WorldWideScience

Sample records for extreme polar warmth

  1. Experiencing physical warmth promotes interpersonal warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence E; Bargh, John A

    2008-10-24

    "Warmth" is the most powerful personality trait in social judgment, and attachment theorists have stressed the importance of warm physical contact with caregivers during infancy for healthy relationships in adulthood. Intriguingly, recent research in humans points to the involvement of the insula in the processing of both physical temperature and interpersonal warmth (trust) information. Accordingly, we hypothesized that experiences of physical warmth (or coldness) would increase feelings of interpersonal warmth (or coldness), without the person's awareness of this influence. In study 1, participants who briefly held a cup of hot (versus iced) coffee judged a target person as having a "warmer" personality (generous, caring); in study 2, participants holding a hot (versus cold) therapeutic pad were more likely to choose a gift for a friend instead of for themselves.

  2. Experiencing Physical Warmth Promotes Interpersonal Warmth

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Lawrence E.; Bargh, John A.

    2008-01-01

    “Warmth” is the most powerful personality trait in social judgment, and attachment theorists have stressed the importance of warm physical contact with caregivers during infancy for healthy relationships in adulthood. Intriguingly, recent research in humans points to the involvement of the insula in the processing of both physical temperature and interpersonal warmth (trust) information. Accordingly, we hypothesized that experiences of physical warmth (or coldness) would increase feelings of ...

  3. Experiencing Physical Warmth Promotes Interpersonal Warmth

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Lawrence E.; Bargh, John A.

    2008-01-01

    “Warmth” is the most powerful personality trait in social judgment, and attachment theorists have stressed the importance of warm physical contact with caregivers during infancy for healthy relationships in adulthood. Intriguingly, recent research in humans points to the involvement of the insula in the processing of both physical temperature and interpersonal warmth (trust) information. Accordingly, we hypothesized that experiences of physical warmth (or coldness) would increase feelings of ...

  4. Characterization of Polarizing Splitter Optics in Extreme Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Ryand; Olson, Matthew; Morelli, Gregg

    2013-01-04

    Development of laser systems capable of surviving extreme conditions experienced in military applications requires mounts and components that are able to survive these conditions. The characterization of mounted and/or bonded optical assemblies in harsh environments is critical for the development of laser and optical systems for functionality in these extreme conditions. Customized mounts, bonding assemblies and packaging strategies are utilized to develop and field reliable and robust optical subassemblies. Thin film polarizers operating at 45o and polarizing beam splitter cubes were chosen for initial testing based on past experiences, advancements in optical coating and construction technologies and material properties. Shock, vibration, shear strength, tensile strength and temperature testing are performed on mounted polarizing beam splitter cubes and thin film polarizers from two manufacturers. Previous testing showed that polarizing beam splitter cubes constructed using epoxy would become damaged in the laser resonator. The cubes being tested in this report are constructed using epoxy- free direct optical contact bonding. Thin film polarizers operating at 45o are chosen opposed to Brewster’s angle thin film polarizers to reduce the size and simplify design and construction since an optical wedge is not required. The components and mounts are each environmentally tested beyond the manufacturers’ specifications for shock, vibration, and temperature. Component functionality is monitored during and after the environmental testing. Experimental results from the testing will be discussed as will the impact on future laser resonator designs.

  5. Warmth in affective mediated interaction : Exploring the effects of physical warmth on interpersonal warmth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, C.J.A.M.; Heylen, D.K.J.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that physical warmth activates perceptions of metaphorical interpersonal warmth and closeness, and increases pro-social behavior. These effects are grounded in our earliest intimate experiences: being held by our loving caregivers. These findings provide reasons to

  6. Warmth in affective mediated interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Christian J.A.M.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Erp, van Jan B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that physical warmth activates perceptions of metaphorical interpersonal warmth and closeness, and increases pro-social behavior. These effects are grounded in our earliest intimate experiences: being held by our loving caregivers. These findings provide reasons to incorpora

  7. Behavioral Cues of Interpersonal Warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Marjorie A.

    1972-01-01

    The results of this study suggest, first, that interpersonal warmth does seem to be a personality dimension which can be reliably judged and, second, that it was possible to define and demonstrate the relevance of a number of behavioral cues for warmth. (Author)

  8. Geochemical signatures of benthic foraminifera shells from a heat-polluted shallow marine environment provide field evidence for growth and calcification under extreme warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titelboim, Danna; Sadekov, Aleksey; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Herut, Barak; Kucera, Michal; Schmidt, Christiane; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Abramovich, Sigal

    2017-04-01

    Shallow marine calcifiers play an important role as marine ecosystem engineers and in the global carbon cycle. Understanding their response to warming is essential to evaluate the fate of marine ecosystems under global change scenarios. So far, most data on thermal tolerance of marine calcifiers have been obtained by manipulative laboratory experiments. Such experiments provide valuable physiological data, but it remains unclear to what degree these observations apply to natural ecosystems. A rare opportunity to test the effect of warming acting on ecosystem-relevant scales is by investigation of heat-polluted coastal areas. Here we study growth and calcification in benthic foraminifera that inhabit a thermally polluted coastal area in Israel, where they are exposed to temperature elevated by 6˚ C above the natural seasonal temperature range and reaching up to ˜42˚ C in summer. Several species of benthic foraminifera have been previously shown to persist throughout the year in the heat-polluted area, allowing us to examine in natural conditions the thermal limits of growth and calcification under extreme temperatures as they are expected to prevail in the future. Live specimens of two known heat tolerant species Lachlanella sp. 1 and Pararotalia calcariformata were collected over a period of one year from two stations, representing thermally polluted and undisturbed (control) shallow hard bottom habitats. Single-chamber element ratios of these specimens were obtained using laser ablation and the Mg/Ca of the last chambers (grown closest to the time of collection) were used to calculate calcification temperatures. Our results provide the first direct field evidence that these foraminifera species not only persist extreme warm temperatures but continue to grow and calcify. Species-specific Mg/Ca thermometry indicates that P. calcariformata precipitate their shells at temperatures as high as 40˚ C and Lachlanella sp. 1 at least up to 36˚ C. Instead, both species

  9. [Family warmth cures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthamun, P

    1996-04-01

    Women in Thailand are increasingly finding themselves responsible for caring for the physical and mental health of HIV-infected men. The author gained such experience caring for her husband, while her suffering since youth of a series of chronic illnesses helped her to understand that life is full of surprises. Moreover, meditation also helps her to squarely confront problems as they arise, such as when she learned that she contracted HIV from her husband 5 years ago. The author then learned about AIDS and attended, together with her husband, conferences on HIV/AIDS to learn how to care for them both. She also enrolled in a Red Cross program on in-home care. In 1994, the husband returned home from the hospital in poor health, with little time left to live. However, surrounded by the warmth and affection of home, friends, and family, the man¿s health status improved to the extent that his opportunistic diseases disappeared. Since that experience, the author visits other households where people are living with AIDS in an attempt to bring them moral support, to teach about in-home care, and to coordinate hospital care when needed. The author now knows that HIV-seropositive people can contribute considerably to help the lives of both others living with AIDS and the general community. She is determined to show that families working together can reduce the level of suffering experienced by HIV-infected individuals and that such people will survive longer through families¿ efforts.

  10. Shared neural mechanisms underlying social warmth and physical warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Tristen K; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2013-11-01

    Many of people's closest bonds grow out of socially warm exchanges and the warm feelings associated with being socially connected. Indeed, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying thermoregulation may be shared by those that regulate social warmth, the experience of feeling connected to other people. To test this possibility, we placed participants in a functional MRI scanner and asked them to (a) read socially warm and neutral messages from friends and family and (b) hold warm and neutral-temperature objects (a warm pack and a ball, respectively). Findings showed an overlap between physical and social warmth: Participants felt warmer after reading the positive (compared with neutral) messages and more connected after holding the warm pack (compared with the ball). In addition, neural activity during social warmth overlapped with neural activity during physical warmth in the ventral striatum and middle insula, but neural activity did not overlap during another pleasant task (soft touch). Together, these results suggest that a common neural mechanism underlies physical and social warmth.

  11. Generation of bright circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics for magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kfir, Ofer; Turgut, Emrah; Knut, Ronny; Zusin, Dmitriy; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Nembach, Hans; Shaw, Justin M; Fleicher, Avner; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Cohen, Oren

    2014-01-01

    Circularly-polarized extreme UV and X-ray radiation provides valuable access to the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of materials. To date, such experiments have been possible only using large-scale free-electron lasers or synchrotrons. Here we demonstrate the first bright extreme UV circularly-polarized high harmonics and use this new light source for magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the M-shell absorption edges of cobalt. This work paves the way towards element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatio-temporal resolution, all on a tabletop.

  12. Shared Neural Mechanisms Underlying Social Warmth and Physical Warmth

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, TK; Eisenberger, NI

    2013-01-01

    Many of people's closest bonds grow out of socially warm exchanges and the warm feelings associated with being socially connected. Indeed, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying thermoregulation may be shared by those that regulate social warmth, the experience of feeling connected to other people. To test this possibility, we placed participants in a functional MRI scanner and asked them to (a) read socially warm and neutral messages from friends and family and (b) hold warm and neutral-t...

  13. Retention technique #1. Developing managerial warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, R

    1989-01-01

    A manager who has interpersonal warmth is not simply gullible or naive, but instead possesses a valuable skill in reaching others. In most manager-employee relationships, some degree of limit-setting and judgment are necessary; however, warmth integrated with limit-setting is more satisfying for both employee and manager. Although warmth as an interpersonal phenomenon is affected by the employee's perception, certain managerial actions can increase the likelihood of being perceived as warm; yet, in spite of careful adherence to the guidelines for communicating warmth, managerial warmth will still be rejected in some situations. As is true of any managerial technique, the effective use of warmth requires an assessment of the employee's personality and the approach most appropriate for the situation at hand. The excellent manager is able to quickly adapt, matching the level of warmth to the situation. See Nurse Manager Retention Factors for viewpoints from nurses themselves. Interpersonal management style is an important retention factor.

  14. Extreme genetic code optimality from a molecular dynamics calculation of amino acid polar requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Mathew, Damien; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2009-06-01

    A molecular dynamics calculation of the amino acid polar requirement is used to score the canonical genetic code. Monte Carlo simulation shows that this computational polar requirement has been optimized by the canonical genetic code, an order of magnitude more than any previously known measure, effectively ruling out a vertical evolution dynamics. The sensitivity of the optimization to the precise metric used in code scoring is consistent with code evolution having proceeded through the communal dynamics of statistical proteins using horizontal gene transfer, as recently proposed. The extreme optimization of the genetic code therefore strongly supports the idea that the genetic code evolved from a communal state of life prior to the last universal common ancestor.

  15. Extreme genetic code optimality from a molecular dynamics calculation of amino acid polar requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Mathew, Damien; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2009-06-01

    A molecular dynamics calculation of the amino acid polar requirement is used to score the canonical genetic code. Monte Carlo simulation shows that this computational polar requirement has been optimized by the canonical genetic code, an order of magnitude more than any previously known measure, effectively ruling out a vertical evolution dynamics. The sensitivity of the optimization to the precise metric used in code scoring is consistent with code evolution having proceeded through the communal dynamics of statistical proteins using horizontal gene transfer, as recently proposed. The extreme optimization of the genetic code therefore strongly supports the idea that the genetic code evolved from a communal state of life prior to the last universal common ancestor.

  16. Does warmth have a smell? The influence of ambient odour on perceived physical and social warmth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard; Smeets, Monique; Brugman, Narelle

    are shown to exert effects on subsequent perceptions, as other studies have relied on present physically warm or cold primes. We surmise that associations of warmth acquired from exposure to advertisements in which pea soup is consumed during winter and in a socially warm setting can cue broad mental......Odour has a major influence on cognition and behaviour. We here examined its influence on temperature perception. Research on social warmth has shown that social behaviour can be influenced by physical warmth and vice versa. Most studies focussing on this subject used a physical prime to influence...... social warmth. In the current study odour primes previously associated with cues of warm temperature and social warmth are used instead. The aim of this study was to examine whether odour affects perceptions of physical and social warmth. Participants were primed with a warm (pea soup) or cold...

  17. Does warmth have a smell? The influence of ambient odour on perceived physical and social warmth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard; Smeets, Monique; Brugman, Narelle

    Odour has a major influence on cognition and behaviour. We here examined its influence on temperature perception. Research on social warmth has shown that social behaviour can be influenced by physical warmth and vice versa. Most studies focussing on this subject used a physical prime to influence...... social warmth. In the current study odour primes previously associated with cues of warm temperature and social warmth are used instead. The aim of this study was to examine whether odour affects perceptions of physical and social warmth. Participants were primed with a warm (pea soup) or cold...... are shown to exert effects on subsequent perceptions, as other studies have relied on present physically warm or cold primes. We surmise that associations of warmth acquired from exposure to advertisements in which pea soup is consumed during winter and in a socially warm setting can cue broad mental...

  18. Warmth and mobility of random graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fadnavis, Sukhada

    2010-01-01

    Brightwell and Winkler introduced the graph parameters warmth and mobility in the context of combinatorial statistical physics. They related both parameters to lower bounds on chromatic number. Although warmth is not a monotone graph property we show it is nevertheless "statistically monotone" in the sense that it tends to increase with added random edges, and that for sparse graphs ($p=O(n^{-\\alpha})$, $\\alpha > 0$) the warmth is concentrated on at most two values, and for most $p$ it is concentrated on one value. We also put bounds on warmth and mobility in the dense regime, and as a corollary obtain that a conjecture of Lov\\'asz holds for almost all graphs.

  19. The Substitutability of Physical and Social Warmth in Daily Life

    OpenAIRE

    Bargh, John A.; Shalev, Idit

    2011-01-01

    Classic and contemporary research on person perception has demonstrated the paramount importance of interpersonal warmth. Recent research on embodied cognition has shown these feelings of social warmth or coldness can be induced by experiences of physical warmth or coldness, and vice versa. Here we show that people tend to self-regulate their feelings of social warmth through applications of physical warmth, apparently without explicit awareness of doing so. In Study 1, higher scores on a mea...

  20. Polar Microalgae: New Approaches towards Understanding Adaptations to an Extreme and Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Barbara R; Mock, Thomas

    2014-01-28

    Polar Regions are unique and highly prolific ecosystems characterized by extreme environmental gradients. Photosynthetic autotrophs, the base of the food web, have had to adapt physiological mechanisms to maintain growth, reproduction and metabolic activity despite environmental conditions that would shut-down cellular processes in most organisms. High latitudes are characterized by temperatures below the freezing point, complete darkness in winter and continuous light and high UV in the summer. Additionally, sea-ice, an ecological niche exploited by microbes during the long winter seasons when the ocean and land freezes over, is characterized by large salinity fluctuations, limited gas exchange, and highly oxic conditions. The last decade has been an exciting period of insights into the molecular mechanisms behind adaptation of microalgae to the cryosphere facilitated by the advancement of new scientific tools, particularly "omics" techniques. We review recent insights derived from genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics studies. Genes, proteins and pathways identified from these highly adaptable polar microbes have far-reaching biotechnological applications. Furthermore, they may provide insights into life outside this planet, as well as glimpses into the past. High latitude regions also have disproportionately large inputs into global biogeochemical cycles and are the region most sensitive to climate change.

  1. Intrinsic Origin Of Extreme-Scale Rotation Of Quasar Polarization Vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Silant'ev, N A; Gnedin, Yu N; Natsvlishvili, T M

    2009-01-01

    Extreme-scale alignment of quasar optical polarization vectors at cosmological scales ($z\\le 2$) is also characterized by the rotation of mean position angle $\\chi$ with $\\Delta \\chi \\approx 30^{\\circ}$ per 1 Gpc. For observing interval of $z$ the total rotation angle acquires the value $\\sim 90^{\\circ}$. We suggest the possible explanation of the half of this rotation as a consequence of physical transformation of initially vertical magnetic field ${\\bf B}_{\\|}$, directed along the normal ${\\bf N}$ to the surface of accretion disk, into the horizontal (perpendicular to ${\\bf N}$) one. We found asymptotical analytical expressions for axially averaged polarization degree $p$ and mean position angle $\\chi$ for various types of magnetized accretion disks. We found also that during the evolution can be realized the case $B_{\\bot}\\approx B_{\\|}$ where position angle $\\chi$ rotates from $45^{\\circ}$ to zero. This rotation may occur during fairly great cosmological time (corresponding to $\\Delta z\\sim 1-2$). The par...

  2. Early prediction of extreme stratospheric polar vortex states based on causal precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Marlene; Runge, Jakob; Coumou, Dim

    2017-08-01

    Variability in the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) can influence the tropospheric circulation and thereby winter weather. Early predictions of extreme SPV states are thus important to improve forecasts of winter weather including cold spells. However, dynamical models are usually restricted in lead time because they poorly capture low-frequency processes. Empirical models often suffer from overfitting problems as the relevant physical processes and time lags are often not well understood. Here we introduce a novel empirical prediction method by uniting a response-guided community detection scheme with a causal discovery algorithm. This way, we objectively identify causal precursors of the SPV at subseasonal lead times and find them to be in good agreement with known physical drivers. A linear regression prediction model based on the causal precursors can explain most SPV variability (r2 = 0.58), and our scheme correctly predicts 58% (46%) of extremely weak SPV states for lead times of 1-15 (16-30) days with false-alarm rates of only approximately 5%. Our method can be applied to any variable relevant for (sub)seasonal weather forecasts and could thus help improving long-lead predictions.

  3. Design of broad angular phase retarders for the complete polarization analysis of extreme ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-You; Chen, Shu-Jing; Chen, Zhao-Yang; Ding, Ying-Chun

    2015-11-01

    A method of designing broad angular phase retarders in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region is presented. The design is based on a standard Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm combined with a common merit function. Using this method, a series of broad angular EUV phase retarders were designed using aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers. At photon energy of 90 eV, broad angular phase retarders with 30°, 60°, and 90° phase retardations have been realized in the angular range of 39°-51°. By analyzing and comparing the performances of the designed broad angular phase retarders, we found that the Mo/Si multilayer with more layers could obtain higher phase retardation in broader angular range when used to design the broad angular phase retarder. Broad angular phase retarders possess lower sensitivity toward changing incident angle compared with the traditional phase retarders designed with transmission periodic multilayers, and can be used for the polarization control of broad angular EUV sources. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. JD1517, ZY1349, and 2652014012).

  4. Possible effect of extreme solar energetic particle events of September–October 1989 on polar stratospheric aerosols: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Mironova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main ionization source of the middle and low Earth's atmosphere is related to energetic particles coming from outer space. Usually it is ionization from cosmic rays that is always present in the atmosphere. But in a case of a very strong solar eruption, some solar energetic particles (SEPs can reach middle/low atmosphere increasing the ionization rate up to some orders of magnitude at polar latitudes. We continue investigating such a special class of solar events and their possible applications for natural variations of the aerosol content. After the case study of the extreme SEP event of January 2005 and its possible effect upon polar stratospheric aerosols, here we analyze atmospheric applications of the sequence of several events that took place over autumn 1989. Using aerosol data obtained over polar regions from two satellites with space-borne optical instruments SAGE II and SAM II that were operating during September–October 1989, we found that an extreme major SEP event might have led to formation of new particles and/or growth of preexisting ultrafine particles in the polar stratospheric region. However, the effect of the additional ambient air ionization on the aerosol formation is minor, in comparison with temperature effect, and can take place only in the cold polar atmospheric conditions. The extra aerosol mass formed under the temperature effect allows attributing most of the changes to the "ion–aerosol clear sky mechanism".

  5. Possible effect of extreme solar energetic particle events of September–October 1989 on polar stratospheric aerosols: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Mironova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main ionization source of the middle and low Earth atmosphere is related to energetic particles coming from outer space. Usually it is ionization from cosmic rays that is always present in the atmosphere. But in a case of a very strong solar eruption some solar energetic particles (SEP can reach middle/low atmosphere increasing the ionization rate up to some orders of magnitude at polar latitudes. We continue investigating such a special class of solar events and their possible applications for natural variations of the aerosol content. After the case study of the extreme SEP event of January 2005 and its possible effect upon polar stratospheric aerosols, here we analyze atmospheric applications of the second sequence of several events that took place over the Autumn 1989. Using aerosol data obtained over polar regions from two satellites with space-borne optical instruments SAGE II and SAM II that were operating during September–October 1989, we found that an extreme major SEP event might have led to formation of new particles and/or growth of preexisting ultrafine particles in the polar stratospheric region. However, the effect of the additional ambient air ionization on the aerosol formation is minor, in comparison with temperature effect, and can take place only in the cold polar atmospheric conditions.

  6. One why of the warmth of warm-bodied fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, E D; Carey, F G

    1981-03-01

    Tunas are unusual among fish in that they are warm bodied. In the present essay we argue that one adaptive advantage to being warm is that the warmth increases the rate of delivery of oxygen from the cell boundary to the mitochondria by myoglobin. This argument is supported by the following. 1) Tuna have extremely high rates of oxygen uptake, much higher than other fish and close to the rates achieved by mammals. 2) Tuna have an extraordinary capacity to maintain high cruising speeds for a long time. 3) Tuna have much red muscle that contains a high concentration of myoglobin. 4) The effect of temperature on simple diffusion of oxygen is very small whereas the potential affect on facilitated diffusion by myoglobin is large.

  7. First observation of natural circular dichroism spectra in the extreme ultraviolet region using a polarizing undulator-based optical system and its polarization characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahito; Yagi-Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Kaneko, Fusae; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2009-07-01

    Natural circular dichroism (CD) spectra in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region down to a wavelength of 80 nm have been observed for the first time, using an alanine thin film deposited on sodium salicylate coated glass as a sample. Calibrated EUV-CD spectra of L-alanine exhibited a large negative peak at around 120 nm and a positive CD signal below 90 nm, which were roughly predicted by theoretical calculations. A CD measurement system with an Onuki-type polarizing undulator was used to obtain the EUV-CD spectra. This CD system, the development of which took five years, can be used to observe even weak natural CD spectra. The polarization characteristics of this system were also evaluated in order to calibrate the recorded CD spectra.

  8. Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric Polar Vortex Extremes in February under the Control of Downward Wave Flux in the Lower Stratosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ke; CHEN Wen

    2012-01-01

    Using ECWMF ERA-40 and Interim reanalysis data, the planetary wave fluxes associated with the February extreme stratospheric polar vortex were studied. Using the three-dimensional Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux as a measure of the wave activity propagation, the authors show that the unusual warm years in the Arctic feature an anomalous weak stratosphere-troposphere coupling and weak downward wave flux at the lower stratosphere, especially over the North America and North Atlantic (NANA) region. The extremely cold years are characterized by strong stratosphere-troposphere coupling and strong downward wave flux in this region. The refractive index is used to examine the conception of planetary wave reflection, which shows a large refractive index (low reflection) for the extremely warm years and a small refractive index (high reflection) for the extremely cold years. This study reveals the importance of the downward planetary wave propagation from the stratosphere to the troposphere for explaining the unusual state of the stratospheric polar vortex in February.

  9. A lesson from science in polar extreme environments: ethics and social values for primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Longa, Federica; Crescimbene, Massimo; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Romano, Vincenzo; Cesaroni, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    One of the relevant objectives of the researchers should be filling the gap between the scientific research and the school. Such objective should be pursued methodically, through commitment, foresight and cooperation. In this frame the idea to communicate and to share the experience of the scientific research in Antarctica with the public and with the school is a challenge that a team of INGV researchers, engaged for many years in scientific missions in Antarctica, carries on with great enthusiasm within the several outreach activities of the Italian National Program for Antarctic Research (PNRA). The outreach activities, aiming to disseminate the knowledge and the culture of the polar regions, have been mainly addressed to a public of adults and students of the secondary school (11-19 years). Recently, the researchers matured the need to realize outreach paths addressed to pupils of the primary school (8-10 years), taking the advantage of the multidisciplinary themes offered by the Antarctic research. The present work reports the experience of the outreach laboratory "On a mission to the South Pole", realized in the frame of events organized by INGV (ScienzAperta 2012 e 2014) and dedicated to the primary school. The educational themes developed within the laboratory concern the research in Antarctica, with particular focus on the human aspects, the geophysics and the progress of new technologies. The innovative aspect of the laboratory stands in the strategy to deal with Antarctica with an educational aim, proposing Antarctica as a natural laboratory, not only from a scientific point of view, but also as a laboratory of shared human experiences. The didactic path, based on interactive methodology that uses the role-paly and the experiential activities, enable the children to acquire the knowledge on Antarctica (knowledge); to explore the Antarctic characteristics as a natural laboratory and to experiment an emotional education through individual and team

  10. Possible effect of extreme solar energetic particle event of 20 January 2005 on polar stratospheric aerosols: direct observational evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Mironova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energetic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization of the low-middle atmosphere, leading to associated changes in atmospheric properties. Via the hypothetical influence of ionization on aerosol growth and facilitated formation of clouds, this may be an important indirect link relating solar variability to climate. This effect is highly debated, however, since the proposed theoretical mechanisms still remain illusive and qualitative, and observational evidence is inconclusive and controversial. Therefore, important questions regarding the existence and magnitude of the effect, and particularly the fraction of aerosol particles that can form and grow, are still open. Here we present empirical evidence of the possible effect caused by cosmic rays upon polar stratospheric aerosols, based on a case study of an extreme solar energetic particle (SEP event of 20 January 2005. Using aerosol data obtained over polar regions from different satellites with optical instruments that were operating during January 2005, such as the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III, and Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS, we found a significant simultaneous change in aerosol properties in both the Southern and Northern Polar regions in temporal association with the SEP event. We speculate that ionization of the atmosphere, which was abnormally high in the lower stratosphere during the extreme SEP event, might have led to formation of new particles and/or growth of preexisting ultrafine particles in the polar stratospheric region. However, a detailed interpretation of the effect is left for subsequent studies. This is the first time high vertical resolution measurements have been used to discuss possible production of stratospheric aerosols under the influence of cosmic ray induced ionization. The observed effect is marginally detectable for the analyzed severe SEP event and can be undetectable for the majority of weak

  11. Generation of Bright Phase-matched Circularly-polarized Extreme Ultraviolet High Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-08

    relation to local moments. Phys. Scr . 1993, 302 (1993). 7. Stöhr, J. et al. Element-specific magnetic microscopy with circularly polarized X-rays...Becker, W. & Kopold, R. Generation of circularly polarized high-order harmonics by two-color coplanar field mixing . Phys. Rev. A 61, 063403 (2000). 38...1995). 42. Eichmann, H. et al. Polarization-dependent high-order two-color mixing . Phys. Rev. A 51, R3414–R3417 (1995). 43. Fleischer, A., Kfir, O

  12. Extremely high polarization in 2010 outburst of blazar 3C 454.3

    CERN Document Server

    Sasada, Mahito; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Yasuda, Hajimu; Itoh, Ryosuke; Sakimoto, Kiyoshi; Ikejiri, Yuki; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawabata, Koji S; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Komatsu, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Nagae, Osamu; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shuji; Kino, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    The gamma-ray-detected blazar 3C 454.3 exhibits dramatic flux and polarization variations in the optical and near-infrared bands. In December 2010, the object emitted a very bright outburst. We monitored it for approximately four years (including the 2010 outburst) by optical and near-infrared photopolarimetry. During the 2010 outburst, the object emitted two rapid, redder brightenings, at which the polarization degrees (PDs) in both bands increased significantly and the bands exhibited a frequency-dependent polarization. The observed frequency-dependent polarization leads us to propose that the polarization vector is composed of two vectors. Therefore, we separate the observed polarization vectors into short and long-term components that we attribute to the emissions of the rapid brightenings and the outburst that varied the timescale of days and months, respectively. The estimated PD of the short-term component is greater than the maximum observed PD and is close to the theoretical maximum PD. We constrain ...

  13. Extremely high polarization in the 2010 outburst of blazar 3C 454.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasada, Mahito; Kino, Masaru [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Akitaya, Hiroshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Fukazawa, Yasushi; Yasuda, Hajimu; Itoh, Ryosuke; Sakimoto, Kiyoshi; Ikejiri, Yuki; Ohsugi, Takashi; Komatsu, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Nagae, Osamu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yamanaka, Masayuki [Kwasan Observatory, Kyoto University, 17-1 Kitakazan-ohmine-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Nakaya, Hidehiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sato, Shuji, E-mail: sasada@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    The gamma-ray-detected blazar 3C 454.3 exhibits dramatic flux and polarization variations in the optical and near-infrared bands. In 2010 December, the object emitted a very bright outburst. We monitored it for approximately four years (including the 2010 outburst) by optical and near-infrared photopolarimetry. During the 2010 outburst, the object emitted two rapid, redder brightenings, at which the polarization degrees (PDs) in both bands increased significantly and the bands exhibited a frequency-dependent polarization. The observed frequency-dependent polarization leads us to propose that the polarization vector is composed of two vectors. Therefore, we separate the observed polarization vectors into short- and long-term components that we attribute to the emissions of the rapid brightenings and the outburst that varied the timescale of days and months, respectively. The estimated PD of the short-term component is greater than the maximum observed PD and is close to the theoretical maximum PD. We constrain the bulk Lorentz factors and inclination angles between the jet axis and the line of sight from the estimated PDs. In this case, the inclination angle of the emitting region of short-term component from the first rapid brightening should be equal to 90°, because the estimated PD of the short-term component was approximately equal to the theoretical maximum PD. Thus, the Doppler factor at the emitting region of the first rapid brightening should be equal to the bulk Lorentz factor.

  14. Determining the polarization state of an extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser beam using atomic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, T; Ilchen, M; Rafipoor, A J; Callegari, C; Finetti, P; Plekan, O; Prince, K C; Richter, R; Danailov, M B; Demidovich, A; De Ninno, G; Grazioli, C; Ivanov, R; Mahne, N; Raimondi, L; Svetina, C; Avaldi, L; Bolognesi, P; Coreno, M; O'Keeffe, P; Di Fraia, M; Devetta, M; Ovcharenko, Y; Möller, Th; Lyamayev, V; Stienkemeier, F; Düsterer, S; Ueda, K; Costello, J T; Kazansky, A K; Kabachnik, N M; Meyer, M

    2014-04-16

    Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet and X-ray free-electron lasers are set to revolutionize many domains such as bio-photonics and materials science, in a manner similar to optical lasers over the past two decades. Although their number will grow steadily over the coming decade, their complete characterization remains an elusive goal. This represents a significant barrier to their wider adoption and hence to the full realization of their potential in modern photon sciences. Although a great deal of progress has been made on temporal characterization and wavefront measurements at ultrahigh extreme ultraviolet and X-ray intensities, only few, if any progress on accurately measuring other key parameters such as the state of polarization has emerged. Here we show that by combining ultra-short extreme ultraviolet free electron laser pulses from FERMI with near-infrared laser pulses, we can accurately measure the polarization state of a free electron laser beam in an elegant, non-invasive and straightforward manner using circular dichroism.

  15. Breaking the ice: How physical warmth shapes social comparison consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, Janina; Mussweiler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Social judgments take place in a concrete physical context. Recent research has explored how incidental physical experiences such as warmth influence social perception and behavior. However, we do not yet know if warmth affects self-evaluation. The present research seeks to examine this possibility by focusing on a central self-evaluative mechanism, namely social comparison. We hypothesized that physical warmth induces a general similarity focus that in turn fosters as...

  16. To the Extremes! A Teacher Research Experience Program in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2014-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a teacher professional development program, began with the International Polar Year in 2004 and continues today in the United States. In 2007, the National Science Foundation designated PolarTREC as potentially transformative, meaning that the "research results often do not fit within established models or theories and may initially be unexpected or difficult to interpret; their transformative nature and utility might not be recognized until years later." PolarTREC brings U.S. K-12 educators and polar researchers together through an innovative teacher research experience model. Teachers spend three to six weeks in remote arctic and Antarctic field camps. Since 2007, over 100 teachers have been placed in field experiences throughout the Arctic and Antarctic and with half of them participating in field experiences in Antarctica. During their experience, teachers become research team members filling a variety of roles on the team. They also fulfil a unique role of public outreach officer, conducting live presentations about their field site and research as well as journaling, answering questions, and posting photos. Evaluation data collected over the past eight years on program participants shows that PolarTREC has clearly achieved it goals and strongly suggests programs that link teachers and researchers can have the potential to transform the nature of science education. By giving teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry, participating teachers are using authentic scientific research in their classrooms. Not surprisingly this has also led to increases in student interest and knowledge about the Polar Regions. In this presentation, we will highlight the best practices of teacher research experiences as well as discuss why it is vital to have teachers and researchers work together to communicate

  17. The Substitutability of Physical and Social Warmth in Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, John A.; Shalev, Idit

    2012-01-01

    Classic and contemporary research on person perception has demonstrated the paramount importance of interpersonal warmth. Recent research on embodied cognition has shown these feelings of social warmth or coldness can be induced by experiences of physical warmth or coldness, and vice versa. Here we show that people tend to self-regulate their feelings of social warmth through applications of physical warmth, apparently without explicit awareness of doing so. In Study 1, higher scores on a measure of chronic loneliness (social coldness) were associated with an increased tendency to take warm baths or showers. In Study 2, a physical coldness manipulation significantly increased feelings of loneliness. In Study 3, needs for social affiliation and for emotion regulation, triggered by recall of a past rejection experience, were subsequently eliminated by an interpolated physical warmth experience. Study 4 provided evidence that people are not explicitly aware of the relation between physical and social warmth (coldness), as they do not consider a target person who often bathes to be any lonelier than one who does not, all else being equal. Together, these findings suggest that physical and social warmth are to some extent substitutable in daily life and that this substitution reflects an unconscious self-regulatory mechanism. PMID:21604871

  18. Breaking the ice : How physical warmth shapes social comparison consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmetz, J.; Mussweiler, T.

    2011-01-01

    Social judgments take place in a concrete physical context. Recent research has explored how incidental physical experiences such as warmth influence social perception and behavior. However, we do not yet know if warmth affects self-evaluation. The present research seeks to examine this possibility

  19. The substitutability of physical and social warmth in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, John A; Shalev, Idit

    2012-02-01

    Classic and contemporary research on person perception has demonstrated the paramount importance of interpersonal warmth. Recent research on embodied cognition has shown that feelings of social warmth or coldness can be induced by experiences of physical warmth or coldness, and vice versa. Here we show that people tend to self-regulate their feelings of social warmth through applications of physical warmth, apparently without explicit awareness of doing so. In Study 1, higher scores on a measure of chronic loneliness (social coldness) were associated with an increased tendency to take warm baths or showers. In Study 2, a physical coldness manipulation significantly increased feelings of loneliness. In Study 3, needs for social affiliation and for emotion regulation, triggered by recall of a past rejection experience, were subsequently eliminated by an interpolated physical warmth experience. Study 4 provided evidence that people are not explicitly aware of the relationship between physical and social warmth (coldness), as they do not consider a target person who often bathes to be any lonelier than one who does not, with all else being equal. Together, these findings suggest that physical and social warmth are to some extent substitutable in daily life and that this substitution reflects an unconscious self-regulatory mechanism.

  20. Turbulent, Extreme Multi-Zone Model for Simulating Flux and Polarization Variability in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Marscher, Alan P

    2013-01-01

    The author presents a model for variability of the flux and polarization of blazars in which turbulent plasma flowing at a relativistic speed down a jet crosses a standing conical shock. The shock compresses the plasma and accelerates electrons to energies up to gamma(max) > 1E4 times their rest-mass energy, with the value of gamma(max) determined by the direction of the magnetic field relative to the shock front. The turbulence is approximated in a computer code as many cells, each with a uniform magnetic field whose direction is selected randomly. The density of high-energy electrons in the plasma changes randomly with time in a manner consistent with the power spectral density of flux variations derived from observations of blazars. The variations in flux and polarization are therefore caused by continuous noise processes rather than by singular events such as explosive injection of energy at the base of the jet. Sample simulations illustrate the behavior of flux and linear polarization versus time that su...

  1. Possible effect of extreme solar energetic particle event of 20 January 2005 on polar stratospheric aerosols: direct observational evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Mironova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Energetic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization of the low-middle atmosphere, leading to associated changes in atmospheric properties. Via the hypothetical influence of ionization on aerosol growth and facilitated formation of cloud condensation nuclei, this may be an important indirect link relating solar variability to climate. This effect is highly debated, however, since the proposed theoretical mechanisms still remain illusive and qualitative, and observational evidence is inconclusive and controversial. Therefore, important questions regarding the existence and magnitude of the effect, and particularly the fraction of aerosol particles that can be formed and grow large enough to influence cloud condensation nuclei (CCN, are still open. Here we present empirical evidence of the possible effect caused by cosmic rays upon polar stratospheric aerosols, based on a case study of an extreme solar energetic particle (SEP event of 20 January 2005. Using aerosol data obtained over polar regions from different satellites with optical instruments that were operating during January 2005, such as the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III, and Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS, we found a significant simultaneous change in aerosol properties in both the southern and northern polar regions in temporal association with the SEP event. We speculate that ionization of the atmosphere, which was abnormally high during this extreme SEP event, might have led to formation of new particles and/or growth of preexisting ultrafine particles up to the size of CCN. However, a detailed interpretation of the effect is left for subsequent studies. This is the first time high vertical resolution measurements have been used to provide evidence for the probable production of stratospheric CCN from cosmic ray induced ionization.

  2. Patterns and mechanisms of early Pliocene warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A V; Brierley, C M; Lawrence, K T; Liu, Z; Dekens, P S; Ravelo, A C

    2013-04-04

    About five to four million years ago, in the early Pliocene epoch, Earth had a warm, temperate climate. The gradual cooling that followed led to the establishment of modern temperature patterns, possibly in response to a decrease in atmospheric CO2 concentration, of the order of 100 parts per million, towards preindustrial values. Here we synthesize the available geochemical proxy records of sea surface temperature and show that, compared with that of today, the early Pliocene climate had substantially lower meridional and zonal temperature gradients but similar maximum ocean temperatures. Using an Earth system model, we show that none of the mechanisms currently proposed to explain Pliocene warmth can simultaneously reproduce all three crucial features. We suggest that a combination of several dynamical feedbacks underestimated in the models at present, such as those related to ocean mixing and cloud albedo, may have been responsible for these climate conditions.

  3. Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Christopher W; Lewis, Simon L; Maslin, Mark; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rain forest has been a persistent feature in South America for at least 55 million years. The future of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue, combining rapidly increasing air temperatures, high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, possible extreme droughts, and extensive removal and modification by humans. Given the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend, it is unknown whether Amazon forests can tolerate air temperature increases, with suggestions that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response to this uncertainty, we posit a simple hypothesis: the older the age of a species prior to the Pleistocene, the warmer the climate it has previously survived, with Pliocene (2.6-5 Ma) and late-Miocene (8-10 Ma) air temperature across Amazonia being similar to 2100 temperature projections under low and high carbon emission scenarios, respectively. Using comparative phylogeographic analyses, we show that 9 of 12 widespread Amazon tree species have Pliocene or earlier lineages (>2.6 Ma), with seven dating from the Miocene (>5.6 Ma) and three >8 Ma. The remarkably old age of these species suggest that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely.

  4. Surviving extreme polar winters by desiccation: clues from Arctic springtail (Onychiurus arcticus EST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kube Michael

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ice, snow and temperatures of -14°C are conditions which most animals would find difficult, if not impossible, to survive in. However this exactly describes the Arctic winter, and the Arctic springtail Onychiurus arcticus regularly survives these extreme conditions and re-emerges in the spring. It is able to do this by reducing the amount of water in its body to almost zero: a process that is called "protective dehydration". The aim of this project was to generate clones and sequence data in the form of ESTs to provide a platform for the future molecular characterisation of the processes involved in protective dehydration. Results Five normalised libraries were produced from both desiccating and rehydrating populations of O. arcticus from stages that had previously been defined as potentially informative for molecular analyses. A total of 16,379 EST clones were generated and analysed using Blast and GO annotation. 40% of the clones produced significant matches against the Swissprot and trembl databases and these were further analysed using GO annotation. Extraction and analysis of GO annotations proved an extremely effective method for identifying generic processes associated with biochemical pathways, proving more efficient than solely analysing Blast data output. A number of genes were identified, which have previously been shown to be involved in water transport and desiccation such as members of the aquaporin family. Identification of these clones in specific libraries associated with desiccation validates the computational analysis by library rather than producing a global overview of all libraries combined. Conclusion This paper describes for the first time EST data from the arctic springtail (O. arcticus. This significantly enhances the number of Collembolan ESTs in the public databases, providing useful comparative data within this phylum. The use of GO annotation for analysis has facilitated the identification of a

  5. Autonomic responses to suggestions for cold and warmth in hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, A; Mariauzouls, C; Wyler, F; Bircher, A J; Wyler-Harper, J

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether suggestions for cold or warmth during hypnosis affect fingertip skin temperature. Hypnosis without specific suggestions for cold or warmth ('neutral hypnosis') caused a drop in respiration frequency, however, pulse rate, fingertip skin temperature, and electrodermal activity were not affected. The cold and warmth suggestions decreased and increased fingertip skin temperature, respectively. Compared with the neutral trance phase, the other three autonomic variables measured were also affected by suggestions for cold. However, there was no association between the changes in autonomic variables induced by suggestions and hypnotizability scores measured by the 'Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Adults'. Fingertip skin temperature was mostly affected when the images used for the cold and warmth suggestions during hypnosis included experiences of physical temperature and psychological stress or relaxation, indicating that the psychological content of the imagery amplified the autonomic response.

  6. Warmth perception in association with colour and material

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Begüm

    2016-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (Ph.D.): Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 168-178). Warmth perception is physical, emotional, semantic, and sensorial bond between people and their environments. Warmth is a prominent characteristic of interior architecture and is related to colours and materials. Although the effects of single colours and...

  7. Private heat for public warmth: how huddling shapes individual thermogenic responses of rabbit pups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, Caroline; McCafferty, Dominic J; Giroud, Sylvain; Ancel, André; Blanc, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    ...) but cooperate for warmth. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which huddling in altricial infants influences individual heat production and loss, while providing public warmth...

  8. Perceived competence and warmth influence respect, liking and trust in work relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleszkiewicz Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies confirmed the positive effect of trust on human relations and performance in organizations. As a social judgment, trust should be related to perceived competence and warmth as two basic dimensions of person perception. Surprisingly, to date no attempts have been made to examine the influence of attributed competence and warmth on social judgments in interpersonal relations at work. To this end, we examine the influence of perceived competence and warmth on trust, liking and respect in upward and downward work relations. A study involving 190 middle-stage managers revealed that the two fundamental dimensions of social cognition (competence and warmth influence respect, liking and trust. Competence had a stronger effect on respect than warmth; the opposite was true for liking. Trust was conditioned by both competence and warmth to an equal, high extent. At the same time, warmth expressed by supervisors led to higher results in liking, respect and trust in them than warmth expressed by subordinates.

  9. A Multilevel Investigation of Neighborhood Effects on Parental Warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendulkar, Shalini A.; Buka, Stephen; Dunn, Erin C.; Subramanian, S. V.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2010-01-01

    Although researchers recognize that social contexts shape parenting behaviors, the relationship between neighborhood environment and parenting remains poorly understood. To address this gap, we investigated the associations between compositional and contextual (structural, social, and safety) characteristics of neighborhoods and parental warmth.…

  10. The 2015-2016 Arctic winter: Perspectives on extremes in polar processing and meteorological variability from the 12-year record of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santee, Michelle; Manney, Gloria; Lambert, Alyn; Livesey, Nathaniel; Lawrence, Zachary

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, the Arctic lower stratosphere has seen some of the most dynamically disturbed winters, with stratospheric sudden warmings that curtailed polar processing early in the season and limited chemical ozone loss, as well as several winters marked by exceptionally cold conditions and severe chemical ozone loss. The occurrence in recent winters of different combinations of extreme meteorological conditions, and their impact on polar chemical processes, has underscored the Arctic stratosphere's sensitivity to a spectrum of dynamical variability. Launched as part of NASA's Aura satellite in July 2004, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) provides an extensive suite of measurements enabling quantification of polar processing and chemical ozone loss. Here we use MLS observations in conjunction with meteorological analyses in a comprehensive analysis of the Arctic winter of 2015-2016. An unusually large volume of low temperatures in the early winter led to strong depletion in gas-phase HNO3 and H2O associated with polar stratospheric cloud formation. As a consequence of this early-winter processing and an elongated vortex with significant portions exposed to sunlight, substantial chlorine activation (enhanced abundances of ClO, depressed abundances of HCl) was evident far earlier than is typical in Arctic winter. The degree of polar processing and chemical ozone loss in this winter will be placed in the context of the previous 11 Arctic winters observed by Aura MLS.

  11. International note: Maternal warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control: Relations to adjustment of Ghanaian early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S

    2016-06-01

    This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression.

  12. Extremely strong temperature-dependent Davydow-splitting effects in the polarized IR spectra of the hydrogen bond: Pyrazole and quinolin-2(1H)-one crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachuła, Barbara; Flakus, Henryk T.; Tyl, Aleksandra; Polasz, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Polarized IR spectra were recorded in the spectral range of the νN-H and νN-D proton stretching vibration bands for the isotopically neat and isotopically diluted crystals of pyrazole (Pzl) and quinolin-2(1H)-one (2HQ). The spectra measured in the temperature range of 77-293 K have shown that temperature extremely strongly influenced the magnitude of the Davydow-splitting effects in the crystalline spectra. Two different competing vibrational Davydow-coupling mechanisms involving hydrogen bonds, i.e., the ‘tail-to-head' and the ‘side-to-side', were responsible for the generation of the temperature effects in the polarized spectra.

  13. Universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T; Cuddy, Amy J C; Glick, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Like all perception, social perception reflects evolutionary pressures. In encounters with conspecifics, social animals must determine, immediately, whether the "other" is friend or foe (i.e. intends good or ill) and, then, whether the "other" has the ability to enact those intentions. New data confirm these two universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth and competence. Promoting survival, these dimensions provide fundamental social structural answers about competition and status. People perceived as warm and competent elicit uniformly positive emotions and behavior, whereas those perceived as lacking warmth and competence elicit uniform negativity. People classified as high on one dimension and low on the other elicit predictable, ambivalent affective and behavioral reactions. These universal dimensions explain both interpersonal and intergroup social cognition.

  14. Linking maternal warmth and responsiveness to children's self-regulation

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The present study demonstrated that a more differentiated view of positive parenting practices is necessary in the study of children?s acquisition of self-regulation. Here, the unique contributions of maternal warmth and responsiveness to distress to children?s self-regulation were tested in a sample of 102 German mothers and their kindergarten children (51 girls and 51 boys). Behavior regulation and internalization of rules of conduct were examined as specific components ...

  15. Linking maternal warmth and responsiveness to children's self-regulation

    OpenAIRE

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The present study demonstrated that a more differentiated view of positive parenting practices is necessary in the study of children's acquisition of self-regulation. Here, the unique contributions of maternal warmth and responsiveness to distress to children's self-regulation were tested in a sample of 102 German mothers and their kindergarten children (51 girls and 51 boys). Behavior regulation and internalization of rules of conduct were examined as specific compone...

  16. Wind and warmth in virtual reality: implementation and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hülsmann, Felix; Fröhlich, Julia; Mattar, Nikita; Wachsmuth, Ipke

    2014-01-01

    One possibility to make virtual worlds more immersive is to address as many human senses as possible. This paper presents the development of a system for creating wind and warmth simulations in Virtual Reality (VR). Therefore, suitable hardware and an implemented software model are described. Technical evaluations of the hardware and of the software components demonstrate the usability of the system in VR Applications. Furthermore, a user study underlines users’ acceptance and indicates a pos...

  17. Warmth and Competence: Stereotype Content Issues for Clinicians and Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T

    2012-02-01

    Stereotypes are often accidents of history, based on passing configurations of groups' societal interdependence and status. This article overviews our framework for understanding all this: the Stereotype Content Model, focused on two fundamental dimension of intergroup and interpersonal cognition, perceived warmth (from interdependence) and perceived competence (from relative status); then it discusses immigrant images as a case study; next, the article focuses on the toxic and potentially curative effects of each dimension.

  18. Warmth and Competence: Stereotype Content Issues for Clinicians and Researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypes are often accidents of history, based on passing configurations of groups’ societal interdependence and status. This article overviews our framework for understanding all this: the Stereotype Content Model, focused on two fundamental dimension of intergroup and interpersonal cognition, perceived warmth (from interdependence) and perceived competence (from relative status); then it discusses immigrant images as a case study; next, the article focuses on the toxic and potentially cu...

  19. Regeneration of Little Ice Age bryophytes emerging from a polar glacier with implications of totipotency in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Farge, Catherine; Williams, Krista H; England, John H

    2013-06-11

    Across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, widespread ice retreat during the 20th century has sharply accelerated since 2004. In Sverdrup Pass, central Ellesmere Island, rapid glacier retreat is exposing intact plant communities whose radiocarbon dates demonstrate entombment during the Little Ice Age (1550-1850 AD). The exhumed bryophyte assemblages have exceptional structural integrity (i.e., setae, stem structures, leaf hair points) and have remarkable species richness (60 of 144 extant taxa in Sverdrup Pass). Although the populations are often discolored (blackened), some have developed green stem apices or lateral branches suggesting in vivo regrowth. To test their biological viability, Little Ice Age populations emerging from the ice margin were collected for in vitro growth experiments. Our results include a unique successful regeneration of subglacial bryophytes following 400 y of ice entombment. This finding demonstrates the totipotent capacity of bryophytes, the ability of a cell to dedifferentiate into a meristematic state (analogous to stem cells) and develop a new plant. In polar ecosystems, regrowth of bryophyte tissue buried by ice for 400 y significantly expands our understanding of their role in recolonization of polar landscapes (past or present). Regeneration of subglacial bryophytes broadens the concept of Ice Age refugia, traditionally confined to survival of land plants to sites above and beyond glacier margins. Our results emphasize the unrecognized resilience of bryophytes, which are commonly overlooked vis-a-vis their contribution to the establishment, colonization, and maintenance of polar terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. Nonlinear Dichroism in Back-to-Back Double Ionization of He by an Intense Elliptically Polarized Few-Cycle Extreme Ultraviolet Pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoko Djiokap, J M; Manakov, N L; Meremianin, A V; Hu, S X; Madsen, L B; Starace, Anthony F

    2014-11-28

    Control of double ionization of He by means of the polarization and carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of an intense, few-cycle extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse is demonstrated numerically by solving the six-dimensional two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation for He interacting with an elliptically polarized XUV pulse. Guided by perturbation theory (PT), we predict the existence of a nonlinear dichroic effect (∝I^{3/2}) that is sensitive to the CEP, ellipticity, peak intensity I, and temporal duration of the pulse. This dichroic effect (i.e., the difference of the two-electron angular distributions for opposite helicities of the ionizing XUV pulse) originates from interference of first- and second-order PT amplitudes, allowing one to probe and control S- and D-wave channels of the two-electron continuum. We show that the back-to-back in-plane geometry with unequal energy sharing is an ideal one for observing this dichroic effect that occurs only for an elliptically polarized, few-cycle attosecond pulse.

  1. The challenge of simulating warmth of the mid-Miocene Climate Optimum in CESM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goldner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO is an intriguing climatic period due to its above-modern temperatures in mid-to-high latitudes in the presence of close-to-modern CO2 concentrations. We use the recently released Community Earth System Model (CESM1.0 with a slab ocean to simulate this warm period, incorporating recent Miocene CO2 reconstructions of 400 ppm. We simulate a global mean annual temperature (MAT of 18 °C, ~4 °C above the pre-industrial value, but 4 °C colder than the global Miocene MAT we calculate from climate proxies. Sensitivity tests reveal that the inclusion of a reduced Antarctic ice sheet, eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean temperature anomalies, increased CO2 to 560 ppm, and variations in obliquity only marginally improve model-data agreement. All MMCO simulations have an equator to pole temperature gradient which is at least ~ 10 °C larger than the reconstruction from proxies. The MMCO simulation most comparable to the proxy records requires a CO2 concentration of 800 ppm. Our results illustrate that MMCO warmth is not reproducible using the CESM1.0 forced with CO2 concentrations reconstructed for the Miocene or including various proposed Earth system feedbacks; the remaining discrepancy in the MAT is comparable to that introduced by a CO2 doubling. The models tendency to underestimate proxy derived global MAT and overestimate the equator to pole temperature gradient suggests a major climate problem in the MMCO akin to those in the Eocene. Our results imply that this latest model, as with previous generations of climate models, is either not sensitive enough or additional forcings remain missing that explain half of the anomalous warmth and pronounced polar amplification of the MMCO.

  2. The development of stereotype content: The use of warmth and competence in assessing social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Gina; Dunham, Yarrow

    2016-01-01

    Past research suggests that warmth and competence are primary dimensions of social perception used by adults to understand social groups. The current study investigated whether children use these two dimensions to structure their representations of familiar groups. Results indicated that adult warmth and competence judgments were independent from one another and placed groups in warmth by competence space in ways consistent with past work. However, children showed some sensitivity to both dimensions but did not treat them as independent. Children's judgments of competence were closely aligned with adult judgments, but their judgments of warmth were influenced by factors that solely influenced adult judgments of competence. These data suggest that children develop an understanding of competence as an independent dimension prior to developing an understanding of warmth as an independent dimension and that their judgments of warmth may reflect a more general summing of all available evaluative information. Implications for children's developing understanding of the broader intergroup landscape are discussed.

  3. Blocking Opioids Attenuates Physical Warmth-Induced Feelings of Social Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, TK; Irwin, MR; Eisenberger, NI

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 APA, all rights reserved). "Heartwarming" social experiences, when one feels interpersonally connected to others, have recently been linked with physical warmth. According to one theory (Panksepp, 1998), "social warmth" and physical warmth may be closely linked because both experiences are supported by similar neurobiological mechanisms; however, the neurochemical substrates underlying this overlap have not been explored. Here, an opioid antagonist, naltrexone, was administered in orde...

  4. Perceived competence and warmth influence respect, liking and trust in work relations

    OpenAIRE

    Oleszkiewicz Anna; Lachowicz-Tabaczek Kinga

    2016-01-01

    Many studies confirmed the positive effect of trust on human relations and performance in organizations. As a social judgment, trust should be related to perceived competence and warmth as two basic dimensions of person perception. Surprisingly, to date no attempts have been made to examine the influence of attributed competence and warmth on social judgments in interpersonal relations at work. To this end, we examine the influence of perceived competence and warmth on trust, liking and respe...

  5. Topographical distribution of pinprick and warmth thresholds to CO2 laser stimulation on the human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agostino, R.; Cruccu, G.; Iannetti, G.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the topographical distribution of laser sensory thresholds on the human hairy skin, using a small laser beam for pinprick and a large beam for warmth sensations. The threshold for pinprick sensation correlated positively with the distance from the brain, suggesting that A delta....... Possibly because of a diffuse low density of warmth receptors, laser warmth thresholds showed no trend. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Expressed and perceived criticism, family warmth, and symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Pradas, Cristina; Navarro, J Blas; Pousa, Esther; Montero, M Isabel; Obiols, Jordi E

    2013-01-01

    Criticism directed by caregivers towards a family member with schizophrenia, both from the perspective of the patient and of the caregiver, predicts relapse, although both perspectives differ. This study aims to verify if the same applies to a Mediterranean sample, where criticism is not the main attitude of high expressed emotion families. The Camberwell Family Interview was applied to assess the family's perspective, and the Perceived Criticism and the Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scales were used to assess the patients' perspective, in 21 dyads. The association between both perspectives and psychotic symptoms was also examined. Results replicated those of previous studies in other countries, revealing that the perspectives on Criticism of patients and families do not match. The fact that family members also presented positive attitudes towards the patient did not cushion the patient's perceived criticism. Thus, it seems that families considered to be critical may not be perceived as such by the patients. Furthermore, only the warmth from the family's perspective correlated with the symptoms: positive affect proved to be more relevant than negative affect. Therefore, the patients' subjective assessments and family warmth should be included in clinical and research proposals.

  7. Impact of pain behaviors on evaluations of warmth and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton-James, Claire E; Richardson, Daniel C; de C Williams, Amanda C; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; Dekker, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the social judgments that are made about people who appear to be in pain. Fifty-six participants viewed 2 video clips of human figures exercising. The videos were created by a motion tracking system, and showed dots that had been placed at various points on the body, so that body motion was the only visible cue. One of the figures displayed pain behaviors (eg, rubbing, holding, hesitating), while the other did not. Without any other information about the person in each video, participants evaluated each person on a variety of attributes associated with interpersonal warmth, competence, mood, and physical fitness. As well as judging them to be in more pain, participants evaluated the person who displayed pain behavior as less warm and less competent than the person who did not display pain behavior. In addition, the person who displayed pain behavior was perceived to be in a more negative mood and to have poorer physical fitness than the person who did not, and these perceptions contributed to the impact of pain behaviors on evaluations of warmth and competence, respectively. The implications of these negative social evaluations for social relationships, well-being, and pain assessment in persons in chronic pain are discussed.

  8. Perceptual symbols of creativity: Coldness elicits referential, warmth elicits relational creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijzerman, H.; Leung, A.K.y.; Ong, L.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the cognitive and social psychological science has revealed the pervading relation between body and mind. Physical warmth leads people to perceive others as psychological closer to them and to be more generous towards others. More recently, physical warmth has also been implicated in the

  9. Caring for Sharing. How Attachment Styles Modulate Communal Cues of Physical Warmth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, H.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Thomsen, L.; Schubert, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    Does physical warmth lead to caring and sharing? Research suggests that it does; physically warm versus cold conditions induce prosocial behaviors and cognitions. Importantly, previous research has not traced the developmental origins of the association between physical warmth and affection. The ass

  10. The Impact of Sibling Warmth and Conflict on Children's Social Competence with Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Rebecca L.; Kitzmann, Katherine M.; Cohen, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Examined links between children's sibling and peer relationships. Found that sibling warmth was associated with more positive peer relations; sibling conflict was associated with both positive and negative peer outcomes, independent of sibling warmth; and sibling relationships were not more strongly associated with measures of friendships quality…

  11. Caring for Sharing. How Attachment Styles Modulate Communal Cues of Physical Warmth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, H.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Thomsen, L.; Schubert, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    Does physical warmth lead to caring and sharing? Research suggests that it does; physically warm versus cold conditions induce prosocial behaviors and cognitions. Importantly, previous research has not traced the developmental origins of the association between physical warmth and affection. The

  12. Untangling the Links of Parental Responsiveness to Distress and Warmth to Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidov, Maayan; Grusec, Joan, E.

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrated separate linkages between 2 features of positive parenting responsiveness to distress and warmth and different aspects of children's socio-emotional functioning, in a sample of 106 children (6-8 years old). As expected, mothers' and fathers' responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted better negative affect…

  13. Warmth and legitimacy beliefs contextualize adolescents' negative reactions to parental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Laura K; Zhao, Yinan; Zeringue, Megan M; Laird, Robert D

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to identify conditions under which parents' monitoring behaviors are most strongly linked to adolescents' negative reactions (i.e., feelings of being controlled and invaded). 242 adolescents (49.2% male; M age = 15.4 years) residing in the United States of America reported parental monitoring and warmth, and their own feelings of being controlled and invaded and beliefs in the legitimacy of parental authority. Analyses tested whether warmth and legitimacy beliefs moderate and/or suppress the link between parents' monitoring behaviors and adolescents' negative reactions. Monitoring was associated with more negative reactions, controlling for legitimacy beliefs and warmth. More monitoring was associated with more negative reactions only at weaker levels of legitimacy beliefs, and at lower levels of warmth. The link between monitoring and negative reactions is sensitive to the context within which monitoring occurs with the strongest negative reactions found in contexts characterized by low warmth and weak legitimacy beliefs.

  14. Associations of Warmth and Control of Filipina Domestic Helpers and Mothers to Hong Kong Kindergarten Children's Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hoi Man; Cheung, Sum Kwing; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Chang, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Across 63 Hong Kong families, both Filipina domestic helpers and mothers separately rated their own caregiving style (warmth and control) and kindergarten children's social competence. Results indicated that Filipina helpers rated themselves as higher in warmth than mothers did. In addition, self-rated warmth of both caregivers,…

  15. Polar summer mesospheric extreme horizontal drift speeds during interplanetary corotating interaction regions (CIRs) and high-speed solar wind streams: Coupling between the solar wind and the mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sook; Kirkwood, Sheila; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Shepherd, Gordon G.

    2014-05-01

    We report the observation of echo extreme horizontal drift speed (EEHS, ≥ 300 m s-1) during polar mesospheric (80-90 km) summer echoes (PMSEs) by the VHF (52 MHz) radar at Esrange, Sweden, in years of 2006 and 2008. The EEHS occur in PMSEs as correlated with high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs), observed at least once in 12-17% of all hours of observation for the two summers. The EEHS rate peaks occur either during high solar wind speed in the early part of the PMSE season or during the arrival of interplanetary corotating interaction regions (CIRs) followed by peaks in PMSE occurrence rate after 1-4 days, in the latter part of the 2006 summer. The cause of EEHS rate peaks is likely under the competition between the interval of the CIR and HSS passage over the magnetosphere. A candidate process in producing EEHS is suggested to be localized strong electric field, which is caused by solar wind energy transfer from the interaction of CIR and HSS with the magnetosphere in a sequential manner. We suggest that EEHS are created by strong electric field, estimated as > 10-30 V m-1 at 85 km altitude, exceeding the mesospheric breakdown threshold field.

  16. Erythema associated with pain and warmth on face and ears: a variant of erythermalgia or red ear syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Chun; Xu, Qing-Fang; Luo, Di-Qing; Li, Xiang; He, Ding-Yang

    2014-03-26

    Erythermalgia is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by attacking of erythema, pain and increased temperature, which primarily involves the extremities and may infrequently extend to the neck, face, ears and even the scrotum. We reported an 18-year-old woman who presented with 3 years history of sole involvement of attacking erythema, pain and warmth over her face and ears without any other associations. The frequency and severity of the flares progressed gradually during the course. Cutaneous examination revealed erythema, increased temperature and tenderness on the face and ears during the flare. The symptoms could be relieved rapidly by cooling. Dermatoscope showed that vessels inside the erythema were more dilated during the episode than after application of ice. The lesion is considered a rare variant of erythermalgia with sole involvement of face and ears. The symptoms had mild response to oral antihistamines, topical steroids and tacrolimus, but had excellent response to the combinative therapy of aspirin and paroxetins.

  17. Warmth Elevating the Depths: Shallower Voids with Warm Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Lin F; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; Silk, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) has been proposed as an alternative to cold dark matter (CDM), to resolve issues such as the apparent lack of satellites around the Milky Way. Even if WDM is not the answer to observational issues, it is essential to constrain the nature of the dark matter. The effect of WDM on haloes has been extensively studied, but the small-scale initial smoothing in WDM also affects the present-day cosmic web and voids. It suppresses the cosmic "sub-web" inside voids, and the formation of both void haloes and subvoids. In N-body simulations run with different assumed WDM masses, we identify voids with the zobov algorithm, and cosmic-web components with the origami algorithm. As dark-matter warmth increases, the initial-conditions smoothing increases, and the number of voids and subvoids is suppressed. Also, void density profiles change, their shapes become flatter inside the void radius, while edges of the voids remain unchanged. Also, filaments and walls become cleaner, as the sub-structures in be...

  18. Physical Warmth and Perceptual Focus: A Replication of IJzerman and Semin (2009): e112772

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janneke D Schilder; Hans IJzerman; Jaap J A Denissen

    2014-01-01

    ...." We sought to replicate a study from our own lab (IJzerman & Semin, 2009), to investigate the reproducibility of the reported effect that physical warmth leads to a greater focus on perceptual relations...

  19. Embodied effects are moderated by situational cues: warmth, threat, and the desire for affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Adam J; Maner, Jon K

    2015-06-01

    Recent research demonstrates fundamental links between low-level bodily states and higher order psychological processes. How those links interact with the surrounding social context, however, is not well-understood. Findings from two experiments indicate that the psychological link between physical warmth and social affiliation depends on the situation in which the warmth is experienced. Participants who had been primed with physical threat (as compared with control conditions) responded to warmth with stronger increases in affiliative motivation. This effect replicated across different threat and warmth primes. These findings support a view in which physical sensations interact dynamically with aspects of the immediate situation to influence the activation and application of higher order social processes. This view implies that many embodied psychological processes could function to help people respond adaptively to situational threats and opportunities.

  20. Affective judgement about information relating to competence and warmth: an embodied perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddi, Sébastien; Tessier, Marie; Lacrampe, Rémy; Dru, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have shown that social judgement may be defined by two dimensions, competence and warmth. From a functional perspective, embodied theories have proposed that warmth may be associated with physical distance, whereas competence may be connected to a vertical motion (UPWARD/DOWNWARD). Two main studies were conducted to examine if approach-avoidance and vertical motion could influence affective judgements about traits representing these two social dimensions. Valence judgements about warmth traits that were moving towards the subject resulted in more positive judgement than when they were moving away (approach/avoidance). Furthermore, competence traits were judged more positively when they moved in an UPWARD direction, compared with when they moved DOWNWARD. A metacognitive account of confidence is offered to explain how cognitions about warmth and competence are connected to the physical world.

  1. Maternal Child Sexual Abuse Is Associated With Lower Maternal Warmth Toward Daughters but Not Sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Dorthie; Kim, Ye Ji; Vance, L Alexander; Robinson, Gabriella; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Mothers with a history of child sexual abuse report less warmth toward their children, but whether this association differs by child gender is unknown. We examined the association of maternal child sexual abuse and warmth across child gender, accounting for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child physical abuse. We verbally administered self-report measures to a cross-sectional sample of 154 mothers with a child between 8 and 12 years old. Eighty-five mothers based warmth responses on a son, and 69 on a daughter. We conducted a hierarchical multiple regression, including child gender, maternal child sexual abuse, child physical abuse, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and 4 two-way interaction terms with child gender. Maternal depression predicted decreased warmth, regardless of child gender, and maternal child sexual abuse predicted decreased warmth, but only toward daughters. Given previous research suggesting that maternal warmth predicts child well-being, the current finding may represent an important avenue of intergenerational transmission of risk in girls.

  2. Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A.P.; Allen, C.D.; Millar, C.I.; Swetnam, T.W.; Michaelsen, J.; Still, C.J.; Leavitt, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasingmortality inmany temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth.We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ???2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantialmortality due to wildfires from1984 to 2006, and???7. 6%experiencedmortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ???18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests.

  3. Empathic nonverbal behavior increases ratings of both warmth and competence in a medical context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinero, Diego A.; Kelley, John M.; Heberlein, Andrea S.; Baer, Lee; Riess, Helen

    2017-01-01

    In medicine, it is critical that clinicians demonstrate both empathy (perceived as warmth) and competence. Perceptions of these qualities are often intuitive and are based on nonverbal behavior. Emphasizing both warmth and competence may prove problematic, however, because there is evidence that they are inversely related in other settings. We hypothesize that perceptions of physician competence will instead be positively correlated with perceptions of physician warmth and empathy, potentially due to changing conceptions of the physician’s role. We test this hypothesis in an analog medical context using a large online sample, manipulating physician nonverbal behaviors suggested to communicate empathy (e.g. eye contact) and competence (the physician’s white coat). Participants rated physicians displaying empathic nonverbal behavior as more empathic, warm, and more competent than physicians displaying unempathic nonverbal behavior, adjusting for mood. We found no warmth/competence tradeoff and, additionally, no significant effects of the white coat. Further, compared with male participants, female participants perceived physicians displaying unempathic nonverbal behavior as less empathic. Given the significant consequences of clinician empathy, it is important for clinicians to learn how nonverbal behavior contributes to perceptions of warmth, and use it as another tool to improve their patients’ emotional and physical health. PMID:28505180

  4. Blocking opioids attenuates physical warmth-induced feelings of social connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Tristen K; Irwin, Michael R; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2015-08-01

    "Heartwarming" social experiences, when one feels interpersonally connected to others, have recently been linked with physical warmth. According to one theory (Panksepp, 1998), "social warmth" and physical warmth may be closely linked because both experiences are supported by similar neurobiological mechanisms; however, the neurochemical substrates underlying this overlap have not been explored. Here, an opioid antagonist, naltrexone, was administered in order to examine the role of opioids, previously shown to alter temperature and social bonding behavior, on perceived thermal intensity, general positive affect, and feelings of social connection from physical warmth. Thirty-one participants took both naltrexone and a placebo and completed a temperature manipulation task (held a warm pack, cold pack, and neutral object) while on each drug. Replicating previous research, holding a warm (vs. a cold or neutral) object increased feelings of social connection. Moreover, blocking opioids reduced this effect. Hence, naltrexone specifically reduced feelings of social connection to holding a warm (vs. neutral) object but not to holding a cold (vs. neutral) object. These results lend further support to the theory that social and physical warmth share neurobiological, opioid receptor dependent mechanisms.

  5. Does warmth moderate longitudinal associations between maternal spanking and child aggression in early childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T

    2013-11-01

    This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years of age. Maternal warmth and child aggressive behavior were measured at 3 years and 5 years of age. Models controlled for demographic characteristics (measured at the child's birth), child emotionality (measured at age 1), and maternal psychosocial risk factors (measured when children were 3 years old). Cross-lagged path models examined the within-time and longitudinal associations between spanking and child aggression. Results indicated that maternal spanking at age 1 was associated with higher levels of child aggression at age 3; similarly, maternal spanking at age 3 predicted increases in child aggression by age 5. Maternal warmth when children were 3 years old did not predict changes in child aggression between 3 and 5 years old. Furthermore, maternal warmth did not moderate the association between spanking and increased child aggression over time. Beginning as early as age 1, maternal spanking is predictive of child behavior problems, and maternal warmth does not counteract the negative consequences of the use of spanking.

  6. Corporal punishment, maternal warmth, and child adjustment: a longitudinal study in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children's behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in 8 countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted 1 and 2 years later. Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children's anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children's behaviors.

  7. Corporal Punishment, Maternal Warmth, and Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S.; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children’s behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Method Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in eight countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted one and two years later. Results Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children’s anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. Conclusions The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children’s behaviors. PMID:24885184

  8. Parental warmth, control, and indulgence and their relations to adjustment in Chinese children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Liu, M; Li, D

    2000-09-01

    A sample of children, initially 12 years old, in the People's Republic of China participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Data on parental warmth, control, and indulgence were collected from children's self-reports. Information concerning social, academic, and psychological adjustment was obtained from multiple sources. The results indicated that parenting styles might be a function of child gender and change with age. Regression analyses revealed that parenting styles of fathers and mothers predicted different outcomes. Whereas maternal warmth had significant contributions to the prediction of emotional adjustment, paternal warmth significantly predicted later social and school achievement. It was also found that paternal, but not maternal, indulgence significantly predicted children's adjustment difficulties. The contributions of the parenting variables might be moderated by the child's initial conditions.

  9. Feelings of warmth correlate with neural activity in right anterior insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, H; Charron, J; Marchand, S; Villemure, C; Strigo, I A; Bushnell, M C

    2005-11-25

    The neural coding of perception can differ from that for the physical attributes of a stimulus. Recent studies suggest that activity in right anterior insular cortex may underlie thermal perception, particularly that of cold. We now examine whether this region is also important for the perception of warmth. We applied cutaneous warm stimuli on the left leg (warmth) in normal subjects (n = 7) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). After each stimulus, subjects rated their subjective intensity of the stimulus using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and correlations were determined between the fMRI signal and the VAS ratings. We found that intensity ratings of warmth correlated with the fMRI signal in the right (contralateral to stimulation) anterior insular cortex. These results, in conjunction with previous reports, suggest that the right anterior insular cortex is important for different types of thermal perception.

  10. PERCEPTIONS OF WARMTH & COMPETENCE IN ONLINE NETWORKING: AN EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A COMPANY LAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Gabriela ANDREI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our interdisciplinary research examines consumer perceptions and behavioral tendencies generated by these perceptions. The study is placed in the context of online networking and it uses marketing, branding and psychology literature, especially the theory of warmth and competence from social cognition and Aaker et al.'s research results about firm stereotyping: 'for-profits' as high in competence vs. 'non-profits' as high in warmth. We used an experimental approach to investigate ways to attain the 'golden quadrant of consumer perceptions' (high warmth and high competence that would jointly drive sales and brand advocacy in social networking sites. Offering a ready-to-use hint for companies, our results suggest people's proneness to support new market-comers and start-ups combining for-profit with social entrepreneurship. The effects of corporate communications on online user's perceptions are discussed.

  11. The Relations of Parental Warmth and Positive Expressiveness to Children's Empathy-Related Responding and Social Functioning: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Losoya, Sandra H.; Fabes, Richard A.; Reiser, Mark; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.; Cumberland, Amanda J.; Shepard, Stephanie A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the concurrent and cross-time relations of parents' warmth and positive expressivity to elementary school children's situational facial and self-reported empathic responding, social competence, and externalizing problems. Found that parents' positive expressivity mediated the relation between parental warmth and children's empathy, and…

  12. Consequences of long-distance swimming and travel over deep-water pack ice for a female polar bear during a year of extreme sea ice retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, G.M.; Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, E.V.; Ben-David, M.

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) prefer to live on Arctic sea ice but may swim between ice floes or between sea ice and land. Although anecdotal observations suggest that polar bears are capable of swimming long distances, no data have been available to describe in detail long distance swimming events or the physiological and reproductive consequences of such behavior. Between an initial capture in late August and a recapture in late October 2008, a radio-collared adult female polar bear in the Beaufort Sea made a continuous swim of 687 km over 9 days and then intermittently swam and walked on the sea ice surface an additional 1,800 km. Measures of movement rate, hourly activity, and subcutaneous and external temperature revealed distinct profiles of swimming and walking. Between captures, this polar bear lost 22% of her body mass and her yearling cub. The extraordinary long distance swimming ability of polar bears, which we confirm here, may help them cope with reduced Arctic sea ice. Our observation, however, indicates that long distance swimming in Arctic waters, and travel over deep water pack ice, may result in high energetic costs and compromise reproductive fitness. ?? 2011 US Government.

  13. GENERATION OF EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY WAVES BY MODULATED HEATING OF POLAR IONOSPHERIC F REGION%极区电离层F区加热激发极低频波研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彤; 徐彬; 吴健; 胡艳莉; 许正文

    2014-01-01

    Polar ionospheric heaters operated by HARRP and EISCAT have generated extremely low frequency waves by modulating the auroral electrojet at D and E region altitudes .However , the auroral electrojet often varies over time and is not always present .Alternatively, modulated F-region HF heating can generate ionospheric diamagnetic cur-rent, and the periodic modulation results in a magnetic moment that radiates extremely low frequency waves .Based on a one-dimensional time physical model of polar ionospheric heating and a full-wave model , we analyzed the fea-tures of extremely low frequency waves over Tromsø(69.59°N, 19.23°E).The results showed that extremely low frequency waves on the ground are different from lower ionospheric modulation , i.e., radiation of polar electrojet antenna.Furthermore, effective radiated power (ERP), modulated frequency, and ionospheric background, have significant influence on the generated extremely low frequency wave .%“极区电急流天线”辐射依赖于低电离层D/E区背景电急流,而高电离层F区极低频调制加热,可产生抗磁性电流,形成极低频波辐射源。利用电离层F区一维时变加热数值模型,采用全波解算法研究高纬Tromsø(69.59°N,19.23°E)地区电离层F区极低频调制加热。模拟结果表明,极区高电离层激发的极低频波与极区低电离层激发的结果不同。加热泵波的有效辐射功率( effective radiated power ,ERP)、调制频率及电离层背景对极低频波强度有着重要影响。

  14. Warmth and competence in your face! Visual encoding of stereotype content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhoff, R.; Woelki, J.; Hanke, S.; Dotsch, R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that stereotypes about a group's warmth bias our visual representation of group members. Based on the stereotype content model (SCM) the current research explored whether the second big dimension of social perception, competence, is also reflected in visual stereotypes. To

  15. Does Warmth Moderate Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Spanking and Child Aggression in Early Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5…

  16. Differential Susceptibility to the Effects of Child Temperament on Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…

  17. Blocking opioids attenuates physical warmth-induced feelings of social connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Tristen K.; Irwin, Michael R.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2015-01-01

    “Heartwarming” social experiences, when one feels interpersonally connected to others, have recently been linked with physical warmth. According to one theory (Panksepp, 1998), “social warmth” and physical warmth may be closely linked because both experiences are supported by similar neurobiological mechanisms, however, the neurochemical substrates underlying this overlap have not been explored. Here, an opioid antagonist, naltrexone, was administered in order to examine the role of opioids, previously shown to alter temperature and social bonding behavior, on perceived thermal intensity, general positive affect, and feelings of social connection from physical warmth. Thirty-one participants took both naltrexone and placebo and completed a temperature manipulation task (held a warm pack, cold pack, and neutral object) while on each drug. Replicating previous research, holding a warm (vs. a cold or neutral) object increased feelings of social connection. Moreover, blocking opioids reduced this effect. Hence, naltrexone specifically reduced feelings of social connection to holding a warm (vs. neutral) object but not to holding a cold (vs. neutral) object. These results lend further support to the theory that social and physical warmth share neurobiological, opioid receptor dependent mechanisms. PMID:26098729

  18. The 'warm' side of coldness: Cold promotes interpersonal warmth in negative contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenqi; Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Lei

    2015-12-01

    The concrete experience of physical warmth has been demonstrated to promote interpersonal warmth. This well-documented link, however, tells only half of the story. In the current study, we thus examined whether physical coldness can also increase interpersonal warmth under certain circumstances. We conducted three experiments to demonstrate that the relationship between the experience of physical temperature and interpersonal outcomes is context dependent. Experiment 1 showed that participants touching cold (vs. warm) objects were more willing to forgive a peer's dishonest behaviour. Experiment 2 demonstrated the fully interactive effect of temperature and context on interpersonal warmth: Participants touching cold (vs. warm) objects were less likely to assist an individual who had provided them with good service (positive social context), but more likely to assist an individual who had provided them with poor service (negative social context). Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 2 using the likelihood to complain, a hostility-related indicator, as the dependent variable: In a pleasant queue (positive social context), participants touching cold objects were more likely to complain and those touching warm objects were less likely to complain compared with the control group. This pattern was reversed in an annoying queue (negative social context). © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  19. Effects of Warmth of Interaction, Accuracy of Understanding, and the Proposal of Compromises on Listener's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.

    1971-01-01

    The results of this experiment demonstrate a causal relationship (a) between the expressed accuracy of understanding and the proposal of compromises and the induction of cooperation in a negotiation situation and (b) between the expressed warmth and degree of favorableness of interpersonal attitudes, thus giving support to the efficacy of Rogerian…

  20. Influence of Parenting Factors on Childhood Social Anxiety: Direct Observation of Parental Warmth and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rork, Kristine E.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the association of parenting behaviors and social anxiety in children. Three parental factors--including parental socialization, control, and warmth--were investigated in a sample of 31 two-parent families. Rather than solely relying upon retrospective questionnaires, this study incorporated direct…

  1. Parental Warmth Amplifies the Negative Effect of Parental Hostility on Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man-Kit; Hancock, Donna L.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Past research has documented the positive association between parental hostility and offspring involvement in intimate partner violence. Researchers, practitioners, and parents typically adopt the standpoint that parental warmth may counter these negative lessons. However, Straus and colleagues argue that parents foster IPV to the extent that they…

  2. Interrelationships Among Warmth, Genuineness, Empathy, And Temporal Speech Patterns In Interpersonal Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welkowitz, Joan; Kuc, Marta

    1973-01-01

    This study explores interrelationships among ratings by conversational partners and independent observers of empathy, warmth, and genuineness, and relates these ratings to partners' dialogue patterns. The results support the hypothesis that one of the parameters of temporal congruence, switching pauses, relates significantly to ratings of warmth…

  3. Providing Direction and Building Commitment: A Study of Teacher Standards and Warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natriello, Gary; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    Two studies examined the incidence of and the relationship between teacher enforcement of school standards and their warmth in responding to typical classroom problems. In the first questionnaire, the problems posed were those of hypothetical students. In the second questionnaire, the problems were applied to students in the teachers' classes. The…

  4. Not all rejections are alike; competence and warmth as a fundamental distinction in social rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, P.; Lammers, J.; Beest, I. van; Bekker, M.H.J.; Vonk, R.

    2013-01-01

    Social rejection can lead to a variety of emotions. Two studies show that specific emotional reactions to social rejection can be understood by relying on the fundamental distinction between competence and warmth. Rejection that is perceived to be due to incompetence leads to anger, whereas

  5. Adolescents' Response to Parental Efforts to Influence Eating Habits: When Parental Warmth Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Jared; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng

    2010-01-01

    Previous findings have shown both beneficial and adverse effects of parents' attempts to influence adolescents' eating habits. The current study examined the differential effect of parents' persuasion (e.g., encouragement, giving information) and pressure tactics (e.g., guilt induction, ridicule) and the moderating influence of parental warmth on…

  6. Adolescents' Response to Parental Efforts to Influence Eating Habits: When Parental Warmth Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Jared; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng

    2010-01-01

    Previous findings have shown both beneficial and adverse effects of parents' attempts to influence adolescents' eating habits. The current study examined the differential effect of parents' persuasion (e.g., encouragement, giving information) and pressure tactics (e.g., guilt induction, ridicule) and the moderating influence of parental warmth on…

  7. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  8. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  9. The Longitudinal Interplay of Maternal Warmth and Adolescents' Self-Disclosure in Predicting Maternal Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Grundy, Amber M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal associations among maternal warmth, adolescents' self-disclosure, and maternal knowledge during the transition to adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 131 married mothers and their adolescents. Results from longitudinal analysis using adolescent reports indicated that greater…

  10. Parental monitoring, parental warmth, and minority youths' academic outcomes: exploring the integrative model of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Katie; Dotterer, Aryn M

    2013-09-01

    Guided by the integrative model of parenting, the present study investigated the relationship between parental monitoring and racial/ethnic minority adolescents' school engagement and academic motivation as a function of parental warmth, and explored whether these associations varied for boys and girls. Participants (60 % female) were 208 sixth through eighth grade students (63 % African American, 19 % Latino, 18 % Multiracial) from an urban middle school in the Midwestern United States. Youth completed an in-school survey with items on parenting (parental monitoring, mothers'/fathers' warmth), cognitive engagement (school self-esteem), behavioral engagement (school trouble), and academic motivation (intrinsic motivation). As hypothesized, mothers' warmth enhanced the association between parental monitoring and youths' engagement and motivation. No gender differences in these associations emerged. Fathers' warmth strengthened the negative association between parental monitoring and school trouble, and this association was stronger for boys. Implications regarding the importance of sustaining a high level of monitoring within the context of warm parent-adolescent relationships to best support academic outcomes among minority youth are discussed.

  11. Effects of personality on the opioidergic modulation of the emotion warmth-liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Christin; Rinn, Constanze; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    Neurobiological research suggests there are discrete emotion systems, which are based on separate neural pathways with specific neurotransmitters (i.e., oxytocin, opioids). So far, autonomic regulation patterns of different positive emotions could not be unambiguously characterized. Warmth-liking, as an emotion system, is activated during interpersonal interactions and close relationships. We postulated that warmth-liking has a specific somatovisceral signature, which is, however, qualified by individual differences in personality and attachment style. Individual differences in personality and attachment style are postulated to contribute to μ-opiate functioning. Forty-eight females in a heterosexual relationship, selected on the basis of attachment reports, took part in a virtual ball-tossing game with their partners and two confederates. Participants received either the competitive μ-opioid antagonist naltrexone (25 mg) or a placebo in a randomized double-blind design. Social exclusion during the game reduced feelings of warmth, increased feelings of anger, and increased blood pressure and left-ventricular contractibility, whereas social inclusion was characterized by physiological quiescence. Further analyses revealed differential effects in self-reported feelings as well as in cardiovascular parameters as a function of attachment style. Secure attachment predicted higher levels of warmth-liking, physiological quiescence, and less negative feelings even during social exclusion. These findings can be interpreted as evidence for psychophysiological resilience. Furthermore, naltrexone reduced feelings of warmth and increased vasoconstriction during social inclusion, especially for securely bonded participants. These findings are remarkable hints for an opioidergic modulation of the interaction between emotion and personality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. How extreme are extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  13. The Spatial Extent of 20th-Century Warmth in the Context of the Past 1200 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Timothy J.; Briffa, Keith R.

    2006-02-01

    Periods of widespread warmth or cold are identified by positive or negative deviations that are synchronous across a number of temperature-sensitive proxy records drawn from the Northern Hemisphere. The most significant and longest duration feature during the last 1200 years is the geographical extent of warmth in the middle to late 20th century. Positive anomalies during 890 to 1170 and negative anomalies during 1580 to 1850 are consistent with the concepts of a Medieval Warm Period and a Little Ice Age, but comparison with instrumental temperatures shows the spatial extent of recent warmth to be of greater significance than that during the medieval period.

  14. [Patients' preferences for nurses' nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds and administration of oral medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S; Kim, M S

    1990-12-01

    Nursing involves deep human interpersonal relationships between nurses and patients. But in modern Korea, the nurse-patient relationship tends to be ritualistic and mechanestic. Patients usually express the hope that nurses be more tender and kind. Patients expect nurses to express their warmth especially through nonverbal behaviour. This study was conducted to identify patients' preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth. Through the confirmation of these preferences, nurses may learn how to enhance their interpersonal relationships with patients. Subjects for the study were 73 patients who had been admitted to a university teaching hospital for at least three days and agreed to be interviewed by the investigator. The interactions were studied nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds and administration of oral medication. The interview schedule was especially designed by the investigator to measure the nurse's posture, the distance between the nurse and the patient, the nurse's eye contact, facial expression, hand motion and head nodding. Data analysis included frequencies, percentages and X2-test. The results of this study may be summerized as follows: 1. Patient's preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds. Preferred nurse's posture was sitting (50.7%) or standing (49.3%) opposite the patient. Preferred distance between the nurse and the patient was close to the bed (93.2%), less than 1m. Preferred eye contact was directed to the patient's eyes or their affected part (41.1%). Preferred facial expression was a smile (97.3%). Preferred hand motions were light gestures (41.1%). Patients preferred head nodding which approved their own opinions (69.9%). 2. Patient's preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth during administration of oral medication. Preferred nurse's posture was standing and waiting to confirm that the medication had been taken (58.9%). Preferred distance from the patient was

  15. Warmth and competence in your face! Visual encoding of stereotype content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eImhoff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that stereotypes about a group’s warmth bias our visual representation of group members. Based on the Stereotype Content Model the current research explored whether the second big dimension of social perception, competence, is also reflected in visual stereotypes. To test this, participants created typical faces for groups either high in warmth and low in competence (male nursery teachers or vice versa (managers in a reverse correlation image classification task, which allows for the visualization of stereotypes without any a priori assumptions about relevant dimensions. In support of the independent encoding of both SCM dimensions hypotheses-blind raters judged the resulting visualizations of nursery teachers as warmer but less competent than the resulting image for managers, even when statistically controlling for judgments on one dimension. People thus seem to use facial cues indicating both relevant dimensions to make sense of social groups in a parsimonious, non-verbal and spontaneous manner.

  16. Physical warmth and perceptual focus: a replication of IJzerman and Semin (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Janneke D; IJzerman, Hans; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2014-01-01

    With the changing of modal research practices in psychology, the grounded cognition perspective (sometimes categorized under the more popular term of "social priming") has become heavily criticized. Specifically, LeBel and Campbell (2013) reported a failed replication of a study involving what some would call "social priming." We sought to replicate a study from our own lab (IJzerman & Semin, 2009), to investigate the reproducibility of the reported effect that physical warmth leads to a greater focus on perceptual relations. We also improved our methods to reduce potential experimenter's bias (cf. Doyen, Klein, Pichon, & Cleeremans, 2012). We successfully replicated the finding that a simple cue of physical warmth makes people more likely to adopt a relational focus.

  17. Physical warmth and perceptual focus: a replication of IJzerman and Semin (2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke D Schilder

    Full Text Available With the changing of modal research practices in psychology, the grounded cognition perspective (sometimes categorized under the more popular term of "social priming" has become heavily criticized. Specifically, LeBel and Campbell (2013 reported a failed replication of a study involving what some would call "social priming." We sought to replicate a study from our own lab (IJzerman & Semin, 2009, to investigate the reproducibility of the reported effect that physical warmth leads to a greater focus on perceptual relations. We also improved our methods to reduce potential experimenter's bias (cf. Doyen, Klein, Pichon, & Cleeremans, 2012. We successfully replicated the finding that a simple cue of physical warmth makes people more likely to adopt a relational focus.

  18. Judgments of warmth and competence in a computerized paradigm: Little evidence of proposed impression formation asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Øyvind; Bäckström, Martin; Björklund, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Much of what we know concerning impression formation is based on experimental methods where the participant receives a list of traits or behaviors and is asked to make trait judgments or meta-cognitive judgments. The present study aimed to put some well-known effects from the impression formation literature to a test in a more dynamic computerized environment, more akin to many real world impression formation scenarios. In three studies participants were introduced to multiple target persons. They were given information about the target persons' behavior, one at a time, while making ratings of their warmth and competence, and their probability of performing related behaviors in the future. In neither of the studies the negativity effect of warmth or the positivity effect of competence were reproduced.

  19. Deconstructing the "reign of error": interpersonal warmth explains the self-fulfilling prophecy of anticipated acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Danu Anthony; Cameron, Jessica J; Wood, Joanne V; Gaucher, Danielle; Holmes, John G

    2009-09-01

    People's expectations of acceptance often come to create the acceptance or rejection they anticipate. The authors tested the hypothesis that interpersonal warmth is the behavioral key to this acceptance prophecy: If people expect acceptance, they will behave warmly, which in turn will lead other people to accept them; if they expect rejection, they will behave coldly, which will lead to less acceptance. A correlational study and an experiment supported this model. Study 1 confirmed that participants' warm and friendly behavior was a robust mediator of the acceptance prophecy compared to four plausible alternative explanations. Study 2 demonstrated that situational cues that reduced the risk of rejection also increased socially pessimistic participants' warmth and thus improved their social outcomes.

  20. Holocene temperature shifts around Greenland: Paleolimnological approaches to quantifying past warmth and documenting its consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Y.; Lasher, G. E.; McFarlin, J. M.; Francis, D. R.; Kelly, M. A.; Langdon, P. G.; Levy, L.; Osburn, M. R.; Osterberg, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Insolation-driven warmth across the Arctic during the early to middle Holocene (the Holocene Thermal Maximum, or HTM) represents a geologically accessible analog for future warming and its impacts. Improved constraints on the magnitude and seasonality of HTM warmth around Greenland's margins can advance the use of paleoclimate data to test and improve climate and ice sheet models. Here we present an overview of our recent efforts to reconstruct climate through the Holocene around the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet using multiple proxies in lake sediments. We use insect (chironomid) assemblages to derive quantitative estimates of Holocene temperatures at sites with minimal soil and vegetation development near the eastern, northwestern and western margins of the ice sheet. Our chironomid-based temperature reconstructions consistently imply HTM July air temperatures 3 to 4.5 °C warmer than the pre-industrial late Holocene in these sectors of Greenland. The timing of reconstructed peak warmth differs between sites, with onset varying from ~10 ka to ~6.5 ka, but in good agreement with glacial geology and other evidence from each region. Our reconstructed temperature anomalies are larger than those typically inferred from annually-integrated indicators from the ice sheet itself, but comparable to the few other quantitative summer temperature estimates available from beyond the ice sheet on Greenland. Additional records are needed to confirm the magnitude of HTM warmth and to better define its seasonality and spatial pattern. To provide independent constraints on paleotemperatures and to elucidate additional aspects of Holocene paleoclimate, we are also employing oxygen isotopes of chironomid remains and other aquatic organic materials, and molecular organic proxies, in parallel (see Lasher et al. and McFarlin et al., this meeting). Combined with glacial geologic evidence, these multi-proxy records elucidate diverse aspects of HTM climate around Greenland - including

  1. Physical warmth and perceptual focus: A replication of IJzerman and Semin (2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Janneke D Schilder; Hans IJzerman; Jaap J. A. Denissen

    2014-01-01

    With the changing of modal research practices in psychology, the grounded cognition perspective (sometimes categorized under the more popular term of "social priming") has become heavily criticized. Specifically, LeBel and Campbell (2013) reported a failed replication of a study involving what some would call "social priming." We sought to replicate a study from our own lab (IJzerman & Semin, 2009), to investigate the reproducibility of the reported effect that physical warmth leads to a grea...

  2. Dominance as a moderator in the relationship between leader's warmth and effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Procházka Jakub; Vaculík Martin; Smutný Petr

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between a leader’s warmth, dominance and three different indicators of leader effectiveness in the environment of a four-month long Managerial Simulation Game. Data about 184 CEOs were gained via self-reports, from the results of the simulation game, and from 3,340 of their followers. Each CEO completed an Interpersonal Checklist (ICL) and was evaluated, on average, by 18 followers in terms of her leadership emergence and perceived leader effectiveness. Gro...

  3. Erythema associated with pain and warmth on face and ears: a variant of erythermalgia or red ear syndrome?: Doc 602

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ming-Chun Chen; Qing-Fang Xu; Di-Qing Luo; Xiang Li; Ding-Yang He

    2014-01-01

    ..., face, ears and even the scrotum. We reported an 18-year-old woman who presented with 3 years history of sole involvement of attacking erythema, pain and warmth over her face and ears without any other associations...

  4. Erythema associated with pain and warmth on face and ears: a variant of erythermalgia or red ear syndrome?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Ming-Chun; Xu, Qing-Fang; Luo, Di-Qing; Li, Xiang; He, Ding-Yang

    2014-01-01

    ..., face, ears and even the scrotum. We reported an 18-year-old woman who presented with 3 years history of sole involvement of attacking erythema, pain and warmth over her face and ears without any other associations...

  5. Stereotyping Effects on Cities: Measurement Scales for City's Warmth and Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana ZAIŢ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the endeavor of analyzing urban development perspectives, the current paper aims to find out how warmth and competence stereotypes would operate in the case of a city, predicting its future, as a direct consequence of people's positive or negative feelings and actions. Results of such analyses would be of strategic importance, knowing that various aspects of urban development (from tourism to business, well-being, active population growth and talents retention depend on people’s decisions to visit that city, to invest, to work, to study, to settle down there, or to simply spread positive opinions about it. Therefore, relying on the well-known SCM -stereotype content model, the paper adapts previous warmth and competence scales, and develops a customized research instrument for analyzing connections between people's perceptions and the mental labels attached to a specific city. Considering warmth and competence dimensions, as well as the other variables of interest such as status, cooperation and competition, we use an exploratory procedure for item selection followed by a Q-sorting analysis for scale content validation. The paper adds to the literature in two main ways. It firstly advances an integrative view that connects the theories from social psychology, communication and branding with those from urban development. Secondly, it offers a content validated measurement instrument, as a necessary departure point for future analyses meant to identify challenges and to predict the potential for development of smart and sustainable cities.

  6. Perceptual symbols of creativity: coldness elicits referential, warmth elicits relational creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijzerman, Hans; Leung, Angela K-y; Ong, Lay See

    2014-05-01

    Research in the cognitive and social psychological science has revealed the pervading relation between body and mind. Physical warmth leads people to perceive others as psychological closer to them and to be more generous towards others. More recently, physical warmth has also been implicated in the processing of information, specifically through perceiving relationships (via physical warmth) and contrasting from others (via coldness). In addition, social psychological work has linked social cues (such as mimicry and power cues) to creative performance. The present work integrates these two literatures, by providing an embodied model of creative performance through relational (warm = relational) and referential (cold = distant) processing. The authors predict and find that warm cues lead to greater creativity when 1) creating drawings, 2) categorizing objects, and 3) coming up with gifts for others. In contrast, cold cues lead to greater creativity, when 1) breaking set in a metaphor recognition task, 2) coming up with new pasta names, and 3) being abstract in coming up with gifts. Effects are found across different populations and age groups. The authors report implications for theory and discuss limitations of the present work. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Social context modulates the effect of physical warmth on perceived interpersonal kindness : a study of embodied metaphors

    OpenAIRE

    Citron, Francesca M. M.; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2014-01-01

    Physical contact with hot vs. iced coffee has been shown to affect evaluation of the personal warmth or kindness of a hypothetical person (Williams & Bargh, 2008). In 3 studies, we investigated whether the manipulation of social context can modulate the activation of the metaphorical mapping, KINDNESS as WARMTH. After priming participants with warm vs. cold temperature, we asked them to evaluate a hypothetical ad-hoc ally or adversary on the kindness dimension, as well as on other qualities u...

  8. Moving in extreme environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W;

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses human capacity for movement in the context of extreme loading and with it the combined effects of metabolic, biomechanical and gravitational stress on the human body. This topic encompasses extreme duration, as occurs in ultra-endurance competitions (e.g. adventure racing...... and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the extreme metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may...

  9. Moving in extreme environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W

    2016-01-01

    and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the extreme metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may...

  10. Exceptional Arctic warmth of early winter 2016 and attribution to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Macias-Fauria, Marc; King, Andrew; Uhe, Peter; Philip, Sjoukje; Kew, Sarah; Karoly, David; Otto, Friederike; Allen, Myles; Cullen, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    The dark polar winters usually sport the coldest extremes on Earth, however this winter, the North Pole and the surrounding Arctic region have experienced record high temperatures in November and December, with daily means reaching 15 °C (27 °F) above normal and a November monthly mean that was 13 °C (23 °F) above normal on the pole. November also saw a brief retreat of sea-ice that was virtually unprecedented in nearly 40 years of satellite records, followed by a record low in November sea ice area since 1850. Unlike the Antarctic, Arctic lands are inhabited and their socio-economic systems are greatly affected by the impacts of extreme and unprecedented sea ice dynamics and temperatures, such as for example, the timing of marine mammal migrations, and refreezing rain on snow that prevents reindeer from feeding. Here we report on our multi-method rapid attribution analysis of North Pole November-December temperatures. To quantify the rarity of the event, we computed the November-December averaged temperature around the North Pole (80-90 °N) in the (short but North-pole covering) ERA-interim reanalysis. To put the event in context of natural variability, we use a longer and closely related time series based on the northern most meteorological observations on land (70-80 °N). This allows for a reconstruction of Arctic temperatures back to about 1900. We also perform a multi-method analysis of North Pole temperatures with two sets of climate models: the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble, and a large ensemble of model runs in the so-called Weather@Home project. Physical mechanisms that are responsible for temperature and sea ice variability in the North Pole region are also discussed. The observations and the bias-corrected CMIP5 ensemble point to a return period of about 50 to 200 years in the present climate, i.e., the probability of such an extreme is about 0.5% to 2% every year, with a large uncertainty. The observations show that November-December temperatures

  11. A Pilot Study Examining Physical and Social Warmth: Higher (Non-Febrile) Oral Temperature Is Associated with Greater Feelings of Social Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, Tristen K.; Irwin, Michael R.; Mona Moieni; Ivana Jevtic; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2016-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that experiences of physical warmth contribute to social warmth-the experience of feeling connected to others. Thus, thermoregulatory systems, which help maintain our relatively warm internal body temperatures, may also support feelings of social connection. However, the association between internal body temperature and feelings of connection has not been examined. Furthermore, the origins of the link between physical and social warmth, via learning during earl...

  12. Is older adult care mediated by caregivers’ cultural stereotypes? The role of competence and warmth attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Bustillos, Antonio; Santacreu, Marta; Schettini, Rocio; Díaz-Veiga, Pura; Huici, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine, from the stereotype content model (SCM) perspective, the role of the competence and warmth stereotypes of older adults held by professional caregivers. Methods A quasi-experimental design, ex post facto with observational analyses, was used in this study. The cultural view on competence and warmth was assessed in 100 caregivers working in a set of six residential geriatric care units (three of them organized following a person-centered care approach and the other three providing standard geriatric care). In order to assess caregivers’ cultural stereotypical views, the SCM questionnaire was administered. To evaluate the role of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes in their professional performance as well as in older adult functioning, two observational scales from the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (assessment system for older adults residences)-RS (staff functioning and residents’ functioning) were applied. Results Caregivers’ cultural views of older adults (compared to young people) are characterized by low competence and high warmth, replicating the data obtained elsewhere from the SCM. Most importantly, the person-centered units predict better staff performance and better resident functioning than standard units. Moreover, cultural stereotyping of older adult competence moderates the effects of staff performance on resident functioning, in line with the findings of previous research. Conclusion Our results underline the influence of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes on the type of care, as well as on their professional behaviors and on older adult functioning. Caregivers’ cultural stereotypes could be considered as a central issue in older adult care since they mediate the triangle of care: caregivers/older adults/type of care; therefore, much more attention should be paid to this psychosocial care component. PMID:27217736

  13. Climatic Warmth and National Wealth: Some Culture-Level Determinants of National Character Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R; Terracciano, Antonio; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri

    2007-12-01

    National character stereotypes are widely shared, but do not reflect assessed levels of personality traits. In this article we present data illustrating the divergence of stereotypes and assessed personality traits in north and south Italy, test hypotheses about the associations of temperature and national wealth with national character stereotypes in 49 cultures, and explore possible links to national values and beliefs. Results suggest that warmth and wealth are common determinants of national stereotypes, but that there are also idiosyncratic influences on the perceptions of individual nations.

  14. Predictors of Involvement and Warmth of Custodial Fathers in Israel: Comparison with Married and Noncustodial Divorced Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Cohen, Orna

    2016-03-01

    This study compared the levels and predictors of paternal warmth and involvement of 218 custodial fathers to 222 married fathers and 105 noncustodial (NC) divorced fathers in Israel. The examined predictors were fathers' perceptions of their own fathers; their own caregiving behaviors and parental self-efficacy; and child characteristics and coparental coordination. Results indicated that being a custodial father was associated with more involvement than being a married or NC divorced father. Regression analyses revealed that experience of care with own father predicted fathers' involvement, whereas own father control was related to lower paternal warmth. Lower avoidant caregiving and high paternal self-efficacy predicted both paternal involvement and warmth, whereas perceiving the child as more difficult predicted lower paternal warmth. Higher levels of coparental coordination were associated with more paternal involvement, whereas low coparental coordination was associated with less involvement, primarily among NC divorced fathers. These interactions highlight the distinct paternal behavior of custodial fathers. Unlike married and NC divorced fathers, they showed more warmth, regardless of their avoidant caregiving. Results are discussed in light of the different roles played by fathers in the three groups. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  15. Enhanced horizontal extreme-echo speed occurrence leading to polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) increase at solar-wind pressure enhancement during high-speed solar wind stream events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Kirkwood, S.; Kwak, Y.; Kim, K.; Shepherd, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    We report on horizontal extreme echo speeds (HEES, ≥ 300 ms^{-1}) observed in long-periodic polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) correlated with solar-wind speed in high speed solar wind streams (HSS) events. The observations were made from VHF 52 MHz radar measurements at Esrange (67.8°N, 20.4°E) between June 1-August 8 in 2006 and 2008. The periodicities of PMSE counts and the volume reflectivity primarily occur at 7, 9 and 13.5 days possibly by the effects of HSS, while the periodicities at 4-6 days are competitively coherent between planetary waves appearing in temperature and solar-wind speed during HSS events. The peaks of both HEES occurrence rate relative to PMSE and turbulence dominantly occur at solar-wind pressure enhancement with minor peaks continued under the passage of HSS over the magnetopause, followed by PMSE peaks in 1-3 days later. This study gives the results that the precipitating high-energetic particles (> 30 keV) during HSS likely induce D-region ionization involved with the consecutive processes of HEES, turbulence and PMSE. The turbulence evolved from the HEES can be explained with the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, which was observed in PMSE by Röttger et al. [11th International Workshop on technical and scientific aspects of MST Radar, 2006] and firstly simulated for PMSE generation by Hill et al. [Earth Planets Space, 1999]. The HEES is understood as the speed of fast moving ions, accelerated by strong electric field as Lee & Shepherd [JGR, 2010] suggested with the supersonic velocities persisting in polar mesospheric clouds (PMC) region observed at enhanced O(^1S) emission rate ( 10 kR) by WINDII/UARS satellite.

  16. Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  17. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  18. Supercooling Agent Icilin Blocks a Warmth-Sensing Ion Channel TRPV3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azhar Sherkheli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 3 (TRPV3 is a thermosensitive ion channel expressed in a variety of neural cells and in keratinocytes. It is activated by warmth (33–39°C, and its responsiveness is dramatically increased at nociceptive temperatures greater than 40°C. Monoterpenoids and 2-APB are chemical activators of TRPV3 channels. We found that Icilin, a known cooling substance and putative ligand of TRPM8, reversibly inhibits TRPV3 activity at nanomolar concentrations in expression systems like Xenopus laeves oocytes, HEK-293 cells, and in cultured human keratinocytes. Our data show that icilin's antagonistic effects for the warm-sensitive TRPV3 ion channel occurs at very low concentrations. Therefore, the cooling effect evoked by icilin may at least in part be due to TRPV3 inhibition in addition to TRPM8 potentiation. Blockade of TRPV3 activity by icilin at such low concentrations might have important implications for overall cooling sensations detected by keratinocytes and free nerve endings in skin. We hypothesize that blockage of TRPV3 might be a signal for cool-sensing systems (like TRPM8 to beat up the basal activity resulting in increased cold perception when warmth sensors (like TRPV3 are shut off.

  19. The effects of social anxiety on interpersonal evaluations of warmth and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Bielak, Tatiana; Vidovic, Vanja; Moscovitch, David A

    2016-03-01

    Social anxiety disorder is associated with interpersonal dysfunction, but it is not clear why people with the disorder feel unsatisfied with their relationships. One possibility is that higher social anxiety could lead to changes in sensitivity to interpersonal traits. We examined whether social anxiety moderates the types of interpersonal evaluations people make regarding warmth and dominance. We developed vignettes in which central characters systematically varied in dominance and warmth and asked two samples of participants (undergraduate students, n=176, and online workers, n=403) to rate their willingness to interact with, and the social desirability of, these characters. Participants in general reported stronger desire to interact with warmer and less dominant characters, and rated warmer and more dominant characters as being more socially desirable. People with higher social anxiety exhibited greater tolerance for colder and more submissive characters on both rated dimensions. The perceived similarity of the characters accounted for the bulk of these effects. Participants indicated a higher desire to interact with characters more similar to themselves, and people with higher social anxiety were more likely to rate submissive and cold characters as being like themselves. The results have implications for clinical interventions for social anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intuitive Feelings of Warmth and Confidence in Insight and Noninsight Problem Solving of Magic Tricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedne, Mikael R; Norman, Elisabeth; Metcalfe, Janet

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the current study is on intuitive feelings of insight during problem solving and the extent to which such feelings are predictive of successful problem solving. We report the results from an experiment (N = 51) that applied a procedure where the to-be-solved problems were 32 short (15 s) video recordings of magic tricks. The procedure included metacognitive ratings similar to the "warmth ratings" previously used by Metcalfe and colleagues, as well as confidence ratings. At regular intervals during problem solving, participants indicated the perceived closeness to the correct solution. Participants also indicated directly whether each problem was solved by insight or not. Problems that people claimed were solved by insight were characterized by higher accuracy and higher confidence than noninsight solutions. There was no difference between the two types of solution in warmth ratings, however. Confidence ratings were more strongly associated with solution accuracy for noninsight than insight trials. Moreover, for insight trials the participants were more likely to repeat their incorrect solutions on a subsequent recognition test. The results have implications for understanding people's metacognitive awareness of the cognitive processes involved in problem solving. They also have general implications for our understanding of how intuition and insight are related.

  1. Embodied motivation: using a goal systems framework to understand the preference for social and physical warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Risen, Jane L

    2014-12-01

    Embodiment research has primarily focused on metaphor-assimilative effects (e.g., perceiving someone to be socially warmer when holding a warm object). Research shows these effects can occur by activating metaphor-associated knowledge constructs. This account is not sufficient, however, for explaining complementary effects--for example, the tendency to prefer social warmth when experiencing physical coldness (Experiment 1). We suggest that socially warm events are considered a means for achieving the goal of reducing physical coldness. Guided by this basic hypothesis and the principles of a goal systems framework, we examine whether the basic relationship between goals and means explains complementary embodiment effects. We find that socially warm activities are preferred over control activities when people are primed with the goal of reducing physical coldness, but not when primed with the concept of coldness (Experiment 2). We also find that activating an alternative goal decreases the attractiveness of socially warm activities when people are feeling cold (Experiment 3). Finally, we examine the effect of social coldness on preferences for physical warmth, showing that the attractiveness of physically warm items among socially excluded people is decreased by activating an alternative goal (Experiment 4). These results suggest that complementary embodiment effects follow the principles of goal activation.

  2. Warm thanks: gratitude expression facilitates social affiliation in new relationships via perceived warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa A; Bartlett, Monica Y

    2015-02-01

    Recent theorizing on the nature and function of gratitude (the find-remind-and-bind theory; Algoe, 2012) stipulates that expressing gratitude should serve to alert previously unacquainted peers to the potential for a high-quality social bond (i.e., a find function). Although the logic of this premise is supported by extant research, it has not, as yet, been tested empirically. In the current study, participants received a note from a previously unacquainted peer that contained an expression of gratitude (or did not) with regard to prior benefits provided by the participant. After providing ratings of the peer and ostensibly completing the study, participants were given an opportunity to spontaneously give their contact information to the peer, which served as a behavioral measure of affiliation. In line with the proposed find function of gratitude expressions, recipients of expressions of gratitude were more likely to extend the effort to continue the relationship with the novel peer by providing that peer with a means to contact them. This experiment also provided evidence that perceptions of interpersonal warmth (e.g., friendliness, thoughtfulness) serve as the mechanism via which gratitude expressions facilitate affiliation: insofar as gratitude expressions signaled interpersonal warmth of the expresser, they prompted investment in the burgeoning social bond. As such, these findings provide the first empirical evidence regarding 1 of the 3 central premises of the find-remind-and-bind theory of gratitude (Algoe, 2012) in the context of novel relationships. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The Family System and Depressive Symptoms during the College Years: Triangulation, Parental Differential Treatment, and Sibling Warmth as Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponappa, Sujata; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Holowacz, Eugene; Ferriby, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Guided by Bowen theory, we investigated the relationships between parent-child triangulation, parental differential treatment (PDT), sibling warmth, and individual depressive symptoms in a sample of 77 sibling dyads, aged 18-25 years, recruited through undergraduate classes at a U.S. public University. Results of the actor-partner interdependence models suggested that being triangulated into parental conflict was positively related to both siblings' perception of PDT; however, as one sibling felt triangulated, the other perceived reduced levels of PDT. For both siblings, the perception of higher levels of PDT was related to decreased sibling warmth and higher sibling warmth was associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The implications of these findings for research and the treatment of depression in the college-aged population are discussed. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  4. Anticipating Future Extreme Climate Events for Alaska Using Dynamical Downscaling and Quantile Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lader, R.; Walsh, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Alaska is projected to experience major changes in extreme climate during the 21st century, due to greenhouse warming and exacerbated by polar amplification, wherein the Arctic is warming at twice the rate compared to the Northern Hemisphere. Given its complex topography, Alaska displays extreme gradients of temperature and precipitation. However, global climate models (GCMs), which typically have a spatial resolution on the order of 100km, struggle to replicate these extremes. To help resolve this issue, this study employs dynamically downscaled regional climate simulations and quantile-mapping methodologies to provide a full suite of daily model variables at 20 km spatial resolution for Alaska, from 1970 to 2100. These data include downscaled products of the: ERA-Interim reanalysis from 1979 to 2015, GFDL-CM3 historical from 1970 to 2005, and GFDL-CM3 RCP 8.5 from 2006 to 2100. Due to the limited nature of long-term observations and high-resolution modeling in Alaska, these data enable a broad expansion of extremes analysis. This study uses these data to highlight a subset of the 27 climate extremes indices, previously defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices, as they pertain to climate change in Alaska. These indices are based on the statistical distributions of daily surface temperature and precipitation and focus on threshold exceedance, and percentiles. For example, the annual number of days with a daily maximum temperature greater than 25°C is anticipated to triple in many locations in Alaska by the end of the century. Climate extremes can also refer to long duration events, such as the record-setting warmth that defined the 2015-16 cold season in Alaska. The downscaled climate model simulations indicate that this past winter will be considered normal by as early as the mid-2040s, if we continue to warm according to the business-as-usual RCP 8.5 emissions scenario. This represents an accelerated warming as compared to projections

  5. Forming impressions of personality: A replication and review of Asch's evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect in impression formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauts, S.; Langner, O.; Huijsmans, I.; Vonk, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Asch's seminal research on "Forming Impressions of Personality'' (1946) has widely been cited as providing evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect, suggesting that warmth-related judgments have a stronger influence on impressions of personality than competence-related judgments (e. g., Fiske, Cuddy,

  6. Forming impressions of personality: A replication and review of Asch's evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect in impression formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauts, Sanne; Langner, Oliver; Huijsmans, Inge; Vonk, Roos; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

    2014-01-01

    Asch’s seminal research on “Forming Impressions of Personality” (1946) has widely been cited as providing evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect, suggesting that warmth-related judgments have a stronger influence on impressions of personality than competence-related judgments (e.g., Fiske, Cuddy, &

  7. Does Maternal Warmth Moderate the Effects of Birth Weight on Twins' Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and Low IQ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Lucy A.; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The moderating effect of maternal warmth on the association between low birth weight and children's attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ was studied in 2,232 twins. Half of 5-year-old children had low birth weights, below 2,500 g. Maternal warmth, a component of expressed emotion, was coded from mothers' audiotaped…

  8. Forming impressions of personality: A replication and review of Asch's evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect in impression formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauts, Sanne; Langner, Oliver; Huijsmans, Inge; Vonk, Roos; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

    2014-01-01

    Asch’s seminal research on “Forming Impressions of Personality” (1946) has widely been cited as providing evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect, suggesting that warmth-related judgments have a stronger influence on impressions of personality than competence-related judgments (e.g., Fiske, Cuddy, &

  9. Forming impressions of personality: A replication and review of Asch's evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect in impression formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauts, S.; Langner, O.; Huijsmans, I.; Vonk, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Asch's seminal research on "Forming Impressions of Personality'' (1946) has widely been cited as providing evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect, suggesting that warmth-related judgments have a stronger influence on impressions of personality than competence-related judgments (e. g., Fiske, Cuddy,

  10. Is older adult care mediated by caregivers' cultural stereotypes? The role of competence and warmth attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Ballesteros R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros,1 Antonio Bustillos,2 Marta Santacreu,1,3 Rocio Schettini,1 Pura Díaz-Veiga,4 Carmen Huici2 1Clinical and Health Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM, 2Social Psychology, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED, 3Psychology Department, Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM, 4Matia Instituto Gerontológico, Madrid, Spain Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine, from the stereotype content model (SCM perspective, the role of the competence and warmth stereotypes of older adults held by professional caregivers.Methods: A quasi-experimental design, ex post facto with observational analyses, was used in this study. The cultural view on competence and warmth was assessed in 100 caregivers working in a set of six residential geriatric care units (three of them organized following a person-centered care approach and the other three providing standard geriatric care. In order to assess caregivers’ cultural stereotypical views, the SCM questionnaire was administered. To evaluate the role of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes in their professional performance as well as in older adult functioning, two observational scales from the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (assessment system for older adults residences-RS (staff functioning and residents’ functioning were applied.Results: Caregivers’ cultural views of older adults (compared to young people are characterized by low competence and high warmth, replicating the data obtained elsewhere from the SCM. Most importantly, the person-centered units predict better staff performance and better resident functioning than standard units. Moreover, cultural stereotyping of older adult competence moderates the effects of staff performance on resident functioning, in line with the findings of previous research.Conclusion: Our results underline the influence of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes on the type of care, as well as on their

  11. Anger and sadness as adaptive emotion expression strategies in response to negative competence and warmth evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Pinar; Storme, Martin; Myszkowski, Nils

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature suggested that anger and sadness may be necessary to restore social bonds in the face of immediate relationship threat. The present research compared the social effectiveness of expressing anger and sadness in response to a negative personal evaluation. Results indicated that target anger in response to a negative competence evaluation, and target sadness in response to a negative warmth evaluation, had the most positive effects on the evaluators' subjectively perceived persuasiveness of the targets' communication (Study 1) and on the subjectively perceived fluency of the interaction by both interaction partners (Study 2). Results are discussed in light of the social functionality of emotion expression and the importance of interpersonal emotion congruency with evaluation content.

  12. Fundamental dimensions of social judgment: understanding the relations between judgments of competence and warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Charles M; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2005-12-01

    In seems there are two dimensions that underlie most judgments of traits, people, groups, and cultures. Although the definitions vary, the first makes reference to attributes such as competence, agency, and individualism, and the second to warmth, communality, and collectivism. But the relationship between the two dimensions seems unclear. In trait and person judgment, they are often positively related; in group and cultural stereotypes, they are often negatively related. The authors report 4 studies that examine the dynamic relationship between these two dimensions, experimentally manipulating the location of a target of judgment on one and examining the consequences for the other. In general, the authors' data suggest a negative dynamic relationship between the two, moderated by factors the impact of which they explore.

  13. Helping Others, Warming Yourself: Altruistic Behaviors Increase Warmth Feelings of the Ambient Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian-Yi; Li, Jingyu; Jia, Huiyuan; Xie, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Altruistic behaviors typically improve the welfare of the recipient at the cost of the performer’s resources and energy. Do altruistic performers obtain any positive internal reward from altruistic behaviors? We conducted six experiments to explore whether altruistic behaviors could increase performer’s warmth perception of the ambient environment. The first three studies focused on crisis situations. A retrospective field study (Study 1, with Hurricane Sandy) and two laboratory studies (Studies 2a and 2b, with an earthquake scenario) found that people who helped others felt warmer of the ambient environment than people who did not. We extended to daily life situations and found that participants who performed helping behaviors in laboratory (either voluntarily in Study 3a or randomly assigned to in Study 3b) and passers-by who donated to a charity (Study 4) reported warmer perception of the ambient environment than those who did not. These findings suggested an immediate internal reward of altruism. PMID:27656158

  14. Antecedents and Outcomes of Joint Trajectories of Mother-Son Conflict and Warmth during Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lacourse, Eric; Hyde, Luke W.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development of mother-son relationship quality from ages 5 to 15 in a sample of 265 low-income families. Nonparametric random effects modeling was utilized to uncover distinct and homogeneous developmental trajectories of conflict and warmth; antecedents and outcomes of the trajectory groups also were examined. Four…

  15. Low-Income Parents' Warmth and Parent-Child Activities for Children with Disabilities, Suspected Delays and Biological Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.; Peterson, Carla A.; Wall, Shavaun; Carta, Judith J.; Luze, Gayle; Swanson, Mark; Jeon, Hyun-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Warm and responsive parenting is optimal for child development, but this style of parenting may be difficult for some parents to achieve. This study examines how parents' observed warmth and their reported frequency of parent-child activities were related to children's classifications as having biological risks or a range of disability indicators.…

  16. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Student Status and Performance Characteristics on Teacher Standards and Warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natriello, Gary; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    A report is made on studies designed to experimentally assess the effects of student ethnicity, sex, achievement record, and behavior record on teacher presentations of standards and teacher warmth. Teachers reported on how they would respond to hypothetical classroom problems presented by students selected at random from their roll books.…

  17. Building Warmth Sculpture in the Student-Teacher Relationship: Goethean Observation and Contemplative Practice in an Action Research Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresin-Price, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Through an action research approach, this dissertation focuses on the central role of interpersonal warmth in the teacher and student relationship. The heart of its inquiry is based on data gathered by a set of teachers working collaboratively as co-researchers in their own classrooms. These individuals inquired into the potential of the teacher…

  18. The Moderating Effect of Parental Warmth on the Association between Spanking and Child Aggression: A Longitudinal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacks, Ann Michele; Oshio, Toko; Gerard, Jean; Roe, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study, this study analysed the stability of child aggressive behaviour beginning in infancy and tested whether spanking when the child was 36 months was associated with aggressive child behaviour among three ethnic groups and whether maternal warmth moderated the effect of spanking on…

  19. Predicting the Filial Behaviors of Chinese-Malaysian Adolescents from Perceived Parental Investments, Filial Emotions, and Parental Warmth and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Ozdemir, Sevgi Bayram; Leung, Christy Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants…

  20. Late Miocene decoupling of oceanic warmth and atmospheric carbon dioxide forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRiviere, Jonathan P; Ravelo, A Christina; Crimmins, Allison; Dekens, Petra S; Ford, Heather L; Lyle, Mitch; Wara, Michael W

    2012-06-06

    Deep-time palaeoclimate studies are vitally important for developing a complete understanding of climate responses to changes in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (that is, the atmospheric partial pressure of CO(2), p(co(2))). Although past studies have explored these responses during portions of the Cenozoic era (the most recent 65.5 million years (Myr) of Earth history), comparatively little is known about the climate of the late Miocene (∼12-5 Myr ago), an interval with p(co(2)) values of only 200-350 parts per million by volume but nearly ice-free conditions in the Northern Hemisphere and warmer-than-modern temperatures on the continents. Here we present quantitative geochemical sea surface temperature estimates from the Miocene mid-latitude North Pacific Ocean, and show that oceanic warmth persisted throughout the interval of low p(co(2)) ∼12-5 Myr ago. We also present new stable isotope measurements from the western equatorial Pacific that, in conjunction with previously published data, reveal a long-term trend of thermocline shoaling in the equatorial Pacific since ∼13 Myr ago. We propose that a relatively deep global thermocline, reductions in low-latitude gradients in sea surface temperature, and cloud and water vapour feedbacks may help to explain the warmth of the late Miocene. Additional shoaling of the thermocline after 5 Myr ago probably explains the stronger coupling between p(co(2)), sea surface temperatures and climate that is characteristic of the more recent Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs.

  1. Voice-based assessments of trustworthiness, competence, and warmth in blind and sighted adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Lachowicz-Tabaczek, Kinga; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    The study of voice perception in congenitally blind individuals allows researchers rare insight into how a lifetime of visual deprivation affects the development of voice perception. Previous studies have suggested that blind adults outperform their sighted counterparts in low-level auditory tasks testing spatial localization and pitch discrimination, as well as in verbal speech processing; however, blind persons generally show no advantage in nonverbal voice recognition or discrimination tasks. The present study is the first to examine whether visual experience influences the development of social stereotypes that are formed on the basis of nonverbal vocal characteristics (i.e., voice pitch). Groups of 27 congenitally or early-blind adults and 23 sighted controls assessed the trustworthiness, competence, and warmth of men and women speaking a series of vowels, whose voice pitches had been experimentally raised or lowered. Blind and sighted listeners judged both men's and women's voices with lowered pitch as being more competent and trustworthy than voices with raised pitch. In contrast, raised-pitch voices were judged as being warmer than were lowered-pitch voices, but only for women's voices. Crucially, blind and sighted persons did not differ in their voice-based assessments of competence or warmth, or in their certainty of these assessments, whereas the association between low pitch and trustworthiness in women's voices was weaker among blind than sighted participants. This latter result suggests that blind persons may rely less heavily on nonverbal cues to trustworthiness compared to sighted persons. Ultimately, our findings suggest that robust perceptual associations that systematically link voice pitch to the social and personal dimensions of a speaker can develop without visual input.

  2. Warmth suppresses and desensitizes damage-sensing ion channel TRPA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Sen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute or chronic tissue damage induces an inflammatory response accompanied by pain and alterations in local tissue temperature. Recent studies revealed that the transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1 channel is activated by a wide variety of substances that are released following tissue damage to evoke nociception and neurogenic inflammation. Although the effects of a noxious range of cold temperatures on TRPA1 have been rigorously studied, it is not known how agonist-induced activation of TRPA1 is regulated by temperature over an innocuous range centred on the normal skin surface temperature. This study investigated the effect of temperature on agonist-induced currents in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells transfected with rat or human TRPA1 and in rat sensory neurons. Results Agonist-induced TRPA1 currents in HEK293 cells were strongly suppressed by warm temperatures, and almost abolished at 39°C. Such inhibition occurred when TRPA1 was activated by either electrophilic or non-electrophilic agonists. Warming not only decreased the apparent affinity of TRPA1 for mustard oil (MO, but also greatly enhanced the desensitization and tachyphylaxis of TRPA1. Warming also attenuated MO-induced ionic currents in sensory neurons. These results suggest that the extent of agonist-induced activity of TRPA1 may depend on surrounding tissue temperature, and local hyperthermia during acute inflammation could be an endogenous negative regulatory mechanism to attenuate persistent pain at the site of injury. Conclusion These results indicate that warmth suppresses and desensitizes damage-sensing ion channel TRPA1. Such warmth-induced suppression of TRPA1 may also explain, at least in part, the mechanistic basis of heat therapy that has been widely used as a supplemental anti-nociceptive approach.

  3. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  4. SKIN TEMPERATURE, COLOUR, and WARMTH FELT, IN HYDROCOLLATOR PACK APPLICATIONS TO THE LUMBAR REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, M

    1982-02-01

    The application of hydrocollator packs carries an inherent danger of overheating, which must be avoided. While a variety of temperatures and coverings for the packs has been reported, it has been stated that a bright red skin colour may be indicative of skin damage. It has also been stated that a therapeutically desirable rise in skin temperature would be one to over 40°C during the treatment. In this study hydro-pack applications to the lumbar region of the back were assessed for onset of sensation after application, and at intervals thereafter for skin temperature, skin colour, and subjective sensation of warmth. The lack of co-relation found between these variables suggests that in clinical work an observation of the skin and also a subjective report, should be obtained at frequent intervals for at least the first nine minutes after application. The need for a rise in skin temperature above 40°C is questioned. Copyright © 1982 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  5. Helping others, warming yourself: Altruistic behaviors increase warmth feelings of the ambient environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Yi Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Altruistic behaviors typically improve the welfare of the recipient at the cost of the performer’s resources and energy. Do altruistic performers obtain any positive internal reward from altruistic behaviors? We conducted six experiments to explore whether altruistic behaviors could increase performer’s warmth perception of the ambient environment. The first three studies focused on crisis situations. A retrospective field study (Study 1, with Hurricane Sandy and two laboratory studies (Study 2a and 2b, with an earthquake scenario found that people who helped others felt warmer of the ambient environment than people who did not. We extended to daily life situations and found that participants who performed helping behaviors in laboratory (either voluntarily in Study 3a or randomly assigned to in Study 3b and passers-by who donated to a charity (Study 4 reported warmer perception of the ambient environment than those who did not. These findings suggested an immediate internal reward of altruism.

  6. How patients choose hospitals: using the stereotypic content model to model trustworthiness, warmth and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevs, Florian

    2013-08-01

    In many countries, policy initiatives force the implementation of demand-driven healthcare systems to encourage competition among providers. When actively choosing hospitals, consumers can compare data on the quality of hospital performance among providers. However, patients do not necessarily take full advantage of comparative quality information but instead use a number of readily available proxies to evaluate provider trustworthiness. According to the stereotypic content model, organizational trustworthiness is built on stereotypical perceptions of hospitals' competence and warmth, reflected by visible hospital characteristics such as ownership and teaching status, and size. We introduce a theoretical framework on stereotypic quality perceptions that brings together fragmented findings in health services research on patient quality expectations of hospital characteristics. The model provides a basis for further research and recommendations for improved hospital communication strategies. The study suggests that researchers as well as hospital management should pay more attention to stereotypical patient quality perceptions and their impact on hospital choice to understand patients' quality evaluations better. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. The stability and attitudinal correlates of warmth and caring in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldow, P B; Daugherty, S R

    1987-07-01

    It is often said that medical school admits students who are compassionate, nurturant and person-oriented, and transforms them into cold, impersonal graduates. These attributes describe two ends of a personality trait continuum referred to as psychological femininity. The Femininity Scale of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire was administered to a class of medical students four times over 3 years. Measures of empathy, attitudes towards doctor-patient relations and attitudes towards professional psychological help were also obtained. Femininity appears to be normally distributed, remarkably stable over a 28-month interval and predictive of attitudinal measures of empathy, readiness to make psychiatric referrals, recognition of one's own need for psychological help, and a non-cynical, person-oriented approach to patient care. Such findings suggest a different state of affairs within medical training than is usually portrayed. Rather than viewing medical school as having a universally adverse effect on student compassion, medical school has virtually no effect on self-reports of warmth, kindness, helpfulness, etc. Students at different ends of the femininity continuum may require different interventions aimed at teaching communication skills and interpersonal sensitivity.

  8. Opioid receptor blockade and warmth-liking: effects on interpersonal trust and frontal asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Desirée; Stemmler, Gerhard; Burgdorf, Christin; Wacker, Jan

    2014-10-01

    The emotion 'warmth-liking' (WL) associated with feelings of affection and acceptance is regularly activated in social contexts. WL has been suggested to be more closely related to the consummatory phase of post-goal attainment positive affect than to pre-goal attainment positive affect/approach motivation and to be partly mediated by brain opioids. To validate these assumptions we employed film/imagery to induce either a neutral emotional state or WL in female participants after intake of either placebo or the opioid antagonist naltrexone. Dependent variables were emotion self-report, interpersonal trust (TRUST, i.e. a behavioral indicator of WL) and frontal asymmetry (i.e. an electroencephalogram (EEG) indicator of approach motivation/behavioral activation). We found that participants reported more WL in the placebo/WL group than in the placebo/neutral group and both naltrexone groups. In addition, TRUST increased in the WL group after placebo, but not after naltrexone, and this pattern was reversed in the neutral control groups. Consequently, opioid blockade suppressed or even reversed the effects of the WL induction on the levels of self-report and behavior, respectively. In addition, we observed reduced relative left-frontal asymmetry in the WL (vs neutral) group, consistent with reduced approach motivation. Overall, these results suggest opioidergic influences on WL and TRUST and reduced approach motivation/behavioral activation for the positive emotion WL.

  9. Development of an early memories of warmth and safeness scale and its relationship to psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A; Gilbert, P; McEwan, K

    2009-06-01

    Experiences of early childhood have a major impact on physiological, psychological, and social aspects of maturation and functioning. One avenue of work explores the recall and memory of positive or negative rearing experiences and their association with psychopathology measures. However, while many self-report studies have focused on the recall of parental behaviours this study developed a new measure called the early memories of warmth and safeness scale (EMWSS), which focuses on recall of one's own inner positive feelings, emotions and experiences in childhood. Student participants (N = 180) completed the new scale and a series of self-report scales measuring different types of early recall, psychopathology, types of positive affect, and self-criticism/reassurance. The EMWSS was found to have good psychometric properties and reliability. Recall of parental behaviour and recall of positive emotional memories were highly related, but recall of positive emotional memories was a better predictor of psychopathology, styles of self-criticism/self-reassurance and disposition to experience positive affect, than recall of parental behaviour.

  10. COMT Val158Met polymorphism interacts with stressful life events and parental warmth to influence decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Qinghua He; Gui Xue; Chuansheng Chen; Zhong-Lin Lu; Chunhui Chen; Xuemei Lei; Yuyun Liu; Jin Li; Bi Zhu; Moyzis, Robert K.; Qi Dong; Antoine Bechara

    2012-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors have been shown to influence decision making, but their relative contributions and interactions are not well understood. The present study aimed to reveal possible gene-environment interactions on decision making in a large healthy sample. Specifically, we examined how the frequently studied COMT Val158Met polymorphism interacted with an environmental risk factor (i.e., stressful life events) and a protective factor (i.e., parental warmth) to influence a...

  11. Sticking with the nice guy: trait warmth information impairs learning and modulates person perception brain network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victoria K; Harris, Lasana T

    2014-12-01

    Social learning requires inferring social information about another person, as well as evaluating outcomes. Previous research shows that prior social information biases decision making and reduces reliance on striatal activity during learning (Delgado, Frank, & Phelps, Nature Neuroscience 8 (11): 1611-1618, 2005). A rich literature in social psychology on person perception demonstrates that people spontaneously infer social information when viewing another person (Fiske & Taylor, 2013) and engage a network of brain regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction, superior temporal sulcus, and precuneus (Amodio & Frith, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7(4), 268-277, 2006; Haxby, Gobbini, & Montgomery, 2004; van Overwalle Human Brain Mapping, 30, 829-858, 2009). We investigate the role of these brain regions during social learning about well-established dimensions of person perception-trait warmth and trait competence. We test the hypothesis that activity in person perception brain regions interacts with learning structures during social learning. Participants play an investment game where they must choose an agent to invest on their behalf. This choice is guided by cues signaling trait warmth or trait competence based on framing of monetary returns. Trait warmth information impairs learning about human but not computer agents, while trait competence information produces similar learning rates for human and computer agents. We see increased activation to warmth information about human agents in person perception brain regions. Interestingly, activity in person perception brain regions during the decision phase negatively predicts activity in the striatum during feedback for trait competence inferences about humans. These results suggest that social learning may engage additional processing within person perception brain regions that hampers learning in economic contexts.

  12. Acculturative and enculturative stress, depressive symptoms, and maternal warmth: examining within-person relations among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-02-01

    Mexican-origin adolescent mothers face numerous social challenges during dual-cultural adaptation that are theorized to contribute to greater depressive symptoms. Alongside challenges, there are familial resources that may offer protection. As such, the current study examined the trajectories of depressive symptoms among 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (M age = 16.80, SD = 1.00) across a 4-year period (third trimester of pregnancy, and 10, 24, and 36 months postpartum). Further, we examined the within-person relations of two unique sources of stress experienced during dual-cultural adaptation, acculturative and enculturative stress, and youths' depressive symptoms; we also tested whether adolescent mothers' perceptions of warmth from their own mothers emerged as protective. Adolescent mothers reported a decline in depressive symptoms after the transition to parenthood. Acculturative and enculturative stress emerged as significant positive within-person predictors of depressive symptoms. Maternal warmth emerged as a protective factor in the relation between enculturative stressors and depressive symptoms; however, for acculturative stressors, the protective effect of maternal warmth only emerged for US-born youth. Findings illustrate the multidimensionality of stress experienced during the cultural adaptation process and a potential mechanism for resilience among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

  13. Maternal warmth buffers the effects of low early-life socioeconomic status on pro-inflammatory signaling in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E; Miller, G E; Kobor, M S; Cole, S W

    2011-07-01

    The notion that family support may buffer individuals under adversity from poor outcomes has been theorized to have important implications for mental and physical health, but little is known about the biological mechanisms that explain these links. We hypothesized that adults who grew up in low socioeconomic status (SES) households but who experienced high levels of maternal warmth would be protected from the pro-inflammatory states typically associated with low SES. A total of 53 healthy adults (aged 25-40 years) low in SES early in life were assessed on markers of immune activation and systemic inflammation. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling also was conducted. Low early-life SES individuals who had mothers, who expressed high warmth toward them, exhibited less Toll-like receptor-stimulated production of interleukin 6, and reduced bioinformatic indications of pro-inflammatory transcription factor activity (NF-κB) and immune activating transcription factor activity (AP-1) compared to those who were low in SES early in life but experienced low maternal warmth. To the extent that such effects are causal, they suggest the possibility that the detrimental immunologic effects of low early-life SES environments may be partly diminished through supportive family climates.

  14. Pathways from parental knowledge and warmth to adolescent marijuana use: an extension to the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Andrew; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D; Siegel, Jason T

    2009-03-01

    Despite research indicating that effective parenting plays an important protective role in adolescent risk behaviors, few studies have applied theory to examine this link with marijuana use, especially with national data. In the current study (N = 2,141), we hypothesized that parental knowledge (of adolescent activities and whereabouts) and parental warmth are antecedents of adolescents' marijuana beliefs-attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control-as posited by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen 1991). These three types of beliefs were hypothesized to predict marijuana intention, which in turn was hypothesized to predict marijuana consumption. Results of confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the psychometric properties of the two-factor parenting structure as well as the five-factor structure of the TPB. Further, the proposed integrative predictive framework, estimated with a latent structural equation model, was largely supported. Parental knowledge inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; parental warmth inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes and subjective norms, ps behavioral control, predicted marijuana use 1 year later. In households with high parental knowledge, parental warmth also was perceived to be high (r = .54, p < .001). Owing to the analysis of nationally representative data, results are generalizable to the United States population of adolescents 12-18 years of age.

  15. The effects of perceived parenting style on the propensity for illicit drug use: the importance of parental warmth and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Catharine; Fisk, John E; Craig, Laura

    2008-11-01

    Research in adolescents has shown that parental warmth and control are important factors in drug use. The present study focused upon investigating perceived parental warmth and control in a sample of post-adolescent ecstasy/polydrug users, and investigating their relationship to severity of drug use. A total of 128 (65 male) ecstasy/polydrug users, 51 (17 male), cannabis-only users and 54 (13 male) non-users were recruited from a university population. All participants completed the parenting styles and drug use questionnaires. Compared to non-users, a greater proportion of ecstasy/polydrug users characterised their parents' style as neglectful. The modal style endorsed by non-users was authoritative. Those who rated their parents' style as authoritative had significantly lower lifetime consumption and average dose of ecstasy relative to those describing their parents as neglectful. Again, relative to those describing their parents as neglectful, participants from authoritarian backgrounds had significantly smaller lifetime consumption of ecstasy and cocaine and significantly smaller average doses of cannabis, ecstasy and cocaine. Contrary to expectation, there was no significant association between perceived parental warmth and the severity of ecstasy use. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to quantify drug use, and relate it to perceived parental practices in a post-adolescent sample of ecstasy/polydrug users. The results provide further support for the relationship between perceived parental control and drug use.

  16. Forming impressions of personality: A replication and review of Asch's (1946) evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect in impression formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nauts, S.; Langner, O.; Huijsmans, I.; Vonk, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Asch's seminal research on "Forming Impressions of Personality'' (1946) has widely been cited as providing evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect, suggesting that warmth-related judgments have a stronger influence on impressions of personality than competence-related judgments (e. g., Fiske, Cuddy, & Glick, 2007; Wojciszke, 2005). Because this effect does not fit with Asch's Gestalt-view on impression formation and does not readily follow from the data presented in his original paper, the go...

  17. Forming impressions of personality: A replication and review of Asch's (1946) evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect in impression formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nauts, S.; Langner, O.; Huijsmans, I.; Vonk, R; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Asch's seminal research on "Forming Impressions of Personality'' (1946) has widely been cited as providing evidence for a primacy-of-warmth effect, suggesting that warmth-related judgments have a stronger influence on impressions of personality than competence-related judgments (e. g., Fiske, Cuddy, & Glick, 2007; Wojciszke, 2005). Because this effect does not fit with Asch's Gestalt-view on impression formation and does not readily follow from the data presented in his original paper, the go...

  18. A Pilot Study Examining Physical and Social Warmth: Higher (Non-Febrile) Oral Temperature Is Associated with Greater Feelings of Social Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Tristen K; Irwin, Michael R; Moieni, Mona; Jevtic, Ivana; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that experiences of physical warmth contribute to social warmth-the experience of feeling connected to others. Thus, thermoregulatory systems, which help maintain our relatively warm internal body temperatures, may also support feelings of social connection. However, the association between internal body temperature and feelings of connection has not been examined. Furthermore, the origins of the link between physical and social warmth, via learning during early experiences with a caregiver or via innate, co-evolved mechanisms, remain unclear. The current study examined the relationship between oral temperature and feelings of social connection as well as whether early caregiver experiences moderated this relationship. Extending the existing literature, higher oral temperature readings were associated with greater feelings of social connection. Moreover, early caregiver experiences did not moderate this association, suggesting that the physical-social warmth overlap may not be altered by early social experience. Results provide additional support for the link between experiences of physical warmth and social warmth and add to existing theories that highlight social connection as a basic need on its own.

  19. A Pilot Study Examining Physical and Social Warmth: Higher (Non-Febrile Oral Temperature Is Associated with Greater Feelings of Social Connection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristen K Inagaki

    Full Text Available An emerging literature suggests that experiences of physical warmth contribute to social warmth-the experience of feeling connected to others. Thus, thermoregulatory systems, which help maintain our relatively warm internal body temperatures, may also support feelings of social connection. However, the association between internal body temperature and feelings of connection has not been examined. Furthermore, the origins of the link between physical and social warmth, via learning during early experiences with a caregiver or via innate, co-evolved mechanisms, remain unclear. The current study examined the relationship between oral temperature and feelings of social connection as well as whether early caregiver experiences moderated this relationship. Extending the existing literature, higher oral temperature readings were associated with greater feelings of social connection. Moreover, early caregiver experiences did not moderate this association, suggesting that the physical-social warmth overlap may not be altered by early social experience. Results provide additional support for the link between experiences of physical warmth and social warmth and add to existing theories that highlight social connection as a basic need on its own.

  20. Finding the right interactional temperature: do colder patients need more warmth in physician communication style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Gaëtan; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Jaunin-Stalder, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    Being aware of which communication style should be adopted when facing more difficult patients is important for physicians; it can help prevent patient reactions of dissatisfaction, mistrust, or non-adherence that can be detrimental to the process of care. Past research suggests that less agreeable patients are especially critical towards, and reactive to, their physician's communication style, compared to more agreeable patients. On the basis of the literature, we hypothesized that less agreeable patients would react more negatively than agreeable patients to lower levels of affiliativeness (i.e., warmth, friendliness) in the physicians, in terms of satisfaction with the physician, trust in the physician, and determination to adhere to the treatment. Thirty-six general practitioners (20 men/16 women) working in their own practice in Switzerland were filmed while interacting with 69 patients (36 men/33 women) of different ages (M = 50.7; SD = 18.19; range: 18-84) and presenting different medical problems (e.g., back pain, asthma, hypertension, diabetes). After the medical interview, patients filled in questionnaires measuring their satisfaction with the physician, their trust in the physician, their determination to adhere to the treatment, and their trait of agreeableness. Physician affiliativeness was coded on the basis of the video recordings. Physician gender and dominance, patient gender and age, as well as the gravity of the patient's medical condition were introduced as control variables in the analysis. Results confirmed our hypothesis for satisfaction and trust, but not for adherence; less agreeable patients reacted more negatively (in terms of satisfaction and trust) than agreeable patients to lower levels of affiliativeness in their physicians. This study suggests that physicians should be especially attentive to stay warm and friendly with people low in agreeableness because those patients' satisfaction and trust might be more easily lowered by a cold

  1. Polarization developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist.

  2. The Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale for adolescents: Cross-Sample Validation of the Complete and Brief Versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagos, Paula; Ribeiro da Silva, Diana; Brazão, Nélio; Rijo, Daniel; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-05-01

    This work presents psychometric analyses on the Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale, which intends to evaluate the subjective perception of ones' early rearing experiences. Factor structure, measurement invariance, latent mean comparisons and validity in relation to external variables (i.e., forms of self-criticism/self-assurance, experiential avoidance and depressive, anxious and stress symptoms) were investigated. A sample of 1464 adolescents (52.3% male adolescents, mean age = 16.16, standard deviation = 1.51) was used, including 1064 participants recruited from schools, 192 participants recruited from foster care facilities and 208 boys recruited from juvenile justice facilities. A shortened version of the scale was also developed and subjected to the same psychometric analyses. A one-factor measurement model was a good fit for the data taken from both the complete and brief versions of the instrument. Such measures showed to be internally consistent with alpha values higher than 0.89. Evidence for their construct validity in relation to external variables was also found, with correlation values ranging from 0.19 to 0.45 for the complete version and from 0.18 to 0.44 for the brief version of the instrument. The brief version was the only one proving to be gender and sample invariant. Boys and girls scored similarly in their account of early memories, whereas community boys presented significantly higher scores when compared with referred and detained boys. Thus, the brief version of the instrument may be an appropriate alternative for use with diverse adolescent samples and may serve to advance knowledge on how early experiences impact on psychopathological outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale (EMWSS), assessing early memories of warmth and safeness, was studied across community, referred for behavioural problems and detained Portuguese adolescent samples. A brief version of this

  3. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wojcieszak

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass pol

  4. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

  5. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  6. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication......Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  7. Climate Change Impact on Forest Cover using Warmth Index and Minimum Temperature in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S.; Lee, W.; Yoo, S.; Park, S.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of study was to predict the changes in regional forest distribution using the Warmth Index (WI) and minimum temperature index (MTI) in Korea. Previously, there were several trials to explain the forest cover changes in Korea using global-scale models, such as MC1 (MAPSS-CENTURY) and CEVSA (Carbon Exchange between Vegetation, Soil, and Atmosphere). However, these global vegetation models are not pertinent to simulate the climate change impact on relatively small Korean ecosystem. Therefore, the zonal distribution of WI and MTI was applied to interpret the spatial patterns of forest vegetation. Firstly, the climate data of past years (1971-2000) was prepared by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), and ECHO-G model provided future climate data under A1B scenario. Then, the optimal habitat rages of tree species were plotted by spatial distribution patterns of WI and MTI. In terms of cold tolerance for tree species, minimum monthly mean temperature of January (the coldest month) was converted to MTI, which related to intercellular freezing. MTI distribution of Korea in past years was ranged from -84.85 to 14. Overall MTI will be inclined in future period (2021-2050) and period (2071-2100), ranged from -80.91 to 19.45 and from 34.36 to -58.73, respectively. Also, WI was calculated by summing up of monthly mean temperature above 5 degrees Celsius. WI distribution of Korea in past years (1971-2000) was ranged from 72 to 132.9 degrees Celsius month. Overall WI will be increased in future period (2021-2050) and period (2071-2100), ranged from 81 to 147.9 degrees Celsius month and from 98 to 174.1 degrees Celsius month, respectively. As results of simulations, there were certain changes in vegetation distribution by climate change. The optimal habitat range of evergreen needleleaf species will be decreased and the range of deciduous and evergreen broadleaf species will be increased in the future; 1) especially, the optimal range of Pinus densiflora will

  8. Amplified Late Pliocene terrestrial warmth in northern high latitudes from greater radiative forcing and closed Arctic Ocean gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ran; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Fletcher, Tamara L.; Tabor, Clay R.; Ballantyne, Ashley P.; Brady, Esther C.

    2017-05-01

    Proxy reconstructions of the mid-Piacenzian warm period (mPWP, between 3.264 and 3.025 Ma) suggest terrestrial temperatures were much warmer in the northern high latitudes (55°-90°N, referred to as NHL) than present-day. Climate models participating in the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Phase 1 (PlioMIP1) tend to underestimate this warmth. For instance, the underestimate is ∼10 °C on average across NHL and up to 17 °C in the Canadian Arctic region in the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4). Here, we explore potential mPWP climate forcings that might contribute to this mPWP mismatch. We carry out seven experiments to assess terrestrial temperature responses to Pliocene Arctic gateway closure, variations in CO2 level, and orbital forcing at millennial time scale. To better compare the full range of simulated terrestrial temperatures with sparse proxy data, we introduce a pattern recognition technique that simplifies the model surface temperatures to a few representative patterns that can be validate with the limited terrestrial proxy data. The pattern recognition technique reveals two prominent features of simulated Pliocene surface temperature responses. First, distinctive patterns of amplified warming occur in the NHL, which can be explained by lowered surface elevation of Greenland, pattern and amount of Arctic sea ice loss, and changing strength of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Second, patterns of surface temperature response are similar among experiments with different forcing mechanisms. This similarity is due to strong feedbacks from responses in surface albedo and troposphere water vapor content to sea ice changes, which overwhelm distinctions in forcings from changes in insolation, CO2 forcing, and Arctic gateway closure. By comparing CCSM4 simulations with proxy records, we demonstrate that both model and proxy records show similar patterns of mPWP NHL terrestrial warmth, but the model underestimates the magnitude

  9. Parental practices and political violence: the protective role of parental warmth and authority-control in Jewish and Arab Israeli children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Iris; Slone, Michelle

    2012-10-01

    Parental warmth and parental authority-control patterns have been documented as practices with highest significance for children's well-being and development in a variety of life areas. Various forms of these practices have been shown to have a direct positive effect on children and also to protect children from adverse effects of numerous stressors. However, surprisingly, few studies have examined the role of these practices as possible protective factors for children exposed to intractable conflict and political violence. Participants in this study were Jewish (n = 88) and Arab (n = 105) Israeli families, with children aged 7-12.5 (M = 10.73, SD = 0.99). Children completed questionnaires assessing political violence exposure, behavioral, psychological, and social difficulties, and perceived paternal and maternal warmth. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires assessing parental warmth, parental authority-control, and the child's difficulties. Results showed parental warmth to be a significant moderator of political violence, related to low levels of behavioral and social difficulties of children. Parental authority-control patterns were not protectors from adverse effects of political violence exposure. Maternal authoritarian authority-control showed an effect resembling a risk factor. Differential roles of parental warmth and authority-control, fathers' versus mothers' roles, and ethnic differences are discussed, and practical clinical implications are proposed.

  10. Eugenol and carvacrol induce temporally desensitizing patterns of oral irritation and enhance innocuous warmth and noxious heat sensation on the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Amanda H; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, Earl

    2013-10-01

    Eugenol and carvacrol, from the spices clove and oregano, respectively, are agonists of TRPV3, which is implicated in transduction of warmth and possibly heat pain. We investigated the temporal dynamics of lingual irritation elicited by these agents, and their effects on innocuous warmth and heat pain, using a half-tongue method in human subjects. The irritant sensation elicited by both eugenol and carvacrol decreased across repeated applications at a 1-minute interstimulus interval (self-desensitization) which persisted for at least 10 minutes. Both agents also cross-desensitized capsaicin-evoked irritation. Eugenol and carvacrol significantly increased the magnitude of perceived innocuous warmth (44 °C) for >10 minutes, and briefly (eugenol or carvacrol, indicating that the effect is not due solely to summation of chemoirritant and thermal sensations. Neither chemical affected sensations of innocuous cool or cold pain. A separate group of subjects was asked to subdivide eugenol and carvacrol irritancy into subqualities, the most frequently reported being numbing and warmth, with brief burning, stinging/pricking, and tingle, confirming an earlier study. Eugenol, but not carvacrol, reduced detection of low-threshold mechanical stimuli. Eugenol and carvacrol enhancement of innocuous warmth may involve sensitization of thermal gating of TRPV3 expressed in peripheral warm fibers. The brief heat hyperalgesia following eugenol may involve a TRPV3-mediated enhancement of thermal gating of TRPV1 expressed in lingual polymodal nociceptors.

  11. A Pilot Study Examining Physical and Social Warmth: Higher (Non-Febrile) Oral Temperature Is Associated with Greater Feelings of Social Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Tristen K.; Irwin, Michael R.; Moieni, Mona; Jevtic, Ivana; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2016-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that experiences of physical warmth contribute to social warmth—the experience of feeling connected to others. Thus, thermoregulatory systems, which help maintain our relatively warm internal body temperatures, may also support feelings of social connection. However, the association between internal body temperature and feelings of connection has not been examined. Furthermore, the origins of the link between physical and social warmth, via learning during early experiences with a caregiver or via innate, co-evolved mechanisms, remain unclear. The current study examined the relationship between oral temperature and feelings of social connection as well as whether early caregiver experiences moderated this relationship. Extending the existing literature, higher oral temperature readings were associated with greater feelings of social connection. Moreover, early caregiver experiences did not moderate this association, suggesting that the physical-social warmth overlap may not be altered by early social experience. Results provide additional support for the link between experiences of physical warmth and social warmth and add to existing theories that highlight social connection as a basic need on its own. PMID:27257914

  12. The influence of heritability, neuroticism, maternal warmth and media use on disordered eating behaviors: a prospective analysis of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Monica E; Winegard, Ben; Winegard, Bo

    2012-09-01

    The relative impact of genetic and social influences on disordered eating behaviors (DEB) including binging, purging, excessive dieting and negative self-evaluations about weight remain an issue of debate. The current study sought to examine the relative influence of genetic and social influences on DEB. A 7-year prospective analysis of 580 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins was conducted. Estimates of heritability of DEB were obtained using the DF Analysis Model. Regression equations revealed the relative predictive value of sibling's DEB, neurotic personality, maternal warmth and television and video game exposure on DEB. Heritability estimates for DEB were 0.40 for females and 0.48 for males. Among MZ and DZ twin pairs, female sex, neurotic personality and a genetic variable component, but not maternal warmth or school related problems, predicted DEB. Contrary to the expectations of media effects theory, greater media use was associated with lower DEB among DZ twins and had no influence on MZ twins. These results indicate that DEB is highly heritable and that personality variables may play an important role in the formation of DEB. This suggests that it is important to control for genetic variables when analyzing risk factors for DEB.

  13. COMT Val158Met polymorphism interacts with stressful life events and parental warmth to influence decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chunhui; Lei, Xuemei; Liu, Yuyun; Li, Jin; Zhu, Bi; Moyzis, Robert K; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors have been shown to influence decision making, but their relative contributions and interactions are not well understood. The present study aimed to reveal possible gene-environment interactions on decision making in a large healthy sample. Specifically, we examined how the frequently studied COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism interacted with an environmental risk factor (i.e., stressful life events) and a protective factor (i.e., parental warmth) to influence affective decision making as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. We found that stressful life events acted as a risk factor for poor IGT performance (i.e., high reward sensitivity) among Met carriers, whereas parental warmth acted as a protective factor for good IGT performance (i.e., higher IGT score) among Val/Val homozygotes. These results shed some new light on gene-environment interactions in decision making, which could potentially help us understand the underlying etiology of several psychiatric disorders associated with decision making impairment.

  14. Do Guyanese mothers' levels of warmth moderate the association between harshness and justness of physical punishment and preschoolers' prosocial behaviours and anger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L; Jin, Bora; Krishnakumar, Ambika

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed the moderating role of Indo-Guyanese mothers' warmth and affection on the associations between harshness and justness of physical punishment and prosocial behaviours and anger in preschoolers. One hundred and thirty-nine rural Indo-Guyanese mothers filled out Rohner's Parental Acceptance-Rejection (PARQ) and Physical Punishment Questionnaires (PPQ). Teachers provided assessments of children's prosocial behaviours and anger in preschool settings. Maternal warmth did not moderate the relationship between harshness of physical punishment and children's prosocial behaviours and anger, but it did moderate the relationship between justness of physical punishment and prosocial behaviours for sons as well as the association between justness of physical punishment and anger for daughters. In Caribbean societies where harsh punishment is normative, maternal warmth may work more effectively with justness, and not with harshness of physical punishment, to lower negative childhood behavioural outcomes.

  15. Culture-general and -specific associations of attachment avoidance and anxiety with perceived parental warmth and psychological control among Turk and Belgian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H

    2010-10-01

    Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent-child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Altogether, 262 Turk and 263 Belgian youth between 14 and 18 years of age participated. Cross-culturally, attachment avoidance was negatively related to maternal warmth, and attachment anxiety positively related to maternal and paternal control and negatively to paternal warmth. Beyond these general relations, attachment avoidance was associated with paternal psychological control in Belgians but not in Turks. The study provides cross-cultural evidence for specific relations between peer attachment and perceived parenting and suggests a culture-specific pathway for the development of attachment avoidance.

  16. Polarizing cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cues—John McCain and Barack Obama—affected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues.

  17. Extreme weather event in spring 2013 delayed breeding time of Great Tit and Blue Tit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glądalski, Michał; Bańbura, Mirosława; Kaliński, Adam; Markowski, Marcin; Skwarska, Joanna; Wawrzyniak, Jarosław; Zieliński, Piotr; Bańbura, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    The impact of climatic changes on life cycles by re-scheduling the timing of reproduction is an important topic in studies of biodiversity. Global warming causes and will probably cause in the future not only raising temperatures but also an increasing frequency of extreme weather events. In 2013, the winter in central and north Europe ended late, with low temperatures and long-retained snow cover--this extreme weather phenomenon acted in opposition to the increasing temperature trend. In 2013, thermal conditions measured by the warmth sum in the period 15 March–15 April, a critical time for early breeding passerines, went far beyond the range of the warmth sums for at least 40 preceding years. Regardless of what was the reason for the extreme early spring 2013 and assuming that there is a potential for more atypical years because of climate change, we should look closely at every extreme phenomenon and its consequences for the phenology of organisms. In this paper, we report that the prolonged occurrence of winter conditions during the time that is crucial for Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and Great Tit (Parus major) reproduction caused a substantial delay in the onset of egg laying in comparison with typical springs.

  18. Simulating last interglacial climate with NorESM: role of insolation and greenhouse gases in the timing of peak warmth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Langebroek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The last interglacial (LIG, ~130–116 ka, ka = 1000 yr ago is characterized by high-latitude warming and is therefore often considered as a possible analogue for future warming. However, in contrast to predicted future greenhouse warming, the LIG climate is largely governed by variations in insolation. Greenhouse gas (GHG concentrations were relatively stable and similar to pre-industrial values, with the exception of the early LIG when, on average, GHGs were slightly lower. We performed six time-slice simulations with the low-resolution version of the Norwegian Earth System Model covering the LIG. In four simulations only the orbital forcing was changed. In two other simulations, representing the early LIG, additionally the GHG forcing was reduced. With these simulations we investigate (1 the different effects of GHG versus insolation forcing on the temperatures during the LIG; (2 whether reduced GHGs can explain the low temperatures reconstructed for the North Atlantic; and (3 the timing of the observed LIG peak warmth. Our simulations show that the insolation forcing results in seasonal and hemispheric differences in temperature. In contrast, a reduction in the GHG forcing causes a global and seasonal-independent cooling. Furthermore, we compare modelled temperatures with proxy-based LIG sea-surface temperatures along a transect in the North Atlantic. The modelled North Atlantic summer sea-surface temperatures capture the general trend of the reconstructed summer temperatures, with low values in the early LIG, a peak around 125 ka, and a steady decrease towards the end of the LIG. Simulations with reduced GHG forcing improve the model–data fit as they show lower temperatures in the early LIG. Furthermore we show that the timing of maximum summer and winter surface temperatures is in line with the local summer and winter insolation maximum at most latitudes. Two regions where the maximum local insolation and temperature do not occur at the

  19. Single Shot Polarization Characterization of XUV FEL Pulses from Crossed Polarized Undulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, E.; Allaria, E.; Buck, J.; De Ninno, G.; Diviacco, B.; Gauthier, D.; Giannessi, L.; Glaser, L.; Huang, Z.; Ilchen, M.; Lambert, G.; Lutman, A. A.; Mahieu, B.; Penco, G.; Spezzani, C.; Viefhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization control is a key feature of light generated by short-wavelength free-electron lasers. In this work, we report the first experimental characterization of the polarization properties of an extreme ultraviolet high gain free-electron laser operated with crossed polarized undulators. We investigate the average degree of polarization and the shot-to-shot stability and we analyze aspects such as existing possibilities for controlling and switching the polarization state of the emitted light. The results are in agreement with predictions based on Gaussian beams propagation. PMID:26314764

  20. Parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment: bidirectionality and the moderation effects of child ethnicity and parental warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal physical punishment and adolescent misconduct and depressive symptoms, while accounting for stability in both physical punishment and adjustment problems over time. Data were drawn from a sample of 862 two-parent families and their adolescent children (52 % males; 54 % European American; 44 % African American; 2 % other ethnic backgrounds). Mothers' and fathers' physical punishment of their adolescents' ages 12 and 14 predicted increased misconduct and depressive symptoms among these adolescents at ages 14 and 16. Adolescent misconduct, but not depressive symptoms, at ages 12 and 14 predicted increased physical punishment by their parents at ages 14 and 16. Neither parental warmth nor child ethnicity moderated the longitudinal relationship between parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment. Patterns of findings were similar across mothers and fathers.

  1. Association of parental warmth and harsh discipline with developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Chinese society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chung Lawrence; Chan, Hsun-Yu; Lin, Ching-Wen; Li, Jia-Ru

    2015-12-01

    This article examines the relationship between parenting styles and the development of depressive symptoms among adolescents. We analyzed a nationally representative longitudinal data set of adolescents aged 12 to 14 in Taiwan. Results from growth mixture modeling revealed a nonlinear increase in the intensity of depressive symptoms between early and middle adolescence. More pronounced depressive symptoms in earlier years were also shown to be associated with more rapid development of similar symptoms later in adolescence. Perceived parenting styles, as manifest in parental warmth and harsh discipline, were categorized into 4 latent heterogeneous classes: attentive, reserved, austere, and conflicting. Adolescents living under austere parenting tend to report the most pronounced depressive symptoms from early to middle adolescence; however, the development of symptoms in this group was the slowest. We also discuss the role of harsh parenting in Chinese culture, as it pertains to the roles traditionally assumed by the father and mother.

  2. Parallel mediation effects by sleep on the parental warmth-problem behavior links: evidence from national probability samples of Georgian and Swiss adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Harris, Charlene; Terveer, Agnes M; Pagava, Karaman; Phagava, Helen; Michaud, Pierre-Andre

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has documented the importance of parenting on adolescent health and well-being; however, some of the underlying mechanisms that link the quality of parent-child relationship to health, adjustment, and well-being are not clearly understood. The current study seeks to address this gap by examining the extent to which sleep functioning mediates the effects by parental warmth on different measures of adolescent problem behaviors. Specifically, we test whether sleep functioning, operationalized by sleep quality and sleep quantity, mediates the relationship between the parental warmth and three measures of problem behaviors, namely alcohol use, illegal drug use, and deviance, in two nationally representative samples of Georgian (N = 6,992; M = 15.83, 60% females, and Swiss (N = 5,575; M = 17.17, 50% females) adolescents. Based on tests for parallel mediating effects by sleep functioning of parental warmth on problem behaviors in the MEDIATE macro in SPSS, the findings provided evidence that both sleep quality and sleep quantity independently and cumulatively mediated the effects of parental warmth on each of the three problem behaviors in both samples, with one exception. These results highlight the salience of positive parenting on sleep functioning among teens in two different cultural contexts, and, in turn, on measures of problem behaviors.

  3. The effect of low parental warmth and low monitoring on disordered eating in mid-adolescence: Findings from the Australian Temperament Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Isabel; King, Ross M; Youssef, George J; Sorabji, Anisha; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Le Grange, Daniel; Hughes, Elizabeth K; Letcher, Primrose; Olsson, Craig A

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the interactions between low parental warmth and monitoring at age 13-14 years and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours at age 15-16 years. Data on 1300 (667 females) adolescents and their parents were drawn from The Australian Temperament Project (ATP), a 30 year (15 wave) population based longitudinal study of social-emotional development. Parent participants completed surveys on parenting practices in late childhood, and adolescent participants reported disordered eating using the drive for thinness and bulimia subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and an additional body dissatisfaction scale. Interaction was examined on the additive scale by estimating super-additive risk; i.e., risk in excess of the sum of individual risks. For boys, neither parental warmth or monitoring, nor their interaction, was related to disordered eating. For girls, low parental warmth (alone) was associated with bulimic behaviours. In contrast, exposure to both low monitoring and warmth was associated with ∼3½-fold, ∼4-fold and ∼5-fold increases in the odds of reporting body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimia, respectively. For body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, risk associated with joint exposure exceeded the sum of individual risks, suggesting an additive interaction between parenting styles. Further investment in family-level interventions that focus on promoting parental monitoring behaviour and a warm parent-child relationship remain important strategies for preventing a range of disordered eating behaviours in adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Mediating Role of Perceived Parental Warmth and Parental Punishment in the Psychological Well-Being of Children in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented that parenting practices, such as parental warmth and parental punishment, play a mediating role in linking individual (e.g., age, gender) and familial characteristics (e.g., economic status, marital quality) to the psychological well-being of children. However, few studies have validated these connections with respect to…

  5. Polarized Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Susan Resneck

    1991-01-01

    On college campuses, the climate is polarized because of intolerance and discrimination, censorship, factionalism, and anger among students and faculty. As a result, the campus is in danger of becoming dominated by political issues and discouraging the exchange of ideas characteristic of a true liberal arts education. (MSE)

  6. [Effects of noxious coldness and non-noxious warmth on the magnitude of cerebral cortex activation during intraoral stimulation with water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiuwen, Yang; Hongchen, Liu; Ke, Li; Zhen, Jin; Gang, Liu

    2014-12-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the effects of noxious coldness and non-noxious warmth on the magnitude of cerebral cortex activation during intraoral stimulation with water. Six male and female subjects were subjected to whole-brain fMRI during the phasic delivery of non-noxious hot (23 °C) and no- xious cold (4 °C) water intraoral stimulation. A block-design blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI scan covering the entire brain was also carried out. The activated cortical areas were as follows: left pre-/post-central gyrus, insula/operculum, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbital frontal cortex (OFC), midbrain red nucleus, and thalamus. The activated cortical areas under cold condition were as follows: left occipital lobe, premotor cortex/Brodmann area (BA) 6, right motor language area BA44, lingual gyrus, parietal lobule (BA7, 40), and primary somatosensory cortex S I. Comparisons of the regional cerebral blood flow response magnitude were made among stereotactically concordant brain regions that showed significant responses under the two conditions of this study. Compared with non-noxious warmth, more regions were activated in noxious coldness, and the magnitude of activation in areas produced after non-noxious warm stimulation significantly increased. However, ACC only significantly increased the magnitude of activation under noxious coldness stimulation. Results suggested that a similar network of regions was activated common to the perception of pain and no-pain produced by either non-noxious warmth or noxious coldness stimulation. Non-noxious warmth also activated more brain regions and significantly increased the response magnitude of cerebral-cortex activation compared with noxious coldness. Noxious coldness stimulation further significantly increased the magnitude of activation in ACC areas compared with noxious warmth.

  7. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  8. Engineering the (In, Al, Ga)N back-barrier to achieve high channel-conductivity for extremely scaled channel-thicknesses in N-polar GaN high-electron-mobility-transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jing, E-mail: jing@ece.ucsb.edu; Zheng, Xun; Guidry, Matthew; Denninghoff, Dan; Ahmadi, Elahe; Lal, Shalini; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, Steven P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-03

    Scaling down the channel-thickness (t{sub ch}) in GaN/(In, Al, Ga)N high-electron-mobility-transistors (HEMTs) is essential to eliminating short-channel effects in sub 100 nm gate length HEMTs. However, this scaling can degrade both charge density (n{sub s}) and mobility (μ), thereby reducing channel-conductivity. In this study, the back-barrier design in N-polar GaN/(In, Al, Ga)N was engineered to achieve highly conductive-channels with t{sub ch} < 5-nm using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Compositional-grading was found to be the most effective approach in reducing channel-conductivity for structures with t{sub ch} ∼ 3-nm. For a HEMT with 3-nm-thick-channel, a sheet-resistance of 329 Ω/◻ and a peak-transconductance of 718 mS/mm were demonstrated.

  9. Polar Diving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    3 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers exposed by erosion in a trough within the north polar residual cap of Mars, diving beneath a younger covering of polar materials. The layers have, since the Mariner 9 mission in 1972, been interpreted to be composed of a combination of dust and ice in unknown proportions. In this scene, a layer of solid carbon dioxide, which was deposited during the previous autumn and winter, blankets the trough as well as the adjacent terrain. Throughout northern spring, the carbon dioxide will be removed; by summer, the layers will be frost-free. Location near: 81.4oN, 352.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  10. Ice cores record significant 1940s Antarctic warmth related to tropical climate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David P; Steig, Eric J

    2008-08-26

    Although the 20th Century warming of global climate is well known, climate change in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere (SH), especially in the first half of the century, remains poorly documented. We present a composite of water stable isotope data from high-resolution ice cores from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. This record, representative of West Antarctic surface temperature, shows extreme positive anomalies in the 1936-45 decade that are significant in the context of the background 20th Century warming trend. We interpret these anomalies--previously undocumented in the high-latitude SH--as indicative of strong teleconnections in part driven by the major 1939-42 El Niño. These anomalies are coherent with tropical sea-surface temperature, mean SH air temperature, and North Pacific sea-level pressure, underscoring the sensitivity of West Antarctica's climate, and potentially its ice sheet, to large-scale changes in the global climate.

  11. Plane-Wave Propagation in Extreme Magnetoelectric (EME) Media

    CERN Document Server

    Lindell, I V; Favaro, A

    2016-01-01

    The extreme magnetoelectric medium (EME medium) is defined in terms of two medium dyadics, $\\alpha$, producing electric polarization by the magnetic field and $\\beta$, producing magnetic polarization by the electric field. Plane-wave propagation of time-harmonic fields of fixed finite frequency in the EME medium is studied. It is shown that (if $\\omega\

  12. Multidimensional extremal dependence coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Extreme values modeling has attracting the attention of researchers in diverse areas such as the environment, engineering, or finance. Multivariate extreme value distributions are particularly suitable to model the tails of multidimensional phenomena. The analysis of the dependence among multivariate maxima is useful to evaluate risk. Here we present new multivariate extreme value models, as well as, coefficients to assess multivariate extremal dependence.

  13. The European Extreme Right and Religious Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Camus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideology of the Extreme Right in Western Europe is rooted in Catholic fundamentalism and Counter-Revolutionary ideas. However, the Extreme Right, like all other political families, has had to adjust to an increasingly secular society. The old link between religion and the Extreme Right has thus been broken and in fact already was when Fascism overtook Europe: Fascism was secular, sometimes even anti-religious, in its essence. Although Catholic fundamentalists still retain strong positions within the apparatus of several Extreme Right parties (Front National, the vote for the Extreme Right is generally weak among regular churchgoers and strong among non-believers. In several countries, the vote for the Extreme Right is stronger among Protestant voters than among Catholics, since while Catholics may support Christian-Democratic parties, there are very few political parties linked to Protestant churches. Presently, it also seems that Paganism is becoming the dominant religious creed within the Extreme Right. In a multicultural Europe, non-Christian forms of religious fundamentalism such as Islamism also exist with ideological similarities to the Extreme Right, but this is not sufficient to categorize Islamism as a form of Fascism. Some Islamist groups seek alliances with the Extreme Right on the basis of their common dislike for Israel and the West, globalization and individual freedom of thought.

  14. Extreme Environments: The Ghetto and the South Pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Chester M.

    Extreme environments, such as polar regions or space crafts, provide an analogue for speculations concerning the needs of, educational provisions for, and environmental impacts on ghetto youth in kindergarten through the third grade. This discussion first centers on the common qualities of an extreme environment (whether exotic or mundane): forced…

  15. Early cenozoic differentiation of polar marine faunas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alistair Crame

    Full Text Available The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability.

  16. Vital warmth and well-being: steambathing as household therapy among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of highland Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groark, Kevin P

    2005-08-01

    Among the Maya, the cultural history of steambathing spans more than two millennia. Although it has largely disappeared from the lowlands, household-level steambathing persists in several highland Maya communities in Chiapas, Mexico. In this article, I present an overview of therapeutic steambathing among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya. Through an extended discussion of the beliefs and practices surrounding steambathing, I develop several features of highland Maya thinking about physical health and "well-being". In particular, I examine a set of ethnophysiological representations relating to the "thermal" nature of functional bodies, and the relationship of these models to the maintenance and restoration of health. The highland Maya have articulated an elaborate understanding of physical health and well-being coded in an idiom of "vital warmth", and directed toward the preservation and augmentation of the endogenous heat necessary for vitality and vigor. These models simultaneously reflect empirical understandings of bodily states in health and illness, as well as metaphorical assumptions about the thermal nature of functional psychosocial identities. Steambathing draws on and reinforces these models, constituting a core cultural technology for radically altering the thermal state of the patient, an experience which the highland Maya regard as deeply beneficial. The paper closes with a discussion of recent biomedical research into the physiological effects of hyperthermal therapies.

  17. Effects of parental emotional warmth on the relationship between regional gray matter volume and depression-related personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Yin, Ping; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Yongmei; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-06-01

    The depression-related personality trait is associated with the severity of patients' current depressive symptoms and with the vulnerability to depression within the nonclinical groups. However, little is known about the anatomical structure associated with the depression-related personality traits within the nonclinical sample. Parenting behavior is associated with the depression symptoms; however, whether or not parenting behavior influence the neural basis of the depression-related personality traits is unclear. Thus in current study, first, we used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in depression-related personality traits, as measured by the revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory, in a large sample of young healthy adults. Second, we use mediation analysis to investigate the relationship between parenting behavior and neural basis of depression-related personality traits. The results revealed that depression-related personality traits were positively correlated with gray matter volume mainly in medial frontal gyrus (MFG) that is implicated in the self-referential processing and emotional regulation. Furthermore, parental emotional warmth acted as a mediational mechanism underlying the association between the MFG volume and the depression-related personality trait. Together, our findings suggested that the family environment might play an important role in the acquisition and process of the depression-related personality traits.

  18. Indirect Effects of the Fast Track Intervention on Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Callous-Unemotional Traits: Distinct Pathways Involving Discipline and Warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about intervening processes that explain how prevention programs improve particular youth antisocial outcomes. We examined whether parental harsh discipline and warmth in childhood differentially account for Fast Track intervention effects on conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in early adolescence. Participants included 891 high-risk kindergarteners (69% male; 51% African American) from urban and rural United States communities who were randomized into either the Fast Track intervention (n = 445) or non-intervention control (n = 446) groups. The 10-year intervention included parent management training and other services (e.g., social skills training, universal classroom curriculum) targeting various risk factors for the development of conduct problems. Harsh discipline (Grades 1 to 3) and warmth (Grades 1 and 2) were measured using parent responses to vignettes and direct observations of parent-child interaction, respectively. Parents reported on children's CD symptoms in Grade 6 and CU traits in Grade 7. Results demonstrated indirect effects of the Fast Track intervention on reducing risk for youth antisocial outcomes. That is, Fast Track was associated with lower scores on harsh discipline, which in turn predicted decreased levels of CD symptoms. In addition, Fast Track was associated with higher scores on warmth, which in turn predicted reduced levels of CU traits. Our findings inform developmental and intervention models of youth antisocial behavior by providing evidence for the differential role of harsh discipline and warmth in accounting for indirect effects of Fast Track on CD symptoms versus CU traits, respectively.

  19. Culture–General and –Specific Associations of Attachment Avoidance and Anxiety with Perceived Parental Warmth and Psychological Control among Turk and Belgian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2010-01-01

    Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent–child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Alto...

  20. Polar Shapelets

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, R; Massey, Richard; Refregier, Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    The shapelets method for astronomical image analysis is based around the decomposition of localised objects into a series of orthogonal components with particularly convenient mathematical properties. We extend the "Cartesian shapelet" formalism from earlier work, and construct "polar shapelet" basis functions that separate an image into components with explicit rotational symmetries. This provides a more compact representation of typical galaxy shapes, and its physical interpretation is frequently more intuitive. Linear coordinate transformations can be simply expressed using this basis set, and shape measures (including object photometry, astrometry and galaxy morphology estimators) take a naturally elegant form. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of astronomical survey images, and we test shapelet techniques with real data from the Hubble Space Telescope. We present a practical method to automatically optimise the quality of an arbitrary shapelet decomposition in the presence of noise, pixellisat...

  1. The Moderating Role of Parental Warmth on the Relation Between Verbal Punishment and Child Problem Behaviors for Same-sex and Cross-sex Parent-Child Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anonas, Maria Roberta L; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the relation between parental verbal punishment and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in Filipino children, and the moderating role of parental warmth in this relation, for same-sex (mothers-girls; fathers-boys) and cross-sex parent-child groups (mothers-boys; fathers-girls). Measures used were the Rohner Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control Scale (PARQ/Control), the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), and a discipline measure (DI) constructed for the study. Participants were 117 mothers and 98 fathers of 61 boys and 59 girls who responded to a discipline interview, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control scale (PARQ/Control) and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist via oral interviews. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses (with Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels) revealed that maternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to internalizing and externalizing outcomes in boys and girls whereas paternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to girls' externalizing behavior. Significant interactions between verbal punishment and maternal warmth in mother-girl groups were also found for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. While higher maternal warmth ameliorated the impact of low verbal punishment on girls' internalizing and externalizing behaviors, it exacerbated the effect of high verbal punishment on negative outcomes.

  2. Helicity-Selective Enhancement and Polarization Control of Attosecond High Harmonic Waveforms Driven by Bichromatic Circularly Polarized Laser Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Kevin M.; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Mancuso, Christopher A.; Brooks, Nathan; Fan, Tingting; Fan, Guangyu; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrik; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2017-08-01

    High harmonics driven by two-color counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields are a unique source of bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet, and soft x-ray beams, where the individual harmonics themselves are completely circularly polarized. Here, we demonstrate the ability to preferentially select either the right or left circularly polarized harmonics simply by adjusting the relative intensity ratio of the bichromatic circularly polarized driving laser field. In the frequency domain, this significantly enhances the harmonic orders that rotate in the same direction as the higher-intensity driving laser. In the time domain, this helicity-dependent enhancement corresponds to control over the polarization of the resulting attosecond waveforms. This helicity control enables the generation of circularly polarized high harmonics with a user-defined polarization of the underlying attosecond bursts. In the future, this technique should allow for the production of bright highly elliptical harmonic supercontinua as well as the generation of isolated elliptically polarized attosecond pulses.

  3. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  4. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Kuipers, T.; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  5. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  6. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  7. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  8. Reconfigurable thz polarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a polarizer. The polarizer comprises a first membrane having a first polarization region comprising a first plurality of membrane perforations; a second membrane having a second polarization region comprising a second plurality of membrane perforations; and a support...... with one or more membrane perforations in the second plurality of perforations in a direction normal to the first polarization region or normal to the second polarization region, resulting in corresponding one or more openings in said direction....

  9. Coordinated process of polarized growth in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Norio

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous fungi are extremely polarized organisms, exhibiting continuous growth at their hyphal tips. The hyphal form is related to their pathogenicity in animals and plants, and their high secretion ability for biotechnology. Polarized growth requires a sequential supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. This transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Therefore, the arrangement of the cytoskeleton is a crucial step to establish and maintain the cell polarity. This review summarizes recent findings unraveling the mechanism of polarized growth with special emphasis on the role of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and polarity marker proteins. Rapid insertions of membranes via highly active exocytosis at hyphal tips could quickly dilute the accumulated polarity marker proteins. Recent findings by a super-resolution microscopy indicate that filamentous fungal cells maintain their polarity at the tips by repeating transient assembly and disassembly of polarity sites.

  10. Bacteriophage in polar inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säwström, Christin; Lisle, John; Anesio, A.M.; Priscu, John C.; Laybourn-Parry, J.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteriophages are found wherever microbial life is present and play a significant role in aquatic ecosystems. They mediate microbial abundance, production, respiration, diversity, genetic transfer, nutrient cycling and particle size distribution. Most studies of bacteriophage ecology have been undertaken at temperate latitudes. Data on bacteriophages in polar inland waters are scant but the indications are that they play an active and dynamic role in these microbially dominated polar ecosystems. This review summarises what is presently known about polar inland bacteriophages, ranging from subglacial Antarctic lakes to glacial ecosystems in the Arctic. The review examines interactions between bacteriophages and their hosts and the abiotic and biotic variables that influence these interactions in polar inland waters. In addition, we consider the proportion of the bacteria in Arctic and Antarctic lake and glacial waters that are lysogenic and visibly infected with viruses. We assess the relevance of bacteriophages in the microbial loop in the extreme environments of Antarctic and Arctic inland waters with an emphasis on carbon cycling.

  11. A 77-118 GHz RESONANCE-FREE SEPTUM POLARIZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiueh, Tzihong; Teng, Hsiao-Feng, E-mail: chiuehth@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 106 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of polarized radiation often reveal specific physical properties of emission sources, such as the strengths and orientations of magnetic fields offered by synchrotron radiation and Zeeman line emission, and the electron density distribution caused by free-free emission. Polarization-capable, millimeter/sub-millimeter telescopes are normally equipped with either septum polarizers or ortho-mode transducers (OMT) to detect polarized radiation. Though the septum polarizer is limited to a significantly narrower bandwidth than the OMT, it possesses advantageous features unparalleled by the OMT when it comes to determining astronomical polarization measurements. We design an extremely wide-band circular waveguide septum polarizer, covering 42% bandwidth, from 77 GHz to 118 GHz, without any undesired resonance, challenging the conventional bandwidth limit. Stokes parameters, constructed from the measured data between 77 GHz and 115 GHz, show that the leakage from I to Q and U is below ±2%, and the Q – U mutual leakage is below ±1%. Such a performance is comparable to other modern polarizers, but the bandwidth of this polarizer can be at least twice as wide. This extremely wide-band design removes the major weakness of the septum polarizer and opens up a new window for future astronomical polarization measurements.

  12. A 77-118 GHz Resonance-free Septum Polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiueh, Tzihong; Teng, Hsiao-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of polarized radiation often reveal specific physical properties of emission sources, such as the strengths and orientations of magnetic fields offered by synchrotron radiation and Zeeman line emission, and the electron density distribution caused by free-free emission. Polarization-capable, millimeter/sub-millimeter telescopes are normally equipped with either septum polarizers or ortho-mode transducers (OMT) to detect polarized radiation. Though the septum polarizer is limited to a significantly narrower bandwidth than the OMT, it possesses advantageous features unparalleled by the OMT when it comes to determining astronomical polarization measurements. We design an extremely wide-band circular waveguide septum polarizer, covering 42% bandwidth, from 77 GHz to 118 GHz, without any undesired resonance, challenging the conventional bandwidth limit. Stokes parameters, constructed from the measured data between 77 GHz and 115 GHz, show that the leakage from I to Q and U is below ±2%, and the Q - U mutual leakage is below ±1%. Such a performance is comparable to other modern polarizers, but the bandwidth of this polarizer can be at least twice as wide. This extremely wide-band design removes the major weakness of the septum polarizer and opens up a new window for future astronomical polarization measurements.

  13. Quantum Electrodynamics vacuum polarization solver

    CERN Document Server

    Carneiro, Pedro; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luís

    2016-01-01

    The self-consistent modeling of vacuum polarization due to virtual electron-positron fluctuations is of relevance for many near term experiments associated with high intensity radiation sources and represents a milestone in describing scenarios of extreme energy density. We present a generalized finite-difference time-domain solver that can incorporate the modifications to Maxwells equations due to virtual vacuum polarization. Our multidimensional solver reproduced in one dimensional configurations the results for which an analytic treatment is possible, yielding vacuum harmonic generation and birefringence. The solver has also been tested for two-dimensional scenarios where finite laser beam spot sizes must be taken into account. We employ this solver to explore different types of counter-propagating configurations that can be relevant for future planned experiments aiming to detect quantum vacuum dynamics at ultra-high electromagnetic field intensities.

  14. A broadband, circular-polarization selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin; Behdad, Nader

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a new technique for designing wideband circular-polarization selective surfaces (CPSSs) based on anisotropic miniaturized element frequency selective surfaces. The proposed structure is a combination of two linear-to-circular polarization converters sandwiching a linear polarizer. This CPSS consists of a number of metallic layers separated from each other by thin dielectric substrates. The metallic layers are in the form of two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength capacitive patches and inductive wire grids with asymmetric dimensions and a wire grid polarizer with sub-wavelength period. The proposed device is designed to offer a wideband circular-polarization selection capability allowing waves with left-hand circular polarization to pass through while rejecting those having right-hand circular polarization. A synthesis procedure is developed that can be used to design the proposed CPSS based on its desired band of operation. Using this procedure, a prototype of the proposed CPSS operating in the 12-18 GHz is designed. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations are used to predict the response of this structure. These simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed design concept and synthesis procedure and show that proposed CPSS operates within a fractional bandwidth of 40% with a co-polarization transmission discrimination of more than 15 dB. Furthermore, the proposed design is shown to be capable of providing an extremely wide field of view of ±60°.

  15. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  16. Perceptions of family criticism and warmth and their link to symptom expression in racially/ethnically diverse adolescents and young adults at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Katherine H; López, Steve; Marvin, Sarah; Zinberg, Jamie; Cannon, Tyrone D; O'Brien, Mary; Bearden, Carrie E

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the role of expressed emotion (EE) in early symptom expression in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. In patients with established schizophrenia, the effects of EE on clinical outcomes have purportedly varied across racial/ethnic groups, but this has not yet been investigated among CHR patients. Furthermore, studies have traditionally focused upon caregiver levels of EE via interview-based ratings, whereas the literature on patient perceptions of caregiver EE on psychosis symptoms is relatively limited. Linear regression models were conducted to examine the impact of criticism and perceived warmth in the family environment, from the CHR patient's perspective, on positive and negative symptom expression in non-Latino white (NLW; n = 38) and Latino (n = 11) adolescents and young adults at CHR for developing psychosis. Analyses examining the sample as a whole demonstrated that perceived levels of maternal criticism were negatively associated with negative CHR symptomatology. Additional analyses indicated that race/ethnicity moderated the relationship between criticism/warmth and clinical symptomatology. We found evidence of a contrasting role of patient perceived criticism and warmth depending upon the patient's race/ethnicity. Family processes shown to impact the course of schizophrenia among NLWs may function differently among Latino than NLW patients. These findings have important implications for the development of culturally appropriate interventions and may aid efforts to improve the effectiveness of mental health services for diverse adolescents and young adults at CHR for psychosis. Given the small sample size of this study, analyses should be replicated in a larger study before more definitive conclusions can be made. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Polarized Light in Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The application of very sensitive electronic detecting devices during the last decade has revolutionized and revitalized the study of polarization in celestial objects. The nature of polarization, how polaroids work, interstellar polarization, dichroic filters, polarization by scattering, and modern polarimetry are among the topics discussed. (JN)

  18. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  19. Mike's Guiding Warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Mike Elrick knew how to stay warm. He loved to wrap himself from head to toe in wool; the author pictures Mike as a wool-clad moccasin-footed snow walker twisting into lampwick harnesses with his trail axe looped through his belt. Mike looked forward to winter and welcomed a drop in the mercury--the lower the better! He loved the physical work of…

  20. Facets of the Fundamental Content Dimensions: Agency with Competence and Assertiveness—Communion with Warmth and Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Andrea E.; Hauke, Nicole; Peters, Kim; Louvet, Eva; Szymkow, Aleksandra; Duan, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Agency (A) and communion (C) are fundamental content dimensions. We propose a facet-model that differentiates A into assertiveness (AA) and competence (AC) and C into warmth (CW) and morality (CM). We tested the model in a cross-cultural study by comparing data from Asia, Australia, Europe, and the USA (overall N = 1.808). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported our model. Both the two-factor model and the four-factor model showed good fit indices across countries. Participants answered additional measures intended to demonstrate the fruitfulness of distinguishing the facets. The findings support the model's construct validity by positioning the fundamental dimensions and their facets within a network of self-construal, values, impression management, and the Big Five personality factors: In all countries, A was related to independent self-construal and to agentic values, C was related to interdependent self-construal and to communal values. Regarding the facets, AA was always related to A values, but the association of AC with A values fell below our effect size criterion in four of the five countries. A (both AA and AC) was related to agentic impression management. However, C (both CW and CM) was neither related to communal nor to agentic impression management. Regarding the Big Five personality factors, A was related to emotional stability, to extraversion, and to conscientiousness. C was related to agreeableness and to extraversion. AA was more strongly related to emotional stability and extraversion than AC. CW was more strongly related to extraversion and agreeableness than CM. We could also show that self-esteem was more related to AA than AC; and that it was related to CM, but not to CW. Our research shows that (a) the fundamental dimensions of A and C are stable across cultures; and (b) that the here proposed distinction of facets of A and C is fruitful in analyzing self-perception. The here proposed measure, the AC-IN, may be a useful tool

  1. Facets of the Fundamental Content Dimensions:Agency with Competence and Assertiveness– Communion with Warmth and Morality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Elisabeth Abele

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Agency (A and communion (C are fundamental content dimensions. We propose a facet-model that differentiates A into assertiveness (AA and competence (AC and C into warmth (CW and morality (CM. We tested the model in a cross-cultural study by comparing data from Asia, Australia, Europe, and the USA (overall N = 1.808. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported our model. Both the two-factor model and the four-factor model showed good fit indices across countries. Participants answered additional measures intended to demonstrate the fruitfulness of distinguishing the facets. The findings support the model’s construct validity by positioning the fundamental dimensions and their facets within a network of self-construal, values, impression management, and the Big Five personality factors: In all countries, A was related to independent self-construal and to agentic values, C was related to interdependent self-construal and to communal values. Regarding the facets, AA was always related to A values, but the association of AC with A values fell below our effect size criterion in four of the five countries. A (both AA and AC was related to agentic impression management. However, C (both CW and CM was neither related to communal nor to agentic impression management. Regarding the Big Five personality factors, A was related to emotional stability, to extraversion, and to conscientiousness. C was related to agreeableness and to extraversion. AA was more strongly related to emotional stability and extraversion than AC. CW was more strongly related to extraversion and agreeableness than CM. We could also show that self-esteem was more related to AA than AC; and that it was related to CM, but not to CW. Our research shows that (a the fundamental dimensions of A and C are stable across cultures; and (b that the here proposed distinction of facets of A and C is fruitful in analyzing self-perception. The here proposed measure, the AC-IN, may be a

  2. Facets of the Fundamental Content Dimensions: Agency with Competence and Assertiveness-Communion with Warmth and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Andrea E; Hauke, Nicole; Peters, Kim; Louvet, Eva; Szymkow, Aleksandra; Duan, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Agency (A) and communion (C) are fundamental content dimensions. We propose a facet-model that differentiates A into assertiveness (AA) and competence (AC) and C into warmth (CW) and morality (CM). We tested the model in a cross-cultural study by comparing data from Asia, Australia, Europe, and the USA (overall N = 1.808). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported our model. Both the two-factor model and the four-factor model showed good fit indices across countries. Participants answered additional measures intended to demonstrate the fruitfulness of distinguishing the facets. The findings support the model's construct validity by positioning the fundamental dimensions and their facets within a network of self-construal, values, impression management, and the Big Five personality factors: In all countries, A was related to independent self-construal and to agentic values, C was related to interdependent self-construal and to communal values. Regarding the facets, AA was always related to A values, but the association of AC with A values fell below our effect size criterion in four of the five countries. A (both AA and AC) was related to agentic impression management. However, C (both CW and CM) was neither related to communal nor to agentic impression management. Regarding the Big Five personality factors, A was related to emotional stability, to extraversion, and to conscientiousness. C was related to agreeableness and to extraversion. AA was more strongly related to emotional stability and extraversion than AC. CW was more strongly related to extraversion and agreeableness than CM. We could also show that self-esteem was more related to AA than AC; and that it was related to CM, but not to CW. Our research shows that (a) the fundamental dimensions of A and C are stable across cultures; and (b) that the here proposed distinction of facets of A and C is fruitful in analyzing self-perception. The here proposed measure, the AC-IN, may be a useful tool

  3. Coherent population trapping with polarization modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Peter; de Clercq, Emeric

    2016-01-01

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) is extensively studied for future vapor cell clocks of high frequency stability. In the constructive polarization modulation CPT scheme, a bichromatic laser field with polarization and phase synchronously modulated is applied on an atomic medium. A high contrast CPT signal is observed in this so-called double-modulation configuration, due to the fact that the atomic population does not leak to the extreme Zeeman states, and that the two CPT dark states, which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations, add constructively. Here we experimentally investigate CPT signal dynamics first in the usual configuration, a single circular polarization. The double-modulation scheme is then addressed in both cases: one pulse Rabi interaction and two pulses Ramsey interaction. The impact and the optimization of the experimental parameters involved in the time sequence are reviewed. We show that a simple sevenlevel model explains the experimental observations. The double-modul...

  4. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  5. A 77-118 GHz Resonance-free Septum Polarizer

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Teng, Hsiao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the polarized radiation often reveal specific physical properties of emission sources, such as strengths and orientations of magnetic fields offered by synchrotron radiation and Zeeman line emission, and the electron density distribution by free-free emission. Polarization-capable, millimeter/sub-millimeter telescopes are normally equipped with either septum polarizers or ortho-mode transducers (OMT) for the detection of polarized radiation. While the septum polarizer is traditionally conceived to be limited to a significantly narrower bandwidth than the OMT, it does possess advantageous features for astronomical polarization measurements unparalleled by the OMT. Challenging the conventional bandwidth limit, we design an extremely wideband circular waveguide septum polarizer, covering $42\\%$ bandwidth, from 77 GHz to 118 GHz, without any undesired resonance. Stokes parameters constructed from the measured data in between 77 GHz and 115 GHz show that the leakage from $I$ to $Q$ and $U$ is below...

  6. Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Tao, Zhensheng; Hernández-García, Carlos; Matyba, Piotr; Carr, Adra; Knut, Ronny; Kfir, Ofer; Zusin, Dimitry; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrik; Cohen, Oren; Plaja, Luis; Becker, Andreas; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray high-harmonic beams can now be produced using counter-rotating circularly polarized driving laser fields. Although the resulting circularly polarized harmonics consist of relatively simple pairs of peaks in the spectral domain, in the time domain, the field is predicted to emerge as a complex series of rotating linearly polarized bursts, varying rapidly in amplitude, frequency, and polarization. We extend attosecond metrology techniques to circularly polarized light by simultaneously irradiating a copper surface with circularly polarized high-harmonic and linearly polarized infrared laser fields. The resulting temporal modulation of the photoelectron spectra carries essential phase information about the EUV field. Utilizing the polarization selectivity of the solid surface and by rotating the circularly polarized EUV field in space, we fully retrieve the amplitude and phase of the circularly polarized harmonics, allowing us to reconstruct one of the most complex coherent light fields produced to date.

  7. WFPC2 Polarization Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biretta, J.; McMaster, M.

    1997-12-01

    We derive a detailed calibration for WFPC2 polarization data which is accurate to about 1.5%. We begin by computing polarizer flats, and show how they are applied to data. A physical model for the polarization effects of the WFPC2 optics is then created using Mueller matricies. This model includes corrections for the instrumental polarization (diattenuation and phase retardance) of the pick-off mirror, as well as the high cross-polarization transmission of the polarizer filter. We compare this model against the on-orbit observations of polarization calibrators, and show it predicts relative counts in the different polarizer/aperture settings to 1.5% RMS accuracy. We then show how this model can be used to calibrate GO data, and present two WWW tools which allow observers to easily calibrate their data. Detailed examples are given illustrationg the calibration and display of WFPC2 polarization data. In closing we describe future plans and possible improvements.

  8. Metasurface polarization splitter

    CERN Document Server

    Slovick, Brian A; Yu, Zhi Gang; Kravchenckou, Ivan I; Briggs, Dayrl P; Moitra, Parikshit; Krishnamurthy, Srini; Valentine, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Polarization beam splitters, devices that separate the two orthogonal polarizations of light into different propagation directions, are one of the most ubiquitous optical elements. However, traditionally polarization splitters rely on bulky optical materials, while emerging optoelectronic and photonic circuits require compact, chip-scale polarization splitters. Here we show that a subwavelength rectangular lattice of cylindrical silicon Mie resonators functions as a polarization splitter, efficiently reflecting one polarization while transmitting the other. We show that the polarization splitting arises from the anisotropic permittivity and permeability of the metasurface due to the two-fold rotational symmetry of the rectangular unit cell. The high polarization efficiency, low loss, and low profile make these metasurface polarization splitters ideally suited for monolithic integration with optoelectronic and photonic circuits.

  9. The mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between harsh parental practices and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in Hispanic American, African American, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Elif Dede; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2015-07-01

    Using data from the add-on 5-year cohort of In-Home Longitudinal Study of preschool aged Children of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), we examined the mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between positive and harsh maternal practices and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of 1,922 low-income Hispanic American, African American, and European American families. For European Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression and hostility and children's externalizing behaviors were direct. Similarly, for Hispanic Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression, physical assault, and hostility and externalizing behaviors were direct, as was the link between maternal physical assault and internalizing behaviors. For African Americans, maternal warmth partially mediated the links between maternal hostility and physical assault and externalizing behaviors. However, the associations between psychological aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors were direct. The data are discussed with respect to similarities in cultural pathways of influence between harsh maternal treatment and children's behavioral difficulties across ethnic groups.

  10. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.

  11. Wide band polarizer with suspended germanium resonant grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wugang Cao; Jianyong Ma; Changhe Zhou

    2012-01-01

    An ultra broad band polarizer that operates in the telecommunication wavelength band is proposed.This device,which consists of a single suspended germanium resonant grating layer,is designed using the inverse mathematical method and the rigorous vector diffraction theory.Calculated results indicate that the ultra broad band polarizer exhibits extremely high reflection (R > 99%) for TE polarization light and high transmission (T > 99%) for TM polarization at the wavelength range greater than 300 nm,and it has an extinction ratio of approximately 1 000 at the 1 550-nm central wavelength.The results of the rigorous coupled wave analysis indicate that the extremely wide band property of the TE polarization is caused by the excitation of strong modulation guided modes in the design wavelength range.

  12. Polarized Electron Source Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles K. Sinclair

    1990-02-23

    Presently, only two methods of producing beams of polarized electrons for injection into linear accelerators are in use. Each of these methods uses optical pumping by circularly polarized light to produce electron polarization. In one case, electron polarization is established in metastable helium atoms, while in the other case, the polarized electrons are produced in the conduction band of appropriate semiconductors. The polarized electrons are liberated from the helium metastable by chemi-ionization, and from the semiconductors by lowering the work function at the surface of the material. Developments with each of these sources since the 1988 Spin Physics Conference are reviewed, and the prospects for further improvements discussed.

  13. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  14. Titan's south polar stratospheric vortex evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teanby, Nicholas A.; Vinatier, Sandrine; Sylvestre, Melody; de Kok, Remco; Nixon, Conor; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph

    2016-10-01

    Titan experienced northern spring equinox in August 2009 when the south polar region was plunged into perpetual darkness. Following equinox, the south pole experienced the most extreme changes in stratospheric behaviour ever observed: the global stratospheric circulation cell reversed direction (Teanby et al 2012), HCN ice clouds (de Kok et al 2014) and other exotic condensates appeared over the south pole (Jennings et al 2015, West et al 2016), and significant composition and temperature changes occurred (Vinatier et al 2015, Teanby et al 2015, Coustenis et al 2016). Here we use Cassini CIRS limb and nadir observations from 2004-2016 to investigate the evolution of south polar stratospheric temperature and composition in the post-equinox period. Reversal following equinox was extremely rapid, taking less than 6 months (1/60th of a Titan year), which resulted in an initial adiabatic polar hot spot and increased trace gas abundances (Teanby et al 2012). However, rather than develop this trend further as winter progressed, Titan's polar hot spot subsequently disappeared, with the formation of a polar cold spot. Recently in late 2015 / early 2016 a more subdued hotspot began to return with associated extreme trace gas abundances. This talk will reveal the rapid and significant changes observed so far and discuss implications for possible polar feedback mechanisms and Titan's atmospheric dynamics.Coustenis et al (2016), Icarus, 270, 409-420.de Kok et al (2014), Nature, 514, 65-67.Jennings et al (2015), ApJL, 804, L34.Teanby et al (2012), Nature, 491, 732-735.Teanby et al (2015), DPS47, National Harbor, 205.02.Vinatier et al (2015), Icarus, 250, 95-115.West et al (2016), Icarus, 270, 399-408.

  15. Extremal surface barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C. [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy.

  16. A Translational Polarization Rotator

    CERN Document Server

    Chuss, David T; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah

    2012-01-01

    We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident linear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.

  17. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  18. NESDIS VIIRS Polar Winds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains the Level 3 Polar Winds Northern and Southern Hemisphere datasets. The Level 3 Polar Winds data from VIIRS for the Arctic and Antarctic from 65...

  19. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  20. Extreme environments and exobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  1. Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Venous (Extremities) Venous ultrasound uses sound waves to ... limitations of Venous Ultrasound Imaging? What is Venous Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  2. Statistics of extremes

    CERN Document Server

    Gumbel, E J

    2012-01-01

    This classic text covers order statistics and their exceedances; exact distribution of extremes; the 1st asymptotic distribution; uses of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd asymptotes; more. 1958 edition. Includes 44 tables and 97 graphs.

  3. Stability of extremal metrics under complex deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rollin, Yann; Tipler, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Let $(\\mathcal {X},\\Omega)$ be a closed polarized complex manifold, $g$ be an extremal metric on $\\mathcal X$ that represents the K\\"ahler class $\\Omega$, and $G$ be a compact connected subgroup of the isometry group $Isom(\\mathcal{X},g)$. Assume that the Futaki invariant relative to $G$ is nondegenerate at $g$. Consider a smooth family $(\\mathcal{M}\\to B)$ of polarized complex deformations of $(\\mathcal{X},\\Omega)\\simeq (\\mathcal{M}_0,\\Theta_0)$ provided with a holomorphic action of $G$. Then for every $t\\in B$ sufficiently small, there exists an $h^{1,1}(\\cX)$-dimensional family of extremal K\\"ahler metrics on $\\mathcal{M}_t$ whose K\\"ahler classes are arbitrarily close to $\\Theta_t$. We apply this deformation theory to analyze the Mukai-Umemura 3-fold and its complex deformations. In particular, we prove that there are certain complex deformation of the Mukai-Umemura 3-folds which have extremal metric of non constant scalar curvature with Kaehler class $c_1$.

  4. GNSS-Reflectometry: Forest canopies polarization scattering properties and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuerui; Jin, Shuanggen

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) can be a new promising remote sensing tool in the ocean, snow/ice and land surfaces, e.g., vegetation biomass monitoring. Although GNSS-R provides a potentially special L-band multi-angular and multi-polarization measurement, the theoretical vegetation scattering properties and mechanisms for GNSS-R are not understood clearly. In this paper, the GNSS-R vegetation polarization scattering properties are studied and modeled at different incidence angles (specular direction). The bistatic scattering model Bi-mimics is employed, which is the first-order radiative transfer equation. As a kind of forest stand, the Aspen’s crown layer is composed of entire leaves, and its parameters in Mimics handbook are used as model input. The specular circular polarizations (co-polarization RR and cross-polarization LR) are simulated. For cross-polarization, the received polarization is assumed as a linear (horizontal and vertical) polarizations and ±45° linear polarizations. Therefore, the HR VR, +45R and -45R polarizations are simulated here. Contributions from different scattering components at RR, LR and VR polarization are also presented. For co-polarization, it is large in the whole specular angles (10-80°). The scattering trends of the other cross polarization (HR, LR, +45R and -45R) are a little similar when compared to the RR and RV. Therefore, the RHCP and V polarizations are more favorable to collect the reflected signals. The trunk heights and crown depths do not affect the scattering trends of RR, RV and RL, while the trunk height has some effect on the scattering amplitude of different polarizations. The azimuth angle has more effects on RR, RL and RV scattering, especially in lower than 50°. The observation angles and polarization combinations are extremely important for GNSS-R remote sensing.

  5. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takashi [Department of Engineering Physics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Polarization of radiation emitted from a plasma reflects the anisotropic properties of the plasma, especially the angular anisotropic distribution of electron velocities. Polarization has been observed on impurity ion lines from the WT-3 tokamak and the GAMMA-10 tandem mirror machines. The soft x-ray laser line from the neonlike germanium was also found polarized. (author)

  6. Polarity at Many Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2004-01-01

    An attempt is made to find how polarity arises and is maintained, which is a central issue in development. It is a fundamental attribute of living things and cellular polarity is also important in the development of multicellular organisms and controversial new work indicates that polarization in mammals may occur much earlier than previously…

  7. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  8. Graphing Polar Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawes, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  9. Polarization squeezing of light by single passage through an atomic vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, S.; Valente, P.; Failache, H.; Lezama, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de la Republica, J. Herrera y Reissig 565, 11300 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2011-09-15

    We have studied relative-intensity fluctuations for a variable set of orthogonal elliptic polarization components of a linearly polarized laser beam traversing a resonant {sup 87}Rb vapor cell. Significant polarization squeezing at the threshold level (-3dB) required for the implementation of several continuous-variable quantum protocols was observed. The extreme simplicity of the setup, which is based on standard polarization components, makes it particularly convenient for quantum information applications.

  10. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  11. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  12. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  13. Polarity inversion in polar-nonpolar-polar heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S; Youn, S J; Kim, Y; DiVenere, A; Wong, G K; Freeman, A J; Ketterson, J B

    2001-09-17

    We have observed an epilayer-thickness-dependent polarity inversion for the growth of CdTe on Sb(Bi)/CdTe(111)B. For films with Sb(Bi) thicknesses of less than 40 A (15 A), the CdTe layer shows a B (Te-terminated) face, but it switches to an A (Cd-terminated) face for thicker layers. On the other hand, a CdTe layer grown on Bi(Sb)/CdTe(111)A always shows the A face regardless of Sb or Bi layer thicknesses. In order to address the observations we have performed ab initio calculations, which suggest that the polarity of a polar material on a nonpolar one results from the binding energy difference between the two possible surface configurations.

  14. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.

    2015-04-10

    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  15. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  16. Precursors of extreme increments

    CERN Document Server

    Hallerberg, S; Holstein, D; Kantz, H; Hallerberg, Sarah; Altmann, Eduardo G.; Holstein, Detlef; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    We investigate precursors and predictability of extreme events in time series, which consist in large increments within successive time steps. In order to understand the predictability of this class of extreme events, we study analytically the prediction of extreme increments in AR(1)-processes. The resulting strategies are then applied to predict sudden increases in wind speed recordings. In both cases we evaluate the success of predictions via creating receiver operator characteristics (ROC-plots). Surprisingly, we obtain better ROC-plots for completely uncorrelated Gaussian random numbers than for AR(1)-correlated data. Furthermore, we observe an increase of predictability with increasing event size. Both effects can be understood by using the likelihood ratio as a summary index for smooth ROC-curves.

