself can improve histology, to perform a post hoc analysis of the effects of weight loss and OCA treatment in improving clinical and metabolic features of NASH. The analysis was limited to the 200 patients with baseline and end-of-treatment liver biopsies. Weight loss was defined as a relative decline from baseline of 2% or more at treatment end. Weight loss occurred in 44% (45/102) of OCA and 32% (31/98) of placebo-treated patients (P = 0.08). The NAFLD Activity score (NAS) improved more in those with than without weight loss in both the OCA- (-2.4 vs -1.2, POCA- (-43 vs -34 U/L, P = 0.12) and placebo-treated patients (-29 vs -10 U/L, P = 0.02). However, among those who lost weight, OCA was associated with opposite effects from placebo on changes in alkaline phosphatase (+21 vs -12 U/L, POCA leads to weight loss in up to 44% of patients with NASH, and OCA therapy and weight loss have additive benefits on serum aminotransferases and histology. However, favourable effects of weight loss on alkaline phosphatase, lipids and blood glucose seen in placebo-treated patients were absent or reversed on OCA treatment. These findings stress the importance of assessing concomitant metabolic effects of new therapies of NASH. Clinical trial number: NCT01265498. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sensitivity of intensity modulated proton therapy plans to changes in patient weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, Francesca; Bolsi, Alessandra; Lomax, Antony J.; Rutz, Hans Peter; Timmerman, Beate; Goitein, Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study to investigate the sensitivity of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) to changes in body weight occurring during the course of radiotherapy for patients treated in the sacral region. Materials and methods: During therapy, important weight gain and loss were observed for two patients treated to para-spinal tumors, which resulted in both patients being re-scanned and re-planned. Both patients were treated as part of their therapy, with a narrow-angle IMPT (NA-IMPT) plan delivering a 'dose hole' around the cauda equina (CE), which was mainly formed through modulation of Bragg peaks in depth. To investigate the impact of these weight changes on the proton range and delivered dose, the nominal fields were re-calculated on the new CT data sets. Results were analyzed by comparing these new plans with those originally delivered and by calculating changes in range and delivered doses in target volumes and normal tissues. Results: Maximum differences in proton range in the CE region of up to +8 mm and -13 mm, respectively, for the patient who gained weight and for the patient who lost weight, increased the maximum dose to the CE by only 2%. This indicates that both IMPT plans were relatively insensitive to substantial range uncertainties. Even greater differences in range (16 mm) in the planning target volume only slightly affected its dose homogeneity (differences in V 90% of 6% in the worst case). Nevertheless, some large undesired local dose differences were observed. Conclusions: We demonstrated, that, at least for the two analyzed cases, NA-IMPT plans are less sensitive to weight variations than one may expect. Still, we would advise to calculate new plans in case of substantial change in weight for patients treated in the sacral region, primarily due to the presence of new hot/cold area

  8. Caloric restriction induces changes in insulin and body weight measurements that are inversely associated with subsequent weight regain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Monica H T; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current...

  9. Plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen Margrete

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers.......We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  10. Relationship Between Changes in Fat and Lean Depots Following Weight Loss and Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Peter M

    2018-04-04

    Gluteofemoral fat mass has been associated with improved cardiovascular disease risk factors. It is not clear if loss of this protective fat during weight loss partially negates the effect of loss of visceral fat. The aim of this study was to examine regional fat loss in a large weight-loss cohort from one center and to determine if fat loss in the leg and total lean tissue loss is harmful. We combined the data from 7 of our previously published 3-month weight-loss studies and examined the relationship between regional fat and lean tissue loss and changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in 399 participants. At baseline, leg fat was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women and inversely with fasting triglyceride level in both sexes. Abdominal lean tissue was also related to systolic blood pressure in men. Changes in regional fat and lean tissue were positively associated with changes in glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ( r =0.11-0.22, P lean tissue dominating in multivariate regression. After adjustment for total weight or total fat change, these relationships disappeared except for a positive relationship between arm and lean leg mass loss and changes in triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. Loss of leg fat and leg lean tissue was directly associated with beneficial changes in cardiovascular disease risk markers. Loss of lean tissue may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, and measures to retain lean tissue during weight loss may not be necessary. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. Short-term hunger intensity changes following ingestion of a meal replacement bar for weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacker, Dana Q; Watemberg, Salo

    2004-05-01

    Meal replacement products for weight loss are popular and safe for most unsupervised consumers desiring to lose weight. Previously we reported that the thickness of meal replacement diet shakes had a direct and significant effect on hunger intensity during the first 2 h and that hunger intensity scores for liquid meal replacements were significantly below baseline for 3 h following consumption (Mattes & Rothacker, 2001) This study uses the same protocol to investigate meal replacement bars designed for overweight consumers. Subjects were prescreened to include only those that normally ate breakfast and liked chocolate. The bar used in this study contained 250 calories (about 30 more than most liquid diet shakes), 4 g dietary fiber, 14 g protein and 8 g fat. Subjects were instructed to consume the entire bar with a glass of water following an overnight fast when they would normally consume their first meal of the day and to assess their hunger on a 1 (not hungry at all) to 9 (as hungry as I have ever felt) scale before consumption, immediately after and hourly for 6 h (only on typical weekdays). Similar assessments were made for the perception of stomach fullness (1=empty, 9=extremely full), strength of the desire to eat (1=no desire, 9=extremely strong) and thirst (1=not at all thirsty, 9=extremely thirsty). One-hundred and eight subjects (23 male and 85 female) completed the study. No gender satiety differences were found. Hunger ratings and desire to eat remained significantly below baseline for 5 h following consumption. Stomach fullness scores were significantly above baseline for 5 h. Thirst scores were significantly below baseline for 3 h. In conclusion, although the meal replacement diet bars contained only 30 additional calories than liquids, they provided an additional 2 h of hunger suppression from baseline that may have an impact on overall weightloss success. These results support superior short-term hunger control with solid meal replacements.

