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Sample records for extraction unit mcu

  1. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

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    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified

  2. Characterization of solids deposited on the modular caustic-side solvent extraction unit (MCU) coalescer media removed in May and October 2014

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    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    During routine maintenance, the coalescers utilized in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing of Salt Batch 6 and a portion of Salt Batch 7 were sampled and submitted to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization, for the purpose of identifying solid phase constituents that may be accumulating in these coalescers. Specifically, two samples were received and characterized: A decontaminated salt solution (DSS) coalescer sample and a strip effluent (SE) coalescer sample. Aliquots of the samples were analyzed by XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, SEM, and EDS. Other aliquots of the samples were leached in acid solution, and the leachates were analyzed by ICP-AES. In addition, modeling was performed to provide a basis for comparison of the analytical results.

  3. Characterization of solids deposited on the modular caustic-side solvent extraction unit (MCU) coalescer media removed in October 2014

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    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a Strip Effluent (SE) coalescer (FLT-304) from MCU. That coalescer was first installed at MCU in July 2014 and removed in October 2014. While processing approximately 31,400 gallons of strip solution, the pressure drop steadily increased from 1 psi to beyond the administrative limit of 20 psi. The physical and chemical analysis was conducted on this coalescer to determine the mechanism that led to the plugging of this coalescer. Characterization of this coalescer revealed the adsorption of organic containing amines as well as MCU modifier. The amines are probably from the decomposition of the suppressor (TiDG) as well as from bacteria. This adsorption may have changed the surface energetics (characteristics) of the coalescer fibers and therefore, their wetting behavior. A very small amount of inorganic solids were found to have deposited on this coalescer (possibly an artifact of cleaning the coalescer with Boric acid. However, we believe that inorganic precipitation, as has been seen in the past, did not play a role in the high pressure drop rise of this coalescer. With regards to the current practice of reducing the radioactive content of the SE coalescer, it is recommended that future SE coalescer should be flushed with 10 mM boric acid which is currently used at MCU. Plugging of the SE coalescer was most likely due to the formation and accumulation of a water-in-oil emulsion that reduced the overall porosity of the coalescer. There is also evidence that a bimodal oil particle distribution may have entered and deposited in the coalescer and caused the initial increase in pressure drop.

  4. SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLE RESULTS FOR MCU-12-488, MCU-12-489, MCU-12-490, MCU-12-491, MCU-12-492 AND MCU-12-493: QUARTERLY SAMPLE FROM OCTOBER 2012

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    Fondeur, F. F.; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2013-01-16

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed solvent samples from Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) in support of continuing operations. A quarterly analysis of the solvent is required to maintain solvent composition within specifications. Analytical results of the analyses of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples MCU-12-488, MCU-12-489, MCU-12-490, MCU-12-491, MCU-12-492 and MCU-12-493 received 24 October 2012 are reported. The results show that the solvent at MCU does not require an Isopar® L addition, but it will require addition of trioctylamine. SRNL also analyzed the SHT sample for {sup 137}Cs content and determined the measured value is within tolerance but is trending upward compared to the {sup 137}Cs measurement made last year.

  5. Characterization of Solids Deposited on the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Strip Effluent (SE) Coalescer Media Removed in April 2015

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    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-13

    On June 2015, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a Strip Effluent (SE) coalescer (FLT-304) from MCU. That coalescer was first installed at MCU in late October 2014 and removed in April 2015. While processing approximately 48,700 gallons of strip solution, the pressure drop steadily increased linearly from 1 psi to near 16 psi (the administrative limit is 17 psi) with the total filtrate volume (2.1E-4 psi/gal of filtrate). The linear behavior is due to the combined effect of a constant deposition of material that starts from the closed-end to the mid-section of the coalescer reducing the available surface area of the coalescer for fluid passage (linearly with filtrate volume) and the formation of a secondary emulsion (water in NG-CSSX) on the fibers of the coalescer media. Both effects reduced the coalescer porosity by at least 13% (after processing 48,700 gallons). Before the coalescer was removed, it was flushed with a 10 mM boric acid solution to reduce the dose level. To determine the nature of the deposited material, a physical and chemical analysis of the coalescer was conducted. Characterization of this coalescer revealed the adsorption of organic containing amines (secondary amides and primary amines), TiDG, degraded modifier (with no hydroxyl group), MaxCalix, and oxidized hydrocarbon (possibly from Isopar™L or from lubricant used at MCU) onto the coalescer media. The amide and amines are possibly from the decomposition of the suppressor (TiDG). The modifier and MaxCalix were the largest components of the deposited organic material, as determined from leaching the coalescer with dichloromethane. Both the Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FTIR) and Fourier-Transformed Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FT-HNMR) results indicated that some of the modifier was degraded (missing their OH groups). The modifier was observed everywhere in the examined coalescer pieces (FTIR), while the TiDG and its decomposition products were observed at the

  6. SUPPLEMENTAL ANALYSES FOR SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES MCU-11-314, MCU-11-315, MCU-11-316, MCU-11-317, MCU-11-318 AND MCU-11-319

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    Peters, T.; Washington, A; . Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-29

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) periodically analyses solvent samples from Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) in support of continuing operations. A quarterly analysis of the solvent is required to maintain solvent composition within specifications. Analytical results of the analyses of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples MCU-11-314, MCU-11-315, MCU-11-316, MCU-11-317, MCU-11-318 and MCU-11-319 have been previously reported. MCU has experienced a modest decline in cesium removal efficiency while processing the current feed, 'Macrobatch 3'. While the target decontamination factor (DF) is 200, the fiscal year 2011 DF average is 161. The results of the prior solvent analysis report did not identify a specific factor that would correlate with the poor cesium decontamination beyond a low concentration of the suppressor, trioctylamine. New analyses of the quarterly sample are reported in this document, as well as a cross-check of {sup 137}Cs measurements for SRNL and F/H lab. Furthermore, in an attempt to discover the reason for the decline in DF at MCU, SRNL was tasked with analyzing numerous Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and chemical feed samples.

  7. SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLE RESULTS FOR MCU-13-189, MCU-13-190, AND MCU-13-191: QUARTERLY SAMPLE FROM SEPTEMBER 2013

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    Fondeur, F.; Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2013-10-31

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed solvent samples from Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) in support of continuing operations. A quarterly analysis of the solvent is required to maintain solvent composition within specifications. Analytical results of the analyses of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples MCU-13-189, MCU-13-190, and MCU-13-191 received on September 4, 2013 are reported. The results show that the solvent (remaining heel in the SHT tank) at MCU contains excess Isopar L and a deficit concentration of modifier and trioctylamine when compared to the standard MCU solvent. As with the previous solvent sample results, these analyses indicate that the solvent does not require Isopar L trimming at this time. Since MCU is switching to NGS, there is no need to add TOA nor modifier. SRNL also analyzed the SHT sample for {{sup 137}Cs content and determined the measured value is within tolerance and the value has returned to levels observed in 2011.

  8. Sludge Batch 4 Simulant Flowsheet Studies with ARP and MCU: Impact of MCU Organics

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    Baich, M. A.; Herman, C. C.; Eibling, R. E.; Williams, M. F.; Smith, F. G.

    2005-07-01

    Two facilities for treating the salt currently being stored in the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks are currently planned to begin operations during the processing of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The Immobilization Technology Section (ITS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 (Washburn, 2004) to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing for streams from the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Side Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). In particular, the TTR requests SRNL to validate the existing process flowsheet and establish a coupled operations flowsheet for use with SB4. The flowsheet runs are required so an evaluation of potential chemical processing issues, quantification of the potential hydrogen generation rates, and estimation of the required acid stoichiometry can be made. Previous testing (Baich et. al., 2003) was performed for incorporating ARP/MST in Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and recommendations were made to DWPF on possible flowsheet options. However, since that time, some changes have occurred to the ARP facility processing strategy, and material balances have been revised (Subosits, 2004). Thus, testing with updated compositions was necessary. Since the MCU is a new design and project, no CPC flowsheet studies have been performed for this stream. This testing will validate the previously recommended ARP stream addition methods based on the new information and based on the need to also incorporate the MCU stream. The basic principle of solvent extraction is to use a sparingly soluble diluent material that carries an extractant that will complex with the cesium ions in the caustic HLW solution. The decontaminated aqueous stream (raffinate) is then sent to Saltstone for disposal. The cesium contained in the organic phase (solvent) can then be stripped into an aqueous phase ready for transfer to the DWPF. The solvent is

  9. Results of Hg speciation testing on MCU strip effluent hold tank (SEHT) and decontaminated salt solution hold tank (DSSHT) materials

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    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team.i,ii The tenth shipment of samples was designated to include Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and MCU Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) materials from processing Salt Batch 7b. The MCU SEHT (MCU-15-722) and DSSHT (MCU-15-709) samples were pulled on June 15, 2015. All MCU samples were received at SRNL on June 16, 2015. The DSSHT sample was moved the same day to refrigeration, while the SEHT sample was placed in the Shielded Cells. On July 9, 2015 it was opened and an aliquot diluted 1:100 with Eurofins deionized water and a portion of the diluted sample transferred to a Teflon® bottle prior to moving it to refrigeration that same day. All samples were kept in the dark and refrigerated until final dilutions were prepared for shipment to Eurofins.

  10. DWPF Flowsheet Studies with Simulants to Determine Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit Solvent Partitioning and Verify Actinide Removal Process Incorporation Strategy

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    Herman, C

    2006-04-21

    The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) are scheduled to begin processing salt waste in fiscal year 2007. A portion of the streams generated in the salt processing facilities will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to be incorporated in the glass matrix. Before the streams are introduced, a combination of impact analyses and research and development studies must be performed to quantify the impacts on DWPF processing. The Process Science & Engineering (PS&E) section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing. Simulant Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet studies have been performed using previous composition and projected volume estimates for the ARP sludge/monosodium titanate (MST) stream. Due to changes in the flammability control strategy for DWPF for salt processing, the incorporation strategy for ARP has changed and additional ARP flowsheet tests were necessary to validate the new processing strategy. The last round of ARP testing included the incorporation of the MCU stream and identified potential processing issues with the MCU solvent. The identified issues included the potential carry-over and accumulation of the MCU solvent components in the CPC condensers and in the recycle stream to the Tank Farm. Therefore, DWPF requested SRNL to perform additional MCU flowsheet studies to better quantify the organic distribution in the CPC vessels. The previous MCU testing used a Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) simulant since it was anticipated that both of these facilities would begin salt processing during SB4 processing. The same sludge simulant recipe was used in this round of ARP and MCU testing to minimize the number of changes between the two phases of testing so a better comparison could be made. ARP and MCU stream simulants were made for this phase of testing

  11. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

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    Casella, V

    2007-06-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU.'' The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Revision of this report is a deliverable in Technical Task Report SP-TTR-2006-00010, ''NaI Shield Box Testing.'' Gamma-ray monitors were developed to: {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be approximately fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.)

  12. DWPF FLOWSHEET STUDIES WITH SIMULANTS TO DETERMINE MCU SOLVENT BUILD-UP IN CONTINOUS RUNS

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    Lambert, D; Frances Williams, F; S Crump, S; Russell Eibling, R; Thomas02 White, T; David Best, D

    2006-05-25

    The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) are scheduled to begin processing salt waste in fiscal year 2007. A portion of the streams generated in these salt processing facilities will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to be incorporated in the glass matrix. Before the streams are introduced, a combination of impact analyses and research and development studies must be performed to quantify the impacts on DWPF processing. The Process Science & Engineering (PS&E) section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing. Simulant Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet studies have been performed using previous composition and projected volume estimates for the ARP sludge/monosodium titanate (MST) stream. Initial MCU incorporation testing for the DWPF flowsheet indicated unacceptable levels of Isopar{reg_sign}L were collecting in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) condenser system and unanticipated quantities of modifier were carrying over into the SRAT condenser system. This work was performed as part of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) flowsheet testing and was reported by Baich et al. Due to changes in the flammability control strategy for DWPF for salt processing, the incorporation strategy for ARP changed and additional ARP flowsheet tests were necessary to validate the new processing strategy. The last round of ARP testing included the incorporation of the MCU stream and identified potential processing issues with the MCU solvent. The identified issues included the potential carry-over and accumulation of the MCU solvent components in the CPC condensers and in the recycle stream to the Tank Farm. Solvent retention in the DWPF condensers contradicts the DWPF solvent control strategy. Therefore, DWPF requested SRNL to perform additional MCU flowsheet studies to better

  13. 1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT

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    Hansen, E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

  14. Analysis of an MCU HEPA filter

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    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    A series of direct analyses on three portions (inlet, center, and outlet) of the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter material from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) have been performed; this includes x-ray methods such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Contained Scanning Electron Microscopy (CSEM) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), as well as Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR). Additionally, two leaching studies (one with water, one with dichloromethane) have been performed on three portions (inlet, center, and outlet) of the HEPA filter material, with the leachates being analyzed by Inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPES), Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA) and gammascan. From the results of the analyses, SRNL feels that cesium-depleted solvent is being introduced into the HEPA filter. The most likely avenue for this is mechanical aerosolization of solvent, where the aerosol is then carried along an airstream into the HEPA filter. Once introduced into the HEPA filter media, the solvent wicks throughout the material, and migrates towards the outlet end. Once on the outlet end, continual drying could cause particulate flakes to exit the filter and travel farther down the airstream path.

  15. SOLIDS PRECIPITATION EVENT IN MCU CAUSAL ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FROM SOLIDS RECOVERY TEAM

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    Garrison, A.; Aponte, C.

    2014-08-15

    A process upset occurred in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) facility on April 6th, 2014. During recovery efforts, a significant amount of solids were found in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Salt Solution Receipt Tanks (SSRTs), two extraction contactors, and scrub contactors. The solids were identified by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) as primarily sodium oxalate and sodium alumina silicate (NAS) with the presence of some aluminum hydroxide. NAS solids have been present in the SSFT since simulant runs during cold chemical startup of MCU in 2007, and have not hindered operations since that time. During the process upset in April 2014, the oxalate solids partially blocked the aqueous outlet of the extraction contactors, causing salt solution to exit through the contactor organic outlet to the scrub contactors with the organic phase. This salt solution overwhelmed the scrub contactors and passed with the organic phase to the strip section of MCU. The partially reversed flow of salt solution resulted in a Strip Effluent (SE) stream that was high in Isopar™ L, pH and sodium. The primary cause of the excessive solids accumulation in the SSRTs and SSFT at MCU is attributed to an increase in the frequency of oxalic acid cleaning of the 512-S primary filter. Agitation in the SSRTs at MCU in response to cold weather likely provided the primary mechanism to transfer the solids to the contactors. Sources of the sodium oxalate solids are attributed to the oxalic acid cleaning solution used to clean the primary filter at the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) filtration at 512-S, as well as precipitation from the salt batch feed, which is at or near oxalate saturation. The Solids Recovery Team was formed to determine the cause of the solids formation and develop recommendations to prevent or mitigate this event in the future. A total of 53 recommendations were generated. These recommendations were organized into 4 focus areas: • Improve

  16. Sample Results from MCU Solids Outage

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    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.

    2014-09-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has received several solid and liquid samples from MCU in an effort to understand and recover from the system outage starting on April 6, 2014. SRNL concludes that the presence of solids in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) is the likely root cause for the outage, based upon the following discoveries: A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; A solids sample from the scrub contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; A solids sample from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; An archived sample from Tank 49H taken last year was shown to contain a fine precipitate of sodium oxalate; A solids sample from ; A liquid sample from the SSFT was shown to have elevated levels of oxalate anion compared to the expected concentration in the feed. Visual inspection of the SSFT indicated the presence of precipitated or transferred solids, which were likely also in the Salt Solution Receipt Tank (SSRT). The presence of the solids coupled with agitation performed to maintain feed temperature resulted in oxalate solids migration through the MCU system and caused hydraulic issues that resulted in unplanned phase carryover from the extraction into the scrub, and ultimately the strip contactors. Not only did this carryover result in the Strip Effluent (SE) being pushed out of waste acceptance specification, but it resulted in the deposition of solids into several of the contactors. At the same time, extensive deposits of aluminosilicates were found in the drain tube in the extraction contactor #1. However it is not known at this time how the aluminosilicate solids are related to the oxalate solids. The solids were successfully cleaned out of the MCU system. However, future consideration must be given to the exclusion of oxalate solids into the MCU system. There were 53 recommendations for improving operations recently identified. Some additional considerations or

  17. Determination of the impact of glycolate on ARP and MCU operations

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    Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shehee, T. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-17

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating an alternate flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using glycolic acid as a reductant. An important aspect of the development of the glycolic acid flowsheet is determining if glycolate has any detrimental downstream impacts. Testing was performed to determine if there is any impact to the strontium and actinide sorption by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) or if there is an impact to the cesium removal, phase separation, or coalescer performance at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Processing Unit (MCU).

  18. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-15-389-390 and MCU-15-439-440-441. February 2015 Monthly Samples

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    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-04

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received two sets of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-389 and MCU-15-390 pulled on February 23, 2015 and MCU-15-439, MCU-15-440, and MCU-15-441 pulled on February 28, 2015) for analysis. The samples in each set were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite samples MCU-15-389-390 and MCU-15-439-440- 441 indicated a low concentration (~ 92 to 93 % of nominal) of the suppressor (TiDG) and slightly below nominal concentrations of the extractant (MaxCalix), but nominal levels of the modifier (CS-7SB) and of the Isopar™ L. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier to the solvent on February 22, 2015. Despite that the values are below the target component levels, the current levels of TiDG and MaxCalix are sufficient for continuing operation without adding a trim at this time. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent. However, the p-nut vials that delivered the samples contained small (1 mm) droplets of oxidized modifier and amides. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurity or degradation of the solvent components.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF CAUSTIC WASH TANK AND SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MCU FROM AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER 2011

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    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-01

    During processing of Salt Batches 3 and 4 in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the decontamination efficiency for cesium declined from historical values and from expectations based on laboratory testing. This report documents efforts to analyze samples of solvent and process solutions from MCU in an attempt to understand the cause of the reduced performance and to recommend mitigations. CWT Solutions from MCU from the time period of variable decontamination factor (DF) performance which covers from April 2011 to September 2011 (during processing of Salt Batch 4) were examined for impurities using chromatography and spectroscopy. The results indicate that impurities were found to be of two types: aromatic containing impurities most likely from Modifier degradation and aliphatic type impurities most likely from Isopar{reg_sign} L and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) degradation. Caustic washing the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) solution with 1M NaOH improved its extraction ability as determined from {sup 22}Na uptake tests. Evidence from this work showed that pH variance in the aqueous solutions within the range of 1M nitric acid to 1.91M NaOH that contacted the solvent samples does not influence the analytical determination of the TOA concentration by GC-MS.

  20. Miscibility Evaluation Of The Next Generation Solvent With Polymers Currently Used At DWPF, MCU, And Saltstone

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    Fondeur, F. F.

    2013-04-17

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, funded the development of an enhanced Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. This effort lead to the development of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) with Tris (3,7-dimethyl octyl) guanidine (TiDG). The first deployment target for the NGS solvent is within the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the new chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the affected facility. This report provides the calculated data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers known to be used or present in the MCU, Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Saltstone facilities that will be exposed to the NGS showed that TiDG could selectively affect the elastomers and some thermoplastics to varying extents, but the typical use of these polymers in a confined geometry will likely prevent the NGS from impacting component performance. The polymers identified as of primary concern include Grafoil® (flexible graphite), Tefzel®, Isolast®, ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber, nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and fluorocarbon rubber (FKM). Certain polymers like NBR and EPDM were found to interact mildly with NGS but their calculated swelling and the confined geometry will impede interaction with NGS. In addition, it was found that Vellumoid (cellulose fibers-reinforced glycerin and protein) may leach protein and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) may leach plasticizer (such as Bis-Ethylhexyl-Phthalates) into the NGS solvent. Either case

  1. RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-28

    The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

  2. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-16-1317-1318-1319: September 2016 monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-16

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of three Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-1317-1318-1319), pulled on 09/12/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-1317-1318-1319 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (102%). The extractant (MaxCalix) and the modifier (CS-7SB) are 5% and 9% below their nominal concentrations. The suppressor (TiDG) is 76% below its nominal concentration. A summary of the concentration of the relevant solvent components is shown below.

  3. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-16-1363-1364-1365: November 2016 monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-16

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of three Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-1363-1364-1365), pulled on 11/15/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-1363-1364-1365 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is at its nominal level (100%). The extractant (MaxCalix) and the modifier (CS- 7SB) are 8% and 2 % below their nominal concentrations. The suppressor (TiDG) is 7% below its nominal concentration. A summary of the concentration of the relevant solvent components is shown below.

  4. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-16-1247-1248-1249: August 2016 monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-16

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-1247-1248-1249), pulled on 08/22/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-1247-1248-1249 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (101%). The extractant (MaxCalix) and the modifier (CS-7SB) are 7% and 9 % below their nominal concentrations. The suppressor (TiDG) is 63% below its nominal concentration. A summary of the concentration of the relevant solvent components is shown below.

  5. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-991-992-993: July 2016 Monthly sample and MCU-16-1033-1034-1035: July 2016 Superwashed Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-25

    SRNL received one set of SHT samples (MCU-16-991, MCU-16-992 and MCU-16-993), pulled on 07/13/2016 and another set of SHT samples (MCU-16-1033, MCU-16-1034, and MCU-16-1035) that were pulled on 07/24/2016 after the solvent was superwashed with 300 mM sodium hydroxide for analysis. Samples MCU-16-991, MCU-16-992, and MCU-16-993 were combined into one sample (MCU-16-991-992-993) and samples MCU-16-1033, MCU-16-1034, and MCU-16-1035 were combined into one sample (MCU-16-1033-1034-1035). Of the two composite samples MCU-16-1033-1034-1035 represents the current chemical state of the solvent at MCU. All analytical conclusions are based on the chemical analysis of MCU-16-1033-1034-1035. There were no chemical differences between MCU-16- 991-992-993 and superwashed MCU-16-1033-1034-1035.

  6. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results For MCU-15-710-711-712: June 2015 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-07

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-710, MCU-15-711, and MCU-15-712), pulled on 06/15/2015 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-710-711-712 indicated a low concentration (~ 55 % of nominal) of the suppressor (TiDG) and concentrations of the extractant (MaxCalix), and of the modifier (Cs-7SB) in the solvent that were slightly lower than nominal. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier (92 % of nominal) to the solvent in February 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier were sufficient when this solvent sample was collected from MCU. A higher cesium concentration (9.3 E6 dpm/mL) was observed in this sample relative to recent samples. In the past, this level of cesium appeared to correlate with upsets in the MCU operation. It is not known at this time the reason for the higher cesium level in this solvent. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). In addition, the sample contains up to 10.4 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 8.7 µg/mL). A relatively large cesium concentration (9.3 E 6 dpm/mL) was measured in this solvent and it may indicate poor cesium stripping. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  7. Determination of the Impact of Glycolate on ARP and MCU Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L.; Peters, T. B.; Fondeur, F. F.; Shehee, T. C.; Washington, A. L.

    2012-12-13

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating an alternate flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using glycolic acid as a reductant. An important aspect of the development of the glycolic acid flowsheet is determining if glycolate has any detrimental downstream impacts. Testing was performed to determine if there is any impact to the strontium and actinide sorption by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) or if there is an impact to the cesium removal, phase separation, or coalescer performance at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Processing Unit (MCU). Sorption testing was performed using both MST and modified MST (mMST) in the presence of 5000 and 10,000 ppm (mass basis) glycolate. 10,000 ppm is the estimated bounding concentration expected in the DWPF recycle stream based on DWPF melter flammable gas model results. The presence of glycolate was found to slow the removal of Sr and Pu by MST, while increasing the removal rate of Np. Results indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. There was no measurable effect on U removal at either glycolate concentration. The slower removal rates for Sr and Pu at 5000 and 10,000 ppm glycolate could result in lower DF values for these sorbates in ARP based on the current (12 hours) and proposed (8 hours) contact times. For the highest glycolate concentration used in this study, the percentage of Sr removed at 6 hours of contact decreased by 1% and the percentage of Pu removed decreased by nearly 7%. The impact may prove insignificant if the concentration of glycolate that is returned to the tank farm is well below the concentrations tested in this study. The presence of glycolate also decreased the removal rates for all three sorbates (Sr, Pu, and Np) by mMST. Similar to MST, the results for mMST indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. The

  8. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-15-556-557-558. March 2015 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-04

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-556, MCU-15-557, and MCU-15-558), pulled on 03/16/2015 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-556-557-558 indicated a low concentration (~ 78 % of nominal) of the suppressor (TiDG) and concentrations of the extractant (MaxCalix), and of the modifier (CS-7SB) in the solvent that were slightly lower than nominal. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier to the solvent in February 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation without adding a trim at this time. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). However, the p-nut vials that delivered the samples contained small (1 mm) droplets of oxidized modifier and amides (as detected by the FTIR analysis). In addition, up to 21 microgram of mercury per gram of solvent (or 17.4 µg/mL) was detected in this sample. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  9. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results For MCU-15-750-751-752-: June Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-07

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-750, MCU-15-751, and MCU-15-752), pulled on 06/22/2015 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-750-751-752 indicated a low concentration (~ 49 % of nominal) of the suppressor (TiDG) and slightly lower than nominal concentrations of the extractant (MaxCalix), and of the modifier (Cs-7SB) in the solvent. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier to the solvent in February 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation without adding a trim at this time but it is recommended that an addition of TiDG, modifier and Isopar™L should be made in the near future. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). No impurities were observed in the Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR). In addition, up to 13.9 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 11.5 µg/mL) was detected in this sample. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  10. ERp57 modulates mitochondrial calcium uptake through the MCU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingquan; Shi, Weikang; Guo, Yu; Chai, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    ERp57 participates in the regulation of calcium homeostasis. Although ERp57 modulates calcium flux across the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, its functions on mitochondria are largely unknown. Here, we found that ERp57 can regulate the expression of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and modulate mitochondrial calcium uptake. In ERp57-silenced HeLa cells, MCU was downregulated, and the mitochondrial calcium uptake was inhibited, consistent with the effect of MCU knockdown. When MCU was re-expressed in the ERp57 knockdown cells, mitochondrial calcium uptake was restored. Thus, ERp57 is a potent regulator of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

  11. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-701-702-703: May 2016 Monthly Sample and MCU-16-710-711-712: May 2016 Superwashed Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-701, MCU-16-702 and MCU-16-703), pulled on 05/23/2016 and another set of SHT samples (MCU-16-710, MCU-16-711, and MCU-16-712) were pulled on 05/28/2016 after the solvent was superwashed with 300 mM sodium hydroxide for analysis. Samples MCU-16-701, MCU-16-702, and MCU-16-703 were combined into one sample (MCU-16-701-702-703) and samples MCU-16-710, MCU- 16-711, and MCU-16-712 were combined into one sample (MCU-16-710-711-712). Of the two composite samples MCU-16-710-711-712 represents the current chemical state of the solvent at MCU. All analytical conclusions are based on the chemical analysis of MCU-16-710-711-712. There were no chemical differences between MCU-16-701-702-703 and superwashed MCU-16-710-711-712. Analysis of the composited sample MCU-16-710-712-713 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (102%). The modifier (CS-7SB) is 16% below its nominal concentration while the TiDG and MaxCalix concentrations are at and above their nominal concentrations respectively. The TiDG level has begun to decrease and it is 7% below its nominal level as of May 28, 2016. Based on this current analysis, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  12. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-701-702-703: May 2016 Monthly Sample and MCU-16-710-711-712: May 2016 Superwashed Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-701, MCU-16-702 and MCU-16-703), pulled on 05/23/2016, and another set of SHT samples (MCU-16-710, MCU-16-711, and MCU-16-712) were pulled on 05/28/2016 after the solvent was superwashed with 300 mM sodium hydroxide for analysis. Samples MCU-16-701, MCU-16-702, and MCU-16-703 were combined into one sample (MCU-16-701-702-703) and samples MCU-16-710, MCU- 16-711, and MCU-16-712 were combined into one sample (MCU-16-710-711-712). Of the two composite samples MCU-16-710-711-712 represents the current chemical state of the solvent at MCU. All analytical conclusions are based on the chemical analysis of MCU-16-710-711-712. There were no chemical differences between MCU-16-701-702-703 and superwashed MCU-16-710-711-712. Analysis of the composited sample MCU-16-710-712-713 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (102%). The modifier (CS-7SB) is 16% below its nominal concentration, while the TiDG and MaxCalix concentrations are at and above their nominal concentrations, respectively. The TiDG level has begun to decrease, and it is 7% below its nominal level as of May 28, 2016. Based on this current analysis, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  13. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-270-271-272: February 2016 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-12

    Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-270-271-272), pulled on 02/21/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-270-271-272 indicated the IsoparTML concentration is above its nominal level (101%). The modifier (CS-7SB), the extractant (MaxCalix), and the TiDG concentrations are 7%, 6%, and 40% below their nominal concentrations. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier to the solvent in November 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, IsoparTML, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  14. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-16-1317-1318-1319. September 2016 monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-1317-1318-1319), pulled on 09/12/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-1317-1318-1319 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (102%). The extractant (MaxCalix) and the modifier (CS-7SB) are 5% and 10 % below their nominal concentrations. The suppressor (TiDG) is 77% below its nominal concentration. A summary of the concentration of the relevant solvent components is shown below. This analysis confirms the Isopar™ addition to the solvent in August. This analysis also indicates the solvent may require the addition of TiDG, and possibly of modifier to restore them to nominal levels.

  15. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-16-1363-1365. November 2016 monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of three Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-1363-1364-1365), pulled on 11/15/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-1363-1364-1365 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is at its nominal level (100%). The extractant (MaxCalix) and the modifier (CS- 7SB) are 8% and 2 % below their nominal concentrations. The suppressor (TiDG) is 7% below its nominal concentration. This analysis confirms the trim and Isopar™ additions to the solvent in November. This analysis also indicates the solvent did not require further additions. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  16. OPERATIONAL AND COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Edwards, T.; Pickenheim, B.

    2012-02-15

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives low level waste (LLW) salt solution from Tank 50H for treatment and disposal. Tank 50H receives transfers from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), the H-Canyon General Purpose Evaporator, and the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSS-HT). At the SPF, the LLW is mixed with premix (a cementitious mixture of portland cement (PC), blast furnace slag (BFS) and Class F fly ash (FA)) in a Readco mixer to produce fresh (uncured) saltstone that is transferred to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. The saltstone formulation (mix design) must produce a grout waste form that meets both placement and performance properties. In previous simulated saltstone studies, multiple compositional factors were identified that drive the performance properties of saltstone made from the projected ARP/MCU salt solution. This composition was selected as salt solution simulant since ARP/MCU is the primary influent into Tank 50H. The primary performance property investigated was hydraulic conductivity since it is a variable input property to the saltstone Performance Assessment (PA) transport model. In addition, the porosity, also referred to as void structure, is another variable that impacts the PA response. In addition, Young's modulus and cured density are other performance properties analyzed in this report; however they are indicators of the performance of saltstone and not direct inputs into the PA. The data from previous studies showed that the largest impact on the performance properties of saltstone was due to curing temperature, followed by aluminate concentration in the salt solution, water to premix ratio and premix composition. However, due to the scope of the previous studies, only a few mixes were cured and analyzed at higher temperatures. The samples cured at 60 C had an increased hydraulic conductivity of approximately 600

  17. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scherman, Carl [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Martin, David [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Suggs, Patricia [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  18. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and

  19. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-15-661-662-663: April 2015 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-08

    The Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-661, MCU-15-662, and MCU-15-663 pulled on April 2, 2015) for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-661-662-663 indicated a low concentration (~ 63% of nominal) of the suppressor (TiDG) and a slightly below the nominal concentration (~ 10% below nominal) of the extractant (MaxCalix). The modifier (CS-7SB) level was also 10% below its nominal value while the Isopar™ L level was slightly above its nominal value. This analysis confirms the addition of Isopar™L to the solvent on March 6, 2015. Despite that the values are below target component levels, the current levels of TiDG, CS-7SB and MaxCalix are sufficient for continuing operation without adding a trim at this time until the next monthly sample. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent. However, the sample was found to contain approximately 18.4 ug/gsolvent mercury. The gamma level increased to 8 E5 dpm/mLsolvent and it represents an order of magnitude increase relative to previous solvent samples. The increase means less cesium is being stripped from the solvent. Further analysis is needed to determine if the recent spike in the gamma measurement is due to external factors such as algae or other material that may impede stripping. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurity or degradation of the solvent components.

  20. THE DLSTRIBOTED MCU MODEL FOR SYNCHRONOUS REAL-TIME TELETEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘均; 李人厚; 郑庆华

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at issues on multimedia communication in synchronous real-time teleteaching (SRT) systems over IP network, a 4-tuple structural mode of multimedia communication is proposed in the paper, and an SRT-oriented distributed MCU model is built according to the mode. Moreover, the mechanism of multicast communication across subnets is discussed. The distributed MCU model has been applied successfully in our interactive synchronous real-time telesteaching system RealClass and has shown good extendibility in operation.

  1. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-14-913 and MCU-14-986/987: October 2014 monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    SRNL received two sets of SHT samples (MCU-14-913, pulled 10/7/2014 and MCU-14-986/987, pulled on 10/27/2014) for analysis. The samples were analyzed for composition. Analysis of sample MCU-14- 913 indicated low concentrations of the suppressor (TiDG) and of the modifier (CS-7SB) in the solvent. The addition of suppressor and modifier to the solvent on October 26, 2014 restored the concentration of these components to nominal levels as confirmed with the analysis of sample MCU-14-986/987. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurity or degradation of the solvent components.

  2. Tris (isodecyl) guanidine degradation in the MCU system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-01

    The current solvent blend consists of four components; an extractant, the modifier, a suppressor, and the diluent. Of the four components, only the suppressor – tris(isodecyl)guanidine (TiDG) has exhibited an appreciable depletion rate during facility operations.∇ Using data derived from MCU process samples, SRNL derived a method to predict the TiDG depletion based upon time and volume of feed processed. With the current data set, the following formula can estimate the TiDG concentrations after processing: At = [A0×exp(-0.000900×t)] – [5.39E-06×volume] where At is the TiDG concentration (mM) at time t (days), A0 is the TiDG concentration (mM) at time = 0, and volume is the amount of salt solution processed in gallons from time 0 to time t. The ability to use this formula as a predictive tool is limited due to the number of data points obtained for this scope of work. As such, this formula should not be used to precisely predict future TiDG concentrations.

  3. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU)-dependent and MCU-independent Ca(2+) channels coexist in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Alexander I; Jean-Quartier, Claire; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Alam, Muhammad Rizwan; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang F

    2014-07-01

    A protein referred to as CCDC109A and then renamed to mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) has recently been shown to accomplish mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in different cell types. In this study, we investigated whole-mitoplast inward cation currents and single Ca(2+) channel activities in mitoplasts prepared from stable MCU knockdown HeLa cells using the patch-clamp technique. In whole-mitoplast configuration, diminution of MCU considerably reduced inward Ca(2+) and Na(+) currents. This was accompanied by a decrease in occurrence of single channel activity of the intermediate conductance mitochondrial Ca(2+) current (i-MCC). However, ablation of MCU yielded a compensatory 2.3-fold elevation in the occurrence of the extra large conductance mitochondrial Ca(2+) current (xl-MCC), while the occurrence of bursting currents (b-MCC) remained unaltered. These data reveal i-MCC as MCU-dependent current while xl-MCC and b-MCC seem to be rather MCU-independent, thus, pointing to the engagement of at least two molecularly distinct mitochondrial Ca(2+) channels.

  4. RESOLVE OVEN Field Demonstration Unit for Lunar Resource Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Aaron; Oryshchyn, Lara; Jensen, Scott; Sanders, Gerald B.; Lee, Kris; Reddington, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) is a subsystem within the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project. The purpose of the OVEN subsystem is to release volatiles from lunar regolith and extract oxygen by means of a hydrogen reduction reaction. The complete process includes receiving, weighing, sealing, heating, and disposing of core sample segments while transferring all gaseous contents to the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. This document will discuss the design and performance of the OVEN Field Demonstration Unit (FDU), which participated in the 2012 RESOLVE field demonstration.

  5. The Impact Of The MCU Life Extension Solvent On Sludge Batch 8 Projected Operating Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.; Stone, M. E.

    2013-08-14

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B2O3 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 flowsheet to additions of B2O3 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence

  6. Follicular unit extraction as a therapeutic option for Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sacchidanand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is a surgical procedure, which can be used to transplant follicular units into vitiliginous areas. Such follicular unit transplant has been recently used to repigment stable vitiligo patches. FUE was done for a 12-year-old female with a stable vitiligo patch with leukotrichia on the eyebrow. Repigmentation was noted in 6 weeks and complete pigmentation seen at 12 weeks. Leukotrichia resolved over a period of 6 months. No recurrence was noted at the end of 6 months follow-up with excellent colour match. This case is presented to highlight the simplicity, safety and effectiveness of FUE in stable vitiligo patches with leukotrichia.

  7. Direct hair transplantation: A modified follicular unit extraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sethi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hair transplantation, the survival rate of harvested grafts depends upon many factors like maintenance of hydration, cold temperature, reduced mechanical handling and asepsis. All these factors are favourably improved if time out of body is reduced significantly. We have tried a modification called direct hair transplantation in the existing follicular unit extraction technique, in which the follicular unit grafts are implanted as soon as they are harvested. In this article, we have described the detailed methodology and a series of 29 patients who underwent direct hair transplantation. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of direct hair transplantation. Subjects and Methods: The patients willing to undergo hair transplantation by the technique of follicular unit extraction were enrolled for the surgery. After administration of local anaesthesia, the recipient sites were created. Thereafter, the processes of scoring the skin with a motorized punch, graft extraction and implantation were performed simultaneously. These patients were followed up to look for the time period of initiation of hair growth, the growth achieved at the end of 6-8 months and any adverse events. The results of patients with noticeable improvement in the photographs and reduction in baldness grade were taken as ′good′, whereas, in other patients, it was classified as ′poor′. Results: All patients were males with age ranging from 21 to 66 years (median 30 years. Twenty-six patients had androgenetic alopecia, 1 patient had traction alopecia and 2 patients had scarring alopecia. Twenty-seven patients showed ′good′ results, whereas 2 patients showed ′poor′ results. Conclusion: Direct hair transplantation is a simple and feasible modification in the follicular unit extraction technique. It is an efficacious surgical treatment modality for baldness.

  8. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed

  9. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-16-1488-1493 (December 2016), MCU-17-86-88 (January 2017), and MCU-17-119-121 (February 2017): Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-30

    A trend summary of three Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) monthly samples; MCU-16-1488-1493 (December 2016), MCU-17-86-88 (January 2017), and MCU-17-119-121 (February 2017) are reported. Analyses indicate that the modifier (CS-7SB) and the extractant (MaxCalix) concentrations are at their nominal recommended levels (169,000 mg/L and 46,300 mg/L respectively). The suppressor (TiDG) level has decreased to a steady state level of 673 mg/L well above the minimum recommended level (479 mg/L). This analysis confirms the Isopar™ addition to the solvent in January 18, 2017. This analysis also indicates the solvent did not require further additions. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). No impurities were observed in the Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR). Another impurity observed in the samples was mercury. Up to 38 ± 8 micrograms of mercury per mL of solvent was detected in these samples (the average of the CV-AA and XRF methods). The higher mercury concentration in the solvent (as determined in the last three monthly samples) is possibly due to the higher mercury concentration in Salt Batches 8 and 9 (Tank 49H) or mixing of previously undisturbed areas of high mercury concentration in Tank 49H. The gamma level (0.21E5 dpm/mL) measured in the February SHT sample was one order of magnitude lower than the gamma levels observed in the December and January SHT samples. The February gamma level is consistent with the solvent being idle (since January 10, 2017). The gamma levels observed in the December and January SHT samples were consistent with previous monthly measurements where the process operated normally. The laboratory will continue to monitor

  10. [MCU selection analysis in portable electronic medical instrument design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengxing; Ye, Shuming; Xu, Zhi; Chen, Hang

    2014-05-01

    Around the features of low power and high integration of portable electronic medical equipment design, the primary low power MCU series from the current semiconductor manufacturers were compared. The analysis results showed that the 32-bit MCUs based on the low cost and high energy efficient ARM Cortex-M architectures, have comprehensive advantages on power level, operational performance and integrated peripherals obviously.

  11. Systematic Identification of MCU Modulators by Orthogonal Interspecies Chemical Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Daniela M; Wettmarshausen, Jennifer; Vais, Horia; Navas-Navarro, Paloma; Cheng, Yiming; Leimpek, Anja; Ma, Zhongming; Delrio-Lorenzo, Alba; Giordano, Andrea; Garcia-Perez, Cecilia; Médard, Guillaume; Kuster, Bernhard; García-Sancho, Javier; Mokranjac, Dejana; Foskett, J Kevin; Alonso, M Teresa; Perocchi, Fabiana

    2017-08-17

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex is essential for calcium (Ca(2+)) uptake into mitochondria of all mammalian tissues, where it regulates bioenergetics, cell death, and Ca(2+) signal transduction. Despite its involvement in several human diseases, we currently lack pharmacological agents for targeting uniporter activity. Here we introduce a high-throughput assay that selects for human MCU-specific small-molecule modulators in primary drug screens. Using isolated yeast mitochondria, reconstituted with human MCU, its essential regulator EMRE, and aequorin, and exploiting a D-lactate- and mannitol/sucrose-based bioenergetic shunt that greatly minimizes false-positive hits, we identify mitoxantrone out of more than 600 clinically approved drugs as a direct selective inhibitor of human MCU. We validate mitoxantrone in orthogonal mammalian cell-based assays, demonstrating that our screening approach is an effective and robust tool for MCU-specific drug discovery and, more generally, for the identification of compounds that target mitochondrial functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Fetal ECG monitoring system based on MCU processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gang; Chen, Wei; Xie, Xicheng; Zhang, Hao

    2004-12-01

    In order to monitor the fetus in labor, the signal characteristic from fetal scalp electrode is researched, An adaptation algorithm and a peak to peak detecting technology are adopted in signal processing, and an adaptation gain control method is used to eliminate disturber from base-line shift. A fetal ECG monitoring system is designed on the basis of C8051F020 MCU.

  13. Video Conference Based on VoIP MCU Subsystem Design%基于VoIP视频会议的MCU子系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周康; 雷建锋

    2012-01-01

    Based on the VoIP network phone concept as well as the video conference presentations, as well as the VoIP in video conference system has been widely used. MCU video conference is core component, it can be said to be a video conference in the brain, in a video conferencing system, MCU(multipoint control unit) the main function is to coordinate and control the plurality of terminal of video transmission. This article is from the video conference system is the core component of the MCU subsystem of. On the function of the MCU and MCU and VoIP signaling conversion to the design of the system. System in the VC+ + 6 development platform, using C/S mode.%通过对VoIP网络电话的概念以及视频会议的介绍,以及当今视频会议系统中VoIP被广泛应用.MCU是视频会议的核心组成部分,它可以说是视频会议的大脑,在视频会议系统中,MCU(多点控制单元)主要功能是协调及控制多个终端间的视讯传输.文章主要是从视频会议系统最核心的组成部分MCU子系统人手.对MCU功能以及MCU和VoIP信令转换方面来设计该系统.系统是在VC++6.0平台下开发,采用C/S模式实现的.

  14. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-1247-1248-1249: August 2016 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-1247-1248-1249), pulled on 08/22/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-1247-1248-1249 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (101%). The extractant (MaxCalix) and the modifier (CS-7SB) are 7% and 9 % below their nominal concentrations. The suppressor (TiDG) is 63% below its nominal concentration. This analysis confirms the solvent may require the addition of TiDG, and possibly of modifier and MaxCalix to restore then to nominal levels. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended. At the time of writing this report, A solvent trim batch containing TiDG, modifier and MaxCalix, was added to the SHT (October 2016) and expect the concentration of these components to be at their nominal values.

  15. Portable Operating Condition Analyzer of Oil Pumping Unit Based on STC MCU%基于 STC 单片机的抽油机便携式工况分析仪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金玉; 侯士波; 刘淄航; 林雨晴

    2016-01-01

    以 STC12C5A 系列单片机为核心设计了一个抽油机便携式工况分析仪,给出了硬件电路设计和软件设计。分析仪通过电压和电流互感器采集抽油机电参数,通过红外光电反射式传感器采集抽油机电机转速,将采集到的数据通过曲线的形式在液晶屏显示并保存到分析仪的存储器上。同时分析仪通过计算给出平衡调整建议。此外,分析仪还可以通过串口与 PC 实现数据通信,把采集到的数据传输到上位机上。%Having STC12C5A microcontroller cored to design a portable operating condition analyzer of pum-ping unit was implemented,including the design of its hardware circuit and softwares.This analyzer collects pumping unit’s electrical parameters through voltage transformer and current transformer and acquires the mo-tor speed by optical encoder and infrared sensor;the collected data can be displayed on LCD screen in the form of curves and then be saved to the analyzer;meanwhile,this analyzer can give balance adjustment sug-gestions after calculation and communication with PC via serial port so that the data can be transferred to the host computer for browsing and printing conveniently.

  16. 一种简易MCU的加法器设计方法%A simplified method of the MCU adder design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒; 江猛

    2011-01-01

    Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU) is the core of the Micro Control Unit(MCU) operation, equivalent to the human brain. The operation performance of ALU directly affects the efficiency of the entire running of MCU. General simple MCU cores need only add, subtract and logical operations, not involving multiplication and division. Aiming to this feature, a simple adder circuit is designed. The simulation verification under FPGA is performed, whose results meet the design requirements. The ALU part in the design can achieve the functions of addition, subtraction, logic and-or-not and data transferring according to the enabling signals.%算术逻辑部件(ALU)是整个微控制单元(MCU)运算的核心,相当于人类的大脑.ALU的运算性能直接影响整个MCU运行的效率.一般简易MCU的内核只需进行加、减、逻辑运算等,不涉及到乘除,针对此特点设计了一种简易的加法电路,并在FPGA下进行仿真验证,仿真结果达到了设计要求,该ALU部分能根据不同的使能信号实现加、减、逻辑与或非以及数据传输功能.

  17. Quantity and unit extraction for scientific and technical intelligence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Peter; Hawes, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    Scientific and Technical (S and T) intelligence analysts consume huge amounts of data to understand how scientific progress and engineering efforts affect current and future military capabilities. One of the most important types of information S and T analysts exploit is the quantities discussed in their source material. Frequencies, ranges, size, weight, power, and numerous other properties and measurements describing the performance characteristics of systems and the engineering constraints that define them must be culled from source documents before quantified analysis can begin. Automating the process of finding and extracting the relevant quantities from a wide range of S and T documents is difficult because information about quantities and their units is often contained in unstructured text with ad hoc conventions used to convey their meaning. Currently, even simple tasks, such as searching for documents discussing RF frequencies in a band of interest, is a labor intensive and error prone process. This research addresses the challenges facing development of a document processing capability that extracts quantities and units from S and T data, and how Natural Language Processing algorithms can be used to overcome these challenges.

  18. MCUR1 Is a Scaffold Factor for the MCU Complex Function and Promotes Mitochondrial Bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Dhanendra; Dong, Zhiwei; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Koch, Diana A; Thomas, Toby; Hoffman, Nicholas E; Timbalia, Shrishiv A; Goldman, Samuel J; Breves, Sarah L; Corbally, Daniel P; Nemani, Neeharika; Fairweather, Joseph P; Cutri, Allison R; Zhang, Xueqian; Song, Jianliang; Jaña, Fabián; Huang, Jianhe; Barrero, Carlos; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Luongo, Timothy S; Schumacher, Sarah M; Rockman, Michael E; Dietrich, Alexander; Merali, Salim; Caplan, Jeffrey; Stathopulos, Peter; Ahima, Rexford S; Cheung, Joseph Y; Houser, Steven R; Koch, Walter J; Patel, Vickas; Gohil, Vishal M; Elrod, John W; Rajan, Sudarsan; Madesh, Muniswamy

    2016-05-24

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Uniporter (MCU)-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is the primary mechanism for increasing matrix Ca(2+) in most cell types. However, a limited understanding of the MCU complex assembly impedes the comprehension of the precise mechanisms underlying MCU activity. Here, we report that mouse cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells lacking MCU regulator 1 (MCUR1) have severely impaired [Ca(2+)]m uptake and IMCU current. MCUR1 binds to MCU and EMRE and function as a scaffold factor. Our protein binding analyses identified the minimal, highly conserved regions of coiled-coil domain of both MCU and MCUR1 that are necessary for heterooligomeric complex formation. Loss of MCUR1 perturbed MCU heterooligomeric complex and functions as a scaffold factor for the assembly of MCU complex. Vascular endothelial deletion of MCU and MCUR1 impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and migration but elicited autophagy. These studies establish the existence of a MCU complex that assembles at the mitochondrial integral membrane and regulates Ca(2+)-dependent mitochondrial metabolism.

  19. MCUR1 Is a Scaffold Factor for the MCU Complex Function and Promotes Mitochondrial Bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanendra Tomar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uniporter (MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is the primary mechanism for increasing matrix Ca2+ in most cell types. However, a limited understanding of the MCU complex assembly impedes the comprehension of the precise mechanisms underlying MCU activity. Here, we report that mouse cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells lacking MCU regulator 1 (MCUR1 have severely impaired [Ca2+]m uptake and IMCU current. MCUR1 binds to MCU and EMRE and function as a scaffold factor. Our protein binding analyses identified the minimal, highly conserved regions of coiled-coil domain of both MCU and MCUR1 that are necessary for heterooligomeric complex formation. Loss of MCUR1 perturbed MCU heterooligomeric complex and functions as a scaffold factor for the assembly of MCU complex. Vascular endothelial deletion of MCU and MCUR1 impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and migration but elicited autophagy. These studies establish the existence of a MCU complex that assembles at the mitochondrial integral membrane and regulates Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial metabolism.

  20. The Impact Of The MCU Life Extension Solvent On Sludge Batch 8 Projected Operating Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-06-26

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01 M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B203 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 flowsheet to additions of B203 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence of

  1. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter protein MCU is involved in oxidative stress-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yajin; Hao, Yumin; Chen, Hong; He, Qing; Yuan, Zengqiang; Cheng, Jinbo

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is a conserved Ca(2+) transporter at mitochondrial in eukaryotic cells. However, the role of MCU protein in oxidative stress-induced cell death remains unclear. Here, we showed that ectopically expressed MCU is mitochondrial localized in both HeLa and primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Knockdown of endogenous MCU decreases mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake following histamine stimulation and attenuates cell death induced by oxidative stress in both HeLa cells and CGNs. We also found MCU interacts with VDAC1 and mediates VDAC1 overexpression-induced cell death in CGNs. This finding demonstrates that MCU-VDAC1 complex regulates mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, which might represent therapeutic targets for oxidative stress related diseases.

  2. [Programmable multichannel electrophysiological stimulator based on MCU and CPLD platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Wu, Xiao-Mei; Fang, Zu-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    According to the instruction of the operator, the designed programmable multichannel stimulator will deliver stimuli with an assigned amplitude and a proper width to the electrode-array in various modes. Each stimulation time is controlled by the internal timer of the MCU, while the stimulated electrodes' spatial parameter is controlled by the CPLD. Having abandoned conventional isolation using the transformer, we have adapted optical coupling and stable float ground connection to achieve the safety standard required by physiological measurements.

  3. Unresolved questions from the analysis of mice lacking MCU expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Pan, Xin; Nguyen, Tiffany; Liu, Jie; Holmström, Kira M; Finkel, Toren

    2014-07-11

    Entry of mitochondrial calcium is believed to play an essential role in regulating bioenergetics and initiating cell death pathways. We have recently described a mouse model lacking MCU expression. Surprisingly, these mice are viable and the cells and tissues from these animals do not exhibit any marked protection from cell death. Here, we discuss our findings as well as potential explanations for some of the more unexpected results.

  4. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  5. [Wearable Medical Devices' MCU Selection Analysis Based on the ARM Cortex-MO+ Architecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zaoquan; Liu, Mengxing; Qin, Liping; Ye, Shuming; Chen, Hang

    2015-03-01

    According to the characteristics of low cost, high performance, high integration and long battery life of wearable medical devices, the mainstream low-power microcontroller(MCU) series were compared, and came to the conclusion that the MCU series based on ARM Cortex-M0+ architecture were suitable for the development of wearable medical devices. In aspects of power consumption, operational performance, integrated peripherals and cost, the MCU series based on Cortex-M0+ architecture of primary semiconductor companies were compared, aimed at providing the guides of MCU selection for wearable medical devices.

  6. ESTIMATION OF THE TEMPERATURE RISE OF A MCU ACID STREAM PIPE IN NEAR PROXIMITY TO A SLUDGE STREAM PIPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-12

    Effluent streams from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) will transfer to the tank farms and to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These streams will contain entrained solvent. A significant portion of the Strip Effluent (SE) pipeline (i.e., acid stream containing Isopar{reg_sign} L residues) length is within one inch of a sludge stream. Personnel envisioned the sludge stream temperature may reach 100 C during operation. The nearby SE stream may receive heat from the sludge stream and reach temperatures that may lead to flammability issues once the contents of the SE stream discharge into a larger reservoir. To this end, personnel used correlations from the literature to estimate the maximum temperature rise the SE stream may experience if the nearby sludge stream reaches boiling temperature. Several calculation methods were used to determine the temperature rise of the SE stream. One method considered a heat balance equation under steady state that employed correlation functions to estimate heat transfer rate. This method showed the maximum temperature of the acid stream (SE) may exceed 45 C when the nearby sludge stream is 80 C or higher. A second method used an effectiveness calculation used to predict the heat transfer rate in single pass heat exchanger. By envisioning the acid and sludge pipes as a parallel flow pipe-to-pipe heat exchanger, this method provides a conservative estimation of the maximum temperature rise. Assuming the contact area (i.e., the area over which the heat transfer occurs) is the whole pipe area, the results found by this method nearly matched the results found with the previous calculation method. It is recommended that the sludge stream be maintained below 80 C to minimize a flammable vapor hazard from occurring.

  7. DESIGN OF MCU BASED UNIVERSAL POWER ADAPTER FOR UTILIZING PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASUDUL HAIDER IMTIAZ,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates design and implementation of an improved power adapter that can be used with AC main supply as well as photovoltaic power supply by means of DC. This adapter takes input from both ac main supply and dc supply and gives an output of adjustable voltage over a pre-defined range. Whenever the adapteris fed from both the supplies, it makes a decision and takes feed from only one input based on pre-defined preference. The whole system is built around a MCU (Microcontroller Unit, which monitors all the operations and takes decision. The output voltage and system feed status are shown numerically on a display for users.

  8. The System Design of Wireless Basketball Timer Based on MCU and NRF24L01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Ying

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Basketball players must know the progress well in time in the game, the presence of electronic timer with LED display influences the basketball games. The wired operation influences the control distance, control reliability, control efficiency and so on. So how to make it longer, anti-interference, easy operation and high efficiency is a difficult problem. A kind of wireless basketball timer is designed based on micro-computer unit (MCU and wireless nRF24L01 module to compensate for the existing disadvantages, which has LED digital tube of large size for the section number display and middle size for game display and 24s display. The user is easy to carry and control the timer wirelessly at any place in the basketball court using the sending control device. The test results show that the system, easy to control and stable to operate, is reliable to transmit the wireless data.

  9. Dynamic optimization of the benzene extractive distillation unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghaee, A; Sotudeh-Gharebagh, R; Mostoufi, N

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for describing the dynamic operation of the N-formylmorpholine extractive distillation column and the corresponding solvent recovery column in the benzene extraction plant...

  10. MCU encodes the pore conducting mitochondrial calcium currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dipayan; Sancak, Yasemin; Mootha, Vamsi K; Clapham, David E

    2013-06-04

    Mitochondrial calcium (Ca(2+)) import is a well-described phenomenon regulating cell survival and ATP production. Of multiple pathways allowing such entry, the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter is a highly Ca(2+)-selective channel complex encoded by several recently-discovered genes. However, the identity of the pore-forming subunit remains to be established, since knockdown of all the candidate uniporter genes inhibit Ca(2+) uptake in imaging assays, and reconstitution experiments have been equivocal. To definitively identify the channel, we use whole-mitoplast voltage-clamping, the technique that originally established the uniporter as a Ca(2+) channel. We show that RNAi-mediated knockdown of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) gene reduces mitochondrial Ca(2+) current (I MiCa ), whereas overexpression increases it. Additionally, a classic feature of I MiCa , its sensitivity to ruthenium red inhibition, can be abolished by a point mutation in the putative pore domain without altering current magnitude. These analyses establish that MCU encodes the pore-forming subunit of the uniporter channel. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00704.001.

  11. Inhibition of MCU forces extramitochondrial adaptations governing physiological and pathological stress responses in heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Tyler P; Wu, Yuejin; Joiner, Mei-ling A; Koval, Olha M; Wilson, Nicholas R; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qinchuan; Chen, Biyi; Gao, Zhan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Wagner, Brett A; Soto, Jamie; McCormick, Michael L; Kutschke, William; Weiss, Robert M; Yu, Liping; Boudreau, Ryan L; Abel, E Dale; Zhan, Fenghuang; Spitz, Douglas R; Buettner, Garry R; Song, Long-Sheng; Zingman, Leonid V; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-07-21

    Myocardial mitochondrial Ca(2+) entry enables physiological stress responses but in excess promotes injury and death. However, tissue-specific in vivo systems for testing the role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) are lacking. We developed a mouse model with myocardial delimited transgenic expression of a dominant negative (DN) form of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). DN-MCU mice lack MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca(2+) entry in myocardium, but, surprisingly, isolated perfused hearts exhibited higher O2 consumption rates (OCR) and impaired pacing induced mechanical performance compared with wild-type (WT) littermate controls. In contrast, OCR in DN-MCU-permeabilized myocardial fibers or isolated mitochondria in low Ca(2+) were not increased compared with WT, suggesting that DN-MCU expression increased OCR by enhanced energetic demands related to extramitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis. Consistent with this, we found that DN-MCU ventricular cardiomyocytes exhibited elevated cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] that was partially reversed by ATP dialysis, suggesting that metabolic defects arising from loss of MCU function impaired physiological intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload is thought to dissipate the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and enhance formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our data show that DN-MCU hearts had preserved ΔΨm and reduced ROS during ischemia reperfusion but were not protected from myocardial death compared with WT. Taken together, our findings show that chronic myocardial MCU inhibition leads to previously unanticipated compensatory changes that affect cytoplasmic Ca(2+) homeostasis, reprogram transcription, increase OCR, reduce performance, and prevent anticipated therapeutic responses to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  12. THE IMPACT OF THE MCU LIFE EXTENSION SOLVENT ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION EFFORTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D; Edwards, T

    2011-03-24

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NG-CSSX), a new strip acid, and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing with the next generation solvent and mMST is required to determine the impact of these changes in 512-S operations as well as Chemical Process Cell (CPC), Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass formulation activities, and melter operations at DWPF. To support programmatic objectives, the downstream impacts of the boric acid strip effluent (SE) to the glass formulation activities and melter operations are considered in this study. More specifically, the impacts of boric acid additions to the projected SB7b operating windows, potential impacts to frit production temperatures, and the potential impact of boron volatility are evaluated. Although various boric acid molarities have been reported and discussed, the baseline flowsheet used to support this assessment was 0.01M boric acid. The results of the paper study assessment indicate that Frit 418 and Frit 418-7D are robust to the implementation of the 0.01M boric acid SE into the SB7b flowsheet (sludge-only or ARP-added). More specifically, the projected operating windows for the nominal SB7b projections remain essentially constant (i.e., 25-43 or 25-44% waste loading (WL)) regardless of the flowsheet options (sludge-only, ARP added, and/or the presence of the new SE). These results indicate that even if SE is not transferred to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), there would be no need to add boric acid (from a trim tank) to compositionally compensate for the absence of the boric acid SE in either a sludge-only or ARP-added SB7b flowsheet. With respect to boron volatility, the Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessments also

  13. Universal I/O Design for Customizing MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jongsung; Kim; Jungwhan; Choi; Seongsoo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    <正>Typically,a variety of digital devices are built into the MCU.These digital devices in order to develop a variety of applications PC,various devices such as smart phones should be easily connected.But so far the interface of these devices has not been a unified approach. Development of various types of devices to easily shall be equipped with various interfaces such as UART,SPI,I2C. However,there follows a lot of hardware problems to greatly increasing the number of I/O ports.Universal I/O are four types based on the same port.Each port is controlled the software approach to operate UART,SPI, I2C,etc.

  14. Investigation on MCU Clustering Methodologies for Cross-Section Estimation of RAMs

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, A; Tsiligiannis, G; Javanainen, A; Kettunen, H; Puchner, H; Saigne, F; Virtanen, A; Wrobel, F; Dilillo, L

    2015-01-01

    During irradiation testing of RAMs, various failure scenarios may occur which may generate different characteristic Multiple Cell Upset (MCU) error patterns. This work proposes a method based on spatial and temporal criteria to identify them.

  15. 打造工程师心目中的理想MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义

    2011-01-01

    @@ "绿色设计"正当道,业内所谈的绿色设计概念到底如何理解?MCU市场中的产品呈现哪些特点?面对市场上琳琅满目的MCu(微控制器)产品,工程师选择时应该考虑哪些因素?"绿色MCU"的"绿"又体现在哪些方面?

  16. Rearrangement of MICU1 multimers for activation of MCU is solely controlled by cytosolic Ca(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Malli, Roland; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Gottschalk, Benjamin; Madreiter-Sokolowski, Corina T; Klec, Christiane; Rost, Rene; Graier, Wolfgang F

    2015-10-22

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is a vital process that controls distinct cell and organelle functions. Mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1) was identified as key regulator of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) that together with the essential MCU regulator (EMRE) forms the mitochondrial Ca(2+) channel. However, mechanisms by which MICU1 controls MCU/EMRE activity to tune mitochondrial Ca(2+) signals remain ambiguous. Here we established a live-cell FRET approach and demonstrate that elevations of cytosolic Ca(2+) rearranges MICU1 multimers with an EC50 of 4.4 μM, resulting in activation of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. MICU1 rearrangement essentially requires the EF-hand motifs and strictly correlates with the shape of cytosolic Ca(2+) rises. We further show that rearrangements of MICU1 multimers were independent of matrix Ca(2+) concentration, mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression levels of MCU and EMRE. Our experiments provide novel details about how MCU/EMRE is regulated by MICU1 and an original approach to investigate MCU/EMRE activation in intact cells.

  17. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter Mcu controls excitotoxicity and is transcriptionally repressed by neuroprotective nuclear calcium signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jing; Tan, Yan-Wei; Hagenston, Anna M; Martel, Marc-Andre; Kneisel, Niclas; Skehel, Paul A; Wyllie, David J A; Bading, Hilmar; Hardingham, Giles E

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter gene (Mcu/Ccdc109a) has enabled us to address its role, and that of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, in neuronal excitotoxicity. Here we show that exogenously expressed Mcu is mitochondrially localized and increases mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels following NMDA receptor activation, leading to increased mitochondrial membrane depolarization and excitotoxic cell death. Knockdown of endogenous Mcu expression reduces NMDA-induced increases in mitochondrial Ca(2+), resulting in lower levels of mitochondrial depolarization and resistance to excitotoxicity. Mcu is subject to dynamic regulation as part of an activity-dependent adaptive mechanism that limits mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload when cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels are high. Specifically, synaptic activity transcriptionally represses Mcu, via a mechanism involving the nuclear Ca(2+) and CaM kinase-mediated induction of Npas4, resulting in the inhibition of NMDA receptor-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and preventing excitotoxic death. This establishes Mcu and the pathways regulating its expression as important determinants of excitotoxicity, which may represent therapeutic targets for excitotoxic disorders.

  18. High light-extraction-efficiency OLED based on photonic crystal slab structures with taper unit cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Rong-jin; WANG Qing-kang

    2006-01-01

    To improve the light-extraction-efficiency of OLED,we introduced PCS (Photonic Crystal Slab) structures into the interface of ITO layer and glass substrate.PCS structures with Taper unit cells are proved to be effective in reducing the energy of guided wave trapped in high refractive index material,and an increase of light-extraction-efficiency to 95.26% is gained.This enhancement is much greater than the traditional PCS with cylinder unit cells (60%-70%).Physical mechanisms of light-extraction-efficiency enhancement in these structures are further discussed.

  19. Integrative genomics identifies MCU as an essential component of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Joshua M; Perocchi, Fabiana; Girgis, Hany S; Plovanich, Molly; Belcher-Timme, Casey A; Sancak, Yasemin; Bao, X Robert; Strittmatter, Laura; Goldberger, Olga; Bogorad, Roman L; Koteliansky, Victor; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2011-06-19

    Mitochondria from diverse organisms are capable of transporting large amounts of Ca(2+) via a ruthenium-red-sensitive, membrane-potential-dependent mechanism called the uniporter. Although the uniporter's biophysical properties have been studied extensively, its molecular composition remains elusive. We recently used comparative proteomics to identify MICU1 (also known as CBARA1), an EF-hand-containing protein that serves as a putative regulator of the uniporter. Here, we use whole-genome phylogenetic profiling, genome-wide RNA co-expression analysis and organelle-wide protein coexpression analysis to predict proteins functionally related to MICU1. All three methods converge on a novel predicted transmembrane protein, CCDC109A, that we now call 'mitochondrial calcium uniporter' (MCU). MCU forms oligomers in the mitochondrial inner membrane, physically interacts with MICU1, and resides within a large molecular weight complex. Silencing MCU in cultured cells or in vivo in mouse liver severely abrogates mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, whereas mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential remain fully intact. MCU has two predicted transmembrane helices, which are separated by a highly conserved linker facing the intermembrane space. Acidic residues in this linker are required for its full activity. However, an S259A point mutation retains function but confers resistance to Ru360, the most potent inhibitor of the uniporter. Our genomic, physiological, biochemical and pharmacological data firmly establish MCU as an essential component of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter.

  20. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  1. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-15-802-803-804-805-806-807 August monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-802-803-804-805-806-807), pulled on 08/31/2015 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-802-803-804-805-806-807 indicated a low concentration (~ 45 % of nominal) of the suppressor (TiDG) and a slightly lower than nominal concentration of the modifier (Cs-7SB) in the solvent. The extractant (MaxCalix) concentration was at its nominal value. Based on this current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier were sufficient for continuing operation without adding a trim during that time but it is recommended that an addition of TiDG, modifier and Isopar™L should be made in the next few months. This monthly sample’s rheology, as determined by Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR), is consistent with the rheology of the standard NGS solvent made in the lab (Scratch solvent 5/14/2014). No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). No impurities were observed in the Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR). In addition, up to 16.7 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 14 μg/mL) was detected in this sample. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  2. Single-trial event-related potential extraction through one-unit ICA-with-reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih Lee, Wee; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Leung, Yee Hong

    2016-12-01

    Objective. In recent years, ICA has been one of the more popular methods for extracting event-related potential (ERP) at the single-trial level. It is a blind source separation technique that allows the extraction of an ERP without making strong assumptions on the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ERP. However, the problem with traditional ICA is that the extraction is not direct and is time-consuming due to the need for source selection processing. In this paper, the application of an one-unit ICA-with-Reference (ICA-R), a constrained ICA method, is proposed. Approach. In cases where the time-region of the desired ERP is known a priori, this time information is utilized to generate a reference signal, which is then used for guiding the one-unit ICA-R to extract the source signal of the desired ERP directly. Main results. Our results showed that, as compared to traditional ICA, ICA-R is a more effective method for analysing ERP because it avoids manual source selection and it requires less computation thus resulting in faster ERP extraction. Significance. In addition to that, since the method is automated, it reduces the risks of any subjective bias in the ERP analysis. It is also a potential tool for extracting the ERP in online application.

  3. Normally Off ECG SoC With Non-Volatile MCU and Noise Tolerant Heartbeat Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Shintaro; Yamashita, Ken; Nakano, Masanao; Yoshimoto, Shusuke; Nakagawa, Tomoki; Nakai, Yozaburo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Kimura, Hiromitsu; Marumoto, Kyoji; Fuchikami, Takaaki; Fujimori, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Shiga, Toshikazu; Yoshimoto, Masahiko

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes an electrocardiograph (ECG) monitoring SoC using a non-volatile MCU (NVMCU) and a noise-tolerant instantaneous heartbeat detector. The novelty of this work is the combination of the non-volatile MCU for normally off computing and a noise-tolerant-QRS (heartbeat) detector to achieve both low-power and noise tolerance. To minimize the stand-by current of MCU, a non-volatile flip-flop and a 6T-4C NVRAM are used. Proposed plate-line charge-share and bit-line non-precharge techniques also contribute to mitigate the active power overhead of 6T-4C NVRAM. The proposed accurate heartbeat detector uses coarse-fine autocorrelation and a template matching technique. Accurate heartbeat detection also contributes system-level power reduction because the active ratio of ADC and digital block can be reduced using heartbeat prediction. Measurement results show that the fully integrated ECG-SoC consumes 6.14 μ A including 1.28- μA non-volatile MCU and 0.7- μA heartbeat detector.

  4. The mitochondrial protein Mcu1 plays important roles in carbon source utilization, filamentation, and virulence in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guobo; Wang, Haitao; Liang, Weihong; Cao, Chengjun; Tao, Li; Naseem, Shamoon; Konopka, James B; Wang, Yue; Huang, Guanghua

    2015-08-01

    The fungus Candida albicans is both a pathogen and a commensal in humans. The ability to utilize different carbon sources available in diverse host niches is vital for both commensalism and pathogenicity. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is an important signaling molecule as well as a carbon source in C. albicans. Here, we report the discovery of a novel gene MCU1 essential for GlcNAc utilization. Mcu1 is located in mitochondria and associated with multiple energy- and metabolism-related proteins including Por1, Atp1, Pet9, and Mdh1. Consistently, inactivating Por1 impaired GlcNAc utilization as well. Deletion of MCU1 also caused defects in utilizing non-fermentable carbon sources and amino acids. Furthermore, MCU1 is required for filamentation in several inducing conditions and virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. We also deleted TGL99 and GUP1, two genes adjacent to MCU1, and found that the gup1/gup1 mutant exhibited mild defects in the utilization of several carbon sources including GlcNAc, maltose, galactose, amino acids, and ethanol. Our results indicate that MCU1 exists in a cluster of genes involved in the metabolism of carbon sources. Given its importance in metabolism and lack of a homolog in humans, Mcu1 could be a potential target for developing antifungal agents.

  5. MCu IUD与TCu220C IUD的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵培玲; 赵传富

    2011-01-01

    目的观察MCu IUD和TCu220C IUD的临床效果。方法选择2008年3月至5月在我站自愿要求放置IUD避孕而无禁忌症的已婚育龄妇女680例,随机分为2组,每组340例,分别放置MCu IUD和TCu220C IUD,于置器后1、3、6和12个月进行随访,以生命表法统计2种IUD的使用情况。结果2种IUD使用12个月的妊娠率、脱落率、因症取出率和续用率分别为:MCu IUD 0,1.47%,2.06%,96.47%;TCu220C 0.88%,8.53%,6.47%,84.12%,经统计学处理。2种IUD妊娠率比较,差异无统计学意义(P〉0.05);MCu IUD的脱落率明显低于TCu220C,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.01);因症取出率MCuIUD低于TCu220C IUD,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.05);续用率MCu IUD明显高于TCu220C IUD,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.01)。结论MCu IUD具有脱落率低,因症取出率低,续用率高的优点,值得在临床推广应用。

  6. Decoupling of Double Extraction Turbo-Unit by Nonlinear Multivariable Inverse System Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎浩荣; 李立勤; 李东海; 宋兆星; 王伟

    2001-01-01

    A multivariable inverse nonlinear control scheme is developed to decouple the strongly nonlinear double extraction steam turbo-unit, improving the transient stability of the power and heating system. Computer simulation tests show that not only does the control scheme achieve satisfactory decoupling of the high and low pressure turbines and the electric power, remarkably improving the transient stability, but also the design is very intuitive and concise.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF COMPOUND AMINES-WATER ABSORBENTS OF UNIT EXTRACTION СО2 FROM SMOKE GASES

    OpenAIRE

    Лавренченко, Г. К.; Копытин, А. В.; Пятничко, А. И.; ИВАНОВ Ю.В.

    2014-01-01

    In installations for the production of low-temperature liquid carbon dioxide of low and average productivity using gaseous CO2 extracted from the combustion of natural gas. Extraction CO2 is carried in the unit absorption-desorption, consuming large quantities of heat. Consumption of heat in a unit depends on the properties of the absorbent. Most of the units of absorption/desorption is used as an absorbent water solution of monoethanolamine (MEA). Except the MEA also discussed other absorben...

  8. Updated United Nations Framework Classification for reserves and resources of extractive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blaise, J.R.; Blystad, P.; Kelter, D.; Gabrielyants, G.; Heiberg, S.; Martinez, A.; Ross, J.G.; Slavov, S.; Subelj, A.; Young, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    The United Nations have studied how the oil and gas resource classification developed jointly by the SPE, the World Petroleum Congress (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) could be harmonized with the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) for Solid Fuel and Mineral Resources (1). The United Nations has continued to build on this and other works, with support from many relevant international organizations, with the objective of updating the UNFC to apply to the extractive industries. The result is the United Nations Framework Classification for Energy and Mineral Resources (2) that this paper will present. Reserves and resources are categorized with respect to three sets of criteria: ??? Economic and commercial viability ??? Field project status and feasibility ??? The level of geologic knowledge The field project status criteria are readily recognized as the ones highlighted in the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification system of 2000. The geologic criteria absorb the rich traditions that form the primary basis for the Russian classification system, and the ones used to delimit, in part, proved reserves. Economic and commercial criteria facilitate the use of the classification in general, and reflect the commercial considerations used to delimit proved reserves in particular. The classification system will help to develop a common understanding of reserves and resources for all the extractive industries and will assist: ??? International and national resources management to secure supplies; ??? Industries' management of business processes to achieve efficiency in exploration and production; and ??? An appropriate basis for documenting the value of reserves and resources in financial statements.

  9. Destructive examination of defected S/G tubes extracted from Uljin unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Hahn, J. H.; Kim, H. P.; Lee, D. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Destructive examination was performed using the defected tubes having been extracted from Uljin unit 1, the commercial operation of which had started in 1998. The results of the examination are as follow: 1) Primary cause of the defect formed in the tubes was found to be high susceptibility of the tube materials having microstructures known to be easily subjected to PWSCC.(high carbon content, low temperature mill annealed, intragranular carbide precipitation, small grain size, high strength) 2) Criteria for tube plugging and/or sleeving should be established by the judgement of the extend of increase in ECT amplitude instead of that in the crack length. 3) The evaluation of the ECT results using the axial coil signals would be more reliable than by using the pancake coil signal. 4) The maximum leak rate to be allowed at Uljin unit 1 can be raised to 10 l/hr. 5) The residual life of the steam generators at Uljin unit 1 would be 10 years more. 6) The difference in failure rate and leak rate between Uljin unit 1 and similar French units to Uljin unit 1 is assumed to come from the difference in operating conditions. 131 figs., 24 tabs. (Author)

  10. 放置MYCuIUD与MCuIUD12个月效果观察%Observation on the clinical efficacy of MYCuIUD containing 25mg indomethacin and MCuIUD Functional IUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫颖; 王丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect and safety of MYCuIUD intrauterine device (MYCuIUD) containing 25mg indomethacin and MCu functional IUD(MCuIUD). Methods:Two types of IUDs were randomly insertion 100 women each IUD.The women were followed up 1,3,6,and 12 months after insertion. Results:Twelve months after insertion, in MYCuIUD group and MCuIUD group, the cumulative expulsion rate was 0.02/100 and 0.03/100 women per year, respectively(P>0.05);the rate of IUD removal for medical reasons(mainly bleeding and pain)was 0.08/100and 0.07/100 women per year, respectively(p>0.05).1or 3months after insertion, the cumulative rate of pregnancy with IUD in situ, the occurrences of abnormal menstruation and low back/abdominal pain in MCuIUD group were higher than those in MYCuIUD group (p<0.05).Conclusion:Both MYCuIUD and MCuIUD performed with low expulsion, low occurrence of side effect after insertion, and good reversibility. MYCuIUD can reduce bleeding and pain at the early stage of insertion, with well contraceptive effect than MCuIUD.%目的:观察MYCuIUD与MCuIUD的临床效果及安全性。方法:多中心随机放置MYCuIUD与MCuIUD各100例,术后1、3、6、12个月随访。结果:放置12个月累积脱落率为0.02/百妇女年和0.03/百妇女年;因医疗原因取出分别是0.07/百妇女年和0.08/百妇女年;主要副作用为出血和疼痛,以上差异无统计学意义。放置1、3月后累计带器妊娠率及月经异常及腰腹疼痛发生率 MYCuIUD 组低于 MCuIUD 组。结论:MYCuIUD 与MCuIUD同样具有脱落率低、副作用发生率低的特点,放置MYCuIUD较MCuIUD具抗生育效果好,可减少放置之后的出血和疼痛。

  11. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-348-349-350: March 2016 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-17

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-348-349-350), pulled on 03/30/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-348-349-350 indicated the IsoparTML concentration is above its nominal level (101%). The modifier (CS-7SB) and the TiDG concentrations are 9% and 55% below their nominal concentrations. This analysis confirms the solvent may require the addition of TiDG, and possibly of modifier. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, IsoparTML, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  12. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-934-935-936: June 2016 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-934-935-936), pulled on 07/01/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-934-935-936 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (101%). The modifier (CS-7SB) and the TiDG concentrations are 8% and 29 % below their nominal concentrations. This analysis confirms the solvent may require the addition of TiDG, and possibly of modifier. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  13. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-596-597-598: April 2016 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Advanced Characterization and Processing; Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Research Support

    2016-07-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-596-597-598), pulled on 04/30/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-596-597-598 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (102%). The modifier (CS-7SB) is 14% below its nominal concentration, while the TiDG and MaxCalix concentrations are at and above their nominal concentrations, respectively. This analysis confirms the solvent may require the addition of modifier. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended.

  14. [Design of a bowel sounds acquisition system based on C8051F340 MCU].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He-Hua; Wu, Bao-Ming; Zhuo, Yu; Zhang, Lian-Yang; Wang, Xi-Long

    2008-05-01

    This paper introduces an eight channels dada acquisition system. A peripheral circuit based on C8051F340 MCU has been designed and its USB controller is used to transfer data, which realizes real-time detection, display and storage of bowel sounds. The system has many advantages such as high precision and stable performance, and thus provides a new means for the bowel sounds study.

  15. 基于单片Wi-Fi MCU CC3200的无线串口%Wireless UART Base on the Wi-Fi MCU CC3200

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭书军; 田志鹏

    2016-01-01

    A wireless UART based on the Wi-Fi MCU CC3200 of TI is introduced by this paper. It can implement wireless point to point short distance data transmission transparently. It can extend legacy serial device with function of wireless communication without modification. It has features of simple structure and high reliability with CC3200 as the core device. It can be widely used in remote control and debug, data acquisition and other fields.%本文介绍了基于TI公司单片Wi-Fi MCU CC3200的无线串口。无线串口采用透明传输方式,实现点对点近距离无线传输。无线串口可以为串口设备在无需对设备本身进行改造的情况下增加无线通信功能。无线串口以CC3200芯片为核心器件,硬件简单,可靠性高,可广泛应用于远程控制、数据采集、远程调试等领域。

  16. Fatalities among oil and gas extraction workers--United States, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-25

    Oil and gas extraction (i.e., removing oil and natural gas from the ground) is a growing industry in the United States, employing approximately 380,000 workers in 2006. In recent years, activity in this industry has increased substantially, from an average of 800 actively drilling rigs in the United States during the 1990s to approximately 1,300 during 2003-2006. In August 2005, the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) asked CDC to investigate a 15% increase in fatalities among oil and gas extraction workers (from 85 fatalities in 2003 to 98 in 2004). CDC analyzed data from the BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) for the period 2003-2006. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that increases in oil and gas extraction activity were correlated with an increase in the rate of fatal occupational injuries in this industry, with an annual fatality rate of 30.5 per 100,000 workers (404 fatalities) during 2003-2006, approximately seven times the rate for all workers (4.0 per 100,000 workers). Nearly half of all fatal injuries among these workers were attributed to highway motor-vehicle crashes and workers being struck by machinery or equipment. Employers should work with existing industry groups and federal, state, and local government agencies to promote seatbelt use. In addition, researchers and public health officials should collaborate with industry groups to establish engineering and process controls that remove workers from potentially dangerous machinery while drilling and servicing oil and gas wells.