  17. Warmth from skin-to-skin contact with mother is essential for the acquisition of filial huddling preference in preweanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Sayuri; Alberts, Jeffrey R

    2011-12-01

    During a single, 2-hr session with a scented foster dam, preweanling rat pups form an affiliative attraction to an odor associated with the maternal caregiver, manifest as a huddling preference. To identify maternal stimuli that induce this filial preference, we quantitatively examined behavioral interactions during odor conditioning. Bout duration of skin-to-skin (STS) contact was positively associated with the preference. In contrast, simple physical contact and anogenital licking were not significantly related to the preference. The frequency of nonanogenital licking was negatively associated with the preference as well as with bout duration of STS contact. When odor conditioning was conducted with a warm cylinder, ambient warmth, or stroking as the unconditioned stimulus, only pups exposed to the warm cylinder exhibited a preference for the conditioned odor. These results suggest a positive, affiliative effect of maternal STS contact on pup filial preference, which may be disrupted by maternal licking.

  18. Benefits of a health impact assessment in relation to fuel poverty: assessing Luton's Affordable Warmth Strategy and the need for a national mandatory strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jill; Habgood, Veronica

    2008-05-01

    The links between fuel poverty and poor health are well documented, yet there is no statutory requirement on local authorities to develop fuel poverty strategies, which tend to be patchy nationally and differ substantially in quality. Fuel poverty starts from the perspective of income, even though interventions can improve health. The current public health agenda calls for more partnership-based, cost-effective strategies based on sound evidence. Fuel poverty represents a key area where there is currently little local evidence quantifying and qualifying health gain arising from strategic interventions. As a result, this initial study sought to apply the principles of a health impact assessment to Luton's Affordable Warmth Strategy, exploring the potential to identify health impact arising--as a baseline for future research--in the context of the public health agenda. A national strategy would help ensure the promotion of targeted fuel poverty strategies.

  19. Device For Viewing Polarized Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Technique for detection of polarized light based on observation of scene through two stacked polarizing disks. No need to rotate polarizers to create flicker indicative of polarization. Implemented by relatively simple, lightweight apparatus. Polarization seen as bow-tie rainbow pattern. Advantageous for detecting polarization in variety of meteorological, geological, astronomical, and related applications.

  20. The Formation of Polar Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brook, Chris B; Quinn, Thomas; Wadsley, James; Brooks, Alyson M; Willman, Beth; Stilp, Adrienne; Jonsson, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    Polar Ring Galaxies, such as NGC4650A, are a class of galaxy which have two kinematically distinct components that are inclined by almost 90 degrees to each other. These striking galaxies challenge our understanding of how galaxies form; the origin of their distinct components has remained uncertain, and the subject of much debate. We use high-resolution cosmological simulations of galaxy formation to show that Polar Ring Galaxies are simply an extreme example of the angular moment misalignment that occurs during the hierarchical structure formation characteristic of Cold Dark Matter cosmology. In our model, Polar Ring Galaxies form through the continuous accretion of gas whose angular momentum is misaligned with the central galaxy.

  1. Polarization Effects in Superfluid 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineev, V. P.

    2011-03-01

    A theory of thermoelectric phenomena in superfluid 4He is developed. It is found an estimation of the dipole moment of helium atom arising due to electron shell deformation caused by pushing forces from the side of its surrounding atoms. The corresponding electric signal generated in a liquid consisting of electrically neutral atoms by the ordinary sound waves is found extremely small. The second sound waves in superfluid 4He generate the polarization of liquid induced by the relative accelerated motion of the superfluid and the normal component. The derived ratio of the amplitudes of temperature and electric polarization potential was proved to be practically temperature independent. Its magnitude is in reasonable correspondence with the experimental observations. The polarity of electric signal is determined by the sign of temperature gradient in accordance with the measurements. The problem of the roton excitations dipole moment is also discussed.

  2. Curling Up With a Good E-Book: Mother-Child Shared Story Reading on Screen or Paper Affects Embodied Interaction and Warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Martin, Alex F

    2016-01-01

    This study compared changes in cognitive, affective, and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children's shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 min in each of four conditions: mother or child as reader, paper, or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analyzed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers' commentaries and quality of children's recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviors that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children's transition to independent reading.

  3. Curling up with a good e-book: Mother-child shared story reading on screen or paper affects embodied interaction and warmth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Yuill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared changes in cognitive, affective and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children’s shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 minutes in each of 4 conditions: mother or child as reader, paper or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analysed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers’ commentaries and quality of children’s recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviours that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children’s transition to independent reading.

  4. Weather and Climate Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Antarctica’s highest (New Zealand Antarctic Society, 1974). This extreme exceeded the record of 58°F (14.4°C) that occurred on 20 October 1956 at Esperanza ... Esperanza (also known as Bahia Esperanza , Hope Bay) was in operation from 1945 through the early 1960s. Meteorological/Climatological Factors: This extreme...cm) Location: Grand Ilet, La R’eunion Island [21°00’S, 55°30’E] Date: 26 January 1980 WORLD’S GREATEST 24-HOUR RAINFALL 72 in (182.5 cm

  5. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure.

  6. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  7. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable ext

  8. Hydrological extremes and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  9. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tend to impact at arterial bifurcations, the commonest site being the ... Other ominous signs of advanced ischaemia include bluish ... Recommended standards for lower extremity ischaemia*. Doppler signals ... of the embolectomy procedure. An ... in a cath-lab or angio-suite under local ... We serially measure the aPTT and.

  10. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  11. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2003-01-01

    . A theoretical expression for the probability density function associated with local extremes of a stochasticprocess is presented. The expression is basically based on the lower four statistical moments and a bandwidth parameter. The theoretical expression is subsequently verified by comparison with simulated...

  12. de Sitter Extremal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, K

    2015-01-01

    We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

  13. Polar varieties revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Piene, Ragni

    2016-01-01

    We recall the definition of classical polar varieties, as well as those of affine and projective reciprocal polar varieties. The latter are defined with respect to a non-degenerate quadric, which gives us a notion of orthogonality. In particular we relate the reciprocal polar varieties to the "Euclidean geometry" in projective space. The Euclidean distance degree and the degree of the focal loci can be expressed in terms of the ranks, i.e., the degrees of the classical polar varieties, and he...

  14. Polarization at SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Polarized negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  16. Psychological effects of polar expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Suedfeld, Peter

    2008-01-12

    Polar expeditions include treks and stays at summer camps or year-round research stations. People on such expeditions generally undergo psychological changes resulting from exposure to long periods of isolation and confinement, and the extreme physical environment. Symptoms include disturbed sleep, impaired cognitive ability, negative affect, and interpersonal tension and conflict. Seasonal occurrence of these symptoms suggests the existence of three overlapping syndromes: the winter-over syndrome, the polar T3 syndrome, and subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder. About 5% of people on expeditions meet DSM-IV or ICD criteria for psychiatric disorders. However, they also experience positive or so-called salutogenic outcomes resulting from successfully coping with stress and enhanced self-sufficiency, improved health, and personal growth. Prevention of pathogenic psychological outcomes is best accomplished by psychological and psychiatric screening procedures to select out unsuitable candidates, and by providing access to psychological support, including telephone counselling. Promotion of salutogenic experiences is best accomplished by screening for suitable personality traits, and training participants in individual coping strategies, group interaction, and team leadership.

  17. Non-extremal branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Bueno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We prove that for arbitrary black brane solutions of generic Supergravities there is an adapted system of variables in which the equations of motion are exactly invariant under electric–magnetic duality, i.e. the interchange of a given extended object by its electromagnetic dual. We obtain thus a procedure to automatically construct the electromagnetic dual of a given brane without needing to solve any further equation. We apply this procedure to construct the non-extremal (p,q-string of Type-IIB String Theory (new in the literature, explicitly showing how the dual (p,q-five-brane automatically arises in this construction. In addition, we prove that the system of variables used is suitable for a generic characterization of every double-extremal Supergravity brane solution, which we perform in full generality.

  18. Tibetans at extreme altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyi; Li, Shupin; Ward, Michal P

    2005-01-01

    Between 1960 and 2003, 13 Chinese expeditions successfully reached the summit of Chomolungma (Mt Everest or Sagarmatha). Forty-five of the 80 summiteers were Tibetan highlanders. During these and other high-altitude expeditions in Tibet, a series of medical and physiological investigations were carried out on the Tibetan mountaineers. The results suggest that these individuals are better adapted to high altitude and that, at altitude, they have a greater physical capacity than Han (ethnic Chinese) lowland newcomers. They have higher maximal oxygen uptake, greater ventilation, more brisk hypoxic ventilatory responses, larger lung volumes, greater diffusing capacities, and a better quality of sleep. Tibetans also have a lower incidence of acute mountain sickness and less body weight loss. These differences appear to represent genetic adaptations and are obviously significant for humans at extreme altitude. This paper reviews what is known about the physiologic responses of Tibetans at extreme altitudes.

  19. Extremal periodic wave profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. van Groesen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to deterministic investigations into extreme fluid surface waves, in this paper wave profiles of prescribed period that have maximal crest height will be investigated. As constraints the values of the momentum and energy integrals are used in a simplified description with the KdV model. The result is that at the boundary of the feasible region in the momentum-energy plane, the only possible profiles are the well known cnoidal wave profiles. Inside the feasible region the extremal profiles of maximal crest height are "cornered" cnoidal profiles: cnoidal profiles of larger period, cut-off and periodically continued with the prescribed period so that at the maximal crest height a corner results.

  20. Extreme Photonics & Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Trevor J; Paredes, Sofia A

    2010-01-01

    "Extreme Photonics & Applications" arises from the 2008 NATO Advanced Study Institute in Laser Control & Monitoring in New Materials, Biomedicine, Environment, Security and Defense. Leading experts in the manipulation of light offered by recent advances in laser physics and nanoscience were invited to give lectures in their fields of expertise and participate in discussions on current research, applications and new directions. The sum of their contributions to this book is a primer for the state of scientific knowledge and the issues within the subject of photonics taken to the extreme frontiers: molding light at the ultra-finest scales, which represents the beginning of the end to limitations in optical science for the benefit of 21st Century technological societies. Laser light is an exquisite tool for physical and chemical research. Physicists have recently developed pulsed lasers with such short durations that one laser shot takes the time of one molecular vibration or one electron rotation in an ...

  1. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  2. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  3. Religious Extremism in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Face (July 2008): 32. 21 Ahmed Rashid , Pakistan on the Brink: The Future of America, Pakistan, and Afghanistan (New York: Viking, 2012). 22 Brian J...promoting extremism. Commentators such as Jessica Stern, Alan Richards, Hussain Haqqani, Ahmed Rashid , and Ali Riaz are a few of the scholars who...www.jstor.org/stable/3183558; See also Ahmed Rashid , Descent Into Chaos: The United States and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and

  4. USACE Extreme Sea levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    report summarising the results of the research, together with a set of recommendations arising from the research. This report describes progress to...Southampton University at HR Wallingford and subsequent teleconference with Heidi Moritz and Kate White. The notes summarising the findings of the...suggestion was made that we may want to begin talking about extreme water levels separate from storms. Ivan mentioned an analysis of storminess which

  5. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2016-12-01

    We propose an emergency alert framework for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.

  6. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T

    2007-01-01

    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  7. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Inoue, Takeru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Kawakami, Kazuki; Fujimoto, Takashi [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Engineering Physics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Polarization of radiation emitted from plasma reflects the anisotropic properties of the plasma, especially the angular isotropic distribution of electron velocities. Polarization has been observed on impurity ion lines from the WT-3 tokamak and GAMMA 10 tandem mirror device. (author)

  8. Planetary polarization nephelometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banfield, D.; Dissly, R.; Mishchenko, M.; Muñoz, O.; Roos-Serote, M.; Stam, D.M.; Volten, H.; Wilson, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have proposed to develop a polarization nephelometer for use on future planetary descent probes. It will measure both the scattered intensity and polarization phase functions of the aerosols it encounters descending through an atmosphere. These measurements will be taken at two wavelengths

  9. Polar Cap Patch Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    cap arcs Citation: Hosokawa, K., J. I. Moen, K. Shiokawa, and Y. Otsuka ( 2011 ), Motion of polar cap arcs , J. Geophys. Res. , 116 , A01305, doi...K., J. I. Moen, K. Shiokawa, and Y. Otsuka , (2011), Decay of polar cap patch, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A05308, doi:10.1029/2010JA016287, Abstract. We

  10. Polar Code Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    SUMMARY OF POLAR ACHIEVEMENTS ..... .......... 3 3. POLAR CODE PHYSICAL MODELS ..... ............. 5 3.1 PL- ASMA Su ^"ru5 I1LS SH A...of this problem. 1.1. The Charge-2 Rocket The Charge-2 payload was launched on a Black Brant VB from White Sands Mis- sile Range in New Mexico in

  11. Polarization modulators for CMBPol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P A R; Savini, G [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Chuss, D T [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Hanany, S [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota/Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Haynes, V; Pisano, G [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy - Alan Turing Building, Upper Brooke street, Manchester, M13 4PL (United Kingdom); Keating, B G [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Kogut, A [Code 665 Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ruhl, J E [Physics Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106 (United States); Wollack, E J [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    We review a number of technologies that are candidates for active polarization modulators for CMBPol. The technologies are appropriate for instruments that use bolometric detectors and include birefringent crystal-based and metal-mesh-based half-wave plates, variable phase polarization modulator, Faraday rotator, and photolithographed modulators. We also give a current account of the status of millimeter-wave orthomode transducers.

  12. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  13. Planetary polarization nephelometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banfield, D.; Dissly, R.; Mishchenko, M.; Muñoz, O.; Roos-Serote, M.; Stam, D.M.; Volten, H.; Wilson, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have proposed to develop a polarization nephelometer for use on future planetary descent probes. It will measure both the scattered intensity and polarization phase functions of the aerosols it encounters descending through an atmosphere. These measurements will be taken at two wavelengths separa

  14. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  15. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)

  16. Nomenclature of polarized light - Elliptical polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D.

    1974-01-01

    Alternative handedness and sign conventions for relating the orientation of elliptical polarization are discussed. The discussion proceeds under two headings: (1) snapshot picture, where the emphasis for the convention is contained in the concept of handedness; and (2) angular momentum consideration, where the emphasis for the convention is strongly associated with mathematical convention and the sign of the fourth Stokes parameter.

  17. Full angular analysis of polarized τ → 3 μ decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueser, Robin; Faller, Sven; Feldmann, Thorsten; Lange, Bjoern O.; Mannel, Thomas [Theoretische Elementarteilchenphysik, Naturwissenschaftlich-technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Turczyk, Sascha [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institut for Theoretical Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The lepton number violating decay τ → 3 μ is extremely suppressed in the Standard Model and its observation would be direct evidence of New Physics. We investigate the decay of polarized τ leptons in a bottom-up approach using dim 6 operators which respect the symmetries of the Standard Model. We show that useful information can be gained from a polarized initial τ, where the external polarization vector allows for a full angular decomposition of the phase space. Partial rates are then analysed to distinguish models with different helicity structures.

  18. Broadband dispersionless polarization rotation with composite chiral metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Kun; Liu, Yahong; Luo, Chunrong; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    We propose a planar composite chiral metamaterial (CCMM) by symmetrically inserting a metallic mesh between two layers of conjugated gammadion resonators. As the elaborate CCMM operates in the frequency region of off-resonance, it therefore presents loss-less and dispersion-free features. It can achieve flat polarization rotation simultaneously accompanied with high transmission and extremely low ellipticity in a broad bandwidth. In the meanwhile, this intriguing CCMM shows more superiorities in polarization rotation power and operating bandwidth than the pure chiral metamaterial just composed of conjugated gammadions. Due to the fascinating properties, the proposed CCMM is greatly appealing for controlling the polarization state of the electromagnetic waves.

  19. Palynology in a polar desert, eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby; Abrahamsen, Niels

    1988-01-01

    history back to c. 7,000 years calBP (6,000 years convBP) in this·extreme environment, which presents the coldest thermal regime where vascular plants can grow. The diagram shows that polar desert developed from sparse high arctic tundra at c. 4,300 years calBP (3,900 years convBP), owing...... to reduced summer heat. Also adjacent parts of high arctic Greenland, Canada and Svalbard suffered environmental decline, and polar deserts- presently restricted to a narrow fringe of land at the shores of the Arctic Ocean-were even more restricted before this time. Like other arctic vegetation types, polar...

  20. Quantitative Sensory Testing and Current Perception Threshold Testing in Patients With Chronic Pain Following Lower Extremity Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Mari A; Greenspan, Joel D; Johantgen, Meg; Von Rueden, Kathryn; O'Toole, Robert V; Dorsey, Susan G; Renn, Cynthia L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is a significant problem for patients with lower extremity injuries. While pain hypersensitivity has been identified in many chronic pain conditions, it is not known whether patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fracture report pain hypersensitivity in the injured leg. To quantify and compare peripheral somatosensory function and sensory nerve activation thresholds in persons with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures with a cohort of persons with no history of lower extremity fractures. This was a cross-sectional study where quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing were conducted on the injured and noninjured legs of cases and both legs of controls. A total of 14 cases and 28 controls participated in the study. Mean time since injury at the time of testing for cases was 22.3 (standard deviation = 12.1) months. The warmth detection threshold ( p = .024) and nerve activation thresholds at 2,000 Hz ( p sensory nerve function at the site of injury in patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures using quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing.

  1. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-01

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  2. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    CERN Document Server

    She, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristi...

  3. Polarization Ratio Determination with Two Identical Linearly Polarized Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    Polarization Ratio Determination with Two Identical Linearly Polarized Antennas Herbert M. Aumann1, Francis G. Willwerth2 and Kristan A. Tuttle2...maine.edu Abstract— This paper describes a method for determining the complex polarization ratio using two identical, linearly polarized antennas. By...present paper it will be shown that the later technique can also be used to determine the polarization ratio of a linearly polarized antenna. II

  4. Influence of polarization extinction ratio on distributed polarization coupling detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tian-hua; TANG Feng; JING Wen-cai; ZHANG Hong-xia; JIA Da-gong; YU Chang-song; ZHOU Ge; ZHANG Yi-mo

    2008-01-01

    Distributed polarization coupling in polarization-maintaining fibers can be detected by using a white light Michelsonin terferorneter. This technique usually requires that only one polarization mode is excited. However, in practical measurement,the injection polarization direction could not be exactly aligned to one of the principal axes of the PMF, so the influence of the polarization extinction ratio should be considered. Based on the polarization coupling theory, the influence of theincident polarization extinction on the measurement result is evaluated and analyzed, and a method for distributed polarization coupling detection is developed when both two orthogonal eigenmodes are excited.

  5. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    A solar power generation station on a mountaintop near the moon's North or South pole can receive sunlight 708 hours per lunar day, for continuous power generation. Power can be beamed from this station over long distances using a laser-based wireless power transmission system and a photo-voltaic receiver. This beamed energy can provide warmth, electricity, and illumination for a robotic rover to perform scientific experiments in cold, dark craters where no other power source is practical. Radio-frequency power transmission may also be demonstrated in lunar polar applications to locate and recover sub-surface deposits of volatile material, such as water ice. High circular polarization ratios observered in data from Clementine spacecraft and Arecibo radar reflections from the moon's South pole suggest that water ice is indeed present in certain lunar polar craters. Data from the Lunar Prospector spacecraft's epi-thermal neutron spectrometer also indicate that hydrogen is present at the moon's poles. Space Solar Power technology enables investigation of these craters, which may contain a billion-year-old stratigraphic record of tremendous scientific value. Layers of ice, preserved at the moon's poles, could help us determine the sequence and composition of comet impacts on the moon. Such ice deposits may even include distinct strata deposited by secondary ejecta following significant Earth (ocean) impacts, linked to major extinctions of life on Earth. Ice resources at the moon's poles could provide water and air for human exploration and development of space as well as rocket propellant for future space transportation. Technologies demonstrated and matured via lunar polar applications can also be used in other NASA science missions (Valles Marineris, Phobos, Deimos, Mercury's poles, asteroids, etc.) and in future large-scale SSP systems to beam energy from space to Earth. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding to mature the technology for such a near

  6. Extreme Programming Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chromatic

    2003-01-01

    Extreme Programming (XP) is a radical new approach to software development that has been accepted quickly because its core practices--the need for constant testing, programming in pairs, inviting customer input, and the communal ownership of code--resonate with developers everywhere. Although many developers feel that XP is rooted in commonsense, its vastly different approach can bring challenges, frustrations, and constant demands on your patience. Unless you've got unlimited time (and who does these days?), you can't always stop to thumb through hundreds of pages to find the piece of info

  7. Mycetoma of lower extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahariah S

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten cases of mycetoma of the lower extremity were seen and treated at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India, during the years 1973 to 1975. Six were treated by conservative method e.g. antibiotics, sulfonamides and immobilization of the part while remaining four were submitted t o surgery. Four out o f six from the first group had recurrence and has been put on second line of therapy. Recurrence occurred in only one case from the second group and he required an above knee amputation while the remaining three are free of disease and are well rehabilitated.

  8. Metagenomics of extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, D A; Ramond, J-B; Makhalanyane, T P; De Maayer, P

    2015-06-01

    Whether they are exposed to extremes of heat or cold, or buried deep beneath the Earth's surface, microorganisms have an uncanny ability to survive under these conditions. This ability to survive has fascinated scientists for nearly a century, but the recent development of metagenomics and 'omics' tools has allowed us to make huge leaps in understanding the remarkable complexity and versatility of extremophile communities. Here, in the context of the recently developed metagenomic tools, we discuss recent research on the community composition, adaptive strategies and biological functions of extremophiles.

  9. Characterizing Extreme Ionospheric Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L.; Komjathy, A.; Altshuler, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ionospheric storms consist of disturbances of the upper atmosphere that generate regions of enhanced electron density typically lasting several hours. Depending upon the storm magnitude, gradients in electron density can sometimes become large and highly localized. The existence of such localized, dense irregularities is a major source of positioning error for users of the Global Positioning System (GPS). Consequently, satellite-based augmentation systems have been implemented to improve the accuracy and to ensure the integrity of user position estimates derived from GPS measurements. Large-scale irregularities generally do not pose a serious threat to estimate integrity as they can be readily detected by such systems. Of greater concern, however, are highly localized irregularities that interfere with the propagation of a signal detected by a user measurement but are poorly sampled by the receivers in the system network. The most challenging conditions have been found to arise following disturbances of large magnitude that occur only rarely over the course of a solar cycle. These extremely disturbed conditions exhibit behavior distinct from moderately disturbed conditions and, hence, have been designated "extreme storms". In this paper we examine and compare the behavior of the extreme ionospheric storms of solar cycle 23 (or, more precisely, extreme storms occurring between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008), as represented in maps of vertical total electron content. To identify these storms, we present a robust means of quantifying the regional magnitude of an ionospheric storm. Ionospheric storms are observed frequently to occur in conjunction with magnetic storms, i.e., periods of geophysical activity as measured by magnetometers. While various geomagnetic indices, such as the disturbance storm time (Dst) and the planetary Kp index, have long been used to rank the magnitudes of distinct magnetic storms, no comparable, generally recognized index exists for

  10. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  11. Polarization measurement in the COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, K; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Le Goff, J M; Magnon, A; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Matsuda, T

    2004-01-01

    Continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to determine the target polarization in the COMPASS experiment. The system is made of the so-called Liverpool Q-meters, Yale-cards, and VME modules for data taking and system controlling. In 2001 the NMR coils were embedded in the target material, while in 2002 and 2003 the coils were mounted on the outer surface of the target cells to increase the packing factor of the material. Though the error of the measurement became larger with the outer coils than with the inner coils, we have performed stable measurements throughout the COMPASS run time for 3 years. The maximum polarization was +57% and -53% as the average in the target cells.

  12. Investigation of the polarization state of dual APPLE-II undulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    The use of an APPLE II undulator is extremely important for providing a high-brilliance X-ray beam with the capability to switch between various photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to systematically investigate the polarization characteristics of the two helical APPLE II undulators installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. A simple data acquisition and processing procedure has been developed to determine the Stokes polarization parameters for light polarized at arbitrary linear angles emitted from a single undulator, and for circularly polarized light emitted from both undulators in conjunction with a single-period undulator phasing unit. The purity of linear polarization is found to deteriorate as the polarization angle moves away from the horizontal and vertical modes. Importantly, a negative correlation between the degree of circular polarization and the photon flux has been found when the phasing unit is used.

  13. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  14. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  15. Invariants of polarization transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A

    2007-05-20

    The use of polarization-sensitive sensors is being explored in a variety of applications. Polarization diversity has been shown to improve the performance of the automatic target detection and recognition in a significant way. However, it also brings out the problems associated with processing and storing more data and the problem of polarization distortion during transmission. We present a technique for extracting attributes that are invariant under polarization transformations. The polarimetric signatures are represented in terms of the components of the Stokes vectors. Invariant algebra is then used to extract a set of signature-related attributes that are invariant under linear transformation of the Stokes vectors. Experimental results using polarimetric infrared signatures of a number of manmade and natural objects undergoing systematic linear transformations support the invariancy of these attributes.

  16. POLARIZED LIGHT IN PHYSIOTHERAPY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. D. Tondiy; O. L. Tondiy; I. V. Kas; O. V. Zemlyana; O. L. Zakrevska; V. O. Zhuravliev

    2015-01-01

    The data on polarized light (PS) - a new promising treatment, rehabilitation and prevention, which took its deserved place among the known therapeutic physical factors and may even compete with laser radiation of low and LED therapy...

  17. Cell Polarity in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Jian-Geng; Balasubramanian, Mohan K; Lew, Daniel J

    2017-08-07

    A conserved molecular machinery centered on the Cdc42 GTPase regulates cell polarity in diverse organisms. Here we review findings from budding and fission yeasts that reveal both a conserved core polarity circuit and several adaptations that each organism exploits to fulfill the needs of its lifestyle. The core circuit involves positive feedback by local activation of Cdc42 to generate a cluster of concentrated GTP-Cdc42 at the membrane. Speciesspecific pathways regulate the timing of polarization during the cell cycle, as well as the location and number of polarity sites. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology Volume 33 is October 6, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  18. Coordenadas polares: curvas maravillosas

    OpenAIRE

    Norberto Jaime Chau Pérez; Roy Wil Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta una actividad colaborativa en la que se trabaja el tema coordenadas polares. Se presentan los objetivos de aprendizaje, el desarrollo de la actividad, los conocimientos previos necesarios y recomendaciones para una aplicación posterior.

  19. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice....

  20. The evolution of Phanerozoic seawater - Isotope paleothermometry finds consensus on Early Paleozoic warmth and constant seawater δ18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E. L.; Henkes, G. A.; Passey, B. H.; Shenton, B.; Yancey, T. E.; Perez-Huerta, A.

    2015-12-01

    δ18O values into the oxygen isotopic paleotemperature equation yields a mean seawater δ18O of -0.7 ± 1.4‰ for the Phanerozoic. Collectively, these findings argue for extremely warm early Paleozoic oceans, and constant seawater δ18O throughout the last ~450 million years.

  1. Polar Warming Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDunn, T. L.; Bougher, S. W.; Mischna, M. A.; Murphy, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Polar warming is a dynamically induced temperature enhancement over mid-to-high latitudes that results in a reversed (poleward) meridional temperature gradient. This phenomenon was recently characterized over the 40-90 km altitude region [1] based on nearly three martian years of Mars Climate Sounder observations [2, 3]. Here we investigate which forcing mechanisms affect the magnitude and distribution of the observed polar warming by conducting simulations with the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting General Circulation Model [4, 5]. We present simulations confirming the influence topography [6] and dust loading [e.g., 7] have upon polar warming. We then present simulations illustrating the modulating influence gravity wave momentum deposition exerts upon polar warming, consistent with previous modeling studies [e.g., 8]. The results of this investigation suggest the magnitude and distribution of polar warming in the martian middle atmosphere is modified by gravity wave activity and that the characteristics of the gravity waves that most significantly affect polar warming vary with season. References: [1] McDunn, et al., 2012 (JGR), [2]Kleinböhl, et al., 2009 (JGR), [3] Kleinböhl, et al., 2011 (JQSRT), [4] Richardson, et al., 2007 (JGR), [5] Mischna, et al., 2011 (Planet. Space Sci.), [6] Richardson and Wilson, 2002 (Nature), [7] Haberle, et al., 1982 (Icarus), [8] Barnes, 1990 (JGR).

  2. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-10-01

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  3. Data Analysis And Polarization Measurements With GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohmayer, Tod

    2011-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) mission was selected by NASA for flight in 2014. GEMS will make the first sensitive survey of X-ray polarization across a wide range of source classes including black hole and neutron star binaries, AGN of different types, rotation and accretion-powered pulsars, magnetars, shell supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae. GEMS employs grazing-incidence foil mirrors and novel time-projection chamber (TPC) polarimeters leveraging the photoelectric effect. The GEMS detectors image the charge tracks of photoelectrons produced by 2 - 10 keV X-rays. The initial direction of the photoelectron is determined by the linear polarization of the photon. We present an overview of the data analysis challenges and methods for GEMS, including procedures for producing optimally filtered images of the charge tracks and estimating their initial directions. We illustrate our methods using laboratory measurements of polarized and unpolarized X-rays with flight-like detectors as well as from simulated tracks. We also present detailed simulations exploring the statistics of polarization measurements appropriate for GEMS, and make comparisons with previous work.

  4. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  5. "Triangular" extremal dilatonic dyons

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Orlov, Dmitri

    2014-01-01

    Explicit dyonic dilaton black holes of the four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory are known only for two particular values of the dilaton coupling constant $a =1,\\sqrt{3}$, while for other $a$ numerical evidence was presented earlier about existence of extremal dyons in theories with the discrete sequence of dilaton couplings $a=\\sqrt{n(n+1)/2}$ with integer $n$. Apart from the lower members $n=1,\\,2$, this family of theories does not have motivation from supersymmetry or higher dimensions, and so far the above quantization rule has not been derived analytically. We fill this gap showing that this rule follows from analyticity of the dilaton at the $AdS_2\\times S^2$ event horizon with $n$ being the leading dilaton power in the series expansion. We also present generalization for asymptotically anti-de Sitter dyonic black holes with spherical, plane and hyperbolic topology of the horizon.

  6. Extreme skin depth waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Jahani, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we introduced a paradigm shift in light confinement strategy and introduced a class of extreme skin depth (e-skid) photonic structures (S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, "Transparent sub-diffraction optics: nanoscale light confinement without metal," Optica 1, 96-100 (2014)). Here, we analytically establish that figures of merit related to light confinement in dielectric waveguides are fundamentally tied to the skin depth of waves in the cladding. We contrast the propagation characteristics of the fundamental mode of e-skid waveguides and conventional waveguides to show that the decay constant in the cladding is dramatically larger in e-skid waveguides, which is the origin of sub-diffraction confinement. Finally, we propose an approach to verify the reduced skin depth in experiment using the decrease in the Goos-H\\"anchen phase shift.

  7. Pulsars and Extreme Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Burnell, Jocelyn

    2004-10-01

    Pulsars were discovered 35 years ago. What do we know about them now, and what have they taught us about the extremes of physics? With an average density comparable to that of the nucleus, magnetic fields around 108 T and speeds close to c these objects have stretched our understanding of the behaviour of matter. They serve as extrememly accurate clocks with which to carry out precision experiments in relativity. Created in cataclysmic explosions, pulsars are a (stellar) form of life after death. After half a billion revolutions most pulsars finally die, but amazingly some are born again to yet another, even weirder, afterlife. Pulsar research continues lively, delivering exciting, startling and almost unbelievable results!

  8. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  9. [Polar and non polar notations of refraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzeau, O; Gaujoux, T; Costantini, E; Borderie, V; Laroche, L

    2010-01-01

    Refraction can be expressed by four polar notations which correspond to four different combinations of spherical or cylindrical lenses. Conventional expressions of refraction (plus and minus cylinder notation) are described by sphere, cylinder, and axis. In the plus cylinder notation, the axis visualizes the most powerful meridian. The axis usually corresponds to the bow tie axis in curvature maps. Plus cylinder notation is also valuable for all relaxing procedures (i.e., selective suture ablation, arcuate keratotomy, etc.). In the cross-cylinder notation, two orthogonal cylinders can describe (without the sphere component) the actual refraction of both the principal meridians. This notation must be made before performing the vertex calculation. Using an association of a Jackson cross-cylinder and a spherical equivalent, refraction can be broken down into two pure components: astigmatism and sphere. All polar notations of refraction may perfectly characterize a single refraction but are not suitable for statistical analysis, which requires nonpolar expression. After doubling the axis, a rectangular projection breaks down the Jackson cross-cylinder, which has a polar axis, into two Jackson cross-cylinders on the 0 degrees /90 degrees and 45 degrees /135 degrees axis. This procedure results in the loss of the directional nature of the data. Refraction can be written in a nonpolar notation by three rectangular coordinates (x,y,z), which can also represent the spherocylinder by one point in a dioptric space. These three independent (orthogonal) variables have a concrete optical significance: a spherical component, a direct/inverse (WTR/ATR) component, and an oblique component of the astigmatism. Finally, nonpolar notations are useful for statistical analysis and graphical representation of refraction.

  10. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowben, P. A.; Wu, Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO2 and Cr2O3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values.

  11. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Budker, M.P. Ledbetter, S. Appelt, L.S. Bouchard, B. Wojtsekhowski

    2012-12-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ({approx}100 HZ) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  12. Habitability in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre

    A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than important to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to provide variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most important. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to important conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success

  13. Cylindrically Polarized Nondiffracting Optical Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Ornigotti, Marco; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We extend the concept of radially and azimuthally polarized optical beams to the polychromatic domain by introducing cylindrically polarized nondiffracting optical pulses. In particular, we discuss in detail the case of cylindrically polarized X-waves, both in the paraxial and nonparaxial regime. The explicit expressions for the electric and magnetic fields of cylindrically polarized X-waves is also reported.

  14. Sequential Polarity-Reversing Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaw, Clayton C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed circuit reverses polarity of electric power supplied to bidirectional dc motor, reversible electro-mechanical actuator, or other device operating in direction depending on polarity. Circuit reverses polarity each time power turned on, without need for additional polarity-reversing or direction signals and circuitry to process them.

  15. Extreme non-linear elasticity and transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Transformation optics is a powerful concept for designing novel optical components such as high transmission waveguides and cloaking devices. The selection of specific transformations is a non-unique problem. Here we reveal that transformations which allow for all dielectric and broadband optical...... realizations correspond to minimizers of elastic energy potentials for extreme values of the mechanical Poisson's ratio ν . For TE (Hz) polarized light an incompressible transformation ν = 1/2 is ideal and for TM (E z) polarized light one should use a compressible transformation with negative Poissons's ratio...... ν = -1. For the TM polarization the mechanical analogy corresponds to a modified Liao functional known from the transformation optics literature. Finally, the analogy between ideal transformations and solid mechanical material models automates and broadens the concept of transformation optics...

  16. On the association between loneliness and physical warmth-seeking through bathing: Reply to Donnellan et al. (2014) and three further replications of Bargh and Shalev (2012) study 1: Correction to Shalev and Bargh (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Reports an error in "On the Association Between Loneliness and Physical Warmth-Seeking Through Bathing: Reply to Donnellan et al. (2014) and Three Further Replications of Bargh and Shalev (2012) Study 1" by Idit Shalev and John Bargh (Emotion, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 8, 2014, np). In the article, there was an error in the abstract. The name of author Donnellan was misspelled as Donellan. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-37463-001.) [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 15(1) of Emotion (see record 2015-05076-004). In the article, the wrong supplemental file was originally posted. The correct file has now been posted.] As Tversky and Kahneman (1971) noted, effect sizes in smaller samples are inherently unstable. Donellan et al. (2014) in a large sample show that the relation between trait loneliness and warmth extraction through bathing activities is much smaller than in our initial smaller samples. We report further replications of our original findings in samples from India, Israel, and North America, again showing significant correlations between loneliness and physical warmth extraction from bathing and showering; the overall effect being reliable across all three samples, although, consistent with Donellan et al.'s conclusions, smaller than in our original studies. We also respond to criticisms of the original data analyses, noting that removal of the problematic 'bathing frequency' item from the warmth index did not substantially change the results and thus our conclusions from them. We also note that in their 2 studies in which Donellan et al. attempted to most closely follow our original procedure, they did replicate our original results, but not in the other 7 studies in which considerable procedural changes were made. As our new replications reveal variability in bathing and showering preferences and habits around the world, we recommend the inclusion of a wider sample of

  17. On the association between loneliness and physical warmth-seeking through bathing: Reply to Donnellan et al. (2014) and three further replications of Bargh and Shalev (2012) study 1: Correction to Shalev and Bargh (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Reports an error in "On the Association Between Loneliness and Physical Warmth-Seeking Through Bathing: Reply to Donnellan et al. (2014) and Three Further Replications of Bargh and Shalev (2012) Study 1" by Idit Shalev and John Bargh (Emotion, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 8, 2014, np). In the article, the wrong supplemental file was originally posted. The correct file has now been posted. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-37463-001.) As Tversky and Kahneman (1971) noted, effect sizes in smaller samples are inherently unstable. Donellan et al. (2014) in a large sample show that the relation between trait loneliness and warmth extraction through bathing activities is much smaller than in our initial smaller samples. We report further replications of our original findings in samples from India, Israel, and North America, again showing significant correlations between loneliness and physical warmth extraction from bathing and showering; the overall effect being reliable across all three samples, although, consistent with Donellan et al.'s conclusions, smaller than in our original studies. We also respond to criticisms of the original data analyses, noting that removal of the problematic 'bathing frequency' item from the warmth index did not substantially change the results and thus our conclusions from them. We also note that in their 2 studies in which Donellan et al. attempted to most closely follow our original procedure, they did replicate our original results, but not in the other 7 studies in which considerable procedural changes were made. As our new replications reveal variability in bathing and showering preferences and habits around the world, we recommend the inclusion of a wider sample of cultures beyond North American in future research. This research should also focus not only on the narrower question of how loneliness relates to bathing activities but on the broader relation between feelings of social coldness (e

  18. Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-02

    Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of 'polarization twist', which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms.

  19. Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of ‘polarization twist’, which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms. PMID:27586824

  20. Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-01

    Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of ‘polarization twist’, which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms.

  1. Polar low monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Leonid; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Mitnik, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    Polar lows are intense mesoscale atmospheric low pressure weather systems, developing poleward of the main baroclinic zone and associated with high surface wind speeds. Small size and short lifetime, sparse in-situ observations in the regions of their development complicate polar low study. Our knowledge of polar lows and mesocyclones has come almost entirely during the period of satellite remote sensing since, by virtue of their small horizontal scale, it was rarely possible to analyse these lows on conventional weather charts using only the data from the synoptic observing network. However, the effects of intense polar lows have been felt by coastal communities and seafarers since the earliest times. These weather systems are thought to be responsible for the loss of many small vessels over the centuries, although the nature of the storms was not understood and their arrival could not be predicted. The actuality of the polar low research is stipulated by their high destructive power: they are a threat to such businesses as oil and gas exploration, fisheries and shipping. They could worsen because of global warming: a shrinking of sea ice around the North Pole, which thawed to its record minimum in the summer of 2007, is likely to give rise to more powerful storms that form only over open water and can cause hurricane-strength winds. Therefore, study of polar lows, their timely detection, tracking and forecasting represents a challenge for today meteorology. Satellite passive microwave data, starting from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite, remain invaluable source of regularly available remotely sensed data to study polar lows. The sounding in this spectral range has several advantages in comparison with observations in visible and infrared ranges and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data: independence on day time and clouds, regularity and high temporal resolution in Polar Regions. Satellite

  2. Polarization swings in blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Kravchenko, Evgeniya V.

    2017-06-01

    We present a model of blazar variability that can both reproduce smooth large polarization angle swings and at the same time allow for the seemingly random behaviour of synchrotron fluxes, polarization fraction and, occasionally, π/2 polarization jumps. We associate the blazar flaring activity with a jet carrying helical magnetic fields and propagating along a variable direction (and possibly with a changing bulk Lorentz factor). The model predicts that for various jet trajectories (i) electric vector position angle (EVPA) can experience large smooth temporal variations, while at the same time polarization fraction (Π) can be highly variable; (ii) Π ∼ 0 near sudden EVPA jumps of 90°, but can also remain constant for large, smoother EVPA swings; (iii) the total angle of EVPA rotation can be arbitrarily large; and (iv) intensity I is usually maximal at points of fastest EVPA changes, but can have a minimum. Thus, even for a regular, deterministic motion of a steadily emitting jet, the observed properties can vary in a non-monotonic and/or seemingly stochastic way. Intrinsic fluctuations of the emissivity will further complicate the intensity profiles, but are expected to preserve the polarization structure.