  12. Adaptation to hydrological extremes through insurance: a financial fund simulation model under changing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Diego; Mohor, Guilherme; Câmara, Clarissa; Mendiondo, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Researches from around the world relate global environmental changes with the increase of vulnerability to extreme events, such as heavy and scarce precipitations - floods and droughts. Hydrological disasters have caused increasing losses in recent years. Thus, risk transfer mechanisms, such as insurance, are being implemented to mitigate impacts, finance the recovery of the affected population, and promote the reduction of hydrological risks. However, among the main problems in implementing these strategies, there are: First, the partial knowledge of natural and anthropogenic climate change in terms of intensity and frequency; Second, the efficient risk reduction policies require accurate risk assessment, with careful consideration of costs; Third, the uncertainty associated with numerical models and input data used. The objective of this document is to introduce and discuss the feasibility of the application of Hydrological Risk Transfer Models (HRTMs) as a strategy of adaptation to global climate change. The article shows the development of a methodology for the collective and multi-sectoral vulnerability management, facing the hydrological risk in the long term, under an insurance funds simulator. The methodology estimates the optimized premium as a function of willingness to pay (WTP) and the potential direct loss derived from hydrological risk. The proposed methodology structures the watershed insurance scheme in three analysis modules. First, the hazard module, which characterizes the hydrologic threat from the recorded series input or modelled series under IPCC / RCM's generated scenarios. Second, the vulnerability module calculates the potential economic loss for each sector1 evaluated as a function of the return period "TR". Finally, the finance module determines the value of the optimal aggregate premium by evaluating equiprobable scenarios of water vulnerability; taking into account variables such as the maximum limit of coverage, deductible

  13. Weight and body composition change over a six-week holiday period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D R; Larson, J N; Wengreen, H

    2012-03-01

    Change in weight and body composition was assessed over a six-week holiday period. Baseline testing occurred the Monday or Tuesday prior to Thanksgiving Day (November 24 or 25, 2008), and the post-holiday assessment was the Monday or Tuesday after New Year's Day (January 5 or 6, 2009). Thirteen men and 21 women ranging in age from 23-61 years completed the study. The majority of participants (24 of 34) perceived that they had gained weight, and four did gain ≥2 kg. However, despite some changes to dietary and exercise habits, on average there was no difference between pre-holiday weight (74.0±17.8 kg) and post-holiday weight (73.9±18.1 kg), nor between pre-holiday body fat percentage (25.4±9.0%) and post-holiday body fat percentage (25.4±8.9%). Despite a perception of substantial weight gain, body weight and body fat remained unchanged over a six-week holiday period.

  14. Relationships between changes in leptin and insulin resistance levels in obese individuals following weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Nai Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can augment insulin resistance (IR, leading to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Leptin, ghrelin, and various fatty acids present in the cell membrane may modulate IR. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of weight loss on IR, serum leptin/ghrelin levels, and erythrocyte fatty acids, and studied the associations between changes in these variables. A total of 35 obese (body mass index ≥ 27 adults participated in a weight loss program for 3 months. IR was assessed using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The obese participants had a mean weight loss of 5.6 ± 3.8 kg followed by a 16.7% and 23.3% reduction in HOMA-IR and leptin (p  0.05 levels. After adjusting for age, gender, changes in ghrelin, and body fat, we found a significant correlation between decreases in leptin and less risk of no improvement in HOMA-IR levels [odds ratio (OR = 0.69, p = 0.039]. In conclusion, a moderate weight reduction in obese participants over a short period significantly improved IR. This weight reduction concomitantly decreased serum leptin, increased ghrelin, and elevated some erythrocyte unsaturates. Only leptin correlated independently with IR improvement upon multivariable logistic regression analysis, which indicates that leptin may play a role in the modulation of IR following weight loss.

  15. Deviations in energy sensing predict long-term weight change in overweight Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basolo, Alessio; Votruba, Susanne B; Heinitz, Sascha; Krakoff, Jonathan; Piaggi, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    Energy expenditure (EE), as reflective of body energy demand, has been proposed to be the key driver of food intake, possibly influencing weight change in humans. Variation in this energy-sensing link (overeating relative to weight-maintaining energy requirements) may lead to weight gain over time. Sixty-one overweight otherwise healthy Native Americans (age: 34.0 ± 7.9 years, body fat: 39.7 ± 9.5%, 36 males) were admitted to our clinical research unit for measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 24-h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance and weight stability. Following this, ad libitum food intake was assessed for three days using computerized vending machines. Body weight change under unrestricted free-living conditions was assessed at an outpatient follow-up visit (median follow-up time = 1.7 years). Total ad libitum food intake (3-day average) was positively associated with 24-h EE (r = 0.44, p energy requirements can be assessed and predicts long-term weight gain, suggesting that variation in energy sensing may influence appetite by favoring overeating thus promoting obesity development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Effects of Weight Loss, Weight Cycling, and Weight Loss Maintenance on Diabetes Incidence and Change in Cardiometabolic Traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Aroda, Vanita R.; Watson, Karol E.; Bray, George A.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Perreault, Leigh; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined specific measures of weight loss in relation to incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective, observational study analyzed nine weight measures, characterizing baseline weight, short- versus long-term weight loss, short- versus long-term weight regain, and weight cycling, within the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervent