Træen, Bente; Thuen, Frode
The purpose of this paper is to describe the prevalence of self-reported types of extradyadic romantic and sexual activity among adult Norwegians and to explore the role of infidelity in breaking up a permanent relationship. The results are based on 1,001 web interviews with persons ranging in age from 18 to 67 years. The majority of respondents reported having engaged in some kind of extradyadic romantic and/or sexual activity. Forty-five percent of the women and 39% of the men claimed they had experienced a previous breakup from a marriage or cohabiting relationship. Among those aged 50 years or older, the most important reasons for breaking up a previous relationship were infidelity (38%) and lost love (38%). More men (44%) than women (33%) reported infidelity. Respondents younger than 50 years were more motivated by boredom. Among respondents below the age of 50 years, the most frequently reported reasons for considering termination of a present relationship were quarreling (37%), poor sex life (29%), and "other" reasons (25%). Accordingly, infidelity was not identified as an essential factor for considering a breakup from the present relationship. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
A study of a heterogeneous sample of 250 mostly married individuals examined the impact of sex, self-esteem, emotional dependency and extradyadic sexual experience upon betrayal-anger, disappointment and self-doubt as responses to extradyadic sexual behavior of the partner. Women scored higher in
This study examined whether relationship quality, dispositional jealousy, and attitudes towards monogamy were associated with gay men's satisfaction with the agreements they have in their relationships about extra-dyadic sex. Three types of sexual agreement were examined: closed (no extra-dyadic sex is allowed), monogamish (extra-dyadic sex is allowed only when both members of the couple are present), and open (extra-dyadic sex is allowed). Results from a 2010 survey of 772 gay men in relationships indicated that sexual agreement satisfaction was positively associated with levels of intimacy and commitment for all three types of sexual agreement, but was differentially associated with sexual satisfaction within the relationship, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes as a function of sexual agreement type. Mean levels of sexual satisfaction, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes also differed between types of agreement. These findings provided preliminary evidence that sexual agreement satisfaction may be influenced by different factors depending on the type of agreement, which has useful implications for professionals with gay male clients experiencing dissatisfaction with their agreement or with their relationship more generally.
Crass, Suzanne L.; Terranova, Andrew M.
The relationship between narcissism, callousness, and extradyadic involvement (EDI), has been understudied. It was anticipated that callousness and narcissism would be associated with increased likelihood of engaging in an EDI and less distress about having engaged in the EDI. Participants (268 college students; 75% female; mean age of 20 years…
Selterman, Dylan; Garcia, Justin R; Tsapelas, Irene
Relationship infidelities are motivated by many distinct factors, with previous research indicating motivations of dissatisfaction, neglect, anger, and sexual desire (Barta & Kiene, 2005). We expand on this by demonstrating additional, empirically distinct motivations for infidelity. Using an Internet-based questionnaire, participants (N = 495), most of whom were young adults, self-reported their infidelities. In addition to evidence for previously studied motivations, our data demonstrate additional factors, including lack of love ("I had 'fallen out of love with' my primary partner"), low commitment ("I was not very committed to my primary partner"), esteem ("I wanted to enhance my popularity"), gaining sexual variety ("I wanted a greater variety of sexual partners"), and situational factors ("I was drunk and not thinking clearly"). Our results also show personality correlates with infidelity motivations. Consistent with predictions, attachment insecurity was associated with motivations of anger, lack of love, neglect, low commitment, and esteem, while unrestricted sociosexual orientation was associated with sexual variety. Implicit beliefs (e.g., growth, destiny, romanticism) were differentially associated with sexual desire, low commitment, lack of love, and neglect. These findings highlight multifaceted motivations underlying infidelity, moving beyond relationship deficit models of infidelity, with implications for research and psychotherapy involving people's romantic and sexual relationships.
Livingston, Jennifer A; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol
Low sexual assertiveness has been proposed as a possible mechanism through which sexual revictimization occurs, yet evidence for this has been mixed. In this study, prospective path analysis was used to examine the relationship between sexual refusal assertiveness and sexual victimization over time among a community sample of women. Results provide support for a reciprocal relationship, with historical victimization predicting low sexual assertiveness and low sexual assertiveness predicting subsequent victimization. The effect of recent sexual victimization on subsequent sexual assertiveness also was replicated prospectively. These findings suggest that strengthening sexual assertiveness may help reduce vulnerability to future victimization.
Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O
Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score sexual problem), sexual distress (Female Sexual Distress Scale; score ≥ 15 indicates clinically significant distress), sexual satisfaction (Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction), and relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B
This review investigates whether sexual desire and arousal decline in response to partner familiarity, increase in response to partner novelty, and show differential responding in men and women. These questions were considered through the perspective of two leading evolutionary theories regarding human mating strategies: sexual strategies theory and attachment fertility theory. The hypotheses emerging from these theories were evaluated through a critical analysis of several areas of research including habituation of arousal to erotic stimuli, preferences regarding number of sexual partners, the effect of long-term monogamous relationships on sexual arousal and desire, and prevalence and risk factors associated with extradyadic behavior. The current literature best supports the predictions made by sexual strategies theory in that sexual functioning has evolved to promote short-term mating. Sexual arousal and desire appear to decrease in response to partner familiarity and increase in response to partner novelty in men and women. Evidence to date suggests this effect may be greater in men.
Peplau, Letitia Anne; And Others
The patterning of sexual interaction in male-female dyads and the links between sexual behavior and emotional intimacy were investigated as part of a two-year study of college dating couples. Traditional sexual role playing was found to be common. (Author/AM)
Resumption Of Sexual Relationship After Childbirth: Preliminary Observations On Husband\\'s Attitude. ... An open-ended questionnaire developed by the authors was used to elicit information on relevant aspects of husbands' reproductive behaviour. We found that husbands' preferred time of resumption of sexual ...
Mathes, Eugene W
In a classic study, Buss, Larson, Westen, and Semmelroth reported that men were more distressed by the thought of a partner's sexual infidelity (sexual jealousy) and women were more distressed by the thought of a partner's emotional infidelity (emotional jealousy). Initially, Buss and his associates explained these results by suggesting that men are concerned about uncertainty of paternity, that is, the possibility of raising another man's child while believing the child is their own. However, later they explained the results in terms of men's preference for short-term sexual strategies. The purpose of this research was to test the explanation of short-term sexual strategies. Men and women subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a relationship which was either short-term (primarily sexual) or long-term (involving commitment) and then respond to Buss's jealousy items. It was hypothesized that, when both men and women imagined a short-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's sexual infidelity, and, when they imagined a long-term relationship, they would be more threatened by a partner's emotional infidelity. Support was found for this hypothesis.
Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.
Bertelsen, Eva; Østerby Sørensen, William; Jensen, Mathilde Worch
Even though Denmark in many respects shows some of the most gender equality rates in the world, the rates of physical and/or sexual violence against women in Denmark are among the highest in Europe. In this article we seek to describe state responses to these figures. We do so by investigating...... the symbolic representations of sexual violence in intimate relationships, framing contemporary political/societal developments of the Danish field of welfare work addressing violence in intimate relationships as well as the dominating knowledge production substantiating these. Theoretically, Slavoj Zizek...... and his concept objective violence inform the paper, in order to analyze authoritative representations of ‘sexual violence in intimate relationships’ in three areas: Danish legislation and legal practices, Danish research on sexual violence, and policy-papers. Thus the Danish Criminal Code, selected...
Veit, Maria; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Hald, Gert Martin
Using a cross-sectional questionnaire design and a sample of 2284 coupled Croatian adults, this study investigated the association between Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) use and relationship satisfaction. Further, possible moderation of emotional intimacy on the relationship between SEM use...... and relationship satisfaction was investigated. Controlling for sociodemographic, psychosexual and relationship variables, no significant association between SEM use and relationship satisfaction was found. However, among men, a moderating effect of emotional intimacy was found. Thus, higher SEM use was found...... to be significantly associated with lower relationship satisfaction only among men who reported lower levels of emotional intimacy with their partner....
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Li, Ren-Hau; Yu, Hsing-Yi
The purpose of this study was to test a model of sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition affecting sexual communication in Taiwanese adolescents. Parent-adolescent sexual communication has been shown to influence adolescent sexual behaviour. Self-concept is an important predictor of human behaviour, especially sexual behaviour. Few researchers have assessed sexual self-concept in adolescents, despite its clear relevance to understanding adolescent sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was used in this study. In 2009, data were collected by questionnaire from 748 adolescent students at a junior college in Taiwan. The results revealed that the postulated model fits the data from this study well. Sexual self-concept significantly predicts sexual risk cognition and sexual communication. Sexual risk cognition significantly predicts sexual communication and has an intervening effect on the relationship between sexual self-concept and sexual communication. Sexual risk cognition is important in explaining sexuality in adolescents. Sexual self-concept has both direct and indirect effects on sexual communication. Our findings provide concrete directions for school educators in developing sexual health programmes to increase adolescent sexual self-concept and sexual communication with their parents. Future sexual health programmes about sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition must add for increasing adolescent's sexual communication with their parents. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Emmerink, P.M.J.; van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, T.F.M.
Sexual gender norms promoting sexual prowess for men, but sexual modesty for women have been shown to negatively affect sexual and mental health in both men and women. Knowledge about the relationship between gender norms and sexual cognitions and emotions might further the understanding of
Howard, J R; O'Neill, S; Travers, C
To investigate the sexual behavior, sexual relationships, sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction and sexual distress in a population of older urban Australian women. In 2004, 474 women participating in the Longitudinal Assessment of Ageing in Women (LAW) Study completed a series of questionnaires about sexuality. They included the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ), Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS), Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), questions concerning past sexual abuse based on the Sex in Australia Study, and questions comparing present and past sexual interest and activity. The percentage of women with partners ranged from 83.3% in the 40 - 49-year age group to 46.4% women in the 70 - 79-year age group. The sexual ability of partners diminished markedly with age, with only 4.8% of the partners using medication to enable erections. Only 2.5% of women reported low relationship satisfaction. The incidence of sexual distress was also low, being reported by only 5.7% of women. Younger women and women with partners had higher levels of distress than older women. Indifference to sexual frequency rose from 26.7% in women aged 40 - 49 years to 72.3% in the 70 - 79-year age group. Past sexual abuse was recalled by 22.7% of women and 11.6% recalled multiple episodes of abuse. Women who recalled abuse had lower scores for satisfaction with sexual frequency. It appears from this study that there is a wide range of sexual experience amongst aging women, from never having had a sexual partner, to having solitary sex, to having a relationship with or without sex into the seventh decade. As women age, they experience a decrease in sexual activity, interest in sex, and distress about sex. This may be associated with the loss of intimate relationships as part of separation, divorce or bereavement. Decreased sexual activity with aging may be interpreted as a biological phenomenon (part of the aging process) or as sexual dysfunction, or it may be the result of
Compton, Benjamin L; Bowman, Jonathan M
For individuals in exclusive romantic relationships, the dynamics of sexual experimentation are nuanced. Extradyadic behavior outside of a relationship may be perceived as cheating or infidelity, with much of those perceptions driven by the biological sex of the perceiver. This study significantly reframes seminal research on perceptions of cheating with third-party friends by Kruger et al. (2013), to further nuance an evolutionary threat-based model. In doing so, this furthers our understanding of the associated perceptions of individuals in heterosexual relationships when confronted by partners' cheating with their same-sex cross-orientation friends. Results indicate that perceptions of same-sex infidelity vary widely depending on the nature of the behaviors, with decreasing attribution given to sexual and erotic behaviors, close relational behaviors, and casual social interaction behaviors, respectively. Implications are discussed for a variety of sexual communities, as well as the impact of gender and relational status on perceptions of infidelity.
Minkin, Mary Jane
A commonly used phrase describing aging is "60 is the new 40". Although in many aspects of life this may be correct, in discussing sexual health, challenges to maintaining excellent sexual health become more common around age 60. Biological aging challenges physical sexual activity and responsiveness. We commence by briefly surveying the extensive coverage of 'normal' physiological aging. We primarily focus on issues that arise in distinct disease and or pathophysiological states, including gynecological and breast cancer, as well as those associated with partners of men who are either prostate cancer survivors or who have taken therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). Regrettably, there is a very modest literature on sexual health and associated possible interventions in older patients in these cohorts. We discuss a variety of interventions and approaches, including those that we have developed and applied in a clinic at our host university, which have generally produced successful outcomes. The extended focus to sexual relationship dynamics in partners of men with either prostate cancer or ED in particular is virtually unexplored, yet is especially timely given the large numbers of women who encounter this situation. Finally, we briefly discuss cross-cultural distinctions in older couples' expectations, which exhibit remarkable variation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reissing, Elke D; Binik, Yitzchak M; Khalifé, Samir; Cohen, Deborah; Amsel, Rhonda
This study investigated the role of sexual and physical abuse, sexual self-schema, sexual functioning, sexual knowledge, relationship adjustment, and psychological distress in 87 women matched on age, relationship status, and parity and assigned to 3 groups--vaginismus, dyspareunia/vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS), and no pain. More women with vaginismus reported a history of childhood sexual interference, and women in both the vaginismus and VVS groups reported lower levels of sexual functioning and a less positive sexual self-schema. Lack of support for traditionally held hypotheses concerning etiological correlates of vaginismus and the relationship between vaginismus and dyspareunia are discussed.
Yoo, Hana; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Day, Randal D; Gangamma, Rashmi
Emotional and sexual aspects of intimacy in romantic relationships are important correlates of couples' relationship satisfaction. However, few studies have examined the effect of emotional and sexual aspects of intimacy on relationship satisfaction within the context of the interpersonal relationship processes. In addition, the association between emotional and sexual aspects of intimacy remains unclear. With a sample of 335 married couples from the Flourishing Families Project, the authors examined the associations between couple communication, emotional intimacy, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction, using the couple as the unit of analysis. The results of path analysis suggested that sexual satisfaction significantly predicted emotional intimacy for husbands and wives, while emotional intimacy did not appear to have a significant influence on sexual satisfaction. Further, mediation associations were suggested within as well as between spouses. Within spouses (for each spouse), emotional intimacy and sexual satisfaction mediated the association between spouses' appraisal of their partners' communication and their own relationship satisfaction. Gender differences were revealed in terms of how a spouse's perception of sexual satisfaction is associated with his or her partner's relationship satisfaction. In this study, although wives' relationship satisfaction was not associated with their husbands' sexual satisfaction, husbands tended to report high levels of relationship satisfaction when their wives reported greater sexual satisfaction. Findings suggest that both components of intimacy--emotional and sexual--should be comprehensively addressed in research and clinical work with couples.
Shulman, Shmuel; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Walsh, Sophie D
Past research has consistently shown that romantic experiences during adolescence affect the nature and quality of romantic relationships during emerging adulthood. However, less is known about the role of adolescent sexual experiences in future sexual and romantic relationships. The current study examined the impact of different forms of sexual activity at age 16 (within a romantic relationship or casual encounters) on the nature and quality of sexual experiences in romantic relationships at age 23. One hundred and forty four (59.7% females) 16 year olds reported on their sexual activity within a romantic relationship or sexual encounters. In addition they reported on the quality of relationships they were involved in and their tendency to suppress emotions (included as an aspect of personality). At age 23 they reported on their romantic and sexual experiences during the past 2 years (number of short lived relationships, numbers of friends with benefits, casual sex encounters) and the quality of their romantic relationships (the duration of their longest relationship, partner support and feelings of certainty in the relationships). Findings showed that the tendency to suppress emotions was associated with lower likelihood to engage in casual sex at age 23. However, greater sexual experience in casual encounters during adolescence was consistently longitudinally associated with different forms of casual sexual encounters and short romantic involvements above and beyond the contribution of personality. In contrast, sexual activity within a romantic relationship predicted only a few indices of the quality of romantic involvement at age 23. The distinctive role of casual sexual activity and sexual activity within a romantic relationship for future sexual and romantic activities is discussed.
Sobański, Jerzy A.; Klasa, Katarzyna; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Dembińska, Edyta; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielimąka, Michał
Aim. The assessment of links of accumulated traumatic events of a sexual nature, recollected from the past, with the current functioning of the patients in the area of sexual life and relationship. Material and methods. Comorbidity of memories of traumatic sexual events from childhood and puberty in patients with the features of their current partner relationships and sexual life were analyzed on the basis of Live Inventory completed by 2,582 women and 1,347 men, before treatment in day ho...
Kokko, Hanna; Jennions, Michael D
Evolutionary conflicts of interest arise whenever genetically different individuals interact and their routes to fitness maximization differ. Sexual selection favors traits that increase an individual's competitiveness to acquire mates and fertilizations. Sexual conflict occurs if an individual of sex A's relative fitness would increase if it had a "tool" that could alter what an individual of sex B does (including the parental genes transferred), at a cost to B's fitness. This definition clarifies several issues: Conflict is very common and, although it extends outside traits under sexual selection, sexual selection is a ready source of sexual conflict. Sexual conflict and sexual selection should not be presented as alternative explanations for trait evolution. Conflict is closely linked to the concept of a lag load, which is context-dependent and sex-specific. This makes it possible to ask if one sex can "win." We expect higher population fitness if females win. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita
Limited research exists on the implications of feeling sexually attractive for various aspects of sexuality and sexual relationships. This article examined associations between self-perceived sexual attractiveness and sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction and amount of sexual experience, among both men and women who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225) or bisexual (n = 651). Results of the study demonstrated that positive self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness predicted greater sexual esteem, greater sexual satisfaction, a higher frequency of sexual activity with others and a larger number of sexual partners among both men and women who identified as heterosexual, gay, lesbian or bisexual. The findings suggest that feeling sexually attractive may have implications for how an individual experiences their sexuality and sexual relationships regardless of their gender or sexual orientation. The importance of considering an individual's self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness when they present with concerns related to their sexual experiences or relationships, and the potential benefits of educational and therapeutic interventions designed to enhance self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Williams, Karen B.; Cyr, Ramona R.
Studies divergent sexual harassment perceptions in a case of a perpetrator's gradual sexual advancements and a target's escalating commitment to their relationship, using 60 male and 60 female undergraduates. Males' ratings of sexual harassment decreased when female target participated in increasingly informal friendly interactions. Females'…
Buhmann, C; Dogac, S; Vettorazzi, E; Hidding, U; Gerloff, C; Jürgens, T P
This study aimed at examining the impact of Parkinson disease (PD) on patients' sexuality and relationship and to evaluate gender-specific differences. Using a standardized questionnaire on sexual functioning in chronic diseases (SFCE), the impact of PD diagnosis on 38 domains of sexuality before and since PD diagnosis was evaluated retrospectively in 53 consecutive patients in a relationship. Changes in self-assessed ratings on a four-point Likert scale were determined for all patients. In addition, gender-specific differences and the influence of age, depression (BDI-II), medication, disease severity and disease duration on domains of the SFCE were calculated. The importance of non-sexual relational aspects, such as talking about feelings or tenderness increased for both genders after PD diagnosis, especially in women. Sexual function, such as frequency of intercourse, sexual arousal, subjective abnormal sexual fantasies or sexual satisfaction deteriorated in both genders, especially in men. Some sexual aspects improved in women but worsened in men after PD diagnosis. This includes frequency of orgasm dysfunction, fear not to fulfill sexual expectations of the partner, avoidance of sexual acts, withdrawal from relationship, increase of thoughts about divorce, or increase of dissatisfaction with sexuality and relationship. With age, thoughts about divorce declined. With disease duration, frequency of tenderness with the partner increased. Depression unexpectedly correlated with higher frequency of intercourse. Dopaminergic dosage influenced stability of the relationship negatively. PD influences patients' sexuality negatively, independently of age, disease duration or disease severity and men show greater sexual dysfunction and impairment of their sexual relationship than women.
Emmerink, Peggy M J; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Ter Bogt, Tom F M
Sexual gender norms promoting sexual prowess for men, but sexual modesty for women have been shown to negatively affect sexual and mental health in both men and women. Knowledge about the relationship between gender norms and sexual cognitions and emotions might further the understanding of continued gender-norm conformity. In the present study, we investigated whether and how gendered sexual attitudes are related to (positive and negative) sex-related emotions, via sexual cognitions (autonomy, body esteem, and approach/avoidance motives for sex). A survey was submitted to 293 heterosexually identified, sexually active, Dutch (central and southern regions) 18-25 year-olds. Results from a moderated mediation model (using structural equation modeling) revealed that women, but not men, who more strongly endorsed traditional gender-related sexual attitudes experienced significantly less positive and more negative emotions, as a result of decreased sexual autonomy and sexual body esteem as well as increased avoidance motives for sex. We conclude that, as a result of negative cognitions associated with the endorsement of traditional gender norms, women in particular are at risk of experiencing negative emotional outcomes in the sexual context. We argue that sexual cognitions and emotions deserve explicit attention in sex-positive and gender-transformative sexuality education, which has been proven to be a vital resource for achieving increased gender-equity in sexual and romantic relationships.
Dewitte, Marieke; Mayer, Axel
Current models of sexual responding emphasize the role of contextual and relational factors in shaping sexual behavior. The present study used a prospective diary design to examine the temporal sequence and variability of the link between sexual and relationship variables in a sample of couples.
Ahrold, Tierney K.; Farmer, Melissa; Trapnell, Paul D.; Meston, Cindy M.
Recent research on the impact of religiosity on sexuality has highlighted the role of the individual, and suggests that the effects of religious group and sexual attitudes and fantasy may be mediated through individual differences in spirituality. The present study investigated the role of religion in an ethnically diverse young adult sample (N = 1413, 69% women) using religious group as well as several religiosity domains: spirituality, intrinsic religiosity, paranormal beliefs, and fundamentalism. Differences between religious groups in conservative sexual attitudes were statistically significant but small; as predicted, spirituality mediated these effects. In contrast to the weak effects of religious group, spirituality, intrinsic religiosity, and fundamentalism were strong predictors of women’s conservative sexual attitudes; for men, intrinsic religiosity predicted sexual attitude conservatism but spirituality predicted attitudinal liberalism. For women, both religious group and religiosity domains were significant predictors of frequency of sexual fantasies while, for men, only religiosity domains were significant predictors. These results indicate that individual differences in religiosity domains were better predictors of sexual attitudes and fantasy than religious group and that these associations are moderated by gender. PMID:20364304
Brunell, Amy B; Webster, Gregory D
The authors propose the Model of Self-Determined Sexual Motivation to examine sexual motivation in dating relationships using a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework. This model predicted that sexual need satisfaction would mediate the association between self-determined sexual motives and the outcome variables of psychological well-being and relational quality. Three studies tested this model. Study 1 was a cross-sectional study that investigated sexual motivation in dating relationships. Study 2 was an event-contingent interaction record study that investigated specific sexual interactions over 2 weeks. Study 3 combined event- and interval-contingent methods using a daily diary to examine the model for both partners to enable examination of actor and partner effects. Discussion section focuses on the power of examining SDT in the sexual domain.
Azmoude, Elham; Firoozi, Mahbobe; Sadeghi Sahebzad, Elahe; Asgharipour, Neghar
Evidence indicates that sexual assertiveness is one of the important factors affecting sexual satisfaction. According to some studies, traditional gender norms conflict with women's capability in expressing sexual desires. This study examined the relationship between gender roles and sexual assertiveness in married women in Mashhad, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 women who referred to Mashhad health centers through convenient sampling in 2014-15. Data were collected using Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and Hulbert index of sexual assertiveness. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 by Pearson and Spearman's correlation tests and linear Regression Analysis. The mean scores of sexual assertiveness was 54.93±13.20. According to the findings, there was non-significant correlation between Femininity and masculinity score with sexual assertiveness (P=0.069 and P=0.080 respectively). Linear regression analysis indicated that among the predictor variables, only Sexual function satisfaction was identified as the sexual assertiveness summary predictor variables (P=0.001). Based on the results, sexual assertiveness in married women does not comply with gender role, but it is related to Sexual function satisfaction. So, counseling psychologists need to consider this variable when designing intervention programs for modifying sexual assertiveness and find other variables that affect sexual assertiveness.
Zeng, Yingchun; Luo, Taizhen; Zhou, Ying
In this study, we investigated attitudes toward sexuality, the prevalence of sexual behaviors and contraceptive use among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates, and relationships between attitudes toward sexuality and sexual and contraceptive practices among these participants. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out by using a Personal Attitude toward Sexuality Scale and Sexual and Contraceptive Questionnaire. The participants were recruited in the researcher's lectures. A total of 158 participants joined this study. Overall, Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates in this study held relatively conservative attitudes toward sexuality. The prevalence of sexually-active students was relatively low, and the percentage of contraceptive use among those sexually-active students was also low. Participants' attitudes toward sexuality had statistically-significant effects on their sexual and contraceptive practices. Nearly half of the sexually-active participants reported never using any contraceptive method during sexual intercourse. This finding has important public health implications, as young people represent the group with the largest rate of new infections of HIV/AIDS in China. A more comprehensive sexual education program that extends to college undergraduates and promotes the social acceptability of using contraception, specifically condoms, is needed. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Maas, Megan; Lefkowitz, Eva
Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989), yet it is unclear if sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis uses a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006; Tolman & McClelland, 2011) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 18.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed web-based surveys at a large northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships, tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed. PMID:25210789
Frost, David M; McClelland, Sara I; Dettmann, Miranda
This study examined the impact of sexual closeness on sexual well-being. We developed a nuanced and multifaceted conceptualization of sexual closeness in the form of a constellation of ideal sexual closeness with a partner, actual sexual closeness, and the discrepancy between the two. Data were obtained from a diverse sample of N = 619 participants who took part in the Lives and Relationships Study: A longitudinal survey of men and women in relationships living in the U.S. and Canada. Increases in sexual closeness discrepancies over a period of 1 year predicted concomitant decreases in two indicators of sexual well-being: sexual satisfaction and orgasm frequency evaluations. Decreases in sexual closeness discrepancies resulted in improvement in sexual well-being. Individuals who reported no sexual closeness discrepancies and experienced no changes in sexual closeness discrepancies tended to have the highest levels of sexual well-being. Importantly, sexual closeness discrepancies were robust predictors of sexual well-being, above and beyond individuals' actual sexual closeness, general relationship closeness, and other demographic and relationship characteristics known to be associated with sexual well-being. The present findings demonstrate that how close people feel sexually to their relationship partners is part of a general constellation of factors related to relationship closeness that, only when considered together, sufficiently explain the ways in which experiences of closeness impact sexual well-being in romantic relationships.
Metz, Michael E; Epstein, Norman
Relationship conflict has long been thought to cause, maintain, and influence the therapeutic outcome of sexual problems in the absence of a physical cause. The results of conflict can influence partners' relationship satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction can influence sexual satisfaction. General relationship deficiencies, such as unresolved conflict, undermine the mutual acceptance that is important to healthy sexual functioning. The purpose of this article is to summarize some of the basic empirical findings of studies of conflict patterns in relationships and their role in sex dysfunction and to suggest a model for assessing relationship conflict as a feature of sexual dysfunction. Results from several studies indicate that couples with sexual problems may have conflict-management issues and employ distinct conflict-resolution styles compared to satisfied couples. Dysfunctional conflict resolution may be a cause or result of some sexual problems, whereas constructive interaction concerning conflict can add to emotional and sexual intimacy in a couple's relationship. These patterns warrant systematic attention in assessment and intervention in sex therapy.
Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Flanigan, Christine M
Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize 'risk management' as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV.
Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Flanigan, Christine M.
Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize ‘risk management’ as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015
Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Bergeron, Sophie; Jurin, Tanja
Historically, women's sexual desire has been deemed socially problematic. The growing popularity of the concept of hypersexuality-which lists high sexual desire among its core components-poses a risk of re-pathologizing female sexual desire. Data from a 2014 online survey of 2,599 Croatian women aged 18-60 years was used to examine whether high sexual desire is detrimental to women's relationship and sexual well-being. Based on the highest scores on an indicator of sexual desire, 178 women were classified in the high sexual desire (HSD) group; women who scored higher than one standard deviation above the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory mean were categorized in the hypersexuality (HYP) group (n = 239). Fifty-seven women met the classification criteria for both groups (HYP&HSD). Compared to other groups, the HSD was the most sexually active group. Compared to controls, the HYP and HYP&HSD groups-but not the HSD group-reported significantly more negative consequences associated with their sexuality. Compared to the HYP group, women with HSD reported better sexual function, higher sexual satisfaction, and lower odds of negative behavioral consequences. The findings suggest that, at least among women, hypersexuality should not be conflated with high sexual desire and frequent sexual activity.
Kingsberg, S A
Aging has a powerful impact on the quality of relationships and sexual functioning. The psychological impact of aging after midlife is a particularly timely topic given improved medical and psychological understanding of sexuality in both women and men, as well as more effective treatment for age-related sexual dysfunctions. It is time to dispel the stereotype of the midlife relationship as the continuation of a traditional heterosexual marriage with grown or almost grown children in order to more effectively address emotional and sexual issues arising in relationships. Regardless of the length or nature of the relationship, however, its quality is enhanced by emotional intimacy, autonomy without too much distance, an ability to manage stress and distractions by external factors, and achieving a satisfying sexual equilibrium. Perception of the quality of the primary relationship and sexuality is influenced by the other factors in a person's life. Thus, the relationship must be examined and issues must be addressed taking these external factors into consideration. Among the most powerful external factors is one's occupation or avocation, as it tends to strongly influence one's sense of identity, self-esteem, and self-worth in all areas of life. To understand and treat effects of aging on sexuality, it is important to address the three components of sexual desire: drive, beliefs/values, and motivation, as well as the sexual equilibrium within the primary relationship. It is also essential to understand how the physiological changes in male and female sexual functioning affect desire and equilibrium. Other health-related changes that occur with aging must be recognized and addressed, including the fact that the oldest of old women will outlive their corresponding male cohort. Treatment implications for these issues are discussed.
In other words, one could say that the attitudes of adolescents towards dating, masturbation or even sexual intercourse are rather negative. Significantly, however, the crux of this article is to establish and appraise the axiological dimension of the permissive sexual relationship with affection, thereafter, suggests ways of ...
Patel Ankur S.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: We assessed the relationships between bladder symptoms, demographic, and medical history variables and sexual dysfunction in women with overactive bladder (OAB disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight women diagnosed with OAB completed self-administered questionnaires related to overall heath status, bladder function, and sexual function. Data were compiled for questionnaire responses, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of sexual dysfunction. RESULTS: Bothersome bladder symptoms were reported by superscript three 60% of the sample. Sixty-percent of the sample was sexually active in the past month. Difficulty with sexual arousal, orgasm, and sexual enjoyment were reported by about 25% of the women. Sexual partner status was the best predictor of sexual arousal, orgasm, and sexual enjoyment. Menopausal status emerged as an important predictor of arousal and sexual enjoyment. CONCLUSION: The majority of women with symptoms of OAB viewed these symptoms as bothersome. However, the extent of symptom bother did not predict aspects of female sexual dysfunction (FSD. Instead, menopausal and partner status emerged as the best predictors of FSD in our sample.
Winter, Virginia Ramseyer; Satinsky, Sonya
The relationship between body appreciation and sexual risk reduction behavior in women is under-explored. This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between body appreciation, male condom use, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing among a community-based sample of women (n=285). Logistic regression results revealed that after controlling for age, BMI, and sexual orientation, having more than one sexual partner moderated body appreciation and current male condom use (OR=4.21, p<.01, CI=1.510-11.726). Body appreciation was not a significant predictor of STI testing in the previous 12 months. This suggests that women with higher body appreciation may be more likely to engage in some protective sexual health behaviors. Interventions that seek to improve body appreciation instead of body size change such as weight loss or gain may encourage certain protective sexual behaviors in women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Jacqueline N; Byers, E Sandra
The goal of this study was to characterize the sexuality of sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, bisexual, queer, unlabeled, questioning) women. Participants were 586 women (87% White) in a same-sex relationship of 1 to 36 years in duration. They completed measures assessing their sexual behavior (frequency of nongenital and genital sexual activities), motivation (sexual desire), and cognitive-affective responses (sexual satisfaction, sexual esteem, sexual anxiety, negative automatic thoughts). On average, the women reported experiencing their sexuality positively across all domains. Regardless of relationship duration, most of the women reported engaging in both genital and nongenital sexual behaviors with their partner once a week or more; few reported that they had not engaged in sexual activity in the previous month. A multiple regression analysis indicated that frequency of genital sexual activity, sexual desire, sexual anxiety, and automatic thoughts contributed uniquely to the prediction of sexual satisfaction over and above the other sexuality variables. The findings are discussed in terms of the idea that lesbians have sex less frequently than other couple types and that sexual frequency declines rapidly in lesbian relationships (i.e., "lesbian bed death") and descriptions of sexual-minority women's sexuality that suggest that genital sexual activity is not important to sexual satisfaction.
Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghaddam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Montazeri, Ali
Premarital sexual relationships could harm youth's health in terms of sexually transmitted infections or increased risk of unprotected sexual behaviors. Sexual abstinence has been recommended to prevent young adolescents from adverse outcomes of premarital sexual relationships. The aim of this study was to explore the viewpoints of sexually active single women about premarital sexual relationships in the Iranian context. In this qualitative study, we recruited 41 young women aged 18 to 35 years. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. Multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied to enhance the reliability of the findings. Eight themes emerged from the data analysis: 'acceptance of sexual contact in the context of opposite-sex relationships, 'sexual activity as a guarantee for keeping the boyfriend in the relationship', 'premarital sexual relationship as an undeniable personal right', 'having successful marriage in spite of premarital sexual relationships', 'virginity as an old fashioned phenomenon', 'love as a license for premarital sexual behaviors', 'goal-oriented relationship as a license for premarital sexual behaviors', and 'experiencing premarital sexual relationships in order to gain perfection'. Results of this study could be applied to designing interventions, such as promotion of preventive beliefs or educational programs regarding premarital sexual relationships in conservative societies. These interventions could start within families and continue at schools and universities.
Cross-generational sexual relationship in Addis Ababa: A qualitative study. ... and five in-depth interviews and non-participatory observations were conducted to obtain data ... The recorded data were transcribed and analyzed using a thematic ...
López, Sílvia; Faro, Concepció; Lopetegui, Lourdes; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Monteagudo, Mònica; Cobo, Jesús; Fernández, María Isabel
To analyse perceived sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction, satisfaction with affective relationships and confidence and communication in existing relationships, related to a past history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and type suffered, among women treated as part of the Catalonian Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Programme (PASSIR). Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A total of 1,013 women over the age of 18 years, who underwent psychological therapy at any of the 24 PASSIR centres, were enrolled. A structured, anonymised, self-administered Sex History Questionnaire adapted from Wyatt (1985) & Dubé et al. (2005), and the Female Sexual Function Index (Rosen, 2000), were used. Statistical analysis was descriptive, bivariate and multivariate. Women who suffered childhood sexual abuse had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction, with lower perceived sexual satisfaction. CSA with penetration or attempted penetration was associated with greater arousal difficulties and greater rejection. Women who experienced CSA were less confident and experienced greater communication difficulties with their partner. It is necessary to identify potential childhood sexual abuse among women who seek therapy due to relationship problems. It is also necessary to continue research into protective factors and therapeutic interventions to alleviate the consequences of CSA in adult life. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Tadayon, Mitra; Hatami-Manesh, Zahra; Sharifi, Nasibeh; Najar, Shahnaz; Saki, Azadeh; Pajohideh, Zahra
One of the forms of violence that receives less attention due to cultural and social issues is sexual violence against women, which is a hidden and a constant epidemic and impact on their health. This study aimed to determine the relationship between function and sexual satisfaction in women who have experienced sexual violence in Ahvaz-Iran. This study was a case-control study which was conducted on 105 women (cases=35 and control=70) referred to one forensic center and seventeen Shahrivar health centers during 2013-2014 in Ahwaz-Iran. The data collection tools included questionnaires for evaluating demographic characteristics and sexual satisfaction, sexual female function index and sexual violence. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and independent-samples t-test) in SPSS, version 19. P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Two groups of women were matched according to age and education. Mean ± SD sexual satisfaction was (71.4±15.84) in the case group and (99.44±15.68) in the control group (p<0.001). The mean ± SD of sexual function was (17.1±4.94) in the case group and (26.37±5.27) in the control group. The groups had a statistically significant difference in terms of sexual arousal, sexual orgasm, sexual lubrication, pain and sexual satisfaction (p<0.001). Sexual dysfunction and dissatisfaction have a relation with sexual violence, and a major concern is that the sexual violence in most cases is hidden and can seriously affect the general health condition of women.
The role of concurrent sexual relationships in the spread of sexually transmitted infections in young South Africans. C Kenyon, M Badri. Abstract. We still do not know why the HIV prevalence in southern and eastern Africa is an order of magnitude higher than anywhere else in the world. An article in this journal in 2007 ...
Full Text Available Substance abuse and risky sexual behavior have been identified as behaviors that can endanger adolescent psychosocial development. This study examined the relationship between methamphetamine (MAMP use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents. Risky sexual behavior was compared not only between MAMP users and non-users, but also between high-frequency and low-frequency MAMP users. We compared the sexual intercourse histories of 85 adolescents formally charged as MAMP users with those of 170 gender-matched adolescents with no record of MAMP use. MAMP usage characteristics were compared between users who had and those who had not experienced sexual intercourse. Previous sexual experience was more likely in MAMP users than in non-users. MAMP users were also more likely to have had a greater total number of sexual partners and were more likely to have had unplanned sex under the influence of alcohol. High-frequency MAMP use was associated with increased tendencies to engage in unprotected sex and to use MAMP before sexual intercourse. In general, the chance of sexual intercourse increased in proportion to frequency of MAMP use. Given the clear link between MAMP use and risky sexual behavior, risk-reduction programs directed at teen MAMP users are urgently needed.
Gonzaga, Gian C; Turner, Rebecca A; Keltner, Dacher; Campos, Belinda; Altemus, Margaret
Drawing on recent claims in the study of relationships, attachment, and emotion, the authors hypothesized that romantic love serves a commitment-related function and sexual desire a reproduction-related function. Consistent with these claims, in Study 1, brief experiences of romantic love and sexual desire observed in a 3-min interaction between romantic partners were related to distinct feeling states, distinct nonverbal displays, and commitment- and reproductive-related relationship outcomes, respectively. In Study 2, the nonverbal display of romantic love was related to the release of oxytocin. Discussion focuses on the place of romantic love and sexual desire in the literature on emotion. 2006 APA, all rights reserved
Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Eng, Cheng-Joo
Sexual self-efficacy plays an important role in adolescents' sexual health. The aim of this study was to test a cause-and-effect model of sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition toward sexual self-efficacy in adolescents. The study was a cross-sectional survey. Using a random sampling method, a total of 713 junior nursing students were invited to participate in the study, and 465 valid surveys were returned, resulting in a return rate of 65.2%. The data was collected using an anonymous mailed questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among sexual self-concept, sexual risk cognition, and sexual self-efficacy, as well as the mediating role of sexual risk cognition. The results revealed that the postulated model fits the data well. Sexual self-concept significantly predicted sexual risk cognition and sexual self-efficacy. Sexual risk cognition significantly predicted sexual self-efficacy and had a mediating effect on the relationship between sexual self-concept and sexual self-efficacy. Based on social cognitive theory and a structural equation model technique, this study confirmed the mediating role of sexual risk cognition in the relationship between sexual self-concept and sexual self-efficacy. Also, sexual self-concept's direct and indirect effects explaining adolescents' sexual self-efficacy were found in this study. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Cooper, M Lynne; Barber, Lindsay L; Zhaoyang, Ruixue; Talley, Amelia E
The current article examines how close relationships combine with individual differences in sex motives (Cooper, Shapiro, & Powers, 1998) to shape sexual experience. We first provide an overview of the motivational approach as it relates to sexual behavior and then describe 2 broad mechanisms (1 transactional, the other interactional) by which motives and relational context combine to shape behavior. Drawing on our past research, we review evidence showing that people select relationship contexts based partly on their motives and that these contexts in turn shape future motives and behavior; that partner motives shape sexual experience above and beyond one's own motives; and that both the broader relationship context and partner motives moderate the effects of one's own motives on sexual experience. We conclude that the nature of motivational pursuits cannot be adequately understood in the abstract, but rather we must take into account the relational context in which one's needs are pursued. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A few men also admitted to being motivated by material and financial benefits from sex workers who they perceived as being rich and this was one factor that helped them sustain the relationships. These findings offer insights into the complex relationship dynamics within high risk sexual partnerships. However, the findings ...
Rettenberger, Martin; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer
The term hypersexuality was introduced to describe excessive sexual behavior associated with a person's inability to control his or her sexual behavior. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different personality traits on the degree of hypersexual behavior as measured by the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI). A further aim was to evaluate the association between sexual inhibition and excitation [as described in the Dual Control Model (DCM)] and hypersexual behavior. A sample of 1,749 participants completed an internet-based survey comprised the HBI, the short form of the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales (SIS/SES-SF) as well as more general personality measures: the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System-scales (BIS/BAS-scales) and a short version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10). Using the recommended HBI cut-off, 6.0 % (n = 105) of the present sample could be categorized as hypersexual, which is comparable to the results of previous studies about the prevalence of hypersexual behavior in the general population. The results provided strong support for the components of the DCM-sexual excitation and inhibition-to explain hypersexual behavior, irrespective of gender and sexual orientation. Some of the general personality traits also showed significant relationships with hypersexual behavior. Taken together, the results of the present study provide further support for the relevance of research about the relationships between sexual problems and disorders, the DCM, and personality variables.
Within committed relationships, a wide range of factors may challenge or facilitate sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study was to clarify which individual, partner-, and partnership-related aspects of a sexual relationship are crucial for the prediction of sexual satisfaction. The study included data of a representative sample of 964 couples from the general population. The actor-partner interdependence model was used to estimate actor and partner effects. Overall, predictors explained 57% of outcome variance. Actor effects were found for sexual function, sexual distress, frequency of sexual activity, desire discrepancy, sexual initiative, sexual communication, sociosexual orientation, masturbation, and life satisfaction. Gender-specific partner effects were found for sexual function and sexual distress. Neither age, nor relationship duration were significant predictors. To deepen our understanding of sexual satisfaction, it is necessary to take quantitative and qualitative aspects of sexual relationships into account and to consider actor-, partner-, and relationship-related predictors. PMID:28231314
Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.
This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…
Sobański, Jerzy A; Klasa, Katarzyna; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Müldner-Nieckowski, Lukasz; Dembińska, Edyta; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielimaka, Michal
The assessment of links of accumulated traumatic events of a sexual nature, recollected from the past, with the current functioning of the patients in the area of sexual life and relationship. Comorbidity of memories of traumatic sexual events from childhood and puberty in patients with the features of their current partner relationships and sexual life were analyzed on the basis of Live Inventory completed by 2,582 women and 1,347 men, before treatment in day hospital (years 1980-2002). The accumulation was evaluated for a combination of two or three selected events. The presence of relatively numerous traumatic events in the field of sexuality early initiation or enforced initiation, incest or its attempt, sub-optimal sexual education and punishment for masturbation was indicated. In some patients, these events occurred simultaneously. Especially in women, the presence in the same person of two or three aggravating circumstances of life was associated with a higher risk of among others fleeting, casual sexual contacts, marriage under the influence of environment pressures, reluctance to partner. Increased accumulation - the presence in the same patient of more than one adverse circumstances associated with sexual development - leads to a higher incidence of interference in relationship with a partner including the elements of sexual dysfunction. The obtained results are generally consistent with clinical observations and literature despite different, simplified methodology of the study based on the analysis of single variables from questionnaire interviews. Finding fewer links in the group of men can be explained by their much lower number in the study group and less frequent burdening with certain traumatic events or different experiencing.
Ghanbari Afra, Leila; Taghadosi, Mohsen; Gilasi, Hamid Reza
Ischemic heart disease is a life-threatening condition. Considerable doubts exist over the effects of this disease on patients' sexual activity and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ischemic heart disease and sexual satisfaction. In a retrospective cohort study, the convenience sample of 150 patients exposure with ischemic heart disease and 150 people without exposure it was drawn from Shahid Beheshti hospital, Kashan, Iran. Sampling was performed from March to September 2014. We employed the Larson's Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire for gathering the data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square, t-test and linear regression analysis. The means of sexual satisfaction in patients exposure with ischemic heart disease and among the subjects without exposure it were 101.47±13.42 and 100.91±16.52, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding sexual satisfaction. However, sexual satisfaction was significantly correlated with gender and the use of cardiac medications (P valuepay closer attention to patient education about sexual issues.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe the implications of social inability as a factor that can contribute to sexual abuse in the marriage relationship of people with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Case description A 30-year-old male sought medical attention complaining of being “very nervous” and have difficulties in family relationships. He was diagnosed with high-functioning ASD based on the DSM-5. Married for over 4 years with a woman diagnosed with histrionic personality disorder (HPD, he asked for her to accompany him in the sessions and help him describe difficulties they had during sexual intercourse. His wife reported feeling raped in all of her sexual relations with the patient, especially when he could not understand that she did not want sex. Comments The case study leads us to believe that the social and communicative disability is a complicating factor that can contributes to the occurrence of sexual abuse in marital relationships with individuals with ASD. Social skills training, psychotherapy, and traditional medical therapies should be considered to minimize the risk of occurrence of cases of sexual abuse by individuals with high-functioning ASD against the spouses themselves.
van den Brink, Femke; Vollmann, Manja; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth
Previous studies found important associations between body image, sexual satisfaction, and perceived romantic relationship quality, but mainly focused on one individual's perceptions rather than both partners. To take the interdependency of romantic partners into account, the present study examined these associations in romantic couples with a dyadic approach. In a cross-sectional design, 151 Dutch heterosexual couples completed an online survey measuring body image, sexual satisfaction, and perceived relationship quality. Hypotheses were tested using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) and an APIM extended with a mediator (APIMeM), with couple members' body image as predictors, couple members' sexual satisfaction as mediators, and couple members' relationship quality as outcomes. Results indicated that within individuals, a more positive body image was linked to higher perceived romantic relationship quality through greater sexual satisfaction. No gender differences were found, implying that body image and sexual satisfaction are equally strongly associated with perceived relationship quality in women and men. Results revealed no associations of an individual's body image and sexual satisfaction with the partner's perceived relationship quality. These findings implicate that interventions focusing on developing and maintaining a positive body image may be helpful in building on a more satisfying sex life and higher perceived relationship quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Firoozi, Mahbobe; Azmoude, Elham; Asgharipoor, Negar
Background: Women's sexual self-esteem is one of the most important factors that affect women's sexual satisfaction and their sexual anxiety. Various aspects of sexual life are blended with the entire personality. Determining the relationship between personality traits and self-concept aspects such as sexual self-esteem leads to better understanding of sexual behavior in people with different personality traits and helps in identifying the psychological variables affecting their sexual perfor...
Træen, B.; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, S. W.
-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011...... was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts....
Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy J.
Sexual health programs on college campuses are often directed toward single individuals with a focus on sexual risk. Using a sample of college students, this study examines how relationship status relates to sexual behaviors and may be a factor for sexual risk. Based on the study's results, expansion of sexual health programming on college…
Randolph, Mary E.; Gamble, Heather L.; Buscemi, Joanna
A community sample of Latinas completed surveys that included measures of sexual abuse and intimate partner violence history, relationship power, negotiating power regarding condom use, perceived HIV/STI risk of sexual partner, and sexual behavior. Over half of the women reported a history of intimate partner violence in the past year and/or sexual abuse in their lifetime. Intimate partner violence was correlated with lower overall sexual relationship power scores, while sexual abuse was correlated with lower condom use negotiating power. More extensive intimate partner violence had the strongest association with higher HIV/STI risk, controlling for relationship status, sexual abuse, and relationship power. PMID:25067990
Full Text Available The research objective was to study the emotion of relationship jealousy in context of emotional attachment and sexuality. Two main theories that try to explain the nature of this complex emotional state are the evolutionary paradigm and the so-called "double-shot" hypothesis. According to evolutionary psychologists, jealousy is an evolved adaptation, activated by threats to a valuable relationship, functioning to protect it from partial or total loss. The "double-shot" hypothesis on the other hand emphasises the importance of different beliefs men and women hold about emotional vs. sexual infidelity. Slovenian data suggests that (a emotional infidelity is the primary jealousy trigger in both sexes; (b jealousy is influenced by the socio-cultural context (the degree of sexual permissiveness and sex role egalitarity seem to be of special importance, but not by characteristics of the individuals` early life situation; (c marital status influences the tendency towards sexual or emotional jealousy in romantic relationships; (d this tendency also depends on whether the individual comes from a rural or urban environment. Because the results seem to be affected by the linguistic formulation of jealousy and each infidelity type, special attention should be directed towards a precise conceptualisation of these terms. Beliefs about the typical relationship between the emotional and sexual aspect of human relations as well as participants` self-reports indicate that men find it a lot easier to separate both types of attachment than women. In Slovenia, the degree of sexual permissiveness as well as the degree of sex role egalitarity seem to be relatively high and comparable to certain other European countries. The results support the so-called "double-shot" hypothesis, but not the evolutionary theory of jealousy as a sex-specific innate module.
Claudia Josefina Arias
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze: 1 couple relationships – support functions and characteristics of the relationships – and their difference by gender, and 2 changes that occur in those relationships and in sexual activity in older heterosexual adults in the 65-85 age range. The subjects of the analysis were intentionally selected and the data has been collected in structured and semi-structured interviews. The results obtained by quantitative and qualitative analysis show that the couple relationship in old age fulfills functions such as emotional support, companionship and cognitive advice. Analysis by gender shows significant differences in 4 out of the 5 support functions that were explored. Among the changes that take place in old age, the decrease of frequency in sexual activity appears in the first place, though the level of satisfaction is maintained; and fellowship, mutual care and positive affect in relation to the partner increase.
2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Original article ... This study therefore explored cross generational sexual relationships and their perceived effects in .... Young girls usually said, 'I got a sponsor or I got scholarship' to .... the older men explained the case in an interview. . In Sugar Daddy ...
Walker, Bonnie L.
The relationship between religiosity and the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of long-term care staff related to elderly sexuality was investigated. Participants were 127 long-term care staff recruited at 8 sites in Oklahoma, Michigan, Virginia, California, and Maryland. Participants' positions included nurses, housekeepers, administrators, and…
If health awareness campaigns have an effect on behavioural change, one would expect the youth to abstain from sex and be involved in stable sexual relationships. This quantitative survey, conducted among a sample of 226 Johannesburg youths, was aimed at ascertaining their exposure to sex risks and their stability in ...
Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghaddam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Montazeri, Ali
Background: Premarital sexual relationships could harm youth’s health in terms of sexually transmitted infections or increased risk of unprotected sexual behaviors. Sexual abstinence has been recommended to prevent young adolescents from adverse outcomes of premarital sexual relationships. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the viewpoints of sexually active single women about premarital sexual relationships in the Iranian context. Patients and Methods: In this qualitative study, we recruited 41 young women aged 18 to 35 years. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. Multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied to enhance the reliability of the findings. Results: Eight themes emerged from the data analysis: ‘acceptance of sexual contact in the context of opposite-sex relationships, ‘sexual activity as a guarantee for keeping the boyfriend in the relationship’, ‘premarital sexual relationship as an undeniable personal right’, ‘having successful marriage in spite of premarital sexual relationships’, ‘virginity as an old fashioned phenomenon’, ‘love as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, ‘goal-oriented relationship as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, and ‘experiencing premarital sexual relationships in order to gain perfection’. Conclusions: Results of this study could be applied to designing interventions, such as promotion of preventive beliefs or educational programs regarding premarital sexual relationships in conservative societies. These interventions could start within families and continue at schools and universities. PMID:27162757
Full Text Available Objective: The youths' sexual behaviors are counted as the main priorities of the public health due to the high prevalence of unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortions, and sexually transmitted infections. This research was carried out to explain the youths' contraceptive knowledge and practice in premarital sexual relationships. Methods: This qualitative research was carried out on 30 single boys and girls aged 18–24, living in Isfahan, Iran, who had already started sexual activities. Data collection was done with semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed by using conventional content analysis. Results: Two main categories were extracted including inadequate awareness regarding contraception (with subcategories “unreliable information sources” and “gender inequality in familiarity with contraceptive methods” and inappropriate contraceptive practice (with sub-categories “use of unreliable contraceptive methods” and “gender inequality in applying contraceptive methods”. Conclusion: Sexual health education programs should equip the youths with adequate knowledge on contraception and use of reliable contraceptive methods. Furthermore, attempts should be made along with tackling gender inequality is very significant for youths' sexual and reproductive health security.
Healey, Gwen K
To explore Inuit family understandings of sexual health and relationships in order to inform responsive public health interventions that are designed to meet the needs of Nunavummiut. A qualitative indigenous knowledge approach was used for this study with a focus on Inuit epistemology and methodology, as described in the Piliriqatigiinniq Community Health Research Partnership Model. Interviews were conducted with 20 parents in three Nunavut communities in 2011. An immersion and crystallization analytical approach was used to analyze the data and to identify groupings or themes in the data. The stories shared by parents are honoured, keeping their words intact as often as possible in the presentation of results. Parents in this study largely discussed sexual health in the context of historical community events related to settlement and/or residential schools. Residential schools and forced settlement into communities were linked to trauma, family separation, hardship and grief. These experiences were prominent in participants' understandings of sexual health and perceptions of sexual health behaviours among youth in the community. This study highlights the complexity of the landscape of sexual health in Nunavut and the need for public health approaches that are inclusive of Inuit family perspectives on sexual health. Greater understanding of historical and community context can contribute to the development of pertinent, evidence-based public health interventions that will meet the needs of the population.
Myers, Wade C; Bukhanovskiy, Alexandr; Justen, Elle; Morton, Robert J; Tilley, John; Adams, Kenneth; Vandagriff, Virgil L; Hazelwood, Robert R
This case series documents and examines the association between autoerotic asphyxiation, sadomasochism, and serial sexual murderers. Autoerotic asphyxiation, along with other paraphilias found in this population, is reviewed. Five cases of serial sexual killers who engaged in autoerotic asphyxiation were identified worldwide: four from the United States and one from Russia. Case reports for each are provided. All (100%) were found to have sexual sadism in addition to autoerotic asphyxiation. Furthermore, two (40%) had bondage fetishism, and two (40%) had transvestic fetishism, consistent with these paraphilias co-occurring in those with autoerotic asphyxiation. Overall the group averaged 4.0 lifetime paraphilias. Some possible relationships were observed between the offenders' paraphilic orientation and their modus operandi, e.g., all of these serial killers strangled victims-suggesting an association between their sadistic and asphyxiative paraphilic interests. The overlap of seemingly polar opposite paraphilias in this sample--sexual sadism and autoerotic asphyxiation--is explored from a historical and clinical perspective. Multiple commonalities shared between these five offenders and serial sexual murderers in general are addressed. A primary limitation of this study is its small sample size and empirical basis; the results may not be generalizable beyond the sample. The findings from this study support the supposition that crime scene behaviors often reflect paraphilic disturbances in those who commit serial sexual homicides.
Cherkasskaya, Eugenia; Rosario, Margaret
The etiology of low female sexual desire, the most prevalent sexual complaint in women, is multi-determined, implicating biological and psychological factors, including women's early parent-child relationships and bodily self-representations. The current study evaluated a model that hypothesized that sexual body self-representations (sexual subjectivity, self-objectification, genital self-image) explain (i.e., mediate) the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment, separation-individuation, parental identification) and sexual desire in heterosexual women. We recruited 614 young, heterosexual women (M = 25.5 years, SD = 4.63) through social media. The women completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used. The hypotheses were supported in that the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment and separation-individuation) and sexual desire was mediated by sexual body self-representations (sexual body esteem, self-objectification, genital self-image). However, parental identification was not related significantly to sexual body self-representations or sexual desire in the model. Current findings demonstrated that understanding female sexual desire necessitates considering women's internalized working models of early parent-child relationships and their experiences of their bodies in a sexual context. Treatment of low or absent desire in women would benefit from modalities that emphasize early parent-child relationships as well as interventions that foster mind-body integration.
Parpaee R; Hosseini SA
Proper and healthy sexual function is regarded as a sign of mental and physical health and it is a cause of common sense pleasure, reinforcement of intimacy and reduction of tensions between couples and it will promote the person’s ability to cope with stress and life’s problems and suppress sexual impulses can cause emotional problems and impaired relationships that these issues can create different levels of depression in person. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relati...
Richters, Juliet; Altman, Dennis; Badcock, Paul B; Smith, Anthony M A; de Visser, Richard O; Grulich, Andrew E; Rissel, Chris; Simpson, Judy M
Background Behavioural and other aspects of sexuality are not always consistent. This study describes the prevalence and overlap of same-sex and other-sex attraction and experience and of different sexual identities in Australia. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were completed by a representative sample of 20094 men and women aged 16-69 years recruited by landline and mobile phone random-digit dialling with a response rate (participation rate among eligible people) of 66.2%. Respondents were asked about their sexual identity ('Do you think of yourself as' heterosexual/straight, homosexual/gay, bisexual, etc.) and the sex of people with whom they had ever had sexual contact and to whom they had felt sexually attracted. Men and women had different patterns of sexual identity. Although the majority of people identified as heterosexual (97% men, 96% women), women were more likely than men to identify as bisexual. Women were less likely than men to report exclusively other-sex or same-sex attraction and experience; 9% of men and 19% of women had some history of same-sex attraction and/or experience. Sexual attraction and experience did not necessarily correspond. Homosexual/gay identity was more common among men with tertiary education and living in cities and less common among men with blue-collar jobs. Many gay men (53%) and lesbians (76%) had some experience with an other-sex partner. More women identified as lesbian or bisexual than in 2001-02. Similarly, more women reported same-sex experience and same-sex attraction. In Australia, men are more likely than women to report exclusive same-sex attraction and experience, although women are more likely than men to report any non-heterosexual identity, experience and attraction. Whether this is a feature of the plasticity of female sexuality or due to lesser stigma than for men is unknown.
Alvarez, Maria-João; Garcia-Marques, Leonel
This study examined the effects of contextual and cognitive variables for sexual protection on perceived social relationship factors. University students (108 women and 108 men) read script-based narratives on sexual encounters in which six variables were manipulated in two independent analyses. In the first analysis, four variables were evaluated: relational context (stable, casual), condom use (yes, no), script terminus (beginning, middle or end), and the rater's sex. The dependent variables were interpersonal perception of one of the characters of the narrative, and expectations regarding characteristics and future of the relationship. In the second analysis, two other factors were manipulated only in the "yes" condom conditions: communication strategy (verbal, non-verbal) and condom proponent gender. Our findings corroborated other studies where condom use was viewed as unromantic with less positive characteristics for relationships. Condom proponents, especially male, were perceived as less romantic, particularly when proposing a condom non-verbally at the beginning of the encounter. However, the controlled variables enabled us to propose ways of associating condom use with positive expectations towards the proponent and the relationship itself. Romanticism, expectation of sexual intercourse, emotional proximity, and expectations of condom use in encounters where a condom was proposed increased when suggested by a woman, postponed to the end of the encounter, and verbally mentioned. We encourage women to take the lead in suggesting condom use, thus empowering them since they do not have to wait for the male to make the first move.
Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…
During the past decade, partners have been seen as integral to cancer survivors' emotional and sexual well-being. The couple is viewed as the unit that copes with the impact of cancer on the most intimate aspects of the relationship, including sexuality. This review aims to provide an update on research reported in the past 2 years on partners and couples. Two thematic areas emerge: cancer-related distress management through increased communication, intimacy and building coping skills, and recovery of sexual intimacy. Observational studies have deepened our understanding of both areas and interventions are increasingly tested through more sophisticated methodologies. There is a developing consensus on desired outcomes, including more informed expectations of functional outcomes and enabling grief, communication, acceptance of the 'new normal,' and dyadic coping. The most significant challenge to this area of cancer survivorship is the lack of implementation of psychosocial research findings in usual care. However, clinicians can start the conversation and use concepts identified as relevant and useful in research, such as expectations, grief, or 'new sexual health normal' and include partners in their care for cancer survivors. Future steps include continued work on conceptualization of these issues, the development of appropriate measures and interventions, and further dissemination of dyadic data analytic methodology.
Mahoney, Colin T; Lawyer, Steven R
Impulsivity is an important construct for understanding sexual behaviors, but behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity often are not correlated. One possible explanation for this is that there is little shared variance in the measures because behavioral measures index impulsivity by asking questions about monetary preferences, while self-report measures index impulsivity by asking about a broad range of real-world outcomes (including those of a sexual nature) largely unrelated to money-related preferences. Undergraduate students (total N = 105; female n = 77, male n = 28) completed laboratory measures-delay discounting (DD) and probability discounting (PD)-for two different outcomes-money and sexual activity. Participants also completed the Delaying Gratification Inventory (DGI), which measures difficulty with delaying gratification (i.e., impulsivity) across different domains, including money and physical pleasures. Findings indicated that DD and PD for money were not related to any of the DGI subscales. However, DD for sexual activity was significantly related to the DGI Physical Pleasures subscale, but not other subscales. These findings suggest that the relationship between behavioral and self-report measures of impulsive choice may be stronger when both are measuring domain-specific rather than domain-general behavioral patterns, but further research is warranted.
Bois, Katy; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie O; McDuff, Pierre; Grégoire, Catherine
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is the most frequent subtype of vulvodynia. Women report negative consequences of PVD on their sexual and romantic relationships. Researchers have recently highlighted the importance of examining interpersonal factors such as intimacy, and of including both women and their partners in study designs. The aim of this study was to investigate sexual and relationship intimacy as defined by the Interpersonal Process Model of Intimacy and their associations with sexual satisfaction, sexual function, pain self-efficacy, and pain intensity among women with PVD and their partners. Ninety-one heterosexual women (M age = 27.38, SD = 6.04) diagnosed with PVD and their partners (M age = 29.37, SD = 7.79) completed measures of sexual and relationship intimacy, sexual satisfaction, sexual function, pain self-efficacy, and pain intensity. Dependent measures were the (i) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale; (ii) Female Sexual Function Index; (iii) Painful Intercourse Self-Efficacy Scale; and (iv) visual analog scale of pain intensity during intercourse. After controlling for women's age, women's greater sexual intimacy (β = 0.49, P sexual satisfaction and higher pain self-efficacy (β = 0.39, P = 0.001), beyond the effects of partners' sexual intimacy. Also, women's greater sexual intimacy (β = 0.24, P = 0.05) and women's greater relationship intimacy (β = 0.54, P = 0.003) were associated with greater women's sexual function, beyond the effects of partners' sexual and relationship intimacy. Women's self-reported sexual and relationship intimacy in the couple relationship may promote higher sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain self-efficacy, as well as possibly foster greater sexual well-being among women with PVD. The authors discuss implications for the inclusion of emotional and interpersonal aspects of the couple's dynamic in clinical interventions and future research in PVD. © 2013
Parkes, Alison; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Nixon, Catherine
Extensive research has explored the relationship between parenting and teenagers' sexual risk-taking. Whether parenting is associated with wider aspects of teenagers' capacity to form satisfying sexual relationships is unknown. Self-reported data were collected in 2007 from 1,854 students, whose average age was 15.5 years, in central Scotland. Multivariate analyses examined associations between parenting processes and sexual outcomes (delayed first intercourse, condom use and several measures reflecting the context or anticipated context of first sex). Parental supportiveness was positively associated with all outcomes (betas, 0.1-0.4), and parental values restricting intercourse were positively associated with all outcomes except condom use (0.1-0.5). Parental monitoring was associated only with delayed intercourse (0.2) and condom use (0.2); parental rules about TV content were associated with delayed intercourse (0.7) and expecting sex in a relationship, rather than casually (0.8). Frequency of parental communication about sex and parental values endorsing contraceptive use were negatively associated with teenagers' delayed intercourse (-0.5 and -0.3, respectively), and parents' contraceptive values were negatively associated with teenagers' expecting sex in a relationship (-0.5). Associations were partly mediated by teenagers' attitudes, including value placed on having sex in a relationship. Parents may develop teenagers' capacity for positive and safe early sex by promoting skills and values that build autonomy and encourage sex only within a relationship. Interventions should promote supportive parenting and transmission of values, avoid mixed messages about abstinence and contraception, and acknowledge that teenagers may learn more indirectly than directly from parents about sex. Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…
Ryan, Suzanne; Manlove, Jennifer; Franzetta, Kerry
Understanding characteristics of teens' sexual relationships may help us to better understand how to reduce teens' risk of early unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as the psychological and emotional problems that may be associated with teenage romantic relationships and sexual activity. Using data from the…
Nielsen, M B; Einarsen, S
Exposure to workplace sexual harassment (SH) has been associated with impaired mental health, but longitudinal studies confirming the relationship are lacking. To examine gender differences in prospective associations between SH and psychological distress. Baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2005 in a representative sample of Norwegian employees. Follow-up data were collected in 2007. SH was measured with the Bergen Sexual Harassment Scale. Psychological distress was measured with the 25 item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) with cases of psychological distress defined as having a mean score of Workplace measures against SH would be expected to lead to a reduction in mental disorders. The finding that psychological distress predicts SH among men may indicate either a vulnerability factor or a negative perception mechanism.
Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.
Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…
Rosen, Raymond C; Heiman, Julia R; Long, J Scott; Fisher, William A; Sand, Michael S
Epidemiologic studies of sexual function problems in men have focused on the individual male and related sociodemographic characteristics, individual risk factors and lifestyle concomitants, or medical comorbidities. Insufficient attention has been given to the role of sexual and relationship satisfaction and, more particularly, to the perspective of the couple as causes or correlates of sexual problems in men or women. Previously, we reported results of the first large, multi-national study of sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness in 1,009 midlife and older couples in five countries (Brazil, Germany, Japan, Spain, U.S.). For the present study, we examined, within each problem, the association of four major sexual problems in men (loss of sexual desire, erectile problems, premature ejaculation, delayed/absent orgasm) and multiple problems, with male and female partners' assessments of physical intimacy, sexual satisfaction, and relationship happiness, as well as associations with well-known health and psychosocial correlates of sexual problems in men. Sexual problem rates of men in our survey were generally similar to rates observed in past surveys in the general population, and similar risk factors (age, relationship duration, overall health) were associated with lack of desire, anorgasmia, or erection difficulties in our sample. As in previous surveys, there were few correlates of premature ejaculation. As predicted, men with one or more sexual problems reported decreased relationship happiness as well as decreased sexual satisfaction compared to men without sexual problems. Moreover, female partners of men with sexual problems had reduced relationship happiness and sexual satisfaction, although these latter outcomes were less affected in the women than the men. The association of men's sexual problems with men's and women's satisfaction and relationship happiness were modest, as these couples in long-term, committed relationships were notable for their
Gesink, Dionne; Whiskeyjack, Lana; Suntjens, Terri; Mihic, Alanna; McGilvery, Priscilla
STI rates are high for First Nations in Canada and the United States. Our objective was to understand the context, issues, and beliefs around high STI rates from a nêhiyaw (Cree) perspective. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 community participants between March 1, 2011 and May 15, 2011. Interviews were conducted by community researchers and grounded in the Cree values of relationship, sharing, personal agency and relational accountability. A diverse purposive snowball sample of community members were asked why they thought STI rates were high for the community. The remainder of the interview was unstructured, and supported by the interviewer through probes and sharing in a conversational style. Modified grounded theory was used to analyze the narratives and develop a theory. The main finding from the interviews was that abuse of power in relationships causes physical, mental, emotional and spiritual wounds that disrupt the medicine wheel. Wounded individuals seek medicine to stop suffering and find healing. Many numb suffering by accessing temporary medicines (sex, drugs and alcohol) or permanent medicines (suicide). These medicines increase the risk of STIs. Some seek healing by participating in ceremony and restoring relationships with self, others, Spirit/religion, traditional knowledge and traditional teachings. These medicines decrease the risk of STIs. Younger female participants explained how casual relationships are safer than committed monogamous relationships. Resolving abuse of power in relationships should lead to improvements in STI rates and sexual health. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Gabbay, Nicolas; Lafontaine, Marie-France
This study tested a serial mediation model examining how dyadic trust and sexual intimacy mediate the relationship between insecure romantic attachment and perpetrated sexual violence occurring between same sex intimate partners (sexual SSIPV). A community sample of adults ( N = 310; 203 women, 107 men) involved in a committed (6 months or longer) same sex romantic relationship completed an encrypted online questionnaire package which included psychometric measures designed to assess the aforementioned variables. Controlling for gender effects, analyses conducted using bootstrapping procedures supported full mediation pathways for both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. That is, attachment anxiety and avoidance were both directly associated to the perpetration of sexual SSIPV, and these relationships were both fully mediated by dyadic trust and sexual intimacy, in that respective order.
Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Regmi, Pramod R; Bhatta, Prakash
People in Nepal generally hold fairly traditional views about sex and sexual health, whilst Western tourists often have a more liberal approach towards sex and relationships. There is evidence that significant sexual interaction occurs between male trekking guides and female travellers and/or local female sex workers in Nepal. This qualitative study explored trekking guides' sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and condom use with female trekkers and local female sex workers. A total of 21 in-depth interviews were conducted with male trekking guides. Most reported having had sexual relationships with female trekkers and local female sex workers. Explanations for intercourse with female trekkers included: financial support; getting future trekkers through word-of-mouth advertising from the women they have had sex with; and opportunities for emigration. Interestingly, sexual intercourse is reported as more likely to be initiated by female trekkers than by guides, and more so by older women. In contrast, the main reasons for having sex with local female sex workers included: romantic love or sexual excitement and novelty. Awareness regarding sexual health was high among guides, but several factors discouraged the regular use of condoms. Further research with female tourists would help understand the motivations and reasons for their sexual behaviour.
Impett, Emily At; Strachman, Amy; Finkel, Eli J; Gable, Shelly L
Three studies tested whether adopting strong (relative to weak) approach goals in relationships (i.e., goals focused on the pursuit of positive experiences in one's relationship such as fun, growth, and development) predict greater sexual desire. Study 1 was a 6-month longitudinal study with biweekly assessments of sexual desire. Studies 2 and 3 were 2-week daily experience studies with daily assessments of sexual desire. Results showed that approach relationship goals buffered against declines in sexual desire over time and predicted elevated sexual desire during daily sexual interactions. Approach sexual goals mediated the association between approach relationship goals and daily sexual desire. Individuals with strong approach goals experienced even greater desire on days with positive relationship events and experienced less of a decrease in desire on days with negative relationships events than individuals who were low in approach goals. In two of the three studies, the association between approach relationship goals and sexual desire was stronger for women than for men. Implications of these findings for maintaining sexual desire in long-term relationships are discussed. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Sarwer, David B.; And Others
A study of 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment found that childhood sexual abuse did not predict sexual dysfunction in the men. Unemployment was the only significant predictor of male sexual dysfunction. Differences between the sexual abuse experiences of the male victims compared to female victims (n=73) are discussed. (Author/CR)
Parkhill, Michele R.; Norris, Jeanette; Cue Davi, Kelly
Research has demonstrated relationships among childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and sexual risk taking. This study proposes that one mechanism through which the victimization-sexual risk taking relationship works is through an increased likelihood of drinking during sexual situations. Using path analysis, the current study explores this hypothesis in a sample of 230 women. The model illustrates that women with a history of child and adult sexual victimization reported greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex and that this relationship is in part accounted for by an increased likelihood of drinking in sexual situations. The results suggest that sexual risk reduction programs and sexual assault treatment programs should educate women about the alcohol-involved sexual risk taking that often follows sexual assault victimization. PMID:25069152
Homma, Yuko; Wang, Naren; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Kishor, Nand
Purpose Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been shown to lead to increased odds of sexual behaviors that lead to sexually transmitted infections and early pregnancy involvement. Research, meta-analyses, and interventions, however, have focused primarily on girls and young women who have experienced abuse, yet some adolescent boys are also sexually abused. We performed a meta-analysis of the existing studies to assess the magnitudes of the link between a history of sexual abuse and each of three risky sexual behaviors among adolescent boys in North America. Methods The three outcomes were a) unprotected sexual intercourse, b) multiple sexual partners, and c) pregnancy involvement. Weighted mean effect sizes were computed from 10 independent samples, from nine studies published between 1990 and 2011. Results Sexually abused boys were significantly more likely than non-abused boys to report all three risky sexual behaviors. Weighted mean odds ratios were 1.91 for unprotected intercourse, 2.91 for multiple sexual partners, and 4.81 for pregnancy involvement. Conclusions Our results indicate that childhood and adolescent sexual abuse can substantially Influence sexual behavior in adolescence among male survivors. To improve sexual health for all adolescents, even young men, we should strengthen sexual abuse prevention initiatives, raise awareness about male sexual abuse survivors’ existence and sexual health issues, improve sexual health promotion for abused young men, and screen all people, regardless of gender, for a history of sexual abuse. PMID:22727072
McNulty, James K; Wenner, Carolyn A; Fisher, Terri D
The current research used two 8-wave longitudinal studies spanning the first 4-5 years of 207 marriages to examine the potential bidirectional associations among marital satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and frequency of sex. All three variables declined over time, though the rate of decline in each variable became increasingly less steep. Controlling for these changes, own marital and sexual satisfaction were bidirectionally positively associated with one another; higher levels of marital satisfaction at one wave of assessment predicted more positive changes in sexual satisfaction from that assessment to the next and higher levels of sexual satisfaction at one wave of assessment predicted more positive changes in marital satisfaction from that assessment to the next. Likewise, own sexual satisfaction and frequency of sex were bidirectionally positively associated with one another. Additionally, partner sexual satisfaction positively predicted changes in frequency of sex and own sexual satisfaction among husbands, yet partner marital satisfaction negatively predicted changes in both frequency of sex and own sexual satisfaction. Controlling these associations, marital satisfaction did not directly predict changes in frequency of sex or vice versa. Only the association between partner sexual satisfaction and changes in own sexual satisfaction varied across men and women and none of the key effects varied across the studies. These findings suggest that sexual and relationship satisfaction are intricately intertwined and thus that interventions to treat and prevent marital distress may benefit by targeting the sexual relationship and interventions to treat and prevent sexual distress in marriage may benefit by targeting the marital relationship.
Conradi, Henk Jan; Noordhof, Arjen; Dingemanse, Pieter; Barelds, Dick P.H.; Kamphuis, Jan H.
Previous studies found gender differences in relationship satisfaction and sexuality. We tested gender differences in associations between attachment, a lasting relationship determinant, and two outcomes, relationship and sexual satisfaction. This study improves on earlier research by examining
Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…
Rowe, David C.; And Others
Two studies, one involving college students and the other high school students, found a strong relationship between relatively early sexual intimacy and nonsexual forms of deviance. Siblings were more alike than chance in deviance and in physical sexual behavior. Additionally, an association was found between one sibling's sexual intimacy with a…
Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.
This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…
Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo
Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)
Rajabizadeh, Ghodratolah; Yazdanpanah, Fatemeh; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash
Background The present study was conducted with the aim of designing a causal model for the evaluation of sexual dysfunctions based on the variables of methadone dosage and sexual self-concept among individuals undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Methods The study population of the present study consisted of married men of 20 to 45 years of age with sexual ýrelations and undergoing MMT for a minimum of 8 weeks referring to all MMT clinics of Kerman, Iran, in ýý2015-2016. ýThe subjects were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling (n = 250). Data were collected using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Multi-Dimensional Sexual Self-concept Questionnaire (MSSQ), and Internal Index for Erectile Function (IIEF). Data were analyzed using path analysis method and Pearson correlation coefficient. The suggested model was evaluated using structural equation model (SEM), and indirect relationships were assessed using Bootstrap method. Findings The suggested model showed acceptable fitness with the data, and all routes, except methadone use route, to sexual function were significant. The result of the multiple ýindirect route showed that sexual function had a significant relationship with methadone use through ýsexual self-concept. In total, 60% of variance in sexual dysfunction was explained using the variables of the suggested model. Conclusion Further studies are suggested to be conducted regarding psychological factors effective on the sexual dysfunctions among individuals undergoing MMT, such as sexual self-concept. Moreover, more detailed evaluation of each subscale of positive and negative sexual self-concept is recommended to assess the psychological causes of sexual dysfunctions in these individuals and design psychological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral treatment interventions for them. PMID:29299211
Rajabizadeh, Ghodratolah; Yazdanpanah, Fatemeh; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash
The present study was conducted with the aim of designing a causal model for the evaluation of sexual dysfunctions based on the variables of methadone dosage and sexual self-concept among individuals undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The study population of the present study consisted of married men of 20 to 45 years of age with sexual ýrelations and undergoing MMT for a minimum of 8 weeks referring to all MMT clinics of Kerman, Iran, in ýý2015-2016. ýThe subjects were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling (n = 250). Data were collected using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Multi-Dimensional Sexual Self-concept Questionnaire (MSSQ), and Internal Index for Erectile Function (IIEF). Data were analyzed using path analysis method and Pearson correlation coefficient. The suggested model was evaluated using structural equation model (SEM), and indirect relationships were assessed using Bootstrap method. The suggested model showed acceptable fitness with the data, and all routes, except methadone use route, to sexual function were significant. The result of the multiple ýindirect route showed that sexual function had a significant relationship with methadone use through ýsexual self-concept. In total, 60% of variance in sexual dysfunction was explained using the variables of the suggested model. Further studies are suggested to be conducted regarding psychological factors effective on the sexual dysfunctions among individuals undergoing MMT, such as sexual self-concept. Moreover, more detailed evaluation of each subscale of positive and negative sexual self-concept is recommended to assess the psychological causes of sexual dysfunctions in these individuals and design psychological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral treatment interventions for them.
Layte, Richard; McGee, Hannah; Quail, Amanda; Rundle, Kay; Cousins, Grainne; Donnelly, Claire; Mulcahy, Fiona; Conroy, Ronán
SEX and sexuality are core dimensions of the human experience and an important determinant of well-being. An individual’s sexual behaviour and sexual health cannot be separated from their social and cultural context. This is brought out in the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) definition of sexual health. It is concerned not just with the absence of disease or dysfunction but with a broad definition of health: “Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual ...
Rosen, Natalie O; Muise, Amy; Bergeron, Sophie; Delisle, Isabelle; Baxter, Mary Lou
Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) experience a recurrent vulvo-vaginal pain triggered primarily during sexual intercourse. Although affected couples report adverse effects on their sexual and global romantic relationships, few studies have examined interpersonal factors that may influence their sexual and relationship satisfaction. Cross-sectional studies have shown that greater partner solicitous and negative responses and lower facilitative responses are associated with poorer sexual and relationship satisfaction in women with PVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the within-person associations between partner responses to painful intercourse and the sexual and relationship satisfaction of affected couples. In a dyadic daily experience study, 69 women (M(age) = 28.46, SD = 6.66) diagnosed with PVD and their cohabitating male partners (M(age) = 30.29, SD = 8.13) reported on male partner responses, as well as sexual and relationship satisfaction on sexual intercourse days (M = 6.81; SD = 5.40) over 8 weeks. Dependent measures were the (i) Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale and (ii) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale. On sexual intercourse days when women perceived more facilitative partner responses than usual and on days when they perceived lower negative partner responses than usual, they reported higher sexual and relationship satisfaction. On sexual intercourse days when men reported more solicitous responses than usual, both they and their female partners reported lower sexual satisfaction. Interventions aimed at improving the day-to-day sexual and relationship satisfaction of couples with PVD should target increasing facilitative and decreasing negative and solicitous partner responses. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Moskowitz, David A; Garcia, Christopher P
Across much of the gay and bisexual male research on sexual position self-label (i.e., calling oneself a top, bottom, or versatile), there exist two commonalities: (1) studies tend to focus almost entirely on individual, relationally single androphilic men; (2) studies rarely account for relationships and relationship dynamics. In response, we explored the role of self-label over sexual and relationship satisfaction among gay and bisexual partnered men. Specifically, we looked at whether adopted sexual position identities were consonant or dissonant (i.e., matching or mismatching) with enacted behavior in relationships and how that impacted men's attitudes toward different relational attributes. Through an online survey, we sampled 169 men in same-sex relationships, asking them questions about their ideal penetrative role identities and their reality penetrative roles with their partner. We then asked them to rate their relationship on 10 sexual and interpersonal attributes. Multiple regression modeling suggested ideal-reality penetrative role dissonance was predictive of sexual dissatisfaction among tops who bottomed in their relationships and, to a lesser extent, bottoms who topped. In contrast, penetrative role dissonance was predictive of relationship satisfaction among tops who bottomed in their relationship, but not bottoms who topped. We conclude that a potential reason for this paradox among tops who bottom may be sexual altruism. That is, men may be satisfied with other aspects within their relationships, understand their partner's anal sex preferences, and accommodate that position in response to their initial relationship satisfaction.
Henrich, Christopher C; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Shrier, Lydia A; Shahar, Golan
To examine the longitudinal associations between supportive relationships with friends and parents and sexual risk behavior in adolescence based on an ecological-transactional perspective. Analyses were conducted on 2,652 sexually active adolescents from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). African-American adolescents had lower risk for sexual risk behavior. Supportive friendships and parent connectedness interacted in predicting decreased likelihood of sexual risk behavior. Mother-child communication about sex contributed to decreased likelihood of sexual risk only for girls. There were also small reciprocal effects of sexual risk behavior on decreased relationship quality over time. To better understand the parents' role in adolescent sexual risk behavior, multiple facets of parenting, the social contexts of parenting and adolescents' peers, and the effects of adolescents' behavior on these relationships should be taken into consideration.
Williams, Lela Rankin; Russell, Stephen T
Typically, "non-romantic" sexual relationships are assumed to be casual; however, the emotional and social distinctions between romantic and non-romantic contexts are not well understood, particularly in adolescence. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was used to compare shared emotional (e.g., telling partner that they love her/him) and social (e.g., going out in a group) activities within romantic and non-romantic sexual relationships. Adolescents who reported exclusively romantic sexual relationships (n = 1,891) shared more emotional, but not social, activities with their partners than adolescents who were in non-romantic sexual relationships (n = 315; small effect size, r = .07-.13), akin to adolescents who experienced both relationship types (n = 519; small-to-medium effect size, r = .18-.38). Girls shared more emotional and social activities with their partners than boys when in romantic relationships (small effect size, r = .06-.10); there were no significant gender differences within non-romantic sexual relationships. Findings suggest that gendered scripts remain for sexual relationships that are romantic but not for those that are non-romantic. Notably, for the majority of adolescents, non-romantic relationships still held many emotional and social dimensions typical of romantic relationships and differences between relationship types were small. Although non-romantic relationships were less intimate than romantic sexual relationships, there was remarkable heterogeneity within this relationship type. Caution is advised when working with adolescents engaged in "casual" sexual relationships. Understanding the complexity of adolescent sexual relationships is critical for the advancement of effective sex education programming.
Zawacki, Tina; Norris, Jeanette; Hessler, Danielle M; Morrison, Diane M; Stoner, Susan A; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Abdallah, Devon A
This experiment examined the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and alcohol consumption on sexual decision making. Women completed an individual difference measure of relationship motivation and then were randomly assigned to partner familiarity condition (low, high) and to alcohol consumption condition (high dose, low dose, no alcohol, placebo). Then women read and projected themselves into a scenario of a sexual encounter. Relationship motivation and partner familiarity interacted with intoxication to influence primary appraisals of relationship potential. Participants' primary and secondary relationship appraisals mediated the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and intoxication on condom negotiation, sexual decision abdication, and unprotected sex intentions. These findings support a cognitive mediation model of women's sexual decision making and identify how individual and situational factors interact to shape alcohol's influences on cognitive appraisals that lead to risky sexual decisions. This knowledge can inform empirically based risky sex interventions.
Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others
This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…
Fadda, Roberta; Lucarelli, Loredana
Mother-infant interactions during feeding and play are pivotal experiences in the development of infants' early social abilities (Stern, 1985, 1995; Biringen, 2000). Stern indicated distinctive characteristics of mother-infant interactions, respectively, during feeding and play, suggesting to evaluate both to better describe the complexity of such early affective and social experiences (Stern, 1996). Moreover, during the first years of life, infants acquire cognitive and social skills that allow them to interact with new social partners in extra-dyadic interactions. However, the relations between mother-child interactions and infants' social skills in extra-dyadic interactions are still unknown. We investigated longitudinally the relations between mother-child interactions during feeding and play and child's pre-verbal communicative abilities in extra-dyadic interactions during play. 20 dyads were evaluated at T 1 (infants aged between 9-22 months) and 6 months later, at T 2 . The interdyadic differences in mother-infant interactions during feeding and play were evaluated, respectively, with the "Feeding Scale" (Chatoor et al., 1997) and with the "Play Scale" (Chatoor, 2006) and the socio-communicative abilities of children with a new social partner during play were evaluated with the "Early Social Communication Scales" (Mundy et al., 2003). We distinguished the dyads into two categories: dyads with functional interactions (high dyadic reciprocity, low dyadic conflict) and dyads with dysfunctional interactions (lower dyadic reciprocity, higher dyadic conflict). At T 1 , infants belonging to dyads with dysfunctional interactions were significantly lower in "Initiating Joint Attention" and in "Responding to Joint Attention" in interaction with a new social partner compared to the infants belonging to dyads with functional interactions. At T 2 , infants belonging to dyads with dysfunctional interactions were significantly lower in "Initiating Social Interactions" with
Katz, Jennifer; Myhr, Laura
The study of verbal sexual coercion in heterosexual relationships is controversial because nonphysical coercive tactics are often viewed as socially acceptable. It was hypothesized that, within couples, verbal sexual coercion will occur within a larger context of destructive conflict tactics and diminished relationship quality. Female…
Elzy, Meredith B.
The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…
Full Text Available Sexual self-disclosure is one of the most intimate forms of self-disclosure. Yet, there is surprisingly little research on this topic compared to the voluminous research that exists on self-disclosure (in general. This is particularly surprising since sexual self-disclosure has been found to be correlated with sexual and marital satisfaction (Byers & Demmons, 2010. Conversations about sex have also been found to be critical in preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, expressing sexual consent, and sexual desires and satisfaction (Faulkner & Lannutti, 2010. Nor have scholars investigated the impact of culture on people’s willingness to engage in sexual self-disclosure. In this paper, we will review current theorizing as to the extent to which culture and gender might be expected to influence young people’s willingness to sexually self-disclose, and suggest possible directions that future research might take.
Keywords: cross-generational sex, HIV, risky sexual behavior, transactional sex. Introduction ... school girls in Botswana were in sexual relations with .... One female participant has to ..... Stereotype: Age and Economic Asymmetries and.
Nu Tang; Lisamarie Bensman; Elaine Hatfield
Sexual self-disclosure is one of the most intimate forms of self-disclosure. Yet, there is surprisingly little research on this topic compared to the voluminous research that exists on self-disclosure (in general). This is particularly surprising since sexual self-disclosure has been found to be correlated with sexual and marital satisfaction (Byers & Demmons, 2010). Conversations about sex have also been found to be critical in preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, expres...
Satinsky, Sonya; Reece, Michael; Dennis, Barbara; Sanders, Stephanie; Bardzell, Shaowen
Objectification theory posits internalization of an observer's gaze may negatively impact women's feelings about their bodies, which may subsequently affect their sexual function. Subjective body image and body size (i.e., body mass index [BMI]) have mixed relationships to women's sexuality, but assessment of positive body image as a sign of resistance to objectification has not been researched. This study explored relations between body appreciation and sexual function in women and assessed whether body size impacted this relationship. Cross-sectional data were collected online from 247 women, ages 18 to 58. Body appreciation scores were modestly negatively correlated with BMI, while BMI was not related to sexual function scores. After controlling for sexual orientation, partner status, and age, body appreciation predicted the arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction aspects of sexual function. Practitioners' encouragement of body appreciation may improve sexual function in a way that encouraging a reduction in body size may not. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong
We examined the relationship between 2D:4D digit ratio and sexual orientation in men from China and analyzed the influences of the components used to assess sexual orientation and the criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual on this relationship. A total of 309 male and 110 female participants took part in a web-based survey. Our results showed that heterosexual men had a significantly lower 2D:4D than heterosexual women and exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher left 2D:4D than heterosexual men whereas only exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher right 2D:4D than heterosexual men when sexual orientation was assessed via sexual attraction. The left 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, and the right 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual attraction. The effect sizes for differences in 2D:4D between homosexual and heterosexual men varied according to criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual and sexual orientation components; the more stringent the criteria (scores closer to the homosexual category), the larger the effect sizes; further, sexual attraction yielded the largest effect size. There were no significant effects of age and latitude on Chinese 2D:4D. This study contributes to the current understanding of the relationship between 2D:4D and male sexual orientation.
Rausch, Diana; Dekker, Arne; Rettenberger, Martin
The analysis of open-minded attitudes towards sexuality in general requires a construct based on attitudinal dimensions. Although several existing studies involve sexual attitudes, they differ substantially and standardized conceptual work is missing. Thus, the authors introduce the latent variable sexual openness to develop a construct based on self-oriented attitudes towards different sexual topics. Available survey data of female German students in a steady relationship allowed providing a first empirical test for the applicability of this construct. Five subdimensions are acknowledged central for sexual openness: sexual practices, masturbation, bisexuality, permissiveness, and pornography consumption. Confirmatory factor analysis and correlations confirmed the idea of an underlying mechanism with an impact on all five variables. Though further validation of the construct of sexual openness is required, the findings strongly support the notion of an overarching latent attitude variable, which influences the individual relation to everything sexual. The results were compared to other studies and potential approaches for future analyses were proposed. PMID:28636608
Rausch, Diana; Dekker, Arne; Rettenberger, Martin
The analysis of open-minded attitudes towards sexuality in general requires a construct based on attitudinal dimensions. Although several existing studies involve sexual attitudes, they differ substantially and standardized conceptual work is missing. Thus, the authors introduce the latent variable sexual openness to develop a construct based on self-oriented attitudes towards different sexual topics. Available survey data of female German students in a steady relationship allowed providing a first empirical test for the applicability of this construct. Five subdimensions are acknowledged central for sexual openness: sexual practices, masturbation, bisexuality, permissiveness, and pornography consumption. Confirmatory factor analysis and correlations confirmed the idea of an underlying mechanism with an impact on all five variables. Though further validation of the construct of sexual openness is required, the findings strongly support the notion of an overarching latent attitude variable, which influences the individual relation to everything sexual. The results were compared to other studies and potential approaches for future analyses were proposed.
McCabe, Marita P; Connaughton, Catherine
This paper examines the association between relationship stress and sexual dysfunction. The results demonstrated a strong association between female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and relationship stress, and between male sexual dysfunction (MSD) and relationship stress among their female partners. No studies examined the association between FSD and relationship stress of male partners. Treatment for MSD was associated with improved relationship stress for female partners, but no studies were located that examined this association for treatment of FSD. These findings suggest that FSD and relationship stress are strongly related, but the association does not seem to be so strong for men. The review highlights the need for further research in this field to inform therapy for both sexual dysfunction and relationship problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klapilová, Kateřina; Brody, Stuart; Krejčová, Lucie; Husárová, Barbara; Binter, Jakub
Research indicated that (i) vaginal orgasm consistency is associated with indices of psychological, intimate relationship, and physiological functioning, and (ii) masturbation is adversely associated with some such measures. The aim of this study was to examine the association of various dyadic and masturbation behavior frequencies and percentage of female orgasms during these activities with: (i) measures of dyadic adjustment; (ii) sexual satisfaction; and (iii) compatibility perceived by both partners. In a sample of 85 Czech long-term couples (aged 20-40; mean relationship length 5.4 years), both partners provided details of recent sexual behaviors and completed sexual satisfaction, Spanier dyadic adjustment, and Hurlbert sexual compatibility measures. Multiple regression analyses were used. The association of sexual behaviors with dyadic adjustment, sexual compatibility, and satisfaction was analyzed. In multivariate analyses, women's dyadic adjustment is independently predicted by greater vaginal orgasm consistency and lower frequency of women's masturbation. For both sexes, sexual compatibility was independently predicted by higher frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse and greater vaginal orgasm consistency. Women's sexual satisfaction score was significantly predicted by greater vaginal orgasm consistency, frequency of partner genital stimulation, and negatively with masturbation. Men's sexual satisfaction score was significantly predicted by greater intercourse frequency and any vaginal orgasm of their female partners. Concordance of partner vaginal orgasm consistency estimates was associated with greater dyadic adjustment. The findings suggest that specifically penile-vaginal intercourse frequency and vaginal orgasm consistency are associated with indices of greater intimate relationship adjustment, satisfaction, and compatibility of both partners, and that women's masturbation is independently inversely associated with measures of dyadic and personal
Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication. PMID:27710089
Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication.
Li, Chunyan; Cheng, Zixi; Wu, Taiwen; Liang, Xiao; Gaoshan, Junjian; Li, Lihe; Hong, Ping; Tang, Kun
A growing prevalence of unexpected pregnancies and younger age of sexual debut is observed among Chinese young people, while they lack formal sexuality education from schools and parents. It is necessary to measure their knowledge level of sexual and reproductive health, and how such knowledge associates with their sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes, which would shed light on the effectiveness of sexuality education in China. An Internet-based questionnaire survey was conducted from January to August, 2015. 130 colleges were selected from eastern, central, and western parts China with a good balance of geographic distributions. The survey link was subsequently delivered to the focal points in each college for voluntary participation, targeting on undergraduates aged 18 ~ 25. Information on demographics, experience of school-based sexuality education (defined as any course introducing information on sexual and reproductive health) and SRH knowledge quiz was collected. Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression were applied to explore the relationship between students' SRH knowledge, sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes, such as sexual intercourse (penetrative sex by vaginal or anal), unprotected sex, pregnancy and abortion, etc. A total sample of 17,966 Chinese college students (mean age = 20.2, 60.4% female) eventually entered the analysis. Only 55.6% of the respondents self-reported having received sexuality education before, and they scored significantly higher (2.33/4.00) in the SRH knowledge quiz than those who had not (1.75/4.00). Among the sexually experienced students (n = 3639, 20.2%), both males and females with higher SRH knowledge were less likely to report having experience of (partner's) pregnancy or abortion (OR sexually experienced males, those with higher SRH knowledge had a slightly later age of sexual debut (coefficient = 0.28, p sexual intercourses (OR = 0.82, 95%C.I.: 0.69 ~ 0.96). Students
Best, Kaleigh C; Garvin, Heather M; Cabo, Luis L
When faced with commingled remains, it might be assumed that a more "masculine" pelvis is associated with a more "masculine" cranium, but this relationship has not been specifically tested. This study uses geometric morphometric analyses of pelvic and cranial landmarks to assess whether there is an intra-individual relationship between the degrees of sexual expression in these two skeletal regions. Principal component and discriminant function scores were used to assess sexual dimorphism in 113 U.S. Black individuals. Correlation values and partial least squares regression (PLS) were used to evaluate intra-individual relationships. Results indicate that the os coxae is more sexually dimorphic than the cranium, with element shape being more sexually dimorphic than size. PLS and correlation results suggest no significant intra-individual relationship between pelvic and cranial sexual size or shape expression. Thus, in commingled situations, associations between these skeletal elements cannot be inferred based on degree of "masculinity." © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.
Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…
Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.
This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…
This paper examines how Chinese immigrants to Canada perceive and experience sexuality in a transnational context as revealed in a qualitative study. It identifies cultural interactions and tensions between 'the West' and 'China' embedded in participants' sexual narratives. Three thematic aspects of sexuality are explored: different views toward 'relationships' and how sex is involved in different stages of a relationship; physical desire and sexual attraction based on individuals' dialogues with contemporaries and their own cross-racial dating experience; and perceptions of sexual risks associated with an increasing awareness of China's opening up, in particular risks associated with attitudes towards condom use. The paper also discusses how such sexual narratives challenge dichotomous imaginings of 'sexual openness/conservativeness' in the West-China relationship. Findings help us to better understanding how Chinese immigrants to Canada view the West through the lens of sexuality, and how their transnational experiences have challenge the West-China dichotomy in the sexual imagination and shape understandings of sexual risk.
Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David
Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.
Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D
Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed.
Mark, Kristen P; Lasslo, Julie A
The most universally experienced sexual response is sexual desire. Though research on this topic has increased in recent years, low and high desire are still problematized in clinical settings and the broader culture. However, despite knowledge that sexual desire ebbs and flows both within and between individuals, and that problems with sexual desire are strongly linked to problems with relationships, there is a critical gap in understanding the factors that contribute to maintaining sexual desire in the context of relationships. This article offers a systematic review of the literature to provide researchers, educators, clinicians, and the broader public with an overview and a conceptual model of nonclinical sexual desire in long-term relationships. First, we systematically identified peer-reviewed, English-language articles that focused on the maintenance of sexual desire in the context of nonclinical romantic relationships. Second, we reviewed a total of 64 articles that met inclusion criteria and synthesized them into factors using a socioecological framework categorized as individual, interpersonal, and societal in nature. These findings are used to build a conceptual model of maintaining sexual desire in long-term relationships. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the existing research and suggest clear directions for future research.
Alexandre Martins Valença
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a serious public health problem that concerns and faces our society. The prevalence, magnitude and consequences of this problem have merited growing attention by health researchers and human rights scholars. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review of the literature regarding the relationship between mental disorders, sexual offences and those of development. METHODS: A bibliographic research was performed in PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO and Lilacs, employing the terms "sexual crime", "sexual offence", "mental disorder", "mental retardation", "developmental disability" and its combinations. RESULTS: The mental disorders and developmental disorders more frequently related to the perpetration of sexual offences were schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and mental retardation. DISCUSSION: The detection and treatment of psychiatric morbidity among sexual offenders in health and criminal justice systems, which may contribute to a lower risk of recidivism of this sexual behaviour, is important.
Geue, Kristina; Schmidt, Ricarda; Sender, Annekathrin; Sauter, Siegfried; Friedrich, Michael
In recent years, psycho-oncology has focused more and more on adolescents and young adults with cancer (AYA). Many studies have concentrated on fertility issues in AYAs, but romantic relationships and sexuality have only been researched to a limited extent. This cross-sectional study examined AYAs' quality of relationships and sexuality satisfaction thereby identifying sex differences. Ninety-nine cancer patients (N = 33 males) diagnosed between 15 and 39 years who were in a romantic relationship at the time of the survey completed questionnaires on their relationship (Partnership Questionnaire), sexuality (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire), and sexuality needs (Supportive Care Needs Survey). Test for mean differences and regression analyses to determine associated variables were performed. Seventy-six percent of AYAs (N = 75) rated their relationship quality as high. About 64% of patients reported having less sexual intercourse since diagnosis, more women than men (72% vs. 45%; p = .011). The need for support was strongest for changes in sexual feelings (N = 38; 38.3%). Duration of relationship (β = -0.224), being on sick leave (β = 0.325), and satisfaction with sexuality (β = 0.409) were associated with satisfaction with relationship (R(2) = 0.256). Satisfaction with sexuality (R(2) = 0.344) was regressed on physical function (β = 0.419), satisfaction with relationship (β = 0.428), and male gender (β = -0.175). Sexuality need (R(2) = 0.436) was associated with fatigue (β = 0.232) and satisfaction with sexuality (β = -0.522). Although they reported high satisfaction with their relationships, AYA patients experienced sexual problems and need support with sexual issues. As a substantial proportion of patients felt stressed because of sexual changes, communication and interventions addressing post-cancer sexuality, particularly in women, are indicated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Firoozi, Mahbobe; Azmoude, Elham; Asgharipoor, Negar
Background: Women's sexual self-esteem is one of the most important factors that affect women's sexual satisfaction and their sexual anxiety. Various aspects of sexual life are blended with the entire personality. Determining the relationship between personality traits and self-concept aspects such as sexual self-esteem leads to better understanding of sexual behavior in people with different personality traits and helps in identifying the psychological variables affecting their sexual performance. The aim this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem. Materials and Methods: This correlation study was performed on 127 married women who referred to selected health care centers of Mashhad in 2014–2015. Data collection tools included NEO personality inventory dimensions and Zeanah and Schwarz sexual self-esteem questionnaire. Data were analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient test and stepwise regression model. Results: The results of Pearson correlation test showed a significant relationship between neuroticism personality dimension (r = −0.414), extroversion (r = 0.363), agreeableness (r = 0.420), and conscientiousness (r = 0.364) with sexual self-esteem (P self-esteem was not significant (P > 0.05). In addition, based on the results of the stepwise regression model, three dimensions of agreeableness, neuroticism, and extraversion could predict 27% of the women's sexual self-esteem variance. Conclusions: The results showed a correlation between women's personality characteristics and their sexual self-esteem. Paying attention to personality characteristics may be important to identify at-risk group or the women having low sexual self-esteem in premarital and family counseling. PMID:27186198
Firoozi, Mahbobe; Azmoude, Elham; Asgharipoor, Negar
Women's sexual self-esteem is one of the most important factors that affect women's sexual satisfaction and their sexual anxiety. Various aspects of sexual life are blended with the entire personality. Determining the relationship between personality traits and self-concept aspects such as sexual self-esteem leads to better understanding of sexual behavior in people with different personality traits and helps in identifying the psychological variables affecting their sexual performance. The aim this study was to determine the relationship between personality traits and sexual self-esteem. This correlation study was performed on 127 married women who referred to selected health care centers of Mashhad in 2014-2015. Data collection tools included NEO personality inventory dimensions and Zeanah and Schwarz sexual self-esteem questionnaire. Data were analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient test and stepwise regression model. The results of Pearson correlation test showed a significant relationship between neuroticism personality dimension (r = -0.414), extroversion (r = 0.363), agreeableness (r = 0.420), and conscientiousness (r = 0.364) with sexual self-esteem (P self-esteem was not significant (P > 0.05). In addition, based on the results of the stepwise regression model, three dimensions of agreeableness, neuroticism, and extraversion could predict 27% of the women's sexual self-esteem variance. The results showed a correlation between women's personality characteristics and their sexual self-esteem. Paying attention to personality characteristics may be important to identify at-risk group or the women having low sexual self-esteem in premarital and family counseling.
Two stereotypical sexual interactions co-exist: experimental sex, taking place unprepared, ... of the same age, and transactional sex, occurring after negotiation between older ... Young people have little capacity to manage their vulnerability in these ... vulnerability, young people, sexuality and reproductive health, Rwanda.
Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Deardorff, Julianna
Adolescents undergo critical developmental transformations that increase the salience of peer influence. Peer interactions (platonic and romantic) have been found to have both a positive and negative influence on adolescent attitudes and behaviors related to romantic relationships and sexual behavior. This study used qualitative methodology to explore how peers influence romantic and sexual behavior. Forty adolescents participated in individual semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. The concept of peer influence on romantic relationships and sexual behavior emerged as a key theme. Youth described that platonic peers (friends) influenced their relationships and sexual behavior including pressuring friends into relationships, establishing relationships as currency for popularity and social status, and creating relationship norm and expectations. Romantic peers also motivated relationship and sexual behavior as youth described engaging in behavior to avoid hurting and successfully pleasing their partners. Future research should explore multiple types of peer influence in order to better inform interventions to improve the quality of adolescents' romantic and sexual relationships.
Parkes, Jenny; Heslop, Jo; Januario, Francisco; Oando, Samwel; Sabaa, Susan
This paper interrogates the influence of a tradition-modernity dichotomy on perspectives and practices on sexual violence and sexual relationships involving girls in three districts of Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique. Through deploying an analytical framework of positioning within multiple discursive sites, we argue that although the dichotomy…
Pistorello, Jacqueline; Follette, Victoria M.
Analysis of female child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors showed relationship themes. The two most frequent were difficulties with emotional communication or intimacy and polarized positions on control. Whereas these themes were correlated with survivors' CSA characteristics, sexual difficulties were correlated with survivors' level of current…
D.J.H.G. Wiegerink (Diana)
textabstractObjectives: To describe the development of romantic relationships and sexual experiences of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and the physical and emotional obstacles they experience with sexuality. Regarding the ICF domains we investigated whether this development is associated with
Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.
In many countries, there are no professional standards determining attributes, praxis, effectiveness and evaluation for teachers of relationships and sexuality education in schools. However, in the USA, a new set of pre-service teacher preparation standards has been developed for sexuality education and health. Australia has a set of generic…
Wiegerink, D.J.; Stam, H.J.; Gorter, J.W.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Roebroeck, M.E.
Objectives: To describe the development of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), to investigate whether this development is associated with demographic and physical characteristics, and to compare the sexual activity of this group with an
Ruark, Allison; Kajubi, Phoebe; Ruteikara, Sam; Green, Edward C; Hearst, Norman
Despite evidence that a greater focus on couples could strengthen HIV prevention efforts, little health-related research has explored relationship functioning and relationship quality among couples in Africa. Using data from 162 couples (324 individuals) resident in a peri-urban Ugandan community, we assessed actor and partner effects of sexual risk behaviors on relationship quality, using psychometric measures of dyadic adjustment, sexual satisfaction, commitment, intimacy, and communication. For women and men, poor relationship quality was associated with having concurrent sexual partners and suspecting that one's partner had concurrent sexual partners (actor effects). Women's poor relationship quality was also associated with men's sexual risk behaviors (partner effects), although the inverse partner effect was not observed. These findings suggest that relationship quality is linked to HIV risk, particularly through the pathway of concurrent sexual partnerships, and that positive relationship attributes such as sexual satisfaction, intimacy, and constructive communication can help couples to avoid risk.
Handy, Ariel B; Jackowich, Robyn A; Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas Wayne; Wassersug, Richard J
Some men seek castration outside a clear medical need. This study explored how their sexuality changed after castration. To explore changes in preferred gender(s) of sexual attraction, fantasy, and relationships in voluntarily castrated men with or without gonadal hormone therapy. A questionnaire was posted at http://www.eunuch.org that yielded data on men who had been voluntarily castrated physically (n = 198) or chemically (n = 96). Respondents were asked to report retrospectively on their sexuality, including their sexual activity and which gender(s) they were sexually attracted to, fantasized about, or had sexual relations with 6 months to 1 year before and after castration. A substantial proportion of men remained sexually active after castration; 37% had sex at least several times per week. Most respondents did not report a change in preferred gender(s) of attraction (65%, n = 181), fantasies (62%, n = 169), or sexual relationships (66%, n = 163), although approximately 20% to 30% of respondents did report such changes and 8% to 11% became non-sexual after castration. Respondents who were attracted to and fantasized about "only men" or who had sexual relationship with "only women" before castration were the least likely to report a change subsequent to castration. Respondents who were taking neither supplemental testosterone nor estrogen were more likely to report (i) becoming attracted to no one, (ii) fantasizing about no one, and (iii) becoming sexually inactive. Sexual changes in voluntarily castrated men vary and can be influenced by various factors including the use of supplemental testosterone or estrogen therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reitz, Ellen; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan; Dalenberg, Wieke; Dubas, Judith; van Aken, Marcel; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom; van der Eijnden, Regina; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Kunnen, Saskia; Timmerman, Greetje; van Geert, Paul; Dekovic, Maja
This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to
Finn, Erica; Morrison, Todd G; McGuire, Brian E
The aims of the study were to 1) examine the prevalence of sexual functioning difficulties in a chronic pain sample; 2) identify correlates of sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction utilizing pain variables (pain severity and pain interference) and psychological variables (mood, pain-related cognitions, self-efficacy, self-esteem, body-image); and 3) investigate possible sex differences in the correlates of sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction. Two hundred sixty-nine participants were recruited online from chronic pain organizations, websites, social media sites, and discussion forums. Those who met criteria for inclusion were presented with a variety of measures related to pain, sexual functioning, and relationship satisfaction (for those in a relationship), as well as cognitive and affective variables. Participant mean age was 37 years, and the majority were female, heterosexual, and currently in a relationship. High levels of pain severity and interference from pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety, stress, and body image concerns were reported, along with low levels of self-esteem and pain self-efficacy. In addition, substantial proportions of male (43%) and female (48%) respondents had scores indicative of sexual problems. Exploratory hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, for women, age and relationship satisfaction (which were both treated as covariates) as well as depression emerged as statistically significant correlates of sexual functioning (i.e., women who were older and reported greater levels of depression and less satisfaction with their current relationship indicated poorer sexual functioning). When relationship satisfaction was the criterion measure, age and sexual functioning (again, treated as covariates) and perceived stress emerged as significant (i.e., women who were older, reported poorer sexual functioning, and reported greater perceived stress also indicated being less satisfied with their current relationship
Huebner, David M.; Mandic, Carmen Gómez; Mackaronis, Julia E.; Beougher, Sean C.; Hoff, Colleen C.
Parenthood changes couples' relationships across multiple domains, generally decreasing relationship quality, sexual satisfaction, and sexual frequency. Emerging research suggests that gay couples who are parenting might experience similar challenges. However, such changes might have even more profound implications for gay couples' health, and in particular their HIV risk, given the somewhat different ways in which they negotiate and tolerate sexual behaviors with outside partners. We aimed to examine these issues in a qualitative analysis of interviews from 48 gay male couples who were actively parenting children. Findings suggest that parenthood increases men's commitment to their primary relationship while simultaneously decreasing time and energy for relationship maintenance, and generally decreasing sexual satisfaction. These challenges alone did not generally result in greater infidelity or HIV risk, as most men reported successfully coping with such changes through a combination of acceptance and revaluing what is important in their relationships. Additionally, couples reported negotiating agreements regarding sex with outside partners that closely resemble those documented in studies of gay couples who are not parents. Men reported that parenthood typically decreased their opportunities to engage in sex with outside partners, but also posed barriers to talking about these behaviors with their partners and healthcare providers. HIV-related sexual risk behavior was relatively rare, but nevertheless present in some men. Providers should assess sexual function as a regular part of their work with gay couples who parent, and facilitate opportunities for men to discuss their sexual agreements both with their primary partners and with relevant healthcare providers. PMID:25674355
White, Yohann; Sandfort, Theo; Morgan, Kai; Carpenter, Karen; Pierre, Russell
Gay and bisexual men in Jamaica encounter stigma and discrimination due to criminalization of and negative attitudes towards same-sex sexuality. Disclosure of sexual orientation may be self-affirming, but could increase exposure to negative responses and stressors. Outcomes of an online survey among 110 gay and bisexual Jamaican men ages 18 to 56 years suggest that disclosure to family is affected by level of economic independence. Furthermore, negative familial responses to sexual identity significantly predicted depression. Social and structural interventions, and efforts to strengthen positive family relationships, are needed to foster an environment that enables well-being among sexual minorities in Jamaica. PMID:28243342
Mark, Kristen P; Herbenick, Debby
Previous research has consistently found that attraction is important in the formation of relationships though research on attraction in long-term relationships is less well understood. This article examined the predictive value of self-reported attraction to partner and change in attraction to partner on sexual and relationship satisfaction in 176 women in committed heterosexual relationships using online survey methodology. Participants' age ranged from 21 to 56 (M = 34.5) years and their relationship length ranged from 5 to 35 (M = 11.75) years. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that change in attraction to partner was the most salient predictor of sexual satisfaction, with current attraction to partner also related to women's sexual satisfaction, accounting for 20 % of the variance. Current attraction to partner was the only significant predictor of women's relationship satisfaction, accounting for 22 % of the variance. Additionally, attraction variables accounted for variance above and beyond the impact of relationship and sexual satisfaction. These findings suggest that self-reported attraction to partner is an important contributor to women's satisfaction outcomes in long-term relationships. Further studies in the area of attraction to partner that include couple dynamics and longitudinal data are encouraged and implications for therapists, clinicians, and educators are discussed.
The increase in exposure to sexually explicit material has been cited as a significant factor influencing adolescent sexuality and health. Concern about the negative impact of this material is increasingly prominent within policy, professional groups, and the media. Little research, however, has been conducted within this area. This article…
Schover, L.R.; Gonzales, M.; von Eschenbach, A.C.
Questionnaires on sexual function, marital status, and fertility were returned by 84 men who received radiotherapy for seminoma (Stage I, II, or III). The mean length of follow-up was ten years. Although 93 per cent were married, 19 per cent had low rates of sexual activity, 12 per cent reported low sexual desire, 15 per cent had erectile dysfunction, 10 per cent had difficulty reaching orgasm, and 14 per cent had premature ejaculation. The most common problems were reduced intensity of orgasm (33%) and reduced semen volume (49%). Twenty-one men remained childless, and 30 per cent of men worried at least occasionally about infertility. Thirteen children were conceived after cancer therapy. The data suggest that sexual dysfunction and infertility are important concerns for a subgroup of men treated for seminoma
Schover, L.R.; Gonzales, M.; von Eschenbach, A.C.
Questionnaires on sexual function, marital status, and fertility were returned by 84 men who received radiotherapy for seminoma (Stage I, II, or III). The mean length of follow-up was ten years. Although 93 per cent were married, 19 per cent had low rates of sexual activity, 12 per cent reported low sexual desire, 15 per cent had erectile dysfunction, 10 per cent had difficulty reaching orgasm, and 14 per cent had premature ejaculation. The most common problems were reduced intensity of orgasm (33%) and reduced semen volume (49%). Twenty-one men remained childless, and 30 per cent of men worried at least occasionally about infertility. Thirteen children were conceived after cancer therapy. The data suggest that sexual dysfunction and infertility are important concerns for a subgroup of men treated for seminoma.
Jun 20, 2014 ... Bugesera district and students were invited to write about their ideas, secrets, wishes, desires and fears on sexuality ..... When I would learn that my beloved one is infected, I would ... In addition, media (radio and movies) are.
Full Text Available Studies of aggressive behavior of teenagers and sexual aggression in particular in the last time are particularly relevant and valuable in modern society. This is confirmed by the data of criminological statistics, according to which the rate of minor crime in the Russian Federation in recent years has virtually the same range. A comprehensive study of the person of a minor convicted of violent crimes of a sexual nature (personal characteristics, characteristics of sexual identity and parent-child relationship on the basis of comparative analysis with a group of teenagers convicted of the crime of mercenary-violent type, and a group of students emerging in socially favourable environment, enabled them to identify some distinctive features. The obtained results allow to suggest a possible mutual influence of personal characteristics and characteristics of sexual identity with the peculiarities of child-parent relationships in a group of juveniles convicted for violent crimes of a sexual nature.
Richards, Tara N.; Crittenden, Courtney; Garland, Tammy S.; McGuffee, Karen
Consensual sexual relationships between students and faculty have traditionally been viewed as private matters and have been ignored by university administrators except in cases that resulted in sexual harassment claims. Due to increasing sexual harassment litigation and the liabilities associated with such relationships, universities have…
Izdebska, Agnieszka; Beisert, Maria Janina; Roszyk, Anna
The aim of the present research was verification of the hypothesis for the influence of negative sexual experiences in sexual development on the quality of partner relationships in the adult life. Special attention was given to the influence exercised by the level of erotization in the environment of the family of origin and to the experience of child sexual abuse. The quality of partner relationships was recognized using Jurg Willi's concept through the analysis of intensity of dysfunctions (collusions) in those relationships. The study was conducted on a population of 170 adults in partnerships. The surveyed group filled in the Questionnaire on Models of Sexual Upbringing in Families, the Couples Collusion Questionnaire and the Questionnaire on Sexual Abuse of Children. Positive interrelation has been confirmed between the level of erotization in the family of origin and the oral, anal and oedipal partner collusion in the procreative relationships of individuals. Such link has not been confirmed for narcissistic collusion. The interrelation between the sexually abusive experiences and the partner collusion has only been confirmed in masculine group within the oral collusion and the anal collusion. The findings largely support the assumption that there is a connection between the character of sexual experiences in childhood and functioning in adult partnership.
Qualls, Lydia R; Hartmann, Kathrin; Paulson, James F
Individuals with higher levels of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) have some symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Like individuals with ASD, people with higher-BAP may have fewer sexual experiences and may experience more same-sex attraction. This study measured BAP traits, sexual experiences, and sexual orientation in typically developing (TD) individuals to see if patterns of sexual behavior and sexual orientation in higher-BAP resemble those in ASD. Although BAP characteristics did not predict sexual experiences, one BAP measure significantly predicted sexual orientation, β = 0.22, t = 2.72, p = .007, controlling for demographic variables (R 2 change = .04, F = 7.41, p = .007), showing individuals with higher-BAP also reported increased same-sex attraction. This finding supports the hypothesis that individuals with higher-BAP resemble ASD individuals in being more likely than TD individuals to experience same-sex attraction.
Shuaib, Faisal M B; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Pauline; Zhang, Qionghui; Emusu, Donath; Ngu, Julius; Foushee, Herman; Katongole, Drake; Kirby, Russell; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred
HIV serodiscordance is a sexual partnership in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. Managing emotional and sexual intimacy in HIV serodiscordant unions can be difficult due to concerns about HIV transmission and the challenge of initiating and maintaining safe sex. In situations where couples are jointly aware of their HIV status, women in serodiscordant unions may face increased risk of partner violence. We conducted an investigation to assess risk factors for HIV serodiscordance and determine if HIV serodiscordance is associated with incident sexual violence among a cohort of women attending HIV post-test club services at three AIDS Information Centers (AICs) in Uganda. Using a prospective study of 250 women, we elicited information about sexual violence using structured face-to-face interviews. Sexual violence and risk factors were assessed and compared among HIV positive women in HIV discordant unions, HIV negative women in discordant unions, and HIV negative women in negative concordant unions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between participants' serostatus and sexual violence. HIV negative women in serodiscordant relationships (36.1±11.1 years, range: 19-65 years) were significantly older than either HIV positive women in serodiscordant relationships (32.2±9.0 years, range: 18-56 years), or HIV negative women in concordant relationships (32.3±11.0 years, range: 18-62), (p=0.033). Early age at sexual debut was associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk of experiencing sexual violence (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.27-4.65). Based on unadjusted analysis, HIV positive women in discordant relationship were at highest risk for sexual violence compared to HIV negative women in discordant unions, and HIV negative women in negative concordant unions. HIV negative women in discordant relationships and those in concordant negative relationships showed no increased risk for sexual violence. However, couples' HIV
Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia
Sexual communication is an important strategy in promoting safer sex behavior, but few investigators have explored sexual communication among young adult Latinos. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the role of traditional gender norms, relationship factors (relationship characteristics and relationship power), intrapersonal factors (attitudes and subjective norms), and acculturation as statistical predictors of three different types of sexual communication (sexual health, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication) in Latino women and men. The sample was 220 Latinos (111 women and 109 men) ages 18-30 years who were sexually active in heterosexual relationships. In multiple regression, after controlling for relationship power, intrapersonal factors, and acculturation, traditional gender norms did not predict sexual communication for either women or men. For both women and men, pleasure-focused communication (pleasure discussions and physical sexual communication) increased with acculturation. For women, the strongest predictor of all types of sexual communication was their attitudes toward sexual communication. Greater relationship power and lower acculturation were associated with women's sexual health communication. For men, no variables explained sexual health communication or physical sexual communication, and acculturation and attitude toward pleasure discussions predicted pleasure communication. Women who believed they had power in their relationships and had positive attitudes toward pleasure discussions and a high level of acculturation reported more physical sexual communication. Findings suggest the importance of relationship power, attitudes, and acculturation in young adult Latinos' sexual communication. Sexual risk prevention strategies among young adult Latinos should include encouraging sexual communication by supporting positive attitudes toward pleasure-focused communication. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley
In KwaZulu/Natal, South Africa, the social construction of young people's sexuality reflects both a complex historical process of cultural and religious integration, as well as the contemporary resurgence of 'traditionalism'. How do young people interpret these factors to construct and give meaning to their own sexualities? This multi-method qualitative study examined sexuality and relationship formation among sexually experienced young people aged 14-19 in a rural sub-district. In this setting, sexual activity is highly stigmatised, particularly for young teenage women. Dominant sexual ideologies centre on 'good behaviour', the idea that 'sex is wrong', and abstinence as a preferred prevention strategy. Young women's relationships are often hidden but sexual relationships are also an important part of the transition to adulthood. These dichotomies of love and romance versus stigma and secrecy frame young people's discourse about sexuality. A discourse about healthy sexuality is largely absent, impeding the prevention of HIV in this setting.
Knapp, Ashlee E; Knapp, Darin J; Brown, Cameron C; Larson, Jeffry H
Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability. Significant differences in the reports of types of conflict resolution styles were found for incestuous child sexual abuse versus non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups. Incestuous child sexual abuse and conflict resolution styles were negatively related to relationship satisfaction and stability and there was a significant indirect effect between female incestuous child sexual abuse, female volatility, and relationship instability. Clinical applications for couple relationships are discussed.
Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who experienced more intimate partner violence had a significantly higher likelihood of inconsistent condom use and therefore a greater risk for HIV/STDs. Girls' sense of sexual control in their relationships was not directly associated with inconsistent condom use but was inversely related to verbal and emotional abuse. Interventions aimed at reducing HIV/STD risk for adolescent girls need to address patterns of dominance and control in adolescent relationships as well as multiple forms of partner violence. This suggests the need for multilevel intervention approaches that promote girls' agency and multiple ways to keep girls safe from perpetrators of partner abuse. PMID:18349344
Harvey, S Marie; Beckman, Linda J; Browner, Carole H; Sherman, Christy A
This study explored how couples of Mexican origin define power in intimate relationships, what makes men and women feel powerful in relationships, and the role of each partner in decision making about sexual and reproductive matters. Interviews were conducted with each partner of 39 sexually active couples and data were analyzed using content analysis. Results indicate that power is perceived as control over one s partner and the ability to make decisions. Women say they feel more powerful in relationships when they make unilateral decisions and have economic independence. Men feel powerful when they have control over their partner and bring home money. Respondents agreed that women make decisions about household matters and children, while men make decisions related to money. Findings indicate that whereas couples share decision making about sexual activities and contraceptive use, men are seen as initiators of sexual activity and women are more likely to suggest condom use.
Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Mengle, Shruta; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Hensel, Devon; Herbenick, Debby; Anand, Vivek
Little research exists on women who do not identify as heterosexual in India. Social support for sexual minority women may protect against the effects of discrimination. An examination of significant social relationships may point to both strengths and weaknesses in this support. We aimed to understand relationship prioritisation and communication patterns associated with the social support of sexual minority women in Mumbai. In partnership with the Humsafar Trust, India's oldest and largest sexual and gender minority-advocacy organisation, we conducted photo-elicitation interviews with 18 sexual minority women, using participants' photographs to prompt dialogue about their social support. Intimate partners were a source of dependable support and many of those without relationships were seeking them. Participants' extended networks included friends and family as well as less formal relationships of social support. Participants mediated their communication with particular social network members, which involved filtering information sexual identity, romantic interests, and personal aspirations, among others. The diverse relationships that sexual minority women have in their social support networks may be used to guide programmes to improve health outcomes.
Benotsch, Eric G; Sawyer, Ashlee N; Martin, Aaron M; Allen, Elizabeth S; Nettles, Christopher D; Richardson, Doug; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A
In prior research, having traits consistent with a personality disorder has been shown to be related to substance use and high-risk sexual activity; however, few studies have examined relationships between dependency traits and health-jeopardizing behaviors. Individuals with traits consistent with dependent personality disorder may be more likely to be in a primary relationship characterized by unhealthy conditions, including physical abuse from a partner, low assertiveness in sexual situations, and partner infidelity. In addition, dependency traits may be associated with unhealthy coping (e.g., through substance use). To examine associations between dependent personality traits and these types of health-related behaviors, 198 women seeking sexually transmitted infection clinic services completed a computer-assisted assessment of dependent personality traits, substance use, unhealthy conditions in primary relationships, perceived sexual and relationship power, and sexual risk related to condom use. Dependency trait scores were correlated with the use of cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. Participants high in dependency traits reported low perceived power within their relationships and less say in sexual behaviors, including condom use. In a series of multivariate analyses, dependency traits significantly predicted having been hit by a partner, staying with a partner after he cheated, having sex because of threats, and fear of asking a partner to use a condom. Dependency traits were also associated with lower past condom use and lower future condom use intentions. Results suggest that dependent personality traits may place women at higher risk for physical abuse and harmful health behaviors.
van den Brink, F.
Given the large sociocultural emphasis on appearance and the widespread incidence of a negative body image in current society, scientific understanding of its potential psychological and physical health consequences, including sexual problems, is now of particular importance. The value of
Höglund, Jannike; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of not reporting sexual attraction in the past year and its associations with factors related to partner relations as well as sexuality-related characteristics in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. The present study was based on a total of 3,540 participants (1,304 men and 2,236 women) aged 33-43 years. A total of 19 men and 73 women reported complete absence of sexual interest in women or men during the past year. Older age was associated with absence of sexual interest in the past year in women, but not men. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year were more likely than individuals who reported sexual interest to be single, but those who were in a relationship did not express more dissatisfaction with their relationships. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year had had fewer sexual partners and reported less experience of sexual behavior in childhood. Women who reported no sexual interest in the past year, but who were nevertheless sexually active, reported higher frequencies of sexual dysfunctions than matched controls. No significant differences regarding the tendency to fake orgasm were found between the sexually active individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year and the group of matched controls. The present study suggests that absence of sexual interest may be a lifelong phenomenon which does not necessarily affect relationship satisfaction, but is associated with variation in sexual behaviors.
VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B R Simon; Laska, Melissa N
Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n = 28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Four behavioral profiles, characterized as "healthier eating habits, more physically active," "healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control," were utilized based on latent class analyses, estimated from nine weight-related behavioral survey items. Sexual orientation differences in weight and quality of life were identified. For example, sexual minority groups reported significantly poorer quality of life than their heterosexual counterparts (females: 22.5%-38.6% (sexual minority) vs. 19.8% (heterosexual); males: 14.3%-26.7% (sexual minority) vs. 11.8% (heterosexual)). Compared with the "healthier eating habits, more physically active" profile, the "unhealthy weight control" profile was associated with obesity, poor body satisfaction, and poor quality of life in multiple gender/sexual orientation subgroups. Interventions are needed to address obesity, body dissatisfaction, and poor quality of life among sexual minority college students. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Shkolnik, Darya; Iecovich, Esther
The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between gender, migration status, perceived health, body image, and sexual activity and satisfaction among older adults. It was hypothesized that men and those who are long-standing residents in Israel will report better perceived health, a positive body image, and these will be associated with greater sexuality, compared with women, new immigrants with poorer perceived health and a negative body image. The sample included 200 respondents who were 60 years and older, functionally independent and living with a spouse or a partner for at least one year, heterosexual, and living in the community in Israel. Respondents were recruited through community-based services for older persons and snowballing. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine differences by groups of respondents and to identify the best predictors of the outcome variables. The majority had some kind of sexual activity. No significant differences were found between men and women with regard to perceived health, body image, sexual activity and satisfaction, but significant differences were found between new immigrants from former Soviet Union countries and long-standing residents in Israel. Mental health, age, and migration status were significant in explaining sexual activity, while age, education, and sexual activity were significant in explaining sexual satisfaction. A variety of factors play a role with regard to sexuality in old age, in particular immigration status. Appropriate interventions can help older adults cope with the determinants that negatively affect their mental health and sexual life.
Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja
Considerable research has examined reciprocal relationships between parenting, peers and adolescent problem behavior; however, such studies have largely considered the influence of peers and parents separately. It is important to examine simultaneously the relationships between parental monitoring, peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior, and whether increases in peer risk involvement and changes in parental monitoring longitudinally predict adolescent sexual risk behavior. Four waves of sexual behavior data were collected between 2008/2009 and 2011 from high school students aged 13-17 in the Bahamas. Structural equation and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, perceived peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior. For both male and female youth, greater perceived peer risk involvement predicted higher sexual risk behavior index scores, and greater parental monitoring predicted lower scores. Reciprocal relationships were found between parental monitoring and sexual risk behavior for males and between perceived peer risk involvement and sexual risk behavior for females. For males, greater sexual risk behavior predicted lower parental monitoring; for females, greater sexual risk behavior predicted higher perceived peer risk involvement. According to latent growth curve models, a higher initial level of parental monitoring predicted decreases in sexual risk behavior, whereas both a higher initial level and a higher growth rate of peer risk involvement predicted increases in sexual risk behavior. Results highlight the important influence of peer risk involvement on youths' sexual behavior and gender differences in reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, peer influence and adolescent sexual risk behavior.
Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis
A sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis may profoundly change the meaning of adolescent women's relationships, particularly when the relationship involves a shared child. This study explored the sexual, contraceptive, and emotional characteristics of sexual partners with whom adolescent women had and did not have children in the 3 months after the first STI diagnosis. Adolescent women (n = 387; age: 14-17 years at enrollment) were tested quarterly for STI and completed partner-specific items on emotional and sexual relationship content. We used nonparametric statistics (SPSS/18.0) to compare these characteristics between partners with whom these adolescent women did (n = 20) or did not (n = 118) share a child. Rates of condom use at last sex, overall condom use, and condom insistence were lower with sexual partners involving shared children as compared with childless sexual partners. Relationship status, commitment to partner, and using no method of contraception were more common in parous sexual relationships as compared with nulliparous sexual relationships after an STI. After an STI, adolescent women have different sexual risk behaviors with the fathers of their children, even after a signal event such as a recent STI diagnosis. Tailored counseling may specifically address the challenges of STI prevention with partners who have the unique status of being the "father of the baby." Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Aimee N C; Tross, Susan; Dworkin, Shari L; Hu, Mei-Chen; Manuel, Jennifer; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V
Relationship power has been highlighted as a major factor influencing women's safer sex practices. Little research, however, has specifically examined relationship power in drug-involved women, a population with increased risk for HIV transmission. Using baseline data from a National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network multisite trial of a women's HIV prevention intervention in community-based drug treatment programs, this paper examined the association between sexual relationship power and unprotected vaginal or anal sex. The Sexual Relationship Power Scale, a measure of relationship control and decision-making dominance, was used to assess the association between power and unprotected sex in relationships with primary male partners. It was hypothesized that increased relationship power would be associated with decreased unprotected sexual occasions, after controlling for relevant empirical and theoretical covariates. Findings show a more complex picture of the association between power and sexual risk in this population, with a main effect in the hypothesized direction for decision-making dominance but not for relationship control. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, and future research directions for examining power constructs and developing interventions targeting relationship power among drug-involved women are suggested.
Scott, Roger L; Lasiuk, Gerri; Norris, Colleen
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and depression in a nationally representative population to determine if sexual minorities report higher levels of depression than the remainder of the population. Depression is a highly prevalent and disabling chronic disorder worldwide. Prior research utilizing national population samples have reported that members of sexual minorities are at higher risk for depression when compared to heterosexual people. More recent studies have revealed differences in depression risk based on sexual orientation, sexual activity and sex. There have been significant shifts in societal attitudes towards sexual minorities in recent decades. Continuing research into predictors for reporting depression amongst sexual minorities is needed. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles 2005-2012 were used to identify sexual minority status based on declared sexual orientation and presence of same-sex sexual activity. Complex samples logistic and multivariate regression models were used to predict depression adjusted for sexual orientation, sexual activity, age, sex, marital status, education, income, race/ethnicity, employment and health status. Sexual orientation was not a significant independent predictor of depressive symptoms overall. Gay men reported lower levels of depressive symptoms than heterosexual men. In the sex stratified analyses, men who reported having sex with men were five times more likely to report depressive symptomatology compared to men who reported opposite sex partners (2005-2008 adjusted odds ratios: 5·00; 95% confidence interval: 1·44-17·38; 2009-2012 adjusted odds ratios: 5·10; 95% confidence interval: 1·33-19·54) after controlling for sexual orientation. Results of our analyses indicate that homosexually experienced heterosexual men appear to be at highest risk for depression. Furthermore, reported physical health status was a significant independent predictor
Shaw, Amanda M; Rogge, Ronald D
Consistent with symbolic interactionism and motivation research, the study explored the meanings of sexual behavior in romantic relationships in a sample of 3,003 online respondents. Starting with a pool of 104 respondent-generated items, Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor analyses in separate sample halves revealed a stable set of 9 dimensions within that item pool that formed 2 higher-order factors representing positive (to share pleasure, to bond, to de-stress, to energize the relationship, to learn more about each other) and negative (to manage conflict, as an incentive, to express anger, and to control partner) meanings of sexual behavior within relationships. Item Response Theory analyses helped select the 4-5 most effective items of each dimension for inclusion in the Meanings of Sexual Behavior Inventory (MoSBI). Generalizability analyses suggested that the MoSBI subscale scores continued to show high levels of internal consistency across a broad range of demographic subgroups (e.g., racial/ethnic groups, gay and lesbian respondents, and various levels of education). The MoSBI subscales demonstrated moderate and distinct patterns of association with a range of conceptual boundary scales (e.g., relationship and sexual satisfaction, emotional support, negative conflict behavior, and frequency of sexual behavior) suggesting that these scales represent novel relationship processes. Consistent with this, analyses in the 862 respondents completing a 2-month follow-up assessment suggested that the meanings of sexual behavior predicted residual change in relationship satisfaction, even after controlling for frequency of sexual behavior within the relationships. Implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
May, Tamara; Pang, Ken C.; Williams, Katrina
Past research suggests more variation in sexual attraction in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) using clinical samples. This study utilised a population representative group of 14/15 year olds from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Ninety-four adolescents (73 males, 21 females) with ASD and 3454 (1685 males, 1675 females) without…
Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javadinia, Seyed Alireza; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sedghijalal, Homa
Risky sexual behavior (RSB), addiction, and aggression are three important personal and social factors which influence each other. To overview the potential relationship among RSB, addiction, and aggression to conduct an interactive model for the pathology and management of human behavior. This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Ebsco, IEEE, Scopus, Springer, MagIran, and IranMedex databases from the year 1993 to 2013. The search terms were violence, aggression, drug abuse, substance abuse, illicit drug, psychoactive drug, intravenous drug users, addiction and high-risk sexual relationships, unprotected sex, high risk sexual behavior, and sexual risk-taking. In this study, forty-nine studies were accepted for further screening, and met all our inclusion criteria (in English or Persian, full text, and included the search terms). Forty-nine articles were included; 17 out of 26 studies showed a significant correlation between addiction and risky sexual behavior, 15 out of 19 articles indicated a statistically significant correlation between aggression and addiction, and 9 out of 10 articles reported significant correlation between aggression and risky sexual behavior. According to the results, the triangle hypothesis of sex, addiction, and aggression led to the definition of the relationship among the variables of the hypothetical triangle based on the reviewed studies; and the proposed dual and triple relationship based on the conducted literature review was confirmed. This is not a meta-analysis, and there is no analysis of publication bias.
McArthur, Moriah; Birdthistle, Isolde; Seeley, Janet; Mpendo, Juliet; Asiki, Gershim
In this article we examine how members of fishing communities on the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda respond to HIV diagnosis in terms of disclosure to sexual partners. We then explore the subsequent changes in sexual behavior and relationships. To access this information, we collected life history data from 78 HIV-positive individuals in five fishing communities. We found that the strength of the sexual relationships shaped how and why individuals disclosed to partners, and that these relationships tended to be stronger when partners shared familial responsibility. Those who perceived their current sexual partnership to be weak sought to conceal their status by maintaining prediagnosis patterns of sexual behavior. The majority of the study's participants rarely changed their sexual behavior following HIV diagnosis, regardless of their relationship's strength. These findings elucidate barriers to disclosure and behavior change, and suggest that a life-course approach might enhance individual-level counseling so that counselors can provide tailored support to individuals regarding disclosure decisions and outcomes.
Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.
We know more about parent and peer influences than about the ways in which specific qualities of adolescent romantic relationships may influence sexual decision-making. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we focus on communication processes and emotional feelings, as well as more basic contours of adolescent romantic…
Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.
Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…
Choi, Y J; Lee, W H; Rha, K H; Xin, Z C; Choi, Y D; Choi, H K
This study examined the masturbatory experiences and other sexual activities of young Korean males in military service. The actual status of masturbation and its relationship to sexual activity questionnaire. A total of 1,212 young males among military personnel in Korea were interviewed with sexuality questionnaires on masturbation, sexual intercourse and personal characteristics. We divided these subjects into four groups according to the age of initiation of masturbation and analyzed the relationship between masturbation and other sexual activities. The mean age of subjects was 22.03 +/- 1.22 (19-27) years. The percentage of men who reported ever having masturbated was 98.1% (1189/1212) and the average age of initiation of masturbation was 14.26 +/- 1.66 years. So we divided 1,212 males into four groups on the basis of the average age below and above one standard deviation. Overall, 67.7% (821/1212) had experienced sexual intercourse, and significantly, the earlier the initiation age of masturbation, the higher the coitus rate in each group (p masturbation were closely linked to the initiation age of masturbation, respectively (p masturbation was earlier. Coital incidence in this study was 67.7% for young males in Korean military service, and 21.5% of them had their first sexual intercourse with prostitutes. Prostitution still plays an important role in the sexual lives of males in Korea. The incidence of STD was over 10% and homosexual manifestation was seen in 1.07% of subjects. Thus a proper and sound sex education at school during childhood is needed in Korea. A large scale survey of sexual behavior in various populations is essential for the improvement of correct sexual concepts.
Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Serran, G A
The relationship between deviant sexual arousal, as measured by auditory phallometric stimuli, and psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, was examined in 156 incest offenders, 260 extrafamilial child molesters, and 123 rapists. Subjects in each group had never been convicted of another type of sexual offense. Replicating previous research, rapists were more psychopathic than incest offenders and child molesters. Deviant sexual arousal to auditory stimuli was evident only on the Pedophile Index for child molesters. When the relationship between psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal was evaluated in the three groups combined, several significant correlations emerged. However, a finer analysis of these correlations revealed that child molesters evidenced a significant correlation between psychopathy and the Rape Index and psychopathy and the Pedophile Index. There were no such significant findings in the incest offender or rapist groups. Implications of the results are discussed.
Nyanzi, S; Pool, R; Kinsman, J
The objective of the study was to explore how school-going adolescents in south-western Uganda negotiate sexual relationships. Qualitative data were obtained from 15 boys and 15 girls (14-18 years old), during a series of role plays, focus group discussions and one-to-one interviews. A questionnaire was administered to 80 pupils (12-20 years old) from the same school. Most of the pupils were sexually active. Sexual relationships between boys and girls were mediated by peers. Boys initiated relationships. Exchange played an important role in the negotiation of sexual relationships. Money or gifts were given and received in exchange for sexual favours and to strengthen the relationship. To maximize gains, some adolescents had sexual relationships with adults. Sexual relationships were characterized by ambiguity. Love is intertwined with sexual desire, money and prestige. Girls have to be explicit enough to get a good deal; if they are too explicit they will be stigmatized as 'loose' but if they are not interested in money they may be suspected of wanting to spread HIV. Boys try to persuade girls that they have money, but do not want to emphasize this too much. In sexual negotiations a boy must persuade a girl that although he is modern and sophisticated (i.e. experienced) he does not chase after every girl; the girl does not want to come over as an unsophisticated virgin, but does not want to give the impression that she is loose either. There is a tension between the traditional ideal of female chastity and submissiveness and the modern image of sexual freedom. Multiple partnerships were highly valued as a sign of sophistication. Condoms were not considered important. Interventions aimed at reducing the spread of HIV do not seem to be having an effect on the behaviour of this group of adolescents. On the contrary, risky attitudes and behaviour are part of an adolescent ideal of modernity and sophistication. New approaches are needed to persuade this group of the
Taniguchi, H; Kawa, G; Yoshida, K; Takayasu, K; Kinoshita, H; Matsuda, T
The relationship between volume of the seminal vesicles and the frequency of sex and sexual function in middle-aged men is not clear. This study included 81 patients who were diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Volume of the seminal vesicles was examined using a volume analyser from computed tomography. Sexual function was subjectively evaluated using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite and Erection Hardness Score. The frequency of sex was surveyed using our original questionnaire. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 67.7 ± 5.3 years. There was no relationship between the volume of seminal vesicles and age of the patients. Volume of the seminal vesicles in patients who answered that they had sexual activity at least once a year was significantly larger than in those who answered no sexual activity for several years (P middle-aged men, volume of the seminal vesicles was significantly larger in those who had a sexual frequency once every 3 months than in those who had a sexual frequency once every 6 months or once a year (P middle-aged men is correlated with sexual activity. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Rodrigue, Carl; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Adam, Barry D; Goyer, Marie-France; Magontier, Céline
Research on casual sexual relationships (CSRs) among emerging adults is prevalent, yet our empirical and theoretical knowledge of relationship processes involved in these relationships is limited. The present study's objective was to compare four CSR partner types (acquaintance, friend, non-dating partner, ex-romantic partner) on passion, intimacy, and commitment, the components of Sternberg's triangular theory of love. A total of 441 Canadians aged 18-25 years who were not in a romantic relationship, and who reported having had more than one sexual contact with their last CSR partner, completed an online survey. Across all partner types, passion was highest, followed by intimacy and commitment. Levels of passion, intimacy, and commitment generally increased with partner familiarity. However, CSR partner type differences on the three components were partially explained by CSR components (i.e., frequency of sexual activity, frequency of social activity, whether partners saw each other with the main goal of having sex, sexual exclusivity agreement, and hopes about the relationship). Results are consistent with CSRs' emphasis on sexuality, and, to a lesser extent, emotions. However, they challenge the mainstream and scientific conflation of CSRs with an absence of emotional bond, commitment, or love.
Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.
This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n?=?675) and general population peers (n?=?8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with ASD, especially women, reported sexual attraction to both same- and opposite-sex partners. About half of the participants with ASD was in a relation...
Suleiman, AB; Deardorff, J
© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Adolescents undergo critical developmental transformations that increase the salience of peer influence. Peer interactions (platonic and romantic) have been found to have both a positive and negative influence on adolescent attitudes and behaviors related to romantic relationships and sexual behavior. This study used qualitative methodology to explore how peers influence romantic and sexual behavior. Forty adolescents participated in individua...
Holmberg, Diane; Blair, Karen L
In an online study, measures of subjective sexual experiences in one's current relationship were compared across four groups: Men and women in mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual) and same-sex (i.e., homosexual) relationships. Results indicated far more similarities than differences across the four groups, with groups reporting almost identical sexual repertoires, and levels of sexual communcation with partner. Men reported experiencing somewhat more sexual desire than women, while women reported slightly higher levels of general sexual satisfaction than men. Those in same-sex relationships reported slightly higher levels of sexual desire than those in mixed-sex relationships. Compared to the other three groups, heterosexual men reported deriving somewhat less satisfaction from the more tender, sensual, or erotic sexual activities. Implications of these findings for sex therapists are discussed.
Full Text Available The analysis of open-minded attitudes towards sexuality in general requires a construct based on attitudinal dimensions. Although several existing studies involve sexual attitudes, they differ substantially and standardized conceptual work is missing. Thus, the authors introduce the latent variable sexual openness to develop a construct based on self-oriented attitudes towards different sexual topics. Available survey data of female German students in a steady relationship allowed providing a first empirical test for the applicability of this construct. Five subdimensions are acknowledged central for sexual openness: sexual practices, masturbation, bisexuality, permissiveness, and pornography consumption. Confirmatory factor analysis and correlations confirmed the idea of an underlying mechanism with an impact on all five variables. Though further validation of the construct of sexual openness is required, the findings strongly support the notion of an overarching latent attitude variable, which influences the individual relation to everything sexual. The results were compared to other studies and potential approaches for future analyses were proposed.
Matsuda, Yui; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Knafl, George J; Worthington, Everett L; Jallo, Nancy; Corona, Rosalie
The ability to influence partners' actions within an intimate relationship (sexual relationship power [SRP]) is a key concept in achieving optimum family planning (FP) among U.S. Latinos. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between relationship/FP factors and SRP. The actor-partner interdependence model was used to analyze data for 40 couples. Both men's and women's sexual communications were positively associated with SRP, only women's relationship satisfaction was positively associated with SRP, women's general communication was negatively associated with men's SRP, and men's contraception attitudes were negatively associated with SRP. Couples interventions are needed, which account for SRP and gender differences. These findings provide direction for developing targeted interventions to achieve better FP for Latino couples.
Orgilés, Mireia; Carratalá, Elena; Espada, José P
Parental divorce has been linked to some risky sexual behaviour in previous studies. Here we examine whether the sexual behaviour of adolescents is related more to the perceived quality of the interparental relationship or to the parents' divorce in a sample from Spain, the country that has experienced the greatest recent increase in marital break-ups in the European Union. Participants were 801 adolescents aged between 14 and 17, who completed questionnaires anonymously. Adolescents who perceive high conflict in their parents' marriages have more sexual activity and engage in more risk practices in some sexual behaviours compared to adolescents with divorced parents and low interparental conflict. When adolescents perceive low conflict, those with divorced parents are more sexually active than adolescents with married parents, but they do not engage in more risk practices. The perceived quality of the parental relationship has a greater negative impact on adolescents than does the type of family structure. The study highlights the need to address the parents' marital relationship in the implementation of prevention programmes of sexual risk behaviours in Spanish adolescents.
Elmerstig, Eva; Wijma, Barbro; Sandell, Kerstin; Berterö, Carina
It seems that traditional gender norms influence young women's and men's sexuality differently. However, little attention has been paid to ideal images of sexual situations. This study identifies young heterosexual men's ideal images of sexual situations and their expectations of themselves in sexual situations. The present study employs a qualitative design. Twelve Swedish men (aged 16-20) participated in individual in-depth qualitative interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method from grounded theory. Our study revealed that the young men's conceptions of normal sexual situations were divided into two parts: sexual situations in relationships, and sexual situations in one-night stands. Their ideal image, "a balanced state of emotional and physical pleasure", was influenced by the presence/absence of intimacy, the partner's response, and their own performance. The greatest opportunities to experience intimacy and the partner's response were found during sexual situations in relationships. In one-night stands, the men wanted to make a good impression by performing well, and behaved according to masculine stereotypes. Stereotyped masculinity norms regulate young heterosexual men's sexuality, particularly in one-night stands. Sexual health promotion should emphasize the presence of these masculinity norms, which probably involve costs in relation to young men's sexual wellbeing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pollack, Robert H.; Brown, Idalyn S.
Current data on the widespread nature of sexual activity among unmarried teenagers and young adults and the rise in unplanned pregnancy among these groups offer evidence of a lack of knowledge about reproduction and contraception. Male (N=75) and female (N=78) university students participated in a study of the effects of authoritarianism,…
Timmerman, M. C.
Objective: To explore the impact of the school climate on adolescents' reporting of sexual harassment. Design: A quantitative survey among students in their 4th year of secondary education. Setting: Questionnaires were completed in a class setting. Method: An a-select sampling strategy was used to select 2808 students in 22 schools. Results:…
Bengtsson, Linus; Thorson, Anna; Thanh, Vu Pham Nguyen; Allebeck, Peter; Popenoe, Rebecca
The prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam's two largest cities, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, may be above 10%. The aim of this study was to explore sexual relationship patterns and experiences among MSM in Hanoi, to inform HIV preventive efforts. Using purposive sampling we recruited 17 MSM in Hanoi, Vietnam, for in-depth interviews. Participants were aged between 19 and 48 years and came from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English. Content analysis was used. Almost all men in the study saw their same-sex attraction as part of their "nature". Many informants had secret but rich social lives within the MSM social circles in Hanoi. However, poor men had difficulties connecting to these networks. Lifetime sexual partner numbers ranged from one to 200. Seven participants had at some point in their lives been in relationships lasting from one to four years. For several men, relationships were not primarily centered on romantic feelings but instead intimately connected to economic and practical dependence. Sexual relationships varied greatly in terms of emotional attachment, commitment, trust, relationship ideals, sexual satisfaction and exchange of money or gifts. Faithfulness was highly valued but largely seen as unobtainable. Several informants felt strong family pressure to marry a woman and have children. This study contextualizes sexual relationships among MSM in Hanoi and highlights the extent to which HIV prevention activities need to not only consider HIV prevention in the context of casual sexual encounters but also how to adequately target preventive efforts that can reach MSM in relationships.
Ryan, C J
The aim of this paper is to chart the ethical territory surrounding the issue of consensual sexual relationships between psychiatrists and doctors training in psychiatry. The arguments for and against the prohibition of such relationships are critically examined both in general and in a number of specific circumstances. There should not be a general prohibition against such relationships, but a prohibition should apply in certain special circumstances. Such circumstances include occasions when the psychiatrist is currently supervising the trainee, when a particular psychiatrist has repeated sexual relationships with trainees and when a group of psychiatrists voluntarily pledge to abstain from such relationships. Institutions involved in psychiatric training should develop guidelines for dealing with such relationships, adopting a generally permissive attitude toward them with clear exceptions in special cases.
Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Poteat, Tonia; Wagner, Anne C
Stigma and discrimination contribute to elevated depression risks among sexual minority women (SMW) and gender minority (GM) people who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or queer. Syndemics theory posits that adverse psychosocial outcomes cluster to negatively impact health and mental health outcomes among sexual minorities. We tested whether a syndemic condition composed of low social support, low self-rated health, low self-esteem, and economic insecurity mediated the relationship between sexual stigma and depressive symptoms among SMW/GM. We implemented a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey with SMW and GM in Toronto, Canada. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to test a conceptual model of pathways between sexual stigma, syndemic factors, and depressive symptoms. A total of 391 SMW/GM with a mean age of 30.9 (SD = 7.62) were included in the analysis. The model fit for a latent syndemics construct consisting of psychosocial variables (low social support, low self-rated health, low self-esteem, economic insecurity) was very good (χ 2 = 6.022, df = 2, p = .049; comparative fit index = 0.973, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.918, root-mean square error of approximation = 0.072). In the simultaneous model, sexual stigma had a significant direct effect on depression. When the syndemic variable was added as a mediator, the direct path from sexual stigma to depression was no longer significant, suggesting mediation. The model fit the data well: χ2 = 33.50, df = 12, p = .001; comparative fit index = 0.951, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.915, root-mean square error of approximation = 0.068. Our results highlight the salience of considering both sexual stigma and syndemic factors to explain mental health disparities experienced by SMW and GM. Addressing sexual stigma in the context of co-occurring psychosocial factors and economic insecurity will be key to achieving optimal health for SMW and GM. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs
Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, NDRI, Karnal, to determine the sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 ejaculates were collected from six adult Sahiwal bulls (age ~47 mo and bwt ~466 kg, to study the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality. The degree of association between different variables was estimated by Pearson’s correlation coefficient method. Results: The results depicted that, sexual aggressiveness showed significantly high positive correlation with libido score (LS and sexual behavior score (SBS. Reaction time (RT and total time taken in mounts (TTTM had a significant negative correlation with LS and SBS. Penile erection score and penile protrusion score (PPS both had a significant positive correlation with ejaculatory thrust score, mating ability score, and SBS. Results of correlation among seminal attributes and with sexual behavior depicted that ejaculate volume had positive significant correlation with initial progressive motility (IPM, sperm concentration (SCON, head abnormality, total abnormality, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST, acrosomal integrity (AI whereas, mass activity had positive significant correlation with IPM, SCON, non-eosinophilic spermatozoa count (NESC, HOST, AI, RT and TTTM and IPM had positive significant correlation with SCON, NESC, HOST, AI, and TTTM, whereas and HOST had positive significant correlation with AI. Among seminal attributes, SCON had a positive significant correlation with PPS where as head abnormalities had a positive significant correlation with RT and TTTM. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality parameters are reflecting that the sexual behavior of individual bulls is important to harvest good quality and quantity of semen as desired type of sexual preparation can be provided.
Perry, Nicholas S; Huebner, David M; Baucom, Brian R; Hoff, Colleen C
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary relationships engage in condomless sex both within and outside their relationships and a majority of HIV transmission risk may actually occur within primary relationships. Sexual agreements regarding non-monogamy are a critical component to understanding HIV prevention in male couples. Relationship factors have been associated with how sexual agreements function and power is one dyadic construct likely to affect couple's maintenance of non-monogamy agreements. Multilevel modeling was used in a cross-sectional study of gay male couples (N = 566 couples) to examine associations between partners' demographic characteristics traditionally used to define relationship power, a scale of decision-making power, and outcomes related to sexual agreements, including investment, agreement breaks, and break disclosure. Results indicated that decision-making power relative to one's partner was not associated with any agreement outcome, contrary to hypotheses. However, controlling for decision-making power, demographic bases of power were variably associated with sexual agreements' functioning. Younger partners were less invested in and more frequently broke their agreements. Lower-earning partners broke their agreements more frequently, but also disclosed breaks more often. White men in white-minority relationships broke their agreement more often than their partners. Concordant HIV-positive couples were less invested in their agreements and HIV-positive men disclosed breaks more frequently. HIV prevention efforts for same-sex couples must attend to the social, developmental, and cultural influences that affect their agreements around non-monogamy.
Full Text Available Introduction: Domestic violence is one of the most important public health priorities that directly or indirectly impact on pregnancy outcomes. Given the importance of sexuality in pregnancy and its effect on marital relations, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between sexual satisfaction and violence against pregnant women.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 430 pregnant women admitted to Fatemiyeh hospital in Shahroud during the first quarter of 2015, after obtaining informed consent, were selected to complete Larson Sexual Satisfaction Scale and ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale as well as Domestic Violence questionnaire. Relationships between variables were analyzed using structural equation modeling.Results: The mean age of mothers was 28±5.2 years. Prevalence of domestic violence was reported 84.4% in this study. The 81.2% of participants reported physical violence, 55.8% reported emotional violence and 25.3% reported sexual violence. The mean score of marital satisfaction in women with domestic violence (162.5 ± 28.9 was significantly lower than that in pregnant women without domestic violence (188.7 ± 31.4. A significant negative relationship was observed between sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction with the domestic violence, --0.42 and –0.61, respectively.Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of domestic violence and its significant relationship with marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction in this study, interventions and counseling are recommended to increase marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction and to reduce domestic violence during pregnancy.
Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Bowling, Jessamyn; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mengle, Shruta; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Kavi, Ashok Row; Anand, Vivek
This exploratory study aimed to assess a range of sexual behaviors, relationships and related factors among a sample of bisexual men in Mumbai, India. Data collection occurred in two separate phases: 1. focus group discussions were facilitated with local community members in order to finalize an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and 2. structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 50 bisexual men using this questionnaire. Participants self-reported a wide range of sexual behaviors and relationships. Findings have implications for future research and practice focusing on bisexual men in India, as well as their partners of all genders.
Georgia, Emily J; Roddy, McKenzie K; Doss, Brian D
Rates of child and adult sexual assault (SA) among women are staggering and place women at risk for intra- and interpersonal difficulties. However, the independent contributions of child and adult SA or the mechanisms of this risk are unknown. This study's goal was to examine the indirect effects of child and adult SA on women's own and partner's relationship functioning through their impact on women's mental health, emotional intimacy, and sexual intimacy. Results revealed that the association of women's child SA with both her own and her partner's relationship satisfaction operated through emotional intimacy. Considerations for the study of women with a history of SA in the context of couple functioning are discussed.
Helu-Brown, Paula; Aranda, Maria
The sexual health and behavior and the intimate relationships of patients diagnosed with a serious mental illness (SMI) have been described as ongoing and often ignored concerns in mental health treatment. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions have emerged as effective complimentary approaches to address symptoms of SMI in conjunction with psychopharmacology, yet rarely do they address sexual concerns in a targeted manner. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of psychosocial interventions designed to address sexual health and behavior and intimate relationship concerns in patients with SMI. The search was conducted in four targeted databases and identified 967 articles with four of those meeting inclusion criteria for this review. The data extracted included setting, study sample, study design, outcome measures, data analysis, and results. The measures utilized in the studies assess mental and sexual health-related outcomes. All four studies reported an improvement in sexual and mental health outcomes. Given the lack of psychosocial approaches and culturally sensitive adaptations, this review highlights a gap in literature that should be addressed, particularly emphasizing their combined treatment with psychotropic medication and efficacy testing with diverse populations. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, A M; Rosenthal, D A; Reichler, H
This study examined the self-reported masturbatory experiences of high schooler and the relationships between masturbation and sexual intercourse and personal characteristics of these young people. A total of 436 suburban Australian adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age participated. Boys were more likely to report ever having masturbated (58.5%, versus 42.7%) and to have done so more frequently than girls (38.2% versus 8.7% reporting masturbating three or more times a week). While there was no significant sex difference in the age of initiation of masturbation there was some evidence that girls began masturbation earlier than boys. Whether sexual intercourse replaced or supplemented masturbation as a sexual practice could not be resolved, but there was evidence that masturbation was positively correlated with sexual self esteem. Young people whose parents provided a more open environment for the discussion of sexuality were more likely to report having masturbated, although the environment had a complex relationship with masturbatory practices as did young people's self rated physical maturity compared to their peers. A range of social and contextual factors must be explored to understand more fully this important component of young people's sexual experience.
Nikken, Peter; de Graaf, Hanneke
Research has argued that adolescents are at risk for harmful effects of sexual media, but little is known about the role of parents and friends on adolescents' media use in regard of these effects. The present two-wave study investigated whether prior parental and friends' influences on adolescents' use of sexual media shape their sexual attitudes and behaviors, and vice versa if prior sexual attitudes and behaviors predict parental and friends' media mediation. At two measurement points 18 months apart, 528 adolescents (12-17 years; 51.3% girls) reported on permissive sexual attitudes, sexual experience, perceived parental and friends' mediation of sexual media use, and communication with parents and friends about sex. Structural Equation Modeling shows that parents' mediation activities on adolescents' media use were not followed by less sexual experience and less permissive attitudes. On the contrary, parental restrictive mediation of girls' media use unexpectedly was followed by somewhat more sexual experience. Friends' interventions with media use did not predict adolescents' sexual experience and attitudes neither. Inverse relationships showed that prior sexual experience was followed by less restrictive parental mediation among boys, and both among boys and girls that permissive sexual attitudes were followed by less restrictive and less active parental mediation. At the same time, sexually more experienced and more permissive boys and girls did report more media pressure from and sexual communication with their friends later on. Our study thus indicates that the opposite agent roles of parents and friends for adolescents also applies to their usage of sexual media.
Coakley, Tanya M; Randolph, Schenita D; Shears, Jeffrey; Collins, Patrick
African American males between ages 13 and 24 are disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV/AIDS; indeed, they account for 50% of HIV infections among all youth. Clear communication between parents and their youth about sex is associated with higher rates of sexual abstinence, condom use, and intent to delay initiation of sexual intercourse, which can prevent STIs and unintended pregnancy. However, barriers exist for parents to educate their youth about sexual health. The purpose of this article is to explore the values fathers communicate to their sons to prevent their risky sexual behaviors that lead to STIs, HIV, and adolescent parenthood. This was a qualitative study conducted from May and June 2015. African American fathers (N = 29) who had sons, ages 10 to 15 years, participated in five focus groups across metropolitan and rural North Carolina communities in barbershops. A qualitative content analysis revealed four themes regarding areas that fathers imparted their values onto their sons to protect them from sexual health risks: (a) sex, (b) sexuality, (c) relationships, and (d) marriage. The findings have implications for social work and public health practice.
Heidari, Mohammad; Ghodusi, Mansureh; Rafiei, Hossein
Women in menopause have the more mood swings than before menopause. At the same time seem to sexual self-concept and sexual aspects of self-knowledge has a great impact on their mental health. This study aimed to investigate the sexual self-concept and its relationship to depression, stress and anxiety in postmenopausal women's. In this descriptive correlation research, 300 of postmenopausal women referred to healthcare and medical treatment centers in Abadeh city were selected by convenience sampling method. The information in this study was collected by using questionnaires of multidimensional sexual self-concept and depression anxiety stress scale 21 (DASS-21). For data analysis, SPSS/17 software was used. The results showed the mean score positive sexual self-concept was 41.03 ± 8.66 and the average score of negative sexual self in women's was 110.32 ± 43.05. As well as scores of depression, stress, and anxiety, 35.67%, 32.33% and 37.67% respectively were in severe level. Positive and negative sexual self-concept scores with scores of stress, anxiety, and depression, of post-menopausal women in the confidence of 0.01, is significantly correlated ( P stress, anxiety, and depression in severe level and also a significant correlation between increased stress, anxiety and depression with negative and weak self-concept of women's, it is necessary to devote more careful attention to mental health issues of women's and have appropriate interventions.
Bos, H.; Sandfort, T.
Same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity have both been shown to negatively affect the relationships of adolescents with their peers. It is not clear, though, whether same-sex attracted adolescents are more likely to have negative peer relationships because they are same-sex attracted or because
Hegarty, P; Pratto, F
Previous studies which have measured beliefs about sexual orientation with either a single item, or a one-dimensional scale are discussed. In the present study beliefs were observed to vary along two dimensions: the "immutability" of sexual orientation and the "fundamentality" of a categorization of persons as heterosexuals and homosexuals. While conceptually related, these two dimensions were empirically distinct on several counts. They were negatively correlated with each other. Condemning attitudes toward lesbians and gay men were correlated positively with fundamentality but negatively with immutability. Immutability, but not fundamentality, affected the assimilation of a biological determinist argument. The relationship between sexual orientation beliefs and anti-gay prejudice is discussed and suggestions for empirical studies of sexual orientation beliefs are presented.
Winer, Rabbi Laura Novak
"Sacred Choices: Adolescent Relationships and Sexual Ethics" is a sexual ethics curriculum for middle school and high school students developed by the Union for Reform Judaism. Sacred Choices strives to teach Reform Jewish teens that their bodies are gifts from God and that Judaism provides relevant guidance on how to use and care for that gift…
Miller, Ann Neville; Kinnally, William; Maleche, Hellen; Booker, Nancy Achieng'
Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for contracting HIV. Although media campaigns have educated the population as a whole, few studies are available about the time sub-Saharan African youth spend listening to and viewing sexual messages via the entertainment and informational media. The goals of this project were: 1) to investigate what programming Nairobi adolescents access; and 2) to investigate the association between frequency of access and level of focus on physical relationships with adolescents' perceptions of descriptive norms of peer sexual behaviour, and their attitudes regarding men as sex driven, women as sex objects, and dating as a sport. A total of 464 students from 6 Nairobi secondary schools were surveyed. When students' favourite musicians had a strong focus on physical relationships in their songs, those students estimated the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours among their peers higher. These students also endorsed gender stereotypical and casual attitudes about sex. Large amounts of time spend on the Internet was predictive of all sexual attitude variables. Students whose favourite TV programmes had a strong focus on physical relationships also estimated prevalence of peer sexual behaviour as high.
Wiegerink, Diana J H G; Stam, Henk J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Roebroeck, Marij E
To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76% GMFCS level I, 85% MACS level I). All participants were of normal intelligence. Romantic relationships, sexual activity (outcome measures), personal and environmental factors (associated factors) were assessed. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. More females than males with CP were in a current romantic relationship. Self-esteem, sexual esteem and feelings of competence regarding self-efficacy contributed positively to having current romantic relationships. A negative parenting style contributed negatively. Age and gross motor functioning explained 20% of the variance in experience with intercourse. In addition, sexual esteem and taking initiative contributed significantly to intercourse experience. For young adults with CP personal factors (20-35% explained variances) seem to contribute more than environmental factors (9-12% explained variances) to current romantic relationships and sexual experiences. We advice parents and professionals to focus on self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem in development of young adults with CP. [ • The severity of gross motor functioning contributed somewhat to sexual activities, but not to romantic relationships.• High self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem can facilitate involvement in romantic and sexual relationships for young adults with CP.
Alsaker, Kjersti; Morken, Tone; Baste, Valborg; Campos-Serna, Javier; Moen, Bente E
To investigate whether sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of abuse rather than others in violent intimate relationships. Cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all Norwegian women's shelters. Women seeking refuge at Norwegian women's shelters in 2002 and 2003. Sexual assault and experiences of intimate partner violence were measured using the Severity of Violence against Women Scale (SVAWS) and psychological violence was measured using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI). Student's t-test analyses were performed between the mean values of the different acts of reported violence, and linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between sexual violence and the other forms of violence reported. Sexual violence correlated significantly with the other eight categories in SVAWS, and with violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen and psychological violence in PMWI. When we adjusted all categories for each other by linear regression analysis, sexual intimate partner violence was significantly associated with hair pulling, arm twisting, spanking or biting, dominance and isolation abuse and violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen. Sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of physical and psychological violence than with others. This knowledge may be important for improving our understanding of sexual violence in intimate partner relationships and in the efforts to detect intimate partner violence. Bruises, loss of hair and bite marks may suggest that sexual acts were committed against the victim's will. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
de Irala Jokin
Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to achieve a change among teens' sexual behavior, an important step is to improve our knowledge about their opinions concerning relationships, love and sexuality. Methods A questionnaire including topics on relationships, love and sexuality was distributed to a target population of 4,000 Filipino students from third year high school to third year college. Participants were obtained through multi-stage sampling of clusters of universities and schools. This paper concentrates on teens aged 13 to 18. Results Students reported that they obtained information about love and sexuality mainly from friends. However, they valued parents' opinion more than friends'. They revealed few conversations with their parents on these topics. A majority of them would like to have more information, mainly about emotion-related topics. Almost half of respondents were not aware that condoms are not 100% effective in preventing STIs or pregnancies. More girls, compared to boys, were sensitive and opposed to several types of sexism. After adjusting for sex, age and institution, the belief of 100% condom effectiveness and the approval of pornography and sexism were associated with being sexually experienced. Conclusion There is room for further encouraging parents to talk more with their children about sexuality, specially aspects related to feelings and emotions in order to help them make better sexual choices. Indeed, teens wish to better communicate with their parents on these issues. Condoms are regarded as safer than what they really are by almost half of the participants of this study, and such incorrect knowledge seems to be associated with sexual initiation.
de Irala, Jokin; Osorio, Alfonso; López del Burgo, Cristina; Belen, Vina A; de Guzman, Filipinas O; Calatrava, María del Carmen; Torralba, Antonio N
In order to achieve a change among teens' sexual behavior, an important step is to improve our knowledge about their opinions concerning relationships, love and sexuality. A questionnaire including topics on relationships, love and sexuality was distributed to a target population of 4,000 Filipino students from third year high school to third year college. Participants were obtained through multi-stage sampling of clusters of universities and schools. This paper concentrates on teens aged 13 to 18. Students reported that they obtained information about love and sexuality mainly from friends. However, they valued parents' opinion more than friends'. They revealed few conversations with their parents on these topics. A majority of them would like to have more information, mainly about emotion-related topics. Almost half of respondents were not aware that condoms are not 100% effective in preventing STIs or pregnancies. More girls, compared to boys, were sensitive and opposed to several types of sexism. After adjusting for sex, age and institution, the belief of 100% condom effectiveness and the approval of pornography and sexism were associated with being sexually experienced. There is room for further encouraging parents to talk more with their children about sexuality, specially aspects related to feelings and emotions in order to help them make better sexual choices. Indeed, teens wish to better communicate with their parents on these issues. Condoms are regarded as safer than what they really are by almost half of the participants of this study, and such incorrect knowledge seems to be associated with sexual initiation.
Fromberger, Peter; Meyer, Sabrina; Kempf, Christina; Jordan, Kirsten; Müller, Jürgen L.
Virtual Reality (VR) has successfully been used in the research of human behavior for more than twenty years. The main advantage of VR is its capability to induce a high sense of presence. This results in emotions and behavior which are very close to those shown in real situations. In the context of sex research, only a few studies have used high-immersive VR so far. The ones that did can be found mostly in the field of forensic psychology. Nevertheless, the relationship between presence and sexual interest still remains unclear. The present study is the first to examine the advantages of high-immersive VR in comparison to a conventional standard desktop system regarding their capability to measure sexual interest. 25 gynephilic and 20 androphilic healthy men underwent three experimental conditions, which differed in their ability to induce a sense of presence. In each condition, participants were asked to rate ten male and ten female virtual human characters regarding their sexual attractiveness. Without their knowledge, the subjects’ viewing time was assessed throughout the rating. Subjects were then asked to rate the sense of presence they had experienced as well as their perceived realism of the characters. Results suggested that stereoscopic viewing can significantly enhance the subjective sexual attractiveness of sexually relevant characters. Furthermore, in all three conditions participants looked significantly longer at sexually relevant virtual characters than at sexually non-relevant ones. The high immersion condition provided the best discriminant validity. From a statistical point of view, however, the sense of presence had no significant influence on the discriminant validity of the viewing time task. The study showed that high-immersive virtual environments enhance realism ratings as well as ratings of sexual attractiveness of three-dimensional human stimuli in comparison to standard desktop systems. Results also show that viewing time seems to be
Yola Yuniaarti Herijanto
Full Text Available Background: Drugs use and risky sexual behavior among teenager are some of crucial problems arising in Indonesia. Statistic showed that there is an increasing prevalence in drugs use and risky sexual behavior among teenagers. This study was conducted to analyze the relationship between drugs use and risky sexual behaviors among high school students. Methods: An analytic study involving 432 students in 5 state high schools located in Kerees region Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, was carried out in 2013. The region was chosen due the high prevalence of substance abuse. The inclusion criteria were every high school students in the Karees region. The exclusion criteria were the students who refused to participate in the study, did not come when the sample was taken, and did not fill the questionnaire completely. The instruments used for the study were questionnaires with cross-sectional technique. Furthermore, the questionnaire used for analyzing drugs use was Addiction Severity Index-Lite Version (ASI-lite questionnaire; with additional questionnaire to analyze risky sexual behaviors. Results: Out of 432 students, 23.8% students already engaged to one or more risky sexual behavior. Among all respondents, the prevalence of students who had already done kissing was 22.7%, necking 9.3%, petting 7.2% and sexual intercourse 1.2%. Illegal drugs had been used at least once by 21.8% students. According to Chi-square test, drugs use and risky sexual behavior were related. Conclusions:The prevalence of both drugs use and risky sexual behaviors are high and students who use drugs are more prone to do risky sexual behavior.
Full Text Available Virtual Reality (VR has successfully been used in the research of human behavior for more than twenty years. The main advantage of VR is its capability to induce a high sense of presence. This results in emotions and behavior which are very close to those shown in real situations. In the context of sex research, only a few studies have used high-immersive VR so far. The ones that did can be found mostly in the field of forensic psychology. Nevertheless, the relationship between presence and sexual interest still remains unclear. The present study is the first to examine the advantages of high-immersive VR in comparison to a conventional standard desktop system regarding their capability to measure sexual interest. 25 gynephilic and 20 androphilic healthy men underwent three experimental conditions, which differed in their ability to induce a sense of presence. In each condition, participants were asked to rate ten male and ten female virtual human characters regarding their sexual attractiveness. Without their knowledge, the subjects' viewing time was assessed throughout the rating. Subjects were then asked to rate the sense of presence they had experienced as well as their perceived realism of the characters. Results suggested that stereoscopic viewing can significantly enhance the subjective sexual attractiveness of sexually relevant characters. Furthermore, in all three conditions participants looked significantly longer at sexually relevant virtual characters than at sexually non-relevant ones. The high immersion condition provided the best discriminant validity. From a statistical point of view, however, the sense of presence had no significant influence on the discriminant validity of the viewing time task. The study showed that high-immersive virtual environments enhance realism ratings as well as ratings of sexual attractiveness of three-dimensional human stimuli in comparison to standard desktop systems. Results also show that viewing
Fisher, William A; Donahue, Kelly L; Long, J Scott; Heiman, Julia R; Rosen, Raymond C; Sand, Michael S
The current research reports a dyadic analysis of sexual satisfaction, relationship happiness, and correlates of these couple outcomes in a large multinational dataset consisting of 1,009 midlife heterosexual couples (2,018 individuals) recruited in Japan, Brazil, Germany, Spain, and the United States (Heiman et al., 2011). Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) identified correlates of sexual satisfaction that included individuals' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater relationship happiness. Even after controlling for individual-level effects, partners' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater relationship happiness contributed significantly to predicting and understanding individuals' sexual satisfaction. Correlates of relationship happiness included individuals' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater sexual satisfaction, and once again, even after controlling for individual-level effects, partners' reports of each of these correlates contributed significantly to predicting and understanding individuals' relationship happiness. Interactions of individual and partner effects with participant gender are also reported. Current results demonstrate empirically that the partner "matters" to an individual's sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness and indicate that a comprehensive understanding of factors contributing to these couple outcomes requires a couple-level research strategy. Partner effects, even when controlling for individual effects, were
Bos, Henny; Sandfort, Theo
Same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity have both been shown to negatively affect the relationships of adolescents with their peers. It is not clear, though, whether same-sex attracted adolescents are more likely to have negative peer relationships because they are same-sex attracted or because they are more likely to be gender nonconforming. It is also possible that both stressors affect peer relationships independently or amplify each other in their impact. We explored these questions in a sample of 486 Dutch adolescents (M age = 14.02 years). We found that same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity both had an independent effect and that gender nonconformity moderated, but not mediated, the associations between same-sex attraction and peer relationships at school. Same-sex attraction was more strongly associated with poorer relationships with peers in adolescents who were more gender nonconforming. These findings indicate the importance of including gender nonconformity in the understanding of same-sex attracted adolescents' relationships and suggest that in order to improve same-sex attracted adolescents' social position at school, acceptance of gender diversity should be promoted as well.
Bos, Henny; Sandfort, Theo
Same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity have both been shown to negatively affect the relationships of adolescents with their peers. It is not clear, though, whether same-sex attracted adolescents are more likely to have negative peer relationships because they are same-sex attracted or because they are more likely to be gender nonconforming. It is also possible that both stressors affect peer relationships independently or amplify each other in their impact. We explored these questions in a sample of 486 Dutch adolescents (M age = 14.02 years). We found that same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity both had an independent effect and that gender nonconformity moderated, but not mediated, the associations between same-sex attraction and peer relationships at school. Same-sex attraction was more strongly associated with poorer relationships with peers in adolescents who were more gender nonconforming. These findings indicate the importance of including gender nonconformity in the understanding of same-sex attracted adolescents’ relationships and suggest that in order to improve same-sex attracted adolescents’ social position at school, acceptance of gender diversity should be promoted as well. PMID:25548066
Dewinter, J; De Graaf, H; Begeer, S
This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with ASD, especially women, reported sexual attraction to both same- and opposite-sex partners. About half of the participants with ASD was in a relationship (heterosexual in most cases) and most of them lived with their partner. A notable number of autistic participants, again more women than men, reported gender non-conforming feelings. Attention to gender identity and sexual diversity in education and clinical work with people with ASD is advised.
Duncan, D.; Prestage, G.; Grierson, J.
Few studies have explored how young gay men negotiate opportunities for rethinking sexual and relationship life associated with gay sexual cultures upon coming out. Drawing on qualitative interview data with Australian gay men aged 18–30, this article explores a tension these participants described between a desire for monogamy as the basis to a committed, enduring and mature relationship on one hand, and sexual opportunities associated with ‘the gay scene’ on the other. We analyse these men’...
Parent-Boursier, Claudel; Hébert, Martine
While the influence of mother-child relationships on children's recovery following sexual abuse has been documented, less is known about the possible contribution of father-child relationships on outcomes. The present study explored the contribution of children's perception of security in their relationship to the father on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, while controlling for sociodemographic variables and variables associated with the mother-child relationship. Participants were 142 children who disclosed sexual abuse involving a perpetrator other than the biological father. Regression analyses indicated that children's perception of security to fathers contributed to the prediction of parental reports of children's behavior problems, even after controlling for maternal psychological distress and perception of security to mothers.
Boucher, Marie-Eve; Groleau, Danielle; Whitley, Rob
The overall aim of this article is to examine the self-defined role of romantic relationships, intimacy and sexuality in recovery from severe mental illness. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 35 people with severe mental illness, accompanied by participant observation. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The vast majority of participants considered a supportive relationship that was emotionally or sexually intimate to be a key facilitator and indicator of recovery. However, only a small minority of participants were actually in such a relationship. Participants reported numerous barriers to forming and maintaining such relationships such as financial strain and enduring stigma against people with mental illness. Addressing relational and intimate needs have not been a focus of traditional psychiatric services. As such, some form of "supported dating" within the field of psychosocial rehabilitation may be an essential development to foster an oft-overlooked but important aspect of recovery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Thomas, Sandra P; Phillips, Kenneth; Gunther, Mary
Maltreatment by parents inhibits a child's ability to form relationships with other children. Given that many sex offenders experienced parental abuse, investigation of their relationships with siblings and peers could provide new directions for early childhood interventions. Interview transcripts of 23 community-dwelling perpetrators of sexual abuse against children were examined in this secondary data analysis. Ages of participants ranged from 20s to 70s, and education ranged from GED to PhD. Phenomenological analysis revealed that neither sibling nor peer relationships adequately promoted participants' capacity for developing and maintaining healthy relationships in adulthood. Until societal preventive actions and early clinical interventions are more successful, the crime of child sexual abuse will continue to be far too common. © 2013.
Muusses, L.D.; Kerkhof, P.; Finkenauer, C.
Several studies have established a negative relation between the use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and relationship quality. While most studies imply SEIM use decreases relationship quality, the opposite might also be true: lower relationship quality might increase people's SEIM use.
Billings, Jenny R.; Hashem, Ferhana; Macvarish, Jan
This document reports on the findings from a project exploring teenage looked-after children's views of sex and relationships education and sexual health services. Commissioned and funded by the Kent Teenage Pregnancy Partnership, this project formed part of a larger programme of study on teenage pregnancy that took place across Kent between 2004 and 2007.
Altschuler, Joanne; Rhee, Siyon
The number of midlife and older women with HIV/AIDS is high and increasing, especially among women of color. This article addresses these demographic realities by reporting on findings about self-esteem, relationship power, and HIV risk from a pilot study of midlife and older women. A purposive sample (N = 110) of ethnically, economically, and educationally diverse women 40 years and older from the Greater Los Angeles Area was surveyed to determine their levels of self-esteem, general relationship power, sexual decision-making power, safer sex behaviors, and HIV knowledge. Women with higher levels of self-esteem exercised greater power in their relationships with their partner. Women with higher levels of general relationship power and self-esteem tend to exercise greater power in sexual decision making, such as having sex and choosing sexual acts. Income and sexual decision-making power were statistically significant in predicting the use of condoms. Implications and recommendations for future HIV/AIDS research and intervention targeting midlife and older women are presented.
Hatton, Sue; Tector, Angie
Finding suitable curriculum materials for Sexuality and Relationship Education for young people with autistic spectrum disorder can be a challenge for teaching staff. In this article, Sue Hatton and Angie Tector who both formerly worked at Coddington Court School discuss findings from their research project asking pupils with autistic spectrum…
Gager, Constance T.; Yabiku, Scott T.
Motivated by the trend of women spending more time in paid labor and the general speedup of everyday life, the authors explore whether the resulting time crunch affects sexual frequency among married couples. Although prior research has examined the associations between relationship quality and household labor time, few have examined a dimension…
Sassler, Sharon; Joyner, Kara
Research has extensively examined matching on race and other characteristics in cohabitation and marriage, but it has generally disregarded sexual and romantic relationships. Using data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examine the tempo of key transitions in the recent…
Stanley, Nicky; Barter, Christine; Wood, Marsha; Aghtaie, Nadia; Larkins, Cath; Lanau, Alba; Överlien, Carolina
New technology has made pornography increasingly accessible to young people, and a growing evidence base has identified a relationship between viewing pornography and violent or abusive behavior in young men. This article reports findings from a large survey of 4,564 young people aged 14 to 17 in five European countries which illuminate the relationship between regular viewing of online pornography, sexual coercion and abuse and the sending and receiving of sexual images and messages, known as "sexting." In addition to the survey, which was completed in schools, 91 interviews were undertaken with young people who had direct experience of interpersonal violence and abuse in their own relationships. Rates for regularly viewing online pornography were very much higher among boys and most had chosen to watch pornography. Boys' perpetration of sexual coercion and abuse was significantly associated with regular viewing of online pornography. Viewing online pornography was also associated with a significantly increased probability of having sent sexual images/messages for boys in nearly all countries. In addition, boys who regularly watched online pornography were significantly more likely to hold negative gender attitudes. The qualitative interviews illustrated that, although sexting is normalized and perceived positively by most young people, it has the potential to reproduce sexist features of pornography such as control and humiliation. Sex and relationships education should aim to promote a critical understanding of pornography among young people that recognizes its abusive and gendered values. © The Author(s) 2016.
Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.
This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with…
Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.
Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess whether relationships with mothers and peers moderate the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and anxiety disorders. That is, positive and supportive experiences were expected to minimize the effects of CSA whereas nonsupportive experiences were expected to magnify them.…
van de Bongardt, Daphne; Yu, Rongqin; Dekovic, Maja; Meeus, W.H. J.
The formation of romantic relationships and the engagement in sexual behaviours are considered normative and salient developmental tasks for adolescents and young adults. These developmental tasks are increasingly viewed from an ecological perspective, thus not only as individual processes, but also
Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.
This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth.
Schonnesson, Lena Nilsson
A literature study was conducted to highlight the relationship between psychological dysfunction and sexuality within a marital context. The research reviewed suggests that women report more psychological symptoms, in particular depression, than do men. The husband's personality and functioning appeared to determine the level of marital…
Quinn, Chris; Happell, Brenda
The management of consumer-related risk is paramount in a secure forensic mental health facility. However, the consequent risk aversion presents a major barrier to consumers forming sexual relationships in a manner that is open and accepted. Investigation of the views of nurses working in forensic mental health settings on this topic is limited, and even more so for consumers of services. This qualitative exploratory study was undertaken to elicit the views of consumers and nurses about forming sexual relationships within this long-term and secure setting. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 nurses and 10 consumers. The benefits of, and barriers to, sexual relationships was identified as a major theme, and these findings are the focus of this paper. Nurse responses included the subthemes 'supportive factors' and 'potential dangers', reflecting their qualified support. Consumer responses included the subthemes 'therapeutic', 'feeling normal', 'restrictions and barriers', and 'lack of support and secrecy'. The importance of sexual relationships was clearly articulated, as was the difficulties in forming and maintaining them within the forensic setting. More open discussion about this commonly-avoided issue and the education of nurses and other health professionals is required. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Morrison, Sandra U.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Bub, Kristen L.; Duke, Adrienne
Background: Using data from a statewide relationship education (RE) program targeting a diverse adolescent sample, this study examined RE implementation in classroom environments. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore (1) whether there is a beneficial RE program effect for change in individual attitudes toward sexual delay, (2)…
McElwain, Alyssa D.; Bub, Kristen L.
The present study investigated how changes in specific dimensions of the parent-adolescent relationship predict adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse and oral sex. Longitudinal data from 1,364 participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were gathered at…
LL.M. (Labour Law) A university is a community of adults in which close personal relationships between adults can develop. These institutions of higher learning recognise the need for policies prohibiting sexual harassment but few have addressed the subtle issues surrounding consensual and special amorous relationships between academic staff members and students and whether they have the right to regulate private behaviour between adults. The aim of this minor dissertation is to explore th...
VanKim, Nicole A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B. R. Simon; Laska, Melissa N.
Objective Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Methods Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n=28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified ...
Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps sexual relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps sexual relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps sexual relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.
Davies, Helen D; Newkirk, Lori A; Pitts, Christiane B; Coughlin, Christine A; Sridhar, Sneha B; Zeiss, L McKenzie; Zeiss, Antonette M
Sexuality and intimacy in couples in which one partner is affected by dementia has been widely researched. Few studies have explored these issues in couples where one partner is affected by mild memory impairment (MMI) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The objectives of this study were to (1) identify and contrast issues of intimacy and sexuality that spousal caregivers of persons with MMI and dementia may experience, and (2) identify future lines of research in this population. Fourteen dementia and nine MMI spousal caregivers participated in focus groups conducted between 2008 and 2009 at the Stanford/VA Alzheimer's Research Center. Content analyses were conducted to identify themes. Five themes emerged: communication, marital cohesion, affectional expression, caregiver burden, and ambiguity concerning the future of the relationship. Dementia caregivers reported more difficulties with communication, cohesion, and perceptions of increased burden than their MMI counterparts. Both groups indicated reduced sexual expression due to physical limitations; substitute activities including hand-holding, massaging, and hugging were noted. Both groups reported difficulty anticipating the future of the relationship due to present stressors. While dementia caregivers could consider future romantic relationships with others, MMI caregivers were primarily able to consider future relationships only for companionship and emotional intimacy. Early therapeutic interventions may assist couples in modifying activities, behaviors, and expectations about the future of the relationship. Such modifications may help maintain relationship satisfaction, decrease burden, preserve quality of life, and delay time-to-placement. Extending time-to-placement could have cost savings implications for families and the healthcare system.
Casual sexual encounters between tourists and locals have been increasingly discussed. The city of Cuzco/Peru is well known for an increased availability of such sexual opportunities. The objective of this study was to explore tourists' and locals' knowledge, attitudes, and reasoning for engaging in casual sexual relationships. In this qualitative study, 10 locals and 13 tourists were in-depth interviewed (15 women, 8 men, aged 19-50+). Participant and non-participant observations, and informal discussions provided supporting evidence. For tourists, the relationships with locals ranged from one-night-stands as part of the travel experience and having fun, to commitment for the term of a longer stay, to marriage. From the locals' point of view, these encounters ranged from sexual adventures to increase self-esteem and high standing in their circle of friends, to serious long-term commitments. In both cases, the difference in the physical appearance played a main part in the perceived attraction that had triggered the encounter. Lack of consistent condom use remains a concern along with the locals' profound lack of knowledge of STIs. Travel health advisors should place more emphasis on sexual health in pre-travel consultations. The use of condoms cannot be stressed enough. Local health professionals should aggressively increase safe sex health promotion, specifically targeting people related to the tourism industry.
Chadwick, Sara B; Burke, Shannon M; Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M
Sexual desire is typically measured as a unitary erotic phenomenon and is often assumed by biological and biomedical researchers, as well as the lay public, to be directly connected to physiological parameters like testosterone (T). In the present study, we empirically examined how conceptualizing sexual desire as multifaceted might clarify associations with T and contextual variables. To do so, we used the Sexual Desire Questionnaire (DESQ), which assesses multifaceted dyadic sexual desire, to explore how contextual variables such as social location, relationship status, and desire target (e.g., partner vs. stranger) might be meaningful for reports of sexual desire and associated hormonal correlations. We focused on women (N = 198), because sexual desire and testosterone are generally unlinked in healthy men. Participants imagined a partner or stranger while answering the 65 DESQ items and provided a saliva sample for hormone assay. Analyses showed that the DESQ factored differently for the current sample than in previous research, highlighting how sexual desire can be constructed differently across different populations. We also found that, for the Intimacy, Eroticism, and Partner Focus factors, mean scores were higher when the desire target was a partner relative to a stranger for participants in a relationship, but equally high between partner versus stranger target for single participants. DESQ items resolved into meaningful hormonal desire components, such that high endorsement of Fantasy Experience was linked to higher T, and higher cortisol was linked with lower endorsement of the Intimacy factor. We argue that conceptualizing desire as multifaceted and contextualized when assessing hormonal links-or questions in general about desire-can clarify some of its complexities and lead to new research avenues.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Sexual activity is one of the most important aspects of a marital life. Childbirth is also a major event in the life of women, and the period of postpartum is a time of emotional upheaval. Since women believe that vaginal delivery could negatively affect their sexual function after childbirth, they tend to give birth through caesarean section. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mode of delivery and sexual function in nulliparous women referred to healthcare centers in Mashhad, Iran. Methods: This correlational study was conducted on 450 nulliparous women, divided into two groups of vaginal delivery and cesarean section in 2014. Suubjects were selected via multistage sampling. Data collection tools included Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21, and Cassidy social support scale. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16 using Spearman correlation coefficient and Mann-Whitney test, T-test, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis. Moreover, general linear model was used to control confounding variables, and P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Independent t-test results indicated that mean scores of sexual function in two groups of the study were 26.11±4.36 and 26.38±4.41, respectively, which revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (P=0.509. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed between the vaginal delivery and caesarean section groups regarding sexual function. Therefore, it seems that cesarean section does not necessarily lead to pleasing sexual relationships in postpartum period compared to vaginal delivery.
Grov, Christian; Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Royce, Tracy; Lever, Janet
Some researchers have illustrated how the Internet can provide users with an ideal atmosphere to explore sexuality; however, most have stressed the Internet's negative impact on intimate relationships. Notably, much of this research has focused on the small minority of men who compulsively engage in online sexual activities (OSA), overlooking the majority of men and women who use OSA recreationally (either individually or with a partner). Addressing these limitations, data on heterosexual adults in committed relationships were taken from the 2004 "ELLE/msnbc.com Cyber-sex and Romance Survey" (n = 8,376). In quantitative analyses, men were less likely than women to express concerns and more likely to hold favorable attitudes about their partner's OSA. With regard to the impact of OSA on intimate relationships, men and women did not differ in becoming "more open to new things," and finding it easier "to talk about what [they] want sexually." Negative impacts were also identified, with women more likely to indicate they had less sex as a result of a partner's OSA, and men more likely to indicate they were less aroused by real sex as a result of their own OSA. Generally, qualitative results mirrored quantitative ones. Additionally, qualitative data suggested that moderate or light amounts of OSA yield relationship benefits for both female and male users, including increases in the quality and frequency of sex, and increased intimacy with real partners. In addition, men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem OSA fostered better sexual communication with partners. Findings underscore the need to explore further the impact that online sexual activities can have on real-life committed relationships.
Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Royce, Tracy; Lever, Janet
Some researchers have illustrated how the Internet can provide users with an ideal atmosphere to explore sexuality; however, most have stressed the Internet’s negative impact on intimate relationships. Notably, much of this research has focused on the small minority of men who compulsively engage in online sexual activities (OSA), overlooking the majority of men and women who use OSA recreationally (either individually or with a partner). Addressing these limitations, data on heterosexual adults in committed relationships were taken from the 2004 “ELLE/msnbc.com Cyber-sex and Romance Survey” (n = 8,376). In quantitative analyses, men were less likely than women to express concerns and more likely to hold favorable attitudes about their partner’s OSA. With regard to the impact of OSA on intimate relationships, men and women did not differ in becoming “more open to new things,” and finding it easier “to talk about what [they] want sexually.” Negative impacts were also identified, with women more likely to indicate they had less sex as a result of a partner’s OSA, and men more likely to indicate they were less aroused by real sex as a result of their own OSA. Generally, qualitative results mirrored quantitative ones. Additionally, qualitative data suggested that moderate or light amounts of OSA yield relationship benefits for both female and male users, including increases in the quality and frequency of sex, and increased intimacy with real partners. In addition, men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem OSA fostered better sexual communication with partners. Findings underscore the need to explore further the impact that online sexual activities can have on real-life committed relationships. PMID:20174862
Jabson, Jennifer M; Farmer, Grant W; Bowen, Deborah J
Growing evidence documents elevated behavioral risk among sexual-minorities, including gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals; however, tests of biological or psychological indicators of stress as explanations for these disparities have not been conducted. Data were from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and included 9662 participants; 9254 heterosexuals, 153 gays/lesbians and 255 bisexuals. Associations between sexual orientation and tobacco, alcohol, substance, and marijuana use, and body mass index, were tested using the chi-square test. Stress, operationalized as depressive symptoms and elevated C-reactive protein, was tested as mediating the association between sexual orientation and behavioral health risks. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for mediation effects, and the Sobel test was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the meditating effect. Gays/lesbians and bisexuals were more likely to report current smoking (p sexual orientation and current smoking (aOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.59, 2.63), lifetime history of substance use (aOR 3.30 95% CI 2.20, 4.96), and lifetime history of marijuana use (aOR 2.90, 95% CI 2.02, 4.16), among bisexuals only. C-reactive protein did not mediate the sexual orientation/behavior relationship. Higher prevalence of current smoking and lifetime history of substance use was observed among sexual minorities compared to heterosexuals. Among bisexuals, depressive symptoms accounted for only 0.9-3% of the reduction in the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use and tobacco use, respectively. More comprehensive assessments of stress are needed to inform explanations of the disparities in behavioral risk observed among sexual minorities.
Pinto, Joana; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J
Several studies have advocated a relationship between psychopathological features and sexual compulsivity. Such relationship is often found among individuals seeking help for out of control sexual behavior, suggesting that the association between psychological adjustment and sexual compulsivity may have a significant clinical value. However, a more complete approach to the topic of sexual compulsivity would also include the analysis of nonclinical samples as healthy individuals may be at risk of developing some features of hypersexuality in the future. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between stable traits of personality, state psychopathology, and sexual compulsivity in a sample of male college students. Furthermore, the potential mediating role of state psychopathology in the relationship between personality traits and sexual compulsivity was tested. Participants completed the following measures: the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory-22. The sample included 152 male college students recruited in a Portuguese university using nonrandom methods. The measures were completed individually and anonymously. Findings on state psychopathology suggested that psychoticism may be one of the key dimensions associated with sexual compulsivity in male students. The personality traits of Neuroticism and Agreeableness were also significant predictors of sexual compulsivity. Findings on the mediating effects suggested that state psychopathology mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and sexual compulsivity but not between Agreeableness and sexual compulsivity. A psychopathological path (encompassing Neuroticism and state psychopathology) and a behavioral path (encompassing Agreeableness features) may be involved in sexual compulsivity as reported by a nonclinical sample of male students. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Sexual dimorphism as a function of variation in hominoid tooth metrics has been investigated for four groups of taxa: Recent great apes (two subfamilies), Dryopiths (one subfamily), Ramapiths (one subfamily) and hominids (one family). Gorilla, and to a lesser extent Pan, appear characterized by very high levels of sexual dimorphism and meet several criteria for statistical outliers. Recent great apes are the only group exhibiting consistently high levels of sexual dimorphism. Ramapiths are the only group characterized by low levels of sexual dimorphism and their relative canine length is most similar to Dryopiths. Both Dryopiths and hominids contain taxa with low and intermediate levels of sexual dimorphism. The Gingerich and Shoeninger hypothesis relating coefficients of variation to occlusal complexity is supported. Non-parametric statistics suggest that homogeneity of coefficient of variation profiles over most of the tooth row is characteristic of only the Dryopiths and a composite data set composed of the Dryopith plus Ramapith tooth measurements. Oxnard's model for the multifactorial basis of multiple sexual dimorphisms is also supported. The Dryopith and hominid patterns of sexual dimorphism are similar, an observation that suggests phylogenetic relationship. At the taxonomic level of subfamily or family, sexual dimorphism is a character of cladistic usefulness and possible phylogenetic valence. Assuming that breeding system and sexual dimorphism are functional correlates as many workers suggest, then Ramapithecus sp. China, Sivapithecus indicus and possibly Australopithecus boisei are good candidates for having possessed monogamous breeding/social structures. All Dryopith taxa, S. sivalensis, Sivapithecus sp. China, A. afarensis, Homo habilis and H. erectus emerge as the best candidates for having possessed a polygynous breeding/social structure. No biometrical affinities of Ramapiths with hominids can be demonstrated and some phylogenetic relationship with
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is a common chronic disease that is increasingly observed in almost all countries of the world. The treatment and prevention of diabetes largely depend on patients’ self-efficacy in performing self-care behaviors. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and sexual performance in patients with type II diabetes. Methods: In the present correlational study, 200 patients with type II diabetes (based on physicians’ diagnosis participated. Using convenience sampling method, the samples were selected out of the whole population of diabetic patients who referred to Shahid Bahonar and Rajaei Hospitals in the city of Karaj (Iran. The data were collected through a multi-faceted questionnaire covering demographic characteristics of the participants, the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI and the Male Sexual Function Index (MSFI. Then, the collected data were analyzed through Pearson correlation test, multiple linear regression analysis, independent t-test and ANOVA. Results: The results showed a positive significant relationship between self-efficacy and sexual function (p<0.001; regression coefficient of the predictor variable ‘self-efficacy’ was 0.217 (p<0.017. Conclusion: Self-efficacy plays an important role in the lives of diabetic patients; it is also important in sexual performance of diabetic patients. Therefore, based on the results of this study, the significant relationship between self-efficacy and sexual function must be considered in the treatment of patients with type II diabetes.
Wood, Kate; Lambert, Helen; Jewkes, Rachel
South Africa's complex social and political history has produced conditions for interpersonal violence of multiple kinds to flourish. Violence experienced by girls and young women, including within their sexual relationships, has become an area of intense research and policy interest since the end of apartheid. Drawing on a long-term ethnographic study of young people in an urban township, this article explores how violent practices are variously construed, differentiated, and legitimated, in particular through the assignment of blame and the significance accorded to bodily marking. Pointing to the cultural embeddedness of disciplining techniques in this setting, the article examines local understandings of gender hierarchy and power, young men's vulnerabilities in relation to their partners' actions, and the links between disciplining action and notions of anger, love, and shame. Violence is shown to configure lives and subjectivities and to be productive of relationships, in particular playing a part in the organization of inequality within sexual relationships.
Stern, Erin; Cooper, Diane; Greenbaum, Bryant
While sexual abuse against women and girls in South Africa has generated much deserved attention, the awareness of men's experiences of sexual coercion is limited, and often restricted to a homosexual context. This article illuminates men's experiences of pressurized sex in a heterosexual context, which were revealed in a broader men's sexual health study. Fifty sexual history narrative interviews were conducted with men purposively sampled from three age categories: (18-24, 25-54, and 55+), a wide range of cultural and racial backgrounds, and in urban and rural sites across five provinces in South Africa. Narrative interviews began with accounts of early knowledge of sex and sexual experimentation and explored the range of sexual relationships and experiences through adulthood. The narratives privileged the diversity of men's conceptualizations of and the impact of reportedly sexually coercive experiences by women. Many men described feeling unready for their first sexual experiences but pressured to do so by their peers and female partners, who were often older. There were also some instances of sexual coercion by women against men, some of which would constitute a criminal offense in South Africa. Due to the pressure for men to always be responsive to women's sexual desires, these experiences were often not framed as sexual coercion. Nevertheless, for many of these men, such experiences were uncomfortable and unrewarding. Men's negative responses to such experiences appeared to be linked to the fact that they did not fit social stereotypes of masculine sexuality as being initiative and dominant. Such coercive experiences could influence men's sexual risk-taking, including their use of sexual coercion against women. Research on sexual abuse should not be limited to male against male sexual abuse, but needs to explore the meanings and experiences associated with reported coercion against men by women to more comprehensively prevent and respond to sexual violence
Palmer, R; Bor, R
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and disease progression create imbalance in long-term, HIV-serodiscordant, gay male relationships, particularly in sexual relations and issues of physical and emotional intimacy. Stage of disease progression and worldview of the couple both affect the relationship and its survival. To redress imbalance, partners employ a range of coping strategies and techniques. This article explores these issues in the context of HIV serodiscordant gay couples and how they preserve their relationships in the face of these unique challenges. For workers who provide psychotherapeutic and community support for people with HIV and for their partners, the results of this study may be helpful in recognizing stress factors for couples, and tailoring support services to the needs of both partners. Overall, this study provides a basis for further work examining the dynamics of serodiscordant relationships.
Conradi, Henk Jan; Noordhof, Arjen; Dingemanse, Pieter; Barelds, Dick P H; Kamphuis, Jan H
Previous studies found gender differences in relationship satisfaction and sexuality. We tested gender differences in associations between attachment, a lasting relationship determinant, and two outcomes, relationship and sexual satisfaction. This study improves on earlier research by examining these associations in one Actor-Partner-Interdependence-Model, making direct statistical testing between outcomes possible. Furthermore, a community and a distressed sample (N = 113 heterosexual couples each) were included to attempt replication across samples and to examine clinical implications. In both genders, actor attachment avoidance negatively affected relationship satisfaction and (with one exception) sexual satisfaction. Also in both genders, partner attachment avoidance negatively affected sexual satisfaction. However, whereas partner attachment avoidance influenced female relationship satisfaction, it did not affect male relationship satisfaction. The findings replicated across samples. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Sansone, Andrea; Sansone, Massimiliano; Proietti, Marco; Ciocca, Giacomo; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Romanelli, Francesco
male sexuality, specifically for ejaculatory response and sexual desire. Sansone A, Sansone M, Proietti M, et al. Relationship Between Use of Videogames and Sexual Health in Adult Males. J Sex Med 2017;14:898-903. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Falconier, Mariana K; Nussbeck, Fridtjof; Bodenmann, Guy; Schneider, Hulka; Bradbury, Thomas
According to the systemic-transactional stress model (STM; G. Bodenmann, European Review of Applied Psychology, 1997; 47: 137), extradyadic stress from daily hassles can have a negative impact on the individual psychological and physical health and the couple's relationship. This study is the first one to test the STM propositions in a model that includes both partners' individual and relational outcomes simultaneously. The model also includes actor and partner effects as well as the interdependence between partners' processes. Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from 110 community couples in Switzerland. Consistent with STM predictions, results from the path model analysis indicate that for actor effects extradyadic stress from daily hassles relates directly to lower psychological (increase in anxiety symptoms) and physical well-being and only indirectly to lower relationship satisfaction through increased intradyadic stress from relationship problems and also through more depressive symptomatology in men. The female extradyadic stress and intradyadic stress had partner effects on the male intradyadic stress and the male relationship satisfaction, respectively. Limitations as well as research and clinical implications for marriage and family therapists are discussed. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to explore whether there are significant differences between those who have never engaged in sexting behavior and those who have for at least once in any number of variables: sexual risk behavior, anger, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and association with deviant peers. Also, the goal was to explore whether anger and unpleasant emotions of depression and anxiety are significant predictors of sexting and whether self-efficacy and association with deviant peers express moderator role in the relationship between enlisted predictors and sexting. Analyzed data were collected in 2012 from 311 students (149 boys, 162 girls, aged between fifteen and seventeen years. The results of series of independent t-tests showed significant differences between the two groups in sexual risk behavior and deviant peers association, whereby those who have engaged in sexting behavior at least once, compared to those who have never sexted, engaged more frequently in sexual risk behaviors and have more deviant friends. The results of hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis showed that sexting was not significantly predicted by anger, depression and anxiety and that self-efficacy and association with deviant peers do not change the relationship between anger and sexting, as well as the relationship between unpleasant emotions of depression or anxiety and sexting. The results are discussed in terms of findings of previous research and in the context of the relationship between the variables specified in the context of Agnew's (1992 general strain theory.
Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G
Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. © The Author(s) 2014.
Bancroft, John; Long, J Scott; McCabe, Janice
In the United States, considerable attention has been directed to sexual behaviors of black and white adolescents, particularly age at first sexual experience and the prevalence of teenage pregnancies. More limited attention has been paid to comparing established sexual relationships in these two racial groups. In this study, we used a national probability sample to compare black (n = 251) and white (n = 544) American women, aged 20-65 years, who were in an established heterosexual relationship of at least 6 months duration. We focused on two aspects of their sexual well-being; how a woman evaluated (1) her sexual relationship and (2) her own sexuality. A range of possible determinants of sexual well-being, including demographic factors, physical and mental health, and aspects of the women's recent sexual experiences, were also assessed using Telephone-Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (T-ACASI). We found no significant difference between black and white women in their evaluation of their sexual relationships nor in the independent variables that were correlated with this evaluation. Black women, however, evaluated their own sexuality more positively than white women. In examining the correlates of this evaluation, a woman's rating of her own sexual attractiveness proved to be the strongest predictor, with black women rating themselves significantly more sexually attractive than did the white women. Overall, these findings were consistent with previous findings that, compared to white women, black women in the United States have higher self-esteem and tend towards more independence and individualism.
Shin, Kyoung Min; Chung, Young Ki; Shin, Yee Jin; Kim, Miran; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hanbyul; Chang, Hyoung Yoon
More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = -2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = -2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.
More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = −2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = −2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. PMID:28875614
Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann
In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention.
In this article, I argue that sexual exploitation in the doctor–patient relationship would be dealt with more appropriately by the law in England and Wales on the basis of a breach of fiduciary duty. Three different types of sexual boundary breaches are discussed, and the particular focus is on breaches where the patient's consent is obtained through inducement. I contend that current avenues of redress do not clearly catch this behaviour and, moreover, they fail to capture the essence of the wrong committed by the doctor—the knowing breach of trust for self-gain—and the calculated way in which consent is induced. Finally, I demonstrate that the fiduciary approach is compatible with the contemporary pro-patient autonomy model of the doctor–patient relationship. PMID:26846652
Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa
To bolster knowledge of determinants of relationship functioning among sexual minorities, the current meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively review evidence for the association between social stigma and relationship functioning as well as examine potential moderators. Thirty-five studies were identified, including 130 effect sizes (39 independent; N = 10,745). Across studies, evidence was found for a small but significant inverse association between social stigma and relationship functioning. Furthermore, this association was moderated by stigma type (with more deleterious associations for internalized relative to perceived stigma) and dimension of relationship functioning (with more deleterious associations for affective relative to cognitive and negative relative to positive). Evidence for demographic moderators (region, sex, race, age) was generally mixed although important limitations related to unique characteristics of study samples are discussed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of social stigma for relationship functioning and point toward directions for future research and policy action. PMID:26199218
Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa
To bolster knowledge of determinants of relationship functioning among sexual minorities, the current meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively review evidence for the association between social stigma and relationship functioning as well as examine potential moderators. Thirty-five studies were identified, including 130 effect sizes (39 independent; N = 10,745). Across studies, evidence was found for a small but significant inverse association between social stigma and relationship functioning. Furthermore, this association was moderated by stigma type (with more deleterious associations for internalized relative to perceived stigma) and dimension of relationship functioning (with more deleterious associations for affective relative to cognitive and negative relative to positive). Evidence for demographic moderators (region, sex, race, age) was generally mixed although important limitations related to unique characteristics of study samples are discussed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of social stigma for relationship functioning and point toward directions for future research and policy action. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Arbeit, Miriam R
Sexual violence continues to present a problem on college campuses nationwide and among members of the U.S. military. This study attended to patterns of response in how students (cadets) at the U.S. Military Academy (West Point) discussed sexual and romantic relationships, both potential and actual, in order to examine how, if at all, they enact their sexuality-related values. Constructivist grounded theory was used to analyze semistructured interviews with three male and three female cadets from each of the 4 years of the undergraduate program, in which they are intended to become "leaders of character" who will serve as Army officers. Findings indicated limitations in cadets' access to developing and implementing sexuality-related skills within this context. Cadets' fear and distrust erected barriers to their pursuing their desires; the ways in which cadets avoided getting in trouble for sexual harassment or sexual assault shifted responsibility from a potential perpetrator onto a potential victim; and cadets were caught in dilemmas regarding romantic relationships as sources of both emotional support and social stigma. These findings have implications for promoting gender equity and for preventing sexual violence at this institution and at others like it, including both university campuses and other military settings.
Garrity, Mary Kate
This social constructivist/constructionist research explores changes in female therapists' intimate relationships after they began working with survivors of female sexual violence. Discourse analysis found that working with survivors shifted participants' initially naive understanding of female sexual violence, as they developed a critical…
Stevenson, Robert T.; Courtenay, Bradley C.
Systematic research on attitudes of nursing home staff toward the sexual expression of older residents is sparse and of recent origin. In order to determine the relationship between the degree of religiosity (religious commitment) of nursing home aides and their degree of tolerance concerning sexuality and aging, female nursing assistants (N=101)…
Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig
This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…
Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Fults, Marci; Olshefski, Randal S.; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A.
ObjectiveResearch on body image and sexual satisfaction after adult onset cancer has shown significant and lasting impairments regarding survivors' sexuality and romantic relationships. However, knowledge about these topics and their associations in adult survivors of childhood cancer is largely
van 't Noordende, Anna T.; Banstola, Nandlal; Dhakal, Krishna P.
Background. Leprosy is one of the most stigmatized diseases known today. The stigma surrounding leprosy can be a major burden and affects many dimensions of a person's life, including intimate relationships. We aimed to investigate the experiences of women affected by leprosy regarding marital life and sexuality, comparing these to the experiences of women with other physical disabilities and to those of able-bodied women in South-East Nepal. Methods. This study used a qualitative approach and a cross-sectional, nonrandom survey design. Thirty women underwent in-depth interviews about their marital and sexual relationship by means of a semi-structured interview guide. These thirty women included ten women affected by leprosy, ten women with other physical disabilities, and ten able-bodied women living in South-East Nepal. Results. We found that many women faced violence and abuse in their marriages. However, women affected by leprosy appeared to face more problems with regard to their marital and sexual relationships than women with physical disabilities and able-bodied women. Some of these related to the fear of leprosy. Conclusions. Further research is recommended to investigate the extent of this problem and ways to ameliorate the situation of the affected women. Education and counselling at diagnosis may help prevent many of the problems reported. PMID:27047548
Aline Riboli Marasca
Full Text Available Violence in the affective-sexual relationships of adolescents is a theme that has been highlighted by the literature as a result of its high rates of prevalence. It has different characteristics, while many factors are shown to be associated with its occurrence. The present study investigated the affective-sexual relationships of adolescents, focusing on the experiences as perpetrators and victims of different types of violence between partners. We conducted a quantitative study with a descriptive, comparative and correlational design, with 124 heterosexual adolescents, aged 15 to 18 years (M = 15.94, SD = 0.65. As measurement instruments we used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Family Background Questionnaire (FBQ, and the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI. The results showed percentages of violence that ranged from 14.7% for relational abuse committed to 97% for verbal/emotional violence suffered. We identified significant gender differences in the dimensions of threatening behavior (t = -3.172, p = 0.002 and physical violence (t = -3.037, p = 0.003 perpetrated by the participant, indicating that it is the girls who report that they practice this type of violence more often. No significant correlation was observed between experiences of violence in the family of origin and in the relationship with the partner (p > 0.05. However, there was an association between the occurrence of violence in the relationships of the adolescents and the presence of violence in the affective-sexual relationships of friends (p < 0.05. We highlight the importance of expanding the field of theory regarding this phenomenon, in order to assist with future interventions.
Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate
Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers' alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's 'presumed media influence' theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers' constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers' drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL (SHIL).
Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate
Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers’ alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's ‘presumed media influence’ theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers’ constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers’ drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. PMID:24443822
Brown, Maria T; Grossman, Brian R
This study describes the previously unexplored subsample of respondents who reported at least 1 same-sex sexual relationship (SSSR) in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). The NSHAP collected data from 3,005 adults (aged 57-85). Approximately 4% (n = 102) of respondents reported at least one SSSR. These sexual minority elders were younger, more educated, were more likely to be working, had fewer social supports, and better physical health. Results may indicate crisis competence in sexual minority elders. Collecting sexual orientation and gender identity data in larger, US-based probability samples would inform the development of appropriate community-based services and supports.
Glowacka, Maria; Bergeron, Sophie; Dubé, Justin; Rosen, Natalie O
Contingent self-worth (CSW; the pursuit of self-esteem via a particular domain in one's life) impacts well-being based on one's perceived success or failure in the contingent domain. In a community sample, individuals with sexual problems reported greater sexual CSW-self-worth dependent on maintaining a sexual relationship-than those without problems. Couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), a genito-pelvic pain condition, perceive failures in their sexual relationship, which could be associated with more pain and poorer well-being. In contrast, relationship CSW-self-worth dependent on the overall romantic relationship-may act as a buffer against adverse outcomes. Eighty-two women with PVD and their partners completed online standardized measures of sexual and relationship CSW, sexual distress and satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, and depressive symptoms, and women reported their pain intensity. Analyses were based on the actor-partner interdependence model. Women with PVD who reported greater sexual CSW experienced more sexual distress and pain. Additionally, when partners reported greater sexual CSW, they were less sexually and relationally satisfied and more sexually distressed, and women had greater depressive symptoms and lower relationship satisfaction. In contrast, when partners reported higher relationship CSW, they were more sexually and relationally satisfied and less sexually distressed, and women reported lower depressive symptoms and greater relationship satisfaction. Results suggest that couples' (particularly partners') greater sexual CSW is linked to poorer sexual, relational, and psychological well-being in couples affected by PVD, whereas partners' greater relationship CSW is associated with better well-being. Thus, sexual and relationship CSW may be important treatment targets for interventions aimed at improving how couples adjust to PVD.
Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Gawrysiak, Michael J; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a serious worldwide problem. Despite years of research on the treatment of SUDs, relapse remains high. One factor that may complicate SUDs treatment for some patients is compulsive sexual behavior. Factors that are related to both SUDs and compulsive sexual behavior could be targeted in SUDs treatment. In the current study, we examined dispositional mindfulness, a protective factor for a range of mental health problems, and its relationship to compulsive sexual behavior in a SUDs treatment sample. This is the first study to examine this relationship in a SUDs sample. Medical records from men in residential SUDs treatment were reviewed for the current study ( N = 271). Upon admission to treatment, men completed self-report measures on alcohol and drug use, dispositional mindfulness, and compulsive sexual behavior. Bivariate correlations demonstrated dispositional mindfulness to be negatively associated with a variety of indicators of compulsive sexual behavior. After controlling for alcohol and drug use and problems in hierarchical regression analyses, which were both associated with compulsive sexual behaviors, dispositional mindfulness remained negatively associated with all of the compulsive sexual behavior indicators. Our results provide the first empirical association between dispositional mindfulness and compulsive sexual behavior in a SUDs sample. Although continued research is needed in this area, our findings suggest that it may be beneficial for SUDs treatment to incorporate mindfulness-based interventions for individuals with comorbid compulsive sexual behavior.
Krugu, John K; Mevissen, Fraujke E F; Flore, Kirsten A; Ruiter, Robert A C
There is extensive research on African girls sexual experiences, but much less is known about boys thoughts and actions. There is a need to understand the male perspective in order to develop sexuality education programmes that address the high rates of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections in sub-Saharan Africa. For this qualitative, phenomenological study we spoke to 20 boys from Bolgatanga, Ghana and explored their sexual decision making, using semi-structured interviews designed to highlight psychosocial and environmental factors. Content analysis was used to construct categories and later the themes. Boys often had negative perceptions about sexual relationships. They believed that girls could not be trusted and mostly embarked on sexual relationships for material gain. The boys reported engaging in multiple sexual partnerships to secure their masculine status; however, they expected girls to be 'faithful'. We found that accurate knowledge of safe sex was lacking, boys were under peer pressure to conform to beliefs about masculinity and communication about sex mainly took place within peer groups. There is a need to emphasise condom use in established relationships. There should also be more discussion of issues surrounding fidelity and gender equality, as part of sexuality programmes aimed at boys in Ghana and in similar cultures.
Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E.; Woerner, Jacqueline
Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims’ alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators’ post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162
Herbenick, Debby; Reece, Michael; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dodge, Brian; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Past surveys of sexual behavior have demonstrated that female sexual behavior is influenced by medical and sociocultural changes. To be most attentive to women and their sexual lives, it is important to have an understanding of the continually evolving sexual behaviors of contemporary women in the United States. The purpose of this study, the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), was to, in a national probability survey of women ages 18-92, assess the proportion of women in various age cohorts who had engaged in solo and partnered sexual activities in the past 90 days and to explore associations with participants' sexual behavior and their relationship and perceived health status. Past year frequencies of masturbation, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse were also assessed. A national probability sample of 2,523 women ages 18 to 92 completed a cross-sectional internet based survey about their sexual behavior. Relationship status; perceived health status; experience of solo masturbation, partnered masturbation, giving oral sex, receiving oral sex, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, in the past 90 days; frequency of solo masturbation, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse in the past year. Recent solo masturbation, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse were prevalent among women, decreased with age, and varied in their associations with relationship and perceived health status. Recent anal sex and same-sex oral sex were uncommonly reported. Solo masturbation was most frequent among women ages 18 to 39, vaginal intercourse was most frequent among women ages 18 to 29 and anal sex was infrequently reported. Contemporary women in the United States engage in a diverse range of solo and partnered sexual activities, though sexual behavior is less common and more infrequent among older age cohorts. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Henderson, Neil John
Sexual practices among gay and other men who have sex with men are evolving in South Africa and heteronormative stereotypes are being contested. This paper draws from a larger qualitative study on how men construct a gay identity and negotiate their relationships within contemporary South African contexts, following constitutional and legal changes, in this respect. A feminist, social constructionist approach was used to collect and analyse data from in-depth interviews with 15 self-identified gay men, aged 20 to 46 years, drawn from a university in the larger Cape Metropole, South Africa. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic and narrative analysis. 'Bottoms' revealed being powerful in receptive sex. Other men deconstructed the binaries of masculine/feminine and resisted heteronormativity by engaging in fluid constructions in their relationships, whereby participants 'switched' or 'flipped' or did not recognise stereotypical roles when practising sex. There may be value in making these flexible and reciprocal sexual practices better known about and promoted as non-normative African models of sexual practice.
Salehi, Mehrdad; Kharaz Tavakol, Hooman; Shabani, Maede; Ziaei, Tayebe
Self-esteem is the value that the individuals give themselves, and sexual self-concept is also a part of individuality or sexual-self. Impairment or disability exists not only in the physical body of disabled people but also in their attitudes. Negative attitudes affect the mental health of disabled people, causing them to have lower self-esteem. This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-esteem and sexual self-concept in people with physical-motor disabilities. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 random samples with physical-motor disabilities covered by Isfahan Welfare Organization in 2013. Data collection instruments were the Persian Eysenck self-esteem questionnaire, and five domains (sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression) of the Persian multidimensional sexual self-concept questionnaire. Because of incomplete filling of the questionnaires, the data of 183 people were analyzed by the SPSS 16.0 software. Data were analyzed using the t-test, Man-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman correlation coefficient. The mean age was 36.88 ± 8.94 years for women and 37.80 ± 10.13 for men. The mean scores of self-esteem among women and men were 15.80 ± 3.08 and 16.2 ± 2.90, respectively and there was no statistically significance difference. Comparison of the mean scores of sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression among men and women showed that women scored higher than men in all domains. This difference was statistically significant in other domains except the sexual self-esteem (14.92 ± 3.61 vs. 13.56 ± 4.52) (P self-esteem, there was a statistical difference between other domains of people's sexual self-concept and degree of disability (P self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy with their self-esteem. This correlation was positive in sexual anxiety and negative in two other domains. Lack of difference in self-esteem of disabled
Salehi, Mehrdad; Kharaz Tavakol, Hooman; Shabani, Maede; Ziaei, Tayebe
Background: Self-esteem is the value that the individuals give themselves, and sexual self-concept is also a part of individuality or sexual-self. Impairment or disability exists not only in the physical body of disabled people but also in their attitudes. Negative attitudes affect the mental health of disabled people, causing them to have lower self-esteem. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-esteem and sexual self-concept in people with physical-motor disabilities. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 random samples with physical-motor disabilities covered by Isfahan Welfare Organization in 2013. Data collection instruments were the Persian Eysenck self-esteem questionnaire, and five domains (sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression) of the Persian multidimensional sexual self-concept questionnaire. Because of incomplete filling of the questionnaires, the data of 183 people were analyzed by the SPSS 16.0 software. Data were analyzed using the t-test, Man-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: The mean age was 36.88 ± 8.94 years for women and 37.80 ± 10.13 for men. The mean scores of self-esteem among women and men were 15.80 ± 3.08 and 16.2 ± 2.90, respectively and there was no statistically significance difference. Comparison of the mean scores of sexual anxiety, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, sexual fear and sexual depression among men and women showed that women scored higher than men in all domains. This difference was statistically significant in other domains except the sexual self-esteem (14.92 ± 3.61 vs. 13.56 ± 4.52) (P self-esteem, there was a statistical difference between other domains of people’s sexual self-concept and degree of disability (P self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy with their self-esteem. This correlation was positive in sexual anxiety and negative in two other
Raine, Tina R.; Gard, Jennifer C.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Haider, Sadia; Brown, Beth A.; Hernandez, F. Antonio Ramirez; Harper, Cynthia C.
Much attention has been focused on efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy by improving contraceptive use among high-risk women; however, there is limited information to guide interventions to engage young men in contraceptive decision-making. We conducted focus groups of young men, ages 19–26, from diverse racial backgrounds from low-income communities in the San Francisco Bay Area to examine social norms about sexual relationships and how they impact on contraceptive use. The data were analysed using content analysis. A range of relationships were described, however casual relationships predominated. While young men expressed strong desires to avoid pregnancy in casual relationships, the unpredictable nature of relationships, together with low communication and regard for the women involved, made stressing consistent contraceptive use among partners unlikely. The themes expressed by these young men about sex and behaviour in different relationships illustrate a spectrum of decision-making dilemmas and illustrate the inherent difficulty in fully engaging young men in contraceptive decision-making. A strategy is needed to address relationship values, dynamics, and condom use beyond STI prevention frameworks, and young women’s ability to make appropriate contraceptive choices in light of the inherent difficulties and uncertainty associated with casual relationships. PMID:20169479
Iantaffi, Alex; Bockting, Walter O
The aim of this paper is to examine whether transgender people's experiences of relationships are influenced by heteronormativity, the related concept of sexual legitimacy, and gender as a binary construct. Data from an Internet-based study of transgender people in the USA was used. Findings seem to indicate that participants were strongly influenced by heteronormative discourses. However, less rigid gender beliefs are associated with lower levels of internalised transphobia, which, in turn, are associated with higher levels of self-esteem. Transgender people can therefore find themselves in a double-bind where, on one hand, conforming to gender and sexual norms leads to validation by mainstream US society, but could possibly entail diminished psychological well-being.
Kahn, Rachel E.; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen
Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents’ sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55% male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents’ risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior. PMID:26202153
Sexual and romantic relationships between local people and tourists have long taken place. Such encounters are not a modern phenomenon, but the potential of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, warrants greater research into the issue. This paper analyses local people's views of local-tourist relationships in Cuzco/Peru. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews, participant and non-participant observation and informal discussions. Attraction based on physical difference was reportedly the main trigger for such relationships. Emerging themes discussed include issues of self-esteem, strategies of approach, tourists' motives, emotional involvement and expectations from such encounters. Levels of unprotected sexual behaviour and lack of STI awareness are of sufficient concern to recommend urgent action. Suggestions for sexual health education are made with particular emphasis on targeting local people involved in the tourism and hospitality industries.
Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J
This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.
Abigail M Hatcher
Full Text Available Depression is associated with increased HIV transmission risk, increased morbidity, and higher risk of HIV-related death among HIV-infected women. Low sexual relationship power also contributes to HIV risk, but there is limited understanding of how it relates to mental health among HIV-infected women.Participants were 270 HIV-infected women from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study, a prospective cohort of individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART in Mbarara, Uganda. Our primary predictor was baseline sexual relationship power as measured by the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS. The primary outcome was depression severity, measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL, and a secondary outcome was a functional scale for mental health status (MHS. Adjusted models controlled for socio-demographic factors, CD4 count, alcohol and tobacco use, baseline WHO stage 4 disease, social support, and duration of ART.The mean HSCL score was 1.34 and 23.7% of participants had HSCL scores consistent with probable depression (HSCL>1.75. Compared to participants with low SRPS scores, individuals with both moderate (coefficient b = -0.21; 95%CI, -0.36 to -0.07 and high power (b = -0.21; 95%CI, -0.36 to -0.06 reported decreased depressive symptomology. High SRPS scores halved the likelihood of women meeting criteria for probable depression (adjusted odds ratio = 0.44; 95%CI, 0.20 to 0.93. In lagged models, low SRPS predicted subsequent depression severity, but depression did not predict subsequent changes in SPRS. Results were similar for MHS, with lagged models showing SRPS predicts subsequent mental health, but not visa versa. Both Decision-Making Dominance and Relationship Control subscales of SRPS were associated with depression symptom severity.HIV-infected women with high sexual relationship power had lower depression and higher mental health status than women with low power. Interventions to improve equity in decision
Walker, Eric C; Sheffield, Rachel; Larson, Jeffry H; Holman, Thomas B
This study examined the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) for one or both members of a romantic couple and perceptions of contempt and defensiveness for self and partner. Data from the Relationship Evaluation (RELATE) were analyzed for 10,061 couples. The findings suggest that when either or both partner(s) has a history of CSA, contempt and defensiveness in the couple relationship are greater than when neither reports a history of CSA. Furthermore, the males' experience of CSA had a greater impact on their perceptions of self and partner's contempt and defensiveness than females' experience of CSA. Explanations of gender differences are offered and implications for future research and practice are suggested. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Micò, Umberto; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Mallamace, Domenico; Zoccali, Rocco; Muscatello, Maria R A
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality and sexual motivation according to Cloninger's psychobiological model of the personality. Three hundred and ten volunteers recruited among the students of the University of Messina, Italy, participated in the study. All subjects underwent a psychometric examination with the following instruments: Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Sex and the Average Woman (or Man; SAWM). The best negative predictor of Sexual Excitement and Satisfaction was the temperamental dimension Harm Avoidance; as it regards character dimensions, Cooperativeness was the best negative predictor of Sexual Excitement, while Self-Directedness was the best positive predictor of Sexual Satisfaction. Overall, inhibitory aspects of the personality have deeper effects on sexual motivation than excitatory ones. The results of this research suggest the importance of studying the relationship between personality and sexual behavior. An integrative psychobiological approach to the study of sexual excitement and satisfaction may give a fundamental contribution to the assessment and psychological treatment of predisposing personality factors (like avoidant tendencies) involved in the development and persistence of sexual dysfunction.
Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E; Clerkin, Elise M
Young men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly young men of color, are experiencing the largest increase in HIV incidence of any risk group in the United States Epidemiological research suggests that the majority of transmissions among MSM are occurring in the context of primary partnerships, but little research has been done on the processes within these dyads that increase HIV risk behaviors. The aim of this study was to use longitudinal partnership-level data to explore the effects of partner and relationship characteristics on the frequency of unprotected sex within young MSM relationships. One hundred twenty-two young MSM (age 16-20 at baseline) were assessed at three time-points six months apart, with 91% retention at the 12-month follow-up wave. Over 80% were racial/ethnic minorities. At each wave, participants reported on characteristics of the relationships and partners for up to three sexual partners. Hierarchical linear modeling was used for analyses. The largest effect was for considering the relationship to be serious, which was associated with nearly an eightfold increase in the rate of unprotected sex. Other factors that increased risk behaviors included older partners, drug use prior to sex, physical violence, forced sex, and partnership lasting more than six months. Partners met online were not associated with significantly more sexual risk. These data provide insight into the relationship processes that should be addressed in prevention programs targeted at young MSM. Relationships may serve as a promising unit for HIV prevention interventions, although more formative research will be required to address potential logistical obstacles to implementing such interventions. The partner-by-partner analytic approach (i.e., evaluating situational variables associated with several partners for a given participant) holds promise for future HIV behavioral research.
Ziaee, Tayebe; Jannati, Yadollah; Mobasheri, Elham; Taghavi, Taraneh; Abdollahi, Habib; Modanloo, Mahnaz; Behnampour, Naser
There are various elements affecting the healthy family such as marital satisfaction. Various factors such as sexual satisfaction have an important impact on satisfaction of marital relationship. The present study aimed to determine the association of marital satisfaction with sexual satisfaction among sexually active employee women. This analytical descriptive study was carried on 140 married women employed at educational and medical centers of Golestan University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaires for data collection included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and self-constructed questionnaire (demographic characteristic and sexual satisfaction). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ(2) and Spearman statistical test. Statistical significant level was set as 0.05. The findings showed that in marital satisfaction scale, the majority of the participants (63.6%) were very satisfied and none of them were very unsatisfied. In sexual satisfaction scale, most of the participants (56.4%) expressed extremely satisfaction rate and only 0.7% were not satisfied with their sexual relationship. Marital satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual satisfaction (p ≤ 0.001). So with the increase of sexual satisfaction, there was an increase in marital satisfaction accordingly. The findings indicated that there was a significant association between sexual satisfaction and age (p = 0.086). Level of education was associated significantly with the marital satisfaction (p = 0.038). The effects of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction were moderated by number of children and the level of education. The findings have implications for improving of couples' marital satisfaction by highlighting the need for awareness of sexual quality. According to the findings, it seems that development of educational programs and pre-marriage counseling is necessary. Continuous education would be helpful after marriage in addressing couples' unique transitional
Ziaee, Tayebe; Jannati, Yadollah; Mobasheri, Elham; Taghavi, Taraneh; Abdollahi, Habib; Modanloo, Mahnaz; Behnampour, Naser
Objective: There are various elements affecting the healthy family such as marital satisfaction. Various factors such as sexual satisfaction have an important impact on satisfaction of marital relationship. The present study aimed to determine the association of marital satisfaction with sexual satisfaction among sexually active employee women. Methods: This analytical descriptive study was carried on 140 married women employed at educational and medical centers of Golestan University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaires for data collection included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and self-constructed questionnaire (demographic characteristic and sexual satisfaction). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ2 and Spearman statistical test. Statistical significant level was set as 0.05. Results: The findings showed that in marital satisfaction scale, the majority of the participants (63.6%) were very satisfied and none of them were very unsatisfied. In sexual satisfaction scale, most of the participants (56.4%) expressed extremely satisfaction rate and only 0.7% were not satisfied with their sexual relationship. Marital satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual satisfaction (p ≤ 0.001). So with the increase of sexual satisfaction, there was an increase in marital satisfaction accordingly. The findings indicated that there was a significant association between sexual satisfaction and age (p = 0.086). Level of education was associated significantly with the marital satisfaction (p = 0.038). The effects of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction were moderated by number of children and the level of education. Conclusion: The findings have implications for improving of couples' marital satisfaction by highlighting the need for awareness of sexual quality. According to the findings, it seems that development of educational programs and pre-marriage counseling is necessary. Continuous education would be helpful after marriage in
Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul
Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at higher risk for mental and physical health disparities than heterosexuals, and some of these disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test four models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. PMID:26010289
Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul
Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at an increased risk for poorer mental and physical health outcomes than heterosexuals, and some of these health disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test 4 models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Voisin, Dexter R; Tan, Kevin; Diclemente, Ralph J
Sexual sensation seeking has been correlated with STI-related risk factors in numerous cross sectional studies. However, no current studies have examined whether sexual sensation seeking is longitudinally related to a broad spectrum of STI-related factors such as consistent condom use, number of sexual partners, frequency of partner sexual communication, self-efficacy to refuse sex, and fear of condom negotiation. We explored these relationships over a 12-month period among a sample of 715 African American females attending three STI clinics in Georgia that were recruited into a larger randomized clinic intervention study. Utilizing A-CASI technology to assess all self-reported measures and employing general estimation equations while controlling for age, peer norms, school enrollment and employment, major results indicated that higher sexual sensation seeking predicted lower percent of condom use in the last 14 and 60 days, lower consistent condom use and a higher number of lifetime sexual partners. Additionally, higher sexual sensation seeking predicted lower partner sexual communication, diminished self-efficacy to refuse sex, and a higher fear of condom negotiation. Findings suggest that STI/HIV prevention/intervention programs should assess for and target sexual sensation seeking behaviors in such efforts.
Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dodge, Brian; Fortenberry, J Dennis
To provide a foundation for those who provide sexual health services and programs to men in the United States, the need for population-based data that describes men's sexual behaviors and their correlates remains. The purpose of this study was to, in a national probability survey of men ages 18-94 years, assess the occurrence and frequency of sexual behaviors and their associations with relationship status and health status. A national probability sample of 2,522 men aged 18 to 94 completed a cross-sectional survey about their sexual behaviors, relationship status, and health. Relationship status; health status; experience of solo masturbation, partnered masturbation, giving oral sex, receiving oral sex, vaginal intercourse and anal intercourse, in the past 90 days; frequency of solo masturbation, vaginal intercourse and anal intercourse in the past year. Masturbation, oral intercourse, and vaginal intercourse are prevalent among men throughout most of their adult life, with both occurrence and frequency varying with age and as functions of relationship type and physical health status. Masturbation is prevalent and frequent across various stages of life and for both those with and without a relational partner, with fewer men with fair to poor health reporting recent masturbation. Patterns of giving oral sex to a female partner were similar to those for receiving oral sex. Vaginal intercourse in the past 90 days was more prevalent among men in their late 20s and 30s than in the other age groups, although being reported by approximately 50% of men in the sixth and seventh decades of life. Anal intercourse and sexual interactions with other men were less common than all other sexual behaviors. Contemporary men in the United States engage in diverse solo and partnered sexual activities; however, sexual behavior is less common and more infrequent among older age cohorts. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Reitz, Ellen; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan; Dalenberg, Wieke; Dubas, Judith; van Aken, Marcel; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom; van den Eijnden, Regina; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Kunnen, Saskia; Timmerman, Greetje; van Geert, Paul; Deković, Maja
This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to
Reitz, E.; van de Bongardt, D.; Baams, L.; Doornwaard, S.; Dalenberg, W.; Dubas, J.; van Aken, M.; Overbeek, G.; ter Bogt, T.; van der Eijnden, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Kunnen, S.; Timmerman, G.; van Geert, P.; Deković, M.
This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to
Castañeda, Donna Marie
In a sample of 114 Latina/o emerging adults, ages 18 to 29, this study investigated the frequency of sexting, and gender differences in this behavior, and if sexting was related to a range of sexuality variables, including sexual satisfaction, sexual experience, sexual pleasure, and sexual permissiveness. Results show that a total of 63 (55.26%)…
Malone, Jowanna; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Johnson, Blake E; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H; Bazzi, Angela R
Up to two-thirds of new cases of HIV transmission between gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in the USA are attributed to primary relationships. Understanding the relationship dynamics and sexual agreements of male-male couples can provide insight into HIV transmission patterns and prevention needs in this population. The daily use of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV, but its negotiation and use within social and intimate relationship contexts remain understudied. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 male couples (n = 40 men) in which at least one partner was either using or in the process of initiating PrEP. Congruent with a theoretical focus on social theories of relationships and negotiated risk, couples were interviewed about relationship dynamics, trust, communication and sexual health practices, including their perception and use of PrEP. Overall, we found that couples showed heightened trust and communication when establishing open, sexual agreements and demonstrated high awareness of sexual risks and health practices in the context of PrEP use. This study demonstrates how understanding relationship dynamics can better inform HIV prevention and sexual health promotion efforts for male couples at risk of HIV.
Mathy, Robin M.; Olsen, Jorn; Mays, Vickie M.
Objective Minority sexual orientation has been repeatedly linked to elevated rates of suicide attempts. Whether this translates into greater risk for suicide mortality is unclear. We investigated sexual orientation-related differences in suicide mortality in Denmark during the initial 12-year period following legalization of same-sex registered domestic partnerships (RDPs). Method Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. Results Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married. Conclusions Suicide risk appears greatly elevated for men in same-sex partnerships in Denmark. To what extent this is true for similar gay and bisexual men who are not in such relationships is unknown, but these findings call for targeted suicide prevention programs aimed at reducing suicide risk among gay and bisexual men. PMID:20033129
Mathy, Robin M; Cochran, Susan D; Olsen, Jorn; Mays, Vickie M
Minority sexual orientation has been repeatedly linked to elevated rates of suicide attempts. Whether this translates into greater risk for suicide mortality is unclear. We investigated sexual orientation-related differences in suicide mortality in Denmark during the initial 12-year period following legalization of same-sex registered domestic partnerships (RDPs). Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married. Suicide risk appears greatly elevated for men in same-sex partnerships in Denmark. To what extent this is true for similar gay and bisexual men who are not in such relationships is unknown, but these findings call for targeted suicide prevention programs aimed at reducing suicide risk among gay and bisexual men.
Kozak, Rebecca Shoaf; Gushwa, Melinda; Cadet, Tamara J
Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a major public health issue with significant short- and long-term consequences. However, little contemporary research has examined the relationship between CSA and delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence. Children who have been sexually abused experience a unique form of victimization compared to children who have endured other forms of maltreatment, as CSA can result in feelings of shame, powerlessness and boundary violations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CSA on delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence. We examined self-report data at the age 18 interview from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) on measures of sexual abuse experience, and engagement in delinquent and violent behavior in the past year. All participants reported either a history of maltreatment or were identified at-risk based on demographic risk factors. Participants included 368 males and 445 females who self-reported experiences of CSA and delinquent and violent behavior (N = 813). Findings indicated that, when controlling for gender and race, the odds of engagement in delinquent and violent behavior for those who have experienced CSA are 1.7 times higher than for those who have not. Additionally, female victims of CSA were .52 times less likely to engage in violent and delinquent behavior compared to their male counterparts. Further efforts are needed to examine the effects of CSA on violent and delinquent behavior to better guide treatment efforts that prevent juvenile justice involvement.
Wu, Z Helen; Tennen, Howard; Hosain, G M Monawar; Coman, Emil; Cullum, Jerry; Berenson, Abbey B
This study examined the role of stress as a mediator of the relationship between prior drug addiction and current high-risk sexual behaviour. Eight hundred twenty women aged 18 to 30 years, who received care at community-based family planning clinics, were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Sexual Risk Behavior Assessment Schedule. They also completed the brief version of the Self-Control Scale as a measure of problem-solving strategies and measures of recent stressful events, daily hassles and ongoing chronic stress. Regardless of addiction history, stress exposure during the previous 12 months was associated with risky sexual behaviour during the previous 12 months. Structural equation modelling revealed that 12-month stress levels mediated the relationship between past drug addiction and 12-month high-risk sexual behaviours, as well as the negative relationship between problem-solving strategies and high-risk sexual behaviours. Problem-solving strategies did not moderate the relationship between drug addiction and high-risk sexual behaviours. These findings suggest that stress management training may help reduce risky behaviour among young, low-income women. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Minarcik, Jenny; Wetterneck, Chad T.; Short, MARY B.
Background and aims Pornography use has become increasingly common. Studies have shown that individuals who use sexually explicit materials (SEMs) report negative effects (Schneider, 2000b). However, Bridges (2008b) found that couples who use SEM together have higher relationship satisfaction than those who use SEM independently. A further investigation into various types of SEM use in relationships may highlight how SEM is related to various areas of couple satisfaction. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to examine the impact of SEM use related to different relationship dynamics. Methods The current study included a college and Internet sample of 296 participants divided into groups based upon the SEM use in relationships (i.e., SEM alone, SEM use with partner, and no SEM use). Results There were significant differences between groups in relationship satisfaction [F(2, 252) = 3.69, p = .026], intimacy [F(2, 252) = 7.95, p = intimacy [t(174) = 2.76, p = .006] based on the frequency of SEM use. Discussion Further exploration of the SEM use function in couples will provide greater understanding of its role in romantic relationships. PMID:27784182
Zweig, Janine M.; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela
Background: We examined whether substance use, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual experiences vary for teen dating violence victims by the type of violence in their relationships. We compared dating youth who reported no victimization in their relationships to those who reported being victims of intimate terrorism (dating violence involving one…
Kritcharoen, Sureeporn; Suwan, Kobkaew; Jirojwong, Sansnee
To describe patients' and their partners' perceptions of gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality before diagnosis of and after treatment for cervical cancer. Descriptive. Southern Thailand. 97 women with cervical cancer who received cancer treatment, including radiotherapy, and their partners. Structured interview methods were used to gather information relating to gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality. Gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality. Fifty-two percent of the women (n = 50) were diagnosed with stage II cervical cancer. The percentage of women who undertook various activities specific to gender roles before their diagnoses was higher than the percentage who undertook the same activities after treatment. An increased percentage of partners undertook the women's gender-role-specific activities after the women received cancer treatment compared with the percentage who did so before diagnosis. Little change in gender power relationships was reported. A high percentage of the couples reported changes in various aspects of their sexuality after cancer treatment compared with before diagnosis. Gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality changed for women with cervical cancer and their partners after the women completed cancer treatment. Open discussions among women with cervical cancer, their partners, and oncology nurses are necessary to identify culturally sensitive and appropriate solutions.
Full Text Available Recently, the issue of diurnal preferences has been increasingly studied within the context of romantic relationships and sexual functioning. In the present paper we apply a dyadic design to investigate the role of romantic partners' diurnal preferences in determining a variety of relationship outcomes. A sample of 91 heterosexual couples completed a set of questionnaires measuring relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and morningness-eveningness, and answered questions regarding their actual and preferred time for sexual activity. Conducted analyses revealed that similarity in chronotype between partners and female morningness fostered relationship satisfaction in females, but not in males. Furthermore, morningness-eveningness was associated with preferred time for sex in males, but not in females, who in principle preferred evening hours. Although actual time for sex was up to the female preference, sexual satisfaction in both genders was associated with lower discrepancy in their preferred time for sex and greater frequency of intercourse. In sum, these results indicate that chronotype and time for sex are important factors affecting sexual and relationships satisfaction in heterosexual couples.
Flach, Roberta Matassoli Duran; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira
Cyber culture with its related e-commerce, expanded since the 2000s through the advent of social network platforms, incites participants to engage in hyper-exposure and spectacularization of their private lives, with inherent consequences for personal image and privacy, publicizing private matters (especially those pertaining to sexuality and corporality) in the digital media. This raises the need to understand how the phenomenon of cyber dating abuse in affective and sexual relationships is conceptualized and characterized in scientific studies, which health problems are associated with it, and which social technologies are suggested for intervention. This form of abuse is a new expression of intimate partner violence that involves, among other practices, posting embarrassing photos and videos and intimate messages without prior consent, with the purpose of humiliating and defaming the person. The current study is an integrative systematic review, including 35 articles, with a predominance of studies in the United States (22). Types of cyber dating abuse range from direct aggression to stalking. Despite the high prevalence, especially among adolescents and youth, the literature highlights that this type of cyber abuse is often taken for granted. The suggested interventions are mostly for prevention and awareness-raising concerning relationship abuse, action by school counselors, and family orientation. The high reciprocity of cyber dating abuse between males and females indicates that future studies should attempt to elucidate how the dynamics of gender violence are reproduced or subverted by it.
Mullings, J L; Marquart, J W; Brewer, V E
There were two aims in this research. First, to examine the relationships between childhood sexual abuse and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors among female prisoners, and second, to examine the relationship between a marginal adult living context and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behavior among female prisoners. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 500 women at admission to prison in 1994. Differences between women who were sexually abused while growing up (n = 130) were compared to women who reported no sexual abuse (n = 370) along various demographic, and HIV drug and sexual risk taking dimensions. A history of sexual abuse while growing up was associated with increased sexual risk taking behaviors in adulthood. A marginal adult living situation also emerged as an important factor increasing the risk for HIV infection. Examining the co-occurrence of both childhood sexual abuse and adult marginal living context revealed a strong relationship between these two factors and HIV risk taking activities. The findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse may be a predictor for HIV sexual risk taking behaviors among incarcerated women. The marginal and chaotic adult living style of these women was also associated the extent of their HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors. Our research suggests that the co-occurrence of sexual victimization and marginality is a stronger predictor of HIV risk than each variable alone.
Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kristofer; Anastario, Michael P
We examined the relationship between American Indian men's attitudes toward pregnancy prevention, STI/HIV prevention, and sexual risk behavior. Attention was given to: (1) attitudes and intentions to use condoms and sexual risk behavior; (2) STI/HIV prevention characteristics and sexual risk behavior; (3) attitudes toward abstinence and monogamy and sexual risk behavior; and (4) decision-making in relationships and sexual risk behavior. Our sample included 120 heterosexual American Indian men aged 18 to 24 living on a reservation. Data were collected during in-depth interviews. A community-based participatory research framework was used to ensure the relevancy and acceptability of the study given the sensitivity of the topic. Results demonstrated that attitudinal factors were associated with sexual risk behavior, particularly inconsistent condom use. Attitudes associated with consistent condom use suggested greater levels of positive dispositions toward prevention and intention to use condoms. Consistent condom use was associated with more cautious attitudes toward sex with multiple sex partners. Study results suggested that American Indian men who reported sex with multiple partners exhibited a set of attitudes and beliefs toward pregnancy prevention and STI/HIV prevention that corresponded with a disposition resulting from their behaviors, in that engaging in sexual risk behavior elevated their levels of risk perception. Our findings suggest that heterosexual American Indian men living in rural environments need sexual and reproductive health programs and clinical services that address differing attitudes toward condom use within the context of multiple sex partners and sexual risk behavior. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
Despite awareness of the importance of psycho-affective factors in the development of sexual problems, there is a lack of studies exploring the relation of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual compulsivity (SC) to sexual functioning. Because sex differences in SSS and SC have been reported, gender identity (GI; an individual's own experience of his or her gender that is unrelated to the actual biological sex) might act as a moderator in this relation. To understand the role of SSS and SC for men and women's sexual functioning and to explore whether these potential associations are moderated by GI. A population-based cross-sectional online survey targeted 279 individuals (69.2% women, 30.8% men; mean age = 32 years). Validated questionnaires, including the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale, the Sexual Compulsivity Scale, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool, and the International Index of Erectile Function, were applied. Variations in SSS and SC and their association with sexual functioning were investigated using Spearman rank correlation. Moderation analyses were conducted using regression models in which the interaction terms between SSS and GI and between SCS and GI as predictors of sexual functioning were included. A statistically significant correlation between SSS and SC could be detected in men and women (r = 0.41 and 0.33, respectively; P < .001 for the two comparisons). In women, higher levels of SSS were associated with higher levels of desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm and less sexual pain (P < .05 for all comparisons). No moderating effect of GI could be detected. In men, GI was a significant moderator in the relation between SC and erectile function (β = 0.47; P < .001) and between SSS and erectile and ejaculatory function (β = -0.41 and 0.30; P < .001 for the two comparisons). The present study is the first to show a link between SSS and SC and sexual functioning. The results might have important
The lack of concrete scientific data on the sexual behavior of inmates in German prisons is surprising, especially given the extant international scholarship on prison culture and sexual violence. Historically, the most influential publications were Clemmer's "The Prison Community", and Sykes's "The Society of Captives", which both addressed the importance of sexual deprivation and analyzed the impact of sexual victimization on prisoners. Different forms of homosexual contact between inmates include prostitution and "protective pairing", both characterized as "dark" issues--nonconsensual sexual acts--which still have not been scientifically researched. The United States enacted the Prison Rape Elimination Act, 2003, revealing nationwide data on the prevalence of sexual assault within correctional facilities. Prison inmates suffer not only from separation from their spouses or partners, but also from sexual harassment, extortion, and the threat of rape, which has multiple implications for their mental and physical health. This article presents the first German study to record data about the relationships and sexuality of imprisoned men, and was conducted in an adult correctional facility for long-term prisoners in Berlin-Tegel. The survey, which is based on results from a questionnaire taken by voluntary study participants, had a special focus on the occurrence of consensual homoerotic contacts between heterosexual inmates. The emphasis was on the potential impact of such contact on role behavior during confinement, as well as the impact on sexual identity after release. The survey revealed the first data on the incidence and prevalence of sexual violence and coercion within correctional facilities. This article presents the results of this survey for the first time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Witting, Katarina; Varjonen, Markus; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Kenneth Sandnabba, N
This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with equal levels of GAB were created of Finnish participants with either same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and participants without. The measures used were retrospective questionnaires. Ratings of maternal and paternal over-control and coldness differed as a function of same-sex sexual attraction or behavior. Childhood GAB was correlated with negative ratings of parental relationships. Both same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and a history of childhood GAB affected the reported levels of current depression and anxiety. Only gender typical participants with no same-sex sexual attraction or behavior reported significantly lower levels of symptoms. The findings suggest that childhood GAB is related to later distress both among hetero- and homosexual individuals. The elevated level of psychological distress among homosexual individuals, reported in several studies, might--to some extent--be caused by their generally higher levels of childhood GAB as opposed to a homosexual orientation per se.
Wang, Katie; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Biello, Katie B; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Novak, David S; Mimiaga, Matthew J
Despite the high prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and its well-documented association with substance use in adulthood, little research has examined the psychological mechanisms underlying this association. The current study utilized a large, multinational sample of MSM in Latin America to examine the role of distress intolerance (i.e., decreased capacity to withstand negative psychological states) in the relationship between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. As part of an online survey conducted among members of the largest social/sexual networking website for MSM in Latin America, participants (n=19,451) completed measures of childhood sexual abuse history, distress intolerance, and problematic alcohol use (CAGE score>=2). Participants who reported a history of childhood sexual abuse indicated higher levels of distress intolerance, which was in turn associated with greater odds of engaging in problematic alcohol use. A mediation analysis further showed that distress intolerance partially accounted for the significant association between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. These findings provide initial evidence for the role of distress intolerance as a process through which early trauma shapes MSM health later in life. These findings also underscore the potential utility of addressing distress intolerance in alcohol use prevention and intervention efforts that target MSM with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hakimi, Dehnad; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah E; Gobin, Robyn L
This study investigates the effect of race on the relationship between negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure and the psychological sequelae such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and problem drinking in female sexual assault survivors. Using hierarchical regression in an ethnically diverse community sample of 622 female adult sexual assault victims, we assessed for sexual assault; negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure; and symptom severity for PTSD, depression, and problem drinking. Negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosures were significantly associated with negative mental health outcomes across race. Race moderated the influence of negative disclosure reactions on psychological symptoms; however, the moderation was not similar across racial groups and psychological outcome measures. Although Black and White survivors evidenced distress through depression, PTSD, and substance use, Black women who received low to moderate negative reactions to their disclosures of assault were more likely to show increases in PTSD and depression whereas high negative reactions to disclosure were related to higher PTSD and depression similarly for both Black and White women. In addition, Black and White women who experienced more negative social reactions had greater substance abuse, with no difference by race. The results provide further support for detrimental effects of negative reactions on Black and White survivors and highlight the importance of educating people in the community about sexual assault and how to respond in more supportive ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
The following article discusses the relationship between the model of intellectual disability and the attitudes towards sexuality of people with disabilities. This correlation has been verified during the author's own research conducted on students of several medical faculties such as nursing, public health, emergency medical services and physiotherapy. Tools of the author's design have been used in the research. Likert-type scale "Perspective of intellectual disability" has been used to determine the model of disability seen from the medical (individual) or social perspective. To examine the attitudes towards sexuality two tools of the author's own design have been used: a Likert-type scale "The essence of sexuality in persons with an intellectual disability" which has been used to analyze the cognitive aspect of the attitudes, and a semantic differential with notions concerning physical and psychosocial aspects of sexuality including the affective-evaluative aspect. As expected, significant correlations have been found between the model and the attitudes both in the cognitive and the affective-evaluative aspect. Higher scores for the individual model correlated with: (a) lover scores for most aspects of sexuality of people with intellectual disability, (b) perceiving them as asexual, (c) biological determinism in the sexual sphere. The social model concurred with positive values given to sexuality of people with intellectual disability and its normalization in the sphere of its determinants and symptoms.
Full Text Available This study assessed the influence of television, parent-child relationship and adolescents’ cognitions overthe intentions to engage in sexual activity during adolescence. Sample consisted of 231 high-school students(116 women and 115 men, between 12 and 18 years old, from low, middle and high socioeconomicstatus. A self-report questionnaire was used to gather information on the study’s variables. Correlationand regression analysis show that intentions are determined by personal attitudes and subjective norm,thus supporting the Theory of Planned Behavior. Sexual self-efficacy was not a significant predictor ofthe intentions to engage in sexual activity during adolescence. Some variables related to TV were found tobe strong determinants of personal attitudes toward sexual activity during adolescence. The findings arediscussed with implications for actions by parents, educators and those responsible of TV policies.
Popular socio-medical discourses surrounding the sexuality of disabled people have tended to subjugate young people with disabilities as de-gendered and asexual. As a result, very little attention has been given to how young people with disabilities in the African context construct their sexual identities. Based on findings from a participatory research study conducted amongst Zulu-speaking youth with physical and visual disabilities in KwaZulu-Natal, this paper argues that young people with disabilities are similar to other non-disabled youth in the way they construct their sexual identities. Using a post-structural framework, it outlines how the young participants construct discursive truths surrounding disability, culture and gender through their discussions of love and relationships. In this context, it is argued that the sexual identities' of young people with physical and visual disabilities actually emerges within the intersectionality of identity discourses.
Michielsen, Kristien; Remes, Pieter; Rugabo, John; Van Rossem, Ronan; Temmerman, Marleen
This study aimed to gain more insight into young Rwandans' perceptions on sex and relationships, which is essential for formulating effective sexual and reproductive health (SRH) promotion interventions. Using a 'mailbox technique', this paper studies the spontaneous thoughts of Rwandan young people on sexuality. Mailboxes were installed in five secondary schools in the Bugesera district and students were invited to write about their ideas, secrets, wishes, desires and fears on sexuality and relationships. Of the 186 letters collected, 154 addressed SRH topics. The letters were analysed in NVivo 9 using a theoretical model on vulnerability. Two stereotypical sexual interactions co-exist: experimental sex, taking place unprepared, driven by desire among young people of the same age, and transactional sex, occurring after negotiation between older men/women and younger girls/boys in exchange for money or goods. Both types expose young people to poor, though different, SRH outcomes. Young people have little capacity to manage their vulnerability in these relationships: they have limited knowledge on SRH topics, lack adult guidance or support and have difficult access to condoms. They apply seemingly contradictory norms and behaviours concerning sexuality. In conclusion, we have formulated several recommendations for SRH interventions.
Olsen, Marie Veisegaard
The article explores how the sexual relationships and working lives of free Afro-Caribbean women in the town of Christiansted, St. Croix, the Danish-Norwegian West Indies, were affected by discourses of race and gender during the period c. 1780–1820. To further the understanding of the conditions...... of the free Afro-Caribbean women in Christiansted, the article relates to the situation in other Caribbean colonies, especially the British West Indies, based on the assumption that it was the same discourses of race and gender that swept through all the Caribbean slave societies. In its approach, the article...... is inspired by concepts of race and gender in postcolonial studies. The investigation shows the prevalence in the Danish-Norwegian West Indies of discourses of Afro-Caribbean women as, on the one hand, unwomanly and physically strong and, on the other hand, promiscuous and of easy virtue. On this basis...
Riggle, Ellen D B; Drabble, Laurie; Veldhuis, Cindy B; Wootton, Angie; Hughes, Tonda L
Support from family of origin is important to the health and wellbeing of sexual minority women (SMW) and structural stigma may impact that support. The recent extension of marriage rights to same-sex couples in all U.S. states provided an opportunity to examine whether this change in law would impact the relationship of SMW with their families of origin regarding their same-sex relationships, including marriage. Interviews with 20 SMW were conducted to learn about their perceptions of how support from families of origin had been impacted by or changed since the U.S. Supreme Court decision (Obergefell v. Hodges, 135 S. Ct. 2584, 2015). Thematic analysis of the narrative responses revealed stories of continued family support; increases in acceptance or support; mixed support/rejection or unclear messages; "don't ask, don't tell" or silence; and continued or increased family rejection. Most participant narratives included more than one theme. Implications for SMW's health and relationships are discussed.
Arcos-Romero, Ana Isabel; Moyano, Nieves; Sierra, Juan Carlos
dysfunction. The ORS is an appropriate measure for its use for both research and clinical purposes. As limitations, quota sampling implies that the extent to which the results can be generalized is modest. Measurement invariance did not reach the level of weak invariance, and it was not tested across sexual orientation because most individuals identified themselves as heterosexual. The ORS is a multidimensional measure of the subjective experience of orgasm which has adequate psychometric properties; it is a reliable and valid scale. Arcos-Romero AI, Moyano N, Sierra JC. Psychometric Properties of the Orgasm Rating Scale in Context of Sexual Relationship in a Spanish Sample. J Sex Med 2018;15:741-749. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mahdoodizaman, Morteza; Razaghi, Samira; Amirsardari, Lili; Hobbi, Omran; Ghaderi, Davod
The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between cognitive distortions and attribution styles among divorce applicant couples and its impact on sexual satisfaction. It was a cross-sectional study and its statistical samples were 55 divorce applicant couples (110 individuals) referred to Urmia courts, Urmia, Iran, from 2012 to 2013. The required data were gathered by interpersonal cognitive distortions, Larson sexual satisfaction and attribution style questionnaire. The findings of the research indicated the existence of a significant relationship between attribution styles for pleasant events and cognitive distortions. The results showed that an increasing amount of pleasant events reduces cognitive distortions among the divorce applicant couples (P divorced couples. As stable-unstable variables increase (P factors affecting satisfaction or dissatisfaction in couples who are living together (sexual satisfaction is one of its main elements).
Muldoon, Katherine A; Deering, Kathleen N; Feng, Cindy X; Shoveller, Jean A; Shannon, Kate
There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, "An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access" (AESHA), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence against Women Scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI: 0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for innovation and inclusive programming tailored to sex workers and their non-commercial intimate partnerships.
Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy J.; Ochoa, Yesenia
With the advent of the "Dear Colleague" letter in 2011, higher education institutions have become focused on sexual assault and related policies, procedures regarding offenses, and prevention education. Institutions should consider using this spotlight on interpersonal dynamics to increase awareness about other types of relationship…
Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.
The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching
Billings, Jenny R.; Hashem, Ferhana; Macvarish, Jan
This document reports on the findings from a project exploring teenage looked-after children’s views of sex and relationships education and sexual health services. Commissioned and funded by the Kent Teenage Pregnancy Partnership, this project formed part of a larger programme of study on teenage pregnancy that took place across Kent between 2004 and 2007.
Dong, Maxia; Anda, Robert F.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.; Felitti, Vincent J.
This retrospective cohort study assessed the relationship of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to other categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and parental separation/divorce. Adults reporting CSA experienced a 1.6- to 3.4-fold greater likelihood of experience each category of ACE. The ACE score was also…
Wiegerink, D.J.H.G.; Roebroeck, M.E.; Donkervoort, M.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Stam, H.J.
Objective: To describe the social, intimate and sexual relationships of Dutch adolescents with cerebral palsy compared with their able-bodied age mates. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 103 adolescents with cerebral palsy without severe learning problems aged 16-20 years. Methods:
Wiegerink, D.J.H.G.; Stam, H.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Roebroeck, M.E.
Purpose: To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. Method: A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP,
Wiegerink, D.J.H.G.; Roebroeck, M.E.; van der Slot, W.M.A.; Stam, H.J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.
Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the peer group activities, romantic relationships, and sexual activity and their interrelations of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A cross-sectional study was performed in 87 participants (51 males, 36 females; mean age 20y 4mo, SD 1y 3mo
Leigh, B C
Recent psychosocial research on alcohol expectancies--beliefs about the effects of alcohol on behavior, moods and emotions--has suggested that these expectancies mediate not only decisions about drinking but the alcohol effects displayed by those who have been drinking. Results of a study of drinking and sexual behavior showed that individuals of different gender and sexual orientation differed in their beliefs about the effects of alcohol on sexual responding. In addition, expectations of sexual enhancement and disinhibition were related to the initiation of sexual activity and to the proportion of sexual encounters that took place while drinking, and interacted with sex guilt to predict the amount drunk in the most recent sexual encounter. These results suggest that beliefs about the effects of alcohol on sex may affect the characteristics of sexual encounters that involve drinking.
Christopher Quinn-Nilas, MA
Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest important linkages between body image and sexual functioning constructs and indicates that interventions to improve body image could have concomitant benefits related to sexual experience.
McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada
Formal sex education is a key strategy to help prevent unplanned teenage pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, sexual abuse and social discrimination. However, research highlights human sexuality is a difficult issue for educators to communicate with young people in traditional class settings. The growing tendency for young adolescents to…
Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.
The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behavior…
Bittner, Martin; Wittfeld, Meike
The article takes its starting point from the current debate on sexual violence in educational institutions. It follows an ethnographic perspective without observing sexual violence directly, arguing that doing so is ethically impossible. Instead it suggests deducing risks for sexual violence through the limits of pedagogical practices. Discussing…
Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline
Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. © The Author(s) 2015.
Shoko, Mercy; Ibisomi, Latifat; Levin, Jonathan; Ginsburg, Carren
SummaryThis study examined the relationship between orphanhood status, living arrangements and sexual debut. The study is important in the context of southern Africa, where a substantial number of children live apart from their parents because the parent is dead or living elsewhere, and where female adolescents face disproportionate sexual and reproductive health risks. Data for female adolescents were taken from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in seven southern African countries. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios of sexual debut were estimated using Cox Proportional Hazard models. The results from multivariate analyses showed that non-co-residence with biological parents was significantly associated with higher risk of sexual debut in five of the seven countries. Using pooled data, the results showed that father absence was associated with higher risk of sexual debut - whether the father was deceased or living elsewhere. Interventions to delay sexual debut among female adolescents should seek to promote father-adolescent co-residence and improve access to education.
Sean D Young
Full Text Available Online social networking usage is growing rapidly, especially among at-risk populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM. However, little research has studied the relationship between online social networking usage and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk populations. One hundred and eighteen Facebook-registered MSM (60.1% Latino, 28% African American; 11.9% other were recruited from online (social networking websites and banner advertisements and offline (local clinics, restaurants and organizations venues frequented by minority MSM. Inclusion criteria required participants to be men who were 18 years of age or older, had had sex with a man in the past 12 months, were living in Los Angeles, and had a Facebook account. Participants completed an online survey on their social media usage and sexual risk behaviors. Results from a multivariable regression suggest that number of sexual partners met from online social networking technologies is associated with increased: 1 likelihood of having exchanged sex for food, drugs, or a place to stay within the past 3 months; 2 number of new partners within the past 3 months; 3 number of male sex partners within the past 3 months; and 4 frequency of engaging in oral sex within the past 3 months, controlling for age, race, education, and total number of sexual partners. Understanding the relationship between social media sex-seeking and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk populations will help inform population-focused HIV prevention and treatment interventions.
Woo, Jane S T; Morshedian, Negar; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B
Research has examined the relationship between religiosity and sexuality but few studies have explored the mechanisms by which sexual variables are influenced by religiosity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of sex guilt in the relationship between religiosity and sexual desire in women. Euro-Canadian (n = 178) and East Asian (n = 361) female university students completed a battery of questionnaires. Higher levels of religious fundamentalism, intrinsic religiosity and spirituality were associated with higher levels of sex guilt in both ethnic groups. Paranormal belief was not associated with sex guilt in either ethnic group. The Euro-Canadian women reported significantly higher levels of sexual desire and significantly less sex guilt than the East Asian women. Among the Euro-Canadian women, sex guilt mediated the relationships between spirituality and sexual desire, and fundamentalism and sexual desire; among the East Asian women, sex guilt mediated the relationships between spirituality and sexual desire, fundamentalism and sexual desire, and intrinsic religiosity and sexual desire. These findings suggest that sex guilt may be one mechanism by which religiosity affects sexual desire among women.
Pelekanos, Michael; Stofman, Guy M; Niren, Neil
The aim of this investigation was to determine, through two Investigational Review Board (IRB)-approved studies, if a new topical vasodilating cream (NTVC; Life Science Enhancement Corporation, Pittsburgh PA) could improve female sexual response. Study I subjectively evaluated sexual female response as accessed by a modification of the Female Intervention Efficacy Index (FIEI). FIEI was developed at the University of California as an immediate outcome measure of medical intervention to treat female sexual dysfunction.1 In Study II, 10 randomly selected positive responders from Study I were subsequently analyzed objectively with clitoral plethysmography in order to determine the effect of the NTVC and placebo on blood flow.2 RESULTS: In the subjective Study I (81 patients ranging in age from 18 to 63), a positive response trend for the NTVC was demonstrated compared to the placebo. In the objective Study II, 10 randomly selected patients who responded positive in Study I were objectively evaluated for response of increased blood flow in the clitoris after application of both the NTVC and placebo. The clitoral blood flow was shown to have increased with statistical significance for the NTVC in all 10 patients compared to the placebo, with the NTVC exhibiting an average 69% increase in clitoral blood flow. The female sexual response is complex. In the subjective Study I, the NTVC demonstrated positive trends for enhanced lubrication, genital sensation, intercourse, and overall sexual experience. In the objective Study II, 10 of the positive subjective responders from Study I were randomly selected to evaluate their response to the NTVC compared to the placebo. This was done via Doppler plethysmography (DP). All 10 patients demonstrated a statistically significant response rate for increase in clitoral blood flow using the NTVC compared to the placebo, with an average blood flow increase of 69%. This portion of the investigation demonstrates a significant positive end
Berten, Hans; Van Rossem, Ronan
Most studies on sexual behavior have approached the relationship between AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior unidirectionally. This paper sets out to examine a reciprocal relationship between AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior, in which it is possible that adolescents who enter into sexuality may start to actively seek out information on sex. Additionally, the effects of various sources for AIDS-related information and condom use are analyzed. Data from the Flemish Educational Assessment project, which surveyed a sample of adolescents from the 3rd and 5th years of secondary school, were used. Results indicate that the relationship between AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior is quite complex. On one hand, we find that better knowledge leads to a later onset of sexuality and more consistent condom use; on the other hand, we find that adolescents who start sex earlier and use condoms inconsistently tend to be more knowledgeable about AIDS.
Pharr, Jennifer; Enejoh, Victor; Mavegam, Bertille Octavie; Olutola, Ayodotun; Karick, Haruna; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
HIV/AIDS knowledge has been rated as the most important factor for HIV prevention. However, studies have also shown that knowledge alone does not always translate into reduced risky sexual behavior (RSB). Health locus of control (HLC) categorized as perceived control over health status (internal locus of control) or attribution of health status to chance or fate (external health locus of control) is a psychological construct that has been shown to impact health outcomes including RSB. This study thus investigated the relationship between HLC and RSB among Nigerian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey design was employed among 361 adolescents from nine senior secondary schools selected through stratified random sampling from Jos, Plateau State Nigeria. Data were collected between August and October of 2008. Health Locus of Control Scale was used to categorize individuals into having either an internal or external HLC. RSB was assessed using the Brief HIV Screener (BHS). Descriptive statistics were computed and Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine differences in BHS scores by HLC categories. Odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for individual BHS question responses based on HLC. Participants were 169 males (46.8%) and 192 females (53.2%) with a mean age of 16.9. When grouped into HLC categories, 141 were internal and 220 were external. The mean score on the BHS showed statistically significant difference based on HLC (p=0.01). Odds for using a condom during sexual intercourse were higher for adolescents with an internal HLC while adolescents with an external HLC had significantly higher RSB scores. Prevention programs targeted at adolescents should also aim to internalize their HLC.
Full Text Available Introduction: Youth from low-income, urban backgrounds face significant challenges to maintaining a positive developmental trajectory. Dangerous neighborhoods and stressed relationships are common in these settings and threaten adaptation by weakening the natural assets that undergird resilience. African American girls in these contexts face specific, multiple risks, including gender stereotyping, violence, and sexual exploitation. The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC is a multibillion-dollar industry victimizing over 1 million children around the globe.1 The typical victim in 1 city in the southeastern United States is an African American girl 12-14 years old. There has been little research investigating the characteristics of girls placed at risk for CSEC and even less research on the personal perspectives of these girls. Methods: Over 3 school terms we provided preventive intervention groups for 36 African American middle school girls who were placed at risk because they lived in neighborhoods with high rates of interpersonal violence and CSEC. Two group leaders and a process recorder took detailed notes on each group session. Our focus on group conversations over a period of weeks increased the probability of recording spontaneous, open comments by the children and is a promising method with this population. The data were analyzed qualitatively and resulted in an account of the girls’ own views of the environmental challenges and personal experiences that may influence their development.Results: The girls’ language during the group sessions contained 4 themes: difficulty forming trusting relationships, frequent peer aggression, familiarity with adult prostitution, and sexuality as a commodity.Conclusion: Our research shows how girls placed at risk for CSEC view their own lives. These children described violence and sexual exploitation and cited limited supports to protect them from these risks. Understanding the
Kiani Asiabar A.
Full Text Available Background: Sexual function in women may be affected by their menstrual cycle. Lack of sexual drive is a deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity. This study aims at determining the changes in sexual desire during the menstrual cycle and those associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS and evaluates sexual desire during the menstrual cycle and the associated changes with PMS. Methods: The sample for this cross-sectional study includes 150 women employed in factories in Tehran. The instruments for data collection were questionnaires and journals of premenstrual experiences.Results: Analysis of the data showed that the mean age of the subjects was 31 years standard deviation = 8.46(. The most frequent decrease in sexual desire was during the week prior to the start of menstrual bleeding (27.3% and the least frequent was from the end of bleeding to one week before the next period of menstrual bleeding (5.3%. In 24.7% of the cases, an increase in sexual desire occurred during the middle of the menstrual cycle and 27.3% during the course of menstrual bleeding. Moreover, 10.7% of the subjects had an increase in sexual desire during the week before bleeding. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between changes in sexual desire and PMS (p<0.001. In addition, a positive correlation was found between changes in sexual desire and breast tenderness, joint and muscle pain. Conclusions: The sexual desire of women, with or without PMS, changes during the menstrual cycle. The greatest decrease in sexual desire occurs during the first week before menstrual bleeding in women with PMS. Such information can greatly help toward understanding and treatment in sexual therapy for couples.
Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela
We examined whether substance use, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual experiences vary for teen dating violence victims by the type of violence in their relationships. We compared dating youth who reported no victimization in their relationships to those who reported being victims of intimate terrorism (dating violence involving one physically violent and controlling perpetrator) and those who reported experiencing situational couple violence (physical dating violence absent the dynamics of power and control). This was a cross-sectional survey of 3745 dating youth from 10 middle and high schools in the northeastern United States, one third of whom reported physical dating violence. In general, teens experiencing no dating violence reported less frequent substance use, higher psychosocial adjustment, and less sexual activity than victims of either intimate terrorism or situational couple violence. In addition, victims of intimate terrorism reported higher levels of depression, anxiety, and anger/hostility compared to situational couple violence victims; they also were more likely to report having sex, and earlier sexual initiation. Youth who experienced physical violence in their dating relationships, coupled with controlling behaviors from their partner/perpetrator, reported the most psychosocial adjustment issues and the earliest sexual activity. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Kahn, Rachel E; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen
Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents' sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55 % male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior.
de Jager, J; Wolters, H A; Pijnenborg, G H M
Research has shown that young adults with psychotic disorders frequently have problems relating to sexuality, intimacy and relationships. Such problems are often neglected in clinical practice. To perform a study that explores, on the basis of focus groups, how issues such as sexuality, intimacy and relationships can be addressed as part of the treatment of adolescents suffering from a psychotic disorder. We created eight focus groups consisting of clients attending the department of psychotic disorders and caregivers who worked there. The meetings of each focus group were fully transcribed and analysed by means of Nvivo. Clients indicated they wanted to address the topics of sexuality, intimacy and relationships in a group setting. They expressed the wish to have mixed gender groups and decided that in the group discussions the main focus should be on the exchange of personal experiences. In our view, it is desirable that psychiatry should pay more attention to the subject of sexuality. By giving adolescents suffering from psychotic disorders the opportunity to discuss their experiences, problems and feelings of insecurity in a group setting and in a low-threshold environment, psychiatrists can greatly improve the quality of care that they provide for their patients.
Nicksa, Sarah C
This research examines bystander willingness to report three different crimes to the police or campus authorities among a college student sample (n = 295). Twelve original vignettes varied anonymity when reporting, bystander's relationship with the offender (friend or stranger), and crime type. A factorial analysis of variance showed that main effects were found for crime type, bystander's gender, and bystander's relationship with the offender; anonymity was not significant. The physical assault was the most likely to be reported (4.47), followed by theft (3.26), and sexual assault (2.36). Women were more likely than men to report each crime type, and bystanders who were good friends of the offender were less likely to report than strangers. No two- or three-way interactions were significant, but a significant four-way interaction indicated that anonymity, relationship with the offender, and bystander's gender predicted willingness to report for the sexual assault scenario.
Closson, Elizabeth F.; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Srivastava, Ankur; Safren, Steven A.; Anand, Vivek Raj; Gangakhedkar, Raman
Behaviourally bisexual men have been identified as a ‘bridge’ population of HIV transmission to heterosexual women in India. Little is known about the sexual relationships that these men have with their female sex partners. The primary objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices and relationship dynamics between married and unmarried behaviourally bisexual men and their female sex partners in Mumbai, India. In 2009, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 men who reported sex with men and women. Participants discussed a variety of sexual practices and arrangements with female sex partners. Irrespective of marital status and sexual identity, many said that they had satisfying sexual experiences and feelings of affection for female sex partners. However, sexual incompatibility between married partners was also reported. Explanations of bisexual concurrency were discussed in terms of both sexual satisfaction and sexual preference. Self-perceived HIV risk related to same-sex sexual behaviour motivated many men to use condoms with female partners. Expectations of unprotected marital sex and perceptions of partner risk were barriers to condom use. HIV prevention programmes for this population may benefit from tailored risk reduction counselling that attend to the variations of these sexual and social relationship dynamics. PMID:24815724
Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.
Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic fre...