  17. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  18. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  19. MICU1 and MICU2 finely tune the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter by exerting opposite effects on MCU activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Maria; Checchetto, Vanessa; Raffaello, Anna; Teardo, Enrico; Vecellio Reane, Denis; Mantoan, Maura; Granatiero, Veronica; Szabò, Ildikò; De Stefani, Diego; Rizzuto, Rosario

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondrial calcium accumulation was recently shown to depend on a complex composed of an inner-membrane channel (MCU and MCUb) and regulatory subunits (MICU1, MCUR1, and EMRE). A fundamental property of MCU is low activity at resting cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations, preventing deleterious Ca(2+) cycling and organelle overload. Here we demonstrate that these properties are ensured by a regulatory heterodimer composed of two proteins with opposite effects, MICU1 and MICU2, which, both in purified lipid bilayers and in intact cells, stimulate and inhibit MCU activity, respectively. Both MICU1 and MICU2 are regulated by calcium through their EF-hand domains, thus accounting for the sigmoidal response of MCU to [Ca(2+)] in situ and allowing tight physiological control. At low [Ca(2+)], the dominant effect of MICU2 largely shuts down MCU activity; at higher [Ca(2+)], the stimulatory effect of MICU1 allows the prompt response of mitochondria to Ca(2+) signals generated in the cytoplasm.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Refrigeration Units in Natural Gas Liquid Extraction Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awajiogak Anthony Ujile

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has applied thermodynamics principles to evaluate the reliability of 390 m3/hr natural gas processing plant. The thermodynamics equations were utilized in the evaluation, characterization, and numerical simulation of key process parameters in natural gas liquid extraction plant. The results obtained show the comparison of the coefficient of performance, compression ratio, isentropic work, actual work, electrical power requirements, cooling water consumption in intercoolers, compressor power output, compressor capacity, and isentropic, volumetric, and mechanical efficiency of the two-stage refrigeration unit with a flash gas economizer and these were compared with the designed specifications. The second law of thermodynamics was applied in analyzing the refrigeration unit and the result shows that exergetic losses or lost work due to irreversibility falls within operating limit that is less than 1.0%. Similarly, the performance of expansion turbine (expander parameters was monitored and the results indicate a considerable decrease in turbine efficiencies as the inlet gas pressure increases resulting in an increased power output of the turbine leading to a higher liquefaction rate.

  1. UCP2 modulates single-channel properties of a MCU-dependent Ca(2+) inward current in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Alexander I; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Madreiter, Corina T; Rost, Rene; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang F

    2015-12-01

    The mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter is a highly Ca(2+)-selective protein complex that consists of the pore-forming mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter protein (MCU), the scaffolding essential MCU regulator (EMRE), and mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 and 2 (MICU1/2), which negatively regulate mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. We have previously reported that uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2/3) are also engaged in the activity of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake under certain conditions, while the mechanism by which UCP2/3 facilitates mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniport remains elusive. This work was designed to investigate the impact of UCP2 on the three distinct mitochondrial Ca(2+) currents found in mitoplasts isolated from HeLa cells, the intermediate- (i-), burst- (b-) and extra-large (xl-) mitochondrial/mitoplast Ca(2+) currents (MCC). Using the patch clamp technique on mitoplasts from cells with reduced MCU and EMRE unveiled a very high affinity of MCU for xl-MCC that succeeds that for i-MCC, indicating the coexistence of at least two MCU/EMRE-dependent Ca(2+) currents. The manipulation of the expression level of UCP2 by either siRNA-mediated knockdown or overexpression changed exclusively the open probability (NPo) of xl-MCC by approx. 38% decrease or nearly a 3-fold increase, respectively. These findings confirm a regulatory role of UCP2 in mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and identify UCP2 as a selective modulator of just one distinct MCU/EMRE-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) inward current.

  2. 基于单片机的智能车库计费系统设计%Design of Accounting System for Intelligent Garage Based on MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣学

    2013-01-01

    Car is becoming more popular by development of economic. Parking charge is an important part of the garage management. 51 MCU is a classic single-chip product which has the features of simple structure, stable performance and low-cost, and is used widely in control systems. Garage billing issues are researched in this paper, a smart garage billing system is designed with 51 MCU as the main controller unit. The system has simple operation, rich features to fulfill functions of automatic charge, information inquiry and status display with good practical and promotional value.%  经济发展使得汽车的普及程度越来越高,车辆停放计费是车库管理的重要环节。51单片机是经典的单片机产品,具有结构简单、性能稳定和成本低廉的特点,在控制系统中应用广泛。本文对车库计费问题进行了研究,以单片机为主控单元设计进行智能车库计费系统设计,系统操作简单、功能丰富,实现了自动计费、信息查询和状态显示等多项功能,具有良好的实用和推广价值。

  3. Serial Peripheral Interface Communication Between MCU EM78P447A and RF Reader IC MF RC530

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Zhi; CHEN Shu-zhen; HUANG Ji-wu

    2005-01-01

    A significant method in the way the MCU EM78P447A manipulates the RF reader IC MF RC530's functions used in RF IC card application is presented. In this paper, RF reader IC MF RC530's SPI compatible interface is introduced. The kernel technologies including SPI connection, software design,register initiation, request-response between the reader IC and the MCU, authentication and the proper format of the key are explained. Adopting the serial peripheral interface is the innovation in the paper. The SPI communication mode proves feasible and precise. Furthermore, in the way we avoid the abuse of parallel interface.

  4. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results for MCU-16-934-935-936: June 2016 Monthly Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-934-935-936), pulled on 07/01/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-934-935-936 indicated the Isopar™L concentration is above its nominal level (101%). The modifier (CS-7SB) and the TiDG concentrations are 8% and 29 % below their nominal concentrations. This analysis confirms the solvent may require the addition of TiDG, and possibly of modifier. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). No impurities were observed in the Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR). However, up to 21.1 ± 4 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 17.5 μg/mL) was detected in this sample (as determined by the XRF method of undigested sample). The current gamma level (1.41E5 dpm/mL) confirmed that the gamma concentration has returned to previous levels (as observed in the late 2015 samples) where the process operated normally and as expected.

  5. Test case for VVER-1000 complex modeling using MCU and ATHLET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahdanovich, R. B.; Bogdanova, E. V.; Gamtsemlidze, I. D.; Nikonov, S. P.; Tikhomirov, G. V.

    2017-01-01

    The correct modeling of processes occurring in the fuel core of the reactor is very important. In the design and operation of nuclear reactors it is necessary to cover the entire range of reactor physics. Very often the calculations are carried out within the framework of only one domain, for example, in the framework of structural analysis, neutronics (NT) or thermal hydraulics (TH). However, this is not always correct, as the impact of related physical processes occurring simultaneously, could be significant. Therefore it is recommended to spend the coupled calculations. The paper provides test case for the coupled neutronics-thermal hydraulics calculation of VVER-1000 using the precise neutron code MCU and system engineering code ATHLET. The model is based on the fuel assembly (type 2M). Test case for calculation of power distribution, fuel and coolant temperature, coolant density, etc. has been developed. It is assumed that the test case will be used for simulation of VVER-1000 reactor and in the calculation using other programs, for example, for codes cross-verification. The detailed description of the codes (MCU, ATHLET), geometry and material composition of the model and an iterative calculation scheme is given in the paper. Script in PERL language was written to couple the codes.

  6. Body Hair Transplant by Follicular Unit Extraction: My Experience With 122 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sanusi

    2016-01-01

    Background Body hair shafts from the beard, trunk, and extremities can be used to treat baldness when patients have inadequate amounts of scalp donor hair, but reports in the literature concerning use of body hair to treat baldness are confined to case reports. Objectives This study aimed to assess the outcome of body hair transplanted to bald areas of the scalp in selected patients. Methods From 2005 through 2011, 122 patients preselected for adequate body hair had donor hair transplanted from the beard, trunk, and the extremities to the scalp by follicular unit extraction (FUE) by the author at a single center. All patients were emailed surveys to assess surgical outcomes and overall satisfaction. Results Seventy-nine patients (64.8%) responded with a mean time of 2.9 years between date of last surgery and time of survey. Patients were generally very satisfied with results of their procedure, giving mean scores of at least a 7.8 on a Likert-like scale of 0 to 10 for their healing status, hair growth in recipient areas, and overall satisfaction with their surgeries. These scores were comparable to mean scores provided by patients whose transplants included scalp donor sources. Conclusions FUE using body hair can be an effective hair transplantation method for a select patient population of hirsute individuals who suffer from severe baldness or have inadequate scalp donor reserve. Level of Evidence: 4 Therapeutic PMID:27241361

  7. Implementation Method of High-Resolution DAC Using the MCU's PWM Interfaces%微控制器PWM接口实现高分辨率D/A 转换器方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桂清; 李泓霖; 戴瑜兴; 郑宗伟

    2012-01-01

    本文针对嵌入式应用中PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation)方式DAC(Digital-to-Analog Converter)和独立DAC芯片选择问题,提出了通过插值方式和多PWM组合方式提高PWM方式DAC分辨率的方法;分析了PWM信号频谱,提出了模拟滤波器设计原则与方法.以MCU(Micro Control Unit)的PWM通道方式实现DAC,经过数据分析证明此方法稳定可靠.%A method that improving the resolution of PWM(Pulse-Width Modulation) mode DAC(Digital-To-Analog Converter) by interpolator was proposed for the problem that PWM mode DAC in embedded applications and how to choose DAC chip. The PWM signal spectrum was analyzed. The design principle and method of analog filter was proposed. The design of High-Resolution DAC using MCU' s(Micro Control Unit) PWM proved that this method is stable and reliable by analysis of experiments.

  8. Gene expression changes of single skeletal muscle fibers in response to modulation of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chemello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU gene codifies for the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM channel responsible for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Cytosolic Ca2+ transients are involved in sarcomere contraction through cycles of release and storage in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In addition cytosolic Ca2+ regulates various signaling cascades that eventually lead to gene expression reprogramming. Mitochondria are strategically placed in close contact with the ER/SR, thus cytosolic Ca2+ transients elicit large increases in the [Ca2+] of the mitochondrial matrix ([Ca2+]mt. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake regulates energy production and cell survival. In addition, we recently showed that MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake controls skeletal muscle trophism. In the same report, we dissected the effects of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake on gene expression through microarray gene expression analysis upon modulation of MCU expression by in vivo AAV infection. Analyses were performed on single skeletal muscle fibers at two time points (7 and 14 days post-AAV injection. Raw and normalized data are available on the GEO database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/ (GSE60931.

  9. Gene expression changes of single skeletal muscle fibers in response to modulation of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemello, Francesco; Mammucari, Cristina; Gherardi, Gaia; Rizzuto, Rosario; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo; Cagnin, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) gene codifies for the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) channel responsible for mitochondrial Ca(2 +) uptake. Cytosolic Ca(2 +) transients are involved in sarcomere contraction through cycles of release and storage in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In addition cytosolic Ca(2 +) regulates various signaling cascades that eventually lead to gene expression reprogramming. Mitochondria are strategically placed in close contact with the ER/SR, thus cytosolic Ca(2 +) transients elicit large increases in the [Ca(2 +)] of the mitochondrial matrix ([Ca(2 +)]mt). Mitochondrial Ca(2 +) uptake regulates energy production and cell survival. In addition, we recently showed that MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2 +) uptake controls skeletal muscle trophism. In the same report, we dissected the effects of MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2 +) uptake on gene expression through microarray gene expression analysis upon modulation of MCU expression by in vivo AAV infection. Analyses were performed on single skeletal muscle fibers at two time points (7 and 14 days post-AAV injection). Raw and normalized data are available on the GEO database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) (GSE60931).

  10. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  11. KEY FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE MIXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.; Williams, V.

    2009-10-05

    At the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF), decontaminated salt solution (DSS) is combined with premix (a cementitious mixture of portland cement (PC), blast furnace slag (BFS) and Class F fly ash (FA)) in a Readco mixer to produce fresh (uncured) Saltstone. After transfer to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) the hydration reactions initiated during the contact of the premix and salt solution continue during the curing period to produce the hardened waste form product. The amount of heat generated from hydration and the resultant temperature increase in the vaults depend on the composition of the decontaminated salt solution being dispositioned as well as the grout formulation (mix design). This report details the results from Task 3 of the Saltstone Variability Study for FY09 which was performed to identify, and quantify when possible, those factors that drive the performance properties of the projected ARP/MCU Batches. A baseline ARP/MCU mix (at 0.60 water to cementitious materials (w/cm) ratio) was established and consisted of the normal premix composition and a salt solution that was an average of the projected compositions of the last three ARP/MCU batches developed by T. A. Le. This task introduced significant variation in (1) wt % slag, w/cm ratio, and wt % portland cement about the baseline mix and (2) the temperature of curing in order to better assess the dependence of the performance properties on these factors. Two separate campaigns, designated Phase 10 and Phase 11, were carried out under Task 3. Experimental designs and statistical analyses were used to search for correlation among properties and to develop linear models to predict property values based on factors such as w/cm ratio, slag concentration, and portland cement concentration. It turns out that the projected salt compositions contained relatively high amounts of aluminate (0.22 M) even though no aluminate was introduced due to caustic aluminate removal from High Level Waste. Previous

  12. PARTICULARITIES OF ORGANIZING MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN THE CASE OF COAL EXTRACTION UNITS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DINA IONELA-CLAUDIA

    2013-01-01

    ..., the current paper aims at analyzing the manner of organizing managerial accountability at the level of the coal extraction societies staring from a succinct presentation of the particularities...

  13. 飞思卡尔提供经济高效的8位MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ 通过推出S08MP16,飞思卡尔半导体公司正在扩展其嵌入式电机控制系列.这种入门级8位微控制器(MCU)系列为从工业驱动到汽车电子燃油泵等无刷直流(BLDC)电机控制应用提供了一种安全、精确且成本优化的解决方案. BLDC电机在消费电子、工业和汽车电子方面日益流行,因为它们比传统的有刷直流和电磁感应电机提供效率和可靠性方面的优点.

  14. Contact urticaria to the MCU-2A/P gas mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, K B; George, R M

    1999-05-01

    A case of contact urticaria to the silicone rubber in the MCU-2A/P gas mask is presented. Contact urticaria is a type I hypersensitivity reaction mediated by immunoglobulin E that usually manifests as localized erythema, edema, pruritus, and urticarial plaques. It can also cause systemic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Allergic reactions to silicone rubber have been increasingly reported and are of importance in medical and military personnel. The implication of such a diagnosis in an active duty military member is significant because the individual cannot be worldwide-qualified. The correct diagnosis of allergic skin reactions to personal protective gear is critical to maintaining a strong fighting force and protecting military personnel from potentially life-threatening allergic reactions.

  15. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-16-53-55. January 2016 Monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-16-53-54-55), pulled on 01/25/2016 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-16-53-54-55 indicated the Isopar™L, and MaxCalix are at nominal levels. The modifier and TiDG concentrations are 3% and 23 % below their nominal concentrations. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier to the solvent on November 28, 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). No impurities were observed in the Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR). However, the Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) method detected trace levels (a few ppm) of amides (a possible degradation product of TiDG). In addition, up to 21 ± 4 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 17.5 μg/mL) was detected in this sample. There appears to be a possible correlation between the mercury level and the TiDG concentration in the solvent. The current gamma level (9.16 E4 dpm/mL) confirmed that the gamma concentration has returned to previous level where the process operated normally and as expected. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  16. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-15-914-915-916. December 2015 Monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-914-915-916), pulled on 12/22/2015 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-914-915-916 indicated the TiDG, Isopar™L, and MaxCalix are at nominal levels. The modifier concentration is 3% below its nominal concentration. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier to the solvent in November 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). No impurities were observed in the Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR). However, the Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) method detected trace levels (a few ppm) of amides (more indicative of bacteria than a possible degradation product of TiDG). In addition, up to 18 ± 4 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 14.8 μg/mL) was detected in this sample. The current gamma concentration level (8.48E4 dpm/mL) confirmed that the gamma concentration has returned to the previous level where the process operated normally as expected. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  17. Design Analysis of Power Extracting Unit of an Onshore OWC Based Wave Energy Power Plant using Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Suleman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes design and analysis of power extracting unit of an onshore OWC (Oscillating Water Column based wave energy power plant of capacity about 100 kilowatts. The OWC is modeled as solid piston of a reciprocating pump. The power extracting unit is designed analytically by using the theory of reciprocating pumps and principles of fluid mechanics. Pro-E and ANSYS workbench softwares are used to verify the analytical design. The analytical results of the flow velocity in the turbine duct are compared with the simulation results. The results are found to be in good agreement with each other. The results achieved by this research would finally assist in the overall design of the power plant which is the ultimate goal of this research work.

  18. Comparative Study of a Novel Tool for Follicular Unit Extraction for Individuals with Afro-textured Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hair transplantation involving patients with tightly curled Afro-textured hair using follicular unit extraction (FUE) employing conventional rotary punches frequently leads to unacceptably high transection rates. These patients are unsuitable candidates for FUE hair transplantation. Transection rates were observed during FUE in a case series of 18 patients with tightly curled Afro-textured hair using different punches. Methods: Three different punches were sequentially used in patients to extract follicular units with several needle gauges until satisfactory transection rates occurred: conventional sharp and dull rotary punches, followed by a 2-pronged curved nonrotary punch. Results: In all instances, the curved nonrotary punch had the best transection rate of hair can overcome high transection rates experienced using conventional sharp or dull rotary punches. Limitations of this study include it being a small, retrospective case series, and that the new technique that could require additional training by current FUE hair transplant practitioners.

  19. Next Generation Solvent Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birdwell, Joseph F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonnesen, Peter V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Inter laboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  20. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonnesen, Peter V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duncan, Nathan C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ensor, Dale [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Hill, Talon G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Denise L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rajbanshi, Arbin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roach, Benjamin D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Szczygiel, Patricia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sloop, Jr., Frederick V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stoner, Erica L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Neil J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  1. Impact of extraction methods on bio-flocculants recovered from backwashed sludge of bio-filtration unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Viet Hoang; Klai, Nouha; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal

    2016-09-15

    Effect of ten extraction methods on flocculation activity and chemical composition of bio-flocculants recovered from backwashed sludge of bio-filtration unit was studied. The results showed that the chemical method was better than physical method with respect to the extracted BFs weight and its flocculation activity. Cell lysis did not affect to the flocculation activity of BFs. Among ten extraction methods, EDTA (20 g/L) was the best one with extracted BFs dry weight of 6242 mg/L and flocculation activity of 83%. Optimization of EDTA concentration showed that 5 g EDTA/L (or 0.2 g EDTA/g SS) was suitable for recovery of BFs from backwashed sludge. The flocculation activity of BFs was 94% when using 2.4 mg of BFs/g of kaolin. The outcome of this study suggested that backwashed sludge of the bio-filtration unit was a potential source for exploiting bio-flocculants.

  2. Some Focus Issues in MCU Chip Multi-Sites Testing%MCU芯片Multi-Sites测试中几个值得关注的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈真; 陆锋; 张凯虹

    2014-01-01

    Describes the MCU chip Multi-Sites Test Method for Multi-Sites MCU chip test difficulty, elaborated MCU chip Multi-Sites in the testing process often affects the efficiency of the test system and test problems, mainly made MCU chip testing process Multi-Sites the DC parametric testing, functional testing of influencing factors and solutions, and the MCU chip Multi-Sites often encountered during testing interference factors were analyzed, as far as possible to ensure the MCU chip Multi-Sites obtained during testing of the performance parameters stable and reliable.%介绍了MCU芯片Multi-Sites测试方法,针对MCU芯片Multi-Sites测试的难点,阐述了在MCU芯片Multi-Sites测试过程中经常影响测试系统和测试效率的问题。主要提出了MCU芯片Multi-Sites测试过程中的直流参数测试、功能测试的影响因素和解决方案,并对MCU芯片Multi-Sites测试过程中经常遇到的干扰因素进行分析,尽可能保证MCU芯片Multi-Sites测试过程中获得的各项性能参数稳定可靠。

  3. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter MCU supports cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations, store-operated Ca2+ entry and Ca2+-dependent gene expression in response to receptor stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Samanta

    Full Text Available Ca2+ flux into mitochondria is an important regulator of cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals, energy production and cell death pathways. Ca2+ uptake can occur through the recently discovered mitochondrial uniporter channel (MCU but whether the MCU is involved in shaping Ca2+ signals and downstream responses to physiological levels of receptor stimulation is unknown. Here, we show that modest stimulation of leukotriene receptors with the pro-inflammatory signal LTC4 evokes a series of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations that are rapidly and faithfully propagated into mitochondrial matrix. Knockdown of MCU or mitochondrial depolarisation, to reduce the driving force for Ca2+ entry into the matrix, prevents the mitochondrial Ca2+ rise and accelerates run down of the oscillations. The loss of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations appeared to be a consequence of enhanced Ca2+-dependent inactivation of InsP3 receptors, which arose from the loss of mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering. Ca2+ dependent gene expression in response to leukotriene receptor activation was suppressed following knockdown of the MCU. In addition to buffering Ca2+ release, mitochondria also sequestrated Ca2+ entry through store-operated Ca2+ channels and this too was prevented following loss of MCU. MCU is therefore an important regulator of physiological pulses of cytoplasmic Ca2+.

  4. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter MCU supports cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations, store-operated Ca2+ entry and Ca2+-dependent gene expression in response to receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Krishna; Douglas, Sophie; Parekh, Anant B

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+ flux into mitochondria is an important regulator of cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals, energy production and cell death pathways. Ca2+ uptake can occur through the recently discovered mitochondrial uniporter channel (MCU) but whether the MCU is involved in shaping Ca2+ signals and downstream responses to physiological levels of receptor stimulation is unknown. Here, we show that modest stimulation of leukotriene receptors with the pro-inflammatory signal LTC4 evokes a series of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations that are rapidly and faithfully propagated into mitochondrial matrix. Knockdown of MCU or mitochondrial depolarisation, to reduce the driving force for Ca2+ entry into the matrix, prevents the mitochondrial Ca2+ rise and accelerates run down of the oscillations. The loss of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations appeared to be a consequence of enhanced Ca2+-dependent inactivation of InsP3 receptors, which arose from the loss of mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering. Ca2+ dependent gene expression in response to leukotriene receptor activation was suppressed following knockdown of the MCU. In addition to buffering Ca2+ release, mitochondria also sequestrated Ca2+ entry through store-operated Ca2+ channels and this too was prevented following loss of MCU. MCU is therefore an important regulator of physiological pulses of cytoplasmic Ca2+.

  5. MICU1 is an essential gatekeeper for MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake that regulates cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallilankaraman, Karthik; Doonan, Patrick; Cárdenas, César; Chandramoorthy, Harish C; Müller, Marioly; Miller, Russell; Hoffman, Nicholas E; Gandhirajan, Rajesh Kumar; Molgó, Jordi; Birnbaum, Morris J; Rothberg, Brad S; Mak, Don-On Daniel; Foskett, J Kevin; Madesh, Muniswamy

    2012-10-26

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(m)) uptake is mediated by an inner membrane Ca(2+) channel called the uniporter. Ca(2+) uptake is driven by the considerable voltage present across the inner membrane (ΔΨ(m)) generated by proton pumping by the respiratory chain. Mitochondrial matrix Ca(2+) concentration is maintained five to six orders of magnitude lower than its equilibrium level, but the molecular mechanisms for how this is achieved are not clear. Here, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial protein MICU1 is required to preserve normal [Ca(2+)](m) under basal conditions. In its absence, mitochondria become constitutively loaded with Ca(2+), triggering excessive reactive oxygen species generation and sensitivity to apoptotic stress. MICU1 interacts with the uniporter pore-forming subunit MCU and sets a Ca(2+) threshold for Ca(2+)(m) uptake without affecting the kinetic properties of MCU-mediated Ca(2+) uptake. Thus, MICU1 is a gatekeeper of MCU-mediated Ca(2+)(m) uptake that is essential to prevent [Ca(2+)](m) overload and associated stress.

  6. United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program. Guidance on Soil Vapor Extraction Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    DoD Department of Defense DNAPL Dense non-aqueous phase liquid DPE dual-phase extraction DQO Data quality objective ECD electron capture device...EPA Environmental Protection Agency ER electrical resistance FID flame ionization detector Hg Mercury MCL maximum contaminant level MCLG Maximum...Well Ground Surface Soil (Advection) V a d o s e Z o n e (Diffusion) Massive Clay Sand Sand Vadose Zone Groundwater Zone LNAPL DNAPL Groundwater Table

  7. DCT domain feature extraction scheme based on motor unit action potential of EMG signal for neuromuscular disease classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulah, Abul Barkat Mollah Sayeed Ud; Fattah, Shaikh Anowarul; Zhu, Wei-Ping; Ahmad, M Omair

    2014-01-01

    A feature extraction scheme based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) of electromyography (EMG) signals is proposed for the classification of normal event and a neuromuscular disease, namely the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Instead of employing DCT directly on EMG data, it is employed on the motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) extracted from the EMG signal via a template matching-based decomposition technique. Unlike conventional MUAP-based methods, only one MUAP with maximum dynamic range is selected for DCT-based feature extraction. Magnitude and frequency values of a few high-energy DCT coefficients corresponding to the selected MUAP are used as the desired feature which not only reduces computational burden, but also offers better feature quality with high within-class compactness and between-class separation. For the purpose of classification, the K-nearest neighbourhood classifier is employed. Extensive analysis is performed on clinical EMG database and it is found that the proposed method provides a very satisfactory performance in terms of specificity, sensitivity and overall classification accuracy.

  8. 宫内节育器频繁失败再置GyneIUD、MCuIUD临床效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁庆芳; 吕金妹

    2004-01-01

    目的比较放置宫内节育器(IUD)失败的妇女再次放置Gyne IUD和放置MCu IUD的临床效果.方法选择2次或2次以上IUD失败妇女206例,随机分成Gyne IUD组(105例)和MCu IUD组(101例),放置时间为月经干净3~7天或人工流产术后,手术由专人按说明书操作,随访12个月.观察两组IUD的避孕效果、续用率及副反应率.结果两组避孕效果均为99%以上.Gyne IUD组续用率为96.20%,MCu IUD组续用率为91.09%,两组差异显著(P<0.05);总副反应率MCu IUD组(25.72%)比Gyne IUD(14.29%)多,也有显著差异(P<0.01);因症取器率MCu IUD组(6.94%)高于Gyne IUD组(2.86%).结论Gyne IUD组以脱落低、续用率高及副反应少的优点更易被接受.

  9. Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES): The United State's demonstration line for pit disassembly and conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Timothy O.

    1998-03-01

    The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) is a pit disassembly and conversion demonstration line at Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility. Pits are the core of a nuclear weapon that contains fissile material. With the end of the cold war, the United States began a program to dispose of the fissile material contained in surplus nuclear weapons. In January of 1997, the Department of Energy's Office of Fissile Material Disposition issued a Record of Decision (ROD) on the disposition of surplus plutonium. This decision contained a hybrid option for disposition of the plutonium, immobilization and mixed oxide fuel. ARIES is the cornerstone of the United States plutonium disposition program that supplies the pit demonstration plutonium feed material for either of these disposition pathways. Additionally, information from this demonstration is being used to design the United States Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility. AH of the ARIES technologies were recently developed and incorporate waste minimization. The technologies include pit bisection, hydride/dehydride, metal to oxide conversion process, packaging, and nondestructive assay (NDA). The current schedule for the ARIES integrated Demonstration will begin in the Spring of 1998. The ARIES project involves a number of DOE sites including Los Alamos National Laboratory as the lead laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories. Moreover, the ARIES team is heavily involved in working with Russia in their pit disassembly and conversion activities.

  10. [Design of modulating intermediate frequency electrotherapy system based on microcontroller unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuefei; Liu, Xianfeng; Peng, Daming

    2010-12-01

    This article is devoted to the design of a system for modulating intermediate frequency electrotherapy waveform output. Prescriptions with different output waveform combinations were produced using microcontroller unit (MCU). The rich output waveforms effectively improve tolerance of human adaptability and achieve a therapeutic effect.

