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Sample records for extravehicular activities man

  1. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbon, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.

  2. Extravehicular activity space suit interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; McBarron, James W.; Severin, Guy I.

    1995-10-01

    The European Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (RKA) are jointly developing a new space suit system for improved extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities in support of the MIR Space Station Programme, the EVA Suit 2000. Recent national policy agreements between the U.S. and Russia on planned cooperations in manned space also include joint extravehicular activity (EVA). With an increased number of space suit systems and a higher operational frequency towards the end of this century an improved interoperability for both routine and emergency operations is of eminent importance. It is thus timely to report the current status of ongoing work on international EVA interoperability being conducted by the Committee on EVA Protocols and Operations of the International Academy of Astronautics initialed in 1991. This paper summarises the current EVA interoperability issues to be harmonised and presents quantified vehicle interface requirements for the current U.S. Shuttle EMU and Russian MIR Orlan DMA and the new European/Russian EVA Suit 2000 extravehicular systems. Major critical/incompatible interfaces for suits/mothercraft of different combinations arc discussed, and recommendations for standardisations given.

  3. Extravehicular activity space suit interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, A I; McBarron JW 2nd; Severin, G I

    1995-10-01

    The European Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (RKA) are jointly developing a new space suit system for improved extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities in support of the MIR Space Station Programme, the EVA Suit 2000. Recent national policy agreements between the U.S. and Russia on planned cooperations in manned space also include joint extravehicular activity (EVA). With an increased number of space suit systems and a higher operational frequency towards the end of this century an improved interoperability for both routine and emergency operations is of eminent importance. It is thus timely to report the current status of ongoing work on international EVA interoperability being conducted by the Committee on EVA Protocols and Operations of the International Academy of Astronauts initiated in 1991. This paper summarises the current EVA interoperability issues to be harmonised and presents quantified vehicle interface requirements for the current U.S. Shuttle EMU and Russian MIR Orlan DMA and the new European/Russian EVA Suit 2000 extravehicular systems. Major critical/incompatible interfaces for suits/mother-craft of different combinations are discussed, and recommendations for standardisations given.

  4. Views of the extravehicular activity of Astronaut Stewart during STS 41-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Close up frontal view of Astronaut Robert L. Stewart, mission specialist, as he participates in a extravehicular activity (EVA), a few meters away from the cabin of the shuttle Challenger. The open payload bay is reflected in his helmet visor as he faces the camera. Stewart is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and one of the manned maneuvering units (MMU) developed for this mission.

  5. Astronaut Noriega During Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In this image, STS-97 astronaut and mission specialist Carlos I. Noriega waves at a crew member inside Endeavor's cabin during the mission's final session of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000, the STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  6. STS-121 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Astronaut Michael E. Fossum, STS-121 mission specialist, used a digital still camera to expose a photo of his helmet visor during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). Also visible in the visor reflections are fellow space walker Piers J. Sellers, mission specialist, Earth's horizon, and a station solar array. During its 12-day mission, this utilization and logistics flight delivered a multipurpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS with several thousand pounds of new supplies and experiments. In addition, some new orbital replacement units (ORUs) were delivered and stowed externally on the ISS on a special pallet. These ORUs are spares for critical machinery located on the outside of the ISS. During this mission the crew also carried out testing of Shuttle inspection and repair hardware, as well as evaluated operational techniques and concepts for conducting on-orbit inspection and repair.

  7. An Integrated Extravehicular Activity Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Book is already performed annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: Benchmarking; Anthropometry and Suit Fit; Sensors; Human

  8. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA as well as industry and academia fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the preliminary Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: physiological and performance capabilities; suit design parameters; EVA human health and performance modeling; EVA tasks and concepts of operations; EVA informatics; human-suit sensors; suit

  9. Extravehicular Activity Suit/Portable Life Support System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to mature technologies and systems that will enable future Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems. Advanced EVA systems have...

  10. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Report is will also continue at a frequency determined by HRP management. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of

  11. Extravehicular Activity Technology Development Status and Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of NASA s current EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be to reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA hardware life and limited availability of the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) will eventually become a critical issue. The current EMU has successfully served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability will be needed and the current architectures and technologies under development offer significant improvements over the current flight systems. In addition to ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for missions to Near Earth Objects (NEO), Phobos, or future surface missions. Surface missions could include either exploration of the Moon or Mars. Providing an

  12. Development of the Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit Extravehicular Activity Data Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Craig; Hill, Terry R.; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David

    2012-01-01

    The Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Data Recorder (SPEEDR) is a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based device designed to collect high-rate EMU Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) data for download at a later time. During EVA, the existing EMU PLSS data downlink capability is one data packet every 2 minutes and is subject to bad packets or loss of signal. Higher-rate PLSS data is generated by the Enhanced Caution and Warning System but is not normally captured or distributed. Access to higher-rate data will increase the capability of EMU anomaly resolution team to pinpoint issues remotely, saving crew time by reducing required call-down Q&A and on-orbit diagnostic activities. With no Space Shuttle flights post Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11), and potentially limited down-mass capability, the ISS crew and ground support personnel will have to be capable of on-orbit operations to maintain, diagnose, repair, and return to service EMU hardware, possibly through 2028. Collecting high-rate EMU PLSS data during both intravehicular activity (IVA) and EVA operations will provide trending analysis for life extension and/or predictive performance. The SPEEDR concept has generated interest as a tool/technology that could be used for other International Space Station subsystems or future exploration-class space suits where hardware reliability/availability is critical and low/variable bandwidth may require store then forward methodology. Preliminary work in FY11 produced a functional prototype consisting of an FPGA evaluation board, custom memory/interface circuit board, and custom software. The SPEEDR concept includes a stand-alone battery that is recharged by a computer Universal Serial Bus (USB) port while data are being downloaded.

  13. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  14. Innovative hand exoskeleton design for extravehicular activities in space

    CERN Document Server

    Freni, Pierluigi; Randazzo, Luca; Ariano, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Environmental conditions and pressurized spacesuits expose astronauts to problems of fatigue during lengthy extravehicular activities, with adverse impacts especially on the dexterity, force and endurance of the hands and arms. A state-of-the-art exploration in the field of hand exoskeletons revealed that available products are unsuitable for space applications because of their bulkiness and mass. This book proposes a novel approach to the development of hand exoskeletons, based on an innovative soft robotics concept that relies on the exploitation of electroactive polymers operating as sensors and actuators, on a combination of electromyography and mechanomyography for detection of the user’s will and on neural networks for control. The result is a design that should enhance astronauts’ performance during extravehicular activities. In summary, the advantages of the described approach are a low-weight, high-flexibility exoskeleton that allows for dexterity and compliance with the user’s will.

  15. Skin blood flow with elastic compressive extravehicular activity space suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Gotoh, Taro M; Morita, Hironobu; Hargens, Alan R

    2003-10-01

    During extravehicular activity (EVA), current space suits are pressurized with 100% oxygen at approximately 222 mmHg. A tight elastic garment, or mechanical counter pressure (MCP) suit that generates pressure by compression, may have several advantages over current space suit technology. In this study, we investigated local microcirculatory effects produced with negative ambient pressure with an MCP sleeve. The MCP glove and sleeve generated pressures similar to the current space suit. MCP remained constant during negative pressure due to unchanged elasticity of the material. Decreased skin capillary blood flow and temperature during MCP compression was counteracted by greater negative pressure or a smaller pressure differential.

  16. A unique exercise facility for simulating orbital extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to simulate orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The device incorporates an arm ergometer into a mechanism which places the subject in the zero-g neutral body posture. The intent of this configuration is to elicit muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses similar to those observed during orbital EVA. Experiments done with this facility will help characterize the astronaut's dynamic heat balance during EVA and will eventually lead to the development of an automated thermal control system which would more effectively maintain thermal comfort.

  17. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  18. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  19. Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

  20. Extravehicular Activity Operations Concepts Under Communication Latency and Bandwidth Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Miller, Matthew J.; Nawotniak, Shannon Kobs; Hughes, Scott; Brady, Allyson; Lim, Darlene S. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is a multi-year program dedicated to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human scientific exploration of Mars. This pa-per describes the planning, execution, and initial results from the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT-1, which consisted of a series of 10 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on volcanic flows in Idaho's Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument. The ConOps and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT-1 were based on previous NASA trade studies and analog testing. Our primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under 4 different Mars-to-Earth communication conditions: 5 and 15 min one-way light time (OWLT) communication latencies and low (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink) and high (5.0 Mb/s uplink, 10.0 Mb/s downlink) bandwidth conditions representing the lower and higher limits of technical communication capabilities currently proposed for future human exploration missions. The synthesized results of BASALT-1 with respect to the ConOps and capabilities assessment were derived from a variety of sources, including EVA task timing data, network analytic data, and subjective ratings and comments regarding the scientific and operational acceptability of the ConOp and the extent to which specific capabilities were enabling and enhancing, and are presented here. BASALT-1 established preliminary findings that baseline ConOp, software systems, and communication protocols were scientifically and operationally acceptable with minor improvements desired by the "Mars" extravehicular (EV) and intravehicular (IV) crewmembers, but unacceptable with improvements required by the "Earth" Mission Support Center. These data will provide a

  1. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Stephenie A.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, David G.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  2. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Technology Development Status and Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011, Extravehicular activity (EVA) technology development became a technology foundational domain under a new program Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration. The goal of the EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA technology life and limited availability of the EMUs will become a critical issue eventually. The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has vastly served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability could be an option for the future mission applications building off of the technology development over the last several years. Besides ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for

  3. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Stephenie A.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, David G.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  4. Operational Assessment of Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew James; Claybrook, Austin; Greenlund, Suraj; Marquez, Jessica J.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the operational variability of extravehicular activity (EVA) execution is critical to help design and build future support systems to enable astronauts to monitor and manage operations in deep-space, where ground support operators will no longer be able to react instantly and manage execution deviations due to the significant communication latency. This study quantifies the operational variability exhibited during Apollo 14-17 lunar surface EVA operations to better understand the challenges and natural tendencies of timeline execution and life support system performance involved in surface operations. Each EVA (11 in total) is individually summarized as well as aggregated to provide descriptive trends exhibited throughout the Apollo missions. This work extends previous EVA task analyses by calculating deviations between planned and as-performed timelines as well as examining metabolic rate and consumables usage throughout the execution of each EVA. The intent of this work is to convey the natural variability of EVA operations and to provide operational context for coping with the variability inherent to EVA execution as a means to support future concepts of operations.

  5. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  6. Lithium Iron Phosphate Cell Performance Evaluations for Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery cells are being evaluated for their ability to provide primary power and energy storage for NASA s future Exploration missions. These missions include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage, Extravehicular Activities (EVA, the advanced space suit), the Lunar Surface Ascent Module (LSAM), and the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP), among others. Each of these missions will have different battery requirements. Some missions may require high specific energy and high energy density, while others may require high specific power, wide operating temperature ranges, or a combination of several of these attributes. EVA is one type of mission that presents particular challenges for today s existing power sources. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the advanced Lunar surface suit will be carried on an astronaut s back during eight hour long sorties, requiring a lightweight power source. Lunar sorties are also expected to occur during varying environmental conditions, requiring a power source that can operate over a wide range of temperatures. Concepts for Lunar EVAs include a primary power source for the PLSS that can recharge rapidly. A power source that can charge quickly could enable a lighter weight system that can be recharged while an astronaut is taking a short break. Preliminary results of Al23 Ml 26650 lithium iron phosphate cell performance evaluations for an advanced Lunar surface space suit application are discussed in this paper. These cells exhibit excellent recharge rate capability, however, their specific energy and energy density is lower than typical lithium-ion cell chemistries. The cells were evaluated for their ability to provide primary power in a lightweight battery system while operating at multiple temperatures.

  7. 21st Century extravehicular activities: Synergizing past and present training methods for future spacewalking success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-10-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind" were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the true spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first spacewalk in the June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill set and subsequently the training methods changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the SkyLab, Space Shuttle, and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA's success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  8. Doses due to extra-vehicular activity on space stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Akatov, Y.; Arkhanguelski, V. [Institute of Biomedical Problems, State Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Reitz, G. [DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Linder Hohe (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    One of the many risks of long duration space flight is the dose from cosmic radiation, especially during periods of intensive solar activity. At such times, particularly during extra-vehicular activity (E.V.A.), when the astronauts are not protected by the wall of the spacecraft, cosmic radiation is a potentially serious health threat. Accurate dose measurement becomes increasingly important during the assembly of large space objects. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetric mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosimeter systems, called Pille, for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 3 {mu}Gy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy bulb dosimeters and a small, compact, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosimeters. Such a system offers a solution for E.V.A. dosimetry as well. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations, on the Space Shuttle, and most recently on several segments of the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille system was used to make the first measurements of the radiation exposure of cosmonauts during E.V.A.. Such E.V.A. measurements were carried out twice (on June 12 and 16, 1987) by Y. Romanenko, the commander of the second crew of Mir. During the E.V.A. one of the dosimeters was fixed in a pocket on the outer surface of the left leg of his space-suit; a second dosimeter was located inside the station for reference measurements. The advanced TLD system Pille 96 was used during the Nasa-4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the exposure of two of the astronauts during their E.V.A. activities. The extra doses of two E.V.A. during the Euromir 95 and one E.V.A. during the Nasa4 experiment

  9. Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test

  10. [Research progress of thermal control system for extravehicular activity space suit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z Q; Shen, L P; Yuan, X G

    1999-08-01

    New research progress of thermal control system for oversea Extravehicular Activity (EVA) space suit is presented. Characteristics of several thermal control systems are analyzed in detail. Some research tendencies and problems are discussed, which are worthwhile to be specially noted. Finally, author's opinion about thermal control system in the future is put forward.

  11. [The present status and development of thermal control system of spacesuits for extravehicular activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C Y; Sun, J B; Yuan, X G

    1999-04-01

    With the extension of extravehicular activity (EVA) duration, the need for more effective thermal control of EVA spacesuits is required. The specific schemes investigated in heat sink system for EVA are discussed, including radiator, ice storage, metal hydride heat pump, phase-change storage/radiator and sublimator. The importance and requirements of automatic thermal control for EVA are also discussed. Existed automatic thermal control for EVA are reviewed. Prospects of further developments of thermal control of spacesuits for EVA are proposed.

  12. Computer Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Exposure Hazard for Space Station Astronauts during Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Kelley, James S.; Panneton, Robert B.; Arndt, G. Dickey

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the RF radiation hazards to astronauts and electronics equipment due to various Space Station transmitters, the electric fields around the various Space Station antennas are computed using the rigorous Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) techniques. The Method of Moments (MoM) was applied to the UHF and S-band low gain antennas. The Aperture Integration (AI) method and the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) method were used to compute the electric field intensities for the S- and Ku-band high gain antennas. As a result of this study, The regions in which the electric fields exceed the specified exposure levels for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) electronics equipment and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) astronaut are identified for various Space Station transmitters.

  13. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  14. A nonventing cooling system for space environment extravehicular activity, using radiation and regenerable thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Stephen A.; Trevino, Luis A.; Dinsmore, Craig E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the selection, design, and testing of a prototype nonventing regenerable astronaut cooling system for extravehicular activity space suit applications, for mission durations of four hours or greater. The selected system consists of the following key elements: a radiator assembly which serves as the exterior shell of the portable life support subsystem backpack; a layer of phase change thermal storage material, n-hexadecane paraffin, which acts as a regenerable thermal capacitor; a thermoelectric heat pump; and an automatic temperature control system. The capability for regeneration of thermal storage capacity with and without the aid of electric power is provided.

  15. Injury Risk Assessment of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Phase VI and Series 4000 Gloves During Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hand Manipulation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilby, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Functional Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) with high precision gloves are essential for the success of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Previous research done at NASA has shown that total strength capabilities and performance are reduced when wearing a pressurized EMU. The goal of this project was to characterize the human-space suit glove interaction and assess the risk of injury during common EVA hand manipulation tasks, including pushing, pinching and gripping objects. A custom third generation sensor garment was designed to incorporate a combination of sensors, including force sensitive resistors, strain gauge sensors, and shear force sensors. The combination of sensors was used to measure the forces acting on the finger nails, finger pads, finger tips, as well as the knuckle joints. In addition to measuring the forces, data was collected on the temperature, humidity, skin conductance, and blood perfusion of the hands. Testing compared both the Phase VI and Series 4000 glove against an ungloved condition. The ungloved test was performed wearing the sensor garment only. The project outcomes identified critical landmarks that experienced higher workloads and are more likely to suffer injuries. These critical landmarks varied as a function of space suit glove and task performed. The results showed that less forces were acting on the hands while wearing the Phase VI glove as compared to wearing the Series 4000 glove. Based on our findings, the engineering division can utilize these methods for optimizing the current space suit glove and designing next generation gloves to prevent injuries and optimize hand mobility and comfort.

  16. Decision Support System Requirements Definition for Human Extravehicular Activity Based on Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew James; McGuire, Kerry M; Feigh, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    The design and adoption of decision support systems within complex work domains is a challenge for cognitive systems engineering (CSE) practitioners, particularly at the onset of project development. This article presents an example of applying CSE techniques to derive design requirements compatible with traditional systems engineering to guide decision support system development. Specifically, it demonstrates the requirements derivation process based on cognitive work analysis for a subset of human spaceflight operations known as extravehicular activity. The results are presented in two phases. First, a work domain analysis revealed a comprehensive set of work functions and constraints that exist in the extravehicular activity work domain. Second, a control task analysis was performed on a subset of the work functions identified by the work domain analysis to articulate the translation of subject matter states of knowledge to high-level decision support system requirements. This work emphasizes an incremental requirements specification process as a critical component of CSE analyses to better situate CSE perspectives within the early phases of traditional systems engineering design.

  17. Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit Intravehicular Activity Suit for Extravehicular Activity Mobility Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an intravehicular activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) environment at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit was modified to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will not have mass available to carry an EVA-specific suit; therefore, any EVA required will have to be performed by the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES). Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or whether a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects, including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, tool carrying, body stabilization, equipment handling, and tool usage. Hardware configurations included with and without Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on International Space Station mock-ups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstrating the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determining critical sizing factors, and need for adjusting suit work envelope. Early testing demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight-like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission-specific modifications for umbilical management or Primary Life Support System integration

  18. [A dynamic model of the extravehicular (correction of extravehicuar) activity space suit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Yuan, Xiu-gan

    2002-12-01

    Objective. To establish a dynamic model of the space suit base on the particular configuration of the space suit. Method. The mass of the space suit components, moment of inertia, mobility of the joints of space suit, as well as the suit-generated torques, were considered in this model. The expressions to calculate the moment of inertia were developed by simplifying the geometry of the space suit. A modified Preisach model was used to mathematically describe the hysteretic torque characteristics of joints in a pressurized space suit, and it was implemented numerically basing on the observed suit parameters. Result. A dynamic model considering mass, moment of inertia and suit-generated torques was established. Conclusion. This dynamic model provides some elements for the dynamic simulation of the astronaut extravehicular activity.

  19. Modeling Oxygen Prebreathe Protocols for Exploration Extravehicular Activities Using Variable Pressure Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration missions are expected to use variable pressure extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuits as well as a spacecraft "exploration atmosphere" of 56.5 kPa (8.2 psia), 34% O2, both of which provide the possibility of reducing the oxygen prebreathe times necessary to reduce decompression sickness (DCS) risk. Previous modeling work predicted 8.4% DCS risk for an EVA beginning at the exploration atmosphere, followed by 15 minutes of in-suit O2 prebreathe, and 6 hours of EVA at 29.6 kPa (4.3 psia). In this study we model notional prebreathe protocols for a variable pressure suit where the exploration atmosphere is unavailable.

  20. A Multi-Purpose Modular Electronics Integration Node for Exploration Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Edward; Papale, William; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David; Hawes, Kevin; Stankiewicz, Tom

    2013-01-01

    As NASA works to develop an effective integrated portable life support system design for exploration Extravehicular activity (EVA), alternatives to the current system s electrical power and control architecture are needed to support new requirements for flexibility, maintainability, reliability, and reduced mass and volume. Experience with the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has demonstrated that the current architecture, based in a central power supply, monitoring and control unit, with dedicated analog wiring harness connections to active components in the system has a significant impact on system packaging and seriously constrains design flexibility in adapting to component obsolescence and changing system needs over time. An alternative architecture based in the use of a digital data bus offers possible wiring harness and system power savings, but risks significant penalties in component complexity and cost. A hybrid architecture that relies on a set of electronic and power interface nodes serving functional models within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is proposed to minimize both packaging and component level penalties. A common interface node hardware design can further reduce penalties by reducing the nonrecurring development costs, making miniaturization more practical, maximizing opportunities for maturation and reliability growth, providing enhanced fault tolerance, and providing stable design interfaces for system components and a central control. Adaptation to varying specific module requirements can be achieved with modest changes in firmware code within the module. A preliminary design effort has developed a common set of hardware interface requirements and functional capabilities for such a node based on anticipated modules comprising an exploration PLSS, and a prototype node has been designed assembled, programmed, and tested. One instance of such a node has been adapted to support testing the swingbed carbon dioxide and humidity

  1. Extravehicular Activity Probabilistic Risk Assessment Overview for Thermal Protection System Repair on the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Mark; Canga, Michael A.; Duncan, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Shuttle Program initiated an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assess the risks associated with performing a Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) repair during the Space Transportation System (STS)-125 Hubble repair mission as part of risk trades between TPS repair and crew rescue.

  2. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires highly accurate CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Further, that accuracy needs to be provided over the full operating pressure range of the suit (3 to 25 psia). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) sensor based on infrared absorption spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Version 1.0 prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The prototypes were upgraded with more sophisticated communications and faster response times to version 2.0 and delivered to JSC in July 2012. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with an field-programmable gate array microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the iterative instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments were performed leveraging the lessons learned where feasible. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware for the advanced PLSS 2.5 prototypes for testing at JSC. The prototypes provide significantly enhanced accuracy for water vapor measurement and eliminate wavelength drift affecting the earlier versions. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are currently being advanced including the companion development of engineering development units that will ultimately be capable of radiation tolerance. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength

  3. PLRP-3: Operational Perspectives of Conducting Science-Driven Extravehicular Activity with Communications Latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Brady, Allyson; Cardman, Zena; Bell, Ernest; Garry, Brent; Reid, Donnie; Chappell, Steve; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP) is a unique platform where the combination of scientific research and human space exploration concepts can be tested in an underwater spaceflight analog environment. The 2015 PLRP field season was performed at Pavilion Lake, Canada, where science-driven exploration techniques focusing on microbialite characterization and acquisition were evaluated within the context of crew and robotic extravehicular activity (EVA) operations. The primary objectives of this analog study were to detail the capabilities, decision-making process, and operational concepts required to meet non-simulated scientific objectives during 5-minute one-way communication latency utilizing crew and robotic assets. Furthermore, this field study served as an opportunity build upon previous tests at PLRP, NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS), and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) to characterize the functional roles and responsibilities of the personnel involved in the distributed flight control team and identify operational constraints imposed by science-driven EVA operations. The relationship and interaction between ground and flight crew was found to be dependent on the specific scientific activities being addressed. Furthermore, the addition of a second intravehicular operator was found to be highly enabling when conducting science-driven EVAs. Future human spaceflight activities will need to cope with the added complexity of dynamic and rapid execution of scientific priorities both during and between EVA execution to ensure scientific objectives are achieved.

  4. Experiences with Extra-Vehicular Activities in Response to Critical ISS Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cise, E. A.; Kelly, B. J.; Radigan, J. P.; Cranmer, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    The maturation of the International Space Station (ISS) design from the proposed Space Station Freedom to today's current implementation resulted in external hardware redundancy vulnerabilities in the final design. Failure to compensate for or respond to these vulnerabilities could put the ISS in a posture where it could no longer function as a habitable space station. In the first years of ISS assembly, these responses were to largely be addressed by the continued resupply and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities of the Space Shuttle. Even prior to the decision to retire the Space Shuttle, it was realized that ISS needed to have its own capability to be able to rapidly repair or replace external hardware without needing to wait for the next cargo resupply mission. As documented in a previous publication, in 2006 development was started to baseline Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA, or spacewalk) procedures to replace hardware components whose failure would expose some of the ISS vulnerabilities should a second failure occur. This development work laid the groundwork for the onboard crews and the ground operations and engineering teams to be ready to replace any of this failed hardware. In 2010, this development work was put to the test when one of these pieces of hardware failed. This paper will provide a brief summary of the planning and processes established in the original Contingency EVA development phase. It will then review how those plans and processes were implemented in 2010, highlighting what went well as well as where there were deficiencies between theory and reality. This paper will show that the original approach and analyses, though sound, were not as thorough as they should have been in the realm of planning for next worse failures, for documenting Programmatic approval of key assumptions, and not pursuing sufficient engineering analysis prior to the failure of the hardware. The paper will further highlight the changes made to the Contingency

  5. Review on Thermal Vacuum Test Technique in Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit%舱外航天服热真空试验技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刘杰; 黄伟芬; 徐水红; 周永康

    2012-01-01

    Thermal vacuum test technique in spacesuit worn during extravehicular activity (EVA) was described,and EVA spacesuit test facilities in the world were introduced.Methods and approaches employed by USA and China were analyzed and difference in technique was discussed.Finally,taking the characteristics of Chinese manned spaceflight into consideration,we investigated the development of thermal vacuum test technique of China.%概述舱外航天服热真空试验技术,介绍国内外舱外航天服试验设备,分析中美舱外航天服热真空试验技术差异,结合中国未来载人航天发展特点探讨中国舱外航天服热真空试验技术发展方向.

  6. Introduction to Radiation Issues for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Saganti, P. B.; Miller, J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides significant challenges for radiation protection of the crew due to a combination of circumstances including: the extended duration of missions for many crewmembers, the exceptionally dynamic nature of the radiation environment in ISS orbit, and the necessity for numerous planned extravehicular activities (EVA) for station construction and maintenance. Radiation protection requires accurate radiation dose measurements and precise risk modeling of the transmission of high fluxes of energetic electrons and protons through the relatively thin shielding provided by the space suits worn during EVA. Experiments and analyses have been performed due to the necessity to assure complete radiation safety for the EVA crew and thereby ensure mission success. The detailed characterization described of the material and topological properties of the ISS space suits can be used as a basis for design of space suits used in future exploration missions. In radiation protection practices, risk from exposure to ionizing radiation is determined analytically by the level of exposure, the detrimental quality of the radiation field, the inherent radiosensitivity of the tissues or organs irradiated, and the age and gender of the person at the time of exposure. During low Earth orbit (LEO) EVA, the relatively high fluxes of low-energy electrons and protons lead to large variations in exposure of the skin, lens of the eye, and tissues in other shallow anatomical locations. The technical papers in this publication describe a number of ground-based experiments that precisely measure the thickness of the NASA extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and Russian Zvezda Orlan-M suits using medical computerized tomography (CT) X-ray analysis, and particle accelerator experiments that measure the minimum kinetic energy required by electrons and photons to penetrate major components of the suits. These studies provide information necessary for improving the

  7. Risks due to X-ray Flares during Astronaut Extravehicular Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David S; 10.1029/2006SW000300

    2009-01-01

    Solar hard X-ray flares can expose astronauts on lunar and deep space extravehicular activities (EVAs) to dangerous acute biological doses. We combine calculations of radiative transfer through shielding materials with subsequent transfer through tissue to show that hazardous doses, taken as >= 0.1 Gy, should occur with a probability of about 10% per 100 hours of accumulated EVA inside current spacesuits. The rapid onset and short duration of X-ray flares and the lack of viable precursor events require strategies for quick retreat, in contrast to solar proton events, which usually take hours to deliver significant fluence and can often be anticipated by flares or other light-speed precursors. Our results contrast with the view that only particle radiation poses dangers for human space exploration. Heavy-element shields provide the most efficient protection from X-ray flares, since X-rays produce no significant secondary radiation. We calculate doses due to X-ray flares behind aluminum shields and estimate the...

  8. Effective Presentation of Metabolic Rate Information for Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, Michael A.; Gonia, Philip; Lombay-Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    During human exploration of the lunar surface, a suited crewmember needs effective and accurate information about consumable levels remaining in their life support system. The information must be presented in a manner that supports real-time consumable monitoring and route planning. Since consumable usage is closely tied to metabolic rate, the lunar suit must estimate metabolic rate from life support sensors, such as oxygen tank pressures, carbon dioxide partial pressure, and cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures. To provide adequate warnings that account for traverse time for a crewmember to return to a safe haven, accurate forecasts of consumable depletion rates are required. The forecasts must be presented to the crewmember in a straightforward, effective manner. In order to evaluate methods for displaying consumable forecasts, a desktop-based simulation of a lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has been developed for the Constellation lunar suite s life-support system. The program was used to compare the effectiveness of several different data presentation methods.

  9. Assessing feasibility of electrochromic space suit radiators for reducing extravehicular activity water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, Jonathan Glen

    Water consumption for space suit thermal control is a limiting factor on long-term space exploration missions. A concept is proposed for an integrated, flexible suit radiator using infrared electrochromic materials for modulated heat rejection from the suit. Properties of electrochromic materials, the structure of electrochromic devices, and relevant heat transfer processes are presented as background information. Analytical methods are employed to bound theoretical performance and determine required emissivity ranges for lunar surface operations. Case studies are presented incorporating Apollo program and Advanced Walkback Test metabolic and environmental data to estimate sublimator water consumption and hypothetical water savings with the electrochromic radiator. Concepts are presented and analyzed for integrating an electrochromic radiator with existing and future space suit designs. A preliminary systems-level trade analysis is performed with the Equivalent System Mass metric used to compare this technology with the legacy sublimator and other extravehicular activity cooling technologies in development. Experimental objectives, procedures, and results are presented for both bench-top and thermal vacuum testing of electrochromic radiator materials.

  10. Design and control of a hand exoskeleton for use in extravehicular activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, B.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1993-01-01

    To counter problems inherent in extravehicular activities (EVA) and complex space operations, an exoskeleton, a unique adaptive structure, has been designed. The exoskeleton fits on the hand and powers the proximal and middle phalanges of the index finger, the middle finger, and the combined ring and little finger. A kinematic analysis of the exoskeleton joints was performed using the loop-closure method. This analysis determined the angular displacement and velocity relationships of the exoskeleton joints. This information was used to determine the output power of the exoskeleton. Three small DC motors (one for each finger) are used to power the exoskeleton. The motors are mounted on the forearm. Power is transferred to the exoskeleton using lead screws. The control system for the exoskeleton measures the contact force between the operator and the exoskeleton. This information is used as the input to drive the actuation system. The control system allows the motor to rotate in both directions so that the operator may close or open the exoskeleton.

  11. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  12. A fuel cell energy storage system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a fuel cell energy storage system for the Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is discussed. The ion-exchange membrane fuel cell uses hydrogen stored as a metal hydride. Several features of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell are examined, including its construction, hydrogen storage, hydride recharge, water heat, water removal, and operational parameters.

  13. Advanced Extravehicular Helmet Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current NASA spacesuit community is focusing on utilizing a 13" hemispherical helmet for the next generation of extravehicular activity spacesuits. This helmet...

  14. Thermoregulation and heat exchange in a nonuniform thermal environment during simulated extended EVA. Extravehicular activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Leon, G. R.; Hubel, A.; Nelson, E. D.; Tranchida, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonuniform heating and cooling of the body, a possibility during extended duration extravehicular activities (EVA), was studied by means of a specially designed water circulating garment that independently heated or cooled the right and left sides of the body. The purpose was to assess whether there was a generalized reaction on the finger in extreme contradictory temperatures on the body surface, as a potential heat status controller. METHOD: Eight subjects, six men and two women, were studied while wearing a sagittally divided experimental garment with hands exposed in the following conditions: Stage 1 baseline--total body garment inlet water temperature at 33 degrees C; Stage 2--left side inlet water temperature heated to 45 degrees C; right side cooled to 8 degrees C; Stage 3--left side inlet water temperature cooled to 8 degrees C, right side heated to 45 degrees C. RESULTS: Temperatures on each side of the body surface as well as ear canal temperature (Tec) showed statistically significant Stage x Side interactions, demonstrating responsiveness to the thermal manipulations. Right and left finger temperatures (Tfing) were not significantly different across stages; their dynamic across time was similar. Rectal temperature (Tre) was not reactive to prevailing cold on the body surface, and therefore not informative. Subjective perception of heat and cold on the left and right sides of the body was consistent with actual temperature manipulations. CONCLUSIONS: Tec and Tre estimates of internal temperature do not provide accurate data for evaluating overall thermal status in nonuniform thermal conditions on the body surface. The use of Tfing has significant potential in providing more accurate information on thermal status and as a feedback method for more precise thermal regulation of the astronaut within the EVA space suit.

  15. Method of Separating Oxygen From Spacecraft Cabin Air to Enable Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Extravehicular activities (EVAs) require high-pressure, high-purity oxygen. Shuttle EVAs use oxygen that is stored and transported as a cryogenic fluid. EVAs on the International Space Station (ISS) presently use the Shuttle cryo O2, which is transported to the ISS using a transfer hose. The fluid is compressed to elevated pressures and stored as a high-pressure gas. With the retirement of the shuttle, NASA has been searching for ways to deliver oxygen to fill the highpressure oxygen tanks on the ISS. A method was developed using low-pressure oxygen generated onboard the ISS and released into ISS cabin air, filtering the oxygen from ISS cabin air using a pressure swing absorber to generate a low-pressure (high-purity) oxygen stream, compressing the oxygen with a mechanical compressor, and transferring the high-pressure, high-purity oxygen to ISS storage tanks. The pressure swing absorber (PSA) can be either a two-stage device, or a single-stage device, depending on the type of sorbent used. The key is to produce a stream with oxygen purity greater than 99.5 percent. The separator can be a PSA device, or a VPSA device (that uses both vacuum and pressure for the gas separation). The compressor is a multi-stage mechanical compressor. If the gas flow rates are on the order of 5 to 10 lb (.2.3 to 4.6 kg) per day, the compressor can be relatively small [3 16 16 in. (.8 41 41 cm)]. Any spacecraft system, or other remote location that has a supply of lowpressure oxygen, a method of separating oxygen from cabin air, and a method of compressing the enriched oxygen stream, has the possibility of having a regenerable supply of highpressure, high-purity oxygen that is compact, simple, and safe. If cabin air is modified so there is very little argon, the separator can be smaller, simpler, and use less power.

  16. The Influence of Robotic Assistance on Reducing Neuromuscular Effort and Fatigue during Extravehicular Activity Glove Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kaci E.; Deshpande, Ashish D.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Rogers, Jonathan M.; Laske, Evan A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    The three-layered, pressurized space suit glove worn by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew members during missions commonly causes hand and forearm fatigue. The Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG), a Phase VI EVA space suit glove modified with robotic grasp-assist capabilities, has been developed to augment grip strength in order to improve endurance and reduce the risk of injury in astronauts. The overall goals of this study were to i) quantify the neuromuscular modulations that occur in response to wearing a conventional Phase VI space suit glove (SSG) during a fatiguing task, and ii) determine the efficacy of Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG) in reversing the adverse neuromuscular modulations and restoring altered muscular activity to barehanded levels. Six subjects performed a fatigue sequence consisting of repetitive dynamic-gripping interspersed with isometric grip-holds under three conditions: barehanded, wearing pressurized SSG, and wearing pressurized SSRG. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from six forearm muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor digitorum (ED), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)) and subjective fatigue ratings were collected during each condition. Trends in amplitude and spectral distributions of the sEMG signals were used to derive metrics quantifying neuromuscular effort and fatigue that were compared across the glove conditions. Results showed that by augmenting finger flexion, the SSRG successfully reduced the neuromuscular effort needed to close the fingers of the space suit glove in more than half of subjects during two types of tasks. However, the SSRG required more neuromuscular effort to extend the fingers compared to a conventional SSG in many subjects. Psychologically, the SSRG aided subjects in feeling less fatigued during short periods of intense work compared to the SSG. The results of this study reveal the promise of the SSRG as a

  17. Overview of Umbilical Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Interfaces in Life Support Systems on Spacecraft Vehicles and Applications for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Jordan, Nicole C.; Barido, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) for manned spacecraft vehicles have been performed for contingencies and nominal operations numerous times throughout history. This paper will investigate how previous U.S. manned spacecraft vehicles provided life support to crewmembers performing the EVA. Specifically defined are umbilical interfaces with respect to crewmember cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal. As historical data is available, the need for planned versus contingency EVAs in previous vehicles as well as details for a nominal EVA day versus a contingency EVA day will be discussed. The hardware used to provide the cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal, and the general functions of that hardware, will also be detailed, as information is available. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV or Orion) EVA interfaces will be generically discussed to provide a glimpse of how similar they are to the EVA interfaces in previous vehicles. Conclusions on strategies that should be used for CEV based on previous spacecraft EVA interfaces will be made in the form of questions and recommendations.

  18. Continued Advancement of Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Cowley, Scott W.; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    The Development of a new, robust, portable life support system (PLSS) is currently a high NASA priority in order to support longer and safer extravehicular activity (EVA) missions that will be necessary as space travel extends to near-Earth asteroids and eventually Mars. One of the critical PLSS functions is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the suit at acceptable levels. The Metal Oxide (MetOx) canister has a finite CO2 adsorption capacity and therefore in order to extend mission times, the unit would have to be larger and heavier, which is undesirable; therefore new CO2 control technologies must be developed. While recent work has centered on the use of alternating sorbent beds that can be regenerated during the EVA, this strategy increases the system complexity and power consumption. A simpler approach is to use a membrane that vents CO2 to space but retains oxygen(O2). A membrane has many advantages over current technology: it is a continuous system with no theoretical capacity limit, it requires no consumables, and it requires no hardware for switching beds between absorption and regeneration. Conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate selectivity for use in the PLSS, but the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a microporous film filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over oxygen (O2). In a recently completed Phase II Small Business Innovative Research project, Reaction Systems developed a new reactive liquid that has effectively zero vapor pressure, making it an ideal candidate for use in an SLM. Results obtained with the SLM in a flat sheet configuration with representative pressures of CO2, O2, and water (H2O) have shown that the CO2 permeation rate and CO2/O2 selectivity requirements have been met. In addition, the SLM vents moisture to space very effectively. The SLM has also been prepared and tested in a hollow fiber form, which will be

  19. Li-Ion Battery and Supercapacitor Hybrid Design for Long Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2013-01-01

    With the need for long periods of extravehicular activities (EVAs) on the Moon or Mars or a near-asteroid, the need for long-performance batteries has increased significantly. The energy requirements for the EVA suit, as well as surface systems such as rovers, have increased significantly due to the number of applications they need to power at the same time. However, even with the best state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries, it is not possible to power the suit or the rovers for the extended period of performance. Carrying a charging system along with the batteries makes it cumbersome and requires a self-contained power source for the charging system that is usually not possible. An innovative method to charge and use the Li-ion batteries for long periods seems to be necessary and hence, with the advent of the Li-ion supercapacitors, a method has been developed to extend the performance period of the Li-ion power system for future exploration applications. The Li-ion supercapacitors have a working voltage range of 3.8 to 2.5 V, and are different from a traditional supercapacitor that typically has a working voltage of 1 V. The innovation is to use this Li-ion supercapacitor to charge Liion battery systems on an as-needed basis. The supercapacitors are charged using solar arrays and have battery systems of low capacity in parallel to be able to charge any one battery system while they provide power to the application. Supercapacitors can safely take up fast charge since the electrochemical process involved is still based on charge separation rather than the intercalation process seen in Li-ion batteries, thus preventing lithium metal deposition on the anodes. The lack of intercalation and eliminating wear of the supercapacitors allows for them to be charged and discharged safely for a few tens of thousands of cycles. The Li-ion supercapacitors can be charged from the solar cells during the day during an extended EVA. The Liion battery used can be half the capacity

  20. Extravehicular Activity Testing in Analog Environments: Evaluating the Effects of Center of Gravity and Environment on Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steve P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Center of gravity (CG) is likely to be an important variable in astronaut performance during partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA). The Apollo Lunar EVA experience revealed challenges with suit stability and control. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance Project (EPSP) in conjunction with the Constellation EVA Systems Project Office have developed plans to systematically understand the role of suit weight, CG and suit pressure on astronaut performance in partial gravity environments. This presentation based upon CG studies seeks to understand the impact of varied CG on human performance in lunar gravity.

  1. Cori cycle activity in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, C; Keilson, J

    1969-12-01

    12 subjects have been studied after an overnight fast with trace amounts of pyruvate-3-(14)C and glucose-6-(14)C. Blood disappearance curves and incorporation of the pyruvate-3-(14)C label into blood glucose have been determined. By the use of transfer functions which allow processes with many different chemical steps to be examined as a unit, we have determined the per cent of pyruvate and presumably lactate which is regenerated into glucose. 8 of the 12 subjects showed that 7-23 mg/kg per hr are recycled, while 4 subjects fell well outside this range. Correlation of increased activity was not good with any demonstrated metabolic abnormality (diabetes or obesity), and it is suggested from clinical observation of the subjects that anxiety may play a role.

  2. Human performance profiles for planetary analog extra-vehicular activities: 120 day and 30 day analog missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarmer, Tiffany M.

    Understanding performance factors for future planetary missions is critical for ensuring safe and successful planetary extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). The goal of this study was to gain operational knowledge of analog EVAs and develop biometric profiles for specific EVA types. Data was collected for a 120 and 30 day analog planetary exploration simulation focusing on EVA type, pre and post EVA conditions, and performance ratings. From this five main types of EVAs were performed: maintenance, science, survey/exploratory, public relations, and emergency. Each EVA type has unique characteristics and performance ratings showing specific factors in chronological components, environmental conditions, and EVA systems that have an impact on performance. Pre and post biometrics were collected to heart rate, blood pressure, and SpO2. Additional data about issues and specific EVA difficulties provide some EVA trends illustrating how tasks and suit comfort can negatively affect performance ratings. Performance decreases were noted for 1st quarter and 3rd quarter EVAs, survey/exploratory type EVAs, and EVAs requiring increased fine and gross motor function. Stress during the simulation is typically higher before the EVA and decreases once the crew has returned to the habitat. Stress also decreases as the simulation nears the end with the 3rd and 4th quarters showing a decrease in stress levels. Operational components and studies have numerous variable and components that effect overall performance, by increasing the knowledge available we may be able to better prepare future crews for the extreme environments and exploration of another planet.

  3. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99 in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text chat communications, manipulation of procedureschecklists, cataloguingannotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit andor other EVA systems.

  4. BASALT 1: Extravehicular Activity Science Operations Concepts under Communication Latency and Bandwidth Constraints at Craters of the Moon, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Beaton, Kara; Miller, Matthew J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2017-01-01

    An over-arching goal of the multi-year Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human exploration of Mars. Geological and biological scientific fieldwork is being conducted during four total deployments at two high-fidelity Mars analogs, all within simulated Mars mission conditions that are based on current architectural assumptions for Mars exploration missions. Specific capabilities being evaluated include the use of mobile science platforms, extravehicular informatics, communication and navigation packages, advanced science mission planning tools, and scientifically-relevant instrument packages to achieve the project goals. This paper describes the planning, execution, and results of the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT 1, which consisted of a series of 12 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on the lava terrains of Craters of the Moon, Idaho. Scientific objectives of the EVAs related to determination of how microbial communities and habitability correlate with the physical and geochemical characteristics of chemically-altered basalt environments. The concept of operations (ConOps) and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT 1 were based on extensive data from previous NASA trade studies and analog testing, and the primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities would work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under four different communication scenarios. Specifically, communication latencies of 5 and 15 minutes one-way light time (OWLT) were tested; these delays fall within the range of 4 to 22 minute OWLT delays that would be experienced during a Mars mission. Science operations were also conducted under low bandwidth conditions (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink), representing a

  5. Continued Development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) System for Advanced Extravehicular Activity Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, William; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer; Jeng, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Development activities related to the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Humidity control system have progressed to the point of integrating the RCA into an advanced Primary Life Support System (PLSS 2.0) to evaluate the interaction of the RCA among other PLSS components in a ground test environment. The RCA 2.0 assembly (integrated into PLSS 2.0) consists of a valve assembly with commercial actuator motor, a sorbent canister, and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based process node controller. Continued design and development activities for RCA 3.0 have been aimed at optimizing the canister size and incorporating greater fidelity in the valve actuator motor and valve position feedback design. Further, the RCA process node controller is envisioned to incorporate a higher degree of functionality to support a distributed PLSS control architecture. This paper will describe the progression of technology readiness levels of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 along with a review of the design and manufacturing successes and challenges for 2.0 and 3.0 units. The anticipated interfaces and interactions with the PLSS 2.0/2.5/3.0 assemblies will also be discussed.

  6. Development of a prototype movement assistance system for extravehicular activity gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tyler N.

    Spacesuits utilized a rubberized layer of material to contain a pressurized atmosphere to facilitate respiration and maintain the physiologic functions of the astronaut residing within. However, the elasticity of the material makes it resistant to deformation increasing the amount of work required during movement. This becomes particularly fatiguing for the muscle groups controlling the motion of the hands and fingers. To mitigate this a robotic system was proposed and developed. The system built upon previous concepts and prototypes discovered through research efforts. It utilized electric motors to pull the index, ring, and middle fingers of the right hand closed, ideally overcoming the resistive force posed by the pressurized elastic material. The effect of the system was determined by comparing qualitative and quantitative data obtained during activities conducted with and without it within a glove box. It was found that the system was able to offload some of this elastic force though several characteristics of the design limited the full potential this device offered. None the less, the project was met with success and provides a solid platform for continued research and development.

  7. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  8. Improvement of the extravehicular activity suit for the MIR orbiting station program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, G.; Abramov, I.; Svertshek, V.; Stoklitsky, A.

    1996-09-01

    Since 1977, EVA suits of the semi-rigid type have been used to support sorties from Russian orbiting stations. Currently, within the MIR station program, the Orlan-DMA, the latest modification of the Orlan semi-rigid EVA suit is used by crewmembers. Quite some experience has been gained by Russia in operations of the Orlan type suits. It has proved the advantages of the EVA suit of a semi-rigid configuration, featuring donning/doffing through a hinged backpack door with a built-in life support system. Meanwhile there were some wishes and comments from the crewmembers addressed to the enclosure design and some LSS components. Currently a number of ways and methods are being developed to improve operational characteristics of the suit as well as to enhance its reliability and lifetime. The forthcoming EVAs to be performed by the STS-MIR crewmembers and future EVAs from the common airlock of the International Space Station Alpha make implementation of the planned improvements even more consistent. The paper analyzes the experience gained in the Orlan-DMA operation and discusses planned improvements in light of the forthcoming activities. In particular the Orlan enhancement program is aimed to make the donning/doffing easier, enhance enclosure mobility, improve the condensate removal unit, increase the CCC (Contamination Control Cartridge) operation time and simplify the onboard subsystem design concept.

  9. The combined ground simulation test technology of thermal vacuum for man-extravehicular space suits-spacecraft%人-船-服热真空联合试验技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞贺伟; 陈金明; 李春扬

    2007-01-01

    The combined thermal vacuum test of man-extravehicular space suits-spacecraft is necessary to guarantee the safety of astronaut and the success of flight operation. During the tests, the astronauts may get themselves familiarizing with the space environment;their psychological endurance may be increased; and the defects of design, manufacture and operation procedure of the manned spacecraft may be discovered. A successful test must be based on perfect and complete ground test facilities, correct test technologies, a well considered test plan, reasonable technology specifications and simulation procedures. In this paper, the principal objectives and the major components of the combined thermal vacuum test of men-extravehicular space suits-spacecraft conducted in KM6 are presented.Three schemes of test are described. The potential problems of safety are analyzed and the relevant countermeasures and security systems are put forward. The main technical specifications of the facility are given and ten key subsystems, namely, vacuum chamber, liquid uitrogen, gas nitrogen, re-pressurization, environment control, thermal flux simulation, telecommunication control and fire fighting, are discussed.%人-船-服热真空联合试验对于保证航天员的安全和飞行任务的成功非常重要.航天员可通过试验熟悉空间环境、增强心理承受力,通过试验还可暴露出载人飞船在设计、研制和制造过程中的缺陷.而试验的成功则与完善的地面试验设施、正确的试验技术、详细的试验大纲、合理的技术规范和试验程序密切相关.文章主要介绍了在KM6大型空间环境模拟设备中进行的人-船-服热真空联合试验,包括3个试验方案、潜在的安全问题的分析及相关对策、安全系统的介绍,详细介绍了设备的主要技术规范和10个主要的分系统:真空容器、液氮分系统、气氮分系统、复压分系统、环境控制分系统、热流模拟分系统、通

  10. Antenna Design Considerations for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakula, Casey J.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios

    2015-01-01

    NASA is designing an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU)to support future manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). A key component of the AEMU is the communications assembly that allows for the wireless transfer of voice, video, and suit telemetry. The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) currently used on the International Space Station (ISS) contains a radio system with a single omni-directional resonant cavity antenna operating slightly above 400 MHz capable of transmitting and receiving data at a rate of about 125 kbps. Recent wireless communications architectures are calling for the inclusion of commercial wireless standards such as 802.11 that operate in higher frequency bands at much higher data rates. The current AEMU radio design supports a 400 MHz band for low-rate mission-critical data and a high-rate band based on commercial wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to support video, communication with non-extravehicular activity (EVA) assets such as wireless sensors and robotic assistants, and a redundant path for mission-critical EVA data. This paper recommends the replacement of the existing EMU antenna with a new antenna that maintains the performance characteristics of the current antenna but with lower weight and volume footprints. NASA has funded several firms to develop such an antenna over the past few years, and the most promising designs are variations on the basic patch antenna. This antenna technology at UHF is considered by the authors to be mature and ready for infusion into NASA AEMU technology development programs.

  11. Major Breakthroughs In Shenzhou 7 Manned Space Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Ji

    2008-01-01

    @@ The complete success of the Shenzhou 7 manned space mission has realized significant progress in the development of China's space technology, making China the third country capable of carrying out extravehicular activities (EVA),independently, following the forhaer Soviet Union and the United States.Recently Aerospace China interviewed Mr. Ma Xingrui, Vice Chief Commander of China's Manned Space Program and President of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC).

  12. Recreational resources - basement for active rest of a man.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytzev V.P.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of active rest resources of Ukraine, their classification and ball estimation are presented: medical and biological, psychological, technological. The special complication in the estimation of active rest resources consists of that they are necessary to be examined both from position of organizers of rest and from position of holiday-makers. Importance of active rest a man (student is shown in sanatorium-resort terms. Therefore two basic tasks cost before counsels: medical service of patients (second prophylaxis and health rest. The active rest resources of Crimea are as an example considered, Zakarpatskoy and Kharkov areas. In every region there are the features of active rest resources which lift the physical and psychical health of man.

  13. Complement activated granulocytes can cause autologous tissue destruction in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Löhde

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs by C5a is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure during sepsis and after trauma. In our experiment exposure of human PMNs to autologous zymosan activated plasma (ZAP leads to a rapid increase in chemiluminescence. Heating the ZAP at 56°C for 30 min did not alter the changes, while untreated plasma induced only baseline activity. The respiratory burst could be completely abolished by decomplementation and preincubation with rabbit antihuman C5a antibodies. Observation of human omentum using electron microscopy showed intravascular aggregation of PMNs, with capillary thrombosis and diapedesis of the cells through endothelial junctions 90 s after exposure to ZAP. PMNs caused disruption of connections between the mesothelial cells. After 4 min the mesothelium was completely destroyed, and connective tissue and fat cells exposed. Native plasma and minimum essential medium did not induce any morphological changes. These data support the concept that C5a activated PMNs can cause endothelial and mesothelial damage in man. Even though a causal relationship between anaphylatoxins and organ failure cannot be proved by these experiments C5a seems to be an important mediator in the pathogenesis of changes induced by severe sepsis and trauma in man.

  14. Development and application of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, work restraint system, stowage container and return line tether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Okelly, J. K.; Whitsett, C. W.; Petynia, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), a self-contained zero-gravity backpack designed for astronaut extravehicular activity, is discussed with reference to the system requirements and characteristics, and potential near-term and future uses. Attention is given to the MMU man-machine interfaces, propulsion capability, attitude control, crew restraint hardware, donning, doffing, activation, and deactivation. Specific applications discussed include: spacecraft inspection and servicing, assembly of large space systems, payload deployment/retrieval, and crew rescue.

  15. The Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit's New Long Life Battery and Lithium Ion Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Elder, Mark A.; Williams, Anthony G.; Dembeck, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit Silver/Zinc Increased Capacity Battery, which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem during Extravehicular Activities. The Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the battery either in a charger-strapped configuration or in a suit-mounted configuration. This paper will provide an overview of the capabilities and systems engineering development approach for both the battery and the charger

  16. Space Life Sciences Directorate's Position on the Physiological Effects of Exposing the Crewmemeber to Low-Voltage Electrical Hazards During Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Kramer, Leonard; Mikatarian, Ron; Polk, James; Duncan, Michael; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The models predict that, for low voltage exposures in the space suit, physiologically active current could be conducted across the crew member causing catastrophic hazards. Future work with Naval Health Research Center Detachment Directed Energy Bio-effects Laboratory is being proposed to analyze additional current paths across the human torso and upper limbs. These models may need to be verified with human studies.

  17. Antitussive activity and respiratory system effects of levodropropizine in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, R; Braga, P C; Centanni, S; Legnani, D; Moavero, N E; Allegra, L

    1988-08-01

    Antitussive activity of the new antitussive drug, levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526), was evaluated in healthy volunteers by the classical method of citric acid-induced coughing. Levodropropizine dose-dependently reduced cough frequency. Maximal inhibition was observed at 6 h after administration. Cough intensity was also reduced, as shown by the analysis of cough noise. Levodropropizine, at the dosage of 60 mg t.i.d., had no adverse effects on respiratory function nor on airway clearance mechanisms: in fact, it did not affect spirometric parameters. Levodropropizine had no effects on the rheological properties of mucus nor on ciliary activity of airway epithelium.

  18. Spontaneous electrodermal activity during sleep in man: an intranight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixa i Baqué, E; Chevalier, B; Grubar, J C; Lambert, C; Lancry, A; Leconte, P; Mériaux, H; Spreux, F

    1983-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the intranight evolution of spontaneous electrodermal activity (EDA). Eight paid volunteer male students were recorded for 3 complete nights (after a habituation night). The results show that: during the first sleep cycle, EDA is significantly lower than during the rest of the night; rapid eye movement sleep evolves in a particular manner, which emphasizes the specificity of this sleep stage; and there is no internight habituation effect.

  19. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF LABOR ACTIVITY OF ELDERLY MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyusova O.V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In modern Russian society occurred deformation traditions of respect and maintain the credibility of the elderly, and the socio-economic situation has deteriorated. An important condition to characterize the elderly is related to labor activity. expressed doubts surrounding their professionalism and high-quality and modern education. In society there are negative stereotypes about the elderly: Edil accusations of conservatism, the inability to take risks, tolerance for young. Old age pensioners perceived themselves as age losses, shrinking circle of social contacts, there is social exclusion, significant interpersonal contacts become strained. The psychological diagnosis of labor socialization of older employees 40 people participated. Conducted an empirical study it possible to identify the factors of labor activity in old age: the age and state of health; desire to raise the level of material well-being, the need to work, enthusiasm labor process, achievement motivation, the need for communication with the team; desire for samooaktualizatsii, positive self-esteem, internal locus of control. Working pensioners have high situational anxiety, adequate to the achievement of the objectives, an adequate assessment of its internal and external quality, high life satisfaction, motivation tends to focus on the process and result, reflexivity, subjectivity, have no fear of being rejected, is well adapted to society. Workers older people have average values of introversion, neuroticism, psychoticism.

  20. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the by what method the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun, in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of ongoing efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  1. Extravehicular Activity Fact Sheet: An EVA Chronology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology chronicles the 154 EVAs conducted from March 1965 to April 1997. It is intended to make clear the crucial role played by EVA in...

  2. High-affinity prorenin binding to cardiac man-6-P/IGF-II receptors precedes proteolytic activation to renin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Saris (Jasper); F.H.M. Derkx (Frans); R.J.A. de Bruin (René); D.H. Dekkers (Dick); J.M.J. Lamers (Jos); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan); M.A.D.H. Schalekamp (Maarten); A.H.J. Danser (Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMannose-6-phosphate (man-6-P)/insulin-like growth factor-II (man-6-P/IgF-II) receptors are involved in the activation of recombinant human prorenin by cardiomyocytes. To investigate the kinetics of this process, the nature of activation, the existence of other prorenin

  3. Performance of extravehicular activity space suit: a combined system of cooling, heating and power%舱外航天服冷热电一体化系统性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国栋; 高峰; 李运泽; 王胜男; 周航

    2013-01-01

    A combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system for extravehicular activity (EVA) space suit is proposed in this paper. The CCHP system mainly consists of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a heat driving cooling device, a metal hydride hydrogen storage device and a radiator. A Power Supply Priority scheme is proposed for the CCHP system in order to match both the power supply and the cooling request. Based on the PSP scheme, the operation state parameters and the mass of the CCHP system are calculated under a typical working condition. Influences of the PEMFC's working temperature, the current density and the pressure on the system mass and the expendable material loss are analyzed. The results show that the mass of the EVA space suit CCHP system is acceptable, and the expendable material loss is much less than that of the water sublimator/storage battery scheme. Lowering the PEMFC working temperature and pressure, or raising the PEMFC's current density, would lead to a lighter system and less expendable material loss.%文章提出了一种舱外航天服冷热电一体化(Combined Cooling-Heating-Power,CCHP)系统,该系统的主要组件有质子交换膜燃料电池、热驱制冷装置、金属氢化物储氢装置和辐射器等.在冷热电一体化系统的冷电匹配方法上提出了“以电定冷”方案,按照该方案计算了一组典型工况下系统的工作状态,分析了燃料电池的工作温度、工作电流密度和工作压力对系统质量和消耗性工质损失的影响.结果表明,该舱外航天服冷热电一体化系统在质量大小方面可以接受,在消耗性工质损失方面比水升华器冷源/蓄电池电源方案小得多;且降低燃料电池工作温度和压力、增大燃料电池工作电流密度,均能够减小系统质量、降低系统消耗性工质损失.

  4. PKK-man: A System to Manage PKK Activities in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, R. N. E.; Rochimah, S.; Soedjono, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    PKK community is a well-known women community in Indonesia. PKK was formed from national level to neighbourhood association level and usually has a regular event and several activities. This is the reason why PKK is expected to play an active role in national development, started from PKK member family. This research intends to develop a system to manage PKK activities and prepares information sharing in PKK community. The application was built using client server architecture. The web version of PKK-man was developed using PHP framework and was prepared to be accessed by PKK board member. Since they will deal with more data so a wide interface in web version will be more suitable. While the ordinary PKK member can access PKK-man through mobile application. The mobile version was built using PhoneGap framework that supports different mobile operating systems.

  5. High-resolution recordings of the magnetic activity of the His-bundle in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erne, S.N.; Hahlbohm, H.D.; Lehmann, H.P. (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. Berlin); Fenici, R.R. (Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Medica 2); Trontelj, Z. (Ljubljana Univ. (Yugoslavia). VTO Oddelek za Fiziko)

    The activity of the His-Purkinje system (HPS) in man has been measured in a magnetically shielded room (BMSR) by using band pass filtering (band width 0.5 Hz to 300 Hz) and averaging. The BMSR reduces the background noise level to less than 4 fT/..sqrt..Hz in the region of white noise. Within the PR interval a ramp pattern was observed, changing its slope when crossing the median line of the heart. In addition, definite signals were recorded approximately 40 ms before the onset of ventricular activation.

  6. Extravehicular activities limitations study. Volume 1: Physiological limitations to extravehicular activity in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, Paul A.; Monson, Conrad B.; Santoro, Robert L.; Sears, William J.; Peterson, Donald H.; Smith, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of a comprehensive literature search on physiological aspects of EVA. Specifically, the topics covered are: (1) Oxygen levels; (2) Optimum EVA work; (3) Food and Water; (4) Carbon dioxide levels; (5) Repetitive decompressions; (6) Thermal, and (7) Urine collection. The literature was assessed on each of these topics, followed by statements on conclusions and recommended future research needs.

  7. SPACeMAN -a Satellite to Actively Reduce Sub-Centimeter Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knirsch, Uli

    In-orbit fragmentation events, whether accidental or intentional, are bound to increase the population of space debris. "Critical debris" ranging between 1 and 10mm are numerous and can be lethal to both satellites and inhabited structures. This in turn creates further debris, potentially leading to a chain reaction ("Kessler syndrome"). In first approximation, collecting sub-centimeter debris appears impractical since rendezvous maneuvers are prohibitively expensive in terms of delta v and hardware complexity. One possible solution is to fly a spacecraft with a small constant vertical thrust. As a result, it will move somewhat faster than other, passive objects in its orbit -such as space debris. This "non-Keplerian orbit" thus creates a small chance of accidental collision. The sPACeMAN is designed to withstand impacts, capturing the debris. Since the probability of capture is low, some active control, particularly of the vertical thrust, can be instituted. The sPACeMAN concept was developed to reduce the population of NaK droplets in critical orbits. However, it can be extended to other debris as well. Since its effectiveness is greatest in areas of relatively high population densities of space debris, it would be best suited for quick responses, such as after a fragmentation event.

  8. Redesign of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John; Elms, Theresa; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Jennings, Mallory

    2016-01-01

    During EVA (Extravehicular Activity) 23 aboard the ISS (International Space Station) on 07/16/2013 an episode of water in the EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) helmet occurred, necessitating a termination of the EVA (Extravehicular Activity) shortly after it began. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing short-comings of the ALCLR (Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery) Ion Beds which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the Ion Beds before they left the ground. The Ion Beds were thereafter used to scrub the failed EMU cooling water loop on-orbit during routine scrubbing operations. The root cause investigation identified several areas for improvement of the ALCLR Assembly which have since been initiated. Enhanced washing techniques for the ALCLR Ion Bed have been developed and implemented. On-orbit cooling water conductivity and pH analysis capability to allow the astronauts to monitor proper operation of the ALCLR Ion Bed during scrubbing operation is being investigated. A simplified means to acquire on-orbit EMU cooling water samples has been designed. Finally, an inherently cleaner organic adsorbent to replace the current lignite-based activated carbon, and a non-separable replacement for the separable mixed ion exchange resin are undergoing evaluation. These efforts are undertaken to enhance the performance and reduce the risk associated with operations to ensure the long-term health of the EMU cooling water circuit.

  9. Noradrenaline spillover during exercise in active versus resting skeletal muscle in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savard, G; Strange, S; Kiens, Bente

    1987-01-01

    Increases in plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration occur during moderate to heavy exercise in man. This study was undertaken to examine the spillover of NA from both resting and contracting skeletal muscle during exercise. Six male subjects performed one-legged knee-extension so that all...... in the exercising leg than in the resting leg both during 50% and 100% leg exercise. These results suggest that contracting skeletal muscle may contribute to a larger extent than resting skeletal muscle to increasing the level of plasma NA during exercise. Contractile activity may influence the NA spillover from...... measurements could be made both in the exercising and in the resting leg. Subjects exercised for 10 min at each of 50% and 100% of the peak performance capacity of the leg. Leg blood flow was measured by thermodilution and blood samples were drawn for the determination of plasma NA and adrenaline, first...

  10. Materials Assessment of Components of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas, John D.; Barrera, Enrique V.

    1996-01-01

    Current research interests for Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) design and development are directed toward enhancements of the Shuttle EMU, implementation of the Mark 3 technology for Shuttle applications, and development of a next generation suit (the X suit) which has applications for prolonged space flight, longer extravehicular activity (EVA), and Moon and Mars missions. In this research project two principal components of the EMU were studied from the vantage point of the materials and their design criteria. An investigation of the flexible materials which make up the lay-up of materials for abrasion and tear protection, thermal insulation, pressure restrain, etc. was initiated. A central focus was on the thermal insulation. A vacuum apparatus for measuring the flexibility of the materials was built to access their durability in vacuum. Plans are to include a Residual Gas Analyzer on the vacuum chamber to measure volatiles during the durability testing. These tests will more accurately simulate space conditions and provide information which has not been available on the materials currently used on the EMU. Durability testing of the aluminized mylar with a nylon scrim showed that the material strength varied in the machine and transverse directions. Study of components of the EMU also included a study of the EMU Bearing Assemblies as to materials selection, engineered materials, use of coatings and flammability issues. A comprehensive analysis of the performance of the current design, which is a stainless steel assembly, was conducted and use of titanium alloys or engineered alloy systems and coatings was investigated. The friction and wear properties are of interest as are the general manufacturing costs. Recognizing that the bearing assembly is subject to an oxygen environment, all currently used materials as well as titanium and engineered alloys were evaluated as to their flammability. An aim of the project is to provide weight reduction since bearing

  11. Man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albimanus and An. (Kerteszia neivai (Diptera: Culicidae in the Pacific Lowlands of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yezid Solarte

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The daily man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albimanus and An. (Kerteszia neivai was determined in four ecologically distinct settlements of the Naya River, Department of Valle, Colombia. Differences were found among the settlements with respect to the mosquito species present, intradomiciliary and extradomiciliary biting activity and population densities.

  12. Bioreactor Cultivation of Zeltnera beyrichii (Torr. & A. Gray Mans.: A Novel Source of Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Radović

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With regard to world’s increasing demand for biologically active compounds, a novel source of xanthones and secoiridoid glycosides has been studied . Zeltnera beyrichii (Torr. & A. Gray Mans., an insufficiently acknowledged North American medicinal plant species, may be considered a pharmacological substitute for commercial C. erythraea Rafn, since it accumulates in aerial parts nearly the same amount of secoiridoid glycosides: swertiamarin, gentiopicrin, and sweroside (13.76, 7.56, and 0.17 mmol per 100 g dry weight, respectively in plants grown under greenhouse condition, and a considerable amount of xanthones: decussatin and eustomin. Additionally, Z. beyrichii produced as much biomass during cultivation in RITA ® temporary immersion bioreactors as greenhouse-grown plants, in a third of the time. Plants grown in bioreactors contained moderate levels of total phenolics and total flavonoids, and possessed modest antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potential against eight bacterial and eight fungal species. Therefore, this species may be highly recommended for cultivation either in natural environment, or in bioreactors under in vitro conditions, for producing compounds of interest of modern pharmacology and food industry.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  14. Using Information Gap Activity to Increase Students' speaking Skill at the Twelve Grade of MAN 1 Pamekasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansharul Fuqaha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the researchers’ observation on the preliminary study on the teachingof speaking, the problem was found that the students’ speaking skill in the teaching and learning was very low. It was because the class was heterogeneousand the teacher used monotonous teaching activity. To cope of this problem, theresearcher employed the Information gap activity. This study tries to prove how the Information-gap activity can increase students’ speaking skill at the thirdgrade of MAN 1 Pamekasan. The study was design to increase the students’speaking skill by using Information gap activity at MAN 1 Pamekasan. Thestudy was collaborative classroom action research in which the researcher andthe collaborator worked together, the researcher acted as the teacher while thecollaborator observed the students during the implementation of the strategy. This study was conducted in one cycle consisting of six meetings using thefollowing procedures; planning, implementing, observing and reflecting. The data of the study were collected through the observation checklists, field notes,and questionnaires. The subject of the study were 41 students of third grade on science 3 program MAN 1 Pamekasan. 

  15. Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2015-10-01

    In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell’s electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects.

  16. Active 46-year-old man with right-sided visual loss and no family history of stroke · Dx?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Tokunbo; Yang, Hyun-Sik; Bhatia, Ashmeet

    2017-08-01

    A 46-year-old man presented to the emergency department with sudden-onset right-sided visual loss. He had a history of asthma, but no family history of hypercoagulability, deep vein thrombosis, or stroke. The patient had an active lifestyle that included scuba diving, mountain biking, and hockey (coaching and playing). The physical examination revealed a right homonymous upper quadrantanopia. The neurologic examination was within normal limits, except for the visual deficit and unequal pupil size. A computerized tomography scan of the patient's head did not reveal any lesions.

  17. Open Cherry Picker simulation results. [manned platform for satellite servicing from Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Open Cherry Picker (OCP) is a manned platform, mounted at the end of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), which is used to enhance extravehicular activities. The objective of the simulation program described was to reduce the existing complexity of those OCP design features that are mandatory for initial Space Shuttle applications. The OCP development test article consists of a torque box, a rotating foot restraint, a rotating stanchion that houses handholds, and a tool storage section with an interface with payload modules. If the size or complexity of the payload increases, payload handling devices may be added at a later data. The simulations have shown that the crew can control the RMS from the Aft Flight Deck of the Shuttle, using voice commands from the EVA crewman. No need for a stabilizer was evident, and RMS dynamics due to crew-induced workloads were found to be minor.

  18. man enough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐若炫

    2011-01-01

    Are you man enough? Are you brave enough? Can you pick me up when I fall down? 当这首《man enough》再一次在耳畔回鸣时,你想到些什么? 伊斯坦布尔奇迹、伯纳乌之夜、梅西的记录……亦或是一幕幕经典的画面——男人的画面.

  19. Joe Zhang, Party Man, Company Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: Joe Zhang: Party Man, Company Man. Honolulu: Enrich Professional Publishing, 2014. 234 pp.......Book review of: Joe Zhang: Party Man, Company Man. Honolulu: Enrich Professional Publishing, 2014. 234 pp....

  20. Remission of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy following highly active antiretroviral therapy in a man with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoganathan K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Katie Yoganathan1, David Brown2, Kathir Yoganathan31Cardiff Medical School, Cardiff, Wales, UK; 2Virus Reference Department, Microbiology Services, Health Protection Agency, London, UK; 3Singleton Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, Swansea, UKAbstract: A 43-year-old Caucasian homosexual man with AIDS presented with blurring of vision, change of personality, and memory loss in March 1999. He had first been admitted 2 months previously for treatment of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. A magnetic resonance imaging scan on admission showed multiple white matter lesions involving both subcortical cerebral hemispheres and cerebellar regions, with no mass effect or surrounding edema. JC virus was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid. These findings were diagnostic of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. His CD4 count was 34 cells/mL, and his HIV ribonucleic acid level was 800,789 copies/mL. He was treated with a combination antiretroviral therapy. He was last reviewed in October 2011. He was fully independent socially and mentally, but he still had some residual neurologic signs with right-sided homonymous hemianopia and visual agnosia. His HIV ribonucleic acid level was undetectable, and his CD4 count was 574 cells/mm3. Although the median survival of patients with PML was poor before the antiretroviral therapy era, our patient, who is now aged 55 years, is still alive 12 years after the diagnosis. The diagnosis of PML and differential diagnosis of focal neurologic signs in HIV-positive patients are discussed in this case report.Keywords: HIV, focal neurologic signs, cerebral toxoplasmosis, primary brain lymphoma, ischaemic stroke

  1. Historical aspects of the early Soviet/Russian manned space program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J B

    2001-10-01

    Human spaceflight was one of the great physiological and engineering triumphs of the 20th century. Although the history of the United States manned space program is well known, the Soviet program was shrouded in secrecy until recently. Konstantin Edvardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) was an extraordinary Russian visionary who made remarkable predictions about space travel in the late 19th century. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966) was the brilliant "Chief Designer" who was responsible for many of the Soviet firsts, including the first artificial satellite and the first human being in space. The dramatic flight of Sputnik 1 was followed within a month by the launch of the dog Laika, the first living creature in space. Remarkably, the engineering work for this payload was all done in less than 4 wk. Korolev's greatest triumph was the flight of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-1968) on April 12, 1961. Another extraordinary feat was the first extravehicular activity by Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov (1934-) using a flexible airlock that emphasized the entrepreneurial attitude of the Soviet engineers. By the mid-1960s, the Soviet program was overtaken by the United States program and attempts to launch a manned mission to the Moon failed. However, the early Soviet manned space program has a preeminent place in the history of space physiology.

  2. The indigenous Feitian extra-vehicular activity suit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gracie; Guo

    2008-01-01

    The Shenzhou spacecraft carrying the three crewmembers was launched September 25, 2008 by a Long March 2F rocket which lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center at 21:10 CST. The mission lasted three days, after

  3. Using Optimization to Improve NASA Extravehicular Activity Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    planning process is required to prepare for each highly choreographed EVA operation. The current planning process relies heavily upon time-consuming...process is required to prepare for each highly choreographed EVA operation. The current planning process relies heavily upon time-consuming heuristic...multitude of sources. As a result, EVA plans must be highly choreographed to achieve the maximum value from each operation. Since the advent of EVA

  4. Advanced Extra-Vehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy; Aitchison, Lindsay; Rhodes, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the method by which the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun; in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of on-going efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  5. Visual perception and grasping for the extravehicular activity robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    The development of an approach to the visual perception of object surface information using laser range data in support of robotic grasping is discussed. This is a very important problem area in that a robot such as the EVAR must be able to formulate a grasping strategy on the basis of its knowledge of the surface structure of the object. A description of the problem domain is given as well as a formulation of an algorithm which derives an object surface description adequate to support robotic grasping. The algorithm is based upon concepts of differential geometry namely, Gaussian and mean curvature.

  6. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimies, David

    2011-01-01

    EVA systems consist of a spacesuit or garment, a PLSS, a PAS system, and spacesuit interface hardware. The PAS system is responsible for providing power for the suit, communication of several types of data between the suit and other mission assets, avionics hardware to perform numerous data display and processing functions, and information systems that provide crewmembers data to perform their tasks with more autonomy and efficiency. Irimies discussed how technology development efforts have advanced the state-of-the-art in these areas and shared technology development challenges.

  7. Spacesuit Trauma Countermeasure System for Intravehicular and Extravehicular Activities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have completed our grant reporting period. The major contributions of our research effort are outlined below: Specific Aim 1: Statistical Shoulder Injury...

  8. Development and Test of Robotically Assisted Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jonathan M.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Laske, Evan A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two years, the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project under NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) funded an effort to develop an electromechanically-assisted space suit glove. The project was a collaboration between the Johnson Space Center's Software, Robotics, and Simulation Division and the Crew and Thermal Systems division. The project sought to combine finger actuator technology developed for Robonaut 2 with the softgoods from the ILC Phase VI EVA glove. The Space Suit RoboGlove (SSRG) uses a system of three linear actuators to pull synthetic tendons attached to the glove's fingers to augment flexion of the user's fingers. To detect the user's inputs, the system utilizes a combination of string potentiometers along the back of the fingers and force sensitive resistors integrated into the fingertips of the glove cover layer. This paper discusses the development process from initial concepts through two major phases of prototypes, and the results of initial human testing. Initial work on the project focused on creating a functioning proof of concept, designing the softgoods integration, and demonstrating augmented grip strength with the actuators. The second year of the project focused on upgrading the actuators, sensors, and software with the overall goal of creating a system that moves with the user's fingers in order to reduce fatigue associated with the operation of a pressurized glove system. This paper also discusses considerations for a flight system based on this prototype development and address where further work is required to mature the technology.

  9. Nowhere Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯曼曼

    2008-01-01

    <正>He’s a real nowhere man,sitting in his nowhere land,making all his nowhere plans for nobody.时间晃晃悠悠地停留在我的十七岁,如同岁月里的河流,曲折轮回。我抬头看看那个让我感到苍白无力的天,回想着所有的故事。

  10. In vivo activity of nifurzide and nifuroxazide in intestinal bacteria in man and gnotobiotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, F; Andremont, A; Tancrede, C

    1985-06-01

    Although Gram-negative enteropathogenic bacteria are the target strains of nifurzide and nifuroxazide treatments, neither drug affected faecal counts of in vitro-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae in healthy volunteers. This absence of activity was shown to be due to the poor solubility of the drugs tested. Therefore, effect of high doses of nifurzide was investigated in gnotobiotic mice. Activity against in vitro susceptible enteropathogens was then observed. Normal bacterial cells were replaced in the faeces by elongated, nonseptate and unflagellated mutants. Moreover, the resistance to colonization by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Shigella flexeri of an anaerobic flora of human origin was sharply decreased.

  11. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of work intensity on plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin and renin activity and the interrelationships between these responses are investigated. Plasma volume, renin activity and osmotic, sodium and arginine vasopressin concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken from 15 healthy male subjects before and after six minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at 100, 175 and 225 W. Plasma volume is found to decrease significantly with increasing work intensity, while increases in Na(+) concentration, osmolality and vasopressin are only observed to be significant when the work intensity exceeds 40% maximal aerobic capacity and plasma resin activity increased linearly at all work levels. In addition, significant correlations are observed between plasma volume and osmolality and sodium changes, and between vasopressin and osmolality and sodium content changes. Data thus support the hypotheses that (1) vasopressin may be the primary controlling endocrine for fluid and electrolyte levels following exercise; (2) an exercise intensity greater than 40% maximal aerobic capacity is required to stimulate vasopressin release through changes in plasma osmolality; and (3) the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a more general stress response.

  12. Beyond a man's world: contributions from considering gender in the study of bus drivers' work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Liliana; Nogueira, Sónia; Lacomblez, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Bus driving is a typically male occupation undergoing a process of feminization. Although men remain a majority, women's integration has raised some questions, namely, related to work organization or its impact on health. This paper focuses on the contributions of assuming a gender perspective in the analysis of the bus driving occupation and the conditions under which it is performed. Twenty female and 158 male bus drivers. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were combined. Ergonomic work analysis and individual interviews were used, as well as INSAT (Work and Health Questionnaire). Difficulties inherent to the work activity were highlighted, in terms of working hours and management of "peripheral tasks", with implications for the balance between professional and personal life. These difficulties were reported differently by men and women, although both made themselves clear about the impact on their career and health. Taking gender into consideration has enabled an enrichment of the questions that guide the analysis of this work activity, and contributed to a new perspective on the work performed by this occupational group as well as a new approach to study the history of the transport industry by proposing as focus of analysis issues related to "gender mobility".

  13. Antithrombin deficiency and decreased protein C activity in a young man with venous thromboembolism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Tian, Min; Cui, Guanglin; Wang, Dao Wen

    2017-08-31

    Antithrombin and protein C are two crucial members in the anticoagulant system and play important roles in hemostasis. Mutations in SERPINC1 and PROC lead to deficiency or dysfunction of the two proteins, which could result in venous thromboembolism (VTE). Here, we report a Chinese 22-year-old young man who developed recurrent and serious VTE in cerebral veins, visceral veins, and deep veins of the lower extremity. Laboratory tests and direct sequencing of PROC and SERPINC1 were conducted for the patient and his family members. Coagulation tests revealed that the patient presented type I antithrombin deficiency combined with decreased protein C activity resulting from a small insertion mutation c.848_849insGATGT in SERPINC1 and a short deletion variant c.572_574delAGA in PROC. This combination of the two mutations was absent in 400 healthy subjects each from southern and northern China. Then, we summarized all the mutations of the SERPINC1 and PROC gene reported in the Chinese Han population. This study demonstrates that the combination of antithrombin deficiency and decreased protein C activity can result in severe VTE and that the coexistence of different genetic factors may increase the risk of VTE.

  14. Antisecretory activity of pirenzepine versus cimetidine in man: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procacciante, F; Citone, G; Montesani, C; Ribotta, G

    1984-01-01

    Antisecretory effect of single oral therapeutic doses of pirenzepine (25 mg and 50 mg) and cimetidine (200 mg and 400 mg) was studied in 12 patients with duodenal ulcer. Gastric secretion was studied in basal condition and after stimulation with pentagastrin. Basal, maximum and peak acid output, basal and maximum acidity, and basal and maximum volume were calculated after computerised correction for pyloric loss and duodenal reflux. Both drugs showed dose-related inhibition of all facets of gastric secretion. Cimetidine (200 mg) had a greater inhibitory effect on gastric basal secretion, but a similar effect on pentagastrin stimulated secretion as with pirenzepine (50 mg). Cimetidine (400 mg) showed about twice the inhibitory activity of pirenzepine (50 mg) both on basal and stimulated secretion. PMID:6546371

  15. Indications for influence of artificial (man-made) activity on radon signals, in simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinitz, G.; Kotlarsky, P.; Piatibratova, O.

    2016-11-01

    Radon (Rn-222; a radioactive noble gas) is characterized by large temporal variations that differ significantly from variations of (i) other trace elements in geogas (noble gases); (ii) variation patterns of other dynamic geophysical systems (atmospheric, tidal). Consensus exists that there is no simple and straightforward understanding of the phenomena and its behaviour. This lacuna in the understanding of the underlying principles hampers the development of applications-such as radon as a proxy of processes in the seismogenic context. Using results from field investigations and simulation experiments the GSI suggested that an unidentified extraterrestrial component, probably in solar radiation, drives periodic radon signals in the diurnal and annual frequency bands. Recent findings from experimental investigations shed additional perspectives allowing a new evaluation of the issue. Particular transient signals, measured with alpha and gamma detectors, are interpreted to reflect the influence of artificial activity. Criteria are (i) signals lasting several hours that occur around midday on workdays (Sunday-Thursday); (ii) signals composed of a train of around 10 strong pulses, each lasting less than 15 min, occurring within several hours once a week, from Wednesday afternoon/evening to Thursday morning. A first interpretation is that an unidentified artificial activity of some sort (industrial?) generates and emits an unidentified agent that reaches enhanced confined mode experiments at the GSI laboratory, which respond to the incoming agent in the form of radon signals. Developing the capability of identification of such an earth-bound source generating an influencing agent is a key step towards understanding of external influence on radioactivity of radon.

  16. Effects of Man's Activities on the Marine Environment; Committee on Commerce, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session. Committee Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce.

    This report, prepared for the Committee on Commerce and the National Ocean Policy Study Committee, describes many aspects of water pollution, both national and international. Specific sections are devoted to: (1) assessing man's influence on the oceans, (2) activities that generate marine pollution, (3) specific marine pollutants, (4) policy for…

  17. Peripheral CLOCK Regulates Target-Tissue Glucocorticoid Receptor Transcriptional Activity in a Circadian Fashion in Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Chrousos, George P.; Lambrou, George I.; Pavlaki, Aikaterini; Koide, Hisashi; Ng, Sinnie Sin Man; Kino, Tomoshige

    2011-01-01

    Context and Objective Circulating cortisol fluctuates diurnally under the control of the “master” circadian CLOCK, while the peripheral “slave” counterpart of the latter regulates the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) at local glucocorticoid target tissues through acetylation. In this manuscript, we studied the effect of CLOCK-mediated GR acetylation on the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to glucocorticoids in humans. Design and Participants We examined GR acetylation and mRNA expression of GR, CLOCK-related and glucocorticoid-responsive genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained at 8 am and 8 pm from 10 healthy subjects, as well as in PBMCs obtained in the morning and cultured for 24 hours with exposure to 3-hour hydrocortisone pulses every 6 hours. We used EBV-transformed lymphocytes (EBVLs) as non-synchronized controls. Results GR acetylation was higher in the morning than in the evening in PBMCs, mirroring the fluctuations of circulating cortisol in reverse phase. All known glucocorticoid-responsive genes tested responded as expected to hydrocortisone in non-synchronized EBVLs, however, some of these genes did not show the expected diurnal mRNA fluctuations in PBMCs in vivo. Instead, their mRNA oscillated in a Clock- and a GR acetylation-dependent fashion in naturally synchronized PBMCs cultured ex vivo in the absence of the endogenous glucocorticoid, suggesting that circulating cortisol might prevent circadian GR acetylation-dependent effects in some glucocorticoid-responsive genes in vivo. Conclusions Peripheral CLOCK-mediated circadian acetylation of the human GR may function as a target-tissue, gene-specific counter regulatory mechanism to the actions of diurnally fluctuating cortisol, effectively decreasing tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids in the morning and increasing it at night. PMID:21980503

  18. Muscle responses to transcranial stimulation in man depend on background oscillatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W Kyle; Baker, Mark R; Baker, Stuart N

    2007-09-01

    Muscle responses to transcranial stimulation show high sweep-to-sweep variability, which may reflect an underlying noise process in the motor system. We examined whether response amplitude correlated with the level of prestimulus background EMG, and network oscillations. Transcranial magnetic or electrical stimulation was delivered to primary motor cortex whilst human subjects performed a precision grip task known to promote beta-band ( approximately 20 Hz) cortical oscillations. Responses were recorded from two intrinsic hand muscles. Response magnitude correlated significantly with the level of background EMG (mean r(2) = 0.20). Using a novel wavelet method, we quantified the amplitude and phase of oscillations in prestimulus sensorimotor EEG. Surprisingly, response magnitude showed no significant correlation with EEG oscillations at any frequency. However, oscillations in the prestimulus EMG were significantly correlated with response size; the correlation coefficient had peaks around 20 Hz. When oscillations in one muscle were used to predict response amplitude in a different muscle, correlations were substantially smaller. Finally, for each recording, we calculated the best possible prediction of response size obtainable from up to 20 measures of prestimulus EEG and EMG oscillations. Such optimal predictions had low correlation coefficients (mean r(2) = 0.2; 76% were below 0.3). We conclude that prestimulus oscillations, mainly in the beta-band, do explain some of the variability in responses to transcranial stimulation. Oscillations may likewise increase the noise of natural motor processing, explaining why this form of network activity is usually suppressed prior to dynamic movements. However, the majority of the variation is determined by other factors, which are not accessible by noninvasive recordings.

  19. Peripheral CLOCK regulates target-tissue glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity in a circadian fashion in man.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Charmandari

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Circulating cortisol fluctuates diurnally under the control of the "master" circadian CLOCK, while the peripheral "slave" counterpart of the latter regulates the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR at local glucocorticoid target tissues through acetylation. In this manuscript, we studied the effect of CLOCK-mediated GR acetylation on the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to glucocorticoids in humans. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We examined GR acetylation and mRNA expression of GR, CLOCK-related and glucocorticoid-responsive genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained at 8 am and 8 pm from 10 healthy subjects, as well as in PBMCs obtained in the morning and cultured for 24 hours with exposure to 3-hour hydrocortisone pulses every 6 hours. We used EBV-transformed lymphocytes (EBVLs as non-synchronized controls. RESULTS: GR acetylation was higher in the morning than in the evening in PBMCs, mirroring the fluctuations of circulating cortisol in reverse phase. All known glucocorticoid-responsive genes tested responded as expected to hydrocortisone in non-synchronized EBVLs, however, some of these genes did not show the expected diurnal mRNA fluctuations in PBMCs in vivo. Instead, their mRNA oscillated in a Clock- and a GR acetylation-dependent fashion in naturally synchronized PBMCs cultured ex vivo in the absence of the endogenous glucocorticoid, suggesting that circulating cortisol might prevent circadian GR acetylation-dependent effects in some glucocorticoid-responsive genes in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral CLOCK-mediated circadian acetylation of the human GR may function as a target-tissue, gene-specific counter regulatory mechanism to the actions of diurnally fluctuating cortisol, effectively decreasing tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids in the morning and increasing it at night.

  20. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Four - Impacts of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the fourth goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on the socioeconomic effects of energy uses and crises and the understandings needed to assess those effects. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  1. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity.

  2. Remeasuring man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) was the most highly regarded American scientist of the early and middle 19th century. Thanks largely to Stephen Jay Gould's book The Mismeasure of Man, Morton's cranial capacity measurements of different races is now held up as a prime example of and cautionary tale against scientific racism. A team of anthropologists recently reevaluated Morton's work and argued that it was Gould, not Morton, who was biased in his analysis. This article is a reexamination of the Morton and Gould controversy. It argues that most of Gould's arguments against Morton are sound. Although Gould made some errors and overstated his case in a number of places, he provided prima facia evidence, as yet unrefuted, that Morton did indeed mismeasure his skulls in ways that conformed to 19th century racial biases. Gould's critique of Morton ought to remain as an illustration of implicit bias in science.

  3. Big Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秀文

    2012-01-01

    <正>梁炳"Edmond"说他演唱会后会跟太太去旅行。无论飞机降落在地球的哪角,有伴在旁就是幸福。他的concert名字是big man,初时我看错是big mac演唱会:心想干吗是大汉堡演唱会?嘻!后来才知看错。但其实细想,在成长路上,谁不曾是活得像个傻傻的面包,一团面粉暴露在这大千世界,时间和各式人生经历就是酵母,多少年月日,你我都会发酵成长。友情也是激发彼此成长的酵母,看到对方早已经从男仔成了男人,我都原来一早已不再能够以"女仔"称呼自己。在我眼中,他的改变是大的,爱玩外向的个性收窄了,现在的我们,

  4. Definition And Realization Of The Priorities Features Of Public Prosecutor's Activity In The Sphere Of Rights And Freedoms Of The Man And Citizen Observance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda A. Igonina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the notion of "priorities of the prosecution" are defined, its value for the sphere of human rights and freedoms of man and citizen are stated. The classification of priorities, which is based on the provisions of the Russian Constitution and international law are stated. According to the authors, under the primary protection are the personal rights, which are derived from a natural person's status, inherent from birth. Next in order of priority are political rights, ensuring the full participation of citizens in the political life of the country, and finally - human rights in the socio-economic and cultural spheres, to guarantee the freedom of personal development and decent standards of living. Due to the authors` opinion, prosecutors in the allocation of the most important goals and objectives of its activities are guided by objective factors such as the analysis of the state of law, connection of the situation in this sphere of legal relations with the maintenance of stability and balance in the society, human rights functions, country's leadership and guidance of the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation. The article shows, that the choice of priorities in the public prosecutor's activity, including the field of human rights and freedoms of man and citizen is a complex multi-faceted process, which affects the international situation, the internal processes, occurring in the country, including natural and man-made emergencies and a number of other factors. Authors identify issues that, in their opinion, should be addressed to improve the effectiveness of prosecutorial activities. That is the further development of the law about the Prosecutor's Office and the consolidation of its legal position, including constitutional status. Conclusions and suggestions are based on the authors' theoretical positions, made by the Russian jurists, as well as according their own empirical researches.

  5. An investigation into the cardiac and pulmonary beta-adrenoceptor blocking activity of ICI 66,082 in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, G E; Kumana, C R; Kaye, C M; Smith, D M; Turner, P

    1975-04-01

    1 Oral ICI 66,082 (200 mg) or water (control treatment) were each administered to six healthy volunteers. 2 The heart rate (HR) and peak flow rate (PFR) were measured at rest and during vigorous exercise before and at intervals up to 24 h after each treatment. 3 ICI 66,082 produced significant reductions in exercise HR at all times compared with the changes after the control treatment (P less than 0.001), whereas with resting HR, corresponding significant reductions only occurred at 2,3 and 4 h (P less than 0.05). 4 Although there was no change in resting PFR, significant reductions in exercise PFR, compared with the changes after the control treatment, occurred at all times excepting at 2 h after ICI 66,082 (P less than 0.025). 5 The findings are consistent with ICI 66,082 possessing partial cardioselectivity. 6 Plasma levels and renal excretion of the drug were determined. Urinary recovery was variable which, together with the plasma concentration/effect relationships obtained, raise the possibility that ICI 66,082 is metabolized in man.

  6. An investigation into the cardiac and pulmonary beta-adrenoceptor blocking activity of ICI 66,082 in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, G E; Kumana, C R; Kaye, C M; Smith, D M; Turner, P

    1975-01-01

    1 Oral ICI 66,082 (200 mg) or water (control treatment) were each administered to six healthy volunteers. 2 The heart rate (HR) and peak flow rate (PFR) were measured at rest and during vigorous exercise before and at intervals up to 24 h after each treatment. 3 ICI 66,082 produced significant reductions in exercise HR at all times compared with the changes after the control treatment (P less than 0.001), whereas with resting HR, corresponding significant reductions only occurred at 2,3 and 4 h (P less than 0.05). 4 Although there was no change in resting PFR, significant reductions in exercise PFR, compared with the changes after the control treatment, occurred at all times excepting at 2 h after ICI 66,082 (P less than 0.025). 5 The findings are consistent with ICI 66,082 possessing partial cardioselectivity. 6 Plasma levels and renal excretion of the drug were determined. Urinary recovery was variable which, together with the plasma concentration/effect relationships obtained, raise the possibility that ICI 66,082 is metabolized in man. PMID:1234497

  7. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    -80 years. In men aged 20-40 years, consumption of larger quantities of alcohol (>0.8 g/kg body weight/day) was associated with reduced ADH activity. H(2)-Receptor antagonist treatment also decreased gastric ADH activity. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that ADH activity in human gastric mucosa...

  8. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    is negatively associated with consumption of larger quantities of alcohol. The question of whether ADH activity is higher in males or females can only be answered with respect to age. The gastric ADH activity in young men is distinctly higher compared to young women, but the opposite holds true in middle......AIMS: The stomach is involved in first-pass metabolism of alcohol in humans. As conflicting data were published regarding the influence of age and gender on the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in human gastric mucosa, the present study aimed at the investigation of these and other...... potentially confounding factors (alcohol consumption, smoking, drug intake) on its activity in a Caucasian population. METHODS: ADH activity was assessed in endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens from 111 Caucasian subjects aged 20-80 years, of whom 51 were females. RESULTS: Highest ADH activity was measured...

  9. The vasomotor component of the orienting response in man related to spontaneous fluctuation of vasomotor activity in the acral skin zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerová, E; Ruttkay-Nedecký, I

    1978-10-01

    A plethymographic study of the effect of a weak indifferent light or sound stimulus and of a physically identical light stimulus with signal meaning on vasomotor activity in the acral skin zone of man has shown that during stimulus presentation there was a significant rise in the percent of occurrence of vasmotor waves corresponding to the criteria for the vasomotor orienting response (VOR). VOR is elicited significantly more often by stimuli with signal meaning than by physically identical indifferent stimuli. After the acute extinction or VOR disinhibition followed in all cases, and after 40--60 repeated stimuli the occurrence of VOR was still significant. Repeated stimuli had a significant effect on the course of the plethysmographic curve, especially on the component of waves of third order, changing the frequency spectrum and time contingency of waves.

  10. What a man wants: understanding the challenges and motivations to physical activity participation and healthy eating in middle-aged Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kolt, Gregory S; Duncan, Mitch; Ellison, Marcus; George, Emma; Mummery, W Kerry

    2012-11-01

    Little attention has been paid to the physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviors of middle-aged men; thus, the aim of this study was to gather information and gain insight into the PA and nutrition behaviors of these men. Six focus group sessions were undertaken with middle-aged men (N = 30) from regional Australia to explore the challenges and motivations to PA participation and healthy eating. Men had a good understanding of PA and nutrition; however, this was sometimes confounded by inconsistent media messages. Work commitments and family responsibilities were barriers to PA, while poor cooking skills and abilities were barriers to healthy eating. Disease prevention, weight management, and being a good role model were motivators for PA and healthy eating. By understanding what a man wants, PA and nutrition interventions can be designed and delivered to meet the needs of this hard-to-reach population.

  11. Caribou and Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Couturier

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available From April 23 to 27, 2001, more than 230 caribou experts migrated to the 9th North American Caribou Workshop, held at the tree-line in the Inuit town of Kuujjuaq, Nunavik, Québec. This community of about 1800 people near Ungava Bay was chosen over larger cities in southern Québec following a survey of potential workshop participants. Holding the conference in such a particularly appropriate location was made possible by the sustained efforts of the Organizing and Scientific Committees, by the help of the sponsors, and, above all, by the tremendous support of the people of Kuujjuaq. Keeping in mind the importance of caribou to the local people and the fact that development and other fast-growing human activities have today reached the North—for many southerners, the last frontier—the theme chosen for the 9th North American Caribou Workshop was also particularly appropriate: Caribou and Man.

  12. 'No man is an island entire of itself.' The hidden effect of peers on physical activity: John Donne, Meditation XVII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downward, Paul; Rasciute, Simona

    2016-11-01

    International public policy emphasises the need to increase current low levels of physical activity (WHO, 2010). A large literature examines the reasons for the low levels of physical activity but tends to focus on the correlates of behaviour. This has prompted a call for more causal research to better support policy recommendations to change behaviour (Bauman et al., 2012). Using a large sample of individuals from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) between 1996/7 and 2006/7, a dynamic panel data analysis is employed to reveal a causal contemporaneous effect of a household peer's participation in physical activity on an individual's behaviour. The effect of a peer's physical activity on an individual's physical activity is found to be of a magnitude commensurate with the habits of the individual. An individual's participation in physical activity is also positively associated with their other leisure activity. The research suggests that an individual's physical activity takes place as part of a portfolio of household leisure, which health promotion needs to take account of.

  13. Masking of the circadian rhythms of heart rate and core temperature by the rest-activity cycle in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Connell, Linda J.; Graeber, R. Curtis

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to estimate the magnitude of the masking effect produced in humans by alternate periods of physical activity and rest or sleep on the circadian rhythms of heart rate and core temperature. The heart rate, rectal temperature, and nondominant wrist activity were monitored in 12 male subjects during 6 days of normal routine at home and during 6 days of controlled bed-rest regimen. The comparisons of averaged waveforms for the activity, heart rate, and temperature indicated that about 45 percent of the range of the circadian heart rate rhythm during normal routine and about 14 percent of the range of the circadian temperature rhythm were attributable to the effects of activity. The smaller effect of activity on the temperature rhythm may be partially attributable to the fact that core temperature is being more rigorously conserved than heart rate, at least during moderate exercise.

  14. Mechanisms of activation of muscle branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase during exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; MacLean, D A; Saltin, B

    1996-01-01

    1. Exercise leads to activation (dephosphorylation) of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKADH). Here we investigate the effect of low pre-exercise muscle glycogen content and of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) ingestion on the activity of BCKADH at rest and after 90 min of one......-leg knee-extensor exercise at 65% maximal one-leg power output in five subjects. 2. Pre-exercise BCAA ingestion (308 mg BCAAs (kg body wt)-1) caused an increased muscle BCAA uptake, a higher intramuscular BCAA concentration and activation of BCKADH both at rest (9 +/- 1 versus 25 +/- 5% for the control...... and BCAA test, respectively) and after exercise (27 +/- 4 versus 54 +/- 7%). 3. At rest the percentage active BCKADH was not different, 6 +/- 2% versus 5 +/- 1%, in the normal and low glycogen content leg (392 +/- 21 and 147 +/- 34 mumol glycosyl units (g dry muscle)-1, respectively). The post...

  15. The oldest man ever?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmoth, J; Skytthe, A; Friou, D

    1996-01-01

    This article summarizes recent findings in a case study of exceptional longevity. CM, a resident of San Rafael, California, was 114 years old in August 1996. He is the first properly verified case of a 114-year-old man in human history (although a few women have been known to live longer). Our...... is accurate. Based on the available information, it also seems a reasonable conjecture that he may be the oldest man alive today and perhaps the oldest man who has ever lived. This study documents an extreme example of human longevity and records characteristics of the man's life that may provide clues about...

  16. [Mechanical stimulation of soles' support zones: non-invasive method of activation of generators of stepping movements in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilovskaia, E S; Moshonkina, T R; Gorodnichev, R M; Shigueva, T A; Zakirova, A Z; Pivovarova, E A; Savokhin, A A; Selionov, V A; Semenov, Iu S; Brevnov, V V; Kitov, V V; Gerasimenko, Iu P; Kozlovskaia, I B

    2013-01-01

    The effects of mechanical stimulation of the soles' support zones in regimens of slow and fastwalking (75 and 120 steps per minute) were studied using the model of supportlessness (legs suspension). 20 healthy subjects participated in the study. EMG activity of hip and shin muscles was recorded. Kinematic of leg movements was assessed with the use of videoanalysis system. Support stimulation was followed by leg movements in 80% of cases, in 53% it was a locomotion-like movement. EMG bursts accompanied the movements. Involvement order and alteration of bursts in muscles were similar to voluntary walking. EMG activity occurred with a delay of 5.17 ± 1.08 seconds for hip muscles and 14.01 ± 2.82 seconds for shin muscles, frequency of bursts differed from stimulation frequency. Support stimulation was followed by leg movements in 80% of cases, in 53% of which they had characteristics of locomotions being accompanied by the burst-like electromyographic activities. Involvement order of the leg muscles and organization of antagonistic muscles activities were analogous to that of voluntary walking. The latencies of electromyographic activity in hip muscles composed 5.17 ± 1.083 s and 14.01 ± 2.82 s - for shin muscles, frequency of bursts differed significantly from stimulation frequency. In 31% of cases the electromyographical activity following the stimulation of the soles' support zones was not burst-like. Its amplitude rose smoothly reaching a certain level that was subsequently maintained. Results of the study showed that soles' support zones stimulation in regimen of locomotion can activate a locomotor generator and that effect evoked by this stimulation includes not only rhythmical but also non-rhythmical (probably postural) components of walking.

  17. An Ecological Man-Machine Interface for Temporal Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter; Koch, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper concerns design of man-machine systems, especially the interface between man and machine (MMI). Three different models of human information processing are used to extract theoretical guidelines for designing MMI's to support human mental activity.....

  18. Inhibition of muscle glycogen synthase activity and non-oxidative glucose disposal during hypoglycaemia in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørskov, Lotte; Bak, Jens Friis; Abildgaard, Ulrik

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of muscle glycogen synthase activity in the reduction of glucose uptake during hypoglycaemia. Six healthy young men were examined twice; during 120 min of hyperinsulinaemic (1.5 mU.kg-1. min-1) euglycaemia followed by: 1)240 min of graded ...

  19. An Ecological Man-Machine Interface for Temporal Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter; Koch, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper concerns design of man-machine systems, especially the interface between man and machine (MMI). Three different models of human information processing are used to extract theoretical guidelines for designing MMI's to support human mental activity........This paper concerns design of man-machine systems, especially the interface between man and machine (MMI). Three different models of human information processing are used to extract theoretical guidelines for designing MMI's to support human mental activity.....

  20. Effects of physiological and pharmacological variation of sympathetic nervous system activity on plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbe, P; Galitzky, J; Riviere, D; Senard, J M; Lafontan, M; Garrigues, M; Berlan, M

    1993-01-01

    1. The consequence of the sympatholytic effect of clonidine (alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist) was compared with the effect of a physiological inhibition of sympathetic nervous system activity (change from upright to supine position) on plasma catecholamine and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in overnight fasting healthy men. 2. Clonidine (150 micrograms orally) administered in upright position induced a significant reduction of plasma noradrenaline and NEFA concentrations. A change from upright to supine position which provoked a more marked decrease in plasma noradrenaline concentrations induced a weak increase in plasma NEFA concentrations. 3. The modification of plasma NEFA and catecholamine concentrations brought about by standing up was studied after placebo or yohimbine (alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist) administration. With placebo, standing up promotes a 100% increase in plasma noradrenaline concentrations (measured 5 and 15 min after rising) and a weak transient decrease in plasma NEFA concentrations (5 min after rising). In the supine position, yohimbine increased plasma noradrenaline and NEFA concentrations by about 100% and 55% respectively. Standing after yohimbine administration promoted large increases in plasma noradrenaline and NEFA concentrations. 4. These results indicate that a reduction of sympathetic nervous activity is not associated with a decrease of plasma NEFA concentrations and argue for a role of alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the NEFA mobilization from adipose tissue after sympathetic nervous system activation in man. PMID:8373709

  1. Reciprocal inhibition in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, C

    1993-11-01

    Reciprocal inhibition is the automatic antagonist alpha motor neurone inhibition which is evoked by contraction of the agonist muscle. This so-called natural reciprocal inhibition is a ubiquitous and pronounced phenomenon in man and must be suspected of playing a major role in the control of voluntary movements. The spinal pathways underlying this inhibitory phenomenon were studied. The disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibitory pathway between the tibial anterior muscle and the soleus alpha motor neurones was identified and described in man. It was shown that the inhibition can be evoked in most healthy subjects at rest, but the degree of inhibition varies considerably from one subject to another. It was concluded that it corresponds to the disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibitory pathway which has been extensively described in animal experiments. The disynaptic reciprocal inhibition was shown to increase during the dynamic phase of a dorsiflexion movement of the foot, but not during the tonic phase. However, when the peripheral afferent feedback from the contracting muscle was blocked by ischaemia, an increase of the inhibition was revealed also during the tonic phase of the dorsiflexion. The concealment of this increase during unrestrained peripheral feedback from the muscle was thought to be due to the post-activation depression mechanism; a mechanism which was described further and which probably involves reduced transmitter release at Ia afferent terminals as a result of previous activation of these afferent fibers. Hence the hypothesis was supported that alpha motor neurones and the corresponding inhibitory interneurones, which project reciprocal inhibition to the antagonist motor neurones, are activated in parallel during voluntary contraction of agonist muscles. An additional reciprocal inhibitory mechanism, the long latency reciprocal inhibition, was described between the tibial anterior muscle and the soleus alpha motor neurones. It was shown to be evoked by group I

  2. "Det man siger er man selv..."

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben; Nørgaard, Britta; Uddholm, Mats

    forhold, der er hermeneutisk, strukturelt og relationelt bestemt. Praksisviden kan ikke være objektiv i gængs forstand, men det behøver ikke at diskvalificere denne viden. Forståelse er altid knyttet til den sag og bundet til den situation man står overfor og i som professionel og som menneske....

  3. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  4. Man of Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Helene Juarez

    1993-01-01

    The themes of Jose Clemente Orozco's murals, several of which are found on U.S. college campuses, are as relevant today as they were during the Mexican Revolution. Orozco (1883-1949) painted the world as he saw it, portraying corruption, violence, and man's inhumanity to man. (LP)

  5. Man's Role in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Roger Tory

    1975-01-01

    Presents a viewpoint that the civilized man, the humane man, accepts not only the humane ethic but also the conservationist's philosophy and the environmentalist's point of view because all these views are overlapping, interlocking and essential to a better and more civilized world. (BR)

  6. THE MAN NATIONALITY WOMEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    The Man nationality,with a population of 9,821,180,live in northeast China,mainly in Liaoning Province.They have their own language,but now most of the Man nationality people use Mandarin Chinese except for a few elderly people in the remote villages of Heilongjiang Province.

  7. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  8. Understanding the intentions behind man-made products elicits neural activity in areas dedicated to mental state attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Trying to understand others is the most pervasive aspect of successful social interaction. To date there is no evidence on whether human products, which signal the workings of a mind in the absence of an explicit agent, also reliably engage neural structures typically associated with mental state attribution. By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging the present study shows that when subjects believe they are listening to a piece of music that was written by a composer (i.e., human product) as opposed to generated by a computer (i.e., nonhuman product), activations in the cortical network typically reported for mental state attribution (anterior medial frontal cortex [aMFC]), superior temporal sulcus, and temporal poles) were observed. The activation in the aMFC correlated highly with the extent to which subjects had engaged in attributing the expression of intentions to the composed pieces, as indicated in a postimaging questionnaire. We interpret these findings as indicative of automatic mechanisms, which reflect mental state attribution in the face of any stimulus that potentially signals the working of another mind and conclude that even in the absence of a socially salient stimulus, our environment is still populated by the indirect social signals inherent to human artifacts.

  9. Influence of short term exposure of TBT on the male reproductive activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Pandiyarajan, Jayaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the histopathological and hormonal changes during spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was documented. Three experimental concentrations such as 10, 100 and 1,000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 45 days. After TBT exposure, the reproductive activities like sperm count and sperm length were decreased when compared with control. Further, abnormal structure of the seminiferous tubule, decrease in spermatozoa concentration, diminution of the seminiferous tubule membrane and the abundance of spermatocytes in the testis were noticed in treated prawns. Interestingly, radioimmunoassay clearly revealed the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT has considerably reduced the level of testosterone and caused the impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii.

  10. How a Man's Diet Affects Fertility Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Facts Fitness Fitness Find out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man running - Protein ...

  11. A fuel cell energy storage system concept for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Marmolejo, Jose

    1989-01-01

    An update is given on work to design and build a Fuel Cell Energy Storage System (FCESS) bench-tested unit for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Fueled by oxygen and hydride-stored hydrogen, the FCESS is being considered as an alternative to the EMU zinc-silver oxide battery. Superior cycle life and quick recharge are the main attributes of FCESS. The design and performance of a nonventing, 28 V, 34 Ahr system with 7 amp rating are discussed.

  12. Effects of insulin and exercise on muscle lipoprotein lipase activity in man and its relation to insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Lithell, H; Mikines, K J;

    1989-01-01

    -induced increase in leg glucose uptake (r = 0.93, P less than 0.05). In the control group (n = 6) in which saline was infused in place of insulin and glucose, m-LPLA in nonexercised muscle did not change with time. No change in m-LPLA was observed immediately after one-legged knee extension exercise, but 4 h after......The effects of exercise and a physiological increase in plasma insulin concentration on muscle lipoprotein lipase activity (mLPLA), leg exchange of glucose, and serum lipoprotein levels were investigated in healthy young men. During euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (n = 7) at 44 mU.liter-1, m......-LPLA in non-exercised muscle decreased from 30 +/- 7.4 mU.g-1 wet weight (w.w.) (mean +/- SE) to 19 +/- 3.3 (P less than 0.05). Furthermore, the decrease in m-LPLA correlated closely (r = 0.97, P less than 0.05) with the increase in leg glucose uptake. Moreover, basal m-LPLA correlated with the insulin...

  13. Effect of progesterone on renal sodium handling in man: relation to aldosterone excretion and plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparil, S; Ehrlich, E N; Lindheimer, M D

    1975-08-01

    1. The effect of progesterone on renal haemodynamics and intrarenal sodium handing was evaluated in thirteen normal men on a constant diet. Clearances were measured during maximal water diuresis and again 4-7 days later, this time 3 h after progesterone was given intramuscularly. Seven additional studies were performed 3 days after progesterone administration. Another four tests were performed on volunteers who had manifested renal 'escape' from the sodium-retaining effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate. 2. In acute progesterone studies glomerular filtration rate was unchanged, whereas effective renal plasma flow increased, so that filtration fraction decreased significantly. A similar in crease in urinary sodium occurred whether subjects received a low or high sodium diet. Indices which related to the distal delivery of filtrate (fractional urine flow and the sum of fractional free water and sodium clearances) increased significantly in both groups. The progesterone-induced increase in sodium excretion was not related to changes in plasma renin activity, renin substrate or urinary aldosterone. After 3 days of progesterone, the increase of sodium excretion was less than in the acute studies and urinary aldosterone increased tow- to four-fold. Progesterone failed to produce an acute increse in urinary sodium in subjects hyperexpanded by administration of exogenous mineralocorticoids. 3. Results suggest that the acute natriuretic action of progesterone is in part independent of aldosterone inhibition and that progesterone may inhibit sodium reabsorption at proximal as well as distal sites in the nephron.

  14. Design, Development and Testing of the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam) Guidance, Navigation and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenknecht, J.; Fredrickson, S.; Manning, T.; Jones, B.

    2003-01-01

    Engineers at NASA Johnson Space Center have designed, developed, and tested a nanosatellite-class free-flyer intended for future external inspection and remote viewing of human spaceflight activities. The technology demonstration system, known as the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam), has been integrated into the approximate form and function of a flight system. The primary focus has been to develop a system capable of providing external views of the International Space Station. The Mini AERCam system is spherical-shaped and less than eight inches in diameter. It has a full suite of guidance, navigation, and control hardware and software, and is equipped with two digital video cameras and a high resolution still image camera. The vehicle is designed for either remotely piloted operations or supervised autonomous operations. Tests have been performed in both a six degree-of-freedom closed-loop orbital simulation and on an air-bearing table. The Mini AERCam system can also be used as a test platform for evaluating algorithms and relative navigation for autonomous proximity operations and docking around the Space Shuttle Orbiter or the ISS.

  15. Materials considerations in the design of a metal-hydride heat pump for an advanced extravehicular mobility unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    A metal-hydride heat pump (HHP) has been proposed to provide an advanced regenerable nonventing thermal sink for the liquid-cooled garment worn during an extravehicular activity (EVA). The conceptual design indicates that there is a potential for significant advantages over the one presently being used by shuttle crew personnel as well as those that have been proposed for future use with the space station. Compared to other heat pump designs, a HHP offers the potential for extended use with no electrical power requirements during the EVA. In addition, a reliable, compact design is possible due to the absence of moving parts other than high-reliability check valves. Because there are many subtleties in the properties of metal hydrides for heat pump applications, it is essential that a prototype hydride heat pump be constructed with the selected materials before a committment is made for the final design. Particular care must be given to the evaporator heat exchanger worn by the astronaut since the performance of hydride heat pumps is generally heat transfer limited.

  16. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  17. Manned systems technology discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretoi, Remus

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on manned systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew-systems interfaces and interactions; crew training; on-board systems maintenance and support; habitability and environment; and computational human factors.

  18. Rekordhind Man Ray eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Ameerika sürrealistliku fotograafi Man Ray 1926. a. Pariisis pildistatud foto 'Must ja valge, Pariis (positiiv ja negatiiv)', mis kujutab Ray armukese Kiki de Montparnasse'i portreed, maksis New Yorgi fotooksjonil 7, 3 miljonit Eesti krooni

  19. Rekordhind Man Ray eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Ameerika sürrealistliku fotograafi Man Ray 1926. a. Pariisis pildistatud foto 'Must ja valge, Pariis (positiiv ja negatiiv)', mis kujutab Ray armukese Kiki de Montparnasse'i portreed, maksis New Yorgi fotooksjonil 7, 3 miljonit Eesti krooni

  20. Man & Sound Environment 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings to the conference "Man and Sound Environment 2010" arranged by The sound Envirnment Center at Lund university. Ulf Landström, Swedish Noise Research Network & Frans Mossberg The Sound Environment Centre at Lund university. CONTENTS: Preface – Symposium “Man and Sound Environment 2010” The prevalence of noise problems. Gunn Marit Aasvang, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Environmental Medicine, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway Effects of ...

  1. Improving the police activities in ensuring the constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen and interaction with civil society institutions: comprehensive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirichek E.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Russian police reform is another important step to modernize the country and public administration system. The main purpose of ongoing reforms is to create the modern and efficient law enforcement system, to form a new image of police officer in the XXI century and to change the social role of law enforcement agencies in society. Unfortunately, the results expected by society aren’t achieved. It’s stated that the reform is only at its beginning, many decisions are still to be made and implemented. The main focus is on comprehensive measures aimed at improving the police activities in ensuring the constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen and interaction with civil society institutions. Some features and problems of interaction between police and civil society institutions are considered. Statistics is provided. A number of constructive conclusions concerning further progressive development of interaction of police with civil society institutions are made. Despite the significant number of papers devoted to these issues, it’s necessary to note the insufficient elaboration of problems in this area. The reason is the ongoing reforms in Russia in general and police reform in particular, the instability of the current legislation regulating these issues. A lack of a clear concept of the reform, arising from a clear understanding of the police role and functions, is evident. These and other circumstances determine the topicality and practical importance of the research, the necessity of studying the peculiarities of police activities to improve its efficiency. They also indicate the need for scientific and practical recommendations.

  2. Effect of the 5-HT(1A) partial agonist buspirone on regional brain electrical activity in man: a functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderer, P; Saletu, B; Pascual-Marqui, R D

    2000-12-04

    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effects of 20 mg buspirone - a 5-HT(1A) partial agonist - on regional electrical generators within the human brain were investigated utilizing three-dimensional EEG tomography. Nineteen-channel vigilance-controlled EEG recordings were carried out in 20 healthy subjects before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after drug intake. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA; Key Institute for Brain-Mind Research, software: http://www.keyinst.unizh.ch) was computed from spectrally analyzed EEG data, and differences between drug- and placebo-induced changes were displayed as statistical parametric maps. Data were registered to the Talairach-Tournoux human brain atlas available as a digitized MRI (McConnell Brain Imaging Centre: http://www.bic.mni.mcgill.ca). At the pharmacodynamic peak (1st hour), buspirone increased theta and decreased fast alpha and beta sources. Areas of theta increase were mainly the left temporo-occipito-parietal and left prefrontal cortices, which is consistent with PET studies on buspirone-induced decreases in regional cerebral blood flow and fenfluramine-induced serotonin activation demonstrated by changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism. In later hours (8th hour) with lower buspirone plasma levels, delta, theta, slow alpha and fast beta decreased, predominantly in the prefrontal and anterior limbic lobe. Whereas the results of the 1st hour speak for a slight CNS sedation (more in the sense of relaxation), those obtained in the 8th hour indicate activation. Thus, LORETA may provide useful and direct information on drug-induced changes in central nervous system function in man.

  3. Det man hører, er man selv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svømmekjær, Heidi Frank

    2012-01-01

    Katalog til udstillingen "Det man hører, er man selv" på Mediemuseet i Odense 7. september 2012 - 15. januar 2013.......Katalog til udstillingen "Det man hører, er man selv" på Mediemuseet i Odense 7. september 2012 - 15. januar 2013....

  4. Man - Machine Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter; Nielsen, Henning

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a Man-to-Machine Communication module which together with a STAC can take care of all operator inputs from the touch-screen, tracker balls and mechanical buttons. The MMC module can also contain a G64 card which could be a GPIB driver but many other G64 cards could be used. The soft-ware services the input devices and makes the results accessible from the CAMAC bus. NODAL functions for the Man Machine Communication is implemented in the STAC and in the ICC.

  5. Bulletproof Black Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst.......Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst....

  6. Payload influences on technology development and utilization of the Space Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, J. W.; Kraly, E. F.

    1976-01-01

    Historical EVA approaches are examined. The considered data emphasize the overall importance of EVA for Shuttle payload operations. Twenty requirement categories related to crew protection, crew performance, and payload protection are listed in a table. Attention is given to a preliminary assessment of payload related requirements, an evaluation of the natural thermal environment in the case of the Shuttle orbiter bay, and the ability of the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) to protect the crewman from induced or natural radiation as found in the Van Allen radiation belt South Atlantic anomaly. On the basis of the evaluation it appears very likely that design improvements alone can make the EMU meet payload requirements without requiring significant technology advances.

  7. Play the Man!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelberg, Peter

    as opposites towards a heterosexual matrimonial ideal wherein men could try to establish a masculine identity. This tendency created new frontiers where homosexuals, 'perverts', 'misfits' and 'freaks' were seen as opposites of the 'real man' in the symbolic world of the early twentieth century....

  8. Hunting the Wild Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Scientists and volunteers plan a new Shennongjia exploration for Bigfoot After being shelved for many years, a plan to search for the wild man in the Shennongjia forestry district is once again under way. This time, scientists want to raise as much as 10 million yuan ($1.6 million) to employ advanced technology and recruit staff worldwide for the project.

  9. Ethology and Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biology and Human Affairs, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reviews four texts and compilations of papers in an effort to assess the relevance of animal behavior studies to anthropology and sociology. Concludes that where a basic element of behavior occurs widely throughout the animal kingdom, especially in the higher mammals and primates, we may expect to find a manifestation in man." Limitations of the…

  10. AUTO PARTS MAN, WORKBOOK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOVER, BUEL H.

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS STUDY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE IN THE RELATED TECHNICAL CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION PHASE OF THE AUTO PARTS MAN APPRENTICE TRAINING PROGRAM. THE MATERIAL WAS PLANNED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE STATE EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE TRADE. THE UNITS ARE (1) SCOPE AND OPPORTUNITY, (2) AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY,…

  11. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  12. Man--Society--Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxis, Linda A., Ed.

    The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…

  13. Constructing EuroMan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Marie; Andersen, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    Regionalism. In the first two parts of the article, this connection is analysed in detail. In the last part, we will illustrate how EuroMan is enacted in the Spanish region Catalonia and in the border town Görlitz-Zgorzelec in the Polish-German borderland. These two examples have been made possible...

  14. Efforts to Reduce International Space Station Crew Maintenance for the Management of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Loop Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.; Etter, David; Rector, Tony; Boyle, Robert; Vandezande, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) contains a semi-closed-loop re-circulating water circuit (Transport Loop) to absorb heat into a LCVG (Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment) worn by the astronaut. A second, single-pass water circuit (Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) containing porous plates, and that water sublimates through the porous plates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. The quality of the EMU Transport Loop water is maintained through the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR Airlock Cooling Loop Remediation) that is used to periodically clean and disinfect the water circuit. Opportunities to reduce crew time associated with on-orbit ALCLR operations include a detailed review of the historical water quality data for evidence to support an extension to the implementation cycle. Furthermore, an EMU returned after 2-years of use on the ISS (International Space Station) is being used as a test bed to evaluate the results of extended and repeated ALCLR implementation cycles. Finally, design, use and on-orbit location enhancements to the ALCLR kit components are being considered to allow the implementation cycle to occur in parallel with other EMU maintenance and check-out activities, and to extend the life of the ALCLR kit components. These efforts are undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post-Shuttle 6-year service life.

  15. Hypervelocity Impacts on ISS Handrails and Evaluation of Alternative Materials to Prevent Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Glove Damage During EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eruc; Davis, B. Alan; Ordonez, Erick

    2009-01-01

    During post-flight processing of STS-116, damage to crewmember Robert Curbeam's Phase VI Glove Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment was discovered. This damage consisted of: loss of RTV-157 palm pads on the thumb area on the right glove, a 0.75 inch cut in the Vectran adjacent to the seam and thumb pad (single event cut), constituting the worst glove damage ever recorded for the U.S. space program. The underlying bladder and restraint were found not be damaged by this event. Evaluation of glove damage found that the outer Vectran fibers were sliced as a result of contact with a sharp edge or pinch point rather than general wear or abrasion (commonly observed on the RTV pads). Damage to gloves was also noted on STS-118 and STS-120. One potential source of EMU glove damages are sharp crater lips on external handrails, generated by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts. In this paper, the results of a hypervelocity impact (HVI) test program on representative and actual ISS handrails are presented. These tests were performed in order to characterize impact damage profiles on ISS handrails and evaluate alternatives for limiting risk to future missions. It was determined that both penetrating and non-penetrating MMOD impacts on aluminum and steel ISS handrails are capable of generating protruding crater profiles which exceed the heights required for EMU glove abrasion risk by an order of magnitude. Testing demonstrated that flexible overwraps attached to the outside of existing handrails are capable of limiting contact between hazardous crater formations and crewmember gloves during extravehicular activity (EVA). Additionally, replacing metallic handrails with high strength, low ductility, fiber reinforced composite materials would limit the formation of protruding crater lips on new ISS modules.

  16. Man Is a Paradox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂娟

    2009-01-01

    In the poem "Always", the author Pablo Neruda employs the first person narration to incisively reveal the paradoxical traits in human nature by exploring man in relation to love. "I" play a role shifting from a calm narrator to a furious one, and the last recovering to a mild one, which offers a multiple visual angle to observe humanity. In sum, by means of continuous changes of my inner feelings in the poem, Pablo Neruda reveals the paradoxical humanity .

  17. First dose in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Du er blevet ansat som læge i et lægemiddelfirma med ansvar for planlægning og sikkerhed i fase 1 forsøg. Firmaet har udviklet tre dopamin D2-receptor antagonister til behandling af skizofreni. Lægemidlerne har undergået et omfattende farmakologisk, toksikologisk og farmaceutisk afprøvningsprogra...... fase 1 forsøg alias »First dose in man«....

  18. Biological Individuality of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    RECIPIENT’S CAT * LOO NUMBER Biological Individuality of Man 5 TlrPE OF REPORT a PERIOD COVERED Technical « PERFORMING ORO REPORT...Variability 13 A. Background , 13 B. Slatistictl Approaches to Biological Variability 13 C. Genetic Aspects of Biological Variability . 14 III...ioiological determinants of individuality. Only recently, have genetic infaienccs been investigated and the potentialities for future control of bio

  19. Proton and Electron Threshold Energy Measurements for Extravehicular Activity Space Suits. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. D.; Saganti, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Construction of ISS will require more than 1000 hours of EVA. Outside of ISS during EVA, astronauts and cosmonauts are likely to be exposed to a large fluence of electrons and protons. Development of radiation protection guidelines requires the determination of the minimum energy of electrons and protons that penetrate the suits at various locations. Measurements of the water-equivalent thickness of both US. and Russian EVA suits were obtained by performing CT scans. Specific regions of interest of the suits were further evaluated using a differential range shift technique. This technique involved measuring thickness ionization curves for 6-MeV electron and 155-MeV proton beams with ionization chambers using a constant source-to-detector distance. The thicknesses were obtained by stacking polystyrene slabs immediately upstream of the detector. The thicknesses of the 50% ionizations relative to the maximum ionizations were determined. The detectors were then placed within the suit and the stack thickness adjusted until the 50% ionization was reestablished. The difference in thickness between the 50% thicknesses was then used with standard range-energy tables to determine the threshold energy for penetration. This report provides a detailed description of the experimental arrangement and results.

  20. Polar-Auroral Charging of the Space Shuttle and EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    were mado at room Jremparatur* and with liquid nitroger cooling. The glow appears brighter at 100 degrees Xal~i- z , cioa2e~. to laborptory arabient...EVA equipment musceptitility to arc discharge geerated ENI must be resolved since EVA may bec’s necessary on any Shuttle flight&, at least on a

  1. Lightweight, Flexible, and Freezable Heat Pump/Radiator for EVA Suits Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned lunar exploration will require extravehicular activity (EVA) suits that surpass existing technology. We propose an innovative thermal control system for EVA...

  2. The Cities for No Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat Nevlyutov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary urban concept asserts the need to create spaces for man. However, the idea of a "man" transformed radically from the moment of its appearance. The book by the famous Danish architect and consultant in urban design Jan Gehl, "Cities for people", is a key example to demonstrate the ambiguity of this position. The book focuses on the concept of "man", which was abandoned in modernism. And modernism is criticized by the author. But in reality, it is not about the return to the "man", but about designing "new man". Gehl describes a new urban ideology, in which his understanding of "man" coincides with the postmodernist understanding of its absence. The "man" is multiple functions, actors of the city, and it refers to the bodies that are indistinguishable in their anonymity.

  3. Selection of Environmentally Friendly Solvents for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Secondary Oxygen Pack Cold Trap Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John; Chullen, Cinda; Morenz, Jesse; Stephenson, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Freon-113(TradeMark) has been used as a chemistry lab sampling solvent at NASA/JSC for EMU (extravehicular Mobility Unit) SOP (Secondary Oxygen Pack) oxygen testing Cold Traps utilized at the USA (United Space Alliance) Houston facility. Similar testing has occurred at the HSWL (Hamilton Sundstrand Windsor Locks) facility. A NASA Executive Order bans the procurement of all ODS (ozone depleting substances), including Freon-113 by the end of 2009. In order to comply with NASA direction, HSWL began evaluating viable solvents to replace Freon-113 . The study and testing effort to find Freon-113 replacements used for Cold Trap sampling is the subject of this paper. Test results have shown HFE-7100 (a 3M fluorinated ether) to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to remove and measure the non-volatile residue collected in a Cold Trap during oxygen testing. Furthermore, S-316 (a Horiba Instruments Inc. high molecular weight, non-ODS chlorofluorocarbon) was found to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to reconstitute non-volatile residue removed from a Cold Trap during oxygen testing for subsequent HC (hydrocarbon) analysis via FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy).

  4. New Lithium-ion Polymer Battery for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, J. A.; Darcy, E. C.

    2004-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit currently has a silver-zinc battery that is 20.5 V and 45 Ah capacity. The EMU's portable life support system (PLSS) will draw power from the battery during the entire period of an EVA. Due to the disadvantages of using the silver-zinc battery in terms of cost and performance, a new high energy density battery is being developed for future use, The new battery (Lithium-ion battery or LIB) will consist of Li-ion polymer cells that will provide power to the EMU suit. The battery design consists of five 8 Ah cells in parallel to form a single module of 40 Ah and five such modules will be placed in series to give a 20.5 V, 40 Ah battery. Charging will be accomplished on the Shuttle or Station using the new LIB charger or the existing ALPS (Air Lock Power Supply) charger. The LIB delivers a maximum of 3.8 A on the average, for seven continuous hours, at voltages ranging from 20.5 V to 16.0 V and it should be capable of supporting transient pulses during start up and once every hour to support PLSS fan and pump operation. Figure 1 shows the placement of the battery in the backpack area of the EMU suit. The battery and cells will undergo testing under different conditions to understand its performance and safety characteristics.

  5. Comparison of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suited and unsuited isolated joint strength measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, James C.; Demel, Kenneth J.; Morgan, David A.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Pandya, Abhilash K.

    1996-01-01

    In this study the strength of subjects suited in extravehicular mobility units (EMU's) - or Space Shuttle suits - was compared to the strength of unsuited subjects. The authors devised a systematic and complete data set that characterizes isolated joint torques for all major joints of EMU-suited subjects. Six joint motions were included in the data set. The joint conditions of six subjects were compared to increase our understanding of the strength capabilities of suited subjects. Data were gathered on suited and unsuited subjects. Suited subjects wore Class 3 or Class 1 suits, with and without thermal micrometeoroid garments (TMG's). Suited and unsuited conditions for each joint motion were compared. From this the authors found, for example, that shoulder abduction suited conditions differ from each other and from the unsuited condition. A second-order polynomial regression model was also provided. This model, which allows the prediction of suited strength when given unsuited strength information, relates the torques of unsuited conditions to the torques of all suited conditions. Data obtained will enable computer modeling of EMU strength, conversion from unsuited to suited data, and isolated joint strength comparisons between suited and unsuited conditions at any measured angle. From these data mission planners and human factors engineers may gain a better understanding of crew posture, and mobility and strength capabilities. This study also may help suit designers optimize suit strength, and provide a foundation for EMU strength modeling systems.

  6. Time and man

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, LRB

    2014-01-01

    Time and Man focuses on the endeavors of humans to probe the mysteries of time and to elucidate its properties. The discussions are both philosophical and factual in nature and encompass science as well as the physical sciences, biology and related disciplines (for example, evolution), and the humanities (for example, religion). Factual information is presented to help the reader gain a better understanding of the concepts associated with time.Comprised of nine chapters, this volume first considers the passage of time and the experiences which humans associate with the concept of time before r

  7. Spider-man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路遇

    2002-01-01

    Spider-Man was first introduced in the comic(连环画) Amazing Fantasy #15(August 1962).Peter Parker,a Senior at Midtown High School,receives his powers when bitten by a exhibition(转基因) spider in a science demonstration(展览).This bite endowed(赋予) him with the proportional(相应的) strength and agility(敏捷) of a spider along with a keen “spider sense”.

  8. Time and man

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, L. R. B

    1978-01-01

    Time and Man focuses on the endeavors of humans to probe the mysteries of time and to elucidate its properties. The discussions are both philosophical and factual in nature and encompass science as well as the physical sciences, biology and related disciplines (for example, evolution), and the humanities (for example, religion). Factual information is presented to help the reader gain a better understanding of the concepts associated with time.Comprised of nine chapters, this volume first considers the passage of time and the experiences which humans associate with the concept of time before r

  9. 42 CFR 84.102 - Man test 6; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test 6; requirements. 84.102 Section 84.102 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.102 Man test 6; requirements....

  10. 42 CFR 84.101 - Man test 5; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test 5; requirements. 84.101 Section 84.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.101 Man test 5; requirements....

  11. Achievements of Manned Space Program and Construction of Space Station in China%我国载人航天成就与空间站建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈善广; 陈金盾; 姜国华; 刘伟波; 李莹辉

    2012-01-01

    我国载人航天工程自1992年启动以来,已成功完成了5次无人飞船飞行和4次载人飞行,突破和掌握了载人天地往返技术、航天员出舱活动技术和空间交会对接技术,为建造空间站奠定了坚实基础.2010年9月,国家批准启动载人空间站工程,工程将分空间实验室和空间站两个阶段实施.本文首先回顾我国载人航天工程计划的形成过程,总结我国载人航天工程发展历程及所取得的成就;其次,简要介绍我国交会对接任务实施情况;然后概述我国空间实验室和空间站的技术方案以及建设规划;最后展望空间站应用与国际合作前景.%Five unmanned spaceship test flights and four manned missions have been carried out since the initiation of China' s manned space program in 1992. Breakthrough and mastering of three basic technologies, in-chuding the space transportation technology, the extravehicular activity ( EVA) technology and the space rendezvous and docking ( RVD) technology, laid a solid foundation for the building of manned space station. China started her space station program in Sep. 2010. First,the manned space program and its achievements were reviewed in this paper. Second, the ongoing project, spacecraft rendezvous and docking, was summarized. Then, the space station program was outline. In the end, the prospects of the space station application and international space science cooperation were presented.

  12. Paraquat poisoning in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douze, J M; van Heyst, A N; van Dijk, A; Maes, R A; Drost, R H

    1975-10-20

    In three cases of intoxication by Gramoxone¿, the concentration of paraquat dichloride in blood, dialysate, feces, and urine was determined spectrophotometrically after a clean-up of the biological material by means of ion exchange chromatography (with Dowex 50W-X12 or Zeo-Karb 225). Although good results were obtained after clean-up with Dowex 50W-X12, Zeo-Karb was preferred as ion exchange resin, especially when large sample volumes were needed for the determination. The reported findings indicate that: only 5 to 10% of an ingested dose of paraquat dichloride is absorbed in man, Fullers' earth is very useful, and that primary, e.g. immediate, hemodialysis is necessary.

  13. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  14. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  15. The man and the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The universe has always aroused people's curiosity. It fascinates and at the same time scares in its vastness. Encourages us to reflect of the meaning of human life. This begs the questions: whether there is a life beyond Earth? Whether is it possible that the man is alone in such a large space? These questions still remain unanswered, and topics concerning "the cosmos" constantly evoke many emotions. It is especially fascinating for the youngest students. Quite often, preschoolers can flawlessly name the planets according to their order of appearance in relation to the sun. They are happy to take the fun inspired by journeys into space. Teaching through action is extremely important for the development of the child-man* (Piaget, 2006). The thinking originates primarily from the action. Therefore, students should undertake independent research activities, perform experiments and conduct observations and thus raise questions about the world, looking for meanings and solutions. Adults (a teacher, a person with a passion) are to be the support in the search for knowledge, its processing and cleaning. Its role is to ensure a proper development of environment that is conducive to research activity. The answer to these requirements was to create in the oldest technical school in Poland (Railway Technical College, now Technical College No. 7) the astronomical observatory, which can be used by pupils of Warsaw's kindergartens and schools. There are organized activities for children and youth in this school, as well as trainings for teachers. Younger students during such an interdisciplinary courses are, among others, the opportunity to get acquainted with the construction of the telescope, they can build their own rockets and organize their racing or create your own star constellations. Older students as a result of observations and experiments may confirm or refute the hypothesis that the universe is within each of us. The classes are enriched using applications on

  16. Active microwave remote sensing research program plan. Recommendations of the Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar Task Force. [application areas: vegetation canopies, surface water, surface morphology, rocks and soils, and man-made structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A research program plan developed by the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications to provide guidelines for a concentrated effort to improve the understanding of the measurement capabilities of active microwave imaging sensors, and to define the role of such sensors in future Earth observations programs is outlined. The focus of the planned activities is on renewable and non-renewable resources. Five general application areas are addressed: (1) vegetation canopies, (2) surface water, (3) surface morphology, (4) rocks and soils, and (5) man-made structures. Research tasks are described which, when accomplished, will clearly establish the measurement capabilities in each area, and provide the theoretical and empirical results needed to specify and justify satellite systems using imaging radar sensors for global observations.

  17. Light in man's environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J

    2016-02-01

    Light in the form of solar radiation influenced early civilisations and resulted in the independent development of a number of sun-worshipping dieties. These were of particular importance as hunter gatherers transformed into settled agricultural societies. All artificial light sources were synonymous with fire, and early civilisations began to expand their visual day by burning brands, oil, and candles. Fire-based light sources extended for thousands of years and were still present in the era of gas lighting. Light meant fire risk. The advent of incandescent bulbs and the era of electric lighting really only expanded in the early part of the twentieth century. Fluorescent lighting became available in the 1940s, and today the drive for low energy has resulted in a plethora of novel light sources-in particular, light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Evolution governed the development of the eye in relation to roughly 12 h of light gradually changing to 12 h of darkness. Today almost daylight levels can be achieved abruptly at the flick of a switch. Many studies have demonstrated the spectral dependence of eye health, with the retinal hazard zone associated with wavelengths in the blue, peaking at 441 nm- many of today's low-energy sources peak in this region. Given the increased longevity and artificial light sources emitting at biologically unfriendly wavelengths, attention has to be directed towards light in man's environment as a risk factor in age-related ocular diseases.

  18. Of Man and Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    1962-01-01

    Filmed at Brookhaven. AGS and 20 inch bubble chamber. After a rather standard introduction, there is a 3 minute lecture by a man in a bow tie who is sitting in front of a chart with the names of particles. Presentation of Brookhaven and AGS. Explanation of how AGS works. Lecture continues for another 4 minutes. Explanation of separated beam transport system, to give particular particles to the experiments. 20 inch bubble chamber. Anti Psi minus particle discovered. Start of a "typical experiment". Nice verbal play between people in different control rooms to get the beam and images of the beam on oscilloscopes. Conversation among physicists at lunch about the anti-psi minus particle discovery at Brookhaven and at CERN "I guess someone really aught to write to them to compare notes." Discussion about the analysis. Explanation of how the analysis is done, for an event to go from a candidate to established fact. Scanning room. If a photo is of significant interest a pencil tracing is done. Measuring the interest...

  19. "Det man hører, er man selv"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    ”Det man hører, er man selv” er Danmarks Radios P3s yderst velkendte slogan. Det dukkede op i begyndelsen af (20)00erne som opfindsom og populær afspejling af en moderne forståelse af den rolle musik og medieforbrug spiller for den voksne dansker. Denne artikel handler ikke om P3 som musikkanal...

  20. "Det man hører, er man selv"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    ”Det man hører, er man selv” er Danmarks Radios P3s yderst velkendte slogan. Det dukkede op i begyndelsen af (20)00erne som opfindsom og populær afspejling af en moderne forståelse af den rolle musik og medieforbrug spiller for den voksne dansker. Denne artikel handler ikke om P3 som musikkanal...

  1. Effectiveness of a website and mobile phone based physical activity and nutrition intervention for middle-aged males: Trial protocol and baseline findings of the ManUp Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Mitch J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to females, males experience higher rates of chronic disease and mortality, yet few health promotion initiatives are specifically aimed at men. Therefore, the aim of the ManUp Study is to examine the effectiveness of an IT-based intervention to increase the physical activity and nutrition behaviour and literacy in middle-aged males (aged 35–54 years. Method/Design The study design was a two-arm randomised controlled trial, having an IT-based (applying website and mobile phones and a print-based intervention arm, to deliver intervention materials and to promote self-monitoring of physical activity and nutrition behaviours. Participants (n = 317 were randomised on a 2:1 ratio in favour of the IT-based intervention arm. Both intervention arms completed assessments at baseline, 3, and 9 months. All participants completed self-report assessments of physical activity, sitting time, nutrition behaviours, physical activity and nutrition literacy, perceived health status and socio-demographic characteristics. A randomly selected sub-sample in the IT-based (n = 61 and print-based (n = 30 intervention arms completed objective measures of height, weight, waist circumference, and physical activity as measured by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X. The average age of participants in the IT-based and print-based intervention arm was 44.2 and 43.8 years respectively. The majority of participants were employed in professional occupations (IT-based 57.6%, Print-based 54.2% and were overweight or obese (IT-based 90.8%, Print-based 87.3%. At baseline a lower proportion of participants in the IT-based (70.2% group agreed that 30 minutes of physical activity each day is enough to improve health compared to the print-based (82.3% group (p = .026. The IT-based group consumed a significantly lower number of serves of red meat in the previous week, compared to the print-based group (p = .017. No other significant

  2. The types and characteristics of man-induced sediment disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The man-induced sediment disaster includes material erosion, transportation and accumula-tion by human activities. It possesses special attribute in sociology and disaster science. In accordancewith human activities, geomorphologic location, behavior and particular, the man-induced sedimentdisaster can be divided into 4 types: the drainage network, slope and gully, channel and plain-estu-au-coastline. Each type includes erosion, transportation, accumulation, complexity and cascading.Based on human activity, geomorphology, sediment mechanics and catastrophology, the man-inducedsediment disaster is characterized as follows: (1) accelerating tendency with geographical zoning back-ground; (2) non-order characters by blind action without special technical training; (3) gradually andsharply changing with human environment vibration; and (4) complexity and non-linear figure, etc.One of the reasons leading to man-induced sediment disaster is human environment vibration.

  3. Vancomycin induced Red Man Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drisyamol K.A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is a glycoprotein antibiotic that has been associated with an anaphylactoid reaction termed the Red-man syndrome. It usually consists of erythema, flushing and pruritis of the face and upper torso and occasionally progresses to include dyspnoea, chest pain and hypotension. Red man syndrome (RMS is also known as “red neck syndrome. Discontinuation of the vancomycin infusion and administration of diphenhydramine can abort most of the reactions. Slow intravenous administration of vancomycin should minimize the risk of infusion-related adverse effects. Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B, rifampcin and teicoplanin can potentially cause red man syndrome. The effects of red man syndrome can be relieved by antihistamines.

  4. Ablação ocular no camarão Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae: efeitos sobre a reprodução, pigmentação epidérmica e atividade alimentar Eyestalk ablation in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae: effects on reproduction, epidermic pigmentation and feeding activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel José Martins dos Santos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyze the consequences of unilateral and bilateral ablation based on ovigerous percentage, consecutive spawns, and secondary effects of the surgical process in the females of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879. Two experiments were carried out with four and seven months old females in intermolt stage. Each experiment was comprised of control, unilateral and bilateral ablation. Eyestalk ablation was done with a bistoury with a topic hot cauterization followed by application of antibiotic pomades. The animals were maintained at constant temperature (28 ± 1,05ºC and photoperiod of 12L: 12D within fibercement boxes with sandy bottom and biological filter. Females were observed once a day during fourteen weeks, registering gonadal condition, ecdysis and presence of spermatophore (mating and spawning. Unilateral ablation technique is more efficient due to the anticipation of the first spawn, repeatability between spawns, expressive rate of ovigerous females and survival, that favored its applicability. Bilateral eyestalk ablation produced the mortality of ali the females with change in coloration and food activity patterns. These results corroborate other observations on penaeid shrimps. though bilateral ablation on some lobsters was a success. These results showing an interespecific variation and can be used in aquaculture projects.

  5. The blink reflex and the corneal reflex are followed by cortical activity resembling the nociceptive potentials induced by trigeminal laser stimulation in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, M; Libro, G; Guido, M; Sciruicchio, V; Puca, F

    2001-09-07

    Laser stimulation of the supraorbital regions evokes brain potentials (LEPs) related to trigeminal nociception. The aim of this study was to record the R2 component of the blink reflex and the corneal reflex in 20 normal subjects, comparing the scalp activity following these reflexes with the nociceptive potentials evoked by CO2 laser stimulation of supraorbital regions. Cortical and muscular reflexes evoked by stimulation of the first trigeminal branch were recorded simultaneously. The R2 component of the blink reflex and the corneal reflex were followed by two cortical peaks, which resembled morphologically N-P waves of LEPs. The two peaks demonstrated a difference in latency of approximately 40 ms, which is consistent with activation time of nociception. This finding suggests that these reflexes are induced by activation of small pain-related fibers.

  6. Ingestion of onion soup high in quercetin inhibits platelet aggregation and essential components of the collagen-stimulated platelet activation pathway in man: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubbard, G.; Wolffram, S.; Vos, de C.H.; Bovy, A.G.; Gibbins, J.; Lovegrove, J.

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that those who consume a diet rich in quercetin-containing foods may have a reduced risk of CVD. Furthermore, in vitro and ex vivo studies have observed the inhibition of collagen-induced platelet activation by quercetin. The aim of the present study was to investigate t

  7. Mannans and endo-β-mannanases (MAN) in Brachypodium distachyon: expression profiling and possible role of the BdMAN genes during coleorhiza-limited seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Calle, Virginia; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Carbonero, Pilar; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel

    2015-07-01

    Immunolocalization of mannans in the seeds of Brachypodium distachyon reveals the presence of these polysaccharides in the root embryo and in the coleorhiza in the early stages of germination (12h), decreasing thereafter to the point of being hardly detected at 27h. Concurrently, the activity of endo-β-mannanases (MANs; EC 3.2.1.78) that catalyse the hydrolysis of β-1,4 bonds in mannan polymers, increases as germination progresses. The MAN gene family is represented by six members in the Brachypodium genome, and their expression has been explored in different organs and especially in germinating seeds. Transcripts of BdMAN2, BdMAN4 and BdMAN6 accumulate in embryos, with a maximum at 24-30h, and are detected in the coleorhiza and in the root by in situ hybridization analyses, before root protrusion (germination sensu stricto). BdMAN4 is not only present in the embryo root and coleorhiza, but is abundant in the de-embryonated (endosperm) imbibed seeds, while BdMAN2 and BdMAN6 are faintly expressed in endosperm during post-germination (36-42h). BdMAN4 and BdMAN6 transcripts are detected in the aleurone layer. These data indicate that BdMAN2, BdMAN4 and BdMAN6 are important for germination sensu stricto and that BdMAN4 and BdMAN6 may also influence reserve mobilization. Whether the coleorhiza in monocots and the micropylar endosperm in eudicots have similar functions, is discussed.

  8. Activation of minority-variant Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites following artesunate + amodiaquine treatment in a 23-year old man with relapsing malaria in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianaranjaka, Voahangy; Lin, Jessica T; Golden, Christopher; Juliano, Jonathan J; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona

    2013-05-31

    In endemic areas, Plasmodium vivax relapses are difficult to distinguish from new infections. Genotyping of patients who experience relapse after returning to a malaria-free area can be used to explore the nature of hypnozoite activation and relapse. This paper describes a person who developed P. vivax malaria for the first time after travelling to Boriziny in the malaria endemic coastal area of Madagascar, then suffered two P. vivax relapses 11 weeks and 21 weeks later despite remaining in Antananarivo in the malaria-free central highlands area. He was treated with the combination artesunate + amodiaquine according to the national malaria policy in Madagascar. Genotyping by PCR-RFLP at pvmsp-3α as well as pvmsp1 heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA) showed the same dominant genotype at each relapse. Multiple recurring minority variants were also detected at each relapse, highlighting the propensity for multiple hypnozoite clones to activate simultaneously to cause relapse.

  9. Ingestion of onion soup high in quercetin inhibits platelet aggregation and essential components of the collagen-stimulated platelet activation pathway in man: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, G; Wolffram, S; Vos, de, W.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Gibbins, J.; Lovegrove, J

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that those who consume a diet rich in quercetin-containing foods may have a reduced risk of CVD. Furthermore, in vitro and ex vivo studies have observed the inhibition of collagen-induced platelet activation by quercetin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible inhibitory effects of quercetin ingestion from a dietary source on collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and signalling. A double-blind randomised cross-over pilot study was undertak...

  10. Economic man as model man: Ideal types, idealization and caricatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Economics revolves around a central character: "economic man." As historians, we are all familiar with various episodes in the history of this character, and we appreciate his ever-changing aspect even while many of our colleagues in economics think the rational economic agent of neoclassical econom

  11. Rich man, poor man: developmental differences in attributions and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K

    2012-11-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N=88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like older children, perceived the rich man as more competent than the poor man. However, they had difficulty in explaining wealth and poverty, especially poverty, and their trait perceptions were associated primarily with their attributions of wealth to job status, education, and luck. Fifth and ninth graders more clearly attributed wealth and poverty to the equity factors of ability and effort and based their trait perceptions on these attributions. Although the use of structured attribution questions revealed more understanding among young children than previous studies have suggested, the findings suggest a shift with age in the underlying bases for differential evaluation of rich and poor people from a focus on good outcomes associated with wealth (a good education and job) to a focus on personal qualities responsible for wealth (ability and effort).

  12. 失败的Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小兵

    2000-01-01

    搞不清楚你要赚多少钱才会满足为什么还觉得孤独 Oh oh oh失败的 Man 越弄越糊涂Peggy Sue Mary Sherry Ronda 跟 Lulu每个女孩你都想照顾 Oh oh oh失败的 MAN 走了很多路不太舒服又不想哭想种一棵大树有了种子没有泥土迷迷糊糊突然看到上帝跟耶酥笑说你再得不到保证 Oh oh oh

  13. Trees Are Useful to Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    2005-01-01

    Trees are useful to man in three impor-tant ways. They provide him with wood and other products;they give him shade;they help prevent drought(干旱)and floods. Unfortunately,in many parts of the world, man has not realized that the third one is the most important. Two thousand years ago a rich and pow-erful country cut down its trees to build war-ships, with which to gain itself an empire. It gained the empire,however,without its trees, its soil became hard and poor. When the em-pire fell to pieces, the home c...

  14. Hereditary deficiency of the second component of complement (C2) in man: correlation of C2 haemolytic activity with immunochemical measurements of C2 protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, S.; Klemperer, M. R.; Rosen, F. S.; Austen, K. F.; Kumate, J.

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of the nine components of complement in the serums of 16 members of a kindred have established the diagnosis of hereditary deficiency of the second component of complement (C2). The autosomal recessive mode of inheritance resembles that of previously described families with C2 deficiency. Both C2 activity determinations with a stoichiometric haemolytic assay and C2 protein measurements with electroimmunodiffusion against antibody monospecific for C2 detect the heterozygous deficient state. Antigenic analysis, in vitro reconstitution experiments, and the constant ratio of C2 function to C2 protein indicate that the C2 synthesized by heterozygotes is indistinguishable from normal human C2. Studies of neonatal homozygous deficient serum and maternal heterozygous deficient serum show that transplacental passage of C2 does not occur. C2 deficiency in this family is not associated with clinical defects in host resistance. ImagesFIG. 3 PMID:4987909

  15. Efforts to Reduce International Space Station Crew Maintenance Time in the Management of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Loop Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter,David; Rector, Tony; Boyle, robert; Zande, Chris Vande

    2012-01-01

    The EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) contains a semi-closed-loop re-circulating water circuit (Transport Loop) to absorb heat into a LCVG (Liquid Coolant and Ventilation Garment) worn by the astronaut. A second, single-pass water circuit (Feed-water Loop) provides water to a cooling device (Sublimator) containing porous plates, and that water sublimates through the porous plates to space vacuum. The cooling effect from the sublimation of this water translates to a cooling of the LCVG water that circulates through the Sublimator. The quality of the EMU Transport Loop water is maintained through the use of a water processing kit (ALCLR - Airlock Cooling Loop Remediation) that is used to periodically clean and disinfect the water circuit. Opportunities to reduce crew time associated with ALCLR operations include a detailed review of the historical water quality data for evidence to support an extension to the implementation cycle. Furthermore, an EMU returned after 2-years of use on the ISS (International Space Station) is being used as a test bed to evaluate the results of extended and repeated ALCLR implementation cycles. Finally, design, use and on-orbit location enhancements to the ALCLR kit components are being considered to allow the implementation cycle to occur in parallel with other EMU maintenance and check-out activities, and to extend the life of the ALCLR kit components. These efforts are undertaken to reduce the crew-time and logistics burdens for the EMU, while ensuring the long-term health of the EMU water circuits for a post- Shuttle 6-year service life.

  16. EcoDoses. Improving radiological assessment of doses to man from terrestrial ecosystems: A status report for the NKS-B activity 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.; Andersson, K.G. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Thoerring, H.; Liland, A. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Joensen, H.P. (Frooskaparsetur Foeroya, Faroe Islands, Torshavn (Denmark)); Isaksson, M. (Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)); Saxen, R.; Kostiainen, E. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)); Suolanen, V. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Palsson, S.E. (Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland))

    2009-03-15

    The overall aim of the NKS-B EcoDoses activity is to improve the prediction of doses to humans from consumption of radioactively contaminated food. For this purpose, various published and unpublished datasets have been compiled and applied in developing refined parameterisation for existing food dose models. The ECOSYS model developed in Germany after the Chernobyl accident has been applied as the basis for the investigations. This model can be operated both with discrete releases adequately representing a nuclear power plant accident, and with continuous or multiple releases, as observed in the nuclear weapons testing period. The modelling has revealed that it is essential to ensure that case-specific values are applied for a range of parameters, adequately reflecting the actual conditions with respect to geology, season, climate and demography. In connection with this year's work on the activity, sensitivity studies have been conducted with the ECOSYS model, in which the influence on ingestion dose estimates of a number of parameters has been evaluated in relation to Faroese conditions. The importance of applying location specific data to estimate dose is pinpointed, and it is also concluded that dose predictions for a small and distinct area like the Faroese, where not all of the many parameters required to run ECOSYS optimally have been adequately assessed in recent years, can be associated with considerable uncertainty. A Finnish study has been made in relation to modelling of radiocaesium behaviour in lakes. This study was carried out using a compartmental model that is included as a module in the DETRA dose assessment tool. A total of nine different input parameters (distribution coefficients, run-off from the catchment, erosion from the catchment, sedimentation rate in the lakes, lake water exchange rate, and biological half-lives in four fish species) were varied, and particularly distribution coefficients and lake water exchange rates were

  17. [Man as a symbolic animal--symptoms as symbolic interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, J

    1991-12-10

    This is an article about views of human nature. In western medicine man is conceived mainly as a biological being, a mammal. Philosophical-ontological questions about man's nature are answered implicitly in clinical practice. They are not, however, reflected explicitly. In this article it is argued that symptoms are primarily human experience. To understand these experiences and their expressions, it is necessary to understand man as an "animal symbolicum", a term introduced by the German philosopher Ernst Cassirer. Language is the most specific expression of man's symbolic activities, and symptoms are expressed verbally. Speech is part of social interaction--we, as human beings, have "the power of speech". This way of thinking is illustrated by clinical examples, and an alternative medical practice, homeopathy, is analyzed as a special means of symbolic interaction.

  18. The Measuring Ammonia in Nature (MAN network in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Lolkema

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005 the Measuring Ammonia in Nature (MAN network monitors atmospheric ammonia concentrations in nature reserve areas in the Netherlands (man.rivm.nl. The main aim of the network is to monitor national trends, to assess regional deviations and to validate model calculations. Measurements are performed with commercial passive samplers, monthly calibrated against ammonia measurements of active sampling devices. The sampling is performed by an extensive group of local volunteers, which minimizes the cost and enables the use of local knowledge. We show the MAN network to be well capable of monitoring trends on national and local scale, as well as providing data for more detailed local analyses. The quality of the network is such that trends over time for individual MAN areas can be detected in the order of 3% per year for time series of six to nine years.

  19. The man behind the curtain: X-rays drive the UV through NIR variability in the 2013 active galactic nucleus outburst in NGC 2617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappee, B. J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; De Rosa, G.; Mathur, S.; Zu, Y.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Jencson, J.; Holoien, T.W-S.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Adams, S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Prieto, J. L. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Grupe, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Im, M. [CEOU/Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Szczygieł, D. M. [Warsaw University Astronomical Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Brimacombe, J. [Coral Towers Observatory, Cairns, Queensland A-4870 (Australia); Campillay, A., E-mail: shappee@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); and others

    2014-06-10

    After the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae discovered a significant brightening of the inner region of NGC 2617, we began a ∼70 day photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign from the X-ray through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. We report that NGC 2617 went through a dramatic outburst, during which its X-ray flux increased by over an order of magnitude followed by an increase of its optical/ultraviolet (UV) continuum flux by almost an order of magnitude. NGC 2617, classified as a Seyfert 1.8 galaxy in 2003, is now a Seyfert 1 due to the appearance of broad optical emission lines and a continuum blue bump. Such 'changing look active galactic nuclei (AGNs)' are rare and provide us with important insights about AGN physics. Based on the Hβ line width and the radius-luminosity relation, we estimate the mass of central black hole (BH) to be (4 ± 1) × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. When we cross-correlate the light curves, we find that the disk emission lags the X-rays, with the lag becoming longer as we move from the UV (2-3 days) to the NIR (6-9 days). Also, the NIR is more heavily temporally smoothed than the UV. This can largely be explained by a simple model of a thermally emitting thin disk around a BH of the estimated mass that is illuminated by the observed, variable X-ray fluxes.

  20. East Man,Global Winner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wind Blew; Bai Yifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ "The Global Human Settlement Environment Green Building Materials Award is a special award with a special significance.My staff and I feel so excited with this award.It is a special honor that means our independent brand,East Man Heath Paint,has received recognition in the international community.

  1. Man, Controller of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowin, R. P.

    2011-06-01

    The Man, Controller of the Universe painted by the renowned Mexican artist Diego Rivera in the gigantic mural of the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City is overlooked by a telescope. We acknowledge this instrument as the Plaskett Telescope at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, Canada.

  2. Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Edward F.

    As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

  3. Man...An Endangered Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…

  4. Man...An Endangered Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…

  5. New Manning System Field Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    our Analytic hodel (see Chapter 5, New Manning Svestem Field Evaluacion . Technical Revore No. I, RAJL-, November c t, e number or soldiers retaking...and meaningful performance measures are not only crucial to the WRAIR N Field Evaluacion but also to the Army. To know which unit does betzer than

  6. Atividade antiparasitária do artemether na esquistossomose mansônica experimental Antischistosomal activity of artemether in experimental Schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Zevallos Lescano

    2004-02-01

    the effect of intramuscular injection of artemether in mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni , at the time of infection, during schistosomula maturation and after the beginning of egg-laying. METHODS: Eighty adult females Balb/c mice were divided into 8 groups with 10 animals each. Seven groups were infected with S. mansoni using 60 cercariae for each animal, inoculated subcutaneously, and the remaining group was maintained without infection. Among the seven infected groups, six were treated with artemether, according to the following schedule: three groups received doses of 100 mg/kg on days 0, 20 or 60 after inoculation of the cercariae; the other three received 50 mg/kg of artemether, also on days 0, 20 or 60. At the end of the 9th, 10th and 11th weeks after infection all the mice infected with S. mansoni were submitted to fecal examination using the Kato-Katz technique. On the 80th day of the experiment, the surviving animals were sacrificed and submitted to perfusion of the portal system in order to recover the worms. Body, liver and spleen weights of each animal were determined at that time. RESULTS: A reduction in egg-laying and the number of worms recovered was observed in mice treated with artemether (50 or 100 mg/kg on the 20th day after infection. The decrease in the number of worms was more notable among S. mansoni females. A significant decrease in liver and spleen weights was also seen on the 20th day among animals treated with 50 or 100 mg/kg of artemether and also among those that received the drug at a dose of 50 mg/kg 60 days after infection. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of the antischistosomal activity of artemether was shown, even at a dose of 50 mg/kg, when the drug was administered during the schistosomula maturation period in the portal system of the vertebrate host.

  7. Obesity in the ageing man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, K; Goulis, D G; Vazaiou, A; Mintziori, G; Polymeris, A; Abrahamian-Michalakis, A

    2013-10-01

    As the population is ageing globally, both ageing and obesity are recognized as major public health challenges. The aim of this narrative review is to present and discuss the current evidence on the changes in body composition, energy balance and endocrine environment that occur in the ageing man. Obesity in the ageing man is related to changes in both body weight and composition due to alterations in energy intake and total energy expenditure. In addition, somatopenia (decreased GH secretion), late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), changes in thyroid and adrenal function, as well as changes in appetite-related peptides (leptin, ghrelin) and, most importantly, insulin action are related to obesity, abnormal energy balance, redistribution of the adipose tissue and sarcopenia (decreased muscle mass). A better understanding of the complex relationship of ageing-related endocrine changes and obesity could lead to more effective interventions for elderly men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. RenderMan design principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Tony; Porter, Tom

    1989-01-01

    The two worlds of interactive graphics and realistic graphics have remained separate. Fast graphics hardware runs simple algorithms and generates simple looking images. Photorealistic image synthesis software runs slowly on large expensive computers. The time has come for these two branches of computer graphics to merge. The speed and expense of graphics hardware is no longer the barrier to the wide acceptance of photorealism. There is every reason to believe that high quality image synthesis will become a standard capability of every graphics machine, from superworkstation to personal computer. The significant barrier has been the lack of a common language, an agreed-upon set of terms and conditions, for 3-D modeling systems to talk to 3-D rendering systems for computing an accurate rendition of that scene. Pixar has introduced RenderMan to serve as that common language. RenderMan, specifically the extensibility it offers in shading calculations, is discussed.

  9. Teleoperators: Man's Machine Partners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1972-01-01

    This booklet is about teleoperators, a class of machines that augment man rather than replace him. Teleoperators have the ability to add to man's strength, his reach, and his ability to work in hostile environments.

  10. 77 FR 23806 - Manning Rail, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Manning Grain Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Surface Transportation Board Manning Rail, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Manning Grain... 1150.31 to acquire from Manning Grain Company (MGC) and operate a 7.1-mile rail line between its point... acquire the Line in Manning Grain Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Fillmore Western Railway...

  11. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    support system based on physical/chemic-regenerative life support system, which includes microbial waste treatment system, plants cultivation system and animal-protein production system. Energy is another important aspect needs to be solved when building lunar base habitation. The steps of lunar base building process are divided into lunar surface landing, transport, unloading, assembly and construction. Thus the activity systems including lunar lander, lunar chain block, various lunar rovers, robots and 3D printing machine are needed while building a lunar base. For the sake of enough power support for these facilities, the integrated manned lunar base will use solar + nuclear energy plus regenerative fuel cell together with 180kW power to satisfy the requirement of power supply. Besides these two questions talked above, the lunar base habitation also needs to solve the problem of lunar dust protection. Lunar dust grains are sharp and have electrostatic adsorption, which means this kind of dust may damage the functions of spacesuit, lunar rover and other equipments, and it may cause diseases if breathed by astronauts, consequently, lunar dust protection and cleaning mechanism needs to be founded and the anti-dust, automatic dust removal and self-cleaning materials need to be used. At last, this paper puts forward corresponding advices about building lunar base by using international collaboration. Out of question, the construction of lunar base is a huge project, it is very hard to be accomplished by any country alone since lots of uncertain complications exist there. By this token, international collaboration is a certain development direction, and lots of aerospace countries have already achieved the breakout of correlation key technologies, in order to avoid unnecessary waste, the dispersive advantageous resources need to be combined together.

  12. Radioactivity and Man Minicourse, Career Oriented Pre-Technical Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas Independent School District, TX.

    This instructional guide, intended for student use, develops the subject of radioactivity and man through a series of sequential activities. A technical development of the subject is pursued with examples stressing practical aspects of the concepts. Included in the minicourse are: (1) the rationale, (2) terminal behavioral objectives, (3) enabling…

  13. Standardized 'Pre-flight' Exercise Tests to Predict Performance during Extravehicular Activities in a Lunar Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several manuscripts have been submitted or are in final preparation for submission from the Phase I data. Phase II has been completed, with a total of 12 subjects...

  14. Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of U.S. and Russian Extravehicular Activity Suits. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    2003-01-01

    Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc. (ERI) participation in the JSC-sponsored study characterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types of space suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assembly of ISS. Measurements using passive detectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the U.S. EMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suits and a tissue-equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electron beams at LLUMC. During irradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as a function of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of the two suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reduction in electron dose was measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6 MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to an increase in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeV proton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs at five organ locations inside a tissue-equivalent phantom, exposed both with and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13% to 27% reduction in total dose and a 0% to 25% reduction in dose equivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone. Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suit irradiations for the lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to be smaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be a significant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within the two EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-M helmets was 2% to 14% greater than that measured in the bare phantom head.

  15. Multi-Purpose Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand Design for Extra-Vehicular Activity Manipulation Tasks using Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IFOS proposes to design and build fiber-optically sensorized robotic fingers that can sense force and, objects using only tactile feedback, similar to the skin on a...

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor in rat and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1986-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a peptide which stimulates cell mitotic activity and differentiation, has a cytoprotective effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa, and inhibits gastric acid secretion. The immunohistochemical localization of EGF in the Brunner's glands and the submandibular glands...... is well documented. The localization of EGF in other tissues is still unclarified. In the present study, the immunohistochemical localization of EGF in tissues from rat, man and a 20 week human fetus were investigated. In man and rat, immunoreaction was found in the submandibular glands, the serous glands...

  17. The Behavioral Definitions of "Having Sex With a Man" and "Having Sex With a Woman" Identified by Women Who Have Engaged in Sexual Activity With Both Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa R; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Herbenick, Debby; Collazo, Erika; Sanders, Stephanie A; Reece, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A sizable minority of women report lifetime sexual behavior with both men and women. In the present study, a multinational sample of women who reported genital contact with at least one man and one woman in their lifetime (N = 2,751) were asked to provide their behavioral definitions of "having sex with a woman" and "having sex with a man." Replicating previous research, participants were asked "Would you say you 'had sex' with a woman/man if the most intimate behavior you engaged in with her/him was …" followed by a list of behaviors that differed based on the hypothetical partner gender. While most participants indicated that they would consider "having had sex" if they engaged in a variety of behaviors, behaviors involving genital contact were most often included within the participants' definitions of having sex, regardless of partner gender. The percentage of behaviors included in the participants' definitions of having sex with a woman (M = 59.40%, SD = 20.77%) was higher than the percentage of behaviors included in their definition of having sex with a man (M = 37.26%, SD = 28.97%). Broadening our understanding of "having sex" for individuals with diverse sexual experiences may have important implications for clinicians and researchers.

  18. Man-machine interactions 3

    CERN Document Server

    Czachórski, Tadeusz; Kozielski, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Man-Machine Interaction is an interdisciplinary field of research that covers many aspects of science focused on a human and machine in conjunction.  Basic goal of the study is to improve and invent new ways of communication between users and computers, and many different subjects are involved to reach the long-term research objective of an intuitive, natural and multimodal way of interaction with machines.  The rapid evolution of the methods by which humans interact with computers is observed nowadays and new approaches allow using computing technologies to support people on the daily basis, making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs.   This monograph is the third edition in the series and presents important ideas, current trends and innovations in  the man-machine interactions area.  The aim of this book is to introduce not only hardware and software interfacing concepts, but also to give insights into the related theoretical background. Reader is provided with a compilation of high...

  19. [The man on the portrait].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrand, A

    1996-01-01

    Marie Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry 1911. During the preceding year a rumour had circulated in Stockholm that she had had an affaire with one of her assistants. She received a letter, in which she was told that there had been strong opposition to her election not on scientific but moral grounds, and that she should not go to Stockholm, because nobody could forsee what reactions her appearance at the prize ceremony could evoke. Emil Kleen, a man of violent temper and radical opinions, reacted strongly to these rumours. He wrote a paper, with a violent attack on Gustaf Retzius, previous professor of Histology at Karolinska Institutet. Rightly or wrongly he suspected him to be the author of the infamous letter. Retzius is described as a dilletant in scientific matters, as a "sexual hyena" and a garroulus old man. This portrait of Retzius is of course most unfair, but the portrait of Emil Kleen by the famous swedish artist Bruno Liljefors is a masterpiece and one of the most valuable of the Swedish Medical Association.

  20. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J

    1990-09-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analogy. However, cruelty to animals is illicit and they should be protected, principally not because they have rights, but because he who is cruel to animals is more likely to be cruel to his fellowman. If there is a need for animal experimentation in science for the good of man, this approach gives philosophical justification for experimentation, since man's well-being must come before that of animals because of his unique possession of rights. However, those experiments should be carried out in the kindest way possible, to promote kindness towards man. To see man as solely part of a biological continuum in competition for rights with those beings close to him biologically, detracts from man's dignity.

  1. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analogy. However, cruelty to animals is illicit and they should be protected, principally not because they have rights, but because he who is cruel to animals is more likely to be cruel to his fellowman. If there is a need for animal experimentation in science for the good of man, this approach gives philosophical justification for experimentation, since man's well-being must come before that of animals because of his unique possession of rights. However, those experiments should be carried out in the kindest way possible, to promote kindness towards man. To see man as solely part of a biological continuum in competition for rights with those beings close to him biologically, detracts from man's dignity. PMID:2135948

  2. Boscovich: scientist and man of letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, E.

    Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711-1781) is known as one of the most important scientists of the second half of XVIII century, but he was active also as a man of letters, especially through an abundant production of poems in Latin verse. We try to interpret these two, apparently antinomic, aspects of his character in the framework of the culture of his epoch, in which science and literary productions were not considered as two separate or opposite fields, but only two different aspects of human knowledge. In particular we review the field of his poetic production in which this fundamental unity of knowledge is most evident, namely his poems with didactic-scientific subjects, which are examples of high-level popularization of the latest progresses in science (in particular astronomy and Newtonian physics) by means of elegant Latin verse.

  3. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Wilkes, Robert; Kuehnel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the Generation 4 Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (Gen4 SWME). The SWME offers several advantages when compared with prior crewmember cooling technologies, including the ability to reject heat at increased atmospheric pressures, reduced loop infrastructure, and higher tolerance to fouling. Like its predecessors, Gen4 SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Test results from the backup cooling system which is based on a similar design and the subject of a companion paper, suggested that further volume reductions could be achieved through fiber density optimization. Testing was performed with four fiber bundle configurations ranging from 35,850 fibers to 41,180 fibers. The optimal configuration reduced the Gen4 SWME envelope volume by 15% from that of Gen3 while dramatically increasing the performance margin of the system. A rectangular block design was chosen over the Gen3 cylindrical design, for packaging configurations within the AEMU PLSS envelope. Several important innovations were made in the redesign of the backpressure valve which is used to control evaporation. A twin-port pivot concept was selected from among three low profile valve designs for superior robustness, control and packaging. The backpressure valve motor, the thermal control valve, delta pressure sensors and temperature sensors were incorporated into the manifold endcaps, also for packaging considerations. Flight-like materials including a titanium housing were used for all components. Performance testing

  4. An Apple II Implementation of Man-Mod Manpower Planning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    TRANSMITTAL INTRODUCTION The objective of this thesis is to provide an inter- active learning aid in evaluating policies and their effect on manpower... prgram . 70 MAN-MOD/PROGRAM (PROGRAM LISTING) 1000 REM MAN-MOD/PROGRAM PROGRAM: "FOR" IS IN QUOTES IN LINES 1004,10518,10520,10524,10526,10528,1072

  5. [Environmental security in the region with heavy exposure to sources of man-made earthquakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamova, E V; Shmandiĭ, V M; Gal'chuk, S V

    2012-01-01

    It is set that in separate regions substantial value at the study of terms of forming of ecological danger it is necessary to spare to research of vibrations of earth surface under effect of technogenic activity of man. Influence of technogenic earthquakes is investigational on a man and dwellings apartments medical and other establishments. Levels are set also intensities resulting in psychological discomfort.

  6. 76 FR 31351 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet... availability of Office of Vessel Activities Policy Letter 11-05 regarding Distant Water Tuna Fleet vessels manning exemption eligibility and safety requirements. This final policy clarifies the requirements...

  7. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. 84.100 Section 84.100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests...

  8. The Socio-Technical Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Yamir

    In the last 20 years or so, the field of complexity science has entered a new age. The combination of new theoretical insights and the data revolution has prepared the ground for a number of conceptual milestones in many disciplines as diverse as biology, physics, engineering, and economic and social sciences. At the same time, we have been able to identify new challenges whose solutions will confer the science of complex systems an unprecedented applied dimension. Here I would like to focus on one of these challenges: the socio-technical man. With the ever-increasing growth of both the world population and new technologies, it is fundamental for the well-being of humanity and our society to understand how humans interact among them and with the new technological environment...

  9. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  10. Tesla man out of time

    CERN Document Server

    Cheney, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Called a madman by some, a genius by others, and an enigma by nearly everyone, Nikola Tesla created astonishing, world-transforming devises that were virtually without theoretical precedent. Tesla not only discovered the rotating magnetic field, the basis of most alternating current machinery, but also introduced the fundamentals of robotry, computers, and missile science and helped pave the way for such technologies as satellites, microwaves, beam weapons, and nuclear fusion. Almost supernaturally gifted, Tesla was also unusually erratic, flamboyant, and neurotic. He was J. P. Morgan's client, counted Mark Twain as a friend, and considered Thomas Edison an enemy. But above all, he was the hero and mentor to many of the last century's most famous scientists. In a meticulously researched, engagingly written biography, Margaret Cheney presents the many different dimensions of this extraordinary man, capturing his human qualities and quirks as she chronicles a lifetime of discoveries that continue to alter our ...

  11. Oedipus king: preparing man for the polis

    OpenAIRE

    José Joaquim Pereira Melo; Renan Willian Fernandes Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Having Sophoclean play Oedipus King as a frame of reference, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the educative proposal conceived to the Greek Man as preparation for life in the polis. Although not intentionally, Sophocles pointed out an ideal of Man which, in his perspective, would fulfill Greek societal demands of that time. Such society was divided between myth and rationality and, as a result, Man found Himself in conflict and lacking direction for His life. Given that, Oedipus’ chara...

  12. Sisters of The Iron Man Triathlon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    THE Iron Man Triathlon challenges even the most veteran athlete. Competitors swim 3,000 meters, followed by a 40 kilometer bike race and ending with a i0 kilometer cross-country run.The Iron Man allows athletes to display their utmost abilities. As of January 1997, triathlete Wang Dan had accumulated the highest number of points of Asian iron man triathletes, according to the Asian Iron Man Triathlon Federation. Following her lead is Chinese triathlete Xing Lin. Liu Xiaodan, Chinese third ranking triathlete, comes in 5th among Asian competitors. All three girls are just 17 years old and all natives of Shenyang, Liaoning

  13. Becoming and development of man: anthroposophistic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionova E.N.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthroposophistic orientated view of R.Shtayner to development of a man during all life is systematized. Anthroposophistic conception of development of a man is based on such substantive provisions: unity corporal-heartfelt-spiritual life; connection of component parts of psyche with physiological organization of man; an interconditionality of physiological, heartfelt and spiritual development is in the rhythm of seven years. It is rotined that a health, heartfelt rest and happiness, is the result of harmonic development. All three aspects are the legal certificates of constituents life of man.

  14. Crew Recovery and Contingency Planning for a Manned Stratospheric Balloon Flight - the StratEx Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Anil S; Jourdan, David; Nusbaum, Derek M; Garbino, Alejandro; Buckland, Daniel M; Norton, Sean; Clark, Johnathan B; Antonsen, Erik L

    2016-10-01

    The StratEx program used a self-contained space suit and balloon system to loft pilot Alan Eustace to a record-breaking altitude and skydive from 135,897 feet (41,422 m). After releasing from the balloon and a stabilized freefall, the pilot safely landed using a parachute system based on a modified tandem parachute rig. A custom spacesuit provided life support using a similar system to NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Washington, DC USA) Extravehicular Mobility Unit. It also provided tracking, communications, and connection to the parachute system. A recovery support team, including at least two medical personnel and two spacesuit technicians, was charged with reaching the pilot within five minutes of touchdown to extract him from the suit and provide treatment for any injuries. The team had to track the flight at all times, be prepared to respond in case of premature release, and to operate in any terrain. Crew recovery operations were planned and tailored to anticipate outcomes during this novel event in a systematic fashion, through scenario and risk analysis, in order to minimize the probability and impact of injury. This analysis, detailed here, helped the team configure recovery assets, refine navigation and tracking systems, develop procedures, and conduct training. An extensive period of testing and practice culminated in three manned flights leading to a successful mission and setting the record for exit altitude, distance of fall with stabilizing device, and vertical speed with a stabilizing device. During this mission, recovery teams reached the landing spot within one minute, extracted the pilot, and confirmed that he was not injured. This strategy is presented as an approach to prehospital planning and care for improved safety during crew recovery in novel, extreme events. Menon AS , Jourdan D , Nusbaum DM , Garbino A , Buckland DM , Norton S , Clark JB , Antonsen EL . Crew recovery and contingency planning for a manned

  15. Marihuana in Man: Three Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Leo E.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews three years of research on the effects of marihuana in man. Previously known clinical mental and physical effects have been confirmed. Causes and mechanisms of these effects generally remain undetermined in man and animals. Social implications and long term effects require additional study, although usage appears detrimental. (JM)

  16. Alternative Frameworks for the Study of Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Ivana

    1979-01-01

    Two frameworks for the study of man are discussed. The Cartesian model views man as a physical object. A dialectic framework, with the emphasis on the self, grew out of nineteenth century romanticism and reflects the theories of Hegel. Both models have had an effect on social psychology and the study of interpersonal communication. (BH)

  17. Marihuana in Man: Three Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Leo E.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews three years of research on the effects of marihuana in man. Previously known clinical mental and physical effects have been confirmed. Causes and mechanisms of these effects generally remain undetermined in man and animals. Social implications and long term effects require additional study, although usage appears detrimental. (JM)

  18. Human capabilities in space. [man machine interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Man's ability to live and perform useful work in space was demonstrated throughout the history of manned space flight. Current planning envisions a multi-functional space station. Man's unique abilities to respond to the unforeseen and to operate at a level of complexity exceeding any reasonable amount of previous planning distinguish him from present day machines. His limitations, however, include his inherent inability to survive without protection, his limited strength, and his propensity to make mistakes when performing repetitive and monotonous tasks. By contrast, an automated system does routine and delicate tasks, exerts force smoothly and precisely, stores, and recalls large amounts of data, and performs deductive reasoning while maintaining a relative insensitivity to the environment. The establishment of a permanent presence of man in space demands that man and machines be appropriately combined in spaceborne systems. To achieve this optimal combination, research is needed in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, robotics, behavioral psychology, economics, and human factors engineering.

  19. The Pursuit of Identity in Invisible Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭佳

    2013-01-01

    Invisible Man is a representative work of black literature in America. In this novel, the writer Ralph Ellison depicts the hero’s growth experience in the white dominated society with his unique narrative techniques. As an individual in a society, the hero in this novel gradually realizes that he is an invisible man in the white dominated society and he doesn ’t have the social sta-tus which can be recognized by the white at all. To change this situation, the hero in this novel suffers many difficulties and hard-ships with an attempt to prove his existence in front of the white and the numerous black fellows and obtain his own identity as a black man which will be recognized by others. This paper tries to explore African American ’s pursuit of identity in Invisible Man by interpreting Ellison’s Invisible Man.

  20. Man Bites Python, Escapes Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淀楼

    2001-01-01

    自古只有蛇咬人,而南非的这位57岁的Lucas Sibanda却演绎了一场“人咬蛇”的“活剧”,他的利嘴钢牙竟然让一条巨蟒逃之夭夭,从而拾回自己一条老命。文章虽然很短,却写得文采斐然。标题出现了Python(巨蟒),而在文章里,作者却分别换用monster和reptile的表达,以求遣词之新,这在英语中称为Elegant Variation(求雅换词),以下三句中的动词你是否觉得用得也很精彩:1/A South African man bit his way to freedom. 2/I froze for almost 10 seconds. 3/Sibanda sank his teeth into…】

  1. Microrecanalization after vasectomy in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, M J; Weidmann, J E; Goldstein, M; Marmar, J; Santulli, R; Oliveira, N

    1989-01-01

    Previously spermatozoa in the semen of vasectomized men were reported in 62 of 63 specimens from 24 men 2 to 31 years postvasectomy (Freund and Couture, 1982). A morphologic basis and term, "microrecanalization," was proposed for this observation. Serial sections (5 mu at 200-mu intervals) of 40 specimens removed at vasovasostomy from 20 men (2 to 14 years postvasectomy) were examined and microcanals (small epithelial-lined channels) were demonstrated in 27 specimens from 18 men. In nine of the 27 specimens, spermatozoa or sperm heads were found within the microcanals. Microcanals occurred in smooth muscle, connective tissue and scar tissue, in each segment, testicular, central and abdominal, in the presence or absence of the vas deferens. Microcanal continuity was traced for 200 to 1140 microns by computerized image analysis. Microrecanalization is characterized by the absence of inflammation or sperm extravasation and is histologically distinct from vasitis nodes or sperm granuloma. Microrecanalization provides morphologic and physiologic bases for the protection of the testis and maintenance of spermatogenesis in man after vasectomy.

  2. On the identity of Dorylaimus robustus de Man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loof, P.A.A.

    1961-01-01

    The taxonomic position of Dorylaimus robustus de Man, 1876 is fully discussed. It is concluded that D. robustus de Man, 1876 is a synonym of D. stagnalis Dujardin, 1845; also included in this synonymy are D. robustus apud de Man, 1880, apud de Man, 1884 (male, partim) and Labronema robustum (de Man,

  3. Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) for Thermal Storage on Manned Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future manned exploration spacecraft will need to operate in challenging thermal environments. State-of-the-art technology for active thermal control relies on...

  4. One man's side effect is another man's therapeutic opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Olesen, S P; Greenwood, I A

    2013-01-01

    Retigabine is a first in class anticonvulsant that has recently undergone clinical trials to test its efficacy in epileptic patients. Retigabine's novel mechanism of action - activating Kv7 channels - suppresses neuronal activity to prevent seizure generation by hyperpolarizing the membrane poten...

  5. The effects of light on man and other mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The present article describes the best-studied extravisual effects of visible and ultraviolet light on humans and other mammals. It also considers the possible biological consequences to man of living in artificially lighted environments that differ significantly from the milieu in which he evolved. Cumulative evidence favors the beneficial influences of sunlight: vitamin D activation, plasma bilirubin elimination, inhibition of pineal melatonin synthesis, etc.

  6. Safety and activity of microRNA-loaded minicells in patients with recurrent malignant pleural mesothelioma: a first-in-man, phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zandwijk, Nico; Pavlakis, Nick; Kao, Steven C; Linton, Anthony; Boyer, Michael J; Clarke, Stephen; Huynh, Yennie; Chrzanowska, Agata; Fulham, Michael J; Bailey, Dale L; Cooper, Wendy A; Kritharides, Leonard; Ridley, Lloyd; Pattison, Scott T; MacDiarmid, Jennifer; Brahmbhatt, Himanshu; Reid, Glen

    2017-10-01

    TargomiRs are minicells (EnGeneIC Dream Vectors) loaded with miR-16-based mimic microRNA (miRNA) and targeted to EGFR that are designed to counteract the loss of the miR-15 and miR-16 family miRNAs, which is associated with unsuppressed tumour growth in preclinical models of malignant pleural mesothelioma. We aimed to assess the safety, optimal dosing, and activity of TargomiRs in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. In this first-in-man, open-label, dose-escalation phase 1 trial at three major cancer centres in Sydney (NSW, Australia), we recruited adults (aged ≥18 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma, measurable disease, radiological signs of progression after previous chemotherapy, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, life expectancy of 3 months or more, immunohistochemical evidence of tumour EGFR expression, and adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function. Patients were given TargomiRs via 20 min intravenous infusion either once or twice a week (3 days apart) in a traditional 3 + 3 dose-escalation design in five dose cohorts. The dose-escalation steps planned were 5 × 10(9), 7 × 10(9), and 9 × 10(9) TargomiRs either once or twice weekly, but after analysis of data from the first eight patients, all subsequent patients started protocol treatment at 1 × 10(9) TargomiRs. The primary endpoints were to establish the maximum tolerated dose of TargomiRs as measured by dose-limiting toxicity, define the optimal frequency of administration, and objective response (defined as the percentage of assessable patients with a complete or partial response), duration of response (defined as time from the first evidence of response to disease progression in patients who achieved a response), time to response (ie, time from start of treatment to the first evidence of response) and overall survival (defined as time from treatment allocation to death from any cause). Analyses were based

  7. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses control of MMU during EVA practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC.

  8. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  9. New Take on Man's Friendship with Fido

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Man's Friendship With Fido Surprising findings emerge about domestication To use the sharing features on this page, ... dog DNA samples, to learn more about dog domestication. SOURCE: Texas A&M University, news release HealthDay ...

  10. A young man with nonhealing venous ulcers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloedbeld, M. G.; Venema, A. W.; Smit, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with nonhealing ulcers at an atypical location on his left foot, caused by a combination of venous insufficiency (after deep venous thrombosis) and arterial insufficiency. The underlying cause was Buerger's disease.

  11. Man-made climate change: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, E. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Meteorology

    1995-12-31

    The first major man-made environmental problem was the soil acidification, caused primarily by the massive industrial emissions of sulphur dioxide. Then came the problem of ozone depletion, caused by the emissions of man-made halocarbons. More recently, the possibility of man-made climate change has received a lot of attention. These three man-made problems are interconnected in fundamental ways and require for their solution interdisciplinary and international approach. Narrowing of the scientific uncertainties connected with the problems mentioned above can be expected through international `Global Change` programmes such as the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). Periodic assessments of the type produced by the IPCC will clearly be needed. Also in the future such assessments should form the scientific basis for international negotiations and conventions on the climate change issue

  12. Sex and the Man With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Sexual Side Effects in People with Cancer Sex and the Man With Cancer In this guide, ... you and your partner some information about cancer, sex, and sexuality. We cannot answer every question, but ...

  13. Cardiology Still a Man's Field, Survey Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162700.html Cardiology Still a Man's Field, Survey Finds Women less ... Dr. Claire Duvernoy, chair of the Women in Cardiology Council at the American College of Cardiology (ACC). ...

  14. One Man's Trash Is Another's Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_165988.html One Man's Trash Is Another's Fiber Wasted food in U.S. would reduce nutritional shortfalls, ... the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics . SOURCE: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, ...

  15. Fresh Efforts to Protect Peking Man Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ CAS scientists have worked out a plan to further protect the Peking Man site at Zhoukoudian (ZKD) in Beijing, and to renovate research facilities at this internationally renowned paleoanthropological and paleolithic location.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of neurotensin in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J H; Andersen, H O; Olsen, P S

    1989-01-01

    We studied the pharmacokinetics, arteriovenous extraction, and degradation sites of neurotensin (NT) in man during iv infusions of synthetic intact NT [NT-(1-13)] and the NH2-terminal metabolite NT-(1-8) during lipid ingestion and by catheterization of various vascular beds in normal subjects...... is present. Further studies are necessary to establish if the liver is a site of degradation of intact NT in man....

  17. A Post-colonial Reading of Man-Man by V.S.Nailpaul%A Post-colonial Reading of Man-Man by V.S. Nailpaul

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗媛

    2016-01-01

    A post-colonial reading of the story of Man-Man from Miguel Street by V.S. Nailpaul in the light of Homi K. Bhabha's views about mimicry reveals that to some extent mimicry in Naipaul's post-colonial writing reflects the double edged effect of mimicry discussed by Bhabha, but is more associated with the hopelessness and predicament suffered by the once colo?nized than the resistance to the authority of the colonizer.

  18. China's first deep manned submersible,JIAOLONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng; CUI WeiCheng; LI XiangYang

    2010-01-01

    @@ A deep manned submersible is indispensable to deep ocean exploration.No other equipment can bring scientists to extreme sea floor depths to do research in situ.Marine geology, seafloor geophysics, marine biology, and oceanic chemistry are the fields that scientists are particularly eager to study [1-6].Chinese scientists have long dreamed of using their own submersible to probe the deep sea.China's recent fast development of a deep manned submersible has realized that dream.

  19. [Man and animal from the ethical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, Gotthard M.

    1997-01-01

    This review over the books, articles in Journals and newspapers in 1996 and 1997 reports about the development in the field of man-animal- and man-nature-relations. The review considers the following themes: development, trends and perspectives, philosophy, theology, eco-ethics, legal questions, animal experimentation, freedom of research, teaching and conscience, farm animals, hunting and fishing, zoo and circus, bio-technology, violence, killing, vegetarism and dignity of creatures. The review includes a bibliography with about 300 quatoations.

  20. Crisis and Man: Literary Responses Across Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaswami, Mallika

    2012-01-01

    Myth of Sisyphus exemplifies the situation man finds himself in irrespective of his ethnic and geographical background. Art and cultural forms gave expression to this situation and the intensity of the expression depended upon the political and social dimensions. War or peace, man is always condemned to struggle with his problems, moral or otherwise. Post war English writers focused on the social problems the British society found itself in and its helplessness in dealing with them. It was th...

  1. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  2. Comparative study of the work load between one-man buses and two-man buses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno,Mitsuo

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences in physiological and safety conditions of one-man buses and two-man buses were examined from the view point of occupational fatigue. This survey consisted of a work load study which included a time study, study of subsidiary behavior, auditory task, memory test, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR and physiological function tests and a self-administered questionnaire which involved items concerning safety and subjective fatigue complaints. The visual and postural restrictions in the one-man bus were greater than in the two-man bus. The mental capacity of the one-man bus drivers was found to be less. Greater mental fatigue and stress were observed in the one-man bus. More subjective fatigue complaints were observed in the one-man bus. More cases of near accidents were observed in the one-man bus. From these results it was concluded that the one-man bus caused bus drivers a greater mental and physical work load.

  3. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. Environmental monitoring coupled with other measures including active and passive controls and the implementation of environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits) are used to ensure environmental health in manned spacecraft. NASA scientists and engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. Environmental monitoring data confirms the health of ECLS systems, in addition to contributing to the management of the health of human systems. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of Exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of this assessment and findings are presented in this paper.

  4. Giuseppe Moscati: a man, a physician and a scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Giovanni; D'Onofrio, Felice; Ruini, Cristel; Muscatello, Umberto; Tomasi, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    The life of Giuseppe Moscati (1880-1927) as a man, as a physician and as a scientist may be framed within the cultural climate of Positivism, which spread over the last years of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th Century. His activity contributed to patients' care improvement; in addition to meticulous drug regimens, he also prescribed a methodology of spiritual care, involving meditation and self-control as part of an holistic approach to healthcare. Our review deals with his published researches, highlighting the innovative findings on the juvenile diabetes treatment and extensive clinical changes consequent upon nephritis. This extraordinary man put considerable emphasis on primary care and holistic health in Italy, pioneering a new patient-centred, and holistic approach to medicine.

  5. Effective selection of transgenic papaya plants with the PMI/Man selection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun J; Agbayani, Ricelle; McCafferty, Heather; Albert, Henrik H; Moore, Paul H

    2005-09-01

    The selectable marker gene phospho-mannose isomerase (pmi), which encodes the enzyme phospho-mannose isomerase (PMI) to enable selection of transformed cell lines on media containing mannose (Man), was evaluated for genetic transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). We found that papaya embryogenic calli have little or no PMI activity and cannot utilize Man as a carbon source; however, when calli were transformed with a pmi gene, the PMI activity was greatly increased and they could utilize Man as efficiently as sucrose. Plants regenerated from selected callus lines also exhibited PMI activity but at a lower specific activity level. Our transformation efficiency with Man selection was higher than that reported using antibiotic selection or with a visual marker. For papaya, the PMI/Man selection system for producing transgenic plants is a highly efficient addition to previously published methods for selection and may facilitate the stacking of multiple transgenes of interest. Additionally, since the PMI/Man selection system does not involve antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes, its use might reduce environmental concerns about the potential flow of those genes into related plant populations.

  6. 舱外航天服生命保障冷电联储系统性能分析%Characteristic Analysis of Extravehicular Spacesuit Life Support Cooling-power Integrated System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜男; 李运泽; 周航; 周国栋

    2013-01-01

    基于质子膜燃料电池(PEMFC)和热驱制冷,提出一种舱外航天服冷电联储方法,根据热力学总能理论,通过能量的梯级利用和不同形式的能量联产来实现舱外航天服生命保障系统冷电联储、能源转化和环境控制一体化.对舱外航天服生命保障冷电联储系统进行了热力学分析,表明本文舱外航天服生命保障系统冷电联储方案与传统方案相比,能达到减少航天员出舱活动携带物品种类和提高能源利用率的目的.并重点对冷电联储系统储氢冷却器相关参数的选取对系统一次能源利用率及系统整体质量的影响进行分析,结果表明LaNi5和LmNi4.9 Sn0.1较适合用于本文提出的舱外航天服生命保障冷电联储系统.%Based on the techniques of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and heat-driven cooling system,a method of combined cooling-power for the life support system of an extravehicular activity spacesuit is proposed in this paper.This method aims to realize the integration of cooling and power,the transient of different energies and the control of the environment for the life support system of the extravehicular activity spacesuit with the theory of thermal board total energy which points the energy step used,heat recovery and the combined generation of different forms of energy.Thermodynamic analysis of the system is performed.Compared with the separate method used in the traditional spacesuit,the combined method can decrease the kinds of materials,and provide more efficient use of resources.In addition,the H2 utilization coefficient and the total mass of the whole integrated system which are influenced by the different thermal parameters chosen for the hydrogen storage cooler are analyzed in detail,which demonstrates that LaNi5 and LmNi4.9 Sn0.1 can be considered for this cooling-power integrated system.

  7. Gabriel Richet: the Man and the Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaillou, Raymond; Ronco, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Gabriel Richet who died in Paris in October 2014 was the fourth of a brilliant dynasty of professors of medicine including a Nobel prize, his grandfather, Charles Richet. He behaved courageously during the Second World War and participated in the Campaign of France in 1940 and in the combats in the Vosges Mountains in 1945. His family participated in the resistance during the German occupation of France and three of his parents including his father, one of his brothers and one of his cousins were deported in Germany. At the end of the war, he was with Jean Hamburger the founder of French nephrology at Necker Hospital in Paris. He realized the first hemodialyses in France and was involved in the first allogenic transplantation that was not immediately rejected. From 1961 to 1985, he was the head of a school of nephrology at Tenon Hospital and attracted in his department many young collaborators and scientists. He was the first to describe the role of specialized cells of the collecting duct in the control of acid base equilibrium. He was the subject of a national and international recognition. Founding member of the International Society of Nephrology in 1960, he was elected his President from 1981-1984. His fame could be measured by the number of fellows and visiting facultiesfrom countries all over the world. When he retired in 1985, he left an important legacy involving several departments of nephrology directed by his ancient collaborators. After his retirement, he was an active member of the French Academy of Medicine and devoted much of his time to the history of medicine and, particularly, of nephrology. The main qualities of the man were his constant research of new ideas, his eagerness to work and his open mind to understand others.

  8. Design and Verification of Critical Pressurised Windows for Manned Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoure, Richard; Busto, Lara; Novo, Francisco; Sinnema, Gerben; Leal, Mendes M.

    2014-06-01

    The Window Design for Manned Spaceflight (WDMS) project was tasked with establishing the state-of-art and explore possible improvements to the current structural integrity verification and fracture control methodologies for manned spacecraft windows.A critical review of the state-of-art in spacecraft window design, materials and verification practice was conducted. Shortcomings of the methodology in terms of analysis, inspection and testing were identified. Schemes for improving verification practices and reducing conservatism whilst maintaining the required safety levels were then proposed.An experimental materials characterisation programme was defined and carried out with the support of the 'Glass and Façade Technology Research Group', at the University of Cambridge. Results of the sample testing campaign were analysed, post-processed and subsequently applied to the design of a breadboard window demonstrator.Two Fused Silica glass window panes were procured and subjected to dedicated analyses, inspection and testing comprising both qualification and acceptance programmes specifically tailored to the objectives of the activity.Finally, main outcomes have been compiled into a Structural Verification Guide for Pressurised Windows in manned spacecraft, incorporating best practices and lessons learned throughout this project.

  9. Data for the Reference Man: skeleton content of chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaichick, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    This study was undertaken to provide reference values of chemical element mass fractions in intact bone of Reference (European Caucasian) Man/Woman. The rib bone samples investigated were obtained from autopsies of 84 apparently healthy 15-58-year-old citizens (38 females and 46 males) of a non-industrial region in the Central European part of Russia who had suffered sudden death. The mass fractions (mg/kg given on a wet mass basis) of 69 elements in these bone samples were measured by using neutron activation analysis with high-resolution spectrometry of short-lived and long-lived radionuclides, particle-induced gamma-ray emission, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry including necessary quality control measures. Using published and measured data, mass fraction values of the 79 elements for the rib bone have been derived. Based on accepted rib to skeleton mass fractions and reference values of skeleton mass for Reference Man, the elemental burdens in the skeleton were estimated. These results may provide a representative bases for establishing related reference values for the Russian Reference Man/Woman and for revising and adding current reference values for the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The data presented will also be very valuable for many other applications in radiation protection, radiotherapy radiation dosimetry, and other scientific fields.

  10. The Centauri project: Manned interstellar travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of antimatter engines for spacecraft propulsion will allow man to expand to the nearest stellar neighbors such as the Alpha Centuri system. Compared to chemically powered rockets like the Apollo mission class which would take 50,000 years to reach the Centauri system, antimatter propulsion would reduce one way trip time to 30 years or less. The challenges encountered by manned interstellar travel are formidable. The spacecraft must be a combination of sublight speed transportation system and a traveling microplanet serving an expanding population. As the population expands from the initial 100 people to approximately 300, the terraformed asteroid, enclosed by a man-made shell will allow for expansion over its surface in the fashion of a small terrestrial town. All aspects of human life - birth; death; physical, emotional, and educational needs; and government and law must be met by the structure, systems, and institutions on-board.

  11. Quantum Man: Richard Feynman's Life in Science

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    It took a man who was willing to break all the rules to tame a theory that breaks all the rules. This talk will be based on my new book Quantum Man: Richard Feynman's life in science. I will try and present a scientific overview of the contributions of Richard Feynman, as seen through the arc of his fascinating life. From Quantum Mechanics to Antiparticles, from Rio de Janeiro to Los Alamos, a whirlwind tour will provide insights into the character, life and accomplishments of one of the 20th centuries most important scientists, and provide an object lesson in scientific integrity.

  12. Kan man måle lykken?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    Det kan være svært at holde sig munter, når man nok en gang bliver præsenteret for resultater med decimaler fra en trivselsmåling eller - værre - bliver bedt om selv at deltage i en sådan. I sidstnævnte tilfælde kan man blandt andet komme ud for at blive stillet spørgsmål, der drejer sig om ens...

  13. Man-machine dialogue design and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Landragin, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    This book summarizes the main problems posed by the design of a man-machine dialogue system and offers ideas on how to continue along the path towards efficient, realistic and fluid communication between humans and machines. A culmination of ten years of research, it is based on the author's development, investigation and experimentation covering a multitude of fields, including artificial intelligence, automated language processing, man-machine interfaces and notably multimodal or multimedia interfaces. Contents Part 1. Historical and Methodological Landmarks 1. An Assessment of the Evolution

  14. A Man With Two Burned Ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范图雨

    2001-01-01

    Mr Smith was in troublethose days. He drove a car forMr Black, a rich business-man. He worked hard and theshopkeeper liked him. But hecouldn't work when he dranktoo much. And once he al-most fell into the river whenhe drove along the bridge. MrBlack became angry and wasgoing to send him away. Hehad a big family and wasafraid of that and promisedhe would stop drinking atonce. The man told him towait to be dealt with. OneMonday morning, Mr Smithcame into the office, with twobadly burned ears. “Whathappened to your ears?”asked Mr Black.

  15. Homo Tangens, or Man Touching and Tangible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mizinska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the concept sense of touch, which is considered in all its aspects and dimensions. The author's aim is to determine what is touch in terms of philosophy, what types it has and what traditional functions (i.e. prior to the emergence of virtual reality each of these functions performed. The conducted research allows the author to make a conclusion about the importance of perceiving the role and significance of man as a homo tangens - man touching and tangible.

  16. Otto Rank and man's urge to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwert, M

    1985-04-01

    Otto Rank, one of Sigmund Freud's original followers, posited the existence of an "urge to immortality" as man's deepest drive. In his Psychology and the Soul, Rank traced the desire for immortality through four historical eras, with particular emphasis on the creativity of the hero and the artist. By the end of his life, Rank had not only repudiated orthodox psychoanalysis and developed then abandoned a psychology of the will, he had moved "beyond psychology" to a religious view of history and the nature of man.

  17. "Kan man studere en menneskelig praksis?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oettingen, Alexander von

    2008-01-01

    Læser man bekendtgørelsen for faget pædagogik, lægger man mærke til, at faget har et dobbelt sigte. På den ene side repræsenterer pædagogik en indsigt, viden og refleksion i videnskabelige teorier og metoder, og på den anden side er det fagets opgave at kvalificere studerende til det konkrete...... pædagogiske arbejde og den pædagogiske praksis. Pædagogik er på mange måder et splittet fag....

  18. On the Theory of Harmonious Co-existence between Man and Nature by Marx and Engels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KongXiangli

    2005-01-01

    Marx and Engles believed that man and nature develop harmoniously, when the activities of man constitute the content of nature, which is changed constantly because of the activities of man. Marx and Engles also pointed out the duarity of the conquest, change and influence exerted on nature by man. On one hand, it can improve people's riving conditions and make people free from the enslavement of the nature. On the other hand,it may also lead to excessively snatching and wrecking nature, then make the deterioration of the environment and ecology out of balance. They also, from the technical angle of ecology, put forward the concrete measures to realize the harmonious symbiosis of man and nature in the development of economy. They also believed that only when socialism or communism is realized, can the conciliation of mankind and nature be realized finally.Marx and Engle's theory of harmonious symbiosis of man and nature is of great theoretical directive significance for us to insist on the scientific development view.

  19. Teaching Rousseau: Natural Man and Present Existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Daryl H.

    1989-01-01

    Offers an interpretation of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality" and provides examples of classroom exercises designed to make Rousseau's ideas and writings accessible to undergraduates. Stresses Rousseau's philosophy on natural man, language, ethics, and society. Includes interpretive…

  20. The ancestry and affiliations of Kennewick Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Sikora, Martin; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Kennewick Man, referred to as the Ancient One by Native Americans, is a male human skeleton discovered in Washington state (USA) in 1996 and initially radiocarbon dated to 8,340-9,200 calibrated years before present (BP). His population affinities have been the subject of scientific debate...

  1. Ergonomic ship brigde design supports minimum manning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punte, P.A.J.; Post, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Royal Netherlands Navy is planning to design a hydrographic survey vessel to replace the currently used vessels in order to extend the tasks of an Officer by reducing require manning. The design includes the arrangements of workspace and the detailed design of workplaces. Digital human models ar

  2. Elementary particles in the service of man

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    This article was prepared by the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, and the Rutherford Laboratory in the U.K., for a Physics Exhibition in March of this year and is reproduced here with acknowledgement. It is an account of how some of the knowledge gained in the previous generation of our research has already been applied 'in the service of man'.

  3. Chairman Mao's Cigar Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    FAN Guorong, aged 84,is known in his hometown as “the Old CigarMan.” The moniker isa fitting one as he has spent most of his life making cigars. In his early teens, Fan served a three-year apprenticeship and became the youngest cigar maker of his time when he started his career in the late 1940s.

  4. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in a Samoan man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Justine; King, Harrison; Singh, Mahendra; Tran, Khoa

    2017-05-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is an idiopathic inflammatory disease which is predominantly recognised in the Japanese population with only isolated case reports in Western populations. This is the first reported case of DPB in a Samoan man with typical radiological and histopathological features. He had an excellent response to long-term erythromycin and this case highlights the importance of recognising this rare disease.

  5. Teaching Rousseau: Natural Man and Present Existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Daryl H.

    1989-01-01

    Offers an interpretation of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality" and provides examples of classroom exercises designed to make Rousseau's ideas and writings accessible to undergraduates. Stresses Rousseau's philosophy on natural man, language, ethics, and society. Includes interpretive references to…

  6. [A young man with discoloured nails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schers, H.J.; Kleinpenning, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    A 23-year-old man consulted his general practitioner with discoloured nails. The nails showed the typical pattern of half and half nails or Lindsay's nails. This condition sometimes accompanies renal failure or thyroid disease and must be differentiated from Terry's nails, psoriatic nails and onycho

  7. The Language of Man. Book 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

    Book 4 of "The Language of Man" series contains articles which deal with semantics, levels of language (including informal, formal and technical language, jargon, and gobbledygook), the hidden persuaders (advertising of merchandise and political candidates), and communications of the future (including the computer and other mass media now being…

  8. The Language of Man. Book 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

    Book 3 from "The Language of Man" textbook series contains four sections, each of which includes several articles. The articles cover semantics, use of the dictionary and encyclopedia, use of figurative language, and coping with the mass media. The sections are augmented with humorous features, examples from real life, and graphics. The style is…

  9. Asher Brown Durand: "An Old Man's Reminiscences."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Ted

    1988-01-01

    Uses Durand's "An Old Man's Reminiscences" to introduce students in grades 4-6 to the effective use of nostalgia and memories in artwork. Presents lesson objectives, instructional strategies, evaluation criteria, and background information about the artist and the painting. (GEA)

  10. The ancestry and affiliations of Kennewick Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Sikora, Martin; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Kennewick Man, referred to as the Ancient One by Native Americans, is a male human skeleton discovered in Washington state (USA) in 1996 and initially radiocarbon dated to 8,340-9,200 calibrated years before present (BP). His population affinities have been the subject of scientific debate and le...

  11. Genetic Engineering: The Modification of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Robert L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes somatic and genetic manipulations of individual genotypes, using diabetes control as an example of the first mode that is potentially realizable be derepression or viral transduction of genes. Advocates the use of genetic engineering of the second mode to remove man from his biological limitations, but offers maxims to ensure the…

  12. Man's Search: English, Mythology. 5112.22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersheimer, Lenore C.

    A course which is an exploration of man's eternal search to understand himself and his world through the study of the mythology of the world is presented. Performance objectives include: (1) Students will recognize the content of the myths studied; (2) Students will identify the specific characteristics of the civilization studied; (3) Students…

  13. Direct Observation of "Pac-Man" Coarsening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X X; Gulec, A; Yoon, A; Zuo, J M; Voorhees, P W; Marks, L D

    2017-08-09

    We report direct observation of a "Pac-Man" like coarsening mechanism of a self-supporting thin film of nickel oxide. The ultrathin film has an intrinsic morphological instability due to surface stress leading to the development of local thicker regions at step edges. Density functional theory calculations and continuum modeling of the elastic instability support the model for the process.

  14. The Language of Man. Book 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

    This textbook, book 6 of "The Language of Man" series, covers semantics, the language of politics, language and race, the language of advertising, and the origins and growth of the English language. The material analyzed comes from many sources (advertisements, newspaper articles, poems, parodies) and attempts to demonstrate the effect of the…

  15. On Being an Angry Black Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2017-01-01

    Black men are often seen as problems, threats, and thugs. The mere existence of a Black body is often met with fear. Using autoethnographic mystory, I blend personal stories, poetry, song lyrics, and analysis to subvert the angry Black man mantra and explore the productive use of anger to stimulate change.

  16. Are You a Man or a Mouse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2008-01-01

    Are you a man or a mouse? This expression is used to encourage someone to be brave when they are frightened of doing something. It is also an expression which bears associations to John Steinbeck's novella Of Mice and Men, the title of which is taken from Robert Burns' poem To a Mouse, which is o...

  17. Theory of load carriage by man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PL Kapur

    1949-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrying of load by man has been a necessity since pre-historic times. It was the sole means of transportation prior to the domestication of animals like ox, ass, horse, etc. Today with the advancement of mechanical transport, the art has disappeared except where Mechanical transport is beyond reach, impracticable or uneconomical

  18. Manned Spaceflight Ancient Dream, Modern Attempt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China was first in the world to invent rockets, and the first "astronaut" was also Chinese. In the late 14th century a man named Wanhu had himself tied to a special chair, the back of which was fitted with 47 prototype rockets, while he

  19. East Man:Health Lacquer of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As a kind of building material, lacquer is very necessarily used in the room fitment.In order to protect the indoor environment and avoid the emission of poisonous gas,people always choose those high-quality imported lacquer despite the high price.However, a new Chinese brand lacquer has been produced, it's called East Man.

  20. Estimator's electrical man-hour manual

    CERN Document Server

    Page, John S

    1999-01-01

    This manual's latest edition continues to be the best source available for making accurate, reliable man-hour estimates for electrical installation. This new edition is revised and expanded to include installation of electrical instrumentation, which is used in monitoring various process systems.

  1. Hydrophobic Man-1-P derivatives correct abnormal glycosylation in Type I congenital disorder of glycosylation fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Erik A; Merbouh, Nabyl; Ichikawa, Mie; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Clima, Jessica M; Dorman, James A; Norberg, Thomas; Freeze, Hudson H

    2005-11-01

    Patients with Type I congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG-I) make incomplete lipid-linked oligosaccharides (LLO). These glycans are poorly transferred to proteins resulting in unoccupied glycosylation sequons. Mutations in phosphomannomutase (PMM2) cause CDG-Ia by reducing the activity of PMM, which converts mannose (Man)-6-P to Man-1-P before formation of GDP-Man. These patients have reduced Man-1-P and GDP-Man. To replenish intracellular Man-1-P pools in CDG-Ia cells, we synthesized two hydrophobic, membrane permeable acylated versions of Man-1-P and determined their ability to normalize LLO size and N-glycosylation in CDG-Ia fibroblasts. Both compounds, compound I (diacetoxymethyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate) (C-I) and compound II (diacetoxymethyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-ethyloxycarbonyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate) (C-II), contain two acetoxymethyl (CH2OAc) groups O-linked to phosphorous. C-I contains acetyl esters and C-II contains ethylcarbonate (CO2Et) esters on the Man residue. Both C-I and C-II normalized truncated LLO, but C-II was about 2-fold more efficient than C-I. C-II replenished the GDP-Man pool in CDG-Ia cells and was more efficiently incorporated into glycoproteins than exogenous Man at low concentrations (25-75 mM). In a glycosylation assay of DNaseI in CDG-Ia cells, C-II restored glycosylation to control cell levels. C-II also corrected impaired LLO biosynthesis in cells from a Dolichol (Dol)-P-Man deficient patient (CDG-Ie) and partially corrected LLO in cells from an ALG12 mannosyltransferase-deficient patient (CDG-Ig), whereas cells from an ALG3-deficient patient (CDG-Id) and from an MPDU1-deficient patient (CDG-If) were not corrected. These results validate the general concept of using pro-Man-1-P substrates as potential therapeutics for CDG-I patients.

  2. A 44-year-old man with bilateral pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albores, Jeffrey; Abtin, Fereidoun; Barjaktarevic, Igor

    2015-10-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of persistent upper-back pain, chest discomfort, and dyspnea. He denied any precipitating events such as trauma or vigorous activity before the presentation of symptoms. His exercise capacity had been excellent. He is a lifetime nonsmoker and never had significant lung problems apart from intermittent asthma for which he had several ED visits in the past. Chest CT scan performed during an asthma exacerbation 2 years earlier demonstrated two left-side lung blebs. He had no prior surgical procedures.

  3. Strategies for Ground Based Testing of Manned Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Jeff; Peacock, Mike; Gill, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Integrated testing (such as Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT)) is critical to reducing risks and minimizing problems encountered during assembly, activation, and on-orbit operation of large, complex manned spacecraft. Provides the best implementation of "Test Like You Fly:. Planning for integrated testing needs to begin at the earliest stages of Program definition. Program leadership needs to fully understand and buy in to what integrated testing is and why it needs to be performed. As Program evolves and design and schedules mature, continually look for suitable opportunities to perform testing where enough components are together in one place at one time. The benefits to be gained are well worth the costs.

  4. Como as ações de saúde pensam o homem e como o homem as repensa: uma análise antropológica do controle da doença de Chagas How health activities view man and how man rethinks them: an anthropological analysis of Chagas disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Magnani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudo antropológico sobre a percepção cultural de um grupo de residentes no Município de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em relação à experiência de doença de Chagas e ao impacto das ações de saúde na vida social. Foi realizada uma pesquisa etnográfica baseada no instrumento de entrevista aberta, buscando identificar a percepção individual de 35 habitantes de Bambuí (chagásicos e não que viveram na região desde os anos quarenta, quando as ações de saúde foram promovidas para combater a doença de Chagas. Dentro de uma ampla análise da percepção social do efeito das ações de saúde implementadas, procurou-se observar as representações culturais do processo do adoecer. O estudo pretende contribuir para que as intervenções de saúde possam atuar de forma integral, incluindo os aspectos sócio-culturais com a população à qual se dirigem. A perspectiva cultural assume um importante papel para evitar sofrimento social.This anthropological study addresses the cultural perceptions of a group of residents in the city of Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in relation to experience with Chagas disease and the impact of health measures on social life. The ethnographic study was based on open interviews, seeking to identify individual perceptions among 35 inhabitants of Bambuí (with and without Chagas disease living in the region since the 1940s, when Chagas disease control activities were launched. Within a broad analysis of social perceptions concerning the effect of these health measures, the study sought to observe the cultural representations of the illness process. The study is intended to contribute to comprehensive work in health interventions, including the target population's socio-cultural characteristics. The cultural perspective plays an important role in preventing social distress.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of mitragynine in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trakulsrichai S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Satariya Trakulsrichai,1,2 Korbtham Sathirakul,3,4 Saranya Auparakkitanon,5 Jatupon Krongvorakul,5 Jetjamnong Sueajai,5 Nantida Noumjad,5 Chonlaphat Sukasem,5 Winai Wananukul2,6 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, 2Ramathibodi Poison Center, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, 3Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Center for Drug Research Discovery and Development, Thammasat Univerisity, Prathumthani, Thailand; 5Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, 6Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Background: Kratom, known botanically as Mitragyna speciosa (Korth., is an indigenous tree in Southeast Asia. Kratom is currently easily available worldwide via special shops and the Internet to use as a drug of abuse, opioid alternative, or pain killer. So far, the pharmacokinetics of this plant has been studied only in animals, and there is no such study in humans. The major abundant active alkaloid in Kratom, mitragynine, is one of the promising new chemical substances to be developed as a new drug. The aim of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of mitragynine and assess the linearity in pharmacokinetics in chronic users.Methods: Since Kratom is illegal in Thailand, studies in healthy subjects would be unethical. We therefore conducted a prospective study by enrolling ten chronic, regular, healthy users. We adjusted the steady state in each subject by giving a known amount of Kratom tea for 7 days before commencement of the experiment. We admitted and gave different oral doses to subjects to confirm linearity in pharmacokinetics. The mitragynine blood concentrations at 17 times points and the urine concentrations during the 24-hour period were collected and measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Results: Ten male subjects completed

  6. Universality of Man as a Cultural and Historical Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the grounds of theoretical synthesis, the paper reveals the phenomenon of human being in its creative dimension. The present research is aimed at exploring the prospective opportunities for academic processes. The basics of universal essence of man as a cultural historic being with unlimited potential of self- development are defined; the man being mirrored by the basic philosophic concepts: naturalistic, orthodox-oriented, bio-social or bio-socio-cultural. There are two opposing views on human nature: the anthropological essentialism holding that individuality is predetermined by essence; and the anthropological existentialism claiming the opposite – human existence precedes the essentiality, the latter being constituted by the acts of choice, self-development and self-responsibility for personal choice and projecting. In the first case, the subjective side of human existence is ignored, while in the second – the objective socially conditioned side is left behind. Both theories are antihistorical as it is the history that conditions the essence of man according to the ancestral determination, the latter being modified by way of human activity and communication in a particular historical period. The components of human universal essence are defined as follows: possession of organic body, social heritage, free will, self-activity, creativity, social and rational human nature, absence of antagonistic programs of social behavior. According to the author, for the adequate realization of human universality, it is necessary to move from the profit oriented speculative market economy to the creative one oriented on social effectiveness, quality of life and reproduction of wholesome individuals. The research output can be used for devising the methodology of philosophic and pedagogic anthropology, as well as pedagogic practices of teaching philosophy and pedagogic theory in higher school. 

  7. From the rights of man to the human rights: Man - nation - humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharijević Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the fact that human rights and the rights of man (codified in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, respectively are not one and the same, which could be deduced from the notion of man common to both terms, is the key thesis of this text. By developing this motive, I try to determine the following: that the notion of man, by definition inclusive and abstractly non-discriminative term, is in fact established on tacit exclusions in the time of its inception (Enlightenment revolutinary era, and it was only upon these exclusions that the term man could have signified "the free and equal". Although the parallel or simultaneous evolution and implementation of the rights of man and national rights might seem contradictory, I seek to demonstrate that this paradox is only ostensible, arguing that the notion of man is itself limited and exclusionary, and is therefore compatible with the exclusivity which is the conditio sine qua non of nation. The consequences of nationalism - World Wars, primarily - proved that the conception of liberty and equality, based on the conception of fraternity of men (white European males, and of partial democracy pretending to be universal, cannot be maintained any further. Codification of universal human rights represents a reaction to this internal discrepancy inasmuch as it is a reaction to the destructiveness of all kinds of nationalisms. The notion of life, developed in this text, corresponds to the fundamental requirement for the right to life (as the first and the most basic of all human rights, which no longer belongs to "man", but to everyone.

  8. Man-Man-Machine-Machine Etiquette: Towards an Environment to Investigate Behavioral Rules for Dynamic Man-Machine Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    simulation (compound and environment) Sensor Simulation Agents (Guards, decision support, sensor support) Man-Machine Interface Ground Truth ( RPR ) G...10]). It is desired to make this interface based on existing standards. HLA is chosen for the M4E interface. The HLA RPR FOM is a data exchange...Definitions For M4E we have define the following additional classes to the RPR FOM: Table 1: Additional FOM classes. Object Classes Interaction Classes

  9. Myoelectric silence following unopposed passive stretch in normal man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, R W; Waxman, S G; Kocsis, J D

    1980-08-01

    The response to unopposed passive muscle stretch applied during sustained contraction was studied in normal man. When the subject did not resist the stretching force, the initial response was a brief cessation of EMG activity in the elongated muscle. The myoelectric silence was observed repeatedly in muscles of the upper and lower limbs. The response to passive stretch is discussed in relation to the lengthening reaction and the inverse myotatic reflex. The silent period observed under these experimental conditions is unlikely to be caused by Renshaw inhibition, a pause in spindle afferent discharge, or activity of the group II afferent reflex pathway. Possible mechanisms include autogenetic inhibition and a stretch-evoked decrease of fusimotor activity.

  10. The Somerton Man: An Unsolved History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Balint

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The case of the unknown man who died mysteriously at Somerton Beach in South Australia in 1948 remains an open police investigation, although the trail today has grown fairly cold. Revisiting the case, and the responses the mystery of his person have elicited, enables a special historical insight into Australia’s postwar society, and the ways in which the past is continually reshaped by the subjectivities of the present. Further, an unsolved case such as this provides for a unique kind of historical project. The limitations of a history without a coherent centre are myriad, yet so are the possibilities.  In this article, I explore the possibilities of an ‘unsolved history’, a history of dead ends, and argue that it is the very unknowable-ness of the Somerton Man that allows for a perception of history as multi-dimensional and complex.

  11. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  12. Esquistossomose mansônica cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andyr Nazareth Andrade

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de neuroesquistossomose (NE mansônica cerebral forma granulomatosa pseudotumoral de localização no córtex do lobo parietal esquerdo determinando, hemiparesia direita e síndrome de hipertensão intracraniana, diagnosticado por biópsia cirúrgica. Fatores vasculares e imunológicos são considerados na fisiopatogenia da NE. Enfatiza-se a necessidade de melhor se estudar, diagnosticar e divulgar as várias formas de envolvimento do SN na esquistossomose mansônica, que parece ser mais freqüente do que se julga atualmente. O comprometimento cerebral com repercussão clínica nesta doença é raro, sendo a forma pseudotumoral limitada a poucos casos descritos na literatura.

  13. los servicios en redes E-MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de la Cruz Gámez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethernet, al evolucionar a través del tiempo, ha presentado la necesidad de un mejor desempeño en el tráfico de datos; propuestas como la implementación del protocolo 802.1p ofrecen hasta cierta medida un control de la calidad de los servicios (QoS, pero al crecer la red Ethernet a ambientes metropolitanos (e-man, surgen nuevos retos. Este trabajo evalúa los parámetros de desempeño necesarios para caracterizar la red e-man, y analiza un nuevo procedimiento para abordar los problemas de la calidad de los servicios; este trabajo también analiza el comportamiento del desempeño de un modelo de simulación basado en el núcleo de backbone de una red metropolitana rpr.

  14. [Man's place and anthropology in bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar Romero, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    From the analysis of its epistemological status, the article focuses on the philosophical fundament of bioethics, stressing the need for an authentic anthropology as a reference or starting point. Being an applied ethics, the first fundament of bioethics is in ethics. It shows how only personalistic ethics, which takes as reference the nature or essence of man, can offer objective and universal criteria. Philosophical anthropology studies man as a whole, in an integral manner, from the perspective of its nature or fundamental aspects of his being. It analyzes the distinction and relationship between the philosophical anthropology and the positive anthropologies, as well as with the physical, human and social sciences. Finally, it reflects on the current anthropological crisis and its ethical consequences.

  15. Man-machine collaboration using facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Katahera, S.; Cai, D.

    2002-09-01

    For realizing the flexible man-machine collaboration, understanding of facial expressions and gestures is not negligible. In our method, we proposed a hierarchical recognition approach, for the understanding of human emotions. According to this method, the facial AFs (action features) were firstly extracted and recognized by using histograms of optical flow. Then, based on the facial AFs, facial expressions were classified into two calsses, one of which presents the positive emotions, and the other of which does the negative ones. Accordingly, the facial expressions belonged to the positive class, or the ones belonged to the negative class, were classified into more complex emotions, which were revealed by the corresponding facial expressions. Finally, the system architecture how to coordinate in recognizing facil action features and facial expressions for man-machine collaboration was proposed.

  16. IMPACT OF SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC WORLDVIEW ON MAN: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    outlines, therefore, the impact of science on man has moved in three stages: Physical; Intellectual ...... exterior intelligence having man in contemplation. The New ..... unguarded “burglaries” are: Artificial Insemination (AIS or AIH), use of sperm ...

  17. First multiphoton tomography of brain in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten; Kantelhardt, Sven R.; Kalasauskas, Darius; Kim, Ella; Giese, Alf

    2016-03-01

    We report on the first two-photon in vivo brain tissue imaging study in man. High resolution in vivo histology by multiphoton tomography (MPT) including two-photon FLIM was performed in the operation theatre during neurosurgery to evaluate the feasibility to detect label-free tumor borders with subcellular resolution. This feasibility study demonstrates, that MPT has the potential to identify tumor borders on a cellular level in nearly real-time.

  18. Generalized Leishmanides in an Immunodeprived Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Boada, Aram; Fernández-Figueras, Maria T

    2017-02-01

    Leishmanides have been rarely reported in the literature. In this study, the authors present a case of a 50-year-old HIV-positive man who developed a generalized cutaneous eruption of papules and plaques in which no microorganism was demonstrated by culture, microscopical examination, immunohistochemistry, or polymerase chain reaction. The patient was eventually diagnosed with laryngeal leishmaniasis, and when treated, the cutaneous lesions greatly improved.

  19. Feedback control system for walking in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, J S; Phillips, C A; Heaton, H H

    1984-01-01

    A computer control stimulation system is described which has been successfully tested by allowing a paraplegic subject to stand and walk through closed loop control. This system is a Z80 microprocessor system with eight channels of analog to digital and 16 channels of digital to analog control. Programming is written in CPM and works quite successfully for maintaining lower body postural control in paraplegics. Further expansion of this system would enable a feedback control system for multidirectional walking in man.

  20. Evidence of Extrapancreatic Glucagon Secretion in Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon is believed to be a pancreas-specific hormone and hyperglucagonemia has been shown to contribute significantly to the hyperglycemic state of patients with diabetes. This hyperglucagonemia has been thought to arise from alpha cell insensitivity to suppressive effects of glucose and insuli...... hyperglucagonemia in these patients. These findings emphasize the existence of extrapancreatic glucagon (perhaps originating from the gut) in man and suggest that it may play a role in diabetes secondary to total pancreatectomy....

  1. 25 years of the Conseil du Léman

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    On 30 June, the Conseil du Léman will celebrate its 25th anniversary. The Conseil, which comprises representatives of the French departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie and the Swiss cantons of Geneva, Vaud and Valais, was set up to promote cross-border cooperation in the Lake Geneva region.   To celebrate its quarter centenary, the Conseil will be holding a day of discussions and activities, including a round-table discussion in CERN’s Globe of Science and Innovation. You are cordially invited to participate in the round-table discussion, which will be led by prominent representatives of each of the Conseil’s five constituent authorities: Round-Table Discussion The Challenges of Cross-border Cooperation: A look back at the role of the Conseil du Léman over the past 25 years. Saturday, 30 June 9.30 am - 12.30 pm Globe of Science and Innovation During the afternoon, activities for the general public will be organised in the park of the Château de ...

  2. Man-machine interface for the MFTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speckert, G.C.

    1979-11-09

    In any complex system, the interesting problems occur at the interface of dissimilar subsystems. Control of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) begins with the US Congress, which controls the dollars, which control the people, who control the nine top-level minicomputers, which control the 65 microprocessors, which control the hardware that controls the physics experiment. There are many interesting boundaries across which control must pass, and the one that this paper addresses is the man-machine one. For the MFTF, the man-machine interface consists of a system of seven control consoles, each allowing one operator to communicate with one minicomputer. These consoles are arranged in a hierarchical manner, and both hardware and software were designed in a top-down fashion. This paper describes the requirements and the design of the console system as a whole, as well as the design and operation of the hardware and software of each console, and examines the possible form of a future man-machine interface.

  3. Freud, evolution, and the tragedy of man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, K R

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that Freud was not, as Sulloway (1979) contends, a "crypto-biologist" of the mind, but rather a cultural anthropologist of the mind. Freud's genetic conception of the psychic apparatus was neither exclusively nor critically derived from biology. Rather, it was based on an anthropogenetic approach to the archaic heritage of mind inspired in part by the moral philosophy of Nietzsche. The idea of tragedy was the unifying theme of Freud's cultural interpretation of evolutionary psychology. The historical search for the primal origins of neurosis led Freud to the unavoidable conclusion that neurosis was in the beginning a prehistoric moral dilemma which, over the course of mental evolution, eventually evolved into guilt, discontent, and neurosis as modern-day phylogenetically endowed facts of life. Freud (1930) made it clear that the source of man's biological and cultural evolutionary progress--self-denial--was also responsible for the tragedy of the human condition, namely, repression, eternal psychic ambivalence, and chronic mental illness. He believed that neurosis began, as Nietzsche (1887) exclaimed, with the "reduction of the beast of prey 'man' to a tame and civilized animal..." (p. 42). For both Freud and Nietzsche, the cause of the human tragedy was not merely the fall from Nature, but the inexorable knowledge that Man's denial of his biological heritage was the very basis for being human.

  4. Manned spaceflight log II—2006–2012

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2013-01-01

    April 12, 1961 "Attention! This is Radio Moscow speaking...The world's first satellite spaceship, Vostock, with a man aboard, was put into orbit round the Earth." Soviet Union cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin becomes the first person to fly in space, completing one orbit in 108 minutes. April 5, 2001 As NASA prepares to fly the final Shuttle missions to the International Space Station, Russia launches Soyuz TMA 21 (code-named 'Yuri Gagarin') with the 28th ISS Expedition crew aboard, celebrating 50 years of manned spaceflight. Meanwhile, in China, preparations continue for launching the nation's first Space Station (called Tiangong 1 - or Heavenly Palace 1) later in the year. The sixth decade of manned spaceflight orbital operations has truly began. At this point in the history of human space exploration, it is timely to review the first five decades of adventure and look forward to the next decade and what it might bring. Several notable anniversaries celebrated in 2011 make it the right time to reflect and pay homa...

  5. 32 CFR 707.2 - Man overboard lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Man overboard lights. 707.2 Section 707.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVIGATION SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.2 Man overboard lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of indicating man overboard, two...

  6. Man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics addressed include: description of man-systems (definition, requirements, scope, subsystems, and topologies); implementation (approach, tools); man-systems interfaces (system to element and system to system); prime/supporting development relationship; selected accomplishments; and technical challenges.

  7. The Ideal Man and Woman According to University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio V.; Peterson, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined if the ideal man has changed over the years and who and what the ideal woman is. We asked students at Cameron University to rate the importance of character traits that define the ideal man and woman. Subjects also provided examples of famous people exemplifying the ideal, good, average, and inferior man and woman. We…

  8. The Ideal Man and Woman According to University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio V.; Peterson, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined if the ideal man has changed over the years and who and what the ideal woman is. We asked students at Cameron University to rate the importance of character traits that define the ideal man and woman. Subjects also provided examples of famous people exemplifying the ideal, good, average, and inferior man and woman. We…

  9. TaxMan: a taxonomic database manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaxter Mark

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic analysis of large, multiple-gene datasets, assembled from public sequence databases, is rapidly becoming a popular way to approach difficult phylogenetic problems. Supermatrices (concatenated multiple sequence alignments of multiple genes can yield more phylogenetic signal than individual genes. However, manually assembling such datasets for a large taxonomic group is time-consuming and error-prone. Additionally, sequence curation, alignment and assessment of the results of phylogenetic analysis are made particularly difficult by the potential for a given gene in a given species to be unrepresented, or to be represented by multiple or partial sequences. We have developed a software package, TaxMan, that largely automates the processes of sequence acquisition, consensus building, alignment and taxon selection to facilitate this type of phylogenetic study. Results TaxMan uses freely available tools to allow rapid assembly, storage and analysis of large, aligned DNA and protein sequence datasets for user-defined sets of species and genes. The user provides GenBank format files and a list of gene names and synonyms for the loci to analyse. Sequences are extracted from the GenBank files on the basis of annotation and sequence similarity. Consensus sequences are built automatically. Alignment is carried out (where possible, at the protein level and aligned sequences are stored in a database. TaxMan can automatically determine the best subset of taxa to examine phylogeny at a given taxonomic level. By using the stored aligned sequences, large concatenated multiple sequence alignments can be generated rapidly for a subset and output in analysis-ready file formats. Trees resulting from phylogenetic analysis can be stored and compared with a reference taxonomy. Conclusion TaxMan allows rapid automated assembly of a multigene datasets of aligned sequences for large taxonomic groups. By extracting sequences on the basis of

  10. Once, someone just took a geiger counter. Development and state of the art of radio-activity measurement techniques; Einst nahm man einen Geigerzaehler. Entwicklung und Stand der Radioaktivitaets-Messtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Christoph [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany). Physikalisches Messlabor

    2009-07-01

    The development of activity measurement techniques started together with the discovery of radioactivity in 1896. A great impulse was given to the development by the rising of nuclear technology in the 50s. The detection techniques used today have been developed mainly at that time and in the following years. With the huge progress in semiconductor industry and in computer technology, the application of measuring processes developed then has become much simpler. Today, even commercial measuring systems for low-level-measurements of radioactivity are available. (orig.)

  11. Hvor må man gå?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    færdsel på anden mands grund kan også have hjemmel i en servitut. Reglerne giver anledning til en masse stridigheder og er vanskelige at følge for de fleste af os. I Sverige og Norge har man allemandsret, men ikke i Danmark. Her skal man som mountainbiker, hundelufter, nøgenbader eller kajakroer følge...... nogle ret detaljerede regler, når man færdes på veje og afveje i Guds natur. For at vurdere, om man må færdes på et givent areal, skal man bruge en række informationer. Nogle af dem fi ndes ude i landskabet, mens andre fi ndes ved computeren. Kan man lave en adgangs-app, så man kan se, hvor man må...... færdes? Eller bare en app, som giver en mulighed for at vurderee, hvor man må færdes? Hvilke informationer kan man se on location og hvilke online? Kan der skabes online adgang til den nødvendige information, eller må man skilte sig ud af problemerne? Reglerne er jo – ligesom hastighedsbegrænsninger på...

  12. A Technology Based on Human Exoskeleton for Enhancing Locomotion Capability of Lower Extremity during Extravehicular Tasks%基于外骨骼技术的舱外作业下肢运动能力增强技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向刚; 秦开宇; 张羿; 石宇亮; 王浩

    2015-01-01

    In the future, the astronauts will have to do more complex extravehicular activity( EVA) tasks with more equipments and payloads in a variety of harsh environments for longer time.There-fore, the requirements on astronaut’ s locomotion capacity during EVA tasks will be higher.In this paper, a technology based on human exoskeleton was introduced to enhance the locomotion capacity of Lower Extremity.The astronaut’ s exoskeleton includes the bionic mechanical structure, actua-tors, energy system, sensing system and control system.The technical approaches mainly include:establishing the dynamic model of the astronaut ’ s exoskeleton system, perceiving the posture of limbs and movement intention, controlling the actuators to enhance the movement ability of the lower extremity.The validity of the astronaut’ s exoskeleton system was demonstrated by the ground experi-mental data and simulation.%针对未来航天活动中航天员面对的在复杂环境下携带大量载荷进行长时间、大范围舱外作业的需求对航天员舱外运动能力要求较高的背景,阐述了一种基于外骨骼技术的舱外作业下肢运动能力增强技术,介绍的外骨骼系统包括仿形机械结构分系统、执行机构分系统、能源分系统、感知分系统和控制分系统,还重点介绍了动力学分析与建模、运动状态和运动意图感知、实时控制等关键技术,并通过地面实验数据和仿真证明了这种方法的有效性。

  13. The new V8 diesel engine from MAN; Der neue V8-Dieselmotor von MAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehler, Georg; Vogel, Werner; Moeller, Inge; Tuerk, Jens [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Motorenwerk Nuernberg AG, Nuernberg (Germany); Raup, Markus [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge, Steyr (Austria)

    2008-09-15

    MAN has developed a new V8 engine for the 16-l class with an output of 500 kW and 3,000 Nm of torque for its TGX and TGS ranges of heavy trucks. To reduce NO{sub x}, MAN has applied an SCR system with AdBlue injection. This article describes the engine concept, the design of the main components, the development of vehicle-specific add-on parts and the work carried out to optimise the combustion system and exhaust aftertreatment. (orig.)

  14. Dihydralazine induces marked cerebral vasodilation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H

    1987-01-01

    Dihydralazine is widely used for acute control of hypertension. In experimental studies it seems to dilate cerebral resistance vessels and increase intracranial pressure. However, the effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in man has been little studied. Measurements of CBF were performed with the i.......v. xenon-133 technique in seven young, normotensive volunteers before and 15, 60 and 180 min after 6.25 mg i.v. dihydralazine, corresponding approximately to 0.1 mg kg-1 body weight. For comparison the CBF reactivity to inhalation of 5% CO2 in air was investigated. Dihydralazine increased CBF throughout...

  15. Optical medical imaging: from glass to man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Mark

    2016-11-01

    A formidable challenge in modern respiratory healthcare is the accurate and timely diagnosis of lung infection and inflammation. The EPSRC Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration (IRC) `Proteus' seeks to address this challenge by developing an optical fibre based healthcare technology platform that combines physiological sensing with multiplexed optical molecular imaging. This technology will enable in situ measurements deep in the human lung allowing the assessment of tissue function and characterization of the unique signatures of pulmonary disease and is illustrated here with our in-man application of Optical Imaging SmartProbes and our first device Versicolour.

  16. Electrophysiologic properties of ethacrynic acid in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L; Gopalaswamy, C; Chandy, F; Abdou, O

    1983-11-01

    Ethacrynic acid is a potent oral diuretic and saluretic agent. It has been used extensively in the treatment of heart failure and its effects on cardiovascular dynamics are well established. The clinical relief of the symptoms of pulmonary congestion frequently precedes any demonstrable diuretic effect suggesting that extra renal factors may also be involved. In spite of ethacrynic acid's wide use in the treatment of heart failure and hypertension, there is no information on the electrophysiologic properties of the drug in man. The present study involving 10 human subjects was undertaken to determine what effect intravenously administered ethacrynic acid has on the human conduction system.

  17. The inescapable tale of tomahawk man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Ribeiro Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the contemporary literary criticism The Man that was Used Up (1982, [1839] represents one of the most significant satires of Edgar Allan Poe. This burlesque suggests many references to the effects of magazine context upon literature in the first half of the nineteenth century. The aim of this study is to briefly describe the influence of Poe’s magazinist career in the field of fiction, precisely in this short story, based on the studies of J. Gerald Kennedy, Jonathan Auerbach, Leonard Cassuto and Stacey Margolis among others.

  18. Pantex Falling Man - Independent Review Panel Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Nathan Gregory; L. Bertolini, N. Brannon, J. Olsen, B. Price, M. Steinzig, R. Wardle, & M. Winfield

    2014-11-01

    Consolidated Nuclear Security (CNS) Pantex took the initiative to organize a Review Panel of subject matter experts to independently assess the adequacy of the Pantex Tripping Man Analysis methodology. The purpose of this report is to capture the details of the assessment including the scope, approach, results, and detailed Appendices. Along with the assessment of the analysis methodology, the panel evaluated the adequacy with which the methodology was applied as well as congruence with Department of Energy (DOE) standards 3009 and 3016. The approach included the review of relevant documentation, interactive discussion with Pantex staff, and the iterative process of evaluating critical lines of inquiry.

  19. Rules and Regulations for Manning of Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    1.25 1 .8 111IL1 -_____ 16 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHART CC Q~2 Rules and Regulations For/ j Manning oF Vesselsv -1Ju177 iA55G-268 DEPARTMENT OF... quail - (a) The term "licensed officer" mean fled member of the engine department any person holding a license issued by the Issued by the Coast Guard...amended; 46 U.S.C. 243- to act as pilot in charge of a watch 247), the qualifications of staff officers on any steam vessel within the quail - engaged

  20. Resistência à proteína C ativada e doença arterial isquêmica em jovem Resistance to activated protein C and ischemic arterial disease in a young man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Alexandre Côrtes de Menezes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da resistência à ação da proteína C ativada (rPCA, causada por mutação no fator V (fator V de Leiden, é fator de risco importante para tromboembolia venosa, cujo papel como geradora de obstruções arteriais in situ é um tema ainda controverso. O caso clínico de um jovem com história de coronariopatia, múltiplas lesões cerebrovasculares e doença arterial periférica é relatado. A investigação diagnóstica apontou a rPCA como possível etiologia.The assessment of activated protein C resistance (APCR caused by mutations in factor V (factor V Leiden is an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism, of which role as the originator of arterial obstructions in situ is still a controversial subject. The clinical case of a young patient with history of coronariopathy, multiple cerebrovascular lesions and peripheral artery disease is reported. The diagnostic investigation showed APCR as the possible etiology.

  1. Man's Effect on the Environment, Teacher's Guide. Environmental Education Unit, Sixth Grade Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little Rock School District, AR.

    Part of a sequential series of curriculum units in environmental education for grades 4 through 12, this sixth grade curriculum guide focuses on man's effect upon the environment. Extensive classroom activities and field trips introduce the student to population, technology, pollution, natural resources, responsibility, career opportunities, and…

  2. Cardiac arrest in a young man following excess consumption of caffeinated "energy drinks".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Adam J; Alford, Kevin

    2009-01-05

    An otherwise healthy 28-year-old man had a cardiac arrest after a day of motocross racing. He had consumed excessive amounts of a caffeinated "energy drink" throughout the day. We postulate that a combination of excessive ingestion of caffeine- and taurine-containing energy drinks and strenuous physical activity can produce myocardial ischaemia by inducing coronary vasospasm.

  3. Diversity of Marine Plants. Man and the Gulf of Mexico Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Bobby N., Comp.; And Others

    "Man and the Gulf of Mexico" (MGM) is a marine science curriculum series developed to meet the needs of 10th through 12th grade students in Mississippi and Alabama schools. This MGM unit on the diversity of marine plants is divided into 12 sections. The first section introduces the unit by providing objectives and activities on why…

  4. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. 84.99 Section 84.99 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99...

  5. Rembrandt’s An Old Man in Military Costume: the underlying image re-examined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, K.; Janssens, K.; Van der Snickt, G.; Szafran, Y.; Woollett, A.T.; Dik, J.

    2015-01-01

    The painting An Old Man in Military Costume in the J. Paul Getty Museum, by Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn, was studied using two complementary, element-specific imaging techniques—neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) and macro-X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) mapping—to reveal the second, hidden paint

  6. Reduced plasma noradrenaline during angiotensin II-induced acute hypertension in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, N J

    1985-01-01

    .005) and similarly to the decrease obtained with ANG II infusion. 4. The results indicate that a decrease in sympathoadrenal activity occurs during ANG II-induced acute hypertension in man. This may be elicited by the arterial baroreflex, which seems to dominate any direct sympathoadrenergic facilitating effect...

  7. 舱外航天服热试验方法研究%Research on Thermal Test Methods for Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范含林; 孙萌; 李潭秋; 吴志强; 张堪; 潘维

    2009-01-01

    舱外航天服采用主被动相结合的热控方式控制内部的温度,但其外形复杂,影响外热流的因素很多,因此舱外航天服热试验存在着与传统航天器热试验完全不同的特点.文章根据舱外航天服热设计的特点,对舱外航天服的地面热试验方法进行了比较分析和研究,论证了采用等效外热流模拟方法,通过进行舱外航天服系统漏热和散热能力的测试来验证热设计方法的合理性及热试验方法的可行性.%Active thermal control technologies were used in extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). The configuration of EMU is complicated and there are many influence factors on reaching heat flux. The thermal test for EMU had the different characters with that of traditional space probe. Different simulation methods of EMU thermal test were presented, based on the characteristics of the thermal design. It's feasible to validate the thermal design by equivalently simulating the space heat flux as the test thermal boundary and measuring the heat leakage of the EMU and heat dissipation ability.

  8. Marketing a tourism industry in late stage decline: The case of the Isle of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Canavan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative interviews in the Isle of Man uncovered local perceptions of a tourism industry in late stage decline. Social impacts of decline are pronounced including facilities loss, cultural changes and a heightening of perceived peripherality: which taken together undermine local identity. Tourists are welcomed as they help to affirm the pride residents have in their island in creating a more active atmosphere, to provide social interaction opportunities and to combat negative stereotyping. Thus, findings emphasise the diverse, unique and persistent benefits of tourism in the Isle of Man, despite its decline. Destination marketing recommendations are therefore made to better address the experiences and desires of communities experiencing decline.

  9. [Anaesthetic management of Stiff Man syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, T; Hernando, D; Kinast, N; Churruca, I; Sabate, S

    2015-04-01

    Stiff Man syndrome or stiff-person syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder. It is characterized by increased axial muscular tone and limb musculature, and painful spasms triggered by stimulus. The case is presented of a 44-year-old man with stiff-person syndrome undergoing an injection of botulinum toxin in the urethral sphincter under sedation. Before induction, all the surgical team were ready in order to minimise the anaesthetic time. The patient was monitored by continuous ECG, SpO2 and non-invasive blood pressure. He was induced with fractional dose of propofol 150 mg, fentanyl 50 μg and midazolam 1mg. Despite careful titration, the patient had an O2 saturation level of 90%,which was resolved by manual ventilation. There was no muscle rigidity or spasm during the operation. Post-operative recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged 2 days later. A review of other cases is presented. The anaesthetic concern in patients with stiff-person syndrome is the interaction between the anaesthetic agents, the preoperative medication, and the GABA system. For a safe anaesthetic management, total intravenous anaesthesia is recommended instead of inhalation anaesthetics, as well as the close monitoring of the respiratory function and the application of the electrical nerve stimulator when neuromuscular blockers are used.

  10. Protection of man: the exposed individual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnstedt, A.; Knebel, J.U. [Programme Nuclear Safety Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Breustedt, B. [Institute for Radiation Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Present methods for quantifying radiation exposure rely on a standardized reference man (75 kg) with defined average anatomical and physiological data. But individual person actually exposed differs from this idealized standard man. Therefore the focus of investigations at the Institute for Radiation Research (Institut fuer Strahlenforschung, ISF) which was founded at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, KIT) in 2009 is based on the vision to place the exposed individual with its anatomical and physiological particularities, under consideration of age, gender, body height, body shape and environment, in the centre of an individual-related quantification of the external and internal radiation exposure. Research work at the ISF is aiming at quantifying radiation exposure by improved determination of doses essentially caused by external radiation fields and the intake of radionuclides into the body. The three main topics of the institute are - external dosimetry (e.g. using a (voxel) model of the hand to simulate skin dose distribution); - internal dosimetry (e.g. body size related efficiency calibration of in-vivo counting equipment); - numerical methods/modeling (e.g. development of a mathematical/voxel-hybrid model of the human body). (authors)

  11. Abstraction of man-made shapes

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Ravish

    2009-01-01

    Man-made objects are ubiquitous in the real world and in virtual environments. While such objects can be very detailed, capturing every small feature, they are often identified and characterized by a small set of defining curves. Compact, abstracted shape descriptions based on such curves are often visually more appealing than the original models, which can appear to be visually cluttered. We introduce a novel algorithm for abstracting three-dimensional geometric models using characteristic curves or contours as building blocks for the abstraction. Our method robustly handles models with poor connectivity, including the extreme cases of polygon soups, common in models of man-made objects taken from online repositories. In our algorithm, we use a two-step procedure that first approximates the input model using a manifold, closed envelope surface and then extracts from it a hierarchical abstraction curve network along with suitable normal information. The constructed curve networks form a compact, yet powerful, representation for the input shapes, retaining their key shape characteristics while discarding minor details and irregularities. © 2009 ACM.

  12. So Man-yee’s Design Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    SO Man-yee started to learn Western painting in1971. In 1973 she graduated from the Linhai ArtSchool in Hong Kong after spending three yearsstudying commercial design. After leaving the schoolshe started work with advertisement agencies. Thatexperience prepared her for further development inthe design field. So founded her own design company in 1976 withher friend Han Binhua. Apart from this project, So isalso involved in art education. So is a member of theboard of the Hong Kong Zhengxing Design School,executive member of the Association of Designers inHong Kong, member of the board of Hong KongArtists, chief director of the board of Hong Kong’sKinggraphic Co. Ltd., and also chairperson of theHong Kong Women Painters Association. A famous watercolorist in Hong Kong, So has heldseveral eye-catching exhibitions there. Her exhibitionsinclude the one-woman show entitled "So Man-yee’sRhythm of Watercolors" held in 1987 at the HongKong Art Center. In 1996 a grand exhibition of HongKong artists hosted by the

  13. Radiation Shielding for Manned Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The arrival of the Expedition 1 Crew at the International Space Station represents the beginning of the continuous presence of man in space. Already we are deploying astronauts and cosmonauts for missions of approx. 6 months onboard the ISS. In the future we can anticipate that more people will be in space and they will be there for longer periods. Even with 6-months deployments to the ISS, the radiation exposure that crew members receive is approaching the exposure limits imposed by the governments of the space- faring nations. In the future we can expect radiation protection to be a dominant consideration for long manned missions. Recognizing this, NASA has expanded their research program on radiation health. This program has three components, bioastronautics, fundamental biology and radiation shielding materials. Bioastronautics is concerned with the investigating the effects of radiation on humans. Fundamental biology investigates the basic mechanisms of radiation damage to tissue. Radiation shielding materials research focuses on developing accurate computational tools to predict the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials. It also investigates new materials that can be used for spacecraft. The radiation shielding materials program will be described and examples of results from the ongoing research will be shown.

  14. Postural Control in Man: The Phylogenetic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gramsbergen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Erect posture in man is a recent affordance from an evolutionary perspective. About eight million years ago, the stock from which modern humans derived split off from the ape family, and from around sixty-thousand years ago, modern man developed. Upright gait and manipulations while standing pose intricate cybernetic problems for postural control. The trunk, having an older evolutionary history than the extremities, is innervated by medially descending motor systems and extremity muscles by the more recent, laterally descending systems. Movements obviously require concerted actions from both systems. Research in rats has demonstrated the interdependencies between postural control and the development of fluent walking. Only 15 days after birth, adult-like fluent locomotion emerges and is critically dependent upon postural development. Vesttibular deprivation induces a retardation in postural development and, consequently, a retarded development of adult-like locomotion. The cerebellum obviously has an important role in mutual adjustments in postural control and extremity movements, or, in coupling the phyiogenetic older and newer structures. In the human, the cerebellum develops partly after birth and therefore is vulnerable to adverse perinatal influences. Such vulnerability seems to justify focusing our scientific research efforts onto the development of this structure.

  15. "A Man's Gotta Do What a Man's Gotta Do!" Masculinity and Manhood in Social Studies Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, William L.

    2004-01-01

    Men in the United States are products of society's assumptions about what it means to "be a man." Throughout American history, these assumptions have supported aggression, conflict, and war. Seeing American troops in Iraq conjures comparisons not only to past military ventures but also to the changing face of the masculine warrior. One might see…

  16. Proprietary Manned Space Flight Proposals, 1973 to 2013, plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip

    2016-03-01

    In 1973 a concept for a manned space flight experiment was submitted to NASA as an unsolicited proprietary proposal,*. In 1998*, 2004*, and 2013* proposals successively more details were provided. An abbreviation of the 1998 proposal was published. By 2013 the five technical variables of 1998 had increased to over ten. Some technical and management details of the proposals will be presented and updated. The first flight of two could use some hardware now being developed. The experiment seems superior to any mission publicly advocated by NASA, so this talk's purpose is to encourage NASA to delay landing humans on Mars until the first spacecraft can be developed and activated. *Complete proposals are in the Philip C. Fisher papers, Niels Bohr Library and Archives, American Institute of Physics (available one year after author's death). Work after 1982 supported by successive forms of Ruffner Associates.

  17. Multielectron High Harmonic Generation: simple man on a complex plane

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    From the famous classical "simple man" model to the recent multichannel model for polyatomic molecules, this tutorial will guide you through the several landmarks in our understanding of high harmonic generation and high harmonic spectroscopy. Our goal was to provide recipes and insights for modelling the harmonic response in various regimes, from the single active electron regime typical for noble gas atoms to the laser-driven attosecond hole dynamics in polyatomics. We have tried to pay particular attention to both simple recipes and their limitations, including the connection of real-valued classical and complex-valued quantum times and velocities. In addition to physical pictures, general approaches and their practical realizations, we have also tried to discuss some of the sticky technical issues, such as the possibility to factorize high harmonic response into the three steps of ionization, propagation and recombination and practical ways to treat strong field ionization, search for the saddle points of...

  18. Syphilitic periostitis in a newly diagnosed HIV-positive man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, K; Browne, R; Anagnostopoulos, C; Nwokolo, N

    2006-06-01

    A 36-year-old man presented for an HIV test, which answered positive. He gave a six-week history of headache and fever. His syphilis serology was also positive with a Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) titre of 1:32, and positive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay and fluorescent treponemal antibody (FTA). When he attended for treatment of the syphilis, he had developed severe pain in both lower limbs. Plain radiographs were normal. An isotope bone scan showed multiple areas of increased uptake, consistent with syphilitic periostitis. Some of these lesions were asymptomatic. He was treated with benzathine penicillin and his pain resolved. The bone scan had normalized after six months. We review the previous literature regarding syphilitic bone pain and periostitis. We discuss the importance of considering syphilis in the differential diagnosis of any sexually active adult presenting with bone pain, and highlight the usefulness of isotope bone scans in clarifying the clinical picture.

  19. Hydrocephalus in an elderly man with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Wu, Tsai-Hung; Chou, Chung-Tei; Tsai, Chang-Youh

    2009-06-01

    A 71-year-old man presented with quadriplegia, seizures, dysarthria, motor aphasia and urinary incontinence lasting for several years. The development of proteinuria and increased susceptibility to infections brought the physician's attention to possible underlying autoimmune diseases. Laboratory investigations revealed evidence for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome. Imaging studies showed obstructive hydrocephalus. Several courses of methylprednisolone therapies followed by maintenance therapy with low-dose steroid, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and antihypertensives improved the proteinuria and dysarthria but not the urinary incontinence or dementia. A thromboembolic event in the central nervous system secondary to phospholipid antibodies or lupus activity may represent a pathogenetic basis for hydrocephalus. When encountering a patient with hydrocephalus but without apparent predisposing factors, it is always important to include SLE as a differential diagnosis.

  20. The Implementation of Madrasah-Based Management (MBM) at Man 1 and Man 2 Serang City, Banten, Indonesia--A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhajir

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to reveal how the real condition of management of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri (MAN) or Islamic Senior High School in Serang is, how the understanding of Madrasah-Based Management (MBM) for the people of MAN 2 and MAN 1 Serang is, and how the implementation of MBM in MAN 2 and MAN 1 Serang. This study has a substantial meaning, both…

  1. China's 'Iron Man'-an Undying Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ An oil driller named Wang Jinxi has been reputed as China's "Iron Man" for more than four decades across the country.In September 2009,nearly 39 years after his death,Wang-who drilled the first well of China's largest oilfield in Daqing-was voted by the public one of the 100 most notable figures in New China's history.In January,Wang was selected as one of the country's 10 most influential figures in the past 100 years by China Comment,one of the country's leading magazines.Wang,as the first national role-model in China's industrial sector,inspired numerous people in China's vast work force.

  2. Dipolar interaction and the Manning formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberto Mercado-Escalante,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we want to show that the mathematical model of quantum mechanics, led to its classical approach, is able to reproduce as close macroscopic experimental results captured by the Manning formula, sufficiently verified through their diverse applications in hydraulics. Molecular interaction between the fluid and the wall of the vessel is studied decomposing the Hamiltonian in two parts: free, and interacting. Scaling process is considered from molecular to hydraulic. Participation of the symmetries of Saint-Venant equation in the hydraulic gradient is taken into account. Correlations between different variables are set. The magnitude of scale change is estimated. We conclude that the Compton wavelength induces to the Boussinesq viscosity concept and the characteristic length of the viscous sublayer.

  3. Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillaman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight study analyzes risk management in large enterprises and how to effectively communicate risks across organizations. The Calysto Risk Management tool developed by NASA's Kennedy Space Center's SharePoint team is used and referenced throughout the study. Calysto is a web-base tool built on Microsoft's SharePoint platform. The risk management process at NASA is examined and incorporated in the study. Using risk management standards from industry and specific organizations at the Kennedy Space Center, three methods of communicating and elevating risk are examined. Each method describes details of the effectiveness and plausibility of using the method in the Calysto Risk Management Tool. At the end of the study suggestions are made for future renditions of Calysto.

  4. Inflammatory pain in experimental burns in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L

    2000-01-01

    Human experimental pain models are important tools in pain research. The primary aims of pain research in normal man is 1) to provide insight in pain mechanisms, 2) to provide a rational basis for clinical trials of pain relieving interventions, and 3) to confirm the anti-nociceptive effects...... sensitisation of central neurones in the nociceptive pathway. Pain and hyperalgesia have been evaluated in the model by thermal, various mechanical, and electrical stimuli. The different methods of pain assessments are discussed to clarify the underlying neural mechanisms, the questions that can be addressed...... stimuli may be more reproducible. A methodological study also demonstrated that habituation to experimental pain developed as the study proceeded. Habituation is common in experimental pain models, and dividing analgesics and placebo evenly between the study days is one way of eliminating the effects...

  5. A MAN WITH MULTIPLE ABDOMINAL CALCIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rohsila

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man presented with a dull, aching pain in theleft lumbar region for three days duration. The pain wasaggravated by movement and associated with low grade feverand vomiting. He had a few episodes of passing out sandyparticles in his urine, several days prior to admission. Hedenied any lower urinary tract symptoms or alteration in hisbowel habits.Physical examination revealed stable haemodynamic status.His blood pressure was 130/70 mmHg with a pulse rate of96 beats/min. His body temperature was 37.6ºC. He had mildtenderness in the left lumbar region on deep palpation of hisabdomen. Kidneys were not ballotable and renal punch wasnegative.

  6. Earth orbital operations supporting manned interplanetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; Buddington, Patricia A.; Whittaker, William L.

    The orbital operations required to accumulate, assemble, test, verify, maintain, and launch complex manned space systems on interplanetary missions from earth orbit are as vital as the flight hardware itself. Vast numbers of orbital crew are neither necessary nor desirable for accomplishing the required tasks. A suite of robotic techniques under human supervisory control, relying on sensors, software and manipulators either currently emergent or already applied in terrestrial settings, can make the job tractable. The mission vehicle becomes largely self-assembling, using its own rigid aerobrake as a work platform. The Space Station, having been used as a laboratory testbed and to house an assembly crew of four, is not dominated by the process. A feasible development schedule, if begun soon, could emplace orbital support technologies for exploration missions in time for a 2004 first interplanetary launch.

  7. Asymptomatic young man with Danon disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiwon; Parikh, Parag; Mahboob, Mohammad; Arrighi, James A; Atalay, Michael K; Rowin, Ethan J; Maron, Martin S

    2014-06-01

    Danon disease is a rare, codominant X-linked genetic disorder characterized by the triad of left ventricular hypertrophy, mental retardation, and peripheral myopathy. This disease is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), a deficiency of which results in the accumulation of autophagic granular débris within the vacuoles of muscle cells. This is a report of an asymptomatic 19-year-old man with Danon disease in the absence of mental retardation or clinically significant skeletal myopathy. This case underscores the importance of accurate diagnosis of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, in order to establish an appropriate treatment plan and to advise genetic counseling.

  8. Values and the quantum conception of man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1995-06-01

    Classical mechanics is based upon a mechanical picture of nature that is fundamentally incorrect. It has been replaced at the basic level by a radically different theory: quantum mechanics. This change entails an enormous shift in one`s basic conception of nature, one that can profoundly alter the scientific image of man himself. Self-image is the foundation of values, and the replacement of the mechanistic self-image derived from classical mechanics by one concordant with quantum mechanics may provide the foundation of a moral order better suited to today`s times, a self-image that endows human life with meaning, responsibility, and a deeper linkage to nature as a whole.

  9. The PMS project Poor Man's Supercomputer

    CERN Document Server

    Csikor, Ferenc; Hegedüs, P; Horváth, V K; Katz, S D; Piróth, A

    2001-01-01

    We briefly describe the Poor Man's Supercomputer (PMS) project that is carried out at Eotvos University, Budapest. The goal is to develop a cost effective, scalable, fast parallel computer to perform numerical calculations of physical problems that can be implemented on a lattice with nearest neighbour interactions. To reach this goal we developed the PMS architecture using PC components and designed a special, low cost communication hardware and the driver software for Linux OS. Our first implementation of the PMS includes 32 nodes (PMS1). The performance of the PMS1 was tested by Lattice Gauge Theory simulations. Using SU(3) pure gauge theory or bosonic MSSM on the PMS1 computer we obtained 3$/Mflops price-per-sustained performance ratio. The design of the special hardware and the communication driver are freely available upon request for non-profit organizations.

  10. Biopersistence of man-made vitreous fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhle, H; Bellmann, B

    1995-10-01

    Methods for the determination of biodurability of man-made vitreous fibres are reviewed. For mineral wools the first step was the preparation of respirable fibre fractions. Fibres were administered to rats by inhalation or by intratracheal instillation. After serial sacrifice their lungs were digested by low-temperature ashing or by hypochlorite. The total number of fibres per lung and the distributions of length and diameter were analysed by electron microscopy. This resulted in a bivariate distribution of fibres at the various sacrifice dates. If the logarithm of the number of fibres decreased approximately linearly with time after exposure then the elimination kinetics of fibres can be characterized by a half-time. The half-times were compared between various experiments with rats exposed to mineral wool samples. In summary good agreement was found for the elimination of fibres after long-term inhalation and intratracheal instillation whereas shorter half-times were found after short-term inhalation.

  11. Biomedical support of man in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, D. R.; Olszowka, A. J.; Rokitka, M. A.; Farhi, L. E.

    In its broadest sense, biomedical support of man in space must not be limited to assisting spacecraft crew during the mission; such support should also ensure that flight personnel be able to perform properly during landing and after leaving the craft. Man has developed mechanisms that allow him to cope with specific stresses in his normal habitat; there is indisputable evidence that, in some cases, the space environment, by relieving these stresses, has also allowed the adaptive mechanisms to lapse, causing serious problems after re-entry. Inflight biomedical support must therefore include means to simulate some of the normal stresses of the Earth environment. In the area of cardiovascular performance, we have come to rely heavily on complex feedback mechanisms to cope with two stresses, often combined: postural changes, which alter the body axis along which gravitational acceleration acts, and physical exercise, which increases the total load on the system. Unless the appropriate responses are reinforced continuously during flight, crew members may be incapacitated upon return. The first step in the support process must be a study of the way in which changes in g, even of short duration, affect these responses. In particular we should learn more about effects of g on the "on" and "off" dynamics, using a variety of approaches: increased acceleration on one hand at recumbency, immersion, lower body positive pressure, and other means of simulating some of the effects of low g, on the other. Once we understand this, we will have to determine the minimal exposure dose required to maintain the response mechanisms. Finally, we shall have to design stresses that simulate Earth environment and can be imposed in the space vehicle. Some of the information is already at hand; we know that several aspects of the response to exercise are affected by posture. Results from a current series of studies on the kinetics of tilt and on the dynamics of readjustment to exercise in

  12. Two-Man Bobsled Push Start Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Alexandre Dias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of push start times on bobsled performance was evidenced by some studies, but at this moment there is no article to the authors’ knowledge that describes the bobsled push start. Thus, the objectives of this study were to describe the two-man bobsled push start, analyze the differences between teams, and estimate the most important variable analyzed. We hypothesized that the pilot and brakeman athletes’ movement patterns during a bobsled pushing start can be described. The images used in this study were obtained during the men’s two-man XIV World Championship of Bobsled (2004. Fifteen best teams participating in the championship were recorded, and four start runs for each team were analyzed. The videos were captured by two digital video cameras. The pilot athletes were analyzed during the moment that they touched the lateral push bar of the sled, and the brakemen were analyzed during the first take-off and first landing. The teams were pooled in three groups of five teams using the final ranking of pushing time. We concluded that there was a distinct pattern movement for pilots and brakemen. The initial position of the majority of the pilots was localized slightly behind the bar. After touching the lateral bar, the pilots remained in a semi-squat position, pushing the sled forward in a pattern of marching movement. All brakemen used the board attached to the track as a support for both feet at the start. The brakeman gave the greatest contribution to break the inertia of the sled. There was no significant difference of movement between the three groups analyzed for the pilot and the brakeman.

  13. Design of a reusable kinetic energy absorber for an astronaut safety tether to be used during extravehicular activities on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, Dawn E.; Cronch, Daniel F.; Nixon, Glen R.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this project is to design a reusable safety device for a waist tether which will absorb the kinetic energy of an astronaut drifting away from the Space Station. The safety device must limit the tension of the tether line in order to prevent damage to the astronaut's space suit or to the structure of the spacecraft. The tether currently used on shuttle missions must be replaced after the safety feature has been developed. A reusable tether for the Space Station would eliminate the need for replacement tethers, conserving space and mass. This report presents background information, scope and limitations, methods of research and development, alternative designs, a final design solution and its evaluation, and recommendations for further work.

  14. MAN1B1 deficiency: an unexpected CDG-II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Rymen

    Full Text Available Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG are a group of rare metabolic diseases, due to impaired protein and lipid glycosylation. In the present study, exome sequencing was used to identify MAN1B1 as the culprit gene in an unsolved CDG-II patient. Subsequently, 6 additional cases with MAN1B1-CDG were found. All individuals presented slight facial dysmorphism, psychomotor retardation and truncal obesity. Generally, MAN1B1 is believed to be an ER resident alpha-1,2-mannosidase acting as a key factor in glycoprotein quality control by targeting misfolded proteins for ER-associated degradation (ERAD. However, recent studies indicated a Golgi localization of the endogenous MAN1B1, suggesting a more complex role for MAN1B1 in quality control. We were able to confirm that MAN1B1 is indeed localized to the Golgi complex instead of the ER. Furthermore, we observed an altered Golgi morphology in all patients' cells, with marked dilatation and fragmentation. We hypothesize that part of the phenotype is associated to this Golgi disruption. In conclusion, we linked mutations in MAN1B1 to a Golgi glycosylation disorder. Additionally, our results support the recent findings on MAN1B1 localization. However, more work is needed to pinpoint the exact function of MAN1B1 in glycoprotein quality control, and to understand the pathophysiology of its deficiency.

  15. Extrastriate cortical areas activated during visual discrimination in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, PE

    1981-01-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 254 different regions of the human extrastriate cerebral cortex during rest and during visual shape discrimination. Visual shape discrimination increased the rCBF markedly in the frontal eye fields, the upper part of the prefrontal cortex......, the lateral occipital cortex and the superior parietal cortex. Moderate increases of rCBF appeared in the inferotemporal cortex, the parietotemporo-occipital region and scattered in the lateral part of the prefrontal cortex....

  16. Innovative MAN Euro V engines without exhaust aftertreatment; Innovative MAN Euro V Motorisierung ohne Abgasnachbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, W.; Raab, G.; Schaller, K.V.; Gotre, W.; Lehmann, H.; Moeller, H.; Schroeppel, W. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Nuernberg (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Steyr (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) always is eager to offer products for the respective markets whereby the products are interesting for the customer under economic criteria. Additionally, the products shall not lack in the travelling comfort under consideration of the legal emission borders. Thus, a AdBlue {sup registered} free technology for all MAN series was already offered before the legal introduction of EURO IV. This technology is based on an internal-motor solution with external, cooled AGR and a PM-Cat {sup registered} -filter. This solution is esteemed highly by our customers because apart from the well-known advantages in relation to a SCR technology there were no losses with the operating cost. With EURO V which is inserted in some countries MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG returns to a long-term experience with SCR technology. The motivation for the development of a AdBlue {sup registered} free solution was the positive feedback of our customers on the basis of MAN EURO IV AGR/PM Cat technology. With the developed EURO V AGR solution, other EURO IV solutions in line with market conditions for the 'Emerging markets' can be derived with which a technology without exhaust post-treatment can be offered worldwide for our customers. This technology presents the basis for a platform concept EURO IV/V and EURO VI. In this concept, EURO IV can be presented without subsequent treatment of exhaust gases, EURO V in connection with an Oxicat and EURO VI with a SCRT system. Here, the vehicle/engine concept presents the most important components for the individual series in particular. By means of these components, the goal EURO V was achieved internal-motor without losses of operating cost and life span in relation to SCR technologies.

  17. The Little Man and the Cosmic Cauldron

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Very Large Telescope's First Light, ESO is releasing two stunning images of different kinds of nebulae, located towards the Carina constellation. The first one, Eta Carinae, has the shape of a 'little man' and surrounds a star doomed to explode within the next 100 000 years. The second image features a much larger nebula, whose internal turmoil is created by a cluster of young, massive stars. Green Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 17a/08 The Homunculus (NACO/VLT) Being brighter than one million Suns, Eta Carinae is the most luminous star known in the Galaxy. It is the closest example of a luminous blue variable, the last phase in the life of a very massive star before it explodes in a fiery supernova. Eta Carinae is surrounded by an expanding bipolar cloud of dust and gas known as the Homunculus ('little man' in Latin), which astronomers believe was expelled from the star during a great outburst seen in 1843 [1]. Eta Carinae was one of the first objects to be imaged during First Light with ESO's VLT, 10 years ago. At the time, the image obtained with a test camera already showed the unique capabilities of the European flagship telescope for ground-based optical and infrared astronomy, as well as of its unique location on the mountain of Paranal. The image had a resolution of 0.38 arcseconds. The new, recently obtained image reveals even more, with a resolution a factor of 6 to 7 times better. It was obtained with the NACO near-infrared instrument on Yepun, Unit Telescope 4 of the VLT. NACO is an adaptive optics instrument, which means that it can correct for the blurring effect of the atmosphere. And looking at the image, the power of adaptive optics is clear. The image quality is as though the whole 8.2-m telescope had been launched into space [2]. When viewed through the eyepiece of a small telescope, the Homunculus may indeed resemble a little man, but the astounding NACO image clearly shows a bipolar structure. Also

  18. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  19. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  20. Manned Mars mission solar physics: Solar energetic particle prediction and warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    There are specific risks to the crew of the manned Mars mission from energetic particles generated by solar activity. Therefore, mission planning must provide for solar monitoring and solar activity forecasts. The main need is to be able to anticipate the energetic particle events associated with some solar flares and, occasionally, with erupting filaments. A second need may be for forecasts of solar interference with radio communication between the manned Mars mission (during any of its three phases) and Earth. These two tasks are compatible with a small solar observatory that would be used during the transit and orbital phases of the mission. Images of the Sun would be made several times per hour and, together with a solar X-ray detector, used to monitor for the occurrence of solar activity. The data would also provide a basis for research studies of the interplanetary medium utilizing observations covering more of the surface of the Sun than just the portion facing Earth.

  1. Man and SuperNature. Lecture 12, September 27, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2015-01-01

    "Man and SuperNature" is a lyrical chapter in the 1946 London course following the emergence of Cosmic Education in Kodaikanal, India. Montessori contrasts the adaptation required of animals for their survival to conscious human adaptation. Animals exist and adapt to nature, but man can alter nature and change the environment.…

  2. Generic Man, Invisible Woman: Language, Thought, and Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Barbara A.

    Based on the assumptions that language use is selective and that language can affect an individual's perceptions in subtle ways, this paper investigates the use of the noun "man" and the pronouns "he" and "his" as generic terms. It is suggested that the use of "generic man" places women at a disadvantage in terms of understanding themselves and…

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The production of textile materials has undergone dramatic changes in the last century. Man-made cellulose fibres have played an important role for more than 70 years. Today, the man-made cellulose fibre industry is the worldwide second largest biorefinery (next to the paper industry). In the last

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The production of textile materials has undergone dramatic changes in the last century. Man-made cellulose fibres have played an important role for more than 70 years. Today, the man-made cellulose fibre industry is the worldwide second largest biorefinery (next to the paper industry). In the last f

  5. Environmental impact assessment of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Man-made cellulose fibres have played an important role in the production of textile products for more than 70 years. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact of man-made cellulose fibres. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for three types of fibres (i.e. Viscose, Modal

  6. 46 CFR 131.420 - Manning and supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manning and supervision. 131.420 Section 131.420 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Sufficiency and Supervision of Crew of Survival Craft § 131.420 Manning and supervision. (a) There must...

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310872022; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2010-01-01

    The production of textile materials has undergone dramatic changes in the last century. Man-made cellulose fibres have played an important role for more than 70 years. Today, the man-made cellulose fibre industry is the worldwide second largest biorefinery (next to the paper industry). In the last f

  8. Environmental impact assessment of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Man-made cellulose fibres have played an important role in the production of textile products for more than 70 years. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact of man-made cellulose fibres. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for three types of fibres (i.e. Viscose, Modal

  9. The Creation of Man and Woman in Early Jewish Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiten, J.T.A.G.M. van; Luttikhuizen, G P

    2000-01-01

    J.T.A.G.M. van Ruiten, “The Creation of Man and Woman in Early Jewish Literature,” in The Creation of Man and Woman: Interpretations of the Biblical Narratives in Jewish and Christian Traditions (ed. Gerard P. Luttikhuizen; Themes in Biblical Narrative 3; Leiden, Boston, and Köln: Brill, 2000), 34-6

  10. Who is afraid of a black Spider(-Man?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ora C. McWilliams

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An Internet post asking about Spider-Man's race in a film turned into an Internet campaign about an actor that led fans to interact with each other as well as with the actor, which in turn led to the attention of media producers, which resulted in a change in Spider-Man's race in a print comic book.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Man-Made Mineral glass fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Majbritt Deichgræber; Yue, Yuanzheng

    ; man-made mineral glass fibres. The basaltic melt is prevented from crystallizing due to the high cooling rate, forming the mineral glass wool fibres. Basaltic mineral wool fibres are of high interest in industry due to their good chemical durability and excellent heat and sound insulation properties...... and hence they are used for insulation products. In spite of those advantages, man made mineral wool fibres still show a certain degree of brittleness, which limits the further improvement of man made mineral wool fibres for both transportation and application. Therefore, a reduction in the brittleness...... of man made mineral wool fibres, and an improvement of the mechanical performances of man made mineral wool fibres are an evitable task for us. To do so, it is important to look into the fracture behaviour and its connection to the mechanical strength. In order to improve the understanding...

  12. Scopolamine induced learning failures in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R C

    1977-05-09

    Two experiments were performed to determine the locus of the amnestic effects of scopolamine in man. The first experiment involved 24 volunteers receiving one of three doses of scopolamine (5, 8 or 10 microng/kg) or a placebo, intravenously. The subjects were tested for retention of material learned prior to administration of the drug, acquisition of new information, and retention of material learned while under the influence of the drug. Results indicated that scopolamine has its primary effect on the acquisition of new material and less of an effect on the retrieval of information already learned. The second experiment was designed to refine and expand upon the results of the first and involved 18 volunteers receiving eith 5 or 10 microng/kg of scopolamine or a placebo, intravenously. The subjects were given four trials to learn a list of verbal materials, and their recall for that material was measured at various intervals up to 24 h. These results confirmed those of the first experiment in that the predominant influence of the drug was to impair the acquisition of new information. Implications of these results for memory mechanisms are discussed.

  13. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  14. Facts, Principles and the Third Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Ypi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the dialogue entitled “Parmenides” Plato introduces an objection to his own theory of ideas, one that he never managed to answer, dubbed by Aristotle as the “Third Man” argument. According to that objection, the theory of ideas is threatened with infinite regress when examining why a specific Platonic form (say, justice is predicated of a particular set of facts. This article seeks to show how any defence of fact-insensitive principles like the one offered by G.A. Cohen in his recent book “Rescuing Justice and Equality” is vulnerable to a similar objection. Cohen wants to insist that, when showing why facts support principles, the process of reason-giving is finite and terminates in fact-independent comprehensive principles. But something like the Third Man argument undermines Cohen’s conclusion just as it does Plato’s. The search for ultimate fact-independent principles is indeed threatened by infinite regress.

  15. Neuromyelitis Optica in a Nepalese Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Yogesh; Joshi, Utsav; Bhandari, Sanjeeb Sudarshan; Pokharel, Ashbina; Pokharel, Ashbita

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is a severely disabling inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system of autoimmune etiology that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. Here, we present a case report detailing a patient with tingling and weakness of right upper and lower limbs who was neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G-positive. A 46-year-old Nepalese man presented to the hospital with a history of tingling and weakness of right upper and lower limbs that developed over a period of two months. Clinical evaluation showed diminished power across all major muscle groups in the right upper and lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging of his cervical spine showed T1 iso- to hypointense signal and T2 hyperintense signal in central cervical spinal cord from first to sixth cervical level, probably suggestive of myelitis or demyelination. The patient was immediately started on intravenous methylprednisolone. The diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica was later confirmed with strongly positive neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G. In resource limited setting, in the absence of tests for neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G, treatment was started and the patient's condition started to get better. Hence, early initiation of aggressive immunosuppressive treatment is essential in such cases.

  16. [Psychosocial deliberations over the present man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann Peña, E

    1976-01-01

    The first fact mentioned is the need which every society has had of forming directors or leaders, whether able or not, whom to hold responsible; and at the end, whom to blame for all the failures of said society. The seriousness which implies the wrong choosing of a leader is reviewed, and at the same time, both, the cautiousness that should be practiced and the characteristics which he should bear. The harmfulness that can be released by the mass-media means of communication in the election of leaders has been mentioned. At present, a vital importance has been given to success interpreted as power and wealth, without taking into consideration the moral and material crushing which comes along with it. The reason for a "generation gap" is considered as the lack of understanding between parents and children, although sometimes the money gifts and the material comforts are over and above; in any case, youth must modify the reason for the breaking up without having to take trips into artificial paradises, but instead mending those errors: this is their great commitment. The present tendency to consider the psychiatrists as a panacea and, therefore, able to solve all the problems of today's man is discussed. Although this is not true, the psychiatrist is able to remedy many maladies if and when he acquires, beforehand, absolute maturity and is able to pass over said maturity to the rest of the people.

  17. A biokinetic study of {sup 209}Po in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henricsson, C.F.; Ranebo, Y. [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences in Lund, Lund University, Skane University Hospital in Lund (Sweden); Hansson, M. [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmoe, Lund University, Skane University Hospital in Malmoe (Sweden); Raeaef, C.L., E-mail: Christopher.Raaf@med.lu.se [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmoe, Lund University, Skane University Hospital in Malmoe (Sweden); Holm, E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Osteras (Norway)

    2012-10-15

    Five adult volunteers participated in a biokinetic study of radioactive polonium. Portions of about 10 Bq of {sup 209}Po were orally administrated to four of the volunteers in a single ingestion. The fifth volunteer ingested a daily amount of 53 mBq of 209Po for 243 d to study the time to achieve equilibrium between intake and excretion for protracted intakes. For the subjects ingesting single intakes of {sup 209}Po complete sampling of urine and feces was subsequently collected the first few days upon the ingestion. The samples were processed with radiochemical extraction and analyzed with alpha spectrometry. In the study, the maximum daily excretion rates in feces were 18-50% of the ingested activity, observed within 3 d after intake. Regarding the urine excretion, the daily excretion peaked, on average, at 0.15-1% of the ingested activity within two days upon intake. These results indicate an average gastro-intestinal uptake fraction of 0.46 {+-} 0.08, which agrees well with earlier biokinetic studies of polonium in man. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human metabolism of an oral intake of polonium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4 individuals were administrated about 10 Bq polonium-209. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gastro-intestinal uptake fraction, if orally administrated polonium-209 was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biological half-time of polonium in human body was studied.

  18. Hemodilution, vasopressin suppression, and diuresis during water immersion in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Keil, L. C.; Shvartz, E.

    1981-01-01

    The possible role of hemodilution in the early stages of water immersion in the suppression of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) and subsequent diuresis in man is investigated. Parameters characterizing hemodilution as well as water balance and intercompartmental fluid levels were measured before, during and after the immersion of ten subjects in a semireclining position in tap water up to their necks at 34.6 C for 8 hr. Results indicate that hemodilution and the suppression of vasopressin and plasma renin activity were present by the second hour of immersion, with the early hemodilution due to a slight increase in plasma volume with no change in plasma sodium or osmotic contents, even though urine volume and osmotic excretion rates increased significantly. Hyponatremia, hyposmotemia and plasma renin activity suppression are observed to continue to the end of immersion, resulting in final decreases of 15.6% in plasma volume, 18.8% in extracellular volume, 19.6% in interstitial volume and 10.7% in red cell volume. Findings suggest the transfer of hypotonic fluid into the vascular system, which contributes to vasopressin suppression observed during immersion.

  19. Perceptions and opinions of men and women on a man's sexual confidence and its relationship to ED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Martín, C; Simonelli, C; Sønksen, J

    2012-01-01

    The European Sexual Confidence Survey examined the opinions of men and women on the link between a man's sexual confidence and functional (erectile and orgasmic) and emotional (satisfaction and self-confidence) aspects of sex and life in general. The online survey of sexually active adults (25-64...... his self-confidence and self-esteem overall.......The European Sexual Confidence Survey examined the opinions of men and women on the link between a man's sexual confidence and functional (erectile and orgasmic) and emotional (satisfaction and self-confidence) aspects of sex and life in general. The online survey of sexually active adults (25...

  20. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  1. Hormonal regulation of ketone-body metabolism in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, K G; Johnston, D G; Gill, A; Barnes, A J; Orskov, H

    1978-01-01

    The main hormones involved in ketone-body metabolism are the anabolic hormone insulin and the primarily catabolic hormones, glucagon, cortisol, catecholamines and growth hormone. These hormones may regulate ketone-body metabolism at three sites: adipose tissue, by regulating fatty acid supply to the liver; the liver itself, by determining the relative activities of the re-esterification and fatty acid oxidation pathways; and the periphery, by influencing the rate of extrahepatic utilization of ketone bodies. The first two are quantitatively the most important. Insulin acts on all three regulatory sites. In adipose tissue lipolysis is inhibited and re-esterification enhanced with consequent decrease of fatty acid release. Both these processes are extremely insulin-sensitive. In the liver insulin increases fatty acid synthesis and esterification. At the same time malonyl-CoA formation is increased, which inhibits the acylcarnitine transferase system and thus decreases the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria and hence fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. Insulin also has a small stimulatory effect on extrahepatic ketone-body utilization. The effects of glucagon depend on whether insulin is present. In normal man glucagon stimulates insulin secretion and the predominant effect is that of insulin, i.e. decreased ketogenesis. In insulin deficiency glucagon has a mild stimulatory effect on lipolysis, increasing fatty acid supply to the liver. The main effects of glucagon are, however, on the liver. It activates the carnitine acyltransferase system through inhibition of malonyl-CoA synthesis. Fatty acid oxidation is increased and ketogenesis enhanced. The overall effect on the liver depends on the relative amounts of insulin and glucagon present. Studies with somatostatin show that glucagon can increase ketogenesis acutely when insulin secretion is inhibited in normal man, but the effects are short-lived. Cortisol has similar effects to glucagon. In the presence of

  2. Man and Nature in Chinese and Western Traditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑浩

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese conception of "oneness with man and heaven" and the Western tradition of man's separation from nature accompanied by a subject-object dichotomy are the cores of each culture, which largely decides the discrepancy in various aspects of the Chinese and Western ways. To have an embedded and penetrating idea about the differences between the two cultures, it is necessary to gain sufficient knowledge of man-nature relation in dominant Chinese and Western conceptions. This paper aims to explore this issue from the perspective of Taoism and Confucianism in Chinese context, and ancient Greek and Hebraic heritage and modern mechanical view in Western tradition.

  3. Queer encounters between Iron Man and Chinese boys' love fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Superhero fan fiction is increasingly popular in the Chinese boys' love (BL community. An exploration of the fan fic Gangtiexia: Zhongdu Yilai (Iron Man: Overly attached investigates how the Hollywood cultural icon Iron Man/Tony Stark is reimagined in Chinese BL culture and to what degree this kind of rendition both echoes and extends as well as challenges and deviates from our current insights into BL fandoms. Through the lenses of queerness and technological human transformation, I explore the fresh contribution of Iron Man fan fiction to both local BL cultures and global superhero fandoms.

  4. "Det man hører, er man selv" - musik og identitet set gennem musikforskningens briller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ole Bonde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ”Det man hører, er man selv” er Danmarks Radios P3s yderst velkendte slogan. Det dukkede op i begyndelsen af (2000’erne som opfindsom og populær afspejling af en moderne forståelse af den rolle musik og medieforbrug spiller for den voksne dansker. Denne artikel handler ikke om P3 som musikkanal, men går bag om det populære slogan og undersøger hvordan musik og identitet spiller sammen. Hvilke (musikpsykologiske teorier belyser musikkens rolle i identitetsdannelsen? Hvordan forskes der i emnet, og hvilke resultater kan der peges på? Forskningen dokumenterer bl.a., at musik bruges aktivt af mange mennesker som en ressource til at konstruere selv-identitet og gruppe-identitet, og til at skabe, opretholde og regulere en mangfoldighed af følelser. Denne oversigtsartikel giver via præsentation af udvalgte teorier og konkrete undersøgelser en bred introduktion til emnet og viser, hvordan musikforskere gennem arbejde med interviews, dagbøger og (musikalske selvbiografier samt feltarbejde kan beskrive musik som en ofte meget vigtig brik i identitetsdannelsen.

  5. The new 6 MW industrial gas turbine from MAN; Die neue 6 MW Industriegasturbine von MAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beukenberg, M.; Wiedermann, A.; Orth, U.; Aschenbruck, E.; Reiss, F. [MAN Diesel und Turbo SE, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The development of a completely new series of gas turbines requires significant capital, resources and know-how. MAN Diesel and Turbo strategically decided to create a small gas turbine in the 6 MW-class. The construction of the Gas Turbine has been on the basis of opportunities in current and future markets and the positioning of the competition, this has determined the characteristics and technical parameters which have been optimised in the 6 MW design. The construction uses extremely high precision engineering so that the assembly of sub-components to modules is a smooth flowing process and can guarantee the high standards both quality and performance which MAN Diesel and Turbo are operating to. The individual components must be tested and thoroughly validated many months before actual assembly of the first machine. These include in particular the compressor of the gas turbine and the combustion chamber. The combustion system required special attention, since the emissions are strongly focused to satisfy stringent environmental requirements. The planned tests are a prerequisite for the construction of such a prototype and must be successfully completed before the Gas Turbine will be accepted into service. (orig.)

  6. "Det man hører, er man selv" - musik og identitet set gennem musikforskningens briller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ole Bonde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ”Det man hører, er man selv” er Danmarks Radios P3s yderst velkendte slogan. Det dukkede op i begyndelsen af (2000’erne som opfindsom og populær afspejling af en moderne forståelse af den rolle musik og medieforbrug spiller for den voksne dansker. Denne artikel handler ikke om P3 som musikkanal, men går bag om det populære slogan og undersøger hvordan musik og identitet spiller sammen. Hvilke (musikpsykologiske teorier belyser musikkens rolle i identitetsdannelsen? Hvordan forskes der i emnet, og hvilke resultater kan der peges på? Forskningen dokumenterer bl.a., at musik bruges aktivt af mange mennesker som en ressource til at konstruere selv-identitet og gruppe-identitet, og til at skabe, opretholde og regulere en mangfoldighed af følelser. Denne oversigtsartikel giver via præsentation af udvalgte teorier og konkrete undersøgelser en bred introduktion til emnet og viser, hvordan musikforskere gennem arbejde med interviews, dagbøger og (musikalske selvbiografier samt feltarbejde kan beskrive musik som en ofte meget vigtig brik i identitetsdannelsen.

  7. The Bionic Man: Future Super Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Sachin

    2014-01-01

    , bionics can make possible completely new kinds of prostheses. Functional artificial eyes and ears simply wouldn’t be possible by any other means. The discussion will continue to the future of prosthetics and what can be expected, or what needs to be feared, as technology continues to develop. In this feature, we’ll take a look at what this entails. In other words, the technology has given us the first Bionic Man

  8. Characterisation of a novel proteolytic enzyme localised to goblet cells in rat and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    for enzymatic activity is 7.4-8.0. Based on substrate specificity for arg-x, lys-x and to a lesser degree tyr-x, on the effect of diisopropylphosphorofluoride , Trasylol and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and on proteolytic activity towards intact proteins, ingobsin is classified as a serine proteinase......A proteolytic enzyme, ingobsin , purified from rat duodenal extracts is shown to be localised to intestinal goblet cells of both man and rat. Enzyme positive cells decrease in number from duodenum to colon. The enzyme is a 33 000 Mr protein with an isoelectric point of 5.1. The pH optimum...... with endoproteolytic activity....

  9. A Man Who Cannot See Himself:Invisibility Caused by the Protago-nist’s Weakness in Invisible Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Juan

    2014-01-01

    Invisible Man is both a historical biography of the black man in America and an anguish process of man’s quest for identity in the dehumanizing and absurd society of racial discrimination. Personal weakness of the protagonist:his effort to evade his past functions as the last straw leading to his invisibility. Therefore, this paper tries to analyze the cause of the invisibility of the protagonist by further textual analysis in an attempt to reveal how a nameless African American reflects the existential crisis of modern man.

  10. Meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus costochondritis in a healthy man.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohammad, Ausaf F

    2009-12-01

    A 54-year-old previously healthy white man presented to hospital with fever, right parasternal pain and swelling over the right second and third costochondral joints. The symptoms had developed 1 week earlier.

  11. Conference on Manned Systems Design : New Methods and Equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiss, K-F

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference held in Freiburg, West Germany, September 22-25, 1980, entitled "Manned Systems Design, New Methods and Equipment". The conference was sponsored by the Special Programme Panel on Human Factors of the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO, and supported by Panel VIII, AC/243, on "Human and Biomedical Sciences". Their sponsorship and support are gratefully acknowledged. The contributions in the book are grouped according to the main themes of the conference with special emphasis on analytical approaches, measurement of performance, and simulator design and evaluat ion. The design of manned systems covers many and highly diversified areas. Therefore, a conference under the general title of "Manned Systems Design" is rather ambitious in itself. However, scientists and engineers engaged in the design of manned systems very often are confronted with problems that can be solved only by having several disciplines working together. So it was felt that knowledge about ...

  12. Man and environment-problems of the future

    CERN Document Server

    Zaviskii, E K; Okun, Lev Borisovich; Smirnov, B M

    1977-01-01

    The depletion of natural resources, against the background of increasing numbers of population, is discussed. Man's effect on his environment with emphasis on the reduction in stratospheric ozone is considered. (0 refs).

  13. Brain-Computer Link Restores Some Movement to Quadraplegic Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164322.html Brain-Computer Link Restores Some Movement to Quadraplegic Man 8 ... for hand movement. This step created a "brain-computer interface" that was able to interpret which movements ...

  14. Not All Dogs Are Man's (Or Kids') Best Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161027.html Not All Dogs Are Man's (or Kids') Best Friend Study suggests ... be told they shouldn't approach a scared dog To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  15. A Clinicomycological Study of Cutaneous Mycoses in Sawai Man ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a major public health problem, especially in tropical countries like ... Sawai Man Singh Hospital of Jaipur, North India. Aruna Vyas ... All culture media and antibiotics were obtained ... Table 1: Distribution of dermatophytes in relation to age.

  16. Diagnose in beeld (209). Een te water geraakte man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noord, T; Ligtenberg, J J M; Zijlstra, J G

    2004-01-01

    A 32-year-old man was presented with severe hypothermia and respiratory insufficiency after submersion in water. The ECG showed Osborn waves and a prolonged QRS and QT duration which normalized after correction of the hypothermia.

  17. Spaceplane Hermes Europe's dream of independent manned spaceflight

    CERN Document Server

    van den Abeelen, Luc

    2017-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on the European Hermes program. It tells the fascinating story of how Europe aimed for an independent manned spaceflight capability which was to complement US and Soviet/Russian space activities.In 1975, France decided to expand its plans for automated satellites for materials processing to include the development of a small 10 ton spaceplane to be launched on top of a future heavy-lifting Ariane rocket. This Hermes spaceplane would give Europe its own human spaceflight capability for shuttling crews between Earth and space stations. The European Space Agency backed the proposal. Unfortunately, after detailed studies, the project was cancelled in 1993. If Hermes had been introduced into service, it could have become the preferred "space taxi" for ferrying crews to and from the International Space Station. But that opportunity was lost. This book provides the first look of the complete story of and reasons for the demise of this ambitious program. It also gives an account w...

  18. Circadian cycles of central temperature in hot climate in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, F; Martineaud, R; Martineaud, J P

    1991-04-01

    In order to appreciate eventual changes of the circadian rhythm of the body core temperature induced by hot climates, we measured for 24 h periods in summer (June) and in winter (December), in Senegal (latitude, 25 degrees north), the central temperature in two groups of 45 and 58 young soldiers living permanently in the Sahelian area. The subjects were free-running but without any strong activity during the experiments. Rectal temperatures were measured at rest each 3 h, in natural environment: in winter ambient temperature varied from 21 to 25 degrees C and in summer from 28 to 42 degrees C. We observed no change in the shape of the circadian cycle: minimal values were seen at 3 AM and maximal at 3 or 6 PM. But during the hot season, we observed increase of the mesor (36.85 and 37.10 degrees C, in december and june respectively) and of the amplitude of the nycthemeral variation (0.85 and 1.37 degrees C respectively). These results demonstrate a clear adaptation to high ambient temperatures in man, similar to that observed in other mammals.

  19. Effects of probenecid on furosemide kinetics and natriuresis in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honari, J; Blair, A D; Cutler, R E

    1977-10-01

    Furosemide kinetics were studied in 4 normal subjects after single intravenous injections (1 mg/kg). One experiment was done after pretreatment with probenecid. The apparent volume of furosemide distribution was unchanged after probenecid (10.9 L). The mean plasma clearance fell from 155 to 85 ml/min and the mean plasma t1/2 rose from 36 to 61 min. Renal clearance of furosemide fell below 50% of control after probenecid, but the kidney remained the main route of its excretion (75% of the dose appeared in the urine). In another experiment in 4 subjects an infusion of furosemide was sustained following a loading dose to maintain a constant plasma level. After a control period, probenecid was given orally. This resulted in a decrease in renal excretion of furosemide with a simultaneous rise in its plasma concentration. Despite the rising plasma furosemide concentration, however, there was a diminution in both urine flow and the excreted fraction of filtered sodium, which suggested some reduction of diuretic action. In doses commonly used, probenecid reduces renal elimination of furosemide in man with only a mild impairment of its diuretic activity. This suggests that furosemide is eliminated predominantly by way of proximal tubular secretion and that tubular rather than plasma concentration is the main determinant of its diuretic effect.

  20. Myocardial Infarction in a Young Man With Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhenliang; Zhu, Hang; Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Liqin

    2017-03-17

    A 26-year-old man diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome (NS) 2 years previously presented with chest pain. An electrocardiogram (ECG) performed at a local hospital showed ST-elevation in chest leads. Cardiac troponin-I was significantly positive. Echocardiography revealed mild regional wall-motion abnormalities in the heart apex. Seven days later, angiography (CAG) revealed a thrombus in the left anterior descending branch (LAD). Tirofiban was injected into the LAD for thromboclasis. ECG after CAG showed the ST-segment was much lower than before. The diagnosis after CAG was ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) and thrombogenesis in the LAD. He continued to receive antiplatelet and anticoagulation medication and atorvastatin after CAG, and was discharged 3 days later. MI is very rare in young males, but the incidence of MI is 8 times higher than normal in patients with NS. For young patients with MI, clinicians should pay more attention to the history of previous diseases with high risk of thromboembolism and they should actively promote prevention and the treatment of renal disease patients to reduce the incidence of complications of thromboembolism.

  1. ERICH FROMM’S INTERPRETATION OF MASS MAN DESTRUCTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews interpretative position of prominent German philosopher and psychologist Erich Fromm on mass men destructiveness analysis. As a rule, to reach a goal of well-balanced embedding into consumer society structure, mass man passes through stages of deindividualization and common averaging by accepting prescribed general postulates of society’s authorities. Nevertheless, own personality refusal and ‘rules of the game’ following adduct to moral degradation, which causes destructiveness phenomenon. Out of socio-political regimen, destructiveness appears in attempts of ‘freedom escape’ by any possible means. Totalitarian regimen ideologically steers mass men through total subjection to defined life track by agreement of individuality sacrifice. Democratically-minded consumer societies require deindividualization and partly rights pinching in exchange of status consumption system integration. Any patterns of counteraction to these system processes are commenced by personal activity manifestation and motivation in reaching own goals. However, conformist majority is meant to live according to ideologically defined society rules

  2. Noninvasive measurement of lung carbon-11-serotonin extraction in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, G.; Firnau, G.; Meyer, G.J.; Gratz, K.F. (McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-04-01

    The fraction of serotonin extracted on a single passage through the lungs is being used as an early indicator of lung endothelial damage but the existing techniques require multiple arterial blood samples. We have developed a noninvasive technique to measure lung serotonin uptake in man. We utilized the double indicator diffusion principle, a positron camera, {sup 11}C-serotonin as the substrate, and {sup 11}CO-erythrocytes as the vascular marker. From regions of interest around each lung, we recorded time-activity curves in 0.5-sec frames for 30 sec after a bolus injection of first the vascular marker {sup 11}CO-erythrocytes and 10 min later {sup 11}C-serotonin. A second uptake measurement was made after imipramine 25-35 mg was infused intravenously. In three normal volunteers, the single-pass uptake of {sup 11}C-serotonin was 63.9% +/- 3.6%. This decreased in all subjects to a mean of 53.6% +/- 1.4% after imipramine. The rate of lung washout of {sup 11}C was also significantly prolonged after imipramine. This noninvasive technique can be used to measure lung serotonin uptake to detect early changes in a variety of conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary endothelium.

  3. Affective Man-Machine Interface: Unveiling Human Emotions through Biosignals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Egon L.; Lisý, Viliam; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; Schut, Marleen H.; Tuinenbreijer, Kees

    As is known for centuries, humans exhibit an electrical profile. This profile is altered through various psychological and physiological proce-sses, which can be measured through biosignals; e.g., electromyography (EMG) and electrodermal activity (EDA). These biosignals can reveal our emotions and, as such, can serve as an advanced man-machine interface (MMI) for empathic consumer products. However, such a MMI requires the correct classification of biosignals to emotion classes. This chapter starts with an introduction on biosignals for emotion detection. Next, a state-of-the-art review is presented on automatic emotion classification. Moreover, guidelines are presented for affective MMI. Subsequently, a research is presented that explores the use of EDA and three facial EMG signals to determine neutral, positive, negative, and mixed emotions, using recordings of 21 people. A range of techniques is tested, which resulted in a generic framework for automated emotion classification with up to 61.31% correct classification of the four emotion classes, without the need of personal profiles. Among various other directives for future research, the results emphasize the need for parallel processing of multiple biosignals.

  4. Theory in the design of the man-machine engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季孟蒙

    2015-01-01

    the article to the man - machine - environment system of interconnected and ergonomics of the content on the investigation and analysis of the role of design in detail, and shows the man-machine engineering opens up a new train of thought for design disciplines; Designer to design the content of the ascension to the height of the humanized design, make the design in line with the ergonomics principle and characteristics of the real reflects the respect of the design aspects of people's listening.

  5. Manned Space Flight Project Ready to Start the Second Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) made four launches from October 15 to November 15 in 2003, The successful launches made in such short time have proved the ability of the Chinese engineers, technology level and management skills. Especially China's first manned mission achieved a complete success, which indicates that the first step of China's manned space flight project has already been completed and the conditions for the second step is mature.

  6. [Knowledge of Man Returns: Some Considerations on Spirituality and Resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakura, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade,"spirituality" and "resilience" have jointly become a topic in psychiatry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the future of psychiatry suggested by this topic. It may be related to what Jaspers, K. called "Knowledge of Man (die Erkenntnis des Menschen)". Knowledge of man in psychiatry can be learned only through clinical experince: e. g., clinical observations and case studies. Modern academic psychiatry seems to be suffering a loss of knowledge of man, which returns periodically in clinical practice. Hence, I will call the re-discovery of the topic in psychiatry as "Return of Man". Since WW II, there have been three eras in which psychiatrists showed deep concern regarding knowledge of man. Firstly, psychopathology and psychotherapy widely developed, when the destructive impulses of mankind were revealed in the nuclear weapons of WW II. Secondly, in the 1970's, the reforms of psychiatric services and legal systems took place somewhat successfully, when social reforms were concerns of the younger generations. Lastly, over the last decade, the topic again returned as spirituality and resilience, when scientists seemed to be powerless in the aftermath of the West Japan Earthquake. Regarding the definition of health made by the WHO in 1946, I further discuss that "Return of Man" in psychiatry is the necessary dynamism between negative and positive health, or between disease control and health promotion. There is an underlying dynamism between "Knowledge of Man" and natural sciences, which is constantly changing. So long as any theory can exist only as a part of dynamism, the Return of Man may re-surface whenever clinical theories do not fit with clinical realities.

  7. China’s first deep manned submersible,JIAOLONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A deep manned submersible is indispensable to deep ocean exploration. No other equipment can bring scientists to ex-treme sea floor depths to do research in situ. Marine geology, seafloor geophysics,marine biology,and oceanic chemistry are the fields that scientists are particularly eager to study [1-6]. Chinese scientists have long dreamed of using their own submersible to probe the deep sea. China’s recent fast development of a deep manned submersible has realized that dream.

  8. Symbolism in the Old Man and the Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小慧

    2013-01-01

    The Old Man and the Sea is Hemingway’s masterpiece,and it is also a classical works in the history of literature. The adoption of symbolism is the most striking feature in the Old Man and the Sea. The essay will analyze its symbolism thoroughly through some aspects such as the leading character,the boy and the Shakes,aiming at helping the reader to get a better understanding of Ernest Hemingway’s masterpiece.

  9. Man in space: A new dimension in Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Medlen

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented advances in technology and science in the 20th Century have enabled man to take himself and his inventions on voyages of space exploration. It has been man's dream for centuries, not only to fly, but also to explore the vast outer reaches of space. Modern space exploration, the new frontier, is a triumph for the new sciences of space biology and space medicine.

  10. Regulation of drug metabolism in man by environmental chemicals and diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conney, A.H. (Hoffmann-LaRoche Inc., Nutley, NJ); Pantuck, E.J.; Hsiao, K.C.; Kuntzman, R.; Alvares, A.P.; Kappas, A.

    1977-04-01

    Studies in animals have shown that many environmental pollutants induce the synthesis or inhibit the activity of microsomal mixed-function oxygenases that metabolize drugs, carcinogens and normal body constituents such as steroid hormones. These effects on microsomal enzyme activity alter the duration and intensity of action of foreign and endogenous chemicals in animals, and such effects on metabolism may influence the carcinogenicity of some pollutants in man. Studies on the effects of environmental chemicals on drug metabolism in man are sparse. Exposure of humans to DDT or lindane in a pesticide factory results in an enhanced rate of metabolism of antipyrine and phenylbutazone and an increased urinary excretion of 6-..beta..-hydroxycortisol. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in cigarette smoke, in charcoal-broiled meats, and in polluted city air are potent inducers of drug-metabolizing enzymes in animals. In humans, cigarette smoking stimulates the activity of placental enzymes that metabolize several drugs and carcinogens. In addition, cigarette smokers metabolize phenacetin, theophylline, and other drugs more rapidly in vivo than nonsmokers. Dietary factors are important in the regulation of drug metabolism in animals and man. Feeding rats brussels sprouts or cabbage stimulates the intestinal and hepatic metabolism of drugs in animals. This effect is caused, at least in part, by certain indoles normally present in these vegetables. The feeding of a charcoal-broiled beef diet to rats stimulates the metabolism of phenacetin in vitro, and a similar diet stimulates the in vivo metabolism of phenacetin in man. It is likely that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are the major inducers in charcoal-broiled beef.

  11. Repo-Man/PP1 regulates heterochromatin formation in interphase

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Inês J.; Budzak, James; Di Giacinto, Maria L.; Ligammari, Lorena; Gokhan, Ezgi; Spanos, Christos; Moralli, Daniela; Richardson, Christine; de las Heras, Jose I.; Salatino, Silvia; Schirmer, Eric C.; Ullman, Katharine S.; Bickmore, Wendy A.; Green, Catherine; Rappsilber, Juri; Lamble, Sarah; Goldberg, Martin W.; Vinciotti, Veronica; Vagnarelli, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Repo-Man is a protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) targeting subunit that regulates mitotic progression and chromatin remodelling. After mitosis, Repo-Man/PP1 remains associated with chromatin but its function in interphase is not known. Here we show that Repo-Man, via Nup153, is enriched on condensed chromatin at the nuclear periphery and at the edge of the nucleopore basket. Repo-Man/PP1 regulates the formation of heterochromatin, dephosphorylates H3S28 and it is necessary and sufficient for heterochromatin protein 1 binding and H3K27me3 recruitment. Using a novel proteogenomic approach, we show that Repo-Man is enriched at subtelomeric regions together with H2AZ and H3.3 and that depletion of Repo-Man alters the peripheral localization of a subset of these regions and alleviates repression of some polycomb telomeric genes. This study shows a role for a mitotic phosphatase in the regulation of the epigenetic landscape and gene expression in interphase. PMID:28091603

  12. IMPLEMENTASI MANAJEMEN PERUBAHAN DI MAN 3 PALEMBANG SUMATERA SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afriantoni Imran

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMadrasah Aliyah Negeri (MAN 3 Palembang is unique enough to be studied because since inception of Islamic religion teacher education institutions. The results of this study found that type of leadership visoner is owned by head of Man 3 Palembang oriented management of change and continues over time. Visionary leadership is the key. Head of MAN 3 Palembang has been able to create, formulate, communicate, socialize, transform, and implement the ideal thoughts coming from him and the result of social interaction between members of organization and stakeholders that are believed to achieve ideals of organization in the future. In addition, management of change has been initiated through an internal analysis of the organization by identifying four areas, namely services, finance, human resources and facilities in order to discover the strengths and weaknesses internal to the organization. All of this has been the commitment of all personnel MAN 3 Palembang to achieve my goals and success. Lastly, head of MAN 3 Palembang has been able to implement management changes, so that the organization built quality improvement-oriented leadership, teacher quality, school programs, students' final exam results, student achievement and strong school culture. Keywords: implementation, management of change, MAN 3 Palembang

  13. The Diagnosis and Man Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flelcher B.; Taylor.Jr

    2003-01-01

    @@ This review describes disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) as a syndrome in which hemostatic factors are activated and products are generated. This syndrome ranges in severity from an obvious decompensated coagulopathy (overt-DIC) to the subclinical compensated activation of hemostatic factors(non-overt DIC). Ths first part of this review emphasizes two points: First, activation of the hemostatic system is controlled by a vast network of capillaries and venules through anticoagulant and antiinflammatory regulatory factors that operate from the endothelium( e. G. , protein C and thrombomodulin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor).