  3. Women in extreme poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  4. Extreme winds in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-02-01

    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity which is defined as the 50-year wind speed under standard conditions, i.e. ten-minute averages at the height 10 m over a uniform terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites are, from west, Skjern (15 years), Kegnaes (7 years), Sprogoe (20 years), and Tystofte (15 years). The data are ten minute averages of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The last two quantities are used to determine the air density {rho}. The data are cleaned for terrain effects by means of a slightly modified WASP technique where the sector speed-up factors and roughness lengths are linearly smoothed with a direction resolution of one degree. Assuming geotropic balance, all the wind-velocity data are transformed to friction velocity u{sub *} and direction at standard conditions by means of the geotropic drag law for neutral stratification. The basic wind velocity in 30 deg. sectors are obtained through ranking of the largest values of the friction velocity pressure 1/2{rho}u{sub *}{sup 2} taken both one every two months and once every year. The main conclusion is that the basic wind velocity is significantly larger at Skjern, close to the west coast of Jutland, than at any of the other sites. Irrespective of direction, the present standard estimates of 50-year wind are 25 {+-} 1 m/s at Skern and 22 {+-} 1 m/s at the other three sites. These results are in agreement with those obtained by Jensen and Franck (1970) and Abild (1994) and supports the conclusion that the wind climate at the west coast of Jutland is more extreme than in any other part of the country. Simple procedures to translate in a particular direction sector the standard basic wind velocity to conditions with a different roughness length and height are presented. It is shown that a simple scheme makes it possible to calculate the total 50-year extreme load on a general structure without

  5. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed.

  6. Solar extreme events

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of "extreme events," defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than $S^{-2}$, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial $^{14}$C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observation...

  7. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  8. A polarimetric study of asteroids: Fitting phase - polarization curves

    CERN Document Server

    Cellino, A; Gil-Hutton, R; Tanga, P; Canada-Assandri, M; Tedesco, E F

    2015-01-01

    By considering all asteroid linear polarization data available in the literature, it is possible to obtain updated phase - polarization curves for several tens of objects. In a separate paper (Cellino et al., 2015a, MNRAS, 451, 3473) we have produced new calibrations of different relations between the geometric albedo and several polarimetric parameters, based on an analysis of a limited sample of asteroids for which the albedo is known with sufficient accuracy. In this paper, we present the main polarization parameters and corresponding albedos for a larger dataset of asteroids which we did not use for calibration purposes. We find a good agreement between the albedo values computed using different polarization parameters. Conversely, in the case of the so-called Barbarian asteroids the situation is rather unclear. Moreover, we present an updated analysis of the distributions of different polarimetric parameters, including the so-called inversion angle and the solar phase angle corresponding to the extreme v...

  9. On polarization in biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchi, Karis Amata

    close to physiological conditions, making these effects biologically relevant. In this work, we consider the case of asymmetric membranes which can display spontaneous polarization in the absence of a field. Close to the phase transition, we find that the membrane displays piezoelectric, flexoelectric...... and thermoelectric behaviour. In particular, the membrane capacitance is a nonlinear function of the applied voltage. Furthermore, in the presence of spontaneous polarization, our thermodynamical description is able to explain the outward rectified current-voltage relationship measured on synthetic lipid bilayers....... Due to the nonlinear dependence of the membrane capacitance and conductance on voltage and the presence of spontaneous polarization, the traditional equivalent circuit of the membrane is not an accurate description in physiological conditions. An updated equivalent circuit of the lipid bilayer is here...

  10. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  11. Polarized Light from Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    These images taken through the wide angle camera near closest approach in the deep near-infrared methane band, combined with filters which sense electromagnetic radiation of orthogonal polarization, show that the light from the poles is polarized. That is, the poles appear bright in one image, and dark in the other. Polarized light is most readily scattered by aerosols. These images indicate that the aerosol particles at Jupiter's poles are small and likely consist of aggregates of even smaller particles, whereas the particles at the equator and covering the Great Red Spot are larger. Images like these will allow scientists to ascertain the distribution, size and shape of aerosols, and consequently, the distribution of heat, in Jupiter's atmosphere.

  12. No More Polarization, Please!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mia Reinholt

    The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy...... and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on motivation, acknowledging the co-existence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the possible interaction...... between the two as well as different types of motivations filling in the gap between the two polar types, is urgently needed in the organizational science literature. By drawing on the research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation conducted in social psychology and combining this with contributions from...

  13. [Polar body diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, M; van der Ven, K; van der Ven, H

    2009-01-01

    Polar body diagnosis (PBD) is a diagnostic method for the indirect genetic analysis of oocytes. Polar bodies are by-products of the meiotic cell cycle which have no influence on further embryo development. The biopsy of polar bodies can be accomplished either by zona drilling or laser drilling within a very short time period. The paternal contribution to the genetic constitution of the developing embryo cannot be diagnosed by PBD. The major application of PBD is the detection of maternally derived chromosomal aneuploidies and translocations in oocytes. For these indications, PBD may offer a viable alternative to blastomere biopsy as the embryo's integrity remains unaffected in contrast to preimplantation genetic diagnosis by blastomere biopsy. The fast development in the field of molecular diagnostics will also influence PBD and probably allow a more general diagnosis in the future.

  14. Extremal almost-Kahler metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Lejmi, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the notion of the Futaki invariant and extremal vector field to the general almost-Kahler case and we prove the periodicity of the extremal vector field when the symplectic form represents an integral cohomology class modulo torsion. We give also an explicit formula of the hermitian scalar curvature which allows us to obtain examples of non-integrable extremal almost-Kahler metrics saturating LeBrun's estimates.

  15. Upper extremity amputations and prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Steven A; Askari, Morad

    2015-02-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions.

  16. POLARIZED NEUTRONS IN RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COURANT,E.D.

    1998-04-27

    There does not appear to be any obvious way to accelerate neutrons, polarized or otherwise, to high energies by themselves. To investigate the behavior of polarized neutrons the authors therefore have to obtain them by accelerating them as components of heavier nuclei, and then sorting out the contribution of the neutrons in the analysis of the reactions produced by the heavy ion beams. The best neutron carriers for this purpose are probably {sup 3}He nuclei and deuterons. A polarized deuteron is primarily a combination of a proton and a neutron with their spins pointing in the same direction; in the {sup 3}He nucleus the spins of the two protons are opposite and the net spin (and magnetic moment) is almost the same as that of a free neutron. Polarized ions other than protons may be accelerated, stored and collided in a ring such as RHIC provided the techniques proposed for polarized proton operation can be adapted (or replaced by other strategies) for these ions. To accelerate polarized particles in a ring, one must make provisions for overcoming the depolarizing resonances that occur at certain energies. These resonances arise when the spin tune (ratio of spin precession frequency to orbit frequency) resonates with a component present in the horizontal field. The horizontal field oscillates with the vertical motion of the particles (due to vertical focusing); its frequency spectrum is dominated by the vertical oscillation frequency and its modulation by the periodic structure of the accelerator ring. In addition, the magnet imperfections that distort the closed orbit vertically contain all integral Fourier harmonics of the orbit frequency.

  17. The importance of a positive family history of alcoholism, parental rejection and emotional warmth, behavioral problems and peer substance use for alcohol problems in teenagers: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc A; Lucht, Michael; John, Ulrich; Freyberger, Harald J

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothetical model of alcohol problems in German adolescents. Among 180 offspring, family history of alcoholism, parenting styles, behavioral and emotional problems, peer-group characteristics, feelings of self-esteem, behavioral problems and psychiatric comorbidity of the parents were examined. Data were generated from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), in which families were randomly selected if 12-18 year old biological offspring were members of the household; a smaller group of subjects was selected from local outpatient treatment centers. Members of 133 families, including 180 (50.6% male) offspring who were appropriate for the current analyses, received personal semistructured diagnostic interviews and several self-rating questionnaires. Analyses compared offspring with alcohol problems (AP; n = 40) and with no alcohol problems (NAP; n = 140), and used structural equation modeling to test a hypothetical model. The comparisons revealed that the AP group had significantly more behavioral problems (e.g., aggression/delinquency), more perceived parental rejection and less emotional warmth, a higher amount of alcohol consumption, were more likely to associate with substance-using peers and more often received a diagnosis of conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder. Whereas the family history of alcoholism did not differ significantly between groups, parents of offspring with an alcohol use disorder had significantly more additional diagnoses on DSM-IV Axis I. The evaluation of the model supported the importance of aggression/delinquency and association with substance-using peers for alcohol problems in people. An additional diagnosis in the parents was directly and indirectly (through aggression/delinquency) related to alcohol problems of the adolescents. The data indicate that alcohol problems in the offspring are associated with several domains of influence in their environment. Prospective studies

  18. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2015-11-17

    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  19. Microwave Frequency Polarizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vien The; Mirel, Paul; Kogut, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication and analysis of microwave frequency polarizing grids. The grids are designed to measure polarization from the cosmic microwave background. It is effective in the range of 500 to 1500 micron wavelength. It is cryogenic compatible and highly robust to high load impacts. Each grid is fabricated using an array of different assembly processes which vary in the types of tension mechanisms to the shape and size of the grids. We provide a comprehensive study on the analysis of the grids' wire heights, diameters, and spacing.

  20. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  1. New compact neutron polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Th; Kennedy, S. J.; Hicks, T. J.; Mezei, F.

    A new type of a neutron polarizing bender was developed in co-operation with BENSC and ANSTO. It is based upon bent thin silicon wafers coated on one side with SiFeCo polarizing supermirrors and on the other side with Gd. Initial tests at BENSC in a 300 Oe magnetic field yielded a transmission of spin-up neutrons of about 55% over an angle range of 0.75° and flipping ratios > 30. Subsequent tests at ANSTO at 1200 Oe yielded a transmission of 48% with a flipping ratio > 45.

  2. Analysis of WRF extreme daily precipitation over Alaska using self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisan, Justin M.; Gutowski, William J.; Cassano, John J.; Cassano, Elizabeth N.; Seefeldt, Mark W.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze daily precipitation extremes from simulations of a polar-optimized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Simulations cover 19 years and use the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) domain. We focus on Alaska because of its proximity to the Pacific and Arctic oceans; both provide large moisture fetch inland. Alaska's topography also has important impacts on orographically forced precipitation. We use self-organizing maps (SOMs) to understand circulation characteristics conducive for extreme precipitation events. The SOM algorithm employs an artificial neural network that uses an unsupervised training process, which results in finding general patterns of circulation behavior. The SOM is trained with mean sea level pressure (MSLP) anomalies. Widespread extreme events, defined as at least 25 grid points experiencing 99th percentile precipitation, are examined using SOMs. Widespread extreme days are mapped onto the SOM of MSLP anomalies, indicating circulation patterns. SOMs aid in determining high-frequency nodes, and hence, circulations are conducive to extremes. Multiple circulation patterns are responsible for extreme days, which are differentiated by where extreme events occur in Alaska. Additionally, several meteorological fields are composited for nodes accessed by extreme and nonextreme events to determine specific conditions necessary for a widespread extreme event. Individual and adjacent node composites produce more physically reasonable circulations as opposed to composites of all extremes, which include multiple synoptic regimes. Temporal evolution of extreme events is also traced through SOM space. Thus, this analysis lays the groundwork for diagnosing differences in atmospheric circulations and their associated widespread, extreme precipitation events.

  3. SPOrt an Experiment Aimed at Measuring the Large Scale Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Carretti, E; Bernardi, G; Cecchini, S; Macculi, C; Sbarra, C; Monari, J; Orfei, A; Poloni, M; Poppi, S; Bölla, G; Bonometto, S A; Gervasi, M; Sironi, G; Zannoni, M; Tucci, M; Baralis, M; Peverini, O A; Tascone, R; Virone, G; Fabbri, R; Nicastro, L; Ng, K W; Razin, V A; Vinyajkin, E N; Sazhin, M V; Strukov, I A

    2002-01-01

    SPOrt (Sky Polarization Observatory) is a space experiment to be flown on the International Space Station during Early Utilization Phase aimed at measuring the microwave polarized emission with FWHM = 7deg, in the frequency range 22-90 GHz. The Galactic polarized emission can be observed at the lower frequencies and the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at 90 GHz, where contaminants are expected to be less important. The extremely low level of the CMB Polarization signal (< 1 uK) calls for intrinsically stable radiometers. The SPOrt instrument is expressly devoted to CMB polarization measurements and the whole design has been optimized for minimizing instrumental polarization effects. In this contribution we present the receiver architecture based on correlation techniques, the analysis showing its intrinsic stability and the custom hardware development carried out to detect such a low signal.

  4. The physics of polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    This course is intended to give a description of the basic physical concepts which underlie the study and the interpretation of polarization phenomena. Apart from a brief historical introduction (Sect. 1), the course is organized in three parts. A first part (Sects. 2 - 6) covers the most relevant facts about the polarization phenomena that are typically encountered in laboratory applications and in everyday life. In Sect. 2, the modern description of polarization in terms of the Stokes parameters is recalled, whereas Sect. 3 is devoted to introduce the basic tools of laboratory polarimetry, such as the Jones calculus and the Mueller matrices. The polarization phenomena which are met in the reflection and refraction of a beam of radiation at the separation surface between two dielectrics, or between a dielectric and a metal, are recalled in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 gives an introduction to the phenomena of dichroism and of anomalous dispersion and Sect. 6 summarizes the polarization phenomena that are commonly encountered in everyday life. The second part of this course (Sects. 7-14) deals with the description, within the formalism of classical physics, of the spectro-polarimetric properties of the radiation emitted by accelerated charges. Such properties are derived by taking as starting point the Liénard and Wiechert equations that are recalled and discussed in Sect. 7 both in the general case and in the non-relativistic approximation. The results are developed to find the percentage polarization, the radiation diagram, the cross-section and the spectral characteristics of the radiation emitted in different phenomena particularly relevant from the astrophysical point of view. The emission of a linear antenna is derived in Sect. 8. The other Sections are devoted to Thomson scattering (Sect. 9), Rayleigh scattering (Sect. 10), Mie scattering (Sect. 11), bremsstrahlung radiation (Sect. 12), cyclotron radiation (Sect. 13), and synchrotron radiation (Sect. 14

  5. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  6. Results on Double-polarization Asymmetries in Quasielastic Scattering from Polarized 3He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulkosky, Vincent A. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The 3He nucleus has become extremely important in the investigation of the neutron’s spin structure. When polarized, 3He acts as an effective polarized neutron target and hence facilitates our understanding of the neutron’s internal structure. However, to be used in this manner, our understanding of the internal structure of 3He is of extreme importance. As the precision of experiments has improved, the extraction of polarized neutron information from 3He leads to an ever larger share of the systematic uncertainty for these experiments. In these proceedings, I present a precise measurement of beam-target asymmetries in the and reactions. The former process is a uniquely sensitive probe of hadron dynamics in 3He and the structure of the underlying electromagnetic currents. The measurements have been performed around the quasi-elastic peak at Q2 = 0.25 (GeV/c)2 and 0.35 (GeV/c)2 for recoil momenta up to 270 MeV/c. The experimental apparatus, analysis and results were presented together with a comparison to state-of-the art Faddeev calculations.

  7. Variable polarity arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E. O., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Technological advances generate within themselves dissatisfactions that lead to further advances in a process. A series of advances in welding technology which culminated in the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process and an advance instituted to overcome the latest dissatisfactions with the process: automated VPPA welding are described briefly.

  8. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  9. Saturn's Polar Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Sayanagi, Kunio M; Dyudina, Ulyana A; Fletcher, Leigh N; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; West, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    This book chapter, Saturn's Polar Atmosphere, is to be published by Cambridge University Press as part of a multi-volume work edited by Kevin Baines, Michael Flasar, Norbert Krupp, and Thomas Stallard, entitled "Saturn in the 21st Century." This chapter reviews the state of our knowledge about Saturn's polar atmosphere that has been revealed through Earth- and space-based observation as well as theoretical and numerical modeling. In particular, the Cassini mission to Saturn, which has been in orbit around the ringed planet since 2004, has revolutionized our understanding of the planet. The current review updates a previous review by Del Genio et al (2009; Saturn Atmospheric Structure and Dynamics, Chapter 7 of "Saturn from Cassini-Huygens"), written after Cassini's primary mission phase that ended in 2008, by focusing on the north polar region of Saturn and comparing it to the southern high latitudes. Two prominent features in the northern high latitudes are the northern hexagon and the north polar vortex; we...

  10. Polarized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Florian, D.; Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Sassot, R. (Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67-1900 La Plata (Argentina))

    1995-01-01

    We analyze spin-dependent parton distributions consistent with the most recent measurements of the spin-dependent deep inelastic scattering structure functions and obtained in the framework of the spin dilution model. Predictions for the doubly polarized proton-proton Drell-Yan asymmetry, for the high [ital p][sub [ital T

  11. Attitude extremity, consensus and diagnosticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait

  12. Gender, Education, Extremism and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the complex relationships between gender, education, extremism and security. After defining extremism and fundamentalism, it looks first at the relationship of gender to violence generally, before looking specifically at how this plays out in more extremist violence and terrorism. Religious fundamentalism is also shown to have…

  13. Grassland responses to precipitation extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassland ecosystems are naturally subjected to periods of prolonged drought and sequences of wet years. Climate change is expected to enhance the magnitude and frequency of extreme events at the intraannual and multiyear scales. Are grassland responses to extreme precipitation simply a response to ...

  14. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budker, D., E-mail: dbudker@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ledbetter, M.P. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Appelt, S. [Central Institute for Electronics, Research Center Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Bouchard, L.S. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California NanoSystems Institute, Biomedical Engineering IDP, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wojtsekhowski, B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ({approx}100Hz) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel concept for polarized nuclear targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The target features fast reversal and operates at near-zero magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on the technique of parahydrogen induced polarization that is revolutionizing NMR and enables NMR/MRI without magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Competitive figure-of-merit for polarized targets.

  15. In-situ SEOP polarizer and initial tests on a high flux neutron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock, E., E-mail: e.babcock@fz-juelich.d [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Jeulich Centre for Neutron Science, Garching (Germany); Boag, S. [ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 QX (United Kingdom); Andersen, K.H.; Becker, M. [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Beecham, C. [ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 QX (United Kingdom); Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Bordenave, F.; Chastagnier, J. [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Chen, W.C. [NIST Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Chung, R. [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Chupp, T.E. [FOCUS, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Elmore, S. [ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 QX (United Kingdom); Fouilloux, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Gentile, T.R. [NIST Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Jullien, D.; Lelievre-Berna, E.; Mouveau, P.; Petoukhov, A.; Revert, M.; Soldner, T. [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2009-09-01

    Polarized {sup 3}He has shown its unique characteristics in many areas of polarized neutron scattering, its ability to polarize neutrons at short wavelengths, accept wide-angle and divergent beams and low backgrounds enable new classes of experiments. While polarized {sup 3}He is not a steady state solution as commonly applied, the benefits have been shown to offset the drawbacks of polarizing and refreshing the polarization in the neutron spin filter cells. As an extension of this work, in-situ polarization using the spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) method was explored as a means to construct a system which could be used to polarize {sup 3}He in the state used for an effective neutron spin filter to constant polarization while on the neutron beam. An in-situ SEOP polarizer was constructed. This device utilized many devices and principles developed for neutron spin filters which are polarized off the beam line using either SEOP or metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) under the same research program. As a collimation of this work effects of extremely high neutron capture flux density >1x10{sup 10}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} incident on the in-situ polarizer were explored.

  16. Modeling extreme risks in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, Mark; Franklin, James; Hayes, Keith R; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Peters, Gareth W; Sisson, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    Extreme risks in ecology are typified by circumstances in which data are sporadic or unavailable, understanding is poor, and decisions are urgently needed. Expert judgments are pervasive and disagreements among experts are commonplace. We outline approaches to evaluating extreme risks in ecology that rely on stochastic simulation, with a particular focus on methods to evaluate the likelihood of extinction and quasi-extinction of threatened species, and the likelihood of establishment and spread of invasive pests. We evaluate the importance of assumptions in these assessments and the potential of some new approaches to account for these uncertainties, including hierarchical estimation procedures and generalized extreme value distributions. We conclude by examining the treatment of consequences in extreme risk analysis in ecology and how expert judgment may better be harnessed to evaluate extreme risks.

  17. Extreme optical activity and circular dichroism of chiral metal hole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Gorkunov, M V; Artemov, V V; Rogov, O Y; Yudin, S G

    2014-01-01

    We report extremely strong optical activity and circular dichroism exhibited by subwavelength arrays of four-start-screw holes fabricated with one-pass focused ion beam milling of freely suspended silver films. Having the fourth order rotational symmetry, the structures exhibit the polarization rotation up to 90 degrees and peaks of full circular dichroism and operate as circular polarizers within certain ranges of wavelengths in the visible. We discuss the observations on the basis of general principles (symmetry, reciprocity and reversibility) and conclude that the extreme optical chirality is determined by the chiral localized plasmonic resonances.

  18. An analysis of heat conduction in polar bear hairs using one-dimensional fractional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear are of superior properties such as the excellent thermal protection. The polar bears can perennially live in an extremely cold environment and can maintain body temperature at around 37 °C. Why do polar bears can resist such cold environment? Its membrane-pore structure plays an important role. In the previous work, we established a 1-D fractional heat conduction equation to reveal the hidden mechanism for the hairs. In this paper, we further discuss solutions and parameters of the equation established and analyze heat conduction in polar bear hairs.

  19. Grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance in conical mounting with polarization modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffato, G; Romanato, F

    2012-07-01

    A grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (GCSPR) technique based on polarization modulation in conical mounting is presented. A metallic grating is azimuthally rotated to support double-surface plasmon polariton excitation and exploit the consequent sensitivity enhancement. Corresponding to the resonance polar angle, a polarization scan of incident light is performed, and reflectivity data are collected before and after functionalization with a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer. The output signal exhibits a harmonic dependence on polarization, and the phase term is used as a parameter for sensing. This technique offers the possibility of designing extremely compact, fast, and cheap high-resolution plasmonic sensors based on GCSPR.

  20. NUCLEON POLARIZATION IN 3-BODY MODELS OF POLARIZED LI-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLINGERHOUT, NW; KOK, LP; COON, SA; ADAM, RM

    1993-01-01

    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  1. NUCLEON POLARIZATION IN 3-BODY MODELS OF POLARIZED LI-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLINGERHOUT, NW; KOK, LP; COON, SA; ADAM, RM

    1993-01-01

    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  2. Tracking algorithms using log-polar mapped image coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.; Juday, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The use of log-polar image sampling coordinates rather than conventional Cartesian coordinates offers a number of advantages for visual tracking and docking of space vehicles. Pixel count is reduced without decreasing the field of view, with commensurate reduction in peripheral resolution. Smaller memory requirements and reduced processing loads are the benefits in working environments where bulk and energy are at a premium. Rotational and zoom symmetries of log-polar coordinates accommodate range and orientation extremes without computational penalties. Separation of radial and rotational coordinates reduces the complexity of several target centering algorithms, described below.

  3. North Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  4. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  5. Polarization singularity anisotropy: determining monstardom

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Mark R

    2008-01-01

    C points, that is isolated points of circular polarization in transverse fields of varying polarization, are classified morphologically into three distinct types, known as lemons, stars and monstars. These morphologies are interpreted here according to two natural parameters associated with the singularity, namely the anisotropy of the C point, and the polarization azimuth on the anisotropy axis. In addition to providing insight into singularity morphology, this observation applies to the densities of the various morphologies in isotropic random polarization speckle fields.

  6. Polarization of a Helium-Neon Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edwin R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves measuring the intensity of laser light passed by a linear polarizer. Discusses polarization effects, orthogonal polarizations, instrumentation, and further experiments. (JRH)

  7. Planar cell polarity signaling: a common mechanism for cellular polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Andreas; Mlodzik, Marek

    2006-09-01

    Epithelial cells frequently display--in addition to the common apical-basolateral polarity--a polarization within the plane of the epithelium. This is commonly referred to as planar cell polarity (PCP) or tissue polarity. Examples of vertebrate PCP include epithelial patterning in the skin and inner ear, and also the morphogenetic movements of mesenchymal cells during convergent extension at gastrulation. In Drosophila, all adult epithelial structures of the cuticle are polarized within the plane. This review presents recent results and new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment of PCP, and compares and contrasts the intriguing similarities between PCP signaling in Drosophila and vertebrates.

  8. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowben, P A; Wu Ning; Binek, Christian, E-mail: pdowben@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0299 (United States)

    2011-05-04

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO{sub 2} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values. (viewpoint)

  9. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowben, P A; Wu, Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-05-04

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO(2) and Cr(2)O(3) illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  10. Measuring Polarization with DASI

    CERN Document Server

    Leitch, E M; Pryke, C L; Reddall, B; Sandberg, E S; Dragovan, M; Carlstrom, J E; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L

    2002-01-01

    We describe an experiment to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), a compact microwave interferometer optimized to detect CMB anisotropy at multipoles 140 to 900. The telescope has operated at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole research station since 2000 January. The telescope was retrofit as a polarimeter during the 2000--2001 austral summer, and throughout the 2001 and 2002 austral winters has made observations of the CMB with sensitivity to all four Stokes parameters. The telescope performance has been extensively characterized through observations of artificial sources, the Moon, and polarized and unpolarized Galactic sources. In 271 days of observation, DASI has differenced the CMB fluctuations in two fields to an rms noise level of 2.8 uK.

  11. Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nungesser, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.nungesser@aei.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-05-01

    A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  12. Galactic Diffuse Polarized Emission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ettore Carretti

    2011-12-01

    Diffuse polarized emission by synchrotron is a key tool to investigate magnetic fields in the Milky Way, particularly the ordered component of the large scale structure. Key observables are the synchrotron emission itself and the RM is by Faraday rotation. In this paper the main properties of the radio polarized diffuse emission and its use to investigate magnetic fields will be reviewed along with our current understanding of the galactic magnetic field and the data sets available. We will then focus on the future perspective discussing RM-synthesis – the new powerful instrument devised to unlock the information encoded in such an emission – and the surveys currently in progress like S-PASS and GMIMS.

  13. Polarization Diffusion from Spacetime Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Contaldi, Carlo; Philpott, Lydia

    2010-01-01

    A model of Lorentz invariant random fluctuations in photon polarization is presented. The effects are frequency dependent and affect the polarization of photons as they propagate through space. We test for this effect by confronting the model with the latest measurements of polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons.

  14. Alternating-Polarity Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Brief reversing polarity of welding current greatly improves quality of welds. NASA technical memorandum recounts progress in art of variable-polarity plasma-arc (VPPA) welding, with emphasis on welding of aluminum-alloy tanks. VPPA welders offer important advantages over conventional single-polarity gas/tungsten arc welders.

  15. Polarization losses in reflector antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, M.; Yazgan, E.

    1985-08-01

    Various definitions for polarization-loss efficiency of Cassegrainian and front-fed reflectors are compared. The effects of flare angle, feed taper and the feed pattern asymmetry on the polarization-loss efficiency are investigated. The definitions based on aperture fields are shown to be inadequate and far fields must be used for calculating the polarization losses.

  16. On the association between loneliness and physical warmth-seeking through bathing: reply to Donnellan et al. (2014) and three further replications of Bargh and Shalev (2012) study 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Idit; Bargh, John

    2015-02-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 15(1) of Emotion (see record 2015-05076-005). In the article, there was an error in the abstract. The name of author Donnellan was misspelled as Donellan.] [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 15(1) of Emotion (see record 2015-05076-004). In the article, the wrong supplemental file was originally posted. The correct file has now been posted.] As Tversky and Kahneman (1971) noted, effect sizes in smaller samples are inherently unstable. Donnellan [corrected] et al. (2014) in a large sample show that the relation between trait loneliness and warmth extraction through bathing activities is much smaller than in our initial smaller samples. We report further replications of our original findings in samples from India, Israel, and North America, again showing significant correlations between loneliness and physical warmth extraction from bathing and showering; the overall effect being reliable across all three samples, although, consistent with Donnellan [corrected] et al.'s conclusions, smaller than in our original studies. We also respond to criticisms of the original data analyses, noting that removal of the problematic 'bathing frequency' item from the warmth index did not substantially change the results and thus our conclusions from them. We also note that in their 2 studies in which Donnellan [corrected] et al. attempted to most closely follow our original procedure, they did replicate our original results, but not in the other 7 studies in which considerable procedural changes were made. As our new replications reveal variability in bathing and showering preferences and habits around the world, we recommend the inclusion of a wider sample of cultures beyond North American in future research. This research should also focus not only on the narrower question of how loneliness relates to bathing activities but on the broader relation between feelings of social coldness

  17. Extreme Thrombocytosis and Cardiovascular Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natelson, Ethan A.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme thrombocytosis is a major risk factor for excessive bleeding and for thrombosis, either of which can complicate cardiovascular surgical and interventional procedures. Extreme thrombocytosis can also cause an unusual syndrome, erythromelalgia, that results in a type of chronic microvascular occlusive arterial disease. We present the differential diagnosis of conditions that may lead to extreme thrombocytosis, 3 cases (each of which illustrates a different potential complication), and a review of the pertinent medical literature. Correcting excessive thrombocytosis is typically not difficult, whether electively or acutely, and effective therapy usually controls thrombosis and excessive hemorrhage postprocedurally. PMID:23304015

  18. Transverse polarization in ; production

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saurabh D Rindani

    2007-11-01

    With the use of transverse polarization (TP), a CP-odd and T-odd observable can be constructed when the final-state particles are self-conjugate. In the case of production, this observable can be used to probe a certain effective four-point + - CP-violating coupling, not accessible without TP. Effective CP-violating coupling does not contribute to this observable. A similar observable in production can be used to probe + - four-point couplings.

  19. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Huili (Grace); Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  20. PEPPo: Using a Polarized Electron Beam to Produce Polarized Positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeyemi, Adeleke H. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); et al.

    2015-09-01

    Polarized positron beams have been identified as either an essential or a significant ingredient for the experimental program of both the present and next generation of lepton accelerators (JLab, Super KEK B, ILC, CLIC). An experiment demonstrating a new method for producing polarized positrons has been performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Lab. The PEPPo (Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons) concept relies on the production of polarized e⁻/e⁺ pairs from the bremsstrahlung radiation of a longitudinally polarized electron beam interacting within a high-Z conversion target. PEPPo demonstrated the effective transfer of spin-polarization of an 8.2 MeV/c polarized (P~85%) electron beam to positrons produced in varying thickness tungsten production targets, and collected and measured in the range of 3.1 to 6.2 MeV/c. In comparison to other methods this technique reveals a new pathway for producing either high-energy or thermal polarized positron beams using a relatively low polarized electron beam energy (~10MeV) .This presentation will describe the PEPPo concept, the motivations of the experiment and high positron polarization achieved.

  1. Polar Business Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Caisse

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Polar business design aims to enable entrepreneurs, managers, consultants, researchers, and business students to better tackle model-based analysis, creation, and transformation of businesses, ventures, and, more generically, collective endeavors of any size and purpose. It is based on a systems-thinking approach that builds on a few interrelated core concepts to create holistic visual frameworks. These core concepts act as poles linked by meaningful dyads, flows, and faces arranged in geometric shapes. The article presents two such polar frameworks as key findings in an ongoing analytic autoethnography: the three-pole Value−Activity−Stakeholder (VAS triquetra and the four-pole Offer−Creation−Character−Stakeholder (OCCS tetrahedron. The VAS triquetra is a more aggregated model of collective endeavors. The OCCS tetrahedron makes a trade-off between a steeper learning curve and deeper, richer representation potential. This article discusses how to use these two frameworks as well as their limits, and explores the potential that polar business design offers for future research.

  2. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com

    2016-10-07

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge. - Highlights: • We investigated the polarization properties of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization. • We studied the evolution of transverse intensity profiles for the three components of these beams. • The intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components can reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  3. Fast, high-fidelity, all-optical and dynamically-controlled polarization gate using room-temperature atomic vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runbing; Zhu, Chengjie; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate a fast, all-optical polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. Using a Polarization-Selective-Kerr-Phase-Shift (PSKPS) technique, we selectively write a π phase shift to one circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field. The output signal field maintains its original strength but acquires a 90° linear polarization rotation, demonstrating fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The intensity of the polarization-switching field used in this PKSPK-based polarization gate operation is only 2 mW/cm2, which would be equivalent to 0.5 nW of light power (λ = 800 nm) confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber. This development opens a realm of possibilities for potential future extremely low light level telecommunication and information processing systems.

  4. Extreme hypertriglyceridemia managed with insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuzar, Moe; Shenoy, Vasant V; Malabu, Usman H; Schrale, Ryan; Sangla, Kunwarjit S

    2014-01-01

    Extreme hypertriglyceridemia can lead to acute pancreatitis and rapid lowering of serum triglycerides (TG) is necessary for preventing such life-threatening complications. However, there is no established consensus on the acute management of extreme hypertriglyceridemia. We retrospectively reviewed 10 cases of extreme hypertriglyceridemia with mean serum TG on presentation of 101.5 ± 23.4 mmol/L (8982 ± 2070 mg/dL) managed with insulin. Serum TG decreased by 87 ± 4% in 24 hours in those patients managed with intravenous insulin and fasting and 40 ± 8.4% in those managed with intravenous insulin alone (P = .0003). The clinical course was uncomplicated in all except 1 patient who subsequently developed a pancreatic pseudocyst. Thus, combination of intravenous insulin with fasting appears to be an effective, simple, and safe treatment strategy in immediate management of extreme hypertriglyceridemia. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Moment methods in extremal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop techniques for solving problems in extremal geometry. We give an infinite dimensional generalization of moment techniques from polynomial optimization. We use this to construct semidefinite programming hierarchies for approximating optimal packing densities and ground state

  6. Moment methods in extremal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop techniques for solving problems in extremal geometry. We give an infinite dimensional generalization of moment techniques from polynomial optimization. We use this to construct semidefinite programming hierarchies for approximating optimal packing densities and ground state

  7. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  8. Differential response to circularly polarized light by the jewel scarab beetle Chrysina gloriosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Parrish; Cummings, Molly

    2010-05-01

    Circularly polarized light is rare in the terrestrial environment, and cuticular reflections from scarab beetles are one of the few natural sources. Chrysina gloriosa LeConte 1854, a scarab beetle found in montane juniper forests of the extreme southwestern United States and northern Mexico, are camouflaged in juniper foliage; however, when viewed with right circularly polarizing filters, the beetles exhibit a stark black contrast. Given the polarization-specific changes in the appearance of C. gloriosa, we hypothesized that C. gloriosa can detect circularly polarized light. We tested for phototactic response and differential flight orientation of C. gloriosa toward different light stimuli. Chrysina gloriosa exhibited (a) positive phototaxis, (b) differential flight orientation between linear and circularly polarized light stimuli of equal intensities, and (c) discrimination between circularly polarized and unpolarized lights of different intensities consistent with a model of circular polarization sensitivity based on a quarter-wave plate. These results demonstrate that C. gloriosa beetles respond differentially to circularly polarized light. In contrast, Chrysina woodi Horn 1885, a close relative with reduced circularly polarized reflection, exhibited no phototactic discrimination between linear and circularly polarized light. Circularly polarized sensitivity may allow C. gloriosa to perceive and communicate with conspecifics that remain cryptic to predators, reducing indirect costs of communication.

  9. Deformations of extremal toric manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Rollin, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Let $X$ be a compact toric extremal K\\"ahler manifold. Using the work of Sz\\'ekelyhidi, we provide a simple criterion on the fan describing $X$ to ensure the existence of complex deformations of $X$ that carry extremal metrics. As an example, we find new CSC metrics on 4-points blow-ups of $\\C\\P^1\\times\\C\\P^1$.

  10. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    IL, Kochevar IE, Redmond RW. Large extremity peripheral nerve repair. Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS) Fort Lauderdale, FL. August...some notable discoveries that may impact military health care in the near future. There is a clear need in military medicine to improve outcomes in...membranes or “caul” intact was considered extremely lucky. Children were gifted with life-long happiness , the ability to see spirits, and protection

  11. Observed Statistics of Extreme Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    9 Figure 5. An energy stealing wave as a solution to the NLS equation . (From: Dysthe and...shown that nonlinear interaction between four colliding waves can produce extreme wave behavior. He utilized the NLS equation in his numerical ...2000) demonstrated the formation of extreme waves using the Korteweg de Vries ( KdV ) equation , which is valid in shallow water. It was shown in the

  12. Weather Extremes Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-01

    or ever has occurred. According to M. A. Arkin, "... record extremes must be taken with a grain of salt .... Ř He explains that news of an extreme...the edge of the Danakil Depression, a salt desert. By averaging the annual mean daily maximum temperature of 106°F36 atid the annual mean daily...increased by orographic lifting.1" Asa result of these monsoon disturbances, which are still not fully understood, the eastern Himalayan 105 106

  13. Irrigation mitigates against heat extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Fischer, Erich; Visser, Auke; Hirsch, Annette L.; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use gridded observations and ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on hot extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Finally we find that present-day irrigation is partly masking GHG-induced warming of extreme temperatures, with particularly strong effects in South Asia. Our results overall underline that irrigation substantially reduces our exposure to hot temperature extremes and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.

  14. Novel calibration system with sparse wires for CMB polarization receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, O.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Chicago U., KICP; Nguyen, H.; /Fermilab; Bischoff, C.; /Chicago U., KICP /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A. /Chicago U., KICP

    2011-07-01

    B-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is a smoking gun signature of the inflationary universe. To achieve better sensitivity to this faint signal, CMB polarization experiments aim to maximize the number of detector elements, resulting in a large focal plane receiver. Detector calibration of the polarization response becomes essential. It is extremely useful to be able to calibrate 'simultaneously' all detectors on the large focal plane. We developed a novel calibration system that rotates a large 'sparse' grid of metal wires, in front of and fully covering the field of view of the focal plane receiver. Polarized radiation is created via the reflection of ambient temperature from the wire surface. Since the detector has a finite beam size, the observed signal is smeared according to the beam property. The resulting smeared polarized radiation has a reasonable intensity (a few Kelvin or less) compared to the sky temperature ({approx}10 K observing condition). The system played a successful role for receiver calibration of QUIET, a CMB polarization experiment located in the Atacama desert in Chile. The successful performance revealed that this system is applicable to other experiments based on different technologies, e.g. TES bolometers.

  15. Novel calibration system with sparse wires for CMB polarization receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, O.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Chicago U., KICP; Nguyen, H.; /Fermilab; Bischoff, C.; /Chicago U., KICP /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A. /Chicago U., KICP

    2011-07-01

    B-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is a smoking gun signature of the inflationary universe. To achieve better sensitivity to this faint signal, CMB polarization experiments aim to maximize the number of detector elements, resulting in a large focal plane receiver. Detector calibration of the polarization response becomes essential. It is extremely useful to be able to calibrate 'simultaneously' all detectors on the large focal plane. We developed a novel calibration system that rotates a large 'sparse' grid of metal wires, in front of and fully covering the field of view of the focal plane receiver. Polarized radiation is created via the reflection of ambient temperature from the wire surface. Since the detector has a finite beam size, the observed signal is smeared according to the beam property. The resulting smeared polarized radiation has a reasonable intensity (a few Kelvin or less) compared to the sky temperature ({approx}10 K observing condition). The system played a successful role for receiver calibration of QUIET, a CMB polarization experiment located in the Atacama desert in Chile. The successful performance revealed that this system is applicable to other experiments based on different technologies, e.g. TES bolometers.

  16. Polar Magnetic Fields Observed During the Last Four Solar Minima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The Sun's polar fields during the current minimum are the weakest in at least four solar cycles. The field strengths are fairly symmetric, unlike at least the two previous minima. We compare data from the Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) and Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) to follow the polar field changes since 1976. The polar field is never observed well from Earth because the ecliptic lies near the Sun's equator, and each year the view of the north (south) is completely hidden for several months around March 7 (September 7). Analysis of the most favorably oriented MDI synoptic maps each year allows us to derive the fairly slowly evolving large-scale polar magnetic field pattern from 1996 to the present. We account for differential rotation and other geometric effects. The analysis allows us to provide a useful interpolated or extrapolated correction that can be smoothly incorporated into the global synoptic or synchronic maps above about 70 degrees latitude. The polar field is important in modeling the large-scale coronal and heliospheric field, particularly at minimum. Even though there has been extremely little solar activity over the last several months, at the current solar minimum the structure of the corona is much less equatorial than usual, in part because the polar fields are relatively weak.

  17. Elite Polarization and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua; Mullinix, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Elite polarization has reshaped American politics and is an increasingly salient aspect of news coverage within the United States. As a consequence, a burgeoning body of research attempts to unravel the effects of elite polarization on the mass public. However, we know very little about how...... polarization is communicated to the public by news media. We report the results of one of the first content analyses to delve into the nature of news coverage of elite polarization. We show that such coverage is predominantly critical of polarization. Moreover, we show that unlike coverage of politics focused...... on individual politicians, coverage of elite polarization principally frames partisan divisions as rooted in the values of the parties rather than strategic concerns. We build on these novel findings with two survey experiments exploring the influence of these features of polarization news coverage on public...

  18. Polarized Emission from Interstellar Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Vaillancourt, J E

    2006-01-01

    Observations of far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter (SMM) polarized emission are used to study magnetic fields and dust grains in dense regions of the interstellar medium (ISM). These observations place constraints on models of molecular clouds, star-formation, grain alignment mechanisms, and grain size, shape, and composition. The FIR/SMM polarization is strongly dependent on wavelength. We have attributed this wavelength dependence to sampling different grain populations at different temperatures. To date, most observations of polarized emission have been in the densest regions of the ISM. Extending these observations to regions of the diffuse ISM, and to microwave frequencies, will provide additional tests of grain and alignment models. An understanding of polarized microwave emission from dust is key to an accurate measurement of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. The microwave polarization spectrum will put limits on the contributions to polarized emission from spinning dust and vibrat...