  11. Design of music player based on MCU STC12C5A60S2%一种基于51单片机的音乐播放器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何谐; 唐大权; 张淑廷; 陈雪

    2014-01-01

    The hardware design method of the music player based on MCU STC12C5A60S2 is introduced in this paper. The program design of the music player based on principle of FAT32 file system is studied. In the music player, MCU STC12C5A60S2 is taken as a main controller,SD card as a memory medium of music files and VS1003 chip as a decoder unit. When the player is running,MCU STC12C5A60S2 reads the music file from the SD card and continuously transfers data flow to VS1003 for decoding. In the meantime,the OLED liquid crystal display shows the message of the music in real time. The tested results from experiments show the music player can play the music files in multiple formats fluently if the player is connected with ear phone.%主要介绍一种基于51单片机的音乐播放器的硬件设计方法,并研究在FAT32文件系统下音乐播放器的程序设计。该音乐播放器采用STC12C5A60S2单片机为主控制器,SD卡作为音乐文件的存储介质,VS1003芯片作为解码器。STC12C5A60S2单片机从 SD卡中读取音乐文件,并不断将数据流传送至VS1003解码,最后连接耳机播放,同时STC12C5A60S2连接OLED液晶显示屏实时显示音乐播放信息。实验表明,该音乐播放器连接耳机能流畅播放多种格式的音乐文件。

  12. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-15-815-816-817-818-819-820 November monthly sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-25

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-815-816-817-818-819-820), pulled on 11/29/2015 for analysis. The samples were inspected, combined, and analyzed for composition. Chemical analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-815-816-817-818-819-820 indicated the TiDG, Isopar™L, and MaxCalix are at nominal levels. The modifier concentration is 3% below its nominal concentration. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier to the solvent on November 28, 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time. Periodic characterization and trimming additions to the solvent are recommended. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). No impurities were observed in the Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HNMR). However, up to 12.5 ± 3 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 10.4 μg/mL) was detected in this sample. The solids residues found at the bottom of the p-nut vial from sample MCU-15-815 were determined to be left-over pipe residues that were flushed into the sample and they were found to have no impact on the solvent purity or on the chemical and physical properties of the solvent. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  13. MCU and Wireless Interconnection in Age of Internet of Things%物联网时代的MCU与无线互联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈建华

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, some personal views are presented about current situation of MCU, technical characteristics and wireless interconnection technology in the age of the Internet of things. The Internet of things brings about new and enormous opportunities to MCU applications. Low-power and wireless connectivity are the two trends of MCU applications in this age. Standards-based ZigBee and Wi\\Fi will have promising development and applications.%针对MCU现状和物联网时代的MCU技术特征与无线互联技术,谈了一些个人的看法.物联网时代给MCU应用带来了新的巨大机遇;低功耗和无线互联是物联网时代MCU应用的两大趋势;基于标准的ZigBee和Wi - Fi将会有很大的发展.

  14. Extracting salient sublexical units from written texts:‘Emophon’, a corpus-based approach to phonological iconicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash eAryani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature in psychology, linguistics, and the neurosciences has paid increasing attention to the understanding of the relationships between phonological representations of words and their meaning: a phenomenon also known as phonological iconicity. In this article, we investigate how a text’s intended emotional meaning, particularly in literature and poetry, may be reflected at the level of sublexical phonological salience and the use of foregrounded elements. To extract such elements from a given text, we developed a probabilistic model to predict the exceeding of a confidence interval for specific sublexical units concerning their frequency of occurrence within a given text contrasted with a reference linguistic corpus for the German language. Implementing this model in a computational application, we provide a text analysis tool which automatically delivers information about sublexical phonological salience allowing researchers, inter alia, to investigate effects of the sublexical emotional tone of texts based on current findings on phonological iconicity.

  15. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake 1 (MICU1) and mitochondrial ca2+ uniporter (MCU) contribute to metabolism-secretion coupling in clonal pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Rizwan; Groschner, Lukas N; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Kuo, Liang; Bondarenko, Alexander I; Rost, Rene; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang F

    2012-10-01

    In pancreatic β-cells, uptake of Ca(2+) into mitochondria facilitates metabolism-secretion coupling by activation of various matrix enzymes, thus facilitating ATP generation by oxidative phosphorylation and, in turn, augmenting insulin release. We employed an siRNA-based approach to evaluate the individual contribution of four proteins that were recently described to be engaged in mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration in clonal INS-1 832/13 pancreatic β-cells: the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake 1 (MICU1), mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and leucine zipper EF-hand-containing transmembrane protein 1 (LETM1). Using a FRET-based genetically encoded Ca(2+) sensor targeted to mitochondria, we show that a transient knockdown of MICU1 or MCU diminished mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake upon both intracellular Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) entry via L-type channels. In contrast, knockdown of UCP2 and LETM1 exclusively reduced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in response to either intracellular Ca(2+) release or Ca(2+) entry, respectively. Therefore, we further investigated the role of MICU1 and MCU in metabolism-secretion coupling. Diminution of MICU1 or MCU reduced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in response to d-glucose, whereas d-glucose-triggered cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations remained unaffected. Moreover, d-glucose-evoked increases in cytosolic ATP and d-glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were diminished in MICU1- or MCU-silenced cells. Our data highlight the crucial role of MICU1 and MCU in mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in pancreatic β-cells and their involvement in the positive feedback required for sustained insulin secretion.

  16. 基于I2C总线的多MCU系统设计%Design of multi-MCU system based on I2C bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 吕肖晗

    2015-01-01

    在一些应用系统中常常使用多片MCU协同实现系统功能,为实现多片MCU之间的数据交换,可以应用多端口RAM,但其结构复杂,成本高;而利用I2C总线使多片MCU之间通过RAM实现数据交换,具有结构简单、成本低的优点。介绍一种基于I2C总线的多MCU系统的设计,简要讨论I2C总线的结构、工作原理及多MCU竞争仲裁,给出I2C总线的多MCU系统的设计,实现了多MCU系统在实际中的应用。%System functions are implemented by multi⁃MCU collaborative working in some application systems. Although the multi⁃port RAM can be applied to achieve data exchange among multiple MCUs,its structure is complex and cost is high. Multi⁃MCU data exchange can be realized by the method to link I2C bus with RAM,which has the advantages of simple struc⁃ture and low cost. Design of the multi⁃MCU system based on I2C bus is introduced. The structure,execution principle,multi⁃MCU competition and arbitration of I2C bus are discussed briefly. The design of multi⁃MCU system based on I2C bus is given. The application of multi⁃MCU system in practice was implemented.

  17. Mobile contingency unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio O. da; Magalhaes, Milton P. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Junqueira, Rodrigo A.; Torres, Carlos A.R. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting what is already a reality in TRANSPETRO in the area covered by OSBRA, a pipeline that carries by-products to the Mid-West region of Brazil. In order to meet the needs of covering occasional accidents, TRANSPETRO counts on a standardized system of emergency management. It is a great challenge to secure an efficient communication along the 964 km of extension, considering that there are shadow zones where it is not possible to use conventional means of communication such as mobile telephony and internet. It was in this context that the Mobile Contingency Unit Via Satellite - MCU was developed, to extend the communication facilities existing in fixed installations to remote places, mainly the pipeline right of ways. In case of emergency, simulation and work in the pipeline right of way, MCU is fully able to provide the same data, voice, closed-circuit TV and satellite video conference facilities that are available in any internal area of the PETROBRAS system. (author)

  18. Derivation of greenhouse gas emission factors for peatlands managed for extraction in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D.; Dixon, S. D.; Artz, R. R. E.; Smith, T. E. L.; Evans, C. D.; Owen, H. J. F.; Archer, E.; Renou-Wilson, F.

    2015-09-01

    Drained peatlands are significant hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and may also be more vulnerable to fire with its associated gaseous emissions. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands managed for extraction are reported on an annual basis. However, the Tier 1 (default) emission factors (EFs) provided in the IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement for this land use category may not be representative in all cases and countries are encouraged to move to higher-tier reporting levels with reduced uncertainty levels based on country- or regional-specific data. In this study, we quantified (1) CO2-C emissions from nine peat extraction sites in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, which were initially disaggregated by land use type (industrial versus domestic peat extraction), and (2) a range of GHGs that are released to the atmosphere with the burning of peat. Drainage-related methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions as well as CO2-C emissions associated with the off-site decomposition of horticultural peat were not included here. Our results show that net CO2-C emissions were strongly controlled by soil temperature at the industrial sites (bare peat) and by soil temperature and leaf area index at the vegetated domestic sites. Our derived EFs of 1.70 (±0.47) and 1.64 (±0.44) t CO2-C ha-1 yr-1 for the industrial and domestic sites respectively are considerably lower than the Tier 1 EF (2.8 ± 1.7 t CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) provided in the Wetlands Supplement. We propose that the difference between our derived values and the Wetlands Supplement value is due to differences in peat quality and, consequently, decomposition rates. Emissions from burning of the peat (g kg-1 dry fuel burned) were estimated to be approximately 1346 CO2, 8.35 methane (CH4), 218 carbon monoxide (CO), 1.53 ethane (C2H6), 1.74 ethylene (C2H4), 0.60 methanol (CH3OH), 2.21 hydrogen

  19. THE CHEMICAL AND RADIATION RESISTANCE OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIIDE AS ENCOUNTERED IN THE MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-30

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is a semicrystalline polymer with excellent engineering plastic properties and suitable processing temperatures. PPS can also be made containing branches (using a trifunctional monomer) and with crosslinked microstructure (when curing the monomer at high temperature in the presence of oxygen). PPS is made from the condensation reaction between para-dichlorobenzene and sodium sulfide with the assistance of a catalyst (to lower the activation barrier). The synthesis conditions for making PPS has evolved since its invention in the 1960's to the optimal conditions developed by the Philips Corporation in the 1970's. The resulting polymer consists of chemically stable molecular moieties such as benzene rings and ether like sulfur linkages between the aromatic rings. Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 3.3 E8 rad (330 Mrad), or the equivalent of 11 years of gamma irradiation (assuming a stripping solution concentration of 7.5 Ci/gal), and several months of exposures to 3M caustic solution and caustic salt simulant, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, demonstrates PPS is stable to the new solvent.

  20. Averaging methods for extracting representative waveforms from motor unit action potential trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanda, Armando; Navallas, Javier; Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Rodriguez-Carreño, Ignacio; Gila, Luis

    2015-08-01

    In the context of quantitative electromyography (EMG), it is of major interest to obtain a waveform that faithfully represents the set of potentials that constitute a motor unit action potential (MUAP) train. From this waveform, various parameters can be determined in order to characterize the MUAP for diagnostic analysis. The aim of this work was to conduct a thorough, in-depth review, evaluation and comparison of state-of-the-art methods for composing waveforms representative of MUAP trains. We evaluated nine averaging methods: Ensemble (EA), Median (MA), Weighted (WA), Five-closest (FCA), MultiMUP (MMA), Split-sweep median (SSMA), Sorted (SA), Trimmed (TA) and Robust (RA) in terms of three general-purpose signal processing figures of merit (SPMF) and seven clinically-used MUAP waveform parameters (MWP). The convergence rate of the methods was assessed as the number of potentials per MUAP train (NPM) required to reach a level of performance that was not significantly improved by increasing this number. Test material comprised 78 MUAP trains obtained from the tibialis anterioris of seven healthy subjects. Error measurements related to all SPMF and MWP parameters except MUAP amplitude descended asymptotically with increasing NPM for all methods. MUAP amplitude showed a consistent bias (around 4% for EA and SA and 1-2% for the rest). MA, TA and SSMA had the lowest SPMF and MWP error figures. Therefore, these methods most accurately preserve and represent MUAP physiological information of utility in clinical medical practice. The other methods, particularly WA, performed noticeably worse. Convergence rate was similar for all methods, with NPM values averaged among the nine methods, which ranged from 10 to 40, depending on the waveform parameter evaluated.

  1. Ca2+ signals regulate mitochondrial metabolism by stimulating CREB-mediated expression of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter gene MCU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Rajan, Sudarsan; Hoffman, Nicholas E; Zhang, Xueqian; Guo, Shuchi; Kolesar, Jill E; Hines, Kevin J; Ragheb, Jonathan; Jog, Neelakshi R; Caricchio, Roberto; Baba, Yoshihiro; Zhou, Yandong; Kaufman, Brett A; Cheung, Joseph Y; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Gill, Donald L; Madesh, Muniswamy

    2015-03-03

    Cytosolic Ca2+ signals, generated through the coordinated translocation of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane (PM) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, mediate diverse cellular responses. Mitochondrial Ca2+ is important for mitochondrial function, and when cytosolic Ca2+ concentration becomes too high, mitochondria function as cellular Ca2+ sinks. By measuring mitochondrial Ca2+ currents, we found that mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was reduced in chicken DT40 B lymphocytes lacking either the ER-localized inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), which releases Ca2+ from the ER, or Orai1 or STIM1, components of the PM-localized Ca2+ -permeable channel complex that mediates store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in response to depletion of ER Ca2+ stores. The abundance of MCU, the pore-forming subunit of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, was reduced in cells deficient in IP3R, STIM1, or Orai1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter reporter analyses revealed that the Ca2+ -regulated transcription factor CREB (cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein) directly bound the MCU promoter and stimulated expression. Lymphocytes deficient in IP3R, STIM1, or Orai1 exhibited altered mitochondrial metabolism, indicating that Ca2+ released from the ER and SOCE-mediated signals modulates mitochondrial function. Thus, our results showed that a transcriptional regulatory circuit involving Ca2+ -dependent activation of CREB controls the Ca2+ uptake capability of mitochondria and hence regulates mitochondrial metabolism.

  2. Extraction-Scrub-Strip test results from the interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 9 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). The Salt Batch 9 characterization results were previously reported. An Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) test was performed to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)) and cesium concentration in the strip effluent and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Tank Farm Engineering to project a cesium decontamination factor (DF). This test used actual Tank 21H material, and a blend solvent prepared by SRNL that mimics the solvent composition currently being used at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The ESS test showed acceptable performance with an extraction D(Cs) value of 52.4. This value is consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. This compares well against the predicted value of 56.5 from a recently created D(Cs) model

  3. Extraction, -scrub, -strip test results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). The Salt Batch 10 characterization results were previously reported.ii,iii An Extraction, -Scrub, -Strip (ESS) test was performed to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)) and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Tank Farm Engineering to project a cesium decontamination factor (DF). This test used actual Tank 21H material, and a sample of the NGS Blend solvent currently being used at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The ESS test showed acceptable performance with an extraction D(Cs) value of 110. This value is consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. This is better than the predicted value of 39.8 from a recently created D(Cs) model.

  4. Image Acquisition System Based on FIFO Chip and MCU%FIFO芯片和单片机实现的图像采集系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向春; 侯智斌; 张峰

    2012-01-01

    Based on FIFO chip AL422B, the paper takes Freescale 16 bit MCU MC9S12DG128 as the core, collects image information from camera chip OV7670 to realize the low rate MCU high speed image acquisition system. The system adopts the MCU control FIFO chip, the FIFO reads complete image information from camera at real time, and then MCU reads images from the FIFO corresponding register at low speed. At the same time the MCU processes the corresponding image in order to get the image point source pixel dis- tance, and the design acquires the next image by FIFO. The project meets the requirement through proto and ensures image integrity.%基于FIFO芯片AL422B,以飞思卡尔16位单片机MC9S12DG128为核心,采集摄像头芯片OV7670的图像信息,设计出以低速率的单片机采集高速率图像的图像采集系统。系统采用单片机控制FIFO芯片,先由FIFO实时读取摄像头芯片的一幅完整图像信息,再由单片机以低速率从FIFO的相应寄存器读取该幅图像,读取的同时进行相应的图像处理,得出所需图像中点光源的像素距离后通过FIFO进行下一幅图像的采集。本方案通过样机实验,完全能满足要求,确保了一副图像的完整性。

  5. Applying full multigroup cell characteristics from MCU code to finite difference calculations of neutron field in VVER core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodkov, S.S.; Kalugin, M.A. [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Up to now core calculations with Monte Carlo provided only average cross-sections of mesh cells for further use either in finite difference calculations or as benchmark ones for approximate spectral algorithms. Now MCU code is capable to handle functions, which may be interpreted as average diffusion coefficients. Subsequently the results of finite difference calculations with cells characteristic sets obtained in such a way can be compared with Monte Carlo results as benchmarks, giving reliable information on quality of production code under consideration. As an example of such analysis, the results of mesh calculations with 1-, 2-, 4-, 8- and 12 neutron groups of some model VVER fuel assembly are presented in comparison with the exact Monte Carlo solution. As a second example, an analysis is presented of water gap approximate enlargement between fuel assemblies, allowing VVER core region be covered by regular mesh.

  6. Calculations of 3D full-scale VVER fuel assembly and core models using MCU and BIPR-7A codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Bikeev, Artem S.; Bolshagin, Sergey N.; Kalugin, Mikhail A.; Kosourov, Evgeniy K.; Pavlovichev, Aleksandr M.; Pryanichnikov, Aleksandr V.; Sukhino-Khomenko, Evgenia A.; Shcherenko, Anna I.; Shcherenko, Anastasia I.; Shkarovskiy, Denis A. [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Two types of calculations were made to compare BIPR-7A and MCU results for 3D full-scale models. First EPS (emergency protection system) efficiency and in-core power distributions were analyzed for an equilibrium fuel load of VVER-1000 assuming its operation within an 18-month cycle. Computations were performed without feedbacks and with fuel burnup distributed over the core. After 3D infinite lattices of full-scale VVER-1000 fuel assemblies (A's) with uranium fuel 4.4% enrichment and uranium-erbium fuel 4.4% enrichment and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} 1 % wt were considered. Computations were performed with feedbacks and fuel burnup at the constant power level. For different time moments effective multiplication factor and power distribution were obtained. EPS efficiency and reactivity effects at chosen time moments were analyzed.

  7. The mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter MCU is essential for glucose-induced ATP increases in pancreatic β-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei I Tarasov

    Full Text Available Glucose induces insulin release from pancreatic β-cells by stimulating ATP synthesis, membrane depolarisation and Ca(2+ influx. As well as activating ATP-consuming processes, cytosolic Ca(2+ increases may also potentiate mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Until recently, the ability to study the role of mitochondrial Ca(2+ transport in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion has been hindered by the absence of suitable approaches either to suppress Ca(2+ uptake into these organelles, or to examine the impact on β-cell excitability. Here, we have combined patch-clamp electrophysiology with simultaneous real-time imaging of compartmentalised changes in Ca(2+ and ATP/ADP ratio in single primary mouse β-cells, using recombinant targeted (Pericam or Perceval, respectively as well as entrapped intracellular (Fura-Red, probes. Through shRNA-mediated silencing we show that the recently-identified mitochondrial Ca(2+ uniporter, MCU, is required for depolarisation-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+ increases, and for a sustained increase in cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio. By contrast, silencing of the mitochondrial Na(+-Ca(2+ exchanger NCLX affected the kinetics of glucose-induced changes in, but not steady state values of, cytosolic ATP/ADP. Exposure to gluco-lipotoxic conditions delayed both mitochondrial Ca(2+ uptake and cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio increases without affecting the expression of either gene. Mitochondrial Ca(2+ accumulation, mediated by MCU and modulated by NCLX, is thus required for normal glucose sensing by pancreatic β-cells, and becomes defective in conditions mimicking the diabetic milieu.

  8. The mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter MCU is essential for glucose-induced ATP increases in pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Andrei I; Semplici, Francesca; Ravier, Magalie A; Bellomo, Elisa A; Pullen, Timothy J; Gilon, Patrick; Sekler, Israel; Rizzuto, Rosario; Rutter, Guy A

    2012-01-01

    Glucose induces insulin release from pancreatic β-cells by stimulating ATP synthesis, membrane depolarisation and Ca(2+) influx. As well as activating ATP-consuming processes, cytosolic Ca(2+) increases may also potentiate mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Until recently, the ability to study the role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion has been hindered by the absence of suitable approaches either to suppress Ca(2+) uptake into these organelles, or to examine the impact on β-cell excitability. Here, we have combined patch-clamp electrophysiology with simultaneous real-time imaging of compartmentalised changes in Ca(2+) and ATP/ADP ratio in single primary mouse β-cells, using recombinant targeted (Pericam or Perceval, respectively) as well as entrapped intracellular (Fura-Red), probes. Through shRNA-mediated silencing we show that the recently-identified mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter, MCU, is required for depolarisation-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) increases, and for a sustained increase in cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio. By contrast, silencing of the mitochondrial Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger NCLX affected the kinetics of glucose-induced changes in, but not steady state values of, cytosolic ATP/ADP. Exposure to gluco-lipotoxic conditions delayed both mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio increases without affecting the expression of either gene. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation, mediated by MCU and modulated by NCLX, is thus required for normal glucose sensing by pancreatic β-cells, and becomes defective in conditions mimicking the diabetic milieu.

  9. Matrix sun sensor design with MCU%基于单片机的矩阵式太阳敏感器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仉英旭; 徐涛; 刘其然

    2016-01-01

    Matrix type sun sensor system is a sensitive system with high precision, high measurement information and fast processing. In this paper, the designed matrix sun sensor using photo-resistors as the sensitive element, the photo-resistors are arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix, the slit type optical head is used to acquire the digital information of two-axis attitude angle; The ADC0809 converts the analog signals to digital signals; The microcontroller unit (MCU) STC89C52 is used to process the signal and output the sensing results to LCD unit. Meanwhile, the results are transferred to the PC by serial port. The experimental results show that the sun sensor has a certain precision, can meet the sun's angle measurement in a certain range.%矩阵式太阳敏感器系统是精度高、测量信息量大并能快速处理的敏感系统。文章设计的矩阵式太阳敏感器,利用光敏电阻作为敏感元件,将光敏电阻排列成4×4矩阵,采用狭缝式光学头部,同时采集到两个轴姿态夹角的数字信息;利用ADC0809对光敏电阻的信号进行模数转换,由单片机STC89C52实现数据的采集和处理,将结果在LCD液晶显示器显示,同时通过串口将结果传输到上位机。实验结果表明,该太阳敏感器具有一定的精度,在一定范围内能够满足太阳的角度测量。

  10. linical Effect Observation of MCu Memory Alloy Intrauterine Device%放置MCu记忆合金宫内节育器临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 张蕊

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨观察MCu记忆合金宫内节育器临床使用情况。方法方便选择于2012年2月—2014年12月在山东省烟台市计划生育指导中心自愿放置MCu记忆合金宫内节育器的受试者400例,进行临床效果观察。结果 MCu记忆合金宫内节育器,置器18个月MCuIUD避孕率为99.75%;不良反应发生率3个月时13.5%,18个月后降至0%。累计移位率1.25%,脱落率0.25%;累计续用率为96.25%。结论 MCu记忆合金宫内节育器,避孕有效率高、因症取出及不良反应发生率低,操作便捷,在临床使用中安全高效值得推广使用。%Objective To investigate the clinical use of MCu memory alloy intrauterine device. Methods Convenient selec-tion 400 cases of MCu memory alloy intrauterine device in Yantai City, Shandong Province, family planning guidance center from February 2012 to December 2014 years old were selected, and the clinical effect was observed. Results MCu memory alloy intrauterine device, the device for 18 months MCuIUD contraceptive rate was 99.75%; the incidence of adverse reac-tions was 3 months, 18, 13.5% months after the 0%. The cumulative displacement rate was 1.25%, and the shedding rate was 0.25%. The cumulative rate was 96.25%. Conclusion MCu memory alloy intrauterine device, the effective rate of con-traception, and the incidence of adverse drug reaction rate is low, the operation is convenient, safe and effective in clinical use is worthy of popularization and use.

  11. Develoment of Controller in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on MCU TC1766%基于TC1766的混合动力汽车整车控制器的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邴甲晨; 王旭东; 吴晓刚

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces that a kind of hybrid control unit of hybrid electric vehicle is developed, it is based on the MCU of TC1766. The design of the hardware and EMC of functional modules are explained. Function experiments are taken in the vehicle and fuel emissions laboratory, it shows that the hybrid control unit in this paper has a good control quality and can meet requirements in vehicle dynamic quality, economy and environmental protection.%开发了一种并联式混合动力汽车的整车控制器,以英飞凌32位单片机TC1766为微控制器,阐述了各个功能模块的硬件实现以及系统电磁兼容设计,在排放实验室进行了车载整车功能和性能试验.试验表明开发的整车控制器具备良好的控制品质,可满足混合动力汽车的动力、经济和环保要求.

  12. [Medical care unit -- a suitable instrument for ambulatory patient-adequate care and performance-related remuneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, P; Isensee, D; Gerlach, E; Gross, H

    2013-02-01

    The question of whether a medical care unit is an appropriate tool for outpatient care has been discussed for a long time. Our aim is to investigate whether the MCU is an effective instrument for outpatient care and adequate performance-related remuneration. This retro- and prospective overview of the work included statements on legal foundations for medical care units, for reimbursement of services in medical care units, the development of medical care centres in Germany and a listing of the specific advantages and disadvantages of an MCU. This article focuses on the generally applicable facts and complements them with examples from general, visceral and vascular surgery. The main quantitative data on medical centre statistics come from different publications of the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance for Physicians. From a legal point of view the instrument MCU allows the participating of ambulatory and stationary care in the framework of medical care contracts. This has been especially extended for stationary applications, including the spectrum of possibilities that can contribute under certain circumstances for the provision of medical care in underdeveloped regions. Freelancers can benefit primarily from financial risk and minimising bureaucratic routine. The remuneration for services performed in the MCU is analogous to that of other ambulatory care providers. Basically, there are no disadvantages, but a greater design freedom and opportunities for the generation of aggregates are visible. The number of MCU in Germany has quadrupled in the last five years, indicating an establishment of an outpatient care landscape. MCU offers from the patient's perspective, providers and policy specific advantages and disadvantages. Indeed the benefits outweigh the disadvantages, but this is not yet verified by qualitative studies. The question of the appropriateness of medical care units as outpatient care instrumentation must be considered differentially

  13. Placement of replace select Ti-Unite-coated type implants using a combination of immediate and submerge techniques after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The high success rate of immediate implant placement both in the anterior and posterior regions were reported by many authors, therefore applying this techniques can be considered as a safe surgical procedure and minimizing the dental office visit for patient satisfaction. This paper reports the outcome of immediate placement of implants following extraction of anterior maxillary teeth. Combination technique of immediate and submerge implant placements including bone grafting procedure were used. Four implants with TiUnite surface type were placed immediately in two patients with the short-term result indicated that this technique may serve as a simple and safe procedure for immediate implant placement. It was concluded that immediate implant placement technique combined with TiUnite implant surface was successful in treating region directly after tooth extraction therefore this technique can be use as an alternative surgical method for dental implant rehabilitation.

  14. McClellan Air Force Base operable unit B, two-phase extraction system demonstration test, work implementation plan for McClellan AFB, California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-03

    This document is an integrated demonstration and work plan that presents the technical approach for design, implementation, and testing of two-phase extraction as compared with pump and treat technology in Operable Unit B, investigative cluster IC1 at the McClellan Air Force Base. This work is being coordinated with Clean Sites under a cooperative agreement with EPA's Technology Innovation Office and Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program.