  14. Harmony between man and nature: the base for the harmonious society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The harmony between man and nature is the base for the harmonious society. It is determined by the eco-rule and eco-economic rule. Human being should not violate the eco-rule. However, human being can make eco-system supply suit economic growth and its speed through systematical innovation and restriction of human economic activity and choice. Through technological innovation, efficiency satisfaction of unit resource can be increased; structure and function of eco-system can be perfected; supply capability of eco-system can be improved. To build the harmonious society, human should consider the reasonable distribution of limited resources from two sides. Thefirst one is that the utilization of two functions of resource supply and pollution purification to nature should not exceed its special supply capability formed under its special structure and function states, i.e. harmony between man and nature. The second side is human being should think over the reasonable and effective distribution of limited resources in economic society, i.e.harmony between human beings and society. The reasonable economic activity of human being is the key to the harmonious development of man and nature.

  15. Love-hate for man-machine metaphors in Soviet physiology: from Pavlov to "physiological cybernetics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerovitch, Slava

    2002-06-01

    This article reinterprets the debate between orthodox followers of the Pavlovian reflex theory and Soviet "cybernetic physiologists" in the 1950s and 60s as a clash of opposing man-machine metaphors. While both sides accused each other of "mechanistic," reductionist methodology, they did not see anything "mechanistic" about their own central metaphors: the telephone switchboard metaphor for nervous activity (the Pavlovians), and the analogies between the human brain and a computer (the cyberneticians). I argue that the scientific utility of machine analogies was closely intertwined with their philosophical and political meanings and that new interpretations of these metaphors emerged as a result of political conflicts and a realignment of forces within the scientific community and in society at large. I suggest that the constant travel of man-machine analogies, back and forth between physiology and technology has blurred the traditional categories of the "mechanistic" and the "organic" in Soviet neurophysiology, as perhaps in the history of physiology in general.

  16. Estimating the Effects of Astronaut Career Ionizing Radiation Dose Limits on Manned Interplanetary Flight Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Rojdev, Kristina; Valle, Gerard D.; Zipay, John J.; Atwell, William S.

    2013-01-01

    The Hybrid Inflatable DSH combined with electric propulsion and high power solar-electric power systems offer a near TRL-now solution to the space radiation crew dose problem that is an inevitable aspect of long term manned interplanetary flight. Spreading program development and launch costs over several years can lead to a spending plan that fits with NASA's current and future budgetary limitations, enabling early manned interplanetary operations with space radiation dose control, in the near future while biomedical research, nuclear electric propulsion and active shielding research and development proceed in parallel. Furthermore, future work should encompass laboratory validation of HZETRN calculations, as previous laboratory investigations have not considered large shielding thicknesses and the calculations presented at these thicknesses are currently performed via extrapolation.

  17. Fieldwork: man in the system of nature and priority of natural laws in human life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinyakova, Elena

    2007-06-01

    Fieldwork is a branch of inseparable unity of natural and humanitarian sciences; it is aimed at the cultural origin of humanity on the maximum level of its variety. Practically all natural sciences have some space determined by ethnic conscience in nature cognition: ethnodemography, ethnobotany, ethnozoology, etc. Fieldwork guides the research of human culture from the laws of nature. This kind of knowledge is useful to balance human relations with nature and avoid conflicts. Peoples should exchange their wisdom in the dialogue with nature to be more safe. Fieldwork understood as traditional culture only, explaining the variety of ethnoses on our earth, is just the narrow and diachronic level of this branch of knowledge. The cosmological knowledge, where fantasy and not exhausted in its cognition understanding the world of nature are mixed, forms the source of fieldwork and in many respects explains the direction of knowledge: the man finds himself under the open sky, he is the child of nature. Then as time went on there appeared a gradual transition--first nature was creating the man, then by and by he began turning to answer nature by his activity. Nowadays the man is actively creating nature. There are two levels of fieldwork: the ancient one which deals with the origin of ethnoses and the modern one which explores how contemporary life is determined by ethnic specific traits. Fieldwork is the core of multidisciplinary situation in man's knowledge. It is related to such humanitarian sciences: semiotics, culturology, sociology, history, philosophy, literature, linguistics. In the cycle of natural sciences fieldwork stands close to anthropology, geography, biology, demography. Fieldwork as a science has the two main levels--the "sophy" level and the logos "level". The first one discovers wisdom of human life, the second one is aimed at logical structuring of knowledge, here proceed various classifications of peoples.

  18. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  19. 42 CFR 84.161 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements. 84.161 Section 84.161 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  20. 42 CFR 84.160 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements. 84.160 Section 84.160 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  1. THE MAN WHO WOULD BE EVERYTHING (TO EVERYONE): THE UNCONSCIOUS REALITIES AND FANTASIES OF PSYCHIC TRUTH AND CHANGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jody Messler

    2016-04-01

    This paper explores the psychoanalyst's dilemmas in treating a man who came for analysis as a self-identified compulsive liar. The decision as to whether or not to treat this man, and how to do so without getting caught up in a web of deceit and manipulation, raises issues about the nature of unconscious fantasy and its relationship to psychic truth. Therapeutic action as it involves the activation of multiple internal self-other configurations and their psychodynamic relationship to each other is also explored.

  2. Questions and Answers for Ken Thomas' "Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian and Gemini Spacesuits" Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian & Gemini spacesuits. While the United States and Russia adapted to existing launch- and reentry-type suits to allow the first human ventures into the vacuum of space, there were differences in execution and capabilities. Mr. Thomas will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach compared to exclusively intravehicular or extra-vehicular suit systems.

  3. Inhibition of TGF-β Signaling at the Nuclear Envelope: Characterization of Interactions between MAN1, Smad2 and 3, and PPM1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Benjamin; Gilquin, Bernard; Tellier-Lebègue, Carine; Östlund, Cecilia; Wu, Wei; Pérez, Javier; El Hage, Perla; Lallemand, François; Worman, Howard J.; Zinn-Justin, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Signaling by transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) is critical for various developmental processes and culminates in the activation of the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3. MAN1, an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, inhibits TGF-β signalling by binding to Smad2 and Smad3. Depletion of the gene LEMD3 encoding MAN1 leads to developmental anomalies in mice, and heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in LEMD3 in humans cause sclerosing bone dysplasia. We modeled the three-dimensional structure of the MAN1-Smad2 complex from nuclear magnetic resonance and small angle x-ray scattering data. As predicted by this model, we found that MAN1 competed in vitro and in cells with the transcription factor FAST1 (forkhead activin signal transducer 1) for binding to Smad2. The model further predicted that MAN1 bound to activated Smad2-Smad4 or Smad3-Smad4 complexes, which was confirmed by in vitro experiments; however, in cells, MAN1 bound only to Smad2 and Smad3, and not to the Smad4-containing complexes. Overexpression of MAN1 led to dephosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3, thus hindering their recognition by Smad4, and MAN1 bound directly in vitro to the phosphatase PPM1A, which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of Smad2/3. These results demonstrate a nuclear envelope-localized mechanism of inactivating TGF-β signaling in which MAN1 competes with transcription factors for binding to Smad2 and Smad3 and facilitates their dephosphorylation by PPM1A. PMID:23779087

  4. The Non-Lantibiotic Bacteriocin Garvicin Q Targets Man-PTS in a Broad Spectrum of Sensitive Bacterial Genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoszewska, Aleksandra; Diep, Dzung B; Wirtek, Paulina; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara

    2017-08-21

    Mannose phosphotransferase system (Man-PTS) is the main mannose permease in bacteria but it is also a known receptor for subclass IIa bacteriocins (pediocin-like group) as well as subclass IId lactococcin A (LcnA) and lactococcin B (LcnB) (LcnA-like group). Subclass IIa bacteriocins exhibit a strong activity against Listeria spp. but they are not against Lactococcus spp. In contrast, the LcnA-like bacteriocins act only against Lactococcus lactis strains. Garvicin Q (GarQ) is a subclass IId bacteriocin with minor similarity to LcnA-like bacteriocins and a relatively broad antimicrobial spectrum including, among others, Listeria and Lactococcus spp. To identify the GarQ receptor, we obtained GarQ-resistant mutants of Lactococcus garvieae IBB3403 and L. lactis IL1403 and sequenced their genomes that revealed mutations in genes encoding the membrane-bound Man-PTS IIC or IID subunits encoded by ptnCD in L. lactis and manCD in L. garvieae. This is the first time that a bacteriocin outside the pediocin- and LcnA-like groups is shown to target Man-PTS. The interaction between GarQ and Man-PTS may occur through a new binding pattern involving specific amino acids highly conserved among the GarQ-sensitive bacterial species located in the N-terminal part and extracellular loops of subunit IID and in transmembrane region of IIC.

  5. Sudden cardiac death in a young HIV-positive man on effective antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincati, Camilla; Bauer, Dario; Bellistrì, Giusi M; Casana, Maddalena; Ranieri, Roberto; Bini, Teresa; Marchetti, Giulia; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

    2008-11-01

    We describe the case of a young HIV-positive man on effective HAART with excellent viro-immunological control who presented a massive cardiac infarction. Despite the presence of clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the patient had normal arterial carotid IMT values, known to be strong predictors of atherosclerosis and stroke. Interestingly, parameters of T-cell activation (CD8+CD38+) were shown to increase just before the onset of myocardial infarction. As T-cell activation is known to mediate atherosclerosis, the authors suggest that surrogate immunologic markers should be identified to better assess cardiovascular risk in the setting of HIV infection.

  6. MoManI: a tool to facilitate research, analysis, and teaching of computer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Mark; Pelakauskas, Martynas; Almulla, Youssef; Tkaczyk, Alan H.; Zepeda, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Allocating limited resource efficiently is a task to which efficient planning and policy design aspires. This may be a non-trivial task. For example, the seventh sustainable development goal (SDG) of Agenda 2030 is to provide access to affordable sustainable energy to all. On the one hand, energy is required to realise almost all other SDGs. (A clinic requires electricity for fridges to store vaccines for maternal health, irrigate agriculture requires energy to pump water to crops in dry periods etc.) On the other hand, the energy system is non-trivial. It requires the mapping of resource, its conversion into useable energy and then into machines that we use to meet our needs. That requires new tools that draw from standard techniques, best-in-class models and allow the analyst to develop new models. Thus we present the Model Management Infrastructure (MoManI). MoManI is used to develop, manage, run, store input and results data for linear programming models. MoManI, is a browser-based open source interface for systems modelling. It is available to various user audiences, from policy makers and planners through to academics. For example, we implement the Open Source energy Modelling System (OSeMOSYS) in MoManI. OSeMOSYS is a specialized energy model generator. A typical OSeMOSYS model would represent the current energy system of a country, region or city; in it, equations and constraints are specified; and calibrated to a base year. From that future technologies and policy options are represented. From those scenarios are designed and run. Efficient allocation of energy resource and expenditure on technology is calculated. Finally, results are visualized. At present this is done in relatively rigid interfaces or via (for some) cumbersome text files. Implementing and operating OSeMOSYS in MoManI shortens the learning curve and reduces phobia associated with the complexity of computer modelling, thereby supporting effective capacity building activities. The novel

  7. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options.

  8. Safety and mission capabilities of manned launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, H.; Hornik, A.; Sax, H.; Loetzerich, K.

    In this paper we compare and discuss the safety of vertical launched manned spacecraft: capsules as well as winged vehicles. As examples we use HERMES and a manned capsule suitable for ARIANE 5. In the calculations we use ARIANE 5 as launcher for the compared vehicles. The installation of safety and rescue systems like ejection seats or rescue capsules always leads to additional weight and usually causes a reduction of payload capability. Due to relatively low launching rates it is hard to obtain exact safety data of manned space vehicles and launchers. Therefore we discuss the relative safety gains of different rescue systems by investigating their properties, such as mission capabilities, weight and operational aspects. We also consider the advantages of these rescue systems for the safety of manned spacecraft. The main criterion of our comparison is the payload that each type of manned vehicle is able to transport in LEO under nearly equal safety conditions during ascent - i.e., by installing comparable rescue systems. Capsules offer a better payload capability then winged launch vehicles. The advantages of winged launch vehicles must be paid for by essential loss of margins for additional safety equipment. Operational aspects like mision abort during ascent and payload accommodation are also included in this comparison.

  9. CAECUM AND APPENDIX IN RUMINANTS AND MAN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The change in the trends of living and dietary habits prompted the inquisitiveness in finding out if there are obvious changes in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. Ruminants are entirely dependent on the environment for their food and take a long time to feed themselves with foliage which is first taken in and then digested. The changing ecological balance and dwindling reserves in the past few years and changing climatic conditions could probably have an effect on the digestive tract. It has been observed that the cow, sheep and goat have started feeding on debris from the environment. Man has also started changing dietary habits according to convenience and has become aware of organic foods and vegetarian diets. Therefore an attempt was made to see if there are notable changes that can be recorded in the digestive tract. The study here attempted to compare the caecum of man with that of ruminants. The caecum was found to be the largest in the cow in proportion to the weight of the animal. The caecum was almost of the same dimensions in goat and sheep compared with that of man. The appendix was noted only in man. The study attempts to describe the importance of appendix in man and a large caecum in ruminants.

  10. Space Suit CO2 Washout During Intravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Phillip M.; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Sargusingh, Miriam M.

    2010-01-01

    Space suit carbon dioxide (CO2) washout refers to the removal of CO2 gas from the oral-nasal area of a suited astronaut's (or crewmember's) helmet using the suit's ventilation system. Inadequate washout of gases can result in diminished mental/cognitive abilities as well as headaches and light headedness. In addition to general discomfort, these ailments can impair an astronaut s ability to perform mission-critical tasks ranging from flying the space vehicle to performing lunar extravehicular activities (EVAs). During design development for NASA s Constellation Program (CxP), conflicting requirements arose between the volume of air flow that the new Orion manned space vehicle is allocated to provide to the suited crewmember and the amount of air required to achieve CO2 washout in a space suit. Historically, space suits receive 6.0 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) of air flow, which has adequately washed out CO2 for EVAs. For CxP, the Orion vehicle will provide 4.5 acfm of air flow to the suit. A group of subject matter experts (SM Es) among the EVA Systems community came to an early consensus that 4.5 acfm may be acceptable for low metabolic rate activities. However, this value appears very risky for high metabolic rates, hence the need for further analysis and testing. An analysis was performed to validate the 4.5 acfm value and to determine if adequate CO2 washout can be achieved with the new suit helmet design concepts. The analysis included computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling cases, which modeled the air flow and breathing characteristics of a human wearing suit helmets. Helmet testing was performed at the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to provide a gross-level validation of the CFD models. Although there was not a direct data correlation between the helmet testing and the CFD modeling, the testing data showed trends that are very similar to the CFD modeling. Overall, the analysis yielded

  11. Classification of artificial (man-made) ground

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, M.S.; McMillan, A.A.; Powell, J H; Cooper, A.H.; Culshaw, M.G.; Northmore, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The legacy inherited from anthropogenic processes needs to be addressed in order to provide reliable and up-to-date ground information relevant to development and regeneration in the urban environment. The legacy includes voids as well as anthropogenic deposits (artificial ground). Their characteristics derive from former quarrying and mining activities, industrial processes creating derelict ground, variably consolidated made ground, and contaminated groundwater and soils. All need to be sys...

  12. Study of Shigella Vaccines in Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-15

    2a vaccine was shown to be safe in volunteers12 and institutionalized children13, ltdid not proliferate in the human gut and multiple doses were...lactobacil- Ii and Bacteroides ) actively metabolize it. 30 The end products of this bacterial metabolism are short chain fatty acids which are lethal...Shiqella flexneri by the Normal Intestinal Flora . 111. Interactions with Bacteroides fragiHi-sTtrains In vitro, Infect. Immun. 2:364, 1970. 22. Maier, B.R

  13. 77 FR 20882 - Manning Grain Company; Acquisition and Operation Exemption; Fillmore Western Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Manning Grain Company; Acquisition and Operation Exemption; Fillmore Western Railway Company Manning Grain Company (MGC), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under... Exemption--Manning Grain Company, Manning Rail, Inc., a noncarrier, seeks to acquire the line from MGC and...

  14. Evaluation of the airway of the SimMan full-scale patient simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, R; Kristensen, M S; Rasmussen, L S

    2005-01-01

    SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated.......SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated....

  15. Comparison of cytotoxicity of man-made vitreous fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, K; Holopainen, M; Sarataho, M; Savolainen, K

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the cytotoxicity of man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs): four refractory ceramic fibres (RCFs 1-4), two glasswool fibres (MMVF 10 and 11), a rockwool fibre (MMVF 21) and a slagwool fibre (MMVF 22). The ability of the fibres to induce haemolysis in sheep erythrocytes, to release lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rat alveolar macrophages (AM) and to increase the production of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PML) was studied. To assess the relative cytotoxicity of MMVFs, their toxicity was compared with that induced by quartz, chrysotile or titanium dioxide. MMVFs induced a modest, but dose-dependent, increase of haemolysis at doses of 0.5, 2.5 and 5.0 mg ml-1. The amount of haemolysis and LDH release induced by MMVFs was generally similar to that induced by titanium dioxide. Glasswool fibre MMVF 10 induced less LDH release from rat AM than rockwool MMVF 21 or slagwool MMVF 22 fibres, whereas glasswool fibre MMVF 11 induced less LDH release than slagwool fibre MMVF 22 (P < 0.05). All fibres also dose-dependently increased the production of ROMs at doses between 25 and 500 micrograms ml-1. The shapes of the time-courses of MMVF-induced production of ROMs suggest that the mechanisms whereby the different fibres induce ROM production may exhibit similar features. There are clear-cut differences in the potency of various MMVFs to induce cytotoxicity and oxidative burst. The present results also emphasize the importance of using several measures of toxicity when assessing the biological activity of various fibres in vitro.

  16. Manned Versus Unmanned Risk and Complexity Considerations for Future Midsized X-Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechniak, Jason A.; Melton, John E.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify and estimate complexity and risks associated with the development and testing of new low-cost medium-scale X-plane aircraft primarily focused on air transport operations. Piloting modes that were evaluated for this task were manned, remotely piloted, and unmanned flight research programs. This analysis was conducted early in the data collection period for X-plane concept vehicles before preliminary designs were complete. Over 50 different aircraft and system topics were used to evaluate the three piloting control modes. Expert group evaluations from a diverse set of pilots, engineers, and other experts at Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate centers within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration provided qualitative reasoning on the many issues surrounding the decisions regarding piloting modes. The group evaluations were numerically rated to evaluate each topic quantitatively and were used to provide independent criteria for vehicle complexity and risk. An Edwards Air Force Base instruction document was identified that emerged as a source of the effects found in our qualitative and quantitative data. The study showed that a manned aircraft was the best choice to align with test activities for transport aircraft flight research from a low-complexity and low-risk perspective. The study concluded that a manned aircraft option would minimize the risk and complexity to improve flight-test efficiency and bound the cost of the flight-test portion of the program. Several key findings and discriminators between the three modes are discussed in detail.

  17. Analysis of factors related to man-induced hazard for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Soon; Jung, Jea Hee; Lee, Keun O; Son, Ki Sang; Wang, Sang Chul; Lee, Chang Jin; Ku, Min Ho; Park, Nam Young [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    This study is to show a guide for installing hazardous facilities adjoined atomic power plant after finding out how much these facilities could impact to the atomic plant. Nuclear power plant is an important facility which is closely connected with public life, industrial activity, and the conduct of public business, so it should not be damaged. Therefore, if there are hazardous and harmful facilities near the plant, then they must be evaluated by the size, the type, and the shape. First of all, any factors that could cause man induced accident must be investigated. And they must be exactly evaluated from how much it will damage the plant facilities. The purpose of this study is to set a technical standard for the installation of these facilities by evaluating the man induced accident. Also, it is to make out the evaluation methods by investigating the hazardous facilities which are placed near the plant. Our country is now using CFR standard : reg. guide and IAEA safety series. However, not only the standard of technology which is related to man induced accident but also the evaluation methods for facilities are not yet layed down. As It was mentioned above, we should evaluate these facilities adequately, and these methods must be made out.

  18. EMMI-Electric solar wind sail facilitated Manned Mars Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhunen, Pekka; Merikallio, Sini; Paton, Mark

    2015-08-01

    The novel propellantless electric solar wind sail concept promises efficient low thrust transportation in the Solar System outside Earth's magnetosphere. Combined with asteroid mining to provide water and synthetic cryogenic rocket fuel in orbits of Earth and Mars, possibilities for affordable continuous manned presence on Mars open up. Orbital fuel and water enable reusable bidirectional Earth-Mars vehicles for continuous manned presence on Mars and allow smaller fuel fraction of spacecraft than what is achievable by traditional means. Water can also be used as radiation shielding of the manned compartment, thus reducing the launch mass further. In addition, the presence of fuel in the orbit of Mars provides the option for an all-propulsive landing, thus potentially eliminating issues of heavy heat shields and augmenting the capability of pinpoint landing. With this E-sail enabled scheme, the recurrent cost of continuous bidirectional traffic between Earth and Mars might ultimately approach the recurrent cost of running the International Space Station, ISS.

  19. Man and the moon—The history of lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, George E.

    This paper delineates historical events and publications representing the human desire for exploring the Moon. Astronomers such as J. Kepler and H. Pickering were early promotors of the idea to reach out for the Moon. Many writers (Lucian, Goodwin, Cyrano de Bergerac, Jules Verne, H. G. Wells) were fascinated by the possibility of travel to the Moon. The beginning of the space age in 1957 saw early attempts to place a man-made object on the surface of the Moon, which succeeded in September 1959. Soft landers provided the first hard information on the lunar surface in the years 1966 -1968 to be followed by six manned landings in the years 1969-1972 providing a wealth of data of our neighbouring planet. Very little has happened in the years thereafter. The time has come to return to the Moon first with unmanned polar satellites to be followed by man to stay there for good.

  20. EMMI - Electric Solar Wind Sail Facilitated Manned Mars Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Janhunen, Pekka; Paton, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The novel propellantless electric solar wind sail (E-sail) concept promises efficient low thrust transportation in the solar system outside Earth's magnetosphere. Combined with asteroid mining to provide water and synthetic cryogenic rocket fuel in orbits of Earth and Mars, possibilities for affordable continuous manned presence on Mars open up. Orbital fuel and water eliminate the exponential nature of the rocket equation and also enable reusable bidirectional Earth-Mars vehicles for continuous manned presence on Mars. Water can also be used as radiation shielding of the manned compartment, thus reducing the launch mass further. In addition, the presence of fuel in Mars orbit provides the option for an all-propulsive landing, thus potentially eliminating issues of heavy heat shields and augmenting the capability of pinpoint landing. With this E-sail enabled scheme, the recurrent cost of continuous bidirectional traffic between Earth and Mars might ultimately approach the recurrent cost of running the Interna...

  1. A Man Can be Destroyed but Not Defeated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志燕; 魏福林

    2007-01-01

    Santiago,the main hero in the Old Man and the Sea is characterized as someone struggling against defeat. He has gone eighty-four days without catching a fish,the sail of his skiff resembles "the flag of permanent defeat." But the old man refuses defeat at every turn:he resolves to sail out beyond the other fishermen to where the biggest fish promise to be. He lands the marlin,tying his record of eighty-seven days after a brutal three-day fight,and he continues to ward off sharks from stealing his prey,even though he knows the battle is useless. He establishes a great hero:a man can be destroyed but not defeated.

  2. Manned underwater intervention during deep-water operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lothe, Mikal Sjur

    2010-07-01

    The focus for deep and remote areas operations are Remote Operated systems. Manned intervention is generally first choice when looking for intervention methods in most areas of the world. As an industry we need to focus on the most cost effective and safe method for construction, Maintenance and Repair. The focus is on advances in diving methods related to surface oriented and saturation diving, such as shallow water tie-ins of risers and umbilicals, inspection and evaluations of FPSOs including thruster change-out and wet docking. Also, the options for efficient repair scenarios utilizing man's ability to work in low visibility areas by feel etc. Finally the presentation will show new technology in Saturation Diving based on the 24 man saturation systems onboard the 3rd generation Divex systems used by Technip and Subsea 7. (Author)

  3. Multimedia Discovery of the Leonardo’s Vitruvian Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Savina Maliverni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination and exploitation of cultural heritage milestones by using multimedia and interactive technologies continuously and quickly grows capturing the attention of academia and companies. It is necessary to adopt the state of the art technologies to present and make bi-directional the interaction of users with cultural heritage objects. In this work, we present two different applications of novel technologies applied to the Vitruvian man of Leonardo. The first application is the mirror that exploits a 3D depth sensor to compare the proportions of a user with the perfect ones of the Vitruvian man. The second application is a complex interaction between a complete novel 3D model of the Leonardo’s Vitruvian Man, sounds and image effects inside a 360-degrees hologram. These two systems are the results of interaction between academia and the 3D EVE spin-off company.

  4. Dynamics of ammonia metabolism in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, J.S.; McDonald, J.M.; Reiman, R.E.; Gelbard, A.S.; Laughlin, J.S.; Duffy, T.E.; Plum, F.

    1977-01-01

    The cyclotron-produced radionuclide /sup 13/N, T/sub 1/2/ 10 min, was used to label NH/sub 3/ and study its metabolism in 5 normal subjects and 17 with liver disease, including 5 with portacaval shunts, and 11 with encephalopathy (HE). The arterial NH/sub 3/ levels were 100 +- 8 ..mu..M in the non-HE subjects and 149 +- 18 ..mu..M in those with HE, (P < 0.01). After an iv pulse of 10 mCi of carrier-free /sup 13/NH/sub 4/Cl, the rate of NH/sub 3/ clearance from the vascular compartment was a function of its arterial concentration: ..mu..mol/min = 4.71 (NH/sub 3/)/sub a/ + 3.76 (r = +0.85, P < 0.005). In all subjects, brain activity increased rapidly when the specific activity of arterial NH/sub 3/ was maximal, and plateaued at levels 5.1 times those due to an equivalent amount of blood, indicating rapid passage of NH/sub 3/ across the blood-brain barrier, followed by metabolic trapping. Quantitative body scans showed that 7.4 +- 0.3% of observed activity was trapped by the brain. The brain NH/sub 3/ utilization rate (BAUR), calculated from brain and blood activities, was a function of (NH/sub 3/)/sub a/: ..mu..mol/min = 0.32 (NH/sub 3/)/sub a/ + 1.8 (r = +0.93, P < 0.005). The BAUR was 34 +- 3 ..mu..mol/min in the non-HE subjects and 49 +- 6 in those with HE (P < 0.05). Assuming a normal cerebral blood flow and brain weight, 51 +- 4% of arterial NH/sub 3/ was extracted from the blood during a single pass through normal brains. Utilization was greatest in grey matter. Calculations show that NH/sub 3/ metabolism occurs in a compartment, perhaps in astrocytes, that contains less than 20% of all brain ammonia. Liver uptake (3 to 24%) was a function of its projected size on the scan. Skeletal muscle metabolized about 50% of the arterial NH/sub 3/ in normals, less in those with cachexia.

  5. The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S P; Bengtson, P; Bojanowsky, R; Hagel, P; Herrmann, J; Ilus, E; Jakobson, E; Motiejunas, S; Panteleev, Y; Skujina, A; Suplinska, M

    1999-09-30

    A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year-1. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity.

  6. The radiological exposure of man from radioactivity in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P. [Risoe National Laboratory, Nuclear Safety Research Department, NUK-114, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bengtson, P. [National Radiation Protection Institute, S-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Bojanowsky, R. [Institute of Oceanology, Powstancow Warszawy 55, PL-81 712 Sopot (Poland); Hagel, P. [Netherlands Institute of Fisheries Research, P.O. Box 68, NL-1970 AB IJmuiden (Netherlands); Herrmann, J. [Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, P.O. Box 301220, D-20305 Hamburg (Germany); Ilus, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FIN-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Jakobson, E. [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre, Kopli 76, EE-0004 Tallinn (Estonia); Motiejunas, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection, A. Juozapaviciaus 9, LT-2602 Vilnius (Lithuania); Panteleev, Y. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinskij Av. 28, 194 021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Skujina, A. [Lielriga Regional Environmental Board, Rupniecibas St. 25, LV-1045 Riga (Latvia); Suplinska, M. [Central Laboratory for Radiation Protection, Ul. Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warsaw (Poland)

    1999-09-30

    A radiological assessment has been carried out considering discharges of radioactivity to the Baltic Sea marine environment since 1950. The sources of radioactivity that have been evaluated are atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, discharges of radionuclides from Sellafield and La Hague transported into the Baltic Sea, and discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations located in the Baltic Sea area. Dose rates from man-made radioactivity to individual members of the public (critical groups) have been calculated based on annual intake of seafood and beach occupancy time. The dose rates to individuals from the regions of the Bothnian Sea and Gulf of Finland are predicted to be larger than from any other area in the Baltic Sea due to the pattern of Chernobyl fallout. The dose rates are predicted to have peaked in 1986 at a value of 0.2 mSv year{sup -1}. Collective committed doses to members of the public have been calculated based on fishery statistics and predicted concentrations of radionuclides in biota and coastal sediments. The total collective dose from man-made radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is estimated at 2600 manSv, of which approximately two-thirds originate from Chernobyl fallout, approximately one-quarter from atmospheric nuclear-weapons fallout, approximately 8% from European reprocessing facilities, and approximately 0.04% from nuclear installations bordering the Baltic Sea area. An assessment of small-scale dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s by Sweden and the Soviet Union has showed that doses to man from these activities are negligible. Dose rates and doses from natural radioactivity dominate except for the year 1986 where dose rates to individuals from Chernobyl fallout in some regions of the Baltic Sea approached those from natural radioactivity.

  7. GoMapMan: integration, consolidation and visualization of plant gene annotations within the MapMan ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsak, Živa; Baebler, Špela; Rotter, Ana; Korbar, Matej; Mozetic, Igor; Usadel, Björn; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    GoMapMan (http://www.gomapman.org) is an open web-accessible resource for gene functional annotations in the plant sciences. It was developed to facilitate improvement, consolidation and visualization of gene annotations across several plant species. GoMapMan is based on the MapMan ontology, organized in the form of a hierarchical tree of biological concepts, which describe gene functions. Currently, genes of the model species Arabidopsis and three crop species (potato, tomato and rice) are included. The main features of GoMapMan are (i) dynamic and interactive gene product annotation through various curation options; (ii) consolidation of gene annotations for different plant species through the integration of orthologue group information; (iii) traceability of gene ontology changes and annotations; (iv) integration of external knowledge about genes from different public resources; and (v) providing gathered information to high-throughput analysis tools via dynamically generated export files. All of the GoMapMan functionalities are openly available, with the restriction on the curation functions, which require prior registration to ensure traceability of the implemented changes.

  8. MANNED OR UNMANNED – DOES THIS REALLY MATTER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Neininger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to compare, and possibly combine, the capabilities and technologies available for using either small UAS or small manned aircraft, or both, for environmental research applications including geomatics. The paper is emphasising the view that instead of making one or the other platform technology (manned or unmanned the deciding factor for specific applications in an a priori sense, it would be a better approach to evaluate each technology's suitability and merits in terms of ease of use (instrumentation integration, operational aspects, potential restrictions, safety, etc. and also cost-efficiency. As will be shown, in some cases, this might even mean that a combination of manned and unmanned aerial platforms could be the optimum choice for a specific set of tasks. The paper introduces a number of manned and unmanned small aerial platforms and looks at their specific proven and envisaged capabilities for specific tasks. It also introduces the concept of using manned and unmanned aerial platform in tandem, maximising the usefulness of both technologies together for specific tasks. The authors' intent is to encourage a close look at all technologies available today, or in the near future, and to make that the basis for decisions about which ones are the most suitable ones for specific applications or projects. Two field campaigns in which METAIR and ARA have operated their small manned aerial platforms are re-analysed to give an example of the considerations that should be evaluated to decide which platform technology might be the most suitable one for a specific project. One of the projects ("TIPPEX" was flown in 2008 in Northern Australia, while the other one ("MAIOLICA" had flight campaigns in 2009 and 2011 in Switzerland.

  9. 'Manxness': The Uses of Heritage on the Isle of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Catte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the Isle of Man, a self-governing crown dependency located in the center of the British Isles, uses heritage to create social stability among a diverse and rapidly changing population. The result of this process has been a powerful model of heritage branding through which all definitions of national identity must flow. After tracing the development of ‘Manx’ national identity from the Victorian era to the present, this article explores the benefits and limitations of the Isle of Man’s political uses of its history and shares insight from the practice of public history on the Isle of Man.

  10. Fragmented one dimensional man / El hombre unidimensional fragmentado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Rodríguez del Pino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paraphrase the title of the famous essay by Herbert Marcuse, since the image has traditionally been generated of man, masculinity, has been one-dimensional. I mean, the man was characterized by traits and behaviors established and entrenched since ancient time, considering all other distinguishing signs as mere deviations from the normative improper. But observe that this undeniable reality, as analyzed various researchers through what has come to be called Men's studies, has proven to be a fallacy difficult to maintain throughout history and today turns into fallacious and ineffective against changes in our current existing corporate models.

  11. Review on abort trajectory for manned lunar landing mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Abort trajectory is a passage that ensures the astronauts to return safely to the earth when an emergency occurs. Firstly,the essential elements of mission abort are analyzed entirely based on summarizing the existing studies. Then,abort trajectory requirement and rational selection for different flight phases of typical manned lunar mission are discussed specifically. Considering a trade-off between the two primary constrains of an abort,the return time of flight and energy requirement,a general optimizing method for mission abort is proposed. Finally,some suggestions are given for China’s future manned lunar landing mission.

  12. Endangered man: A view of the Christian scholar*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dekker

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available The seventies will most probably go down in history as one of the most critical periods in the history of mankind. Simultaneously with the petroleum crisis of 1973 man has become intensely conscious of his dependence on irreplaceable natural resources. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that existentialism with its emphasis on the present and its lack of hope for the future has become so viable a world view in our time. Man, who cannot or will not perceive the hand of God within Creation, is a confused being who wants to evade the future because of the threat it poses to him.

  13. The multi-axis vibration environment and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovesey, E J

    1970-12-01

    Many investigations into the effects of vibration on man have been performed since Mallock's first study of London Underground vibrations in 1902. The vibration research has tended to be confined to the vertical (heave) axis, yet recent experiments have indicated that low frequency vibration along the lateral (sway) axis has a greater adverse effect upon comfort and performance. Measurements of the vibration environments in current forms of transport including motor vehicles, hovercraft and aircraft etc have shown that appreciable quantities of vibration along all three axes exist. Further vibration research should consider the effects of multi-axis vibrations upon man rather than limit tests to single axis vibration.

  14. Radiocarbon dates to access the origin of the ice man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklaus, R. [Institute of Particle Physics, ETH Zurich, Hongerberg (Switzerland)]|[Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Bonani, G. [Institute of Particle Physics, ETH Zurich, Hongerberg (Switzerland); Prinoth-Fornwagner, R. [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    Different samples from the Late and Final Neolithic in Northern Italy were radiocarbon dated at the AMS Facility in Zurich, Switzerland in order to determine the origin of the Ice Man from the Hauslabjoch. The cultural classification was obtained on the basis of topological studies of the cooper axe and of the flint dagger as well as studies of artefact materials (the flint or the wood of a composite arrow), while the chronological classification of the Ice Man was obtained with the help of new and old radiocarbon dates. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. Different Rebellions--The and the Angry Beat Generation Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧国芳

    2012-01-01

    The Beat Generation (BG) and the Angry Man (AYM) both emerged after the Second World War. Thus, the misunderstanding of the two has existed for a long time. Large quantities of people called the BG the American Angry Young Man. Undoubtedly, the two resembled each other to some extent. However, the BG and the AYM can't be treated alike, for their differences far outweighed their similarities. This paper aims to analyze their differences in many aspects like the national environment and their memberships, which consequently led to other differences such as the differences in essences, features, influence and finale.

  16. Guidelines for advanced manned space vehicle program, June 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R. R.; Piland, R. O.; Faget, M. A.; White, S. C.; Chilton, R. C.; Donlan, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    A very broad mission objective was established; i.e., manned circumlunar flight and return to earth. It is implicit that the Saturn will be the primary propulsion system for this mission. The following attempts to: (1) define the objective so as to achieve as much capability in the vehicle as possible; (2) draw on Mercury experience to provide broad guidelines for vehicle performance and safety; (3) provide flexibility in the vehicle capability in the event that the manned lunar mission is proved to be subject to unacceptable risk in the target time period; and (4) indicate problem areas where work appears to be particularly needed.

  17. Some metabolic effects of overeating in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, S L; Seaton, T B; Campbell, R G

    1986-12-01

    Metabolic responses to 20 days of overeating were examined in five healthy volunteers. Overfeeding caused a variable increase (1-18%) in basal metabolic rate but no change in metabolic rate during light exercise. Postprandial resting metabolic rate was 8-40% higher (mean 18%) during overeating. The increase in oxygen consumption during a norepinephrine infusion was the same before (20 +/- 2%) and after (17 +/- 3%) overfeeding. Overfeeding elevated basal insulin concentrations in all subjects and increased the insulin response to intravenous glucose in four of five subjects. Overfeeding did not significantly alter mean serum T3 concentrations or erythrocyte 86Rb uptake (an index of Na+,K+-ATPase activity). These data do not confirm reports that overfeeding increases metabolic rate more during exercise than during rest. They also suggest that the increase in resting metabolic rate during overfeeding is not caused by increased responsiveness to norepinephrine or increased serum T3 concentrations.

  18. High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism in Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Conrad B.; Levy, Robert I.; Eisenberg, Shlomo; Hall, Marshall; Goebel, Robert H.; Berman, Mones

    1977-01-01

    The turnover of 125I-high density lipoprotein (HDL) was examined in a total of 14 studies in eight normal volunteers in an attempt to determine the metabolic relationship between apolipoproteins A-I (apoA-I) and A-II (apoA-II) of HDL and to define further some of the determinants of HDL metabolism. All subjects were first studied under conditions of an isocaloric balanced diet (40% fat, 40% carbohydrate). Four were then studied with an 80% carbohydrate diet, and two were studied while receiving nicotinic acid (1 g three times daily) and ingesting the same isocaloric balanced diet. The decay of autologous 125I-HDL and the appearance of urinary radioactivity were followed for at least 2 wk in each study. ApoA-I and apoA-II were isolated by Sephadex G-200 chromatography from serial plasma samples in each study. The specific activities of these peptides were then measured directly. It was found that the decay of specific activity of apoA-I and apoA-II were parallel to one another in all studies. The mean half-life of the terminal portion of decay was 5.8 days during the studies with a balanced diet. Mathematical modeling of the decay of plasma radioactivity and appearance of urinary radioactivity was most consistent with a two-compartment model. One compartment is within the plasma and exchanges with a nonplasma component. Catabolism occurs from both of these compartments. With a balanced isocaloric diet, the mean synthetic rate for HDL protein was 8.51 mg/kg per day. HDL synthesis was not altered by the high carbohydrate diet and was only slightly decreased by nicotinic acid treatment. These perturbations had effects on HDL catabolic pathways that were reciprocal in many respects. With an 80% carbohydrate diet, the rate of catabolism from the plasma compartment rose by a mean of 39.1%; with nicotinic acid treatment, it fell by 42.2%. Changes in the rate of catabolism from the second compartment were generally opposite those in the rate of catabolism from the plasma

  19. [Biotechnology: hail to man and animal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Brom, F W A

    2002-06-01

    There are two basic remarks that must be made about this series of articles on the theme 'Modern biotechnology: a blessing or concern?'. Firstly, it is difficult to define what 'biotechnology' is due to the diversity of techniques employed. Secondly, it is striking how biotechnological techniques may be employed for such a wide variety of goals. In this article, the ethics of using biotechnology within veterinary science and research will be discussed. Aside from its usefulness to humankind, an animal has its own value as a living creature; a fact that we should always take into account. Ethical issues such as the health, welfare and integrity of animals are discussed here in relation to developments in biotechnology. These ethical arguments reveal that biotechnology does not always have a positive impact on animals. This does not necessarily mean that biotechnology should be rejected out of hand, but that it is essential that the purpose for which the animals are being used be adequately justified. In this regard, the veterinarian may play a unique role as the guardian of both animal and human health. The veterinary profession, in all its diversity, is a participant in the development and (future) practical application of biotechnological techniques. Changes in the broader society and within the veterinary profession may continue to play a role in the societal discourse on biotechnology and its practical application, it must actively consider the ethical aspects and consequences of these scientific developments.

  20. Man, Satan, and God of Mawlana (Rumi and Milton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mir Mojarabian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is a critical analysis on the place of human and his integration with religious issues, and the subject of disobedience and rebellion. In addition, topics such as reward, punishment, redemption and salvation of mankind in two great works of literature of the world, Masnavi by Mawlana and Paradise Lost by Milton have been comparatively discussed.     Rumi's poetry and thought has been accepted by commons and special people in Iran and the world. Rumi is one of the few supreme poets in Persian language and the world. Generally, Milton has Known as the greatest English poet after Shakespeare, and his Paradise Lost as the greatest English fiction poem. This work is a the well-known epics of human-divine composed in live new languages, and comparing these two works even in one field of speech, indeed is the comparison of two thoughts, two nations, and two ancient cultures.     The author attempts to examine the similarities and contrasts of the two poems of these two great poets on the subjects of human, God, and Satan and the world, to achieve the analytical and critical comparison of them in this context. In this paper the author tries to base the Paradise Lost of Milton and compare it with the ideas of Mawlana common to imagine man's first story and his disobedience, religious approaches, and finally the end presumed for mankind.     In these two poems, contrast between "God" and "man" is derived from the fundamental relationship between "God" and "man". Milton while calls God, our Heavenly Father and refer to his role of creativity, entitles him as the dominant power, All mighty, the victorious winner, Glorious and Holy ruler, powerful king, and in one word, omnipotent. The Creator that all creatures are worshiping him, the omnipotent could be seen his capability remarks in everywhere, the unique structure of the universe beautiful is his own and the glorious ruler, sitting over the skies, sometimes invisible and sometimes