Hartmans, Carien; Comijs, Hannie; Jonker, Cees
Investigating whether cognitive functioning is associated with the perception of one's sexuality in old age. Cross-sectional analysis, using observation cycle 2005/2006 of the population-based prospective cohort of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Municipal registries in three Dutch regions. 1,908 older adults (mean [standard deviation] age: 71 [8.87] years; 54% women). Sexuality and intimacy were assessed using four questions. Four cognitive domains were assessed: general cognitive functioning (Mini-Mental State Examination), memory performance (Auditory Verbal Learning Test), processing speed (Coding Task), and fluid intelligence (Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices). Multinomial regression analysis was used, with sexuality as outcome. The interaction effect between gender and sexuality was also tested. Lower fluid intelligence was associated with perceiving sexuality as unimportant; lower general cognitive functioning was associated with perceiving sexuality as unimportant; and lower immediate memory recall was associated with evaluating sexual life as unpleasant. Associations were also found between lower fluid intelligence, processing speed, and general cognitive functioning, and agreeing with sexuality no longer being important. Lower processing speed, general cognitive functioning, and delayed memory recall were associated with disagreeing with a remaining need for intimacy when getting older. Finally, the association between fluid intelligence and perceiving sexuality as important, and the association between immediate memory recall score and evaluating sexual life as pleasant, was only significant in women. The association between lower general cognitive functioning and perceiving sexuality as unimportant seemed stronger in women compared with men. Higher cognitive functioning was associated with the way in which older people perceive their current sexuality. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier
Mellinger, Christopher; Levant, Ronald F
Masculinity has been found to predict the sexual prejudice of heterosexual men against gay men. The present study investigated the role of four variables as moderators of the relationships between two masculinity constructs (endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and gender role conflict) and sexual prejudice in men. The hypothesized moderators were: direct and indirect friendships with gay men, gender self-esteem, acknowledged same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism. A total of 383 men completed 8 scales plus a demographic questionnaire. Direct friendship strengthened the positive relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice, contrary to hypothesis. This finding could mean that high masculinity ideology scores reduced the likelihood that a man with many gay friends would let go of his prejudice. Direct friendship did not moderate the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice nor did indirect friendship moderate either relationship; however, both forms of friendship predicted prejudice, as hypothesized. Gender self-esteem strengthened the positive relationships between both masculinity variables and sexual prejudice as hypothesized. Same-sex attraction weakened the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice as hypothesized, but contrary to hypothesis did not moderate the relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice. Religious fundamentalism predicted prejudice, but showed no significant moderation. The results were discussed in terms of limitations and suggestions for future research and application. In conclusion, this line of investigation appears promising and should be continued and the present findings can be utilized in anti-prejudice social marketing campaigns and in counseling.
Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Khani, Somayeh; Kazemi, Farideh; Kalhori, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Reyhaneh; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah
Infertile couples only think of having children during their sexual intercourse, and their constant concern about this issue increases their stress level. Psychosocial and social stress leads to decreased life satisfaction, increased marital problems, and reduced sexual confidence. This study aims to determine the effect of enrichment program on marital and sexual satisfaction as well as marital intimacy among infertile couples. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 infertile couples in 2013 in Hamedan. The marital relationship enrichment program was taught to the experimental group during seven 90 minutes sessions. Enrich marital satisfaction, Linda Berg sexual satisfaction, and marital intimacy questionnaires were completed by both groups in 3 pretest steps immediately after the end of training sessions, and 8 weeks later. The results were analyzed in STATA11 software using t test, Chi-square, ANCOVA, RM-ANOVA, and Bonferroni post-hoc test. To check the data normality, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. Pintimacy immediately after the test (P=0.04) and 8 weeks after the test (Pintimacy and also marital and sexual satisfaction in infertile couples (Registration Number: IRCT201604299014N97). Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.
Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Steiner, Jennifer L; Cyders, Melissa A
Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (α=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, pnegative expectancies (F=36.65, p=0.02 sending, F=14.41, pnegative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks.
Full Text Available Background: Cervical favoring or ripening which is evaluated by Bishop score is an importantfactor for predicting the type of delivery, especially at the induction of labor. Higher bishop scorepredicts more vaginal delivery and reduction of cesarean. The present study is designed to assess theeffect of intercourse during the last four weeks of pregnancy on cervical ripening for giving birth.Material and Method: In this case-control study, cases were included 74 primigravid women withunriped cervix (Bishop4.The two groups were referred for vaginal delivery at term and compared based on times of intercourseand experiencing orgasm during the last four weeks of pregnancy. The data were collected byexamination and interview using a checklist.Results: Case and control group were matched based on age, job and economic situation. Meantimes of intercourse were 1.8±2.3 and 3.1±3.2 in case and control groups, respectively. Mann-Whitneyu test showed that the control group reported more intercourse than the case group in the last fourweeks of pregnancy, significantly (P<0.01, Z=2.8. In case group, 41 persons (55.4% and in thecontrol 72 persons (70.2% experienced orgasm during intercourse. This difference was alsosignificant.Conclusions: According to the results of this study, sexual relationship and orgasm in the last fourweeks of pregnancy are related to cervical favoring and so declining cesarean.
Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Cleland, John
This paper describes perceptions of the societal acceptability and acceptability among peers of different types of premarital heterosexual relationships in Iran. Sources of variation in subjective norms are assessed. Results derive from a survey conducted in 2005 of a representative sample of 1743 female college students from four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran using two-stage random cluster sampling. An anonymous pilot-tested questionnaire was used. Respondents displayed remarkable heterogeneity and ambiguity concerning the social acceptability of premarital heterosexual friendship, dating and physical contact, but expressed greater certainty about the unacceptability of premarital sex. The majority (77.5%) reported that premarital sex was socially prohibited, while about one third (33.1%) were unsure about the social acceptability of having a boyfriend and dating before marriage. Peer norms were perceived to be more liberal but, nevertheless, very few peers were thought to be in favour of premarital intercourse. Older students, those with educated fathers and those studying in a mixed-sex university perceived norms to be more liberal than their counterparts. Access to satellite television, a major source of exposure to new information and values about sexuality, was a major predictor of liberal peer norms. It appears that a significant proportion of young people in Tehran have broken with tradition with regard to premarital social interaction and romantic friendships, but the majority still conforms to traditional cultural and religious values regarding abstinence before marriage.
Edwards, Katie M; Sessarego, Stephanie N; Stanley, Linda R; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Eckstein, Robert P; Rodenhizer, Kara Anne E; Leyva, P Caroline; Banyard, Victoria L
This article describes recently developed instruments that assess school personnel's bystander barriers and intentions in situations of teen relationship abuse, sexual assault, and sexual harassment, as well as perceptions of school readiness specific to relationship abuse, sexual assault, and sexual harassment prevention and response. Participants were 1,150 high school personnel from 25 schools in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Maine. Specific instruments focused on bystander intentions, bystander action, barriers to bystander action, and perceptions of school readiness. Participants were randomly divided into two groups for analysis-the exploratory sample (ES; n = 575) and the confirmatory sample (CS; n = 575). Overall, the measures demonstrated acceptable fit indices. Results suggested that most measures and subscales had adequate reliability, but a few subscales had less than ideal internal consistency, which can likely be attributed to the small number of items. More work is needed, but these measures act as a starting point by which the role of school personnel in prevention initiatives and bystander intervention can be evaluated.
Santaularia, Jeanie; Johnson, Monica; Hart, Laurie; Haskett, Lori; Welsh, Ericka; Faseru, Babalola
Sexual assault is a traumatic event with potentially devastating lifelong effects on physical and mental health. Research has demonstrated that individuals who experience sexual assault during childhood are more likely to engage in risky behaviors later in life, such as smoking, alcohol and drug use, and disordered eating habits, which may increase the risk of developing a chronic disease. Despite the high prevalence and economic burden of sexual assault, few studies have investigated the associations between sexual violence and chronic health conditions in the US. The purpose of this study is to identify associations between sexual violence and health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions and mental health conditions utilizing population based data in Kansas. Secondary analysis was done using data from the 2011 Kansas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System sexual violence module (N = 4,886). Crude and adjusted prevalence rate ratios were computed to examine associations between sexual assault and health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions and mental health conditions, overall and after adjusting for social demographic characteristics. Additional logistic regression models were implemented to examine the association between sexual assault and health risk behaviors with further adjustment for history of anxiety or depression. There was a significantly higher prevalence of health risk behaviors (heavy drinking, binge drinking and current smoking), chronic health conditions (disability, and current asthma) and mental health conditions (depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation) among women who ever experienced sexual assault compared to women who did not, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Study findings highlight the need for chronic disease prevention services for victims of sexual violence. There are important implications for policies and practices related to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, as well as collaborations
This study examined the relationship between master of social work programs' (MSW) support of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people (LGBT-competence) and the sexual minority competence (LGB-competence) of social work students. Data were gathered from a sample of MSW program directors, faculty members, and students (N = 1385) within 34 MSW programs in the United States. A series of hierarchical linear models tested if a MSW program's LGBT-competence was associated with the LGB-competence of its students. Results showed a significant relationship between organizational LGBT-competence and individual LGB-competence within schools of social work, and that programs with greater LGBT-competence also had students who felt more competent to work with sexual minorities. These findings suggest schools of social work can take substantive action at an organizational level to improve the professional LGB-competence of future social workers. Implications for social work education are discussed.
Noroozi, Mahnaz; Taleghani, Fariba; Merghati-Khoei, Effat Sadat; Tavakoli, Mahgol; Gholami, Ali
Sexual behaviors of adolescents and youth are categorized as one of the main health priorities of a society because of high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and unwanted pregnancies. Family is an important environment that is associated with a range of social and emotional behaviors of children. This study was aimed at explaining the actions and functions of families in youths' engagement in sexual relations. Twenty-six single males and females of 18-24 years who were living in Isfahan participated in this qualitative research study. The participants had begun to have some form of sexual activities. Twelve other participants including parents, teachers, school counselors, clinical psychologists, family counselors, and health care providers also took part in the study. Data collection method was based on semi-structured interview and observing the sexual actions and interactions of youths at different levels. In order to analyze the data, the researcher used constant comparison analysis of investigation. The results showed that five main concepts are involved in the formation of sexual relations before marriage, including "parents' child-rearing practices", "parents' interactions", "children's economic support", "religious beliefs," and "sexual awareness". Based on the prominent role of the family in shaping sexual relations before marriage, it is necessary to educate and support families and also revise the neglected aspects.
Holzer, Sarah R.; Uppala, Saritha; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Simonich, Heather
Objective: To examine the mediational significance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the development of eating disorder symptomatology following sexually traumatic experiences. Method: Seventy-one victims of sexual trauma and 25 control subjects completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating disorder psychopathology and…
Baumgartner, S.; Sumter, S.; Valkenburg, P.; Peter, J.
The aim of this study was to investigate developmental pathways of online sexual risk behavior from early to late adolescence. Moreover, this study examined how these trajectories are related to negative online experiences, such as online sexual solicitation, online harassment, and online
Conclusions: The results showed a correlation between women's personality characteristics and their sexual self-esteem. Paying attention to personality characteristics may be important to identify at-risk group or the women having low sexual self-esteem in premarital and family counseling.
Bingham, Shereen G.; Burleson, Brant R.
Develops and assesses the validity of a self-report measure of sexual harassment proclivities in men. Demonstrates the validity of the scale by its moderate correlations with attitude measures relevant to sexual harassment, its nonsignificant correlation with the need to provide socially desirable responses, and by showing that potential victims…
Ahrens, Courtney E; Aldana, Erendira
A growing body of research suggests that the type of social reactions sexual assault survivors receive from others can have a profound impact on their health and well-being. Far less is known about the impact of social reactions on the ensuing relationship between survivors and the people to whom they disclose. The current study sought to address this gap in the literature by examining the impact of disclosure on survivors' relationships with friends, family members, and romantic partners. A total of 76 rape survivors described 153 different disclosures to informal support providers. Qualitative analysis suggested that most relationships either were strengthened or remained strong following the disclosure, but a substantial number of survivors described relationships that deteriorated or remained poor following the disclosure. These outcomes were related to the quality of the relationship prior to the disclosure and to survivors' perceptions of the reactions they received during the disclosure. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.
Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul
Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals’ internalized homophobia and their friend’s sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities (N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend’s sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities’ resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research. PMID:26380836
Shrier, Lydia A; Blood, Emily A
Sexual desire and emotional intimacy are central to relationships, yet little is known about how these feelings vary within and between partners or relate to dyad functioning. We explored magnitude and stability of momentary sexual desire and emotional intimacy in relation to quality and functioning of heterosexual relationships. After reporting perceived relationship quality and physical intimacy enjoyment, members of 18 emerging adult heterosexual couples reported momentary partner-specific sexual desire and emotional intimacy several times a day for two weeks (2,224 reports). Mean and mean squared successive difference (MSSD) characterized magnitude and stability, respectively, of the momentary states. Regression models of relationship outcomes examined influence of the male versus female partner having greater or more stable desire and intimacy. Sexual desire and emotional intimacy magnitude and stability were associated with relationship quality and physical intimacy enjoyment differently for men versus women. Gender-specific differences between partners also predicted relationship outcomes. Men particularly perceived higher relationship quality and enjoyed physical intimacy more when they had higher and more stable sexual desire and their female partners had more stable emotional intimacy. Partner differences in momentary sexual desire and emotional intimacy may contribute to understanding quality and functioning of heterosexual relationships.
Vigoya, Mara Viveros
This paper examines the way in which erotic-affective exchanges in interracial relationships have been analysed in Latin America. It considers how race, gender and class operate within a market of values such that erotic, affective and economic status are shaped by racial, gender and class hierarchies. In this paper I analyse historical and social arrangements that embody the region's political economy of race and sex. Such a perspective allows me to address the simultaneous co-existence of socio-racial exclusion and inclusion and the repressive and productive effects of power, attraction and anxiety as aspects of lived experiences in relation to sexuality. From there, I outline an analytical framework that references an erotic or pleasure-based market in which capital and other resources are exchanged from a structural perspective stressing relationship alliances. I conclude by identifying the scope and limits of such an approach.
Schewe, Paul A; Adam, Najma M; Ryan, Kathryn M
College males completed a survey that asked open-ended questions concerning instances in which they might have been tempted to use force to obtain sexual contact with another person. Participants also completed Malamuth's (1989a, 1989b) Attraction to Sexual Aggression scale, Mosher and Sirkin's (1984) Hypermasculinity Inventory. and Burt's (1980) Rape Myth Acceptance and Adversarial Sexual Beliefs scales. Of the 83 participants, 22 (27%) reported that they had been tempted to use force. Participants that indicated they had been tempted to use force scored significantly higher on attraction to sexual aggression and hypermasculinity than those who were never tempted. Reasons for temptation, circumstances of the tempting situations, and possible ties to sexual coercion were explored.
Garcia, Rubi M; Hanlon, Alexandra; Small, William; Strauss, Jonathan B; Lin, Lillie; Wells, Jessica; Bruner, Deborah W
To explore the association between pretreatment body mass index (BMI) and post-treatment sexual function in women treated for endometrial cancer. . 28 postmenopausal women treated with vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) took part in this multisite exploratory secondary analysis at the University of Pennsylvania and Northwestern University. . Secondary data analysis was used to determine if pretreatment BMI is associated with post-VBT sexual function in postmenopausal women treated for endometrial cancer at baseline and at six months post-treatment. Because of small sample size, participants were dichotomized according to enrollment BMI. Both groups had poor sexual function at baseline. Although improved function was observed with time, neither group reached a score indicating healthy sexual function. . Understanding factors that influence sexual health in patients with gynecologic cancer can improve post-treatment quality of life. .
Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.; Copp, Jennifer; Giordano, Peggy C.
The complexity of adolescents' dating and sexual lives is not easily operationalized with simple indicators of dating or sexual activity. While building on prior work that emphasizes the "risky" nature of adolescents' intimate relationships, we assess whether a variety of indicators reflecting the complexity of…
Cleveland, H. Harrington; Gilson, Michael
Using both individual-level and census-level data, this study predicts the number of sexual partners reported by male and female adolescents from the quality of their mother relationship and neighborhood proportion of single-parent families. Both predictors were associated with number of sexual partners for both males and females in OLS analyses.…
Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth
Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…
Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69), and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34). In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and intimate partner violence within the society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. Methods This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Results Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69, and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34. In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Conclusion Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and
Best, Candace; Tanner, Amanda E; Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Zimet, Gregory D
In time, microbicides may provide women with dual prevention against pregnancy and STDs. Although several microbicide dimensions have been evaluated, little is known about women's preferences for contraceptive microbicides and correlates of these preferences. Acceptability of a hypothetical contraceptive microbicide cream or jelly was examined among a -clinic-based sample of 266 women in Indianapolis from 2004 (when participants were aged 14-22) to 2008. Group conjoint analyses and individual conjoint analyses were used to compare preferences with respect to four microbicide -dimensions: contraceptive ability, efficacy in relation to condoms, timing of use and texture. Pearson's product moment correlations were used to examine the relationship between preferences for a contraceptive microbicide and selected characteristics of the women. Overall, the top-rated microbicide dimensions were efficacy in relation to that of condoms and contraceptive ability (importance scores, 40.0 and 35.4 out of 100.0, respectively). When all dimension levels were compared, contraceptive ability was the most strongly preferred (part-worth utility score, 8.9), and lower efficacy than that of -condoms was the least strongly preferred (-11.9). Preference for contraceptive microbicides was positively -associated with current contraceptive use, sexual agency, partner communication, commitment to avoiding pregnancy and -perceived partner agreement about avoiding pregnancy (coefficients, 0.07-0.18). It was negatively associated with current or past nonuse of contraceptives, seeking pregnancy and perceived partner agreement about seeking -pregnancy (-0.08 to -0.14). Microbicides with dual prevention properties may be attractive to young women. Microbicide development and subsequent clinical trials should incorporate contraceptive microbicides. Copyright © 2013 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Full Text Available Background & aim: The preservation and enhancement of the sexual function are the key elements of sexual health. One of the most important predictive factors of sexual behavior and function is sexual self-concept. This construct is defined as the individuals’ understanding and evaluation of their own sexual desires and orientations. The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between the dimensions of sexual self-concept and sexual function in the women of reproductive age. Methods: This correlational descriptive study was conducted on 79 married women of reproductive age referred to the health centers in Gorgan, Iran. The sample size was determined using the sample size formula with a power of 90% and a confidence interval of 95%. The data collection tools included the Persian multidimensional sexual self-concept questionnaire included 23 items covering five dimensions (i.e., sexual anxiety, sexual fear, sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, and sexual satisfaction and the Persian Female Sexual Function Index consisted of 19 items in six dimensions. Data analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient through the SPSS software (version 16. Results: The Spearman correlation test revealed a significant direct correlation between the sexual self-esteem and the positive dimensions of sexual function, including desire (P=0.002, r=0.3, arousal (P
Wright, Paul J; Steffen, Nicola J; Sun, Chyng
Several studies using different methods have found that pornography consumption is associated with lower sexual satisfaction. The language used by media-effects scholars in discussions of this association implies an expectation that lowered satisfaction is primarily due to frequent-but not infrequent-consumption. Actual analyses, however, have assumed linearity. Linear analyses presuppose that for each increase in the frequency of pornography consumption there is a correspondingly equivalent decrease in sexual satisfaction. The present brief report explored the possibility that the association is curvilinear. Survey data from two studies of heterosexual adults, one conducted in England and the other in Germany, were employed. Results were parallel in each country and were not moderated by gender. Quadratic analysis indicated a curvilinear relationship, in the form of a predominantly negative, concave downward curve. Simple slope analyses suggested that when the frequency of consumption reaches once a month, sexual satisfaction begins to decrease, and that the magnitude of the decrease becomes larger with each increase in the frequency of consumption. The observational nature of the data employed precludes any causal inferences. However, if an effects perspective was adopted, these results would suggest that low rates of pornography consumption have no impact on sexual satisfaction and that adverse effects initiate only after consumption reaches a certain frequency.
The Central Kalahari San, living in the central part of Botswana, practice divorce and remarriage frequently. Most people have experienced marriage more than twice in their lives. The rate of polygamous marriage is rather high, and moreover, a kind of love-relationship called zÄ ku, which is usually recognized openly, is widely seen in this society. Four examples of social clusters united by marriage and other sexual relationships are here examined and analyzed to see how those sexual relatio...
van Goozen, S. H.; Wiegant, V. M.; Endert, E.; Helmond, F. A.; van de Poll, N. E.
The role of sex hormones in sexuality and mood across the menstrual cycle was investigated. Twenty-one normal health women were followed for one menstrual cycle. Blood samples were taken frequently, and analyzed for estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone
The Latino population in the United States is quickly growing, and its unintended pregnancy rate is increasing. To decrease unintended pregnancies, couples must mutually agree on family planning. Communication between partners is one key factor identified in successful family planning for couples. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine sexual communication and its associations with sexual relationship power, general communication, and views on family planning. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to analyze dyadic influences of the chosen variables. Forty immigrant Latino couples were recruited from prenatal care clinics. The study results were grouped according to the three types of power structures: exhibition of men's traditional machismo values, exhibition of women's increased power in their relationships, and exhibition of men's and women's own empowerment with sexual communication. There was a negative association between men's views on family planning and women's sexual communication (exhibition of machismo values); a negative association between women's sexual relationship power and their partners' sexual communication (exhibition of women's increased power); and positive associations between men's and women's general communication and sexual communication (exhibition of men's and women's own empowerment). Dyadic influences of sexual communication and associated variables need to be incorporated into interventions to facilitate family planning for couples.
The Latino population in the United States is quickly growing, and its unintended pregnancy rate is increasing. To decrease unintended pregnancies, couples must mutually agree on family planning. Communication between partners is one key factor identified in successful family planning for couples. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine sexual communication and its associations with sexual relationship power, general communication, and views on family planning. The Actor–Partner Interdependence Model was used to analyze dyadic influences of the chosen variables. Forty immigrant Latino couples were recruited from prenatal care clinics. The study results were grouped according to the three types of power structures: exhibition of men’s traditional machismo values, exhibition of women’s increased power in their relationships, and exhibition of men’s and women’s own empowerment with sexual communication. There was a negative association between men’s views on family planning and women’s sexual communication (exhibition of machismo values); a negative association between women’s sexual relationship power and their partners’ sexual communication (exhibition of women’s increased power); and positive associations between men’s and women’s general communication and sexual communication (exhibition of men’s and women’s own empowerment). Dyadic influences of sexual communication and associated variables need to be incorporated into interventions to facilitate family planning for couples. PMID:27367797
Bortolami, Arianna; Vanti, Carla; Banchelli, Federico; Guccione, Andrew A; Pillastrini, Paolo
The ability to express one's sexuality and engage in sexual activity requires multisystemic coordination involving many psychological functions as well as the integrity of the nervous, hormonal, vascular, immune, and neuromuscular body structures and functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations among pelvic floor function, sexual function, and demographic and clinical characteristics in a population of women initiating physical therapy evaluation and treatment for pelvic floor-related dysfunctions (urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, vulvodynia, vaginismus, and constipation). We consented and collected completed demographic data and data related to symptoms and clinical condition on 85 consecutive patients in an outpatient physical therapy clinic. Clinical and anthropometric characteristics were analyzed descriptively. Analysis of variance and linear regression analyses were used to analyze Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scale ratings, whereas zero-inflated beta-binomial regression was applied to the pain subscale. Main outcome measure was FSFI score, whereas the secondary outcome measure was the FSFI subscale score related to pain. Women in our sample were 38 years old on average, 33% of whom had given birth and 82% of whom had high tone pelvic floor. Being in the middle-tercile age group and exhibiting low pelvic floor tone (Beta = 6.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.4; 12.0]) were significantly associated with lower levels of sexual dysfunction. Women with low tone pelvic floor also reported lower pain (odds ratio = 4.0; 95% CI = [1.6; 9.6]), whereas younger aged and physically unsatisfied subjects were more likely not to have sexual activity in the month prior to scale measurement. In female patients with pelvic floor muscle dysfunction undergoing physical therapy and rehabilitation, sexual dysfunction appears to be significantly correlated with age and high pelvic floor muscle tone. © 2015
Larson, J H; Anderson, S M; Holman, T B; Niemann, B K
This study examined select premarital factors from the ecosystemic perspective hypothesized to influence marital sexual satisfaction in the first year of marriage. A sample of 70 couples was administered by the Preparation of Marriage Questionnaire (PREP-M) a few months prior to marriage to measure premarital levels of empathy, self-disclosure, open communication, relationship stability, and self-esteem. At 1 year of marriage, their sexual satisfaction was assessed using the Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS). Using multiple regression analyses it was found that the best premarital predictors of husband's marital sexual satisfaction were wives' self-esteem, wives' open communication, and wives' relationship stability. The best predictors for wives' marital sexual satisfaction were wives' self-esteem, wives' open communication, and husbands' empathic communication. Conclusions and implications for premarital counselling and family life education are discussed.
Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael
Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed exclusively through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault. PMID:22618119
Wade, J; Crews, D
The anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamus are sexually dimorphic in the reproductively active whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus inornatus. The anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area, which is involved in the control of male-typical copulatory behaviors, is larger in males, whereas the ventromedial hypothalamus, which is involved in the control of female-typical receptivity, is larger in females. In the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard C. uniparens, which is a direct descendant of C. inornatus and exhibits both male-like and female-like pseudosexual behaviors, both brain areas are comparable in size to those of female C. inornatus. This study was conducted to determine whether these brain areas change in size in either species or sex during a time of year when these animals are reproductively inactive, or after removal of the gonads. In male C. inornatus both brain areas changed during reproductive inactivity (either seasonally or surgically induced) and became equivalent to the size characteristic of reproductively active female C. inornatus. When corrected for brain size, the anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area was significantly smaller in intact hibernating and castrated males than in intact males from the summer breeding season. Conversely, the ventromedial hypothalamus was significantly larger in intact hibernating and castrated males than in intact males from the summer breeding season. The two brain areas were not significantly different among the groups of female C. inornatus or parthenogenetic C. uniparens. These results suggest that 1) the brain of whiptail lizards may differentiate seasonally and 2) the female state may be a neutral one to which the male brain reverts during reproductive inactivity.
Whisman, Mark A; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Chatav, Yael
Predictors of 12-month prevalence of sexual infidelity were examined in a population-based sample of married individuals (N = 2,291). Predictor variables were organized in terms of involved-partner (e.g., personality, religiosity), marital (e.g., marital dissatisfaction, partner affair), and extradyadic (e.g., parenting) variables. Annual prevalence of infidelity was 2.3%. Controlling for marital dissatisfaction and demographic variables, infidelity was predicted by greater neuroticism and lower religiosity; wives' pregnancy also increased the risk of infidelity for husbands. In comparison, self-esteem and partners' suspected affair were predictive of infidelity when controlling for demographic variables but were not uniquely predictive of infidelity when also controlling for marital dissatisfaction. Religiosity and wives' pregnancy moderated the association between marital dissatisfaction and infidelity.
Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria N.; Pope, Howard; Garcia, Jonathan; Cherry, Chauncey
Objectives Although pornography is widely available and frequently used among many adults in the US, little is known about the relationship between pornography and risk factors for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men. Methods Baseline assessments from a behavioral intervention trial for at-risk men who have sex with men were conducted in Atlanta, GA in 2009. Univariate and multivariate generalized linear models were used to assess the relationships between known risk factors for HIV infection, time spent viewing pornography, and sex behaviors. Results One hundred forty nine men reporting HIV-negative status and two or more unprotected anal sex partners in the past six months were enrolled in an intervention trial and completed survey assessments. Time spent viewing pornography was significantly associated with having more male sexual partners (B=.45, SE=.04, ppornography. Conclusions This exploratory study is novel in that it sheds light on the associations between viewing pornography and sexual risk taking for HIV infection. Future studies in this area should focus on understanding how the content of pornography, in particular the viewing of unprotected and protected sex acts, may affect sexual risk taking behavior. PMID:22498161
Boarts, Jessica M; Bogart, Laura M; Tabak, Melanie A; Armelie, Aaron P; Delahanty, Douglas L
Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) must be close to perfect in order to maintain suppression of HIV viral load, and to prevent the development of drug resistant strains of HIV. People living with HIV (PLWH) often report low levels of adherence. One variable that has been linked to poor adherence is perceived discrimination; however, research has generally not considered the possible unique effects of different types of discrimination on adherence. The present pilot study aimed to examine the association of three types of discrimination (due to HIV+ status, race, or sexual orientation) with adherence among 57 PLWH. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to demonstrate the relationships between each type of discrimination and self-reported adherence. Racial discrimination significantly predicted lower adherence levels, whereas sexual orientation- and HIV-related discrimination did not. Results underscore the importance of addressing discrimination issues, specifically racial, when designing interventions to improve adherence to HAART.
Schover, L R
For women, breast cancer remains a common and dreaded experience. It is normal for a diagnosis of breast cancer to evoke grief, anger, and intense fear. Most women, however, face this crisis and master it without developing major psychiatric disorders or severe sexual dysfunction. The options of breast conservation and reconstruction give women a new sense of control over their treatment and are quite successful in helping women feel comfortable with their bodies again. The effectiveness of breast conservation and reconstruction in preventing or ameliorating sexual problems after breast cancer diagnosis is less clear, however. Any impact these options have on sexuality is subtle and may relate more to a woman's feelings of being desirable than to how often she has sex, her lovemaking practices, or how much she enjoys sex. We need more information on how chemotherapy and hormonal therapy affect women's sex lives. As clinicians, we should pay more attention to our patients' complaints of vaginal pain, dryness, and overall loss of sexual desire during systemic treatment. Practical advice on lovemaking techniques and a clinician's open attitude towards discussing sexual issues can prevent a great deal of anxiety and sadness as women with breast cancer search for ways to keep their sex lives satisfying.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.
Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920
Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D
Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.
Anderson, Kermyt G
A substantial theoretical and empirical literature suggests that stressful events in childhood influence the timing and patterning of subsequent sexual and reproductive behaviors. Stressful childhood environments have been predicted to produce a life history strategy in which adults are oriented more toward short-term mating behaviors and less toward behaviors consistent with longevity. This article tests the hypothesis that adverse childhood environment will predict adult outcomes in two areas: risky sexual behavior (engagement in sexual risk behavior or having taken an HIV test) and marital status (currently married vs. never married, divorced, or a member of an unmarried couple). Data come from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The sample contains 17,530 men and 23,978 women aged 18-54 years living in 13 U.S. states plus the District of Columbia. Adverse childhood environment is assessed through 11 retrospective measures of childhood environment, including having grown up with someone who was depressed or mentally ill, who was an alcoholic, who used or abused drugs, or who served time in prison; whether one's parents divorced in childhood; and two scales measuring childhood exposure to violence and to sexual trauma. The results indicate that adverse childhood environment is associated with increased likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behaviors or taking an HIV test, and increased likelihood of being in an unmarried couple or divorced/separated, for both men and women. The predictions are supported by the data, lending further support to the hypothesis that childhood environments influence adult reproductive strategy.
Wilson Chialepeh N
Full Text Available Having unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners (MSP is the greatest risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs among youths. Young people with MSPs are less likely to use a condom and the greater the risk for STIs. This study examines the associated risk factors of STIs and multiple sexual partnerships among youths aged 15-24 years.The Malawi Demographic Health Survey 2010 data was used. Out of a sample of 2,987 males and 9,559 females aged 15-24 years, 2,026 males and 6,470 females were considered in the study. Chi square test and logistic regression techniques were performed. Analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22.The results indicate that 1,399 (69.0% males and 2,290 (35.4% females reported multiple sexual partnerships (MSP. Within the rural area, females (n = 1779 were more likely to report MSP than males (n = 1082 and within the urban areas, a higher proportion of females (n = 511 still reported MSP, with males (n = 316. About 78% rural females aged 20-24 years, and about 79% rural males aged 15-19 years reported MSP. The likelihood of MSP was higher among females in the poorest households (OR = 1.31, being married (OR = 5.71 and Catholic males (OR = 1.63, who were married (OR = 1.59. Catholic males (OR = 1.82 in the rural areas, who were married (OR = 1.80 and rural females in the northern region (OR = 1.26 were more likely to have MSP. The odds ratios were higher among urban females in the poorest (OR = 3.45 households who were married (OR = 4.22.Having more than one sexual partner increases the risk of STIs and sexuality education programs should be introduced that emphasize the danger that surrounds MSP.
McMahon, James M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Klostermann, Keith; Trabold, Nicole; Xue, Ying
The Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) was developed over a decade ago to address the lack of reliable and valid measures of relationship power in social, behavioral and medical research. The SRPS and its two subscales (relationship control [RC], decision-making dominance [DMD]) have been used extensively in the field of HIV prevention and sexual risk behavior. We performed a systematic review of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales as reported in the HIV/AIDS literature from 2000 to 2012. A total of 54 published articles were identified that reported reliability or construct validity estimates of the scales. Description of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales are reported according to study population, and several cross-population trends were identified. In general, the SRPS and RC subscale exhibited sound psychometric properties across multiple study populations and research settings. By contrast, the DMD subscale had relatively weak psychometric properties, especially when used with specific populations and research settings. Factors that influenced the psychometric properties of the various scales and subscales included the study population, mean age of the sample, number of items retained in the scale, and modifications to the original scales. We conclude with recommendations for (a) the application and use of the SRPS and subscales, (b) reporting of psychometric properties of the scales in the literature, and (c) areas for future research. PMID:25331613
East, Patricia L; Khoo, Siek Toon
This 3-wave, 5-year longitudinal study tested the contributions of family contextual factors and sibling relationship qualities to younger siblings' substance use, sexual risk behaviors, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted disease. More than 220 non-White families participated (67% Latino and 33% African American), all of which involved a younger sibling (133 girls and 89 boys; mean age = 13.6 years at Time 1) and an older sister (mean age = 17 years at Time 1). Results from structural equation latent growth curve modeling indicated that qualities of the sibling relationship (high older sister power, low warmth/closeness, and low conflict) mediated effects from several family risks (mothers' single parenting, older sisters' teen parenting, and family's receipt of aid) to younger sibling outcomes. Model results were generally stronger for sister-sister pairs than for sister-brother pairs. Findings add to theoretical models that emphasize the role of family and parenting processes in shaping sibling relationships, which, in turn, influence adolescent outcomes. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Ramdurg, Santosh; Ambekar, Atul; Lal, Rakesh
People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30) and naltrexone (n = 30) maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.
Hartmans, C.; Comijs, H.; Jonker, C.
Objectives Investigating whether cognitive functioning is associated with the perception of one's sexuality in old age. Design Cross-sectional analysis, using observation cycle 2005/2006 of the population-based prospective cohort of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Setting Municipal
Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen
Objective: To examine the associations among mental health problems, maternal monitoring and permissiveness, mother-daughter communication and attachment, and sexual behaviors among African American girls receiving outpatient psychiatric care. Youths with mental health problems report higher rates of HIV-risk behavior than do their peers, and…
Maier, Shana L.
In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…
Crowley, M. Sue
Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…
Clüver, Frances; Elkonin, Diane; Young, Charles
Negotiations surrounding sexual activity are characterised by multiple power disparities that include race, social status and age, with gender being the most dominant differential in heterosexual interactions. Research has shown that women are physiologically more at risk of contracting HIV than men, as indicated by the higher infection rates of the former. Many African societies operate via a hegemonic masculinity, with patriarchal governance and female subordination being the norm, placing women at even greater risk of HIV infection. In this qualitative phenomenological study, four black school-going adolescent women living in Grahamstown were interviewed using a semi-structured interview to gather data. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted on the data to provide subjective insights of the experiences of the participants with regard to their interactions with men. From the findings, it became apparent that the participants felt pressured, coerced or manipulated by male counterparts. This pressure and coercion was not just felt in their interactions with older men, but also in their romantic partnerships. Three of the participants experienced pressure to engage in sexual intercourse with their boyfriends when they were unwilling or unready, and they reported being faced with additional pressure to engage in unprotected sex. Furthermore, it became apparent that each participant had an underlying fear of being raped and considered this as a genuine threat to her safety and sexual health. The atmosphere within which these participants negotiate their sexual agency is thus heavily informed by male control, coercion and the threat of violence or rape.
Johnson, Danielle Marie
Within higher education today, the student population in American colleges and universities is becoming increasingly diverse, relative to students' racial/ethnic, sexual, religion, and gender identities. Specifically, students who identify as Lesbian and gay are more often seeking personal authenticity and opportunities to make meaning of their…
WILBERS, D; VEENSTRA, G; VANDEWIEL, HBM; SCHULTZ, WCMW
Objective - To obtain data on sexual contact between doctors and their patients. Design - Anonymous questionnaire with 17 items sent to all working gynaecologists (n=595) and all ear, nose, and throat specialists (n=380) in the Netherlands. Results - Response rate was 74%; a total 64 doctors gave a
Holcombe, Emily; Carrier, David; Manlove, Jennifer; Ryan, Suzanne
Teens typically fail to use contraceptives consistently, which contributes to high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among this age group. Existing research has focused primarily on how teens' own characteristics are related to contraceptive use, but has paid less attention to how the characteristics of…
Wheeler, R. Wade; And Others
Research has shown that physically attractive people in this culture are treated more favorably than are unattractive people. If this is so, acts of sexual harassment perpetrated by attractive males might be viewed less harshly than the same acts perpetrated by unattractive males. A study was conducted to examine the relationshp between…
Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R; Bybee, Deborah; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina
Adolescents are at high risk for sexual assault, but few of these crimes are reported to the police and prosecuted by the criminal justice system. To address this problem, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary interventions to improve post-assault care for victims and increase prosecution rates. The two most commonly implemented interventions are Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs and Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether community-level context (i.e., stakeholder engagement and collaboration) was predictive of adolescent legal case outcomes, after accounting for "standard" factors that affect prosecution success (i.e., victim, assault, and evidence characteristics). Overall, 40% of the adolescent cases from these two SANE-SART programs (over a 10-year period) were successfully prosecuted. Cases were more likely to be prosecuted for younger victims, those with disabilities, those who knew their offenders, and instances in which the rape evidence collection kit was submitted by police for analysis. After accounting for these influences, multi-level modeling results revealed that in one site decreased allocation of community resources to adolescent sexual assault cases had a significant negative effect on prosecution case outcomes. Results are explained in terms of Wolff's (Am J Community Psychol 29:173-191, 2001) concept of "over-coalitioned" communities and Kelly's (1968) ecological principles.
Lam, T H; Stewart, Sunita M; Leung, Gabriel M; Lee, Peter W H; Wong, Joy P S; Ho, L M; Youth Sexuality Task Force
A representative community sample of Hong Kong boys (n = 1,024) and girls (n = 1,403), age 14-18 years, provided information regarding same-sex attraction, gender dissatisfaction, pubertal timing, early experience with sexual intercourse, and depressive symptoms. They also rated the quality of their family and peer relationships and self-perceived attractiveness. Depressive symptoms were higher in youths reporting same-sex attraction, gender dissatisfaction, early pubertal maturation, and early sexual intercourse. Family relationships were less satisfactory for those who reported same-sex attraction, gender dissatisfaction, and early sexual intercourse, and peer relationships were also worse for those who reported gender dissatisfaction. In multivariate analyses, same-sex attraction, early sexual intercourse, and early pubertal maturation were unique and direct contributors to depressive symptoms; however, gender dissatisfaction's association with depressive symptoms was largely accounted for by shared correlations with negative family and peer relationships. The multivariate model explained 11% of the variance of depressive symptoms. These findings offer a preliminary documentation of the prevalence and correlates of atypical sexual self-assessments and behavior among adolescents in Hong Kong. Such information is important if theories of sexual identity and risk factors for depressive symptoms are to have cross-cultural utility. Copyright 2004 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.
Kimura, Masaki; Shimura, Satoru; Tai, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Baba, Shiro; Kano, Munehide; Nagao, Koichi
Erection hardness is an elemental component of men's sexual quality of life that can be easily measured by the Erection Hardness Score (EHS). However, there are few published data regarding EHS, and there is little understanding of its relationships to aging, men's sexual behavior, sexual confidence, and risk factors in Japan. To assess EHS and how it correlates to aging, sexual behaviors, sexual self-confidence, and risk factors in a Japanese population database. A web-based cross-sectional nationwide survey conducted between March and May 2009 in Japan. EHS, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, general health, sexual confidence, frequency of sexual behaviors, and attitudes toward treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). A total of 7,710 men with a mean age of 39.3 ± 13.0 years participated in this survey. In 6,528 participants who were not using phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, 3,540 (54.2%) had EHS ≤ 3 and 1,196 (18.3%) had EHS ≤ 2. We found a significant age-dependent decrease in EHS, sexual confidence, and frequency of sexual activities. Sexual confidence was strongly associated with higher EHS but was also associated with older age groups, presence of offspring, awareness of better general health, and greater frequency of sexual activity. In age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression, risk factors for a lower EHS (defined as EHS ≤ 2) were heavy smoking, which was defined as more than two packs per day (odds ratio [OR], 1.7) or a history of metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.4), hypertension (OR, 1.2), and diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.4). EHS correlates to various elements, such as aging, sexual behaviors, sexual confidence, and ED-related risk factors, and can be a valuable tool in clinical practice for monitoring and treating ED and thereby improving the quality of life for men and their sexual partners. Kimura M, Shimura S, Tai T, Kobayashi H, Baba S, Kano M, and Nagao K. A web-based survey of Erection Hardness Score and its relationship to aging, sexual
Kathleen C Basile
Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer.Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N=4,131 in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics.Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types.Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:329–340.
Hamburger, Merle E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Choi, Colleen
Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV) perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer. Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics. Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types. Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. PMID:23930146
Blain, Leah M; Galovski, Tara E; Peterson, Zoë D
This study assessed the relationship between sexual self-schema and posttraumatic functioning in a clinical sample of 112 female sexual assault survivors. Contrary to hypotheses, posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptom severity were unrelated to the valence of sexual self-schema. Yet, negative posttraumatic cognitions were related to sexual self-schemas. Specifically, less positive self-views were associated with more negative schema (r = -.35). In a multivariate analysis, the measure of negative views of the world and others was associated with more positive schema. Results indicate that intervening to improve survivors' postassault appraisals of the self may help to reduce the impact of interpersonal trauma on women's sexual functioning. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
He, Shanshan; Tsang, Sandra
Social exchange theory has great potential to help our understanding of dating partners' sexual interaction. Yet, to our knowledge, there is still no empirical study applying this theory to explain sexual coercion in the context of intimate relationships. This study examined the relationship between male partners' social exchange variables (investment and alternatives) and women's coerced first sexual intercourse in dating relationships, within both gender samples (not dyadic data). A total of 927 valid questionnaires were collected by purposive snowball sampling in five main cities in China of college students who were currently in a romantic relationship. Results showed that in the male sample, male partners' investment significantly and positively correlated with emotional manipulation coercive tactics, and their alternatives significantly and positively predicted defection threats as coercive tactics. In the female sample, there were no such observations. The research hypotheses of this study have been partially supported, and its implications and limitations are discussed.
Abousselam, Nikki; Naudé, Luzelle; Lens, Willy; Esterhuyse, Karel
An interest exists in understanding why adolescents partake in risky sexual behaviours, as well as the risk and protective practices associated with risky sexual behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the moderator effect of future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. A random cluster consisting of 467 learners from English medium high schools of central South Africa participated in this study. The participants' risky sexual behaviour, self-efficacy and future time perspective were measured with the Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risk Survey, Generalised Perceived Self-efficacy Scale and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, respectively. Product term regression analysis was performed. It was found that both self-efficacy and future time perspective were negatively related to risky sexual behaviour. No moderating effect was found for future time perspective in the relationship between self-efficacy and risky sexual behaviour. Self-efficacy and future time perspective were identified as qualities that protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual behaviours. This finding can be useful in developing prevention programmes. Intervention programmes aimed at the youth should foster a sense of hope and possibility about the future and the development of goals and aspirations to prevent risky behaviour.
Intimate Partner Violence, Relationship Power Inequity and the Role of Sexual and Social Risk Factors in the Production of Violence among Young Women Who Have Multiple Sexual Partners in a Peri-Urban Setting in South Africa
Zembe, Yanga Z.; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna
INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to assess the extent and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV), explore relationship power inequity and the role of sexual and social risk factors in the production of violence among young women aged 16-24 reporting more than one partner in the past three......-urban settings in South Africa, not much is known about how it manifests among women who engage in concomitantly high HIV risk behaviours such as multiple sexual partnering, transactional sex and age mixing. We know even less about how such women negotiate power and control if exposed to violence in such sexual...... networks. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty nine women with multiple sexual partners, residing in a predominantly Black peri-urban community in the Western Cape, South Africa, were recruited into a bio-behavioural survey using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). After the survey, focus group discussions...
Kumsar, Sukru; Kose, Osman; Aydemir, Huseyin; Halis, Fikret; Gokce, Ahmet; Adsan, Oztug; Akkaya, Zeynep Kahyaoglu
This prospective analysis assessed the effect of histological prostatitis on lower urinary tract functions and sexual function. The patients were separated into two groups as histologically observed prostatitis (Group A) and no prostatitis (Group B) according to the biopsy outcomes. International prostate symptom score, international index of erectile function-5 scores, maximal and average flow rate, and residual urine volumes were compared statistically between groups. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in baseline age (t=0.64), body mass index value (t=0.51), prostate volume (t=0.87), prostate-specific antigen levels (t=0.43), maximal (t=0.84) and average flow rate (t=0.59), and post-void residual urine volume (t=0.71). Mean international prostate symptom score in patients with prostatitis was numerically but not significantly higher than that in those without prostatitis (t=0.794, P=0.066). Mean international index of erectile function-5 score in the prostatitis group was significantly lower than that in those without prostatitis (t=1.854, P=0.013). Histological prostatitis notably affected sexual function of patients and may serve as a major risk factor for sexual dysfunction while having little effect on lower urinary tract symptoms.
Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P
This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. Key Findings Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15–24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. Data Gaps and Recommendations Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.
Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel
Some sex therapists and educators assume that many sexual behaviors provide comparable sexual satisfaction. Evidence is required to determine whether sexual behaviors differ in their associations with both sexual satisfaction and satisfaction with other aspects of life. To test the hypothesis that satisfaction with sex life, life in general, sexual partnership, and mental health correlates directly with frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) and inversely with frequency of both masturbation and partnered sexual activity excluding PVI (noncoital sex). A representative sample of 2,810 Swedes reported frequency of PVI, noncoital sex, and masturbation during the past 30 days, and degree of satisfaction with their sex life, life in general, partnership, and mental health. Multivariate analyses (for the sexes separately and combined) considering the different satisfaction parameters as dependent variables, and the different types of sexual activities (and age) as putative predictors. For both sexes, multivariate analyses revealed that PVI frequency was directly associated with all satisfaction measures (part correlation = 0.50 with sexual satisfaction), masturbation frequency was independently inversely associated with almost all satisfaction measures, and noncoital sex frequencies independently inversely associated with some satisfaction measures (and uncorrelated with the rest). Age did not confound the results. The results are consistent with evidence that specifically PVI frequency, rather than other sexual activities, is associated with sexual satisfaction, health, and well-being. Inverse associations between satisfaction and masturbation are not due simply to insufficient PVI.
Courtois, R; Potard, C; Réveillère, C; Moltrecht, B
Early adolescence, which we also call prime adolescence, is marked by the transformations of puberty and the sexualisation of the body, changes in cognition and the progressive involvement in sexuality. This study is the continuation of an earlier work dealing with the construction and validation of a questionnaire on sexuality during adolescence (Courtois et al., 1998) . Population. The sample was composed of 312 middle-school students (7 to 9(th) grade) from four middle-schools in Tours and its suburbs (Indre-et-Loire, France): 164 girls (52.6%) and 148 boys (47.4%); with a mean age of 13.8 (S.D.=1.02; from 10.7 to 16.9) (without significant differences between boys and girls). Material. The material was composed of 22 items calling for true or false answers and including 13 items from the initial questionnaire by Courtois et al. (1998) [7,8] structured in three dimensions ("Behavioral engagement in sexuality", "Love and fidelity" and "Taste for flirting"). Procedure. The study was carried out in 2008 in the classroom (anonymity guaranteed). The results of the factorial analysis (as the main component and by the method which maximizes variance, Varimax) made it possible to find three factors which explain 41% of total variance: "Going out with someone" (value of 4.6, explaining 21% of the total variance); "Giving priority to love" (value of 2.8 explaining 13% of the variance); "Flirting with the aim of having sexual relations" (value of 1.6 explaining 7% of variance). The Cronbach alphas are 0.79, 0.70 and 0.66 respectively. The first and third factors are correlated. In order to obtain a shorter final instrument and to favor the orthogonality between factors, we only retained the items which are strongly saturated by the factors (>0.50). A confirmatory analysis revealed the good adequation of the model retained (Chi(2): 162, 87 dof, Psexuality significant in prime adolescence (in accordance with interests, emotions and relationships). The analyses were
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a relação entre o consumo de substâncias psicoativas e o comportamento sexual de estudantes de uma escola pública de segundo grau na cidade de São Paulo. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram colhidos 689 questionários, que foram respondidos por alunos com idades entre 13 e 21 anos. Os questionários continham questões sobre o consumo de substâncias psicoativas e comportamento sexual. Assim, comparou-se as diferenças de comportamento sexual entre os usuários e os não usuários de drogas. RESULTADOS: Os usuários de drogas ilícitas (n=366 referiram: maior história de relação sexual completa: 80,8% dos usuários contra 57,6% dos não usuários (n=305, (pOBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship between drug consumption and sexual behavior in a population of high school students attending a public school in the city of São Paulo. METHOD: Questionnaires (a total of 689 were gathered from students with ages between 14 and 21 years old who responded to this study. The questionnaires contained questions about the consumption of psychoative substances and sexual behavior. Then, sexual behavior was compared for differences between drug users and non-users. RESULTS: Illicit drug users (n=366 demonstrated a higher prevalence of complete sexual intercourse: 80,8% of users versus 57,6% of non-users (n=305, p<0,0001; earlier initiation of sexual activity (on average 15,2 years in users versus 15,7 in non-users, p<0,005; more payments for sexual acts (31,1% of users versus 15% of non-users, p<0,001; and a trend toward lesser usage of condoms (56,8% of users versus 65,3% of non-users, p<0,10. The results also were similar when we studied each type of drug separately and the associaton of different types of drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency of drug use was not related to sexual behavior. Alcohol and cannabis were the drugs most associated with sexual risk behavior. Crack use was associated with earlier initiation of sexual activity.
Woods, Jennifer L; Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Ideal partner traits and how they relate to a young woman's current partner and relationship is a knowledge gap in the literature. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess any differences in interpersonal characteristics between a young woman or her partner and relationship and 2) to examine the impact of this difference on sexual monogamy, condom use and frequency of vaginal sex. Study participants (n=387, 14-17 years at enrollment, 90% African American) were recruited from three primary care adolescent health clinics serving areas with high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI); data were drawn from a longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships and behaviors among young women. Nineteen interpersonal characteristics, including physical, financial, communication and personal characteristic variables, were found to have varying influences on relationships and sexual behaviors with 'like him' and 'like us' as referents. Monogamy increased as a male partner wanted to get somewhere in life [OR 5.41, (1.25, 23.52, p<0.05)], was intelligent [OR 3.42, (1.09, 10.76, p<0.05)] and had money [OR 1.55, (0.272, 0.595, p<0.001)] in a partnership; monogamy similarly increased when a partner wanted to get somewhere in life [OR 6.77, (1.51, 30.36, p<0.01)], was intelligent [OR 4.02, (1.23, 13.23, p<0.05)], and had money [OR 2.41, (1.51, 3.84, p<0.001)] compared to the young woman. The likelihood of using a condom at last sex increased when the male partner had a nice body [OR 1.42, (1.02, 1.99, p<0.05)], was popular [OR 1.60, (1.12, 2.29, p<0.01)], cared for others [OR 3.43, (1.32, 8.98, p<0.01)], was good at sports [OR 1.35, (1.06, 1.73, p<0.05)] and expressed his feelings [OR 2.03, (1.14, 3.60, p<0.01)]. The condom use ratio increased when the male partner was able to take care of himself [OR 0.076, (0.017, 0.136, p<0.01)], was cute [OR 0.190, (0.082, 0.30, p<0.001)], and had a nice body [OR 0.044, (0.001, 0.09, p<0.05)] in a dyad; the
Full Text Available Introduction: People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30 and naltrexone (n = 30 maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. Results: The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P < 0.05 there were no significant differences among both the groups except above findings. Conclusion: Conclusion was treatment is associated with sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.
Cleary, Vicki; Hegarty, Josephine; McCarthy, Geraldine
To investigate sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning, and the relationship between these and certain demographic variables of Irish women, following a diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. Descriptive, correlational. Outpatient gynecologic oncology clinic in a large university hospital in Southern Ireland. 106 women with a diagnosis of and treatment for various gynecologic cancers (cervical, ovarian, endometrial, and vulvar). The Body Image Scale, Sexual Esteem Scale, and Sexual Self-Schema Scale were administered to women a minimum of six weeks postdiagnosis of any form of gynecologic cancer to measure sexual self-concept; the Intimate Relationships Scale to measure sexual relationships; and the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale to measure sexual functioning. Sexual self-concept, body image, sexual esteem, sexual self-schema, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning. Participants reported negative changes in relation to their sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning. Participants reported negative changes in relation to all stages of the sexual response cycle. Gynecologic cancer has the potential to negatively affect a woman's sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning. Sexuality is a multidimensional construct and must be measured in this way. Healthcare professionals must use a holistic approach when providing information and support to patients with gynecologic cancer. Information must be provided to women on how cancer and its treatment has the potential to affect their sexual self-concept, sexual relationships, and sexual functioning, including information on how to overcome these alterations.
Davis, Seth; Ferrar, Saskia; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Binik, Yitzchak; Carrier, Serge
Peyronie's disease (PD) has a negative impact on men's sexual functioning and quality of life, but little is known about why some men cope better than others and what the effects of PD are on their relationships. The aims of the present study were to describe negative affect, pain, and relationship and sexual satisfaction in men with PD, and to explore their psychosocial correlates. Participants were 110 men diagnosed with PD. All men completed questionnaires. The main outcome measures were as follows: Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Negative Affect Scale. The predictor variables were the following: Experience of Shame Scale, Body Esteem Scale, Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale, Index of Male Genital Image, a modified Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and a modified Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Although men with PD had mean sexual/relationship satisfaction and negative affect scores indicating mild impairment, there was a wide range of variation, with 42% to 52% scoring in the clinical range. Catastrophizing was significantly associated with reduced sexual satisfaction and increased negative affect and pain. Shame was also associated with increased negative affect. The significant associations of relationship satisfaction were partner responses and shame. Given the lack of curative treatment in PD, understanding why some men cope better than others may guide therapy. Shame, catastrophizing, and partner responses may be important therapeutic targets.
Brown, Danice L.; Rosnick, Christopher B.; Webb-Bradley, Traice; Kirner, Jonathan
Parental sexual risk communication may influence women's sexual decision-making and safe sexual behaviours. While many studies have focused specifically on the influence of communication from mothers, some authors have argued for the importance of examining father-daughter sexual risk communication as well. However, few studies have empirically…
Full Text Available There is increasing interest in understanding what role, if any, sex and sexual orientation play in body dissatisfaction, its correlates to distress, and its relationship to disordered eating. The goals of the present study were to examine: (a differences in sex and sexual orientation in internalization of societal pressure to modify physical appearance, components of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology and (b whether the internalization-eating disorder symptomatology was mediated by the different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The present data support several key trends in the literature: men generally reported less body dissatisfaction, internalization of socio-cultural standards of beauty, drive for thinness, and disordered eating, but a greater drive for muscularity than women; results also indicated that different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between internalization and eating disorder symptomatology. Gay men reported significantly more body dissatisfaction, internalization, eating disorder symptomatology, drive for thinness, and drive for muscularity than heterosexual men. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians reported increased drive for muscularity, lower self-esteem, and lower internalization; however, they did not significantly differ on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness or disordered eating. Correlation coefficients between body shape dissatisfaction and several aspects of mental distress were significantly larger for gay men than heterosexual men; the same coefficients did not differ between lesbian women and heterosexual women. Results of path analyses indicated that the relationship between internalization and disordered eating differs for gay and heterosexual men but not for lesbian and heterosexual women. These results call attention to lesbians as a generally understudied population.
Yean, Chetra; Benau, Erik M; Dakanalis, Antonios; Hormes, Julia M; Perone, Julie; Timko, C Alix
There is increasing interest in understanding what role, if any, sex and sexual orientation play in body dissatisfaction, its correlates to distress, and its relationship to disordered eating. The goals of the present study were to examine: (a) differences in sex and sexual orientation in internalization of societal pressure to modify physical appearance, components of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology and (b) whether the internalization-eating disorder symptomatology was mediated by the different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The present data support several key trends in the literature: men generally reported less body dissatisfaction, internalization of socio-cultural standards of beauty, drive for thinness, and disordered eating, but a greater drive for muscularity than women; results also indicated that different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between internalization and eating disorder symptomatology. Gay men reported significantly more body dissatisfaction, internalization, eating disorder symptomatology, drive for thinness, and drive for muscularity than heterosexual men. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians reported increased drive for muscularity, lower self-esteem, and lower internalization; however, they did not significantly differ on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness or disordered eating. Correlation coefficients between body shape dissatisfaction and several aspects of mental distress were significantly larger for gay men than heterosexual men; the same coefficients did not differ between lesbian women and heterosexual women. Results of path analyses indicated that the relationship between internalization and disordered eating differs for gay and heterosexual men but not for lesbian and heterosexual women. These results call attention to lesbians as a generally understudied population.
Cristilene Akiko Kimura
Full Text Available Introduction: For ostomized oncological patients, the physical body alterations affects the quality of life, as the changes in the self-concept are factors that directly affect the sexual life. Objective: To analyze the perceptions of ostomized men due to intestinal cancer regarding sexual relations as an important dimension of quality of life, treated at the Ambulatory Care Program for Ostomized Patients of the Health Secretariat of the Federal District, Brazil. Methods: Epidemiological-based study, of the analytical type, with a cross-sectional descriptive design, with quantitative and qualitative approach considering the content analysis. The convenience sample included 56 participants. Sociodemographic, clinical, and the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires were used, as well as an individual interview. Data were analyzed by Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and SPSS 20.0 software. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Results: The Physical, Social Relations and Environment Domains are correlated with the mean score, statistical significance (p < 0.0001, and the content analysis resulted in five categories: Ostomy, Self-Care, Acceptance, Self-concept, and Companionship. Conclusion: Sexuality should be considered as a process of daily living of ostomized individuals due to intestinal cancer. Resumo: Introdução: Para a pessoa estomizada intestinal oncológica o significado da alteração no corpo físico afeta a qualidade de vida, pois encontra-se com as alterações no autoconceito são fatores que dificultam diretamente o relacionamento sexual. Objetivo: Analisar as percepções dos homens estomizados intestinais oncológicos quanto ao relacionamento sexual como dimensão importante na qualidade de vida, atendidos pelo Programa de Assistência Ambulatorial ao Estomizado da Secretaria de Saúde do Distrito Federal, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo de base epidemiológica, de caráter analítico, com delineamento transversal e descritivo, com abordagem
Phillips, R D; Brown, G R; Dixon, K W; Hayes, C; Linde, C C; Peakall, R
The mechanism of pollinator attraction is predicted to strongly influence both plant diversification and the extent of pollinator sharing between species. Sexually deceptive orchids rely on mimicry of species-specific sex pheromones to attract their insect pollinators. Given that sex pheromones tend to be conserved among related species, we predicted that in sexually deceptive orchids, (i) pollinator sharing is rare, (ii) closely related orchids use closely related pollinators and (iii) there is strong bias in the wasp lineages exploited by orchids. We focused on species that are pollinated by sexual deception of thynnine wasps in the distantly related genera Caladenia and Drakaea, including new field observations for 45 species of Caladenia. Specialization was extreme with most orchids using a single pollinator species. Unexpectedly, seven cases of pollinator sharing were found, including two between Caladenia and Drakaea, which exhibit strikingly different floral morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of pollinators using four nuclear sequence loci demonstrated that although orchids within major clades primarily use closely related pollinator species, up to 17% of orchids within these clades are pollinated by a member of a phylogenetically distant wasp genus. Further, compared to the total diversity of thynnine wasps within the study region, orchids show a strong bias towards exploiting certain genera. Although these patterns may arise through conservatism in the chemical classes used in sex pheromones, apparent switches between wasp clades suggest unexpected flexibility in floral semiochemical production. Alternatively, wasp sex pheromones within lineages may exhibit greater chemical diversity than currently appreciated. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Richters, Juliet; de Visser, Richard O; Badcock, Paul B; Smith, Anthony M A; Rissel, Chris; Simpson, Judy M; Grulich, Andrew E
Background This study describes the prevalence of (solo) masturbation, paying for sex and a range of other sexual practices among Australians. A representative sample of 20094 men and women aged 16-69 years (participation rate among eligible people, 66.2%) were recruited by landline and mobile phone random-digit dialling and computer-assisted telephone interviews in 2012-13. Many respondents (men, 72%; women, 42%) had masturbated in the past year. Half (51%) of the men and 24% of women had masturbated in the past 4 weeks. In the past year, more than two-fifths of respondents (men, 63%; women, 20%) had looked at pornography in any medium. Approximately 15% of men and 21% of women had used a sex toy. Digital-anal stimulation with a partner was practised by 19% of men and 15% of women, and oral-anal stimulation by 7% of men and 4% of women. Sexual role playing or dressing up were engaged in by 7-8%. Online sex, swinging, group sex, BDSM (bondage and discipline, 'sadomasochism' or dominance and submission) and fisting (rectal or vaginal) were each engaged in by less than 3% of the sample. Seventeen per cent of men said they had ever paid for sex; 2% had done so in the past year. Most of the solo practices studied were engaged in by more men than women, but women were more likely to have used a sex toy. Autoerotic activities are both substitutes for partnered sex and additional sources of pleasure for people with sexual partners.
Hassan, Kamal; Elimeleh, Yotam; Shehadeh, Mona; Fadi, Hassan; Rubinchik, Irina
Disturbances in sexual function are common among dialysis patients. Normal erections require a complex balance of physiological, psychological, emotional, hormonal, neurological and vascular factors. This study examined a possible association of overhydration (OH) with male sexual dysfunction and depression in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This cross-sectional study assessed hydration status by whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy in patients on maintenance HD for more than 12 months. Patients were categorized according to OH to extracellular water (ECW) ratio: OH/ECW ratio >0.15 and OH/ECW ratio ≤0.15. Sexual function was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score. Psychological status was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score. Serum sex hormones were determined. Of 39 stable participants on HD, 53.8% were overhydrated (OH/ECW ratio >0.15) and 46.2% not overhydrated (OH/ECW ratio ≤0.15). Of participants with OH/ECW ratio >0.15, 85.7% had mild to severe ED, and 71.4% had abnormal BDI scores, ranging from mild mood disturbance to severe depression. Compared to patients with OH/ECW ratio ≤0.15, BDI scores, serum estradiol and plasma hsCRP were higher (18.48±8.34 vs 10.61±5.46, p 0.15, while their IIEF score, serum total testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were lower (12.81±7.31 vs 41.44±23.79, p <0.001; 8.97±5.43 vs 14.10±8.30, p =0.013; and 85.31±55.14 vs 133.3±95.48, p =0.029; respectively). The OH/ECW ratio correlated inversely with the IIEF score ( r =-0.69, p <0.001) and positively with BDI scores ( r =0.64, p <0.001). IIEF scores were inversely correlated with BDI scores ( r =-0.54, p <0.001). OH in HD patients was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction and depression, lower serum levels of total testosterone and DHEA, and higher levels of serum estradiol.
Hassan, Kamal; Elimeleh, Yotam; Shehadeh, Mona; Fadi, Hassan; Rubinchik, Irina
Background Disturbances in sexual function are common among dialysis patients. Normal erections require a complex balance of physiological, psychological, emotional, hormonal, neurological and vascular factors. This study examined a possible association of overhydration (OH) with male sexual dysfunction and depression in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Patients and methods This cross-sectional study assessed hydration status by whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy in patients on maintenance HD for more than 12 months. Patients were categorized according to OH to extracellular water (ECW) ratio: OH/ECW ratio >0.15 and OH/ECW ratio ≤0.15. Sexual function was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score. Psychological status was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score. Serum sex hormones were determined. Results Of 39 stable participants on HD, 53.8% were overhydrated (OH/ECW ratio >0.15) and 46.2% not overhydrated (OH/ECW ratio ≤0.15). Of participants with OH/ECW ratio >0.15, 85.7% had mild to severe ED, and 71.4% had abnormal BDI scores, ranging from mild mood disturbance to severe depression. Compared to patients with OH/ECW ratio ≤0.15, BDI scores, serum estradiol and plasma hsCRP were higher (18.48±8.34 vs 10.61±5.46, p0.15, while their IIEF score, serum total testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were lower (12.81±7.31 vs 41.44±23.79, p<0.001; 8.97±5.43 vs 14.10±8.30, p=0.013; and 85.31±55.14 vs 133.3±95.48, p=0.029; respectively). The OH/ECW ratio correlated inversely with the IIEF score (r=−0.69, p<0.001) and positively with BDI scores (r=0.64, p<0.001). IIEF scores were inversely correlated with BDI scores (r=−0.54, p<0.001). Conclusion OH in HD patients was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction and depression, lower serum levels of total testosterone and DHEA, and higher levels of serum estradiol. PMID:29559788
Kuno, Takako; Tachi, Etsuko; Ogasawara, Akihiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yoko
It has been reported that the young people of today tend to engage in sexual behavior at an early age and the abortion rate is high. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of post-adolescents with regard to sexual behaviors and the relationship to self-identity and self-esteem. The subjects were 234 males (mean +/- SD 20.2 +/- 1.1 years) and 460 females (mean +/- SD 19.5 +/- 1.1 years) 4-year university students aged 18 to 23 years in Aichi Prefecture. An anonymous, self-report questionnaire was used to survey the subjects with regard to self-identity ("Establishment of Self" scale), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and sexual attitude and behavior. The scores on both scales and subscales of the "Establishment of Self" scale, "Foundation of Identity (Foundation)" and "Establishment of Identity (Establishment)", were calculated and intercompared, along with sexual attitude and behavior, controlled for age and school type. The mean total score of the "Establishment of Self" scale for males was 55.3 (SD9.2) and for females 52.2 (SD9.3), while those for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were 27.2 (SD5.5) and 25.7 (SD5.2), respectively. There was significant positive correlation all scales in both sexes. Both male and female students had positive attitude towards sex and a negative view of "traditional gender roles" particularly females. Of the subjects, 82.4% of males and 69.5% of females were thinking of accepting a request for sexual intercourse from their partners. Many students understood the "need for contraception", that is a component of contraceptive behavior. Most of them, however, didn't acquire the other components. A total of 68.3% of males and 48.2% of females had experienced sexual intercourse during the last year. Of these, 50.6% of males and 58.2% of females consistently used contraception. The score on the "Establishment of Self" scale was higher among both the male and female students who responded positively to having
Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Lelli, Lorenzo; Godini, Lucia; Vignozzi, Linda; Rellini, Alessandra H; Faravelli, Carlo; Maggi, Mario; Ricca, Valdo
Sexual dysfunctions that affect all aspects of sexuality are common in patients with eating disorders. However, only few studies have provided longitudinal information on sexual functioning in patients with eating disorders. To evaluate the longitudinal course of sexual functioning, and how changes in psychopathology and history of childhood abuse interact with sexual functioning in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). A total of 27 patients with AN and 31 with BN were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up after a standard individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Subjects were studied by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberg's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90, and Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. After treatment, both patients with AN and BN showed a significant improvement in the FSFI total score (P eating disorder severity was directly associated with FSFI improvement, but only in those subjects with no history of sexual abuse (β = 0.28; P = 0.01). Eating disorder-specific psychopathology could be considered as a specific maintaining factor for sexual dysfunction in eating disorders subjects. Subjects reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse represent a subpopulation of patients with a profound uneasiness, involving body perception, as well as sexual functioning, which appeared not to be adequately challenged during standard CBT intervention. The results, though original, should be considered as preliminary, given the relatively small sample size. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Rodrigo F. Bastos
Full Text Available Despite the importance of the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis for the aquarium fish trade worldwide and its wide distribution, many aspects of its biology, such as the relationships between its feeding ecology and reproductive behavior, are not fully understood in natural conditions on its native habitat. In this paper, we investigated its diet focusing on how differences in diet and food consumption are related to differences in gender and sexual maturity. The digestive tract of each individual was dissected and had its content analyzed, whereas each gonad was microscopically analyzed to determine gender (male/female and sexual maturity (immature/mature. A total of 28 females and 31 males were analyzed. Mature individuals were more common than immature specimens both for males (64.50% and females (64.30%. The analysis of 52 individuals with non-empty digestive tracts revealed a diet comprised of 27 items. According to the Index of Alimentary importance (%IAi, the most important food items in the diet were Gastropoda (37.30%, fragments of vascular plants (15.16%, detritus (10.14%, Amphipoda (9.24%, and fish scales (6.29%. Mature males had more empty stomachs (65.00% when compared to immature males (27.27% and immature (55.56% and mature females (40.00%. Also, mature females seemed to have more food consumption (greater mean values of total volume in their digestive tracts than mature males. Some hypotheses are proposed in order to distinguish if this gender-based difference in food consumption in mature individuals of the pearl cichlid could be associated with the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics or with asymmetrical time invested in parental care activities.
Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G
The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Galinsky, Adena M; Waite, Linda J
The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity. We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model. The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners.
Cohen, Kenneth M
Moderate support was obtained in a sample of 101 gay, bisexual, and heterosexual males for the perinatal hormone theory, which hypothesizes that attenuated levels of androgens during critical periods of male fetal development fail to masculinize and defeminize the brain. Affected individuals develop female-typical sexual orientation (assessed here by a pie chart) and cerebral organization, reflected in visual-spatial abilities and gender nonconformity. Handedness, also thought to reflect in utero hormone exposure, was evaluated. Gay and bisexual males reported greater femininity and lesser masculinity than heterosexuals, with bisexuals intermediate in masculinity, suggesting a common biological mediator for homoeroticism and sex atypicality. Among bisexual males, increased masculinity was related to enhanced performance on all spatial tasks. Group mean differences in spatial ability and handedness were not found; however, among bisexuals, poorer visual-spatial performance predicted increased homoeroticism and right-handedness positively correlated with all spatial tasks. If perinatal hormones contribute to a generalized feminization of the brain, the current data indicate that it is most apparent among bisexual males. Sexing of their brains may involve several sexually dimorphic regions that are related in a continuous manner. Inferred cerebral feminization was more circumscribed among gay and heterosexual males, for whom childhood sex atypicality was most highly-distinguishing. Unspecified mechanisms responsible for homoeroticism in them may differ from those that produce same-sex attractions in bisexuals and thus have relatively little impact on other components of cerebral feminization.
Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Roche, Kathleen M.; Blake, Susan M.
This study examined the circumstances under which family adults in Ghana were aware of their adolescent children's involvement in premarital relationships. It was hypothesized that factors related to the seriousness and social acceptability of the relationship would influence the likelihood of family adults' awareness in gender-specific ways. Data…
Pawlowski, Boguslaw; Jasienska, Grazyna
Human mate preferences are related to many morphological traits, such as female waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), male height or facial symmetry. People also vary in preferences for sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS = male height/female height) between themselves and a potential partner. Here, we demonstrate that women adjust their preference for SDS not only in relation to their own height but also in relation to (1) the phase of menstrual cycle during which their preferences were studied and (2) the sexual strategy (short- versus long-term) they were asked to choose. Taller males (larger SDS) were preferred more often when women were in the follicular (i.e. fertile) phase of their menstrual cycle and when the partners were chosen for short-term relationships. These effects were independent of woman's height. The results show that women in a potentially fertile phase of their menstrual cycle and when choosing a partner who might be less likely to invest in children select genes of taller males.
Raiford, Jerris L; Seth, Puja; Fasula, Amy M; DiClemente, Ralph J
HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (HIV/STIs) are significant contributors to adolescent girls' morbidity in the US. Risks for HIV/STIs are increased among adolescent girls involved in the juvenile justice system, and African American adolescent girls comprise nearly 50% of adolescent girls in detention centres. Although HIV prevention programs focus on HIV/STI knowledge, increased knowledge may not be sufficient to reduce sexual risk. The present study examined the interactive effects of HIV/STI knowledge and the importance of being in a relationship (a relationship imperative) on sexual risk behaviours in a sample of detained African American adolescent girls. In all, 188 African American adolescent girls, 13-17 years of age, were recruited from a short-term detention facility in Atlanta, Georgia, and completed assessments on sexual risk behaviours, relationship characteristics, HIV/STI knowledge and several psychosocial risk factors. When girls endorsed a relationship imperative, higher HIV/STI knowledge was associated with low partner communication self-efficacy, inconsistent condom use and unprotected sex, when controlling for demographics and self-esteem. Young girls with high HIV/STI knowledge may have placed themselves at risk for HIV/STIs given the importance and value they place on being in a relationship. Contextual factors should be considered when developing interventions.
Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria N; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Simbayi, Leickness C; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C
South African townships have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. Considerable research on understanding the high rates of HIV transmission in this country has identified alcohol use as a critical factor in driving the HIV epidemic. Although the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking is well documented, less is known about how other factors, such as food insecurity, might be important in understanding alcohol's role in sexual risk-taking. Furthermore, prior research has highlighted how patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking tend to vary by gender. We examined how food insecurity is related to both alcohol use and sexual risk-taking. We administered anonymous community surveys to men (n = 1,137) and women (n = 458) residing within four contiguous Black African townships outside of Cape Town, South Africa. In multivariate linear regression, we found that food insecurity was related to having higher numbers of male sex partners and condom-protected sex acts among women only. These relationships, however, were fully mediated by women's alcohol use. Among men, we found that food insecurity was negatively related to unprotected sex; that is, men with greater food security reported more unprotected sex acts. Unlike the results found among women, this relationship was not mediated by alcohol use. Food insecurity appears to be an important factor in understanding patterns of sexual risk-taking in regards to gender and alcohol use, and may serve as an important point of intervention for reducing HIV transmission rates.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sexual desire, and intimacy with the depression symptoms and marital satisfaction in 3 month- 2 year postpartum women in Mahshahr. Methods In this correlational cross-sectional study, 107 women participated who referred to health centers of Mahshahr (Iran with their babies aged three months to two years. The study sample was selected via convenience sampling method, who were required to complete the libido (SIDI, intimacy (PAIR, depression (CES-D questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation and multivariate regression. Results: As the study results indicated, a negative relationship was detected between intimacy and sexuality with the depressive symptoms (P≤0.01, whereas a positive relationship was observed between intimacy and sexual and marital satisfaction (P≤0.01. In addition, intimacy and sexuality variables were proved to be significant predictors for postpartum depression symptoms and marital satisfaction obtained after delivery. Depression symptoms explained 62% of the variation, and marital satisfaction explained 63% of depression symptoms. Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrated that after birth when childbirth creates some changes in the lives of couples, and women's marital satisfaction and emotional mood may be affected, couples can use intimacy and sexuality in order to predict depression and marital satisfaction.
Walker, Dave P; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie
In previous studies, number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness were examined as independent risk factors for sexual victimization among college women. Using a sample of 335 college women, this study examined the interaction of number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness on verbal sexual coercion and rape. Approximately 32% of the sample reported unwanted sexual intercourse, 6.9% (n = 23) experienced verbal sexual coercion, 17.9% (n = 60) experienced rape, and 7.2% (n = 24) experienced both. As number of sexual partners increased, instances of verbal sexual coercion increased for women low in relational sexual assertiveness but not for women high in relational sexual assertiveness. A similar relationship was not found for rape. Among women who experienced both verbal sexual coercion and rape, increases in number of partners in the context of low refusal and relational assertiveness were associated with increases in verbal sexual coercion and rape. Findings suggest sexual assertiveness is related to fewer experiences of sexual coercion.
Full Text Available Kamal Hassan,1,2 Yotam Elimeleh,1 Mona Shehadeh,3 Hassan Fadi,4 Irina Rubinchik2 1Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed, Israel; 2Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Israel; 3Biochemistry Laboratory, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Israel; 4Internal Medicine Department E, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Israel Background: Disturbances in sexual function are common among dialysis patients. Normal erections require a complex balance of physiological, psychological, emotional, hormonal, neurological and vascular factors. This study examined a possible association of overhydration (OH with male sexual dysfunction and depression in hemodialysis (HD patients. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study assessed hydration status by whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy in patients on maintenance HD for more than 12 months. Patients were categorized according to OH to extracellular water (ECW ratio: OH/ECW ratio >0.15 and OH/ECW ratio ≤0.15. Sexual function was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF score. Psychological status was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score. Serum sex hormones were determined. Results: Of 39 stable participants on HD, 53.8% were overhydrated (OH/ECW ratio >0.15 and 46.2% not overhydrated (OH/ECW ratio ≤0.15. Of participants with OH/ECW ratio >0.15, 85.7% had mild to severe ED, and 71.4% had abnormal BDI scores, ranging from mild mood disturbance to severe depression. Compared to patients with OH/ECW ratio ≤0.15, BDI scores, serum estradiol and plasma hsCRP were higher (18.48±8.34 vs 10.61±5.46, p<0.001; 140.10±44.51 vs 126.10±32.26, p=0.034; and, 17.70±12.14 vs 9.76±8.79, p=0.013; respectively in those with OH/ECW ratio >0.15, while their IIEF score, serum total testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA were lower (12.81±7.31 vs 41.44±23.79, p<0.001; 8.97±5.43 vs 14.10±8.30, p=0.013; and
Brown, Susan G; Morrison, Lynn A; Calibuso, Marites J; Christiansen, Tess M
Patterns of eating, exercise, sleep, and health were investigated across 180 menstrual cycles of 89 women who engaged in sex with a male (n = 45; cycles = 85), a female (n = 21; cycles = 37), or abstained from sex (n = 33; cycles = 58) from January 2005 to December 2007 (10 contributed to 2 groups). Cycles were divided into 5 phases based on their luteinizing hormone surges. Daily questionnaires and saliva for IgA and cortisol analyses were obtained. Women indicated that they ate more (p Sexually active women had lower cortisol and IgA levels than abstinent women (p = .02). Our study discovered, and confirmed, systematic differences in eating, sleeping, and health patterns across women's menstrual cycles.
Kennedy, Kieran M
A number of factors are known to influence the progression of sexual crimes through the criminal justice system. The role of victim injury in influencing decision-making at pivotal stages has been addressed by a number of separate research projects. This article consolidates existing research evidence in order to highlight the important role that victim injury plays at each step of the legal process. The importance of accurate diagnosis and recording of victim injury is highlighted. Furthermore, by describing the significant impact that the presence of victim injury can have on the legal outcome, the importance of ensuring that cases without victim injury are correctly interpreted by the police, legal professionals, judiciary and the jury is heavily emphasised.
McNulty, James K.
Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales—Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204
Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K
Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction).
Tybur, J.M.; Inbar, Y.; Güler, E.; Molho, C.
Multiple recent studies report that measures of pathogen avoidance (e.g., disgust sensitivity) correlate with political ideology. This relationship has been interpreted as suggesting that certain political views (specifically, those views that are categorized as socially conservative) function to
Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Campbell, Chadwick; Wilson, Patrick; Grisham, Kirk; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Neilands, Torsten B; Hoff, Colleen
Research is clear that power differentials between women and men shape women's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risks; however, little research has attempted to examine power differentials within same-sex male (SSM) couples and whether these influence sexual risk outcomes. To produce the first quantitative scale that measures power in SSM relationships, the current work was a Phase 1 qualitative study that sought to understand domains of relationship power and how power operated in the relationship among 48 Black, White, and interracial (Black-White) SSM couples recruited from San Francisco and New York. Interview domains were focused on definitions of power and perceptions of how power operated in the relationship. Findings revealed that couples described power in three key ways: as power exerted over a partner through decision-making dominance and relationship control; as power to accomplish goals through personal agency; and as couple-level power. In addition, men described ways that decision-making dominance and relationship control could be enacted in the relationship-through structural resources, emotional and sexual influence, and gender norm expectations. We discuss the implications of these findings for sexual risks and HIV care and treatment with SSM couples that are focused on closing gaps in power.
Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma
Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects.
Levine, Ethan Czuy; Herbenick, Debby; Martinez, Omar; Fu, Tsung-Chieh; Dodge, Brian
People in open and other consensually nonmonogamous partnerships have been historically underserved by researchers and providers. Many studies group such partnerships together with nonconsensual nonmonogamy (NCNM) under the banner of "concurrent sexual partnerships." Discrimination from service providers poses a substantial barrier to care. Responding to such concerns, this investigation explored sociodemographic correlates with open relationships and associations between relationship structure and sexual risk, HIV/STI testing, and relationship satisfaction in a nationally representative probability sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (n = 2270). We used multinomial logistic regression to identify correlates with relationship structure, and linear and logistic regression to investigate associations between relationship structure and testing, condom use, and relationship satisfaction. Eighty-nine percent of participants reported monogamy, 4% reported open relationships, and 8% reported NCNM. Males, gay/lesbian individuals, bisexual individuals, and those who identified as "Other, Non-Hispanic" were more likely to report open relationships. Bisexual individuals and Black, Non-Hispanic participants were more likely to report NCNM; older participants were less likely to do so. Participants in open relationships reported more frequent condom use for anal intercourse and lower relationship satisfaction than monogamous participants. NCNM participants reported more HIV testing and lower satisfaction. Identities, experiences, and behaviors within open and other consensually nonmonogamous populations should be regarded as unique and diverse, rather than conflated with those common to other relationship structures. There is a need for greater awareness of diverse relationship structures among researchers and providers, and incorporation of related content into educational programming.
Larsen, M-L; Hilden, M; Lidegaard, Ø
) the relationship between victim and perpetrator. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the victims were aged 15-24 years. Seventy-five percent had met the perpetrator before the sexual assault and 70% reported the assault to the police. A physical injury was found in 53, and 27% sustained an anogenital lesion. Alcohol...... is important in creating an environment where women are not reluctant to seek help after a sexual assault. Young age and drinking alcohol were risk factors for sexual assault, and we need to address this when considering preventive strategies.......OBJECTIVE: To describe the victims of sexual assault and the circumstances in which the assaults occur. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: A total of 2541 women attending CVSA from 2001...
Stroope, Samuel; McFarland, Michael J; Uecker, Jeremy E
We tested several hypotheses regarding the relationship between marital characteristics and sexual outcomes among 1,656 married adults ages 57-85 years from the 2005-2006 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Results showed that individuals in their first marriage had more frequent sex than remarried individuals; marital duration had a curvilinear (U-shaped) relationship with frequency of sex; and a linear relationship between marital duration and frequency of sex varied by gender such that men had more frequent sex than women in younger marriages. We speculate that relationship permanency may drive the greater sexual activity in first marriages and sicker men in younger marriages may drive frequency of sex for women in younger marriages.
Traeen, Bente; Noor, Syed W; Hald, Gert Martin
The purpose of this study was to investigate consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Norway, with a particular emphasis on a possible relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Participants included 529 MSM...... living in Norway recruited online to complete a SEM consumption and sexual risk survey. Of the 507 participants who responded to the all items measuring exposure to SEM, 19% reported unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner (UAI) in last 90 days, and 14% reported having had sero-discordant UAI....... Among those with UAI experience, 23% reported receptive anal intercourse (R-UAI) and 37% reported insertive anal intercourse (I-UAI). SEM consumption was found to be significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Participants with increased consumption of bareback SEM reported higher odds of UAI...
Das, Aniruddha; Sawin, Nicole
This study used population-representative longitudinal data from the 2005-2006 and 2010-2011 waves of the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project-a probability sample of US adults aged 57-85 at baseline (N = 650 women and 620 men)-to examine the causal direction in linkages of endogenous testosterone (T) with sexual activity and relationship quality. For both genders, our autoregressive effects indicated a large amount of temporal stability, not just in individual-level attributes (T, masturbation) but also dyadic ones (partnered sex, relationship quality)-indicating that a need for more nuanced theories of relational processes. Cross-lagged results suggested gender-specific effects-generally more consistent with sexual or relational modulation of T than with hormonal causation. Specifically, men's findings indicated their T might be elevated by their sexual (masturbatory) activity but not vice versa, although androgen levels did lower men's subsequent relationship quality. Women's T, in contrast, was negatively influenced not just by their higher relationship quality but also by their more frequent partnered sex-perhaps reflecting a changing function of sexual activity in late life.
Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.; Reilly, Georgianna
This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of…
Thuo, Daniel Njane; Nyaga, Veronica K.; Bururia, David N.; Barchok, Hilary K.
Education plays an important role in curbing the spread of HIV and AIDS among the youth. However, there is little known how teachers' motivation in teaching HIV/AIDS education affects students' knowledge and attitudes towards sexual behaviour. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between teachers' level of motivation in…
Vang, Maria Louison; Shevlin, Mark; Karatzias, Thanos
emotional abuse on post-traumatic stress severity. The indirect effect model fit the data best. Conclusion: Dissociation fully mediated the relationship between childhood sexual and emotional abuse and post-traumatic stress severity. The results are limited by the use of retrospective self-report measures...
Black, Anne C.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Potenza, Marc N.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Rosen, Marc I.
Adults who abuse substances are at increased risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Within this population, sexual risk behaviors have been associated with increased impulsivity. Studies in non-clinical populations showing gender-related differences in sexual decision-making and casual sexual partnering suggest impulsivity has a greater influence on men than women, but these differences have not been documented in substance-using patients. In a sample of 89 adult...
Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287
Perry, Elissa L.; Kulik, Carol T.; Bustamante, Jennifer; Golom, Frank D.
The current study explored the use of best training practices on human resources managers' perceptions of sexual harassment training success and frequency of sexual harassment complaints. Results revealed no main effects of best training practices on sexual harassment training success. However, effects of best training practices on sexual…
Differences in compassion fatigue, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and relationship satisfaction, including sexual desire and functioning, between male and female detectives who investigate sexual offenses against children: a pilot study.
Lane, Eric J; Lating, Jeffrey M; Lowry, Jenny L; Martino, Traci P
Law enforcement detectives who work with traumatized individuals, especially children who were victims of sexual abuse or assault, are likely to experience job-related emotional distress. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among compassion fatigue, probable PTSD symptoms, and personal relationship satisfaction, including communication and sexual satisfaction, in a sample of 47 male and female detectives. Responses to the administered questionnaires indicated a relation between compassion fatigue symptoms and probable PTSD symptoms. There also were compelling gender differences. For example, for male detectives, open communication with their spouse or significant other was negatively correlated with burnout, indicating the more open the communication, the lower the reported burnout. However for female detectives there was a negative correlation between open communication with spouse or significant other and compassion satisfaction, suggesting that more open communication was related to lower levels of satisfaction with their ability to be a professional caregiver Furthermore, although stepwise regression analysis indicated that years of service as a detective is independently associated with sexual desire, female detectives evidenced less sexual desire and more difficulty with sexual functioning than did male detectives. Implications of these preliminary findings are discussed and limitations addressed.
particularidades de cada género.Objective. To determine the prevalence of sexual abuse among high school (secondary and preparatory students, male and female, throughout Mexico, and its relationship with drug abuse. Material and methods. Data were obtained from the National Survey of Drug Use in Schools applied in November and December, 1991. A total of 61 779 students, 51.8% men and 47.1% women, with a mean age of 14.4 years completed the self-applied questionnaire. Sexual abuse was explored from the perspective of the abusers and of the victims. Results. The prevalence of sexual abuse in adolescent victims was 4.3% and no statistically significant differences were found between sexes. The prevalence of sexual aggressors was 2.5%. Men coerced someone else in a higher proportion than women. Adolescent women experienced sexual abuse at a younger age than men and they also reported a higher percentage of intrafamily abuse. Men reported friends as the most frequent aggressors. Victims and aggressors of both sexes reported a significantly higher drug consumption than students without these antecedents. Conclusions. The differences in the experience of sexual abuse between men and women are described. In particular, the fact that sexual abuse in men mainly occurs outside the family sphere, while in women it is mainly within the family and at a younger age than in men. Additionally, the need for further research focusing on the consequences on mental health of infantile and adolescent sexual abuse and drug consumption is emphasized, considering the characteristics of each gender.
Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R
Researchers have consistently linked commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) of youth and involvement in prostitution with substance dependency and delinquency. Yet, important questions remain regarding the directionality and mechanisms driving this association. Utilizing a sample of 114 CSE/prostituted youth participating in the Pathways to Desistance study-a longitudinal investigation of the transition from adolescence to adulthood among serious adolescent offenders-the current study examined key criminal career parameters of CSE/prostitution including age of onset and rate of recurrence. Additionally, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore concurrent associations and causal links between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement. Findings show a general sequential pattern of the ages of onset with substance use and selling drugs occurring prior to CSE/prostitution, evidence that a small group with chronic CSE/prostitution account for the majority of CSE/prostitution occurrences, and high rates of repeated CSE/prostitution. SEM results suggest CSE/prostituted youth persist in drug involvement from year to year but infrequently experience perpetuation of CSE/prostitution from year to year. Concurrent associations between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement were found across the length of the study. Additionally, drug involvement at one year was linked to CSE/prostitution during the subsequent year during early years of the study. © The Author(s) 2014.
Campbell, Rebecca; Ahrens, Courtney E; Sefl, Tracy; Clark, Marcia L
Previous research has established a link between childhood sexual abuse and engaging in prostitution as an adult. The purpose of this study was to extend this literature by exploring whether being raped as an adult is associated with exchanging sex for money. Interviews with 102 rape survivors in a major metropolitan area revealed that 23.5% had engaged in prostitution post-rape. Those who had exchanged sex for money were more likely to be women of color, to have a high school education or less, to be unemployed, and to have children to support, than those who had not engaged in prostitution post-assault. The prostitution subsample also had significantly higher levels of psychological distress, physical health symptomatology, and substance use. Survivors were asked whether and how the rape was associated with engaging in prostitution: most (75%) stated that they felt it was related to the assault. The most commonly cited reason for engaging in prostitution by these survivors was that they were trying to regain some control over their lives and their bodies; exchanging sex for money was seen as one way to control men's access to them. Implications for future research on victimization and prostitution are discussed.
Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Brown, Graham; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Crameri, Pauline
Older people are often excluded from large studies of sexual health, as it is assumed that they are not having sex or are reluctant to talk about sensitive topics and are therefore difficult to recruit. We outline the sampling and recruitment strategies from a recent study on sexual health and relationships among older people. Sex, Age and Me was a nationwide Australian study that examined sexual health, relationship patterns, safer-sex practices and STI knowledge of Australians aged 60 years and over. The study used a mixed-methods approach to establish baseline levels of knowledge and to develop deeper insights into older adult's understandings and practices relating to sexual health. Data collection took place in 2015, with 2137 participants completing a quantitative survey and 53 participating in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. As the feasibility of this type of study has been largely untested until now, we provide detailed information on the study's recruitment strategies and methods. We also compare key characteristics of our sample with national estimates to assess its degree of representativeness. This study provides evidence to challenge the assumptions that older people will not take part in sexual health-related research and details a novel and successful way to recruit participants in this area.
Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K
Recent research has demonstrated increased eating pathology among single bisexual and gay (BG) men compared to BG men in relationships and all heterosexual men. BG men may be at elevated risk due to