  15. Integrated sampling and analysis unit for the determination of sexual pheromones in environmental air using fabric phase sorptive extraction and headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcudia-León, M Carmen; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-03-10

    This article presents a novel unit that integrates for the first time air sampling and preconcentration based on the use of fabric phase sorptive extraction principles. The determination of Tuta absoluta sexual pheromone traces in environmental air has been selected as analytical problem. For this aim, a novel laboratory-built unit made up of commercial brass elements as holder of the sol-gel coated fabric extracting phase has been designed and optimized. The performance of the integrated unit was evaluated analyzing environmental air sampled in tomato crops. The unit can work under sampling and analysis mode which eliminates any need for sorptive phase manipulation prior to instrumental analysis. In the sampling mode, the unit can be connected to a sampling pump to pass the air through the sorptive phase at a controlled flow-rate. In the analysis mode, it is placed in the gas chromatograph autosampler without any instrumental modification. It also diminishes the risk of cross contamination between sampling and analysis. The performance of the new unit has been evaluated using the main components of the sexual pheromone of Tuta absoluta [(3E,8Z,11Z)-tetradecatrien-1-yl acetate and (3E,8Z)-tetradecadien-1-yl acetate] as model analytes. The limits of detection for both compounds resulted to be 1.6μg and 0.8μg, respectively, while the precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) was better than 3.7%. Finally, the unit has been deployed in the field to analyze a number of real life samples, some of them were found positive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Design of MCU+GSM-based remote control system for full automatic rice cooker%基于MCU+GSM的全自动电饭锅远程智能控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天成; 田学军; 许景生

    2013-01-01

    为了实现电饭锅的远程智能控制,设计了一种基于MCU+GSM的由机械和控制电路组成的控制系统。机械部分由储米、取米、淘米、放米以及加水等装置组成,而控制电路由GTM900C模块、MSP430模块、状态检测与控制模块3部分组成。系统用GTM900C发送和接收短信,用单片机MSP430F149控制电饭锅工作。此外对传统电饭锅进行了改造,以实现电饭锅的全自动化。实验调试结果表明,该系统运行稳定,数据传输可靠,能较好地实现电饭锅的远程智能控制,具有广阔的应用前景。%A MCU+GSM-based control system that mainly consists of mechanism and control circuit was designed to realize remote intelligent control of rice cooker. The mechanism is made up of rice-storage box,rice-taking equipment,rice-washing equipment,rice-putting equipment and water-adding equipment. The control circuit is composed of modules of GTM900C, MSP430,state detection and control. GTM900C is used in the system to send and receive SMS,and MSP430 is used to control rice cooker. Besides,the traditional rice cooker was improved to realize the automation. The experiment debugging shows that the system runs stably,can transfer data reliablely,has a bright application prospect,and can realize remote intelligent control of rice cooker.

  17. Proteus和Keil软件在单片机项目式教学中的应用%Application of Proteus and Keil in MCU project teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖忠喜; 林君焕; 陶东娅

    2013-01-01

    针对单片机项目式教学中出现的问题,提出了将Proteus仿真软件和Keil软件引入到单片机项目式教学中.以”简易温室监控系统”项目为例,详细阐述Proteus软件和Keil软件在单片机课程教学中的使用方法和仿真调试过程.实践证明,该教学方法能激发学生学习的热情,锻炼了学生的创新能力和单片机软硬件综合开发能力,取得了良好的教学效果,是提高单片机教学效率和教学质量的一种有效方法.%Aimed at the problems appearing in MCU project teaching, this paper proposed that introducing Proteus simulation software and Keil software into MCU project teaching. Taking the simple Greenhouse monitoring System as an example, The application method and simulation debugging process of Proteus and Keil softwares using in the course teaching of MCU were expounded. It was proven that the teaching method aroused the learning enthusiasm of the students, cultivated the students' creative ability and comprehensive ability of hardware and software development And much better teaching effect had been achieved. It is an effective method to improve the quality and efficiency of MCU teaching.

  18. Evaluation of structural deformations of a mechanical connecting unit oxidizer supplies by thermo-mechanical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Woo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Machine Convergence Technology, Hankyong National University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A Mechanical connecting unit (MCU) used in ground facilities for a Liquid propellant rocket (LPR) acts as a bridge between the onboard system and the ground oxidizer filling system. It should be resistant to structural deformations in order to guarantee successful supply of a cryogenic oxidizer and high pressure gases without reduction of sealing capability. The MCU consists of many components and linkages and operates under harsh conditions induced by a cryogenic oxidizer, high pressure gases and other mechanical forces. Thus, the evaluation of structural deformation of the MCU considering complex conditions is expensive and time consuming. The present study efficiently evaluates the structural deformations of the key components of the MCU by Thermo-mechanical simulation (TMS) based on the superposition principle. Deformations due to the mechanical loadings including weights, pressures, and spring forces are firstly evaluated by using a non-linear flexible body simulation module (FFlex) of Multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, RecurDyn. Then, thermal deformations for the deformed geometries obtained by RecurDyn were subsequently calculated. It was conducted by using a Finite element (FE) analysis software, ANSYS. The total deformations for the onboard plate and multi-channel plate in the connecting section due to the mechanical and thermal loadings were successfully evaluated. Moreover, the outer gaps at six points between two plates were calculated and verified by comparison to the measured data. Their values and tendencies showed a good agreement. The author concluded that the TMS using MBD software considering flexible bodies and an FE simulator can efficiently evaluate structural deformations of the MCU operating under the complex load and boundary conditions.

  19. 基于微型开发板的单片机教学模式探索%Exploration of MCU Teaching Based on Development Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守峰

    2014-01-01

    The problems are analyzed about training room construction ,equipment operation and maintenance .They can be effectively solved by using MCU development board and Proteus simulation software during teaching .This can improve MCU learning effect .The student and dorm classmates can study together with laptop and MCU development board in spare time .This can raised autonomous learning and team cooperation ability ,improve the effect of the microcontroller learning .%针对单片机教学中实训室建设、实验设备使用和维护方面存在的问题,开发了运用单片机开发板和Proteus仿真软件代替综合实验板。它可有效解决目前单片机教学中存在的许多问题。教学中以小组为单位,以项目为载体,采用理实一体化教学模式;课余时间结合个人笔记本电脑和单片机开发板学习。既培养了自主学习和团队合作能力,又提高了单片机学习效果。

  20. Expression of mRNA Encoding Mcu and Other Mitochondrial Calcium Regulatory Genes Depends on Cell Type, Neuronal Subtype, and Ca2+ Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márkus, Nóra M; Hasel, Philip; Qiu, Jing; Bell, Karen F S; Heron, Samuel; Kind, Peter C; Dando, Owen; Simpson, T Ian; Hardingham, Giles E

    2016-01-01

    Uptake of Ca2+ into the mitochondrial matrix controls cellular metabolism and survival-death pathways. Several genes are implicated in controlling mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake (mitochondrial calcium regulatory genes, MCRGs), however, less is known about the factors which influence their expression level. Here we have compared MCRG mRNA expression, in neural cells of differing type (cortical neurons vs. astrocytes), differing neuronal subtype (CA3 vs. CA1 hippocampus) and in response to Ca2+ influx, using a combination of qPCR and RNA-seq analysis. Of note, we find that the Mcu-regulating Micu gene family profile differs substantially between neurons and astrocytes, while expression of Mcu itself is markedly different between CA3 and CA1 regions in the adult hippocampus. Moreover, dynamic control of MCRG mRNA expression in response to membrane depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx is also apparent, resulting in repression of Letm1, as well as Mcu. Thus, the mRNA expression profile of MCRGs is not fixed, which may cause differences in the coupling between cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca2+, as well as diversity of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake mechanisms.

  1. Expression of mRNA Encoding Mcu and Other Mitochondrial Calcium Regulatory Genes Depends on Cell Type, Neuronal Subtype, and Ca2+ Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra M Márkus

    Full Text Available Uptake of Ca2+ into the mitochondrial matrix controls cellular metabolism and survival-death pathways. Several genes are implicated in controlling mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake (mitochondrial calcium regulatory genes, MCRGs, however, less is known about the factors which influence their expression level. Here we have compared MCRG mRNA expression, in neural cells of differing type (cortical neurons vs. astrocytes, differing neuronal subtype (CA3 vs. CA1 hippocampus and in response to Ca2+ influx, using a combination of qPCR and RNA-seq analysis. Of note, we find that the Mcu-regulating Micu gene family profile differs substantially between neurons and astrocytes, while expression of Mcu itself is markedly different between CA3 and CA1 regions in the adult hippocampus. Moreover, dynamic control of MCRG mRNA expression in response to membrane depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx is also apparent, resulting in repression of Letm1, as well as Mcu. Thus, the mRNA expression profile of MCRGs is not fixed, which may cause differences in the coupling between cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca2+, as well as diversity of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake mechanisms.

  2. The Ca(2+)-Dependent Release of the Mia40-Induced MICU1-MICU2 Dimer from MCU Regulates Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrungaro, Carmelina; Zimmermann, Katharina M; Küttner, Victoria; Fischer, Manuel; Dengjel, Jörn; Bogeski, Ivan; Riemer, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The essential oxidoreductase Mia40/CHCHD4 mediates disulfide bond formation and protein folding in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Here, we investigated the interactome of Mia40 thereby revealing links between thiol-oxidation and apoptosis, energy metabolism, and Ca(2+) signaling. Among the interaction partners of Mia40 is MICU1-the regulator of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), which transfers Ca(2+) across the inner membrane. We examined the biogenesis of MICU1 and find that Mia40 introduces an intermolecular disulfide bond that links MICU1 and its inhibitory paralog MICU2 in a heterodimer. Absence of this disulfide bond results in increased receptor-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. In the presence of the disulfide bond, MICU1-MICU2 heterodimer binding to MCU is controlled by Ca(2+) levels: the dimer associates with MCU at low levels of Ca(2+) and dissociates upon high Ca(2+) concentrations. Our findings support a model in which mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is regulated by a Ca(2+)-dependent remodeling of the uniporter complex.

  3. 基于MCUIP核的SPI接口ASIC设计及实现%ASIC design and implementation of SPI interface of MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟禄; 施隆照

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了SPI接口的工作原理,详细阐述了该接口工作于主机、从机时各种工作方式下的设计要点、设计思路以及验证过程和结果。用VerilogHDL的可综合语法实现SPI功能描述,用ModelSim进行功能仿真来保证符合设计要求。将SPI模块嵌入到单片机(MCU)中并下载到Xilinx公司的FPGA板VIRTEX-IIPRO系列的xc2vp30-ff89上,利用外围电路与具有SPI接口的PIC单片机、STC单片机与FLASH存储器进行各种模式下的通信测试。硬件验证结果表明所设计MCU的SPI接口虽然在具体实现方式上与其他器件可能有所差异,但是完全符合SPI协议。另外,本文介绍了基于MCU的SOC系统采用基于标准单元的方法进行ASIC设计的流程和结果以及用Design compiler单独对SPI模块综合的结果。%This paper firstly introduces the basic principle of SPI interface of MCU , then presents the designdifficulties, design idea and the process and results of verification of it in detail. Hardware description language verilog was used to describe SPI interface of MCU using the synthesizable syntax part and modelsim was used as the function simulation tool to ensure SPI interface designed meet the requirement. And it communicates with PIC microcontrollers, STC microcontrollers and flash memory chips all of which have SPI interface by downloading the whole MCU system with SPI interface into Xilinx' s FPGA device xc2vp30-ff89 of VIRTEX-II PRO series and using peripheral circuits. Hardware verification shown that the SPI interface of MCU IP core we design is in accordance with SPI protocol, although maybe it is different from others SPI devices in the concrete implementations of them. In addition, the paper presents the ASIC design flow and results of soc system based on MCU using method of standard cells and the synthesis results of SPI module using Design compiler.

  4. Wearable Medical Devices' MCU Selection Analysis Based on the ARM Cortex-M0+ Architecture%基于ARM Cortex-M0+内核的穿戴式医疗设备MCU选型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴灶全; 刘梦星; 秦丽平; 叶树明; 陈杭

    2015-01-01

    According to the characteristics of low cost, high performance, high integration and long battery life of wearable medical devices, the mainstream low-power microcontroler(MCU) series were compared, and came to the conclusion that the MCU series based on ARM Cortex-M0+ architecture were suitable for the development of wearable medical devices. In aspects of power consumption, operational performance, integrated peripherals and cost, the MCU series based on Cortex-M0+ architecture of primary semiconductor companies were compared, aimed at providing the guides of MCU selection for wearable medical devices.%根据穿戴式医疗设备低成本、高性能、高集成度和续航时间长的特点,对比了当前主流的低功耗微控制器(MCU)系列,分析得出ARM? Cortex M0+内核的MCU系列适合该领域的产品开发.在功耗水平、运算性能、外设集成和产品成本等方面,进一步将各大半导体公司基于Cortex M0+内核的MCU系列展开参数对比,为穿戴式医疗设备的MCU选型提供指南.

  5. Evaluation of Contraceptive Effects of Inserting New Type Intrauterine Devices Including Gynefix, MCu and TCu220 Immediately after Induced Abortion%人工流产术后即时放置GyneFix IUD、MCu IUD和TCu220 IUD避孕效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼芝英; 乐园罗

    2007-01-01

    目的:评价新型宫内节育器(IUD)GyneFix IUD和MCu IUD及传统节育器TCu220 IUD的避孕效果.方法:以人工流产术后志愿放置IUD的690例为对象,随机分为3组,分别于人工流产术后即时放置Gyne Fix IUD、MCu IUD和TCu220 IUD. 结果:GyneFix IUD,MCu IUD和TCu220 IUD使用12个月带器妊娠率分别为0.48%、0.85%、3.75%,脱落率分别为0.93%、0.85%、2.92%,因症取出率分别为2.80%、3.81%、6.25%,续用率分别为95.80%,94.49%,87.08%,放置IUD后月经异常发生率分别为8.88 % 、5.93% 、12.5 %. 结论:GyneFix IUD、MCu IUD和TCu220 IUD避孕效果均较理想,但TCu220 IUD可能是放置型号不易掌握,带器妊娠、脱落、月经异常发生率较两种新型IUD高.

  6. 基于单片机的水温控制系统%Temperature Control System based on MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺廉云

    2015-01-01

    系统采用数字式DS18B20作为温度传感器,由单片机电路、温度采集电路、键盘电路、LED显示电路等构成系统的硬件部分,并给出了软件系统框图,可通过软件编程实现控制算法。单片机通过温度传感器对水温进行检测与预警,进而实现对水温的控制。该系统集数据采集、显示、控制、处理于一体。系统简易实用,可靠性强,拓展方便。%This system uses the digital temperature sensor DS18B20 as a temperature sensor, and the system hardware is composed of MCU circuit, temperature measurement circuit, keyboard circuit, LED display circuit.Based on the aboved, the software system block diagram is also given, and control algorithm can be realized through software programming.SCM system could detect and warn the water temperature by the temperature sensor so as to realize the temperature control.The system is a set of application equipment with integration of data collection, display, control, processing.The system is sim-ple and practical, reliability and easy to expand.

  7. Design and implementation of HBD3 coder/decoder based on MCU%基于单片机的HDB3编/译码器的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林战平

    2013-01-01

    介绍了一种基于单片机的HDB3编/译码器的设计.以常用的51系列单片机为核心,结合外围电路,实现了HDB3编/译码器的功能.在单片机应用系统之间的数字基带通信中,具有一定的应用前景.%This paper introduced a design of HDB3 coder/decoder based on MCU.Frequently-used 51 MCU as core,combine peripheral circuit,achieve the function of HDB3 coder/decoder.It has certain application prospect in digital baseband communication between MCU application systems.

  8. Design and realization of digital audio equalizer based on MCU and FPAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Ping; Liu Zhuo; Xia Liang

    2008-01-01

    In analog audio equalizer, the filters are constructed by op-amplifiers and discrete components. Being influenced by its discrete capabilities, audio equalizer has many disadvantages. Meanwhile, pure digital audio equalizer has got better performance and stability, but its cost and price are too high. So digital audio equalizer only has its application in upscale domain. A new design method for audio equalizer is proposed, which attempts to design and realize a high precision and high SNR (signal noise ratio) digital audio equalizer system based on field programmable analog array (FPAA) and micro-controller unit. This design confirms that design speed and performance will be greatly enhanced when FPAA technology is applied to analog design domain.

  9. Patients' experiences of receiving chemotherapy in outpatient clinic and/or onboard a unique nurse-led mobile chemotherapy unit: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T

    2013-07-01

    There is a drive in the UK to revise chemotherapy provision for people living in rural communities. Using a different model of treatment delivery might impact positively upon the experience of receiving chemotherapy. In 2007 the first nurse-led mobile chemotherapy unit (MCU) in the UK was launched in the South West of England with the intention of providing treatment closer to home. The aim of the research was to explore experiences of people with cancer who received chemotherapy treatment in outpatient clinic and/or onboard the MCU using an interpretive phenomenological approach. Interviews were conducted with 20 people and data were interpreted using thematic analysis. The cancer and chemotherapy journey was described as being undertaken by the participant and their significant other. Available car parking and travelling impacted upon quality of life, as did the environment and accessibility of nurses to discuss issues with participants. The most important, distinguishing feature between receiving chemotherapy in outpatient clinic and the MCU was the amount of time spent waiting. Having treatment on the MCU was perceived to be less formal and therefore less stressful. Participants reported significant savings in time spent travelling, waiting and having treatment, expenditure on fuel and companion costs.

  10. Increase in 4-coumaryl alcohol units during lignification in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) alters the extractability and molecular weight of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebell, Angela; Gracom, Kristen; Katahira, Rui; Chen, Fang; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Art; Dixon, Richard A; Davis, Mark

    2010-12-10

    The lignin content of biomass can impact the ease and cost of biomass processing. Lignin reduction through breeding and genetic modification therefore has potential to reduce costs in biomass-processing industries (e.g. pulp and paper, forage, and lignocellulosic ethanol). We investigated compositional changes in two low-lignin alfalfa (Medicago sativa) lines with antisense down-regulation of p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT). We investigated whether the difference in reactivity during lignification of 4-coumaryl alcohol (H) monomers versus the naturally dominant sinapyl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol lignin monomers alters the lignin structure. Sequential base extraction readily reduced the H monomer content of the transgenic lines, leaving a residual lignin greatly enriched in H subunits; the extraction profile highlighted the difference between the control and transgenic lines. Gel permeation chromatography of isolated ball-milled lignin indicated significant changes in the weight average molecular weight distribution of the control versus transgenic lines (CTR1a, 6000; C3H4a, 5500; C3H9a, 4000; and HCT30a, 4000).

  11. Increase in 4-Coumaryl Alcohol Units during Lignification in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Alters the Extractability and Molecular Weight of Lignin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebell, Angela; Gracom, Kristen; Katahira, Rui; Chen, Fang; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Art; Dixon, Richard A.; Davis, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The lignin content of biomass can impact the ease and cost of biomass processing. Lignin reduction through breeding and genetic modification therefore has potential to reduce costs in biomass-processing industries (e.g. pulp and paper, forage, and lignocellulosic ethanol). We investigated compositional changes in two low-lignin alfalfa (Medicago sativa) lines with antisense down-regulation of p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT). We investigated whether the difference in reactivity during lignification of 4-coumaryl alcohol (H) monomers versus the naturally dominant sinapyl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol lignin monomers alters the lignin structure. Sequential base extraction readily reduced the H monomer content of the transgenic lines, leaving a residual lignin greatly enriched in H subunits; the extraction profile highlighted the difference between the control and transgenic lines. Gel permeation chromatography of isolated ball-milled lignin indicated significant changes in the weight average molecular weight distribution of the control versus transgenic lines (CTR1a, 6000; C3H4a, 5500; C3H9a, 4000; and HCT30a, 4000). PMID:20921228

  12. Connection of PS/2 Standard Keyboard and MCU%PS/2标准键盘与单片机的连接

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬法磊; 李晓阳; 尘源

    2012-01-01

    分析了PS/2标准键盘的通信协议,阐述了其编码的扫描原理,提出了51单片机与PS/2键盘的接口设计,并通过LCD1602显示了键盘的输入情况。%This paper analyzes the communication protocol of PS/2 standard keyboard and describes the encoding of the scanning principle.Besides,the paper also introduces the interface design of 51 MCU and PS/2 keyboard and displays how the keyboard inputs by using 1602 LCD.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING SUPPRESSOR CONCENTRATION IN THE MCU NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT (NGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Diprete, D.; Milliken, C.

    2013-07-31

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with identifying and developing at least one, but preferably two methods for quantifying the suppressor in the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) system. The suppressor is a guanidine derivative, N,N',N"-tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). A list of 10 possible methods was generated, and screening experiments were performed for 8 of the 10 methods. After completion of the screening experiments, the non-aqueous acid-base titration was determined to be the most promising, and was selected for further development as the primary method. {sup 1}H NMR also showed promising results from the screening experiments, and this method was selected for further development as the secondary method. Other methods, including {sup 36}Cl radiocounting and ion chromatography, also showed promise; however, due to the similarity to the primary method (titration) and the inability to differentiate between TiDG and TOA (tri-n-ocytlamine) in the blended solvent, {sup 1}H NMR was selected over these methods. Analysis of radioactive samples obtained from real waste ESS (extraction, scrub, strip) testing using the titration method showed good results. Based on these results, the titration method was selected as the method of choice for TiDG measurement. {sup 1}H NMR has been selected as the secondary (back-up) method, and additional work is planned to further develop this method and to verify the method using radioactive samples. Procedures for analyzing radioactive samples of both pure NGS and blended solvent were developed and issued for the both methods.

  14. Quantification of Art v 1 and Act c 1 being major allergens of mugwort pollen and kiwi fruit extracts in mass-units by ion-exchange HPLC-UV method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanusa, Milan; Perovic, Iva; Popovic, Milica; Polovic, Natalija; Burazer, Lidija; Milovanovic, Mina; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija; Jankov, Ratko; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

    2007-10-01

    A simple ion-exchange HPLC-UV method was developed for determination of major allergens from mugwort pollen and kiwi fruit extracts in mass-units. The separation of Art v 1 and Act c 1 from other components in the extracts was achieved in one step. The extinction coefficients used in the study were theoretically determined and compared to the extinction coefficients determined by gravimetry. We also reported a close correlation of the major allergen contents with the overall allergenic potency of the extracts determined by inhibition ELISA. This method could be a useful tool for standardization of allergenic extracts for clinical use.

  15. Design of an MCU-controlled laser liquid turbidimeter based on OPT101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Huiying

    2009-11-01

    With the rapid development of industry, accurate detection of liquid turbidity has attracted more and more attention, and been widely applied to many industries. According to the Mie scattering and the Rayleigh scattering law, this paper presents a novel design of laser liquid turbidimeter which uses the method of determining the turbidity by means of detecting the 90° scattered light. The entire detection system mainly consists of a 650nm red laser source, a light receiver (OPT101) and photoelectric conversion devices, an A/D converter, a data processing and controlling unit, a screen display device (LCD) and a power supply module. This turbidimeter is proved to be an intelligent instrument, which makes the process of measuring greatly simplified by displaying the result of turbidity in a digital form directly. It operates normally at a temperature range from 0 oC to 50 oC . From 0 NTU to 1000 NTU, the measuring ranges can be adjusted in accordance with the situation of samples automatically, and a single measurement takes about 1.608 ms. A high precision of 0.001 NTU is realized in our experiments. After repeated measurements, an average error of +/-2.2% is obtained, and the repeatability is less than 1%. Moreover, two measuring modes are provided, one can store and view the measuring records repeatedly, while the other can be used for batch testing with an additional alarm device. This turbidimeter possesses a good practicality either in laboratory measurement or in industrial and environmental inspection.

  16. 基于 MCU 的太阳能最大功率跟踪系统设计%System design of solar maximum power point tracking based on MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马帅旗; 王柯; 李计谋

    2013-01-01

    为了提高太阳能电池板的输出功率,以Freescale Kinetis MK60 DN512 ZVLQ10(内核ARM Cortex-M4)单片机为核心控制器,设计了一套太阳能最大功率跟踪系统。通过九轴姿态传感器( L3 G4200 D+ADXL345+HMC5883 L)测量到电池板的旋转姿态,利用卡尔曼滤波融合算法估计光敏传感器和太阳轨迹法计算获得的方位角和高度信息,通过双轴云台驱动电池板,使电池板工作于最大功率点附近。利用VB软件编写上位机软件,实现与单片机之间无线通信功能,完成系统状态监控和数据记录功能。实验结果表明,该设计能有效提高太阳能电池板的输出功率,具有一定的实用价值。%In order to improve the output power of the solar battery board , the MPPT system was de-signed using Freescale Kinetis MK60DN512ZVLQ10 (kernel ARM Cortex-M4) as controller.The nine axis attitude sensor ( L3 G4200 D+ADXL345+HMC5883 L) was used in measure rotation attitude , and Kalman fu-sion algorithms was used to estimation azimuth and elevation according to results of photosensitive sensor and calculation.PV cell was driven by 2-DOF pan-tilt, which makes PV cell work around the maximum power point .PC can communicate with MCU through wireless module , and can monitor and record PV cell .Experi-ments show that the maximum power tracking algorithm can effectively increase the output power of the PV cell, also it has some practical value .

  17. Massively Parallel Signal Processing using the Graphics Processing Unit for Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J Adam; Williams, Justin C

    2009-01-01

    The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past 5 years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card [graphics processing unit (GPU)] was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI). The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter), followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a central processing unit-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels of 250 ms in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  18. Application of follicular unit extraction in male hair loss%毛囊单位移植术在男性脱发种植中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莉娜; 周同葵; 巩梦童; 谢松梅; 刘晓峰

    2016-01-01

    Aabstract:Objective To explore the clinical effectiveness of follicular unit extraction ( FUE)from the occipital hair follicle to treat male hair loss .Methods Hair transplantation was performed in hair loss areas using FUE , where the rate of follicle damage was greatly reduced but the survival rate of transplanted hair was improved .Results All pa-tients were satisfied with the effectiveness of FUE .They were follow-up visited for 12 months, with good hair growth . The scar in donor areas was not obvious , while no obvious change was seen in hair density .Conclusion FUE is an ideal approach for treatment of male hair loss .%目的:探讨后枕部提取毛囊单位移植物( follicular unit extraction ,FUE)移植术治疗男性型脱发的临床效果。方法采用FUE技术提取毛囊进行脱发区的移植。降低毛囊的损伤率,提高移植毛发的成活率。结果本组16例患者,应用FUE无痕毛发移植术均一次性达到满意效果,术后随访12个月,所有患者的毛发生长良好、自然。供区瘢痕不明显,毛发密度无明显稀少,头发覆盖好。结论 FUE无痕植发技术是治疗男性型脱发的一种理想的方法。

  19. 供热机组抽汽减温方式优化设计%Optimization Design of Desuperheating for the Extraction Steam of Heat Supply Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天情; 黄军军; 徐传海

    2015-01-01

    某350 MW热电联产机组的低压工业抽汽需经过减温后后才能送往热用户,本文比较了两种减温方式对机组热经济性的影响:一种为直接喷入凝结水减温,另一种为通往蒸汽冷却器加热部分给水后实现减温。通过计算分析,设置蒸汽冷却器后可以降低发电标煤耗,每年可节省费用约43.76万元。%The low industrial extraction steam of a 350MW cogeneration unit should be desuperheated before being sent to heat users. Two methods of desuperheating were compared on thermal economy in this paper:one is injecting the condensate water directly, the other is shunting part of the extraction steam to a new steam cooler in order to heat part of the boiler feed water. The analysis results shows that the second method will reduce the standard coal consumption and save about RMB437,600 every year.