  19. Optimization of polarization lidar structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramochkin, Alexander I.; Kaul, Bruno V.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.

    1999-11-01

    The problems of the polarization lidar transceiver optimization are considered. The basic features and the optimization criteria of lidar polarization units are presented and the comparative analysis of polarization units is fulfilled. We have analyzed optical arrangements of the transmitter to form the desired polarization state of sounding radiation. We have also considered various types of lidar receiving systems: (1) one-channel, providing measurement of Stocks parameters at a successive change of position of polarization analyzers in the lidar receiver, and (2) multichannel, where each channel has a lens, an analyzer, and a photodetector. In the latter case measurements of Stocks parameters are carried out simultaneously. The optimization criteria of the polarization lidar considering the atmospheric state are determined with the purpose to decrease the number of polarization devices needed.

  20. Wideband resonant polarizers made with ultra-sparse dielectric nanowire grids

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jae Woong; Magnusson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Polarizers are essential in diverse photonics applications including display [1], microscopy [2], polarimetric astrophysical observation [3], laser machining [4], and quantum information processing [5]. Whereas conventional polarizers based on natural crystals and multilayer thin films are commonplace, nanostructured polarizers offer compact integrability [6,7], thermal stability in high-power systems [4,8], and space-variant vector beam generation [9,10]. Here, we introduce a new class of reflectors and polarizers fashioned with dielectric nanowire grids that are mostly empty space. It is fundamentally extremely significant that the wideband spectral expressions presented can be generated in these minimal systems. We provide computed results predicting high reflection and attendant polarization extinction in multiple spectral regions. Experimental results with Si nanowire arrays show ~200-nm-wide band of total reflection for one polarization state and free transmission for the orthogonal state. These results...

  1. The dynamics of the stratospheric polar vortex and its relation to springtime ozone depletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    1991-01-01

    Recent aircraft observations have determined the structure of polar vortices during winter and their relationship to polar ozone depletions, based on high dynamical isolation and the extremely low temperatures required for stratospheric cloud formation. The aircraft data reveal large gradients of potential vorticity and concentrations of conservative trace species at the transition from high-latitude to polar air, implying that the inward mixing of heat and constituents is strongly inhibited, and that the perturbed polar stratospheric chemistry associated with the ozone hole is isolated from the rest of the stratosphere until the vortex breaks up in late spring. It is therefore the overall polar vortex which limits the annual polar ozone depletions' maximum area-coverage.

  2. High-energy nuclear optics of polarized particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir G

    2012-01-01

    The various phenomena caused by refraction and diffraction of polarized elementary particles in matter have opened up a new research area in the particle physics: nuclear optics of polarized particles. Effects similar to the well-known optical phenomena such as birefringence and Faraday effects, exist also in particle physics, though the particle wavelength is much less than the distance between atoms of matter. Current knowledge of the quasi-optical effects, which exist for all particles in any wavelength range (and energies from low to extremely high), will enable us to investigate different properties of interacting particles (nuclei) in a new aspect. This pioneering book will provide detailed accounts of quasi-optical phenomena in the particle polarization, and will interest physicists and professionals in experimental particle physics.

  3. New analysis concerning the strange quark polarization puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Leader, Elliot; Stamenov, Dimiter B

    2014-01-01

    The fact that analyses of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering suggest that the strange quark polarization $\\Delta s(x) + \\Delta \\bar{s}(x)$ is positive in the measured region of Bjorken x, whereas all analyses of inclusive deep inelastic scattering yield significantly negative values of this quantity, is known as the "strange quark polarization puzzle". We have re-analysed the world data on inclusive deep inelastic scattering, including the COMPASS 2010 proton data on the spin asymmetries, and for the first time, the new extremely precise JLab CLAS data on the proton and deuteron spin structure functions. Despite allowing, in our parametrization, for a possible sign change, our results confirm that the inclusive data yield significantly negative values for the strange quark polarization.

  4. Generalizations of Wiener polarity index and terminal Wiener index

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    In theoretical chemistry, distance-based molecular structure descriptors are used for modeling physical, pharmacologic, biological and other properties of chemical compounds. We introduce a generalized Wiener polarity index $W_k (G)$ as the number of unordered pairs of vertices $\\{u, v\\}$ of $G$ such that the shortest distance $d (u, v)$ between $u$ and $v$ is $k$. For $k = 3$, we get standard Wiener polarity index. Furthermore, we generalize the terminal Wiener index $TW_k (G)$ as the sum of distances between all pairs of vertices of degree $k$. For $k = 1$, we get standard terminal Wiener index. In this paper we describe a linear time algorithm for computing these indices for trees and partial cubes, and characterize extremal trees maximizing the generalized Wiener polarity index and generalized terminal Wiener index among all trees of given order $n$.

  5. Self-Sustaining Dynamical Nuclear Polarization Oscillations in Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudner, Mark Spencer; Levitov, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    Early experiments on spin-blockaded double quantum dots revealed robust, large-amplitude current oscillations in the presence of a static (dc) source-drain bias. Despite experimental evidence implicating dynamical nuclear polarization, the mechanism has remained a mystery. Here we introduce a min......) and nuclear spin diffusion, which governs dynamics of the spatial profile of nuclear polarization. The proposed framework naturally explains the differences in phenomenology between vertical and lateral quantum dot structures as well as the extremely long oscillation periods.......Early experiments on spin-blockaded double quantum dots revealed robust, large-amplitude current oscillations in the presence of a static (dc) source-drain bias. Despite experimental evidence implicating dynamical nuclear polarization, the mechanism has remained a mystery. Here we introduce...

  6. Bell's inequalities with realistic noise for polarization-entangled photons

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A; Lamas-Linares, A; Cabello, Adan; Feito, Alvaro; Lamas-Linares, Antia

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to the usual assumption that the experimental preparation of pure entangled states can be described by mixed states due to white noise, a more realistic description for polarization-entangled states produced by parametric down-conversion is that they are mixed states due to decoherence in a preferred polarization basis. This distinction between white and colored noise is crucial when we look for maximal violations of Bell's inequalities for two-qubit and two-qutrit entangled states. We find that violations of Bell's inequalities with realistic noise for polarization-entangled photons are extremely robust for colored noise, whereas this is not the case for white noise. In addition, we study the difference between white and colored noise for maximal violations of Bell's inequalities for three and four-qubit entangled states.

  7. Polar Cap Retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    13 August 2004 This red wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of the retreating seasonal south polar cap in the most recent spring in late 2003. Bright areas are covered with frost, dark areas are those from which the solid carbon dioxide has sublimed away. The center of this image is located near 76.5oS, 28.2oW. The scene is large; it covers an area about 250 km (155 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  8. Polar Direct Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupsky, S.

    2003-10-01

    Direct drive offers the potential of higher target gain on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) than x-ray drive: The initial direct-drive target design had a 1-D gain of 45 and consisted primarily of a pure cryogenic DT shell. Using the expected levels of target and laser nonuniformities for the NIF, two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic simulations predicted target gains around 30.(P.W. McKenty et al.), Phys. Plasmas 8, 2315 (2001). More-recent designs have shown that higher target gains could be obtained by replacing a portion of the DT shell with ``wetted'' CH foam and by using adiabat shaping: (1) Higher-Z material (C) in the foam increases laser absorption by about 40% (from 60% absorption to 85%).(S. Skupsky et al.), in Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001, edited by K. Tanaka et al. (Elsevier, Paris, 2002), p. 240. (2) Adiabat shaping allows the main portion of the fuel to be placed on a lower adiabat without compromising target stability.(V.N. Goncharov et al.), Phys. Plasmas 10, 1906 (2003). These direct-drive concepts can be tested on the NIF, long before that facility is converted to a direct-drive (spherically symmetric) irradiation configuration. Using the NIF x-ray-drive beam configuration, some of the near-polar beams could be pointed to better illuminate the target's equator. These more-oblique, equatorial beams will have lower absorption and reduced drive efficiency than the polar beams. One strategy to compensate for the difference in polar and equatorial drive is to reduce the irradiation at the poles and employ different pulse shapes to accommodate the time-dependent variations in drive and absorption. This concept of polar direct drive (PDD) has been studied using the 2-D hydrocode DRACO to determine the requirements for achieving ignition and moderate target gain for the NIF. Experiments on the OMEGA laser will examine the effects of oblique irradiation on target drive. Results of simulations for different direct-drive target designs

  9. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takashi; Iwamae, Atsushi (eds.) [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Science

    2008-07-01

    Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy (PPS) is now becoming a standard diagnostic technique for working with laboratory plasmas. This new area needs a comprehensive framework, both experimental and theoretical. This book reviews the historical development of PPS, develops a general theoretical formulation to deal with this phenomenon, along with an overview of relevant cross sections, and reports on laboratory experiments so far performed. It also includes various facets that are interesting from this standpoint, e.g. X-ray lasers and effects of microwave irradiation. It also offers a timely discussion of instrumentation that is quite important in a practical PPS experiment. (orig.)

  10. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  11. Normalized polarization ratios for the analysis of cell polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raz Shimoni

    Full Text Available The quantification and analysis of molecular localization in living cells is increasingly important for elucidating biological pathways, and new methods are rapidly emerging. The quantification of cell polarity has generated much interest recently, and ratiometric analysis of fluorescence microscopy images provides one means to quantify cell polarity. However, detection of fluorescence, and the ratiometric measurement, is likely to be sensitive to acquisition settings and image processing parameters. Using imaging of EGFP-expressing cells and computer simulations of variations in fluorescence ratios, we characterized the dependence of ratiometric measurements on processing parameters. This analysis showed that image settings alter polarization measurements; and that clustered localization is more susceptible to artifacts than homogeneous localization. To correct for such inconsistencies, we developed and validated a method for choosing the most appropriate analysis settings, and for incorporating internal controls to ensure fidelity of polarity measurements. This approach is applicable to testing polarity in all cells where the axis of polarity is known.

  12. Influence of polar cap currents on pulsar polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, D

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a model for the polarization of curvature radiation for pulsars by taking into account the polar cap induced perturbation on the nonrotating (slowly rotating) dipolar magnetic field, where the rotation effects such as aberration and retardation can be ignored. We have simulated a set of typical pulse profiles to understand the role of induced magnetic field on radio emission of pulsars, and found to be significantly influencing the profile structure and polarization. Our model indicates that the intensity components and the polarization angle inflection point can get shifted to either leading or trailing side depending upon the prevailing conditions in the viewing geometry, the non-uniformity in source distribution (modulation) and the polar cap current induced perturbation. Also, we find an evidence for the origin of symmetric type circular polarization in addition to antisymmetric type. Our model predicts for a stronger trailing component compared to that on leading side of a given cone.

  13. Assessing Climate Variability using Extreme Rainfall and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    As noted by the Bureau of Meteorology, Canada, to examine whether such ... their local climate, a threshold considered extreme in one part of Australia could be ... (extreme frequency); the average intensity of rainfall from extreme events.

  14. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C-1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  15. Study of an efficient application of the tagged bremsstrahlung in double-polarization experiments in the GeV range and the use of the inelastic electron scattering under extremely forward angles as alternative to the tagged bremsstrahlung; Studie eines effizienten Einsatzes der markierten Bremsstrahlung bei Doppelpolarisationsexperimenten im GeV-Bereich und der Nutzung der inelastischen Elektronstreuung unter extremen Vorwaertswinkeln als Alternative zur markierten Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, M.

    2006-03-15

    For the preparation of photonic probes for hadron physics the determination of energy and polarization of the photons is essential. In this dissertation in a first part a possibility of the determination of the degree of polarization by use of the asymmetry observables is presented. In a second part a possibility isd discussed to perform an energy and polarization tagging of nearly real photons in electron scattering under small Q{sup 2}. By this method it should be possible to tag billions of photons per second.

  16. Rising Precipitation Extremes across Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Karki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a mountainous country, Nepal is most susceptible to precipitation extremes and related hazards, including severe floods, landslides and droughts that cause huge losses of life and property, impact the Himalayan environment, and hinder the socioeconomic development of the country. Given that the countrywide assessment of such extremes is still lacking, we present a comprehensive picture of prevailing precipitation extremes observed across Nepal. First, we present the spatial distribution of daily extreme precipitation indices as defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring and Indices (ETCCDMI from 210 stations over the period of 1981–2010. Then, we analyze the temporal changes in the computed extremes from 76 stations, featuring long-term continuous records for the period of 1970–2012, by applying a non-parametric Mann−Kendall test to identify the existence of a trend and Sen’s slope method to calculate the true magnitude of this trend. Further, the local trends in precipitation extremes have been tested for their field significance over the distinct physio-geographical regions of Nepal, such as the lowlands, middle mountains and hills and high mountains in the west (WL, WM and WH, respectively, and likewise, in central (CL, CM and CH and eastern (EL, EM and EH Nepal. Our results suggest that the spatial patterns of high-intensity precipitation extremes are quite different to that of annual or monsoonal precipitation. Lowlands (Terai and Siwaliks that feature relatively low precipitation and less wet days (rainy days are exposed to high-intensity precipitation extremes. Our trend analysis suggests that the pre-monsoonal precipitation is significantly increasing over the lowlands and CH, while monsoonal precipitation is increasing in WM and CH and decreasing in CM, CL and EL. On the other hand, post-monsoonal precipitation is significantly decreasing across all of Nepal while winter precipitation is decreasing

  17. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme Ocean Waves”, edited by E. Pelinovsky and C. Kharif, second edition, Springer International Publishing, 2016; ISBN: 978-3-319-21574-7, ISBN (eBook): 978-3-319-21575-4The second edition of “Extreme Ocean Waves” published by Springer is an update of a collection of 12 papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif following the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. In this edition, three new papers have been added and three more have been substantially revised. Color figures are now included, which greatly aids in reading several of the papers, and is especially helpful in visualizing graphs as in the paper on symbolic computation of nonlinear wave resonance (Tobisch et al.). A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, including deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (which are alternatively termed freak waves), and internal waves. One new paper on tsunamis (Viroulet et al.) is now included in the second edition of this volume. Throughout the book, the reader will find a combination of laboratory, theoretical, and statistical/empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the Introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting a dramatic instance of damaging extreme waves that recently occurred in 2014.

  18. Extreme lattices: symmetries and decorrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreanov, A.; Scardicchio, A.; Torquato, S.

    2016-11-01

    We study statistical and structural properties of extreme lattices, which are the local minima in the density landscape of lattice sphere packings in d-dimensional Euclidean space {{{R}}d} . Specifically, we ascertain statistics of the densities and kissing numbers as well as the numbers of distinct symmetries of the packings for dimensions 8 through 13 using the stochastic Voronoi algorithm. The extreme lattices in a fixed dimension of space d (d≥slant 8 ) are dominated by typical lattices that have similar packing properties, such as packing densities and kissing numbers, while the best and the worst packers are in the long tails of the distribution of the extreme lattices. We also study the validity of the recently proposed decorrelation principle, which has important implications for sphere packings in general. The degree to which extreme-lattice packings decorrelate as well as how decorrelation is related to the packing density and symmetry of the lattices as the space dimension increases is also investigated. We find that the extreme lattices decorrelate with increasing dimension, while the least symmetric lattices decorrelate faster.

  19. Photon emission of extremal Kerr-Newman black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the null geodesics extending from the near-horizon region out to a distant observatory in an extremal Kerr-Newman black hole background. In particular, using the matched asymptotic expansion method, we analytically solve the null geodesics near the superradiant bound. For the case that the polar angles of the two endpoints of the geodesic coincide, the relation between the radial values of the two endpoints is found, and the shifts in the azimuthal angle and time are also obtained.

  20. Human and team performance in extreme environments: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuster, J.

    1998-01-01

    Analogous experience is often instructive when attempting to understand human behavior in extreme environments. The current paper refers to the experiences of polar explorers and remote duty personnel to help identify the factors that influence individual and team performance when small groups are isolated and confined for long durations. The principal factors discussed include organizational structure, intracrew communications, interpersonal relations, leadership style, personnel selection, and training. Behavioral implications also are addressed for the design of procedures and equipment to facilitate sustained individual and group performance under conditions of isolation and confinement. To be consistent with the theme of the symposium, this paper emphasizes the crew requirements for an international expedition to Mars.

  1. Functional metagenomics of extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirete, Salvador; Morgante, Verónica; González-Pastor, José Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The bioprospecting of enzymes that operate under extreme conditions is of particular interest for many biotechnological and industrial processes. Nevertheless, there is a considerable limitation to retrieve novel enzymes as only a small fraction of microorganisms derived from extreme environments can be cultured under standard laboratory conditions. Functional metagenomics has the advantage of not requiring the cultivation of microorganisms or previous sequence information to known genes, thus representing a valuable approach for mining enzymes with new features. In this review, we summarize studies showing how functional metagenomics was employed to retrieve genes encoding for proteins involved not only in molecular adaptation and resistance to extreme environmental conditions but also in other enzymatic activities of biotechnological interest.

  2. Mitochondriogenesis genes and extreme longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catalina; Garatachea, Nuria; Yvert, Thomas; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Lucia, Alejandro

    2013-02-01

    Genes of the proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A, also termed PGC1-α)-nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-mitochondrial transcription Factor A (TFAM) mitochondriogenesis pathway can influence health/disease phenotypes, yet their association with extreme longevity is not known. We studied the association of five common polymorphisms in genes of this pathway (rs2267668, rs8192678, rs6949152, rs12594956, rs1937) and extreme longevity using a case (107 centenarians)-control (284 young adults) design. We found no between-group differences in allele/genotype frequencies, except for CC genotype in rs1937 (p=0.003), with no representation in controls (0%), versus 2.8% in centenarians (2 men, 1 woman). In summary, the studied genetic variants of the PPARD-PPARGC1A-NRF-TFAM pathway were not associated with extreme longevity, yet a marginal association could exist for rs1937.

  3. Polarization and Polarimetry: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, S

    2014-01-01

    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/gamma wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astro...

  4. Polarized proton collider at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Lehrach, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S. Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W. W.; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A. N.

    2003-03-01

    In addition to heavy ion collisions (RHIC Design Manual, Brookhaven National Laboratory), RHIC will also collide intense beams of polarized protons (I. Alekseev, et al., Design Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1998 [2]), reaching transverse energies where the protons scatter as beams of polarized quarks and gluons. The study of high energy polarized protons beams has been a long term part of the program at BNL with the development of polarized beams in the Booster and AGS rings for fixed target experiments. We have extended this capability to the RHIC machine. In this paper we describe the design and methods for achieving collisions of both longitudinal and transverse polarized protons in RHIC at energies up to s=500 GeV.

  5. Formation of polar ring galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bournaud, F

    2003-01-01

    Polar ring galaxies are peculiar systems in which a gas rich, nearly polar ring surrounds an early-type or elliptical host galaxy. Two formation scenarios for these objects have been proposed: they are thought to form either in major galaxy mergers or by tidal accretion of the polar material from a gas rich donor galaxy. Both scenarios are studied through N-body simulations including gas dynamics and star formation. Constraints on physical parameters are drawn out, in order to determine which scenario is the most likely to occur. Polar ring galaxies from each scenario are compared with observations and we discuss whether the accretion scenario and the merging scenario account for observational properties of polar ring galaxies. The conclusion of this study is that the accretion scenario is both the most likely and the most supported by observations. Even if the merging scenario is rather robust, most polar ring galaxies are shown to be the result of tidal gas accretion events.

  6. Tomographic imaging with polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Vadim Y; Zacharakis, Giannis; Spiliopoulos, George; Favicchio, Rosy; Correia, Teresa; Arridge, Simon R; Ripoll, Jorge

    2012-06-01

    We report three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of optical parameters for the mesoscopic light scattering regime from experimentally obtained datasets by using polarized light. We present a numerically inexpensive approximation to the radiative transfer equation governing the polarized light transport. This approximation is employed in the reconstruction algorithm, which computes two optical parameters by using parallel and perpendicular polarizations of transmitted light. Datasets were obtained by imaging a scattering phantom embedding highly absorbing inclusions. Reconstruction results are presented and discussed.

  7. Polarized Electrons for Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Clendenin, J E; Garwin, E L; Kirby, R E; Luh, D A; Maruyama, T; Prescott, C Y; Sheppard, J C; Turner, J; Prepost, R

    2005-01-01

    Future electron-positron linear colliders require a highly polarized electron beam with a pulse structure that depends primarily on whether the acceleration utilizes warm or superconducting rf structures. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will use cold structures for the main linac. It is shown that a dc-biased polarized photoelectron source such as successfully used for the SLC can meet the charge requirements for the ILC micropulse with a polarization approaching 90%.

  8. Cell Polarity Signaling in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhenbiao

    2008-01-01

    Cell polarization is intimately linked to plant development, growth, and responses to the environment. Major advances have been made in our understanding of the signaling pathways and networks that regulate cell polarity in plants owing to recent studies on several model systems, e.g., tip growth in pollen tubes, cell morphogenesis in the leaf epidermis, and polar localization of PINs. From these studies we have learned that plant cells use conserved mechanisms such as Rho family GTPases to i...

  9. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  10. Automation Rover for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan; Hilgemann, Evan; Johnson, Michael; Parness, Aaron; Hall, Jeffrey; Kawata, Jessie; Stack, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Almost 2,300 years ago the ancient Greeks built the Antikythera automaton. This purely mechanical computer accurately predicted past and future astronomical events long before electronics existed1. Automata have been credibly used for hundreds of years as computers, art pieces, and clocks. However, in the past several decades automata have become less popular as the capabilities of electronics increased, leaving them an unexplored solution for robotic spacecraft. The Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments (AREE) proposes an exciting paradigm shift from electronics to a fully mechanical system, enabling longitudinal exploration of the most extreme environments within the solar system.

  11. Extreme Weather and Natural Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Australia is a vast land in which weather varies significantly in different parts of the continent. Recent extreme weather events in Australia, such as the Queensland floods and Victorian bushfires, are brutal reminders of nature's devastating power. Is global warming increasing the rate of natural disasters? What part do La Niña and El Niño play in the extreme weather cycle? Cyclones, floods, severe storms, bushfires, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis - what are the natural and man-made causes of these phenomena, how predictable are they, and how prepared are we for the impacts of natural dis

  12. Uncommon upper extremity compression neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Elisa J; Calfee, Ryan P

    2013-08-01

    Hand surgeons routinely treat carpal and cubital tunnel syndromes, which are the most common upper extremity nerve compression syndromes. However, more infrequent nerve compression syndromes of the upper extremity may be encountered. Because they are unusual, the diagnosis of these nerve compression syndromes is often missed or delayed. This article reviews the causes, proposed treatments, and surgical outcomes for syndromes involving compression of the posterior interosseous nerve, the superficial branch of the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve at the wrist, and the median nerve proximal to the wrist. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...

  14. [The challenges for physicians on polar expeditions around the year 1900].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albretsen, Carl Severin

    2003-12-23

    One century ago there was an intense activity in exploring the unknown polar areas. The paper gives an account of 14 expeditions involving 17 physicians. For several years, the official versions were those published by the leaders of the expeditions, the heroes. During the last years, however, the diaries of their companions have been published and provide valuable and rectifying information. Surprisingly, most of the physicians were young and inexperienced and unfit for the extreme strain of the polar areas.

  15. Polarization observables in low energy deuteron photodisintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glister, Jacqueline Fougere

    Electromagnetic probes of few nucleon systems, such the A = 2 deuteron, provide a useful testing ground for the nucleon-nucleon ( NN) interaction. At low excitation energies, there are now well-established meson-baryon model (MBM) calculations which successfully describe the NN interaction using effective hadron degrees of freedom (mesons exchanged by nucleons and excited nucleon states). At high enough energies, the NN interaction can be modeled using perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), where the degrees of freedom are current quarks exchanging gluons. In order to truly understand the transition between the MBM and QCD regimes, it is instructive to study the most basic electromagnetic interactions with two nucleon systems (photodisintegration of the deuteron, for instance) in an energy region approaching the upper end of the MBM range of applicability and using polarization observables sensitive to small dynamical effects. In this way, the MBM calculations can be calibrated and deficiencies revealed, such that the extreme limits of applicability of meson-baryon descriptions can be evaluated. While modern MBM calculations generally provide a good agreement for cross section and polarization measurements in deuteron photodisintegration, there has emerged a long-standing disagreement in the case of the induced recoil proton polarization (Py ) at theta cm = 90° between incident photon energies of 300 and 500 MeV. Motivated by this discrepancy between experiment and MBM calculations, high precision transferred and induced recoil proton polarization measurements in the d( g⃗,p⃗ )n reaction were performed in Hall A of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility for photon energies of 277--357 MeV (bin center) and thetacm = 20--120°. The new Py measurements, performed to verify the discrepancy, are found to deviate from theoretical predictions at an even lower energy than previous measurements. The transferred polarization measurements ( Pc'x and Pc

  16. 'The plunger hypothesis' - predicting the tropospheric impact of extreme stratospheric events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Simon; Baldwin, Mark; Stephenson, David

    2016-04-01

    The coupling of events in the polar stratosphere to those in the polar troposphere is not currently understood. Extreme events in the stratosphere have been identified to have a lasting influence on the tropospheric circulation below for a period of up to 60 days. As such understanding the downward propagation of stratospheric circulation anomalies would be beneficial to surface forecasting. In this work we use the new 'plunger hypothesis', that mass fluxes into and out of the polar region compress the polar column of air - in a manner similar to a plunger - and cause pressure and temperature anomalies. We demonstrate how a quasigeostrophic assumption within this hypothesis allows for the prediction of mass fluxes across the boundary to the polar region given the pressure distribution at the boundary. This then allows for a prediction of how a given stratospheric event such as a sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) or a strong vortex event influences the polar troposphere. The performance of this hypothesis is tested; its usefulness in improving surface forecasts, its accuracy in response to stratospheric events, and its ability to predict downward propagation of Arctic Oscillation (AO) index in the aftermath of extreme stratospheric events. The link between this work and the PV inversion formulation of stratosphere-troposphere coupling is discussed. This work forms part of a three and a half year PhD project.

  17. Majorization of quantum polarization distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Luis, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Majorization provides a rather powerful partial-order classification of probability distributions depending only on the spread of the statistics, and not on the actual numerical values of the variable being described. We propose to apply majorization as a meta-measure of quantum polarization fluctuations, this is to say of the degree of polarization. We compare the polarization fluctuations of the most relevant classes of quantum and classical-like states. In particular we test the Lieb's conjecture regarding classical-like states as the most polarized and a complementary conjecture that the most unpolarized pure states are the most nonclassical.

  18. Polarization signals in mantis shrimps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Caldwell, Roy L.; Roberts, Nicholas; Marshall, Justin

    2009-08-01

    While color signals are well known as a form of animal communication, a number of animals communicate using signals based on patterns of polarized light reflected from specialized body parts or structures. Mantis shrimps, a group of marine crustaceans, have evolved a great diversity of such signals, several of which are based on photonic structures. These include resonant scattering devices, structures based on layered dichroic molecules, and structures that use birefringent layers to produce circular polarization. Such biological polarizers operate in different spectral regions ranging from the near-UV to medium wavelengths of visible light. In addition to the structures that are specialized for signal production, the eyes of many species of mantis shrimp are adapted to detect linearly polarized light in the ultraviolet and in the green, using specialized sets of photoreceptors with oriented, dichroic visual pigments. Finally, a few mantis shrimp species produce biophotonic retarders within their photoreceptors that permit the detection of circularly polarized light and are thus the only animals known to sense this form of polarization. Mantis shrimps use polarized light in species-specific signals related to mating and territorial defense, and their means of manipulating light's polarization can inspire designs for artificial polarizers and achromatic retarders.

  19. Magnet polarities in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    McAteer, M; Maclean, E; Persson, T; Steinhagen, R; Tomas, R

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of extensive tests to verify the polarities of Landau damping octupoles (MOF, MOD) and octupole spool correctors (MCO), arc trim skew sextupoles (MSS), and triplet sextupole correctors (MCSX and MCSSX). All octupole circuits that were measured were found to have the expected polarity. All arc skew sextupoles MSS and triplet sextupole correctors MCSX and MCSSX that were measured were found to have reversed polarity with respect to MADX. It is also noted that the triplet quadrupole trims ktqx2, as well as MQS and MQSX, have reversed polarity with respect to MADX.

  20. The RHIC polarized source upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Zubets, V.

    2010-09-27

    The RHIC polarized H{sup -} ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity (5-10 mA) and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam peak intensity will allow reduction of the transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron - proton (ion) Collider eRHIC.

  1. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2001-01-01

    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization......In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  2. Antiproton beam polarizer using a dense polarized target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2011-05-01

    We describe considerations regarding the spin filtering method for the antiproton beam. The proposed investigation of the double polarization cross section for antiproton to nucleon interaction is outlined. It will use a single path of the antiproton beam through a dense polarized target, e.g. 3He or CH2, followed by a polarimeter.

  3. Weak Polarized Electron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

  4. Interferometric polarization control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); Moseley, Samuel H. (Inventor); Novak, Giles A. (Inventor); Chuss, David T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A signal conditioning module provides a polarimeter capability in a photometric system. The module may include multiple variable delay polarization modulators. Each modulator may include an input port, and a first arm formed to include a first reflector and first rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The first reflector may direct an input radiation signal to the first rooftop mirror. Each modulator also may include an output port and a second arm formed to include a second reflector and second rooftop mirror arranged in opposed relationship. The second reflector can guide a signal from the second rooftop mirror towards the output port to provide an output radiation signal. A beamsplitting grid may be placed between the first reflector and the first rooftop mirror, and also between the second reflector and the second rooftop mirror. A translation apparatus can provide adjustment relative to optical path length vis-a-vis the first arm, the second arm and the grid.

  5. Macrophage plasticity and polarization: in vivo veritas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Antonio; Mantovani, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. In response to IFNs, Toll-like receptor engagement, or IL-4/IL-13 signaling, macrophages undergo M1 (classical) or M2 (alternative) activation, which represent extremes of a continuum in a universe of activation states. Progress has now been made in defining the signaling pathways, transcriptional networks, and epigenetic mechanisms underlying M1-M2 or M2-like polarized activation. Functional skewing of mononuclear phagocytes occurs in vivo under physiological conditions (e.g., ontogenesis and pregnancy) and in pathology (allergic and chronic inflammation, tissue repair, infection, and cancer). However, in selected preclinical and clinical conditions, coexistence of cells in different activation states and unique or mixed phenotypes have been observed, a reflection of dynamic changes and complex tissue-derived signals. The identification of mechanisms and molecules associated with macrophage plasticity and polarized activation provides a basis for macrophage-centered diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:22378047

  6. Extreme conditions (p, T, H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesot, J. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the sample environment which will be accessible at the SINQ. In order to illustrate the type of experiments which will be feasible under extreme conditions of temperature, magnetic field and pressure at the SINQ a few selected examples are also given. (author) 7 figs., 14 refs.

  7. Extreme cervical elongation after sacrohysteropexy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhout, M.E.; Futterer, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of extreme cervical elongation with a cervix of 12 cm after an unusual operation in which the uterine corpus was directly fixed to the promontory, and which became symptomatic after 8 years. The possible pathophysiology of cervical elongation is discussed. Diagnosing a case of seve

  8. Applied extreme-value statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnison, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    The statistical theory of extreme values is a well established part of theoretical statistics. Unfortunately, it is seldom part of applied statistics and is infrequently a part of statistical curricula except in advanced studies programs. This has resulted in the impression that it is difficult to understand and not of practical value. In recent environmental and pollution literature, several short articles have appeared with the purpose of documenting all that is necessary for the practical application of extreme value theory to field problems (for example, Roberts, 1979). These articles are so concise that only a statistician can recognise all the subtleties and assumptions necessary for the correct use of the material presented. The intent of this text is to expand upon several recent articles, and to provide the necessary statistical background so that the non-statistician scientist can recognize and extreme value problem when it occurs in his work, be confident in handling simple extreme value problems himself, and know when the problem is statistically beyond his capabilities and requires consultation.

  9. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  10. Extreme Energy Events Monitoring report

    CERN Document Server

    Baimukhamedova, Nigina

    2015-01-01

    Following paper reflects the progress I made on Summer Student Program within Extreme Energy Events Monitor project I was working on. During 8 week period I managed to build a simple detector system that is capable of triggering events similar to explosions (sudden change in sound levels) and measuring approximate location of the event. Source codes are available upon request and settings described further.

  11. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    the US east coast and the Gulf of Mexico (1851 - 2009) and Japanese east coast (1951 -2009) form the basis for Weibull extreme value analyses to determine return period respective maximum wind speeds. Unidirectional generic sea state spectra are obtained by application of the empirical models...

  12. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  13. Circularly Polarized MHOHG with Bichromatic Circularly Polarized Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, Andre D.; Mauger, Francois; Uzer, Turgay

    2016-05-01

    Circularly polarized MHOHG-Molecular High Order Harmonic Generation is shown to occur efficiently with intense ultrashort bichromatic circularly polarized pulses due to frequent electron-parent -ion recollision with co-or counter-rotating incident circular pulses as predicted in 1995. We show in this context that molecules offer a very robust and efficient frameworkfor the production of circularly polarized harmonics for the generation of single circularly polarized ``attosecond'' pulses. The efficiency of such new MHOHG is shown to depend on the compatibility of the symmetry of the molecular medium with the net electric field generated by the combination of the laser pulses.Using a time-dependent symmetry analysis with concrete examples such as H 2 + vs H 3 + we show how all the features(harmonic order and ∧ polarization) of MHOHG can be explained and predicted.

  14. Possible Sources of Polar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    Extensive analyses of returned Apollo samples demonstrated that the Moon is extremely volatile poor. While this conclusion remains true, various measurements since the late 90's implicated the presence of water: e.g., enhanced reflection of circularly polarized radar signals and suppression of epithermal neutrons near the poles. More recently, traces of H2O have been discovered inside volcanic glass, along with more significant amounts residing in hydrous minerals (apatite) returned from both highland and mare landing sites. Three recent lunar missions (DIXI, M3, Cassini) identified hydrous phases on/near the lunar surface, whereas the LCROSS probe detected significant quantities of volatiles (OH, H2O and other volatiles) excavated by the Centaur impact. These new mission results and sample studies, however, now allow testing different hypotheses for the generation, trapping, and replenishment of these volatiles. Solar-proton implantation must contribute to the hydrous phases in the lunar regolith in order to account for the observed time-varying abundances and occurrence near the lunar equator. This also cannot be the entire story. The relatively low speed LCROSS-Centaur impact (2.5km/s) could not vaporize such hydrous minerals, yet emissions lines of OH (from the thermal disassociation of H2O), along with other compounds (CO2, NH2) were detected within the first second, before ejecta could reach sunlight. Telescopic observations by Potter and Morgan (1985) discovered a tenuous lunar atmosphere of Na, but the LCROSS UV/Vis spectrometer did not detect the Na-D line until after the ejecta reached sunlight (along with a line pair attributed to Ag). With time, other volatile species emerged (OH, CO). The LAMP instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter had a different viewpoint from the side (rather than from above) and detected many other atomic species release by the LCROSS-Centaur impact. Consequently, it appears that there is a stratigraphy for trapped species

  15. Remotely Interrogated Passive Polarizing Dosimeter (RIPPeD).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Buller, Daniel L.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Boye, Robert R.; Samora, Sally; Washburn, Cody M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2008-09-01

    Conductive polymers have become an extremely useful class of materials for many optical applications. We have developed an electrochemical growth method for depositing highly conductive ({approx}100 S/cm) polypyrrole. Additionally, we have adapted advanced fabrication methods for use with the polypyrrole resulting in gratings with submicron features. This conductive polymer micro-wire grid provides an optical polarizer with unique properties. When the polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, its conductivity is affected and the polarization properties of the device, specifically the extinction ratio, change in a corresponding manner. This change in polarization properties can be determined by optically interrogating the device, possibly from a remote location. The result is a passive radiation-sensitive sensor with very low optical visibility. The ability to interrogate the device from a safe standoff distance provides a device useful in potentially dangerous environments. Also, the passive nature of the device make it applicable in applications where external power is not available. We will review the polymer deposition, fabrication methods and device design and modeling. The characterization of the polymer's sensitivity to ionizing radiation and optical testing of infrared polarizers before and after irradiation will also be presented. These experimental results will highlight the usefulness of the conductive infrared polarizer to many security and monitoring applications.

  16. Biomechanical consequences of rapid evolution in the polar bear lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J Slater

    Full Text Available The polar bear is the only living ursid with a fully carnivorous diet. Despite a number of well-documented craniodental adaptations for a diet of seal flesh and blubber, molecular and paleontological data indicate that this morphologically distinct species evolved less than a million years ago from the omnivorous brown bear. To better understand the evolution of this dietary specialization, we used phylogenetic tests to estimate the rate of morphological specialization in polar bears. We then used finite element analysis (FEA to compare the limits of feeding performance in the polar bear skull to that of the phylogenetically and geographically close brown bear. Results indicate that extremely rapid evolution of semi-aquatic adaptations and dietary specialization in the polar bear lineage produced a cranial morphology that is weaker than that of brown bears and less suited to processing tough omnivorous or herbivorous diets. Our results suggest that continuation of current climate trends could affect polar bears by not only eliminating their primary food source, but also through competition with northward advancing, generalized brown populations for resources that they are ill-equipped to utilize.

  17. Research on polarization imaging information parsing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongwu; Zhou, Pucheng; Wang, Xiaolong

    2016-11-01

    Polarization information parsing plays an important role in polarization imaging detection. This paper focus on the polarization information parsing method: Firstly, the general process of polarization information parsing is given, mainly including polarization image preprocessing, multiple polarization parameters calculation, polarization image fusion and polarization image tracking, etc.; And then the research achievements of the polarization information parsing method are presented, in terms of polarization image preprocessing, the polarization image registration method based on the maximum mutual information is designed. The experiment shows that this method can improve the precision of registration and be satisfied the need of polarization information parsing; In terms of multiple polarization parameters calculation, based on the omnidirectional polarization inversion model is built, a variety of polarization parameter images are obtained and the precision of inversion is to be improve obviously; In terms of polarization image fusion , using fuzzy integral and sparse representation, the multiple polarization parameters adaptive optimal fusion method is given, and the targets detection in complex scene is completed by using the clustering image segmentation algorithm based on fractal characters; In polarization image tracking, the average displacement polarization image characteristics of auxiliary particle filtering fusion tracking algorithm is put forward to achieve the smooth tracking of moving targets. Finally, the polarization information parsing method is applied to the polarization imaging detection of typical targets such as the camouflage target, the fog and latent fingerprints.

  18. Simulation of Extreme Arctic Cyclones in IPCC AR5 Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrus, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Although impending Arctic climate change is widely recognized, a wild card in its expression is how extreme weather events in this region will respond to greenhouse warming. Intense polar cyclones represent one type of high-latitude phenomena falling into this category, including very deep synoptic-scale cyclones and mesoscale polar lows. These systems inflict damage through high winds, heavy precipitation, and wave action along coastlines, and their impact is expected to expand in the future, when reduced sea ice cover allows enhanced wave energy. The loss of a buffering ice pack could greatly increase the rate of coastal erosion, which has already been increasing in the Arctic. These and related threats may amplify if extreme Arctic cyclones become more frequent and/or intense in a warming climate with much more open water to fuel them. This possibility has merit on the basis of GCM experiments, which project that greenhouse forcing causes lower mean sea level pressure (SLP) in the Arctic and a strengthening of the deepest storms over boreal high latitudes. In this study, the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate model output is used to investigate the following questions: (1) What are the spatial and seasonal characteristics of extreme Arctic cyclones? (2) How well do GCMs simulate these phenomena? (3) Are Arctic cyclones already showing the expected response to greenhouse warming in climate models? To address these questions, a retrospective analysis is conducted of the transient 20th century simulations among the CMIP5 GCMs (spanning years 1850-2005). The results demonstrate that GCMs are able to reasonably represent extreme Arctic cyclones and that the simulated characteristics do not depend significantly on model resolution. Consistent with observational evidence, climate models generate these storms primarily during winter and within the climatological Aleutian and Icelandic Low regions. Occasionally the cyclones remain very intense

  19. Extremal non-BPS black holes and entropy extremization

    CERN Document Server

    Lópes-Cardoso, G; Lust, D; Perz, J; Cardoso, Gabriel Lopes; Grass, Viviane; Lust, Dieter; Perz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    At the horizon, a static extremal black hole solution in N=2 supergravity in four dimensions is determined by a set of so-called attractor equations which, in the absence of higher-curvature interactions, can be derived as extremization conditions for the black hole potential or, equivalently, for the entropy function. We contrast both methods by explicitly solving the attractor equations for a one-modulus prepotential associated with the conifold. We find that near the conifold point, the non-supersymmetric solution has a substantially different behavior than the supersymmetric solution. We analyze the stability of the solutions and the extrema of the resulting entropy as a function of the modulus. For the non-BPS solution the region of attractivity and the maximum of the entropy do not coincide with the conifold point.

  20. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…