  20. ControI Syste m for Air Purifier Based on AVR MCU%基于 AVR 单片机的空气净化器控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜建国; 田金艳; 安昊盈

    2015-01-01

    The AVR MCU-based control system for the indoor air purifier was designed,and its hardware and software design was expounded.%以 AVR 单片机为控制器,设计室内空气净化器控制系统,详述了硬件和软件部分的设计。

  1. SALTSTONE VAULT CLASSIFICATION SAMPLES MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT/ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS WASTE STREAM APRIL 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.

    2011-09-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B&W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most of the

  2. An Investigation of Collisions between Fiber Positioning Units in LAMOST

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiao-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The arrangement of the fiber positioning units in LAMOST focal plane may lead to the collisions during the fiber allocation. To avoid these collisions, the soft protection system has to abandon some targets located in the overlapped field of the adjacent fiber units. In this paper, we firstly analyzed the probability of the collisions between fibers and inferred their possible reasons. It is useful to solve the problem of the fiber-positioning units collisions so as to improve LAMOST efficiency. Based on it, a collision handling system is designed by using the master-slave control structure between the micro control unit (MCU) and the microcomputer. The simulated experiments validate that the system can provide real-time inspection and swap the information between the fiber unit controllers and the main controller.

  3. Asynchronous Pipeline Micro—Control—Unit (MCU) Chip Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUQian; XUKe; MINHao

    2003-01-01

    The work of this paper includes a researchon asynch ronous design methodology, and a design and implementation of an asynchronous 8-Bit micro-control-unit (MCU). This paper introduces a new application of New-Instruction-Fetching method to detect new instruc-tion which makes this chip fit for demand changeable sys-tem. The instruction set of this asynchronous MCU is compatible with PIC16C6X (Sicrochip Technology Inc).This paper also introduces a new architecture of pipeline,which increases the average speed of chip operation. The asynchronous low power MCU has been fabricated with CSMC (central semiconductor manufacturing corporation)0.6μm CMOS process in Aug 2001. The chip size is about 1.60mm*2.00mm (without taking account of PAD size).Now the test work has been accomplished and the test-ing result of this chip is also presented. The testing result shows that the asynchronous architecture could fulfill all the expected functions, additionally with higher processs peed and lower power consumption than its synchronous counterpart under the same supply voltage.

  4. Thermal And Spectroscopic Analyses Of Next Generation Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Contacted With 3, 8, And 16 Molar Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Fink, S. D.

    2011-12-07

    A new solvent system referred to as Next Generation Solvent or NGS, has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the removal of cesium from alkaline solutions in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process. The NGS is proposed for deployment at MCU{sup a} and at the Salt Waste Processing Facility. This work investigated the chemical compatibility between NGS and 16 M, 8 M, and 3 M nitric acid from contact that may occur in handling of analytical samples from MCU or, for 3 M acid, which may occur during contactor cleaning operations at MCU. This work shows that reactions occurred between NGS components and the high molarity nitric acid. Reaction rates are much faster in 8 M and 16 M nitric acid than in 3 M nitric acid. In the case of 16 M and 8 M nitric acid, the nitric acid reacts with the extractant to produce initially organo-nitrate species. The reaction also releases soluble fluorinated alcohols such as tetrafluoropropanol. With longer contact time, the modifier reacts to produce a tarry substance with evolved gases (NO{sub x} and possibly CO). Calorimetric analysis of the reaction product mixtures revealed that the organo-nitrates reaction products are not explosive and will not deflagrate.

  5. 基于PIC单片机的直流无刷电机驱动控制器%Brushless DC Motor Controller Based on PIC MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕仲军; 刘泽潮

    2014-01-01

    介绍了一种基于PIC18Fxx单片机的直流无刷电机的控制器;实现了电机的过流保护、欠压保护、PWM调速和速度闭环控制;设计了主要的硬件电路;并给出了部分软件流程图。通过实验与仿真验证了系统的可靠性与稳定性。%This paper introduces a brushless DC motor controller based on the PIC 18Fxx MCU.The Motor Hall signal acquisition , overcurrent protection , undervoltage protection , PWM speed control and speed closed-loop control are realized .The main hardware circuit and the flowchart of software are designed .The reliability and stability of the system is verified by experiment and simulation .

  6. Experimental investigation of neutronic characteristics of the IR-8 reactor to confirm the results of calculations by MCU-PTR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surkov, A. V., E-mail: surkov.andrew@gmail.com; Kochkin, V. N.; Pesnya, Yu. E.; Nasonov, V. A.; Vihrov, V. I.; Erak, D. Yu. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A comparison of measured and calculated neutronic characteristics (fast neutron flux and fission rate of {sup 235}U) in the core and reflector of the IR-8 reactor is presented. The irradiation devices equipped with neutron activation detectors were prepared. The determination of fast neutron flux was performed using the {sup 54}Fe (n, p) and {sup 58}Ni (n, p) reactions. The {sup 235}U fission rate was measured using uranium dioxide with 10% enrichment in {sup 235}U. The determination of specific activities of detectors was carried out by measuring the intensity of characteristic gamma peaks using the ORTEC gamma spectrometer. Neutron fields in the core and reflector of the IR-8 reactor were calculated using the MCU-PTR code.

  7. Semiconductor plasmon induced upconversion enhancement in mCu2-xS@SiO2@Y2O3:Yb(3+),Er(3+) core-shell nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Donglei; Li, Dongyu; Zhou, Xiangyu; Xu, Wen; Chen, Xu; Liu, Dali; Zhu, Yongsheng; Song, Hongwei

    2017-09-18

    The ability to modulate the intensity of electromagnetic field by semiconductor plasmon nanoparticles is becoming attractive owing to its unique doping induced local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect different from metals. Herein, we synthesized the mCu2-xS@SiO2@Y2O3:Yb(3+),Er(3+) core-shell composites and experimentally and theoretically studied the semiconductor plasmon induced upconversion (UC) enhancement, and obtained 30 folds UC enhancement compared to that of SiO2@Y2O3:Yb(3+),Er(3+) composites. The UC enhancement was induced by the synthetic effect: amplification of excitation field and the increase of resonance energy transfer (ET) rate from Yb(3+) ions to Er(3+) ions. The experimental results were analyzed in the light of FDTD calculations confirming the effect of amplification of excitation field. In addition, UCL spectra, UC enhancement and dynamics dependent on concentration (Yb(3+)/Er(3+) ions) were investigated and found that the resonance energy transfer (ET) rate from Yb(3+) ions to Er(3+) ions increased ~25% in the effect of LSPR waves. Finally, power dependence of fingerprint identification was successfully performed based on the mCu2-xS@SiO2@Y2O3:Yb(3+),Er(3+) core-shell composites, the color of which can change from green to orange with excitation power increasing. Our work opens up a new concept to design and fabricate the upconversion core-shell structure based on semiconductor plasmon nanoparticles (NPs) and provides applications for upconversion nanocrystals (UCNPs) and semiconductor plasmon NPs in photonics.

  8. 基于PIC18F455O的环境监测数据采集系统设计%Design of A USB Data Acquisition System for Environment Monitoring Based on PIC18F4550 MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡刚; 刘建鑫; 郭炜

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a USB data acquisition system based on PIC18F4550 MCU and USB-HID Class, and describes an application of it. Related Circuits, MCU firmware and PC program are also introduced in detail. This system is characterized with practicability, inexpensiveness and rapidity of developing period.%介绍了基于PIC18F4550单片机和USB-HID类的数据采集系统,并列举了该系统在环保分析仪器中的应用实例.详细介绍了相关的电路设计、单片机固件程序和上位机程序的开发流程.该方案具有实用性强,成本低廉,开发周期短等特点.

  9. Master-slave Communication Between S7-200 PLC and MCU Based on Modbus Protocol%基于Modbus协议的S7-200系列PLC与单片机主从通信研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 吴小平

    2012-01-01

    介绍了Modbus协议主从网络结构,提出了使用Modbus协议主站库指令的S7-200系列PLC与单片机串行通信的方法,描述了单片机采用串口接收和定时中断传递消息帧的设计方案,给出了从站通信程序流程图.%This paper introduced master-slave network structure of Modbus protocol. It proposed the method of serial communication between S7-200 PLC based on Modbus Protocol master-station library instruction and MCU, described the design project that MCU transmit message frame using serial port receive and timer interrupter, and gave the program flow chart of slave-station.

  10. Design and Realization of Three Uplink HD Video Conferencing System Based on MCU%MCU级联的省—市—县三级高清视频会议系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张常亮; 马渝勇; 刘一谦; 谭红宾

    2012-01-01

    Combined with practical experience, in this paper, the design and realization of HD video conferencing system in Sichuan province are introduced. How the MCU cascade is used to construct HD video conferencing system is then illustrated. Besides, the key technologies of HD video conferencing system arc studied. Among these technologies, the HD signal interface and MCU cascade method are mainly expounded.%结合实际经验,介绍了四川气象高清视频会议系统的设计和实现过程.重点阐述了如何使用MCU级联构建省—市—县三级高清视频会议系统,并对高清视频会议系统关键技术进行了研究和分析,详细介绍了高清信号接口和MCU级联的具体方法.

  11. KEYBOARD DESIGNING AND PROGRAMMING BASED ON M68HC08 SERIAL MCU%基于M68HC08系列单片机的键盘设计与编程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宜怀; 王林; 张志平

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the programming method of keyboard interrupt module for Motorola M68HC08 serial MCU is discussed. A design example about keyboard interface circuit based on MC68HC908GP32 MCU is given, and keyboard identification, the definition value of key, keyboard interrupt programming method are discussed.%讨论Motorola的新一代单片机M68HC08系列的键盘中断模块的编程方法,给出了一个基于MC68HC08GP32单片机的键盘接口电路设计实例,讨论了键的识别、键值定义、键盘中断等功能子程序的编制方法。

  12. Clinical application of implantological surgical unit in broken root extraction%牙种植机在断根拔除术中的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冶

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of clinical application of implantological surgical unit in broken root extraction. Methods 56 cases of broken root in clinical tooth extraction were collected in the department of dentistry in affiliated Hanyang hospital of Wuhan University Of Science and Technology from October 2009 to December 2011,then they were randomly and equally divided into two groups:traditional extraction group and implantological surgical unit-assisted extraction group.Operative time and postoperative wound pain on the 3rd day were compared. Results Broken root was pulled out in 16 of 28 cases in tranditional group.the other 12 cases adopted implantological surgical unit instead because of operational difficuities.All broken roots were pulled out in implantoiogical surgical unit group.The operation time of implantological surgical unit group was shorter compared with tranditional group (P<0.01).The pain level of implantological surgical unit group was obviously lighter than tranditional group (P<0.01). Conclusion Application of implantological surgical unit in broken root extraction is characterized by shorter operative duration , definite effect,minimal-invasion and less complications,which deserves popularization for its advantages.%目的:评估牙种植机在断根拔除术的临床应用效果.方法:收集2009年10月~ 2011年12月在武汉科技大学附属汉阳医院口腔科门诊拔牙中断根的患者56例,分成两组.分别采用传统拔除法和牙种植机辅助断根拔除法,比较手术时间及术后3天创口疼痛程度.结果:传统组28例拔除16例,另12例因操作困难改种植机法全部拔除,归为中转组;种植机组28例全部拔除.手术时间种植机组明显短于传统组(P<0.01),疼痛程度种植机组明显轻于传统组(P<0.01).结论:牙种植机应用于断根拔除术具有手术时间短、效果确切、创伤小、并发症少的优点,值得推广.

  13. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter MCU and regulator MICU1%线粒体钙离子单向转运蛋白MCU及调节蛋白MICU1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓强; 计惠民

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake plays an important role in energy production, cell division and death. However, its mechanism was poorly understood. Recently, mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1) have been identified in several researches. Both proteins are located in the mitochondria! inner membrane and involved calcium uptake. MCU has two transmembrane domains and shows channel activity, which is sensitive to ruthenium-red. MICUI has two canonical EF hands that are essential for calcium sensing, and may be a regulator of MCU. These progresses are beneficial for the understanding mitochondrial Ca2* homeostasis and the treatment of mitochondrion related diseases.%线粒体钙离子摄入对能量生成、细胞分裂和死亡均具有十分重要的作用,但对该过程的机制却知之甚少.最近研究鉴定出线粒体钙离子单向转运蛋白(MCU,mitochondrial calcium uniporter)和线粒体钙离子摄入蛋白1(MICU1,mitochondrial calcium uptake 1),这两种蛋白都定位于线粒体内膜,均参与钙离子摄入.MCU拥有两个跨膜结构域,显示出钙离子通道活性并对钌红敏感,而MICU1具有两个典型的EF手形结构域,该结构可感知钙离子的变化,可能作为MCU调节蛋白发挥作用.这些研究进展对线粒体内稳态的理解和线粒体相关疾病的治疗具有重要意义.

  14. EtherCAT协议芯片与单片机通信系统的研究%The research of communication system based EtherCAT and MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康存锋; 杜斐斐; 马春敏; 黄旭东; 费仁元

    2011-01-01

    EtherCAT是基于标准的以太网技术,具有灵活的网络拓扑结构,系统配置简单,具有高速、高有效数据率等特点,其有效数据率可达90%以上.PIC系列单片机和EtherCAT协议芯片通过SPI串行通信方式进行连接,实现基于EtherCAT协议通信系统的基本通信功能,解决了传统以太网的介质访问控制方式不能满足工业现场实时性要求的问题.系统测试实验表明,系统通信准确,运行稳定,而且通过分析系统通信过程中的报文可知,系统的通信完全符合EthercAT 协议的要求.%EtherCAT based measured Ethernet technology has flexible framework of topology of network, simple of configure of system, and it has character of high speed and percentage of available date, which can reach ninety percent. It has solved problem of real time of Ethernet. The PIC series MCU was selected to communicated with EtherCAT by SPI connection. The result of experiment show that exact communication and stably system.

  15. Design of queuing management system based on STC MCU%基于STC单片机的排队管理系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武一; 高超

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the Service quality and work efficiency,to solve the dry and disordered queue problem,the system simulated the artificial process of calling number,using STC89C52 MCU control printer,LCD and voice chip to achieve the work that print,storage,display and broadcast line number.Furthermore,using MAX485 to extend RS-485 bus interface,that can achieve distributed serial communication.The system can meet the needs of casual queue and has many characteristics,such as low cost,small space occupation and better prospect.%为改善营业窗口的服务质量和工作效率,解决枯燥无序的排队问题,采用STC89C52单片机控制语音芯片、打印机、LCD显示屏来模拟人工叫号过程,完成号码的打印、存储、显示及播报工作;采用MAX485扩展RS-485总线接口,实现分布式串行通信。该系统能满足简单的排队需求,具有开发成本低,占用空间小等优点,有较好的市场应用前景。

  16. Structure and Redox Properties of VCe0.95M0.05 (M=Cu, Co, Mn, Fe and Cr) Mixed Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟依均; 罗孟飞

    2002-01-01

    The mixed oxides, VCe and VCe0.95M0.05 (M=Cu, Co, Mn, Fe and Cr), we re prepared by sol-gel method. The structure and redox properties of these mixe d oxides were characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS and TPR techniques. The main phas e is tetragonal VCeO4 phase in all samples. The substitution of Fe, Mn, Cu or Co for Ce results in the formation of CeO2 or monoclinic VCeO4 phase. The XP S result indicates that valence of V is +5+δ(δ<1) in VCe0.95Co0 .05, VCe0.95Mn0.05, VCe0.95Cr0.05 and VCe0.95Fe 0.05 samples compared with VCe , on the contrary, valence of V is +5-δ (δ<1) in VCe0.95Cu0.05 sample. The Fe, Co, Cr and Mn enhanc e the reduction of V5+ in VCeO4, whereas Cu inhibits this reduction.

  17. Hyperpolarizabilities of Chelidamic Acid Complexes M_m(C_7H_3O_5N)_n (M=Cu, Ag): Theoretical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG, Xin; ZHOU, Guowei; TAN, Kai; GUO, Guocong; LIN, Menghai; ZHANG, Qianer

    2009-01-01

    The frequency-dependent hyperpolarizabilities of cbelidamic acid complexes M_m(C_7H_3O_5N)n (M=Cu, Ag) were investigated under the time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) combined with the sum-over-states method (SOS). The relationship between molecular orbitals and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties has been explored. The results show that the charge transitions of π-π~* and 3d_M-π~* are very important to the second-order polarizabilities, and the largest component of dynamic β is 3.84×10~(-25) cm~5·esu~(-1) at 0.74 eV for Ag_2Cu_2(C_7H_3O_5N)_4.The charge transition between π-π~* is also highly crucial to the third-order polarizabilities, and the largest component of dynamic γ is -4.46×10~(-29) esu at 0.50 eV for Ag_2Cu_2(C_7H_3O_5N)_4. The central Cu ion, as electron bridge,extends the range of delocalization and leads to an interesting phenomenon of piroconjugation.

  18. Diatomite-supported Pd-M (M=Cu, Co, Ni) bimetal nanocatalysts for selective hydrogenation of long-chain aliphatic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changliang; Zhang, Hongye; Zhao, Yanfei; Chen, Sha; Liu, Zhimin

    2012-11-15

    Diatomite supported Pd-M (M=Cu, Co, Ni) bimetal nanocatalysts with various metal compositions were prepared and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that the metal nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on the support, and their size was centered around 8 nm with a relatively narrow size distribution. The catalysts were used to catalyze hydrogenation of long-chain aliphatic esters, including methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, and methyl laurate. It was indicated that the all diatomite-supported Pd-based bimetal catalysts were active to the selective hydrogenation of long-chain esters to corresponding alcohols at 270°C, originated from the synergistic effect between the metal particles and the diatomite support. For the selective hydrogenation of methyl palmitate, Pd-Cu/diatomite with metal loading of 1% and Pd/Cu=3 displayed the highest performance, giving a 1-hexadecanol yield of 82.9% at the substrate conversion of 98.8%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Monte Carlo estimation of an effect of uncertainties in initial data on solving the transport equation by means of the MCU code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleynik, D. S., E-mail: oleynik-ds@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A new version of the tally module of the MCU software package is developed in which the approach for taking directly into account the uncertainty in initial data is implemented that is recommended by the international standard on estimating the uncertainty in results of measuring (ISO 13005). The new module makes it possible to evaluate the effect of uncertainty in initial data (caused by technological tolerances in fabrication of structural members of the core) on neutronic characteristics of the reactor. The developed software is adapted to parallel computing with the use of multiprocessor computers, which significantly reduces the computation time: the parallelization coefficient is almost equal to 1. Testing is performed by examples of solving the problem on criticality for the Godiva benchmark experiment and also for the infinite lattice of fuel assemblies of the VVER-440, VVER-1000, and VVER-1200. The results of calculations of the uncertainty in neutronic characteristics (effective multiplication factor, fission reaction rate), which is caused by uncertainties in initial data due to technological tolerances, are compared (in the first case) to the published results obtained using the precision MCNP5 code and (in the second case) to those obtained by means of the RADAR engineering program. A good agreement of results is achieved for all cases.

  20. The Monte Carlo estimation of an effect of uncertainties in initial data on solving the transport equation by means of the MCU code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleynik, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    A new version of the tally module of the MCU software package is developed in which the approach for taking directly into account the uncertainty in initial data is implemented that is recommended by the international standard on estimating the uncertainty in results of measuring (ISO 13005). The new module makes it possible to evaluate the effect of uncertainty in initial data (caused by technological tolerances in fabrication of structural members of the core) on neutronic characteristics of the reactor. The developed software is adapted to parallel computing with the use of multiprocessor computers, which significantly reduces the computation time: the parallelization coefficient is almost equal to 1. Testing is performed by examples of solving the problem on criticality for the Godiva benchmark experiment and also for the infinite lattice of fuel assemblies of the VVER-440, VVER-1000, and VVER-1200. The results of calculations of the uncertainty in neutronic characteristics (effective multiplication factor, fission reaction rate), which is caused by uncertainties in initial data due to technological tolerances, are compared (in the first case) to the published results obtained using the precision MCNP5 code and (in the second case) to those obtained by means of the RADAR engineering program. A good agreement of results is achieved for all cases.

  1. 基于单片机的智能型桌椅的设计%Design of Intelligent Desk and Chai r Based on MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣莲; 王海明; 朱昌昊; 杜娟; 韩建华

    2015-01-01

    介绍了基于单片机的智能型桌椅的设计,通过对桌椅高度的调节和桌面的设计,来满足不同身高使用者的使用要求。按照人体工程学的要求对椅面和椅背进行设计,将单片机运用在椅子上,通过压力传感器和距离传感器等器件提醒使用者在学习中保持正确的坐姿,养成良好的用眼习惯,从而有效防止近视的发生。%This design of intelligent desk and chair based on MCU is introduced in this paper ,the height of the desk and chair can be adjusted to satisfy the users with different height .The back of the chair is designed based on human body engineering ,and a pres‐sure sensor and a distance sensor are used to remind the user to keep correct posture in learning ,so as to effectively prevent the oc‐currence of myopia .

  2. DESIGNING AND REALISING AN MCU-BASED IP-KEYBOARD%一种基于单片机的网络键盘的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君; 罗焕佐; 许石哲; 邹媛媛

    2011-01-01

    针对工业设备智能维护领域,通过研究分析PS/2键盘的接口、电气特性及协议规范,利用单片机实现了标准的PC机键盘.并结合网络技术,设计并实现了一种网络键盘,称之为IP-KeyBoard,其扩展了传统键盘的作用范围,可以对远程设备进行调试、参数设置等本地键盘操作.在局域网环境下,实验验证了网络键盘远程操作的可行性.%In light of the field of intelligent maintenance of industrial equipments, by studying and analysing the interface, electrical characteristics and protocol specification of the PS/2 keyboard, in this article we realized a standard PC keyboard with MCU ,and combining with the network technology, we designed and implemented a kind of network keyboard, which is named the IP-KeyBoard in this article. It expands the function range of traditional keyboard, and can be used to do some local keyboard operations on remote equipments. In environment of LAN, the feasibility of the IP-KeyBoard has been proved by the experiments.

  3. Application of in vitro extraction studies to evaluate element bioaccessibility in soils from a transect across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, S.A.; Plumlee, G.S.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    In vitro bioaccessibility tests (IVBA) are inexpensive, physiologically-based extraction tests designed to estimate the bioaccessibility of elements along ingestion exposure pathways. Published IVBA protocols call for the testing to be done on the Pb > Ni > As > Cr.

  4. Demonstration and validation of automated agricultural field extraction from multi-temporal Landsat data for the majority of United States harvested cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distribution of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and the location and extent of fields is important to establish the area of land utilized for agricultural yield prediction, resource allocation, and for economic planning, and may be indicative of the degree of agricultural capital investment, mechanization, and labor intensity. To date, field objects have not been extracted from satellite data over large areas because of computational constraints, the complexity of the extraction task, and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. A recently published automated methodology to extract agricultural crop fields from weekly 30 m Web Enabled Landsat data (WELD) time series was refined and applied to 14 states that cover 70% of harvested U.S. cropland (USDA 2012 Census). The methodology was applied to 2010 combined weekly Landsat 5 and 7 WELD data. The field extraction and quantitative validation results are presented for the following 14 states: Iowa, North Dakota, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Texas, South Dakota, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio, Wisconsin, Oklahoma and Michigan (sorted by area of harvested cropland). These states include the top 11 U.S states by harvested cropland area. Implications and recommendations for systematic application to global coverage Landsat data are discussed.

  5. Vehicle Fire Alarm System Design Based on MCU%基于单片机的车载火灾报警器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽霞; 方建华; 何涛

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the personal and property damage due to spontaneous combustion of motor vehicles, this paper designs a vehicle fire alarm. It adopts MCU as the control chip, uses K type thermocouple and MAX6675 chip to real time detect the temperature of flashpoints and reference points on the motor vehicle, when the temperature difference between the flashpoints and reference points exceeds the allowed temperature difference value setting, alarm signal is sent. The running and testing experiments for the fire alarm are carried out, obtaining the expected results, which include the temperature difference between flashpoints and reference points values, so that the pre-alarm of motor vehicle's spontaneous combustion is implemented.%为了避免因机动车自燃带来的人身和财产损害,文章设计了车载火灾报警器,其用单片机做主控制芯片,采用K型热电偶和MAX6675芯片对机动车上的易燃点和基准点的温度进行实时检测,当比较到易燃点温度和基准点温度超过设定的允许温差值时,发出报警。进行了车载火灾报警器运行和测试实验,获得了预期的结果,检测到了机动车易燃点与基准点的温度差值,据此实现了对机动车自燃火灾的预报警。

  6. 基于51单片机的智能保险柜设计%51 MCU-based intelligent safe design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦力霄

    2012-01-01

      贵重物品的安全,是人身财产安全的重要一环。随着科技水平的提高,各种盗取财物的手段不断升级。因此,人们对安全稳定性好、操作便捷的智能保险柜的需求也在不断提高。介绍了以51单片机为核心,以指纹识别、温度测控、位移测控模块协同工作的系统组成,以及软、硬件的设计。该系统具有指纹识别、防火、防高温、防酸蚀、防撬、现场及同步拨号远程报警、记录报警时间等功能,实现了多功能一体化,为用户提供了基本操作提示。%  The security of valuables,important personal and property safety. With the improvement of the level of science and technology,a variety of means to steal property is escalating.Therefore the safety and stability, convenient operation of intelligent safes demand is also rising.51 MCU as the core to the fingerprint identification,temperature measurement and control, displacement measurement and control module system components work together,as well as software and hardware design. The system of fingerprint identification,fire prevention,anti-high temperature, anti-etch-ing, tamper,live and synchronous dial-up remote alarm, record the alarm time, multi-functional integration,to provide users with the basic opera-tion prompted.

  7. 基于AVR单片机的电磁场监测仪设计%Instrument design for monitoring electromagnetic field based on AVR MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建平; 李吉; 葛青

    2011-01-01

    设计了一个环境电磁污染监测系统,能够测量环境磁场大小,测量精度可达到6×104-8T.利用磁阻芯片特有的置位/复位功能有效地消除因温度漂移和电路参数漂移等共模信号造成的误差,提高了磁场检测的灵敏度.监测仪器以Atmega16L为控制器,单片集成磁场传感器HMC1052L为检测元件,其输出通过运算放大器LMV358放大,利用Atmega16L单片机模数转换器转换成数字信号,并由LCD显示测量结果.%A system for monitoring environment electromagnetic pollution was designed. The instrument could measure the environment electromagnetic radiation and its measurement accuracy reached 0.6 mG. The error caused by common mode signals such as temperature and circuit parameter drift can be eliminated efficiently with the SET/RESET function of HMC, and the sensitivity of detecting the magnetic field was improved. Basing on Atmega16L, the instrument used the sensor HMC1052L as detection component. The output signal of the sensor was amplified by operational amplifier LMV358, then the amplified signal was converted to digital signal by ADC on Atmega16L MCU, and measurement result was displayed on LCD.

  8. SLC25A23 augments mitochondrial Ca²⁺ uptake, interacts with MCU, and induces oxidative stress-mediated cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Nicholas E; Chandramoorthy, Harish C; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Zhang, Xueqian Q; Vallem, Sandhya; Doonan, Patrick J; Malliankaraman, Karthik; Guo, Shuchi; Rajan, Sudarsan; Elrod, John W; Koch, Walter J; Cheung, Joseph Y; Madesh, Muniswamy

    2014-03-01

    Emerging findings suggest that two lineages of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake participate during active and resting states: 1) the major eukaryotic membrane potential-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter and 2) the evolutionarily conserved exchangers and solute carriers, which are also involved in ion transport. Although the influx of Ca(2+) across the inner mitochondrial membrane maintains metabolic functions and cell death signal transduction, the mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation are unclear. Solute carriers--solute carrier 25A23 (SLC25A23), SLC25A24, and SLC25A25--represent a family of EF-hand-containing mitochondrial proteins that transport Mg-ATP/Pi across the inner membrane. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SLC25A23 but not SLC25A24 and SLC25A25 decreases mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and reduces cytosolic Ca(2+) clearance after histamine stimulation. Ectopic expression of SLC25A23 EF-hand-domain mutants exhibits a dominant-negative phenotype of reduced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. In addition, SLC25A23 interacts with mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU; CCDC109A) and MICU1 (CBARA1) while also increasing IMCU. In addition, SLC25A23 knockdown lowers basal mROS accumulation, attenuates oxidant-induced ATP decline, and reduces cell death. Further, reconstitution with short hairpin RNA-insensitive SLC25A23 cDNA restores mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and superoxide production. These findings indicate that SLC25A23 plays an important role in mitochondrial matrix Ca(2+) influx.

  9. Design and Implementation of the Intelligent Car Based on MCU%基于单片机的智能小车的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海丽

    2015-01-01

    The design of the intelligent car which uses STC89C52 MCU as the core of the controlling system is introduced. The design consists of the motor drive module, ultrasonic ranging module, tracking module, infrared and voice modules, which intends to implement a driverless bus system. The car of this design with C language programming can achieve forward and backward movement, turning, automatic tracking navigation, ultrasonic distance measurement and speed adjusting according to the detected obstacle distance, infrared remote control fixed-point broadcast. It can achieve intelligent control and design goals. The system is a simple circuit structure with low power consumption and high stability. It has some practical value.%介绍了一种以 STC89C52单片机为控制核心的智能小车的设计。设计由电机驱动模块、超声波测距模块、循迹模块、红外和语音模块组成,拟实现一个无人驾驶公交车系统。通过 C 语言编程实现小车的前进倒退、转向行驶、自动循迹导航、超声波测距,并根据检测障碍物距离调整速度、红外遥控定点播报功能,实现智能控制,达到设计目标。该系统电路结构简单、功耗低、稳定性高,具有一定实际应用价值。

  10. 基于单片机控制的频率综合器设计%Design of frequency synthesizer based on MCU controlling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成; 凌丹

    2012-01-01

    以ADF4360芯片为核心,设计实现了频率综合器作为1.95 GHz一次变频超外差射频接收机的本振部分,并制作了单片机控制电路.经测试,可以在1.6GHz ~ 1.95GHz范围内以0.5MHz为步长调节输出本振信号频率.在频率为1.9GHz时,相位噪声为-68dBc/Hz(1kHzoffset)、-71dBc/Hz(10kHz offset)、-110dBc/Hz(100kHz offset)、- 115dBc/Hz(1MHz offset).频率偏差小于50kHz.%This paper achieved a frequency synthesizer based on ADF4360, as the LO of 1. 95GHz single conversion super-heterodyne RF receiver. A MCU circuit is designed to control the synthesizer. The output LO frequency can be adjusted from 1. 6GHz to 1. 95 GHz in step of 0. 5 MHz. When the output frequency is 1. 9GHz, the phase noise floor is -68dBc/Hz( 1kHz offset) , -71dBc/Hz( 10kHz offset), -110dBc/Hz(100kHz offset), - 115dBc/Hz( 1MHz offset). The frequency deviation is less than 50kHz.

  11. 基于单片机的地下车库车位监测系统的设计%Design on Parking Monitoring System of Underground Garage Based on MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛德宽; 位浩杰; 胡爱芹; 黄兴洲; 任学智; 关华清

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new underground parking monitoring system based on MCU ,used in the real time monitoring of the underground parking garage .The system is based on MCU ,collectingvoltage signal of silicon photovoltaic cells before and after the illumination light signal is blocked ,processing silicon photocell voltage signal using the voltage comparator circuit .At last , the electrical signal after treatment is transmitted to the MCU ,and real time data is displayed on the LCD screen .The system com bines silicon photovoltaic cells and garage lighting to enhance the value of the illumination light ,achieving real time monitoring of parking information ,so that it can improve the operational efficiency of the garage .%提出了一种基于单片机的地下车位监测系统,应用于地下车库车位实时监测。该系统以单片机为基础,采集车位照明灯光信号被遮挡前后的硅光电池的电压信号,用电压比较电路处理硅光电池的电压信号,并将处理之后的电信号传送至单片机,最后将车位实时数据在液晶屏上显示。本系统将硅光电池和车库照明系统有机结合起来,提升了照明灯光的应用价值;实现了车位信息的实时监测,提高了车库的运作效率。

  12. Neutral Complex Extraction and Synergistic Extraction of Macrolide Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the theory of reactive extraction, new solvent systems were developed to replace butylacetate for extraction of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, kitasamycin, spiramycin meleumycin etc.). A new neutral complex solvent extraction system, fatty alcohol-kerosene (marked by E1), was used for extraction of erythromycin, one of the macrolide antibiotics. The extraction equilibrium equation is obtained, and the extraction distribution is as follows The effects of several parameters on extraction equilibrium were investigated. Furthermore, a new synergistic extraction system (marked by E2) was developed, in which another solvent was used as synergistic agent to replace the diluent kerosene in the neutral complex extraction system. Based on these new extraction systems, an improved process for extraction of erythromycin was developed, showing remarkable advantages in technology and economics owing to its low solvent consumption of 3kg per billion unit compared with 9-10 for butylacetate. The recovery process of solvent from raffinate may be eliminated.

  13. An Asynchronous Multi-Sensor Micro Control Unit for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hsing Luo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an asynchronous multi-sensor micro control unit (MCU core is proposed for wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs. It consists of asynchronous interfaces, a power management unit, a multi-sensor controller, a data encoder (DE, and an error correct coder (ECC. To improve the system performance and expansion abilities, the asynchronous interface is created for handshaking different clock domains between ADC and RF with MCU. To increase the use time of the WBSN system, a power management technique is developed for reducing power consumption. In addition, the multi-sensor controller is designed for detecting various biomedical signals. To prevent loss error from wireless transmission, use of an error correct coding technique is important in biomedical applications. The data encoder is added for lossless compression of various biomedical signals with a compression ratio of almost three. This design is successfully tested on a FPGA board. The VLSI architecture of this work contains 2.68-K gate counts and consumes power 496-μW at 133-MHz processing rate by using TSMC 0.13-μm CMOS process. Compared with the previous techniques, this work offers higher performance, more functions, and lower hardware cost than other micro controller designs.

  14. 火电机组回热系统抽汽压损对火用损分布的影响%The influence of extraction steam pressure loss to exergy loss in reheating system of thermal power unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄超; 房林铁; 王慧兴

    2012-01-01

    抽汽压损是一种不明显的热力损失,对机组的热经济性产生一定的影响。假定抽汽口的压力不变,加热器端差不变,根据小扰动理论,定性分析抽汽压损对回热系统的影响。根据热力系统热平衡原理和汽水分布方程建立抽汽压损对回热系统抽汽系数影响的数学模型。根据火用平衡原理和火用分析法建立抽汽压损对火用损分布的影响的数学模型。以某电厂N1000—25/600/600机组热力系统为例,在TRL工况下,定量计算回热系统抽汽系数和火用损分布的变化。根据定量计算结果从理论上分析了抽汽压损对热力系统产生的影响。%Extraction pressure loss is a kind of tmconspicuons heat loss,and has some impacts on the unit's thermal econotmy. Assuming the constant pressure, of extraction port and temperature difference of the heater, qualitative analysis about the influence of changes is made to extraction steam pres-sure loss to heat system according to small disturbance theory. From heating system heat balance principle and steam water distribution equation, it establishes the mathenutical model about the influence of extraction steam pressure loss to abstract coefficient of the reheating system. The mathematical motel about the influence of extraction steam pressure less to exergy loss distribution is established combining exergy balance principle and exergy analysis. The change on extraction coefficient and exergy loss of reheating system is calculated on a N1000 -25/600/600 unit thermal system in TRL condition. On the basis of quantitative results, it analyzes the effect of extraction steam pressure loss to heat system in theory.

  15. Clinical Observation on the Effect of GyneFixTM IN IUD and MCu IUD in Women with Big Uterine Canal%宫腔较大妇女放置GyneFix IN IUD与MCu IUD临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑乃平; 戴亚云

    2008-01-01

    目的:比较宫腔较大妇女放置GyneFix IN IUD(吉妮IUD)和MCu IUD(爱母IUD)的临床使用效果.方法:选择既往有1次或2次以上脱器史及带器妊娠史,且自愿放置新型IUD的官腔较大(9~10cm)已婚育龄妇女220例,随机分为两组,分别放置吉妮IUD和爱母IUD,并进行24个月随访观察.结果:吉妮IUD组因症取出率、终止使用率低于爱母IUD组,两者比较差异有显著性意义(P<0.05).结论:吉妮IUD对宫腔较大妇女更具可接受性.

  16. Cumulative impacts of aggregate extraction on seabed macro-invertebrate communities in an area off the east coast of the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Keith; Boyd, Siân; Aldridge, John; Rees, Hubert

    2007-05-01

    This study investigates whether there is any evidence of a large-scale cumulative impact on benthic macro-invertebrate communities as a result of the multiple sites of aggregate extraction located off Great Yarmouth in the southern North Sea. Forty 0.1 m 2 Hamon grab samples were collected from across the region, both within and beyond the extraction area, and analysed for macrofauna and sediment particle size distribution in order to produce a regional description of the status of the seabed environment. In addition, the data were analysed in relation to the area of seabed impacted by dredging over the period 1993-1998. Areas subject to 'direct' impacts were determined through reference to annual electronic records of dredging activity and this information was then used to model the likely extent of areas potentially subject to 'indirect' ecological and geophysical impact. Results showed the study area to be characterised by sands in the northern half of the survey area, and sandy gravels in the south. The low diversity communities found across much of the survey area were typical of mobile sandy sediments. However, stations located in the southern half and northern extreme of the survey area tended to support higher numbers of species and individuals. This may be due to marginally enhanced stability arising from the higher proportion of gravel found in samples to the south of the extraction licenses and to the presence of Sabellaria spinulosa reef in the north. Analysis of data in relation to areas of predicted dredging impact revealed proportionally less gravel and more sand within the 'direct' impact zone, compared to the 'indirect' impact zone. Whilst multivariate analyses of macrofaunal data did not clearly discriminate between dredging impact zones, a comparison of univariate measures revealed significantly lower numbers of species and individuals in areas which have been subject to 'direct' dredging impacts in comparison with 'reference' areas. This

  17. a Movable Charging Unit for Green Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBanhawy, E. Y.; Nassar, K.

    2013-05-01

    Battery swapping of electric vehicles (EVs) matter appears to be the swiftest and most convenient to users. The existence of swapping stations increases the feasibility of distributed energy storage via the electric grid. However, it is a cost-prohibitive way of charging. Early adaptors' preferences of /perceptions about EV system in general, has its inflectional effects on potential users hence the market penetration level. Yet, the charging matter of electric batteries worries the users and puts more pressure on them with the more rigorous planning-ahead they have to make prior to any trip. This paper presents a distinctive way of charging. It aims at making the overall charging process at ease. From a closer look into the literature, most of EVs' populations depend on domestic charge. Domestic charging gives them more confidence and increases the usability factor of the EV system. Nevertheless, they still need to count on the publically available charging points to reach their destination(s). And when it comes to multifamily residences, it becomes a thorny problem as these apartments do not have a room for charging outlets. Having said the irritating charging time needed to fatten the batteries over the day and the minimal average mileage drove daily, hypothetically, home delivery charging (Movable Charging Unit-MCU) would be a stupendous solution. The paper discusses the integration of shortest path algorithm problem with the information about EV users within a metropolitan area, developing an optimal route for a charging unit. This MCU delivers charging till homes whether by swapping batteries or by fast charging facility. Information about users is to be provided by the service provider of the neighbourhood, which includes charging patterns (timing, power capacity). This problem lies under the shortest path algorithms problem. It provides optimal route of charging that in return shall add more reliability and usability values and alleviate the charging

  18. Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

    2013-03-20

    This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

  19. Research on Fault Feature Extraction Method for Water-Powered Rod-less Pumping Unit%水机动力无杆抽油机故障特征提取方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕俊燕; 朱春梅

    2015-01-01

    In view of deficiencies that the common signal processing algorithm in the processing of signals such as the early failure, weak fault and compound fault signal, the method of wavelet transform is put forward, focused on the combination of lifting wavelet transform and LE manifold learning algorithm to extract fault feature. The poor noise robustness problem of LE is solved, and the superiority of manifold learning in signal processing is enhanced. Through verification of the fault simulation experiment platform of water-powered rod-less pumping unit, it is proved that the method can accurately extract the fault fea-tures of pumping unit, classify and distinguish the fault of pumping system, and to provide the basis for subsequent analysis.%针对常用的信号处理算法在早期故障、微弱故障、复合故障等信号的处理方面存在的不足,提出了小波变换的方法。重点介绍了提升小波和流形学习LE算法相结合提取系统故障特征。解决了LE对噪声鲁棒性较差的问题,增强了流形学习在信号处理中的优越性。经水基动力无杆抽油机抽油机系统故障模拟试验台验证,该方法能准确提取抽油机故障特征,对抽油机故障进行分类与识别,为后续分析奠定了基础。

  20. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium(VI) with Aliquat® 336 from HCl media in microfluidic devices: Combination of micro-unit operations and online ICP-MS determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellé, Gwendolyne; Mariet, Clarisse; Cote, Gérard

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of radionuclides is carried out according to operating protocols which include a series of chemical operations such as separation/purification steps and therefore is usually time-consuming, complex and difficult to put in place in a hostile environment (gloves box). In the present work, the liquid-liquid extraction of uranium in HCl media by Aliquat® 336 was performed in microsystem to demonstrate the potential of miniaturization in radiochemistry compared to classical protocols (decrease in volumes, analysis time, radiations received and feasibility of automation). Through the investigation of the influence of different parameters (flow rates, length of the microchannel, specific interfacial area), it was shown that the same performances of liquid-liquid extraction can be obtained in microsystem and in batch. Then, the coupling of different micro-unit operations for continuous process was performed to highlight the advantages of the miniaturized analytical techniques. The online ICP-MS determination of uranium(VI) was successfully coupled with the stripping of the latter from pre-loaded organic phases in microsystem, which constitutes a proof of concept and a first step towards a global analytical process with continuous flow.

  1. 基于MCU控制的开关电源稳压电路设计%Design for voltage regulator circuit of switching power supply based on MCU control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑红; 邢军

    2015-01-01

    A voltage regulator circuit of the switching power supply based on MCU control was designed,which is com-posed of rectification filtering circuit,push-pull power conversion circuit and control circuit. In this circuit,the output voltage of the switching power supply is controlled by regulating PWM via the MCU. The digital signal output by MCU is converted into analog signal through the DAC0832. The analog signal is taken as the reference voltage of the second pin of the switching con-trol chip SG3525. SG3525 generates PWM control pulse automatically according to the variation of reference voltage to regulate the output pulse width of the switching tube,so the purpose of regulating the output voltage is achieved. The experimental re-sults show that the output voltage adjustable range is 28~36 V,the maximum output current is 15 A,and the efficiency of the switching power supply is 89%.%设计了一款基于MCU控制的开关电源稳压电路,该系统主要由整流滤波电路、推挽式功率变换电路和控制电路组成,并通过MCU调节PWM控制开关电源输出电压.MCU输出的数字信号通过DAC0832转换为模拟信号,该模拟信号作为开关控制芯片SG3525第二管脚的基准电压,SG3525根据基准电压的变化自动产生PWM控制脉冲,调节开关管的输出脉宽,从而达到调节输出电压的目的.实验表明,输出电压可调范围为28~36 V,最大输出电流Imax=15 A,开关电源的效率为η=89%.

  2. Design of Ultrasonic Liquid Level Control System Based on MCU%基于单片机的超声波液位检测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁可; 张晓东; 马宏旭

    2014-01-01

    为解决腐蚀性液体的液位测量中电极特别容易被电解腐蚀的问题,将超声波技术应用到工业生产液位或物料的检测中。以AT89S52单片机为核心,建立超声波测得距离和声速与传输时间之间的关系,提出通过硬件电路设计和软件编程实现对液位高度的检测的方法,进行了超声波测距在20 cm和80 cm两种距离的试验。由于超声波受温度的影响较大,采用温度传感器对温度进行测量,根据公式进行温度补偿,并设计了报警模块,当温度过高时进行报警。结果表明,超声波测距的相对误差分别为2.5%和1.25%,这样的精度能够满足实际需求,达到了预期目标。该系统具有测量准确、功耗低、使用寿命长等特点,可以满足一般的工业需要。%To solve the problem of the electrode especially vulnerable to electrolytic corrosion in corrosive liquid level measurement, the detection of ultrasonic technology is applied to the industrial production level or materials. Carries out AT89S52 MCU as the core, establishes ultrasonic measurement of relationship between distance and speed and the transmission time, the method of detecting the height of the liquid level is realized by hardware circuit design and software programming, the ultrasonic ranging in the test of 20cm and 80cm two kinds of distance. The ultrasonic influenced by temperature, measure the temperature by temperature sensor, according to the temperature compensation formula, and the design of alarm module, when the temperature is too high. The results show that, the relative error of ultrasonic distance measurement was 2.5%and 1.25% respectively, the accuracy can meet the actual demand, to achieve the expected goal. The system has the characteristics of accurate measurement, low power consumption, long service life, can meet the general needs of industry.

  3. The Digital Multi-Motor Control Platform Design Based on C8051F020 MCU%基于单片机C8051F020的数字多电机控制平台的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁冲; 张敏; 辛鹏

    2013-01-01

    The digital multi-motor control platform based on the C8051F020 MCU was introducted. The hardware was simple and reliable. MOSFET was used for power circuits, which was more universal. The software can be directly used for other low-power motor-driven control system through rewriting .%介绍了基于单片机C8051F020搭建的多台电机控制平台,硬件电路简单可靠,功率电路采用场效应管自行搭建,通用性较强,通过改写软件,可直接用于其它小功率电机的驱动控制系统.

  4. PIC单片机控制下的无线模块自主选频数据传输%Independent Frequency Selection Data Transmission Based on Wireless Module Controlled by PIC MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲林蒸; 林东

    2013-01-01

    提出一种采用PIC16系列单片机和CC2500无线射频芯片的自主选频无线数据传输系统的设计方法,包括系统硬件电路设计和软件实现.系统具有自主选频功能,解决CC2500在ISM频段内由于同频干扰而产生的频率冲突问题.%A PIC16 MCU and CC2500 radio frequency (RF) chip self-selected frequency wireless data transmission system design method is presented in this paper, including system hardware circuit design and software implementation. As the system has independent frequency selection function, the frequency conflict is solved due to co-channel interference in the ISM band frequency.

  5. Effect of water vapor on the CO and CH_4 catalytic oxidation over CeO_2-MO_x (M=Cu, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) mixed oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔东升; 卢冠忠; 郭耘; 王艳芹; 郭杨龙

    2010-01-01

    CeO2-MOx (M=Cu, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) mixed oxide catalysts were prepared by a citric acid complexation-combustion method. CeO2-MOx solid solutions could be formed with M cations doping into CeO2 lattice, while NiO and Co3O4 phases were detected on the surface of CeO2-NiO and CeO2-Co3O4 by Raman spectroscopy. The presence of M in CeO2 could obviously promote its catalytic activity for CH4 catalytic combustion and CO oxidation. Among the prepared samples, CeO2-CuO exhibited the best performance for CO oxidatio...

  6. Based on AT89C51 MCU Wireless Remote Control System of Electric Vehicle%基于AT89C51单片机的电动车无线遥控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建国

    2011-01-01

    采用AT89C51单片机作为控制核心,通过红外遥控方式实现无线遥控。系统主要包括红外遥控收发电路、信号处理电路和电机控制电路等,由控制软件实现对小车电机的快速启动、制动和反转等自动遥控功能。%This paper introduces a kind of use AT89C51 MCU as control core,using infrared remote control mode design wireless remote control system.The system includes ir remote-controlled transceiver circuit,signal processing circuit,motor control circuit,by applying a control software to realize fast start to car motor reverse,braking and automatic control function.

  7. Effects of substituting Ni with M (M=Cu, Al and Mn) on microstructures and electrochemical characteristics of La-Mg-Ni system (PuNi3-type) electrode alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanghuan; ZHAO Dongliang; DONG Xiaoping; REN Huiping; GUO Shihai; WANG Xinlin

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical cycle stability of La-Mg-Ni system (PuNi3-type) hydrogen storage alloy, Ni in the alloys was partially substituted by M (M=Cu, Al, Mn). A new La-Mg-Ni system electrode alloys La0.7Mg0.3Ni2.55-xCo0.45Mx (M=Cu, Al, Mn;x =0,0.1) were prepared by casting and rapid quenching. The effects of element substitution and rapid quenching on the microstructures and electrochemical performances of the alloys were investigated. The results by XRD, SEM and TEM show that the alloys havea multiphase structure, including the (La, Mg)Ni3 phase, the LaNi5 phase and the LaNi2 phase. The rapid quenching and element substitution have an imperceptible influence on the phase compositions of the alloys, but both change the phase abundance of the alloys. The rapid quenching significantly improves the composition homogeneity of the alloys and markedly decreases the grain size of the alloys. The Cu substitution promotes the formation of an amorphous phase in the as-quenched alloy, and a reversal result by the Al substitution. The electrochemical measurement indicates that the element substitution decreases the discharge capacity of the alloys, whereas it obviously improves the cycle stability of the alloys. The positive influence of element substitution on the cycle life of the alloys is in sequence Al>Cu>Mn, and negative influence on the discharge capacity is in sequence Al>Mn>Cu. The rapid quenching significantly enhances the cycle stability of the alloys, but it leads to a different extent decrease of thedischarge capacity of the alloys.

  8. 基于单片机的大棚温湿度控制系统设计%Design of temperature and humidity control system in greenhouse based on MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭荣艳; 胡翔

    2012-01-01

    针对目前温湿度控制现状,设计了一种大棚温湿度控制系统,给出了系统的硬件电路、软件设计思路.该系统以单片机AT89C52为控制中心,采用SHT71为温湿度检测元件,实时监控温湿度的变化.单片机与智能传感器相连,采集并处理传感器的测量数据;通过LCD12864实时显示温湿度的数值;当温度超出允许范围时,电机开始启动来调节温度,从而实现对整个温湿度控制系统的管理.这种温湿度控制系统具有传感精度高、易于管理等优点.%According to the present situation of temperature and humidity control, a control system on temperature and humidity of greenhouse is designed, consisting of hardware circuit and software design. The system can accomplish real-- time control on temperature and humidity, taking MCU AT89C52 as control core and SHT71 as sensing element of temperature and humidity. MCU and intelligent sensors are linked together, collecting and processing measured datas with intelligent sensor. Real - time temperature and humidity values can be displayed through LCD12864. When temperature exceeds the al- lowable range, the motor will be started to adjust the temperature, so as to management and control the whole temperature and humidity system. This kind of temperature and humidity control system is easily managed with high precision.

  9. Tooth extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007630.htm Tooth extraction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A tooth extraction is a procedure to remove a tooth from ...

  10. Design of Central Management & Control Unit for Onboard High-Speed Data Handling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-qin; JIN Sheng-zhen; NING Shu-nian

    2007-01-01

    The Main Optical Telescope (MOT) is an important payload of the Space Solar Telescope (SST) with various instruments and observation modes. Its real-time data handling and management and control tasks are arduous. Based on the advanced techniques of foreign countries, an improved structure of onboard data handling systems feasible for SST, is proposed. This article concentrated on the development of a Central Management & Control Unit (MCU) based on FPGA and DSP. Through reconfigurating the FPGA and DSP programs, the prototype could perform different tasks.Thus the inheritability of the whole system is improved. The completed dual-channel prototype proves that the system meets all requirements of the MOT. Its high reliability and safety features also meet the requirements under harsh conditions such as mine detection.

  11. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  12. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  13. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  14. 基于高速单片机的GPS系统在望远镜上的应用%Application of GPS System in Telescope Based on High-speed MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新玮; 李洪文

    2012-01-01

    对于很多望远镜系统来说,系统本身需要准确的时间、经纬度等GPS信息,为了满足某望远镜系统的应用,设计利用C8051F120高速单片机及U-blox公司的GPS接收机设计完成了此GPS系统;重点介绍了GPS数据的提取、与望远镜系统的通信以及GPS信息在望远镜系统上的应用,通过提高系统工作频率、数据信息的压缩处理、秒信号触发单片机外部中断等方式,提高了GPS系统的时间精度;该系统已经在两个不同望远镜系统中得到应用,实验结果表明可以满足不同系统的通信协议,在实际运行中稳定可靠,能够达到望远镜系统所要求的时间精度.%According to many telescope systems, they need exact time, longitude, latitude and so on. In order to satisfied one telescope system, the GPS system has been designed based on high—speed MCU C8051F120 and GPS receiver of U—blox company. Picking up GPS data, communicating with telescope system and application of GPS data in telescope are particular introduced. Through improving system working frequency, compressing data and MCU's external interrupt means, the GPS system has a precise time. Two different telescope systems have used the GPS system. The practice proved that it can satisfy double communication information of differen systems. Practically, the GPS system is working well and can satisfy the precise time of telescope systems.

  15. Design of Digital Control Circuit of Massaging Machine Drive Based on MCU%基于单片机的按摩机传动数字控制电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新荣; 张宇林; 周红标; 唐中一

    2011-01-01

    对基于单片机的按摩机传动控制电路进行设计。以单片机为核心控制芯片.以直流电机PWM调速技术为基础设计电源电路、复位电路、电机和指示灯控制电路、按键及显示电路等部分,利用软件编程实现人机交互及按摩功能。按键操作选择按摩机工作状态,报警装置示警或提示按摩完成,指示灯显示当前工作状态,LED数码管显示当前电机转速。经过理论分析及实验研究,该系统能够实现基本的按摩功能,结构简单、性价比高、体积小,可较好地满足人体腰部、足部以及颈部的按摩需要。%The digital control circuit of massaging machine drive based on MCU is designed. The MCU is used as the kernel control chip. The power circuit based on DC motor PWM speed control technology, reset circuit, motor, indicating lamp control circuit, key and display circuit are designed. The massaging machine working state is selected through the button. When massage is complete, the alarm device will prompt the user. The indicating lamp indicates the current work status. The LED displays the current speed of motor. Theory analysis and experimental study show that the system can implement basic massaging function and has advantages of simple structure, higher performance-cost ratio, small size and can better meet the human waist, foot and neck massage needs.

  16. Design of a portable falling alarm system of old people based on Arduino MCU%基于Arduino单片机的便携式老年人跌倒报警系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖二宁; 张兴明; 李康士; 董永吉

    2016-01-01

    In order to satisfy the fall deterction of old people, a design scheme of fall monitoring system based on Arduino MCU is proposed. and the hardware and software design of the system is completed. The system consists of a portable device and a APP monitor, The portable device mainly includes 8-bits Arduino AVR MCU, the SIM900A chip which realizes the communication function and SMS alarm, the ADXL345 chip which realizes fall detection function, and the GPS NEO 6M WAVESHARE chip which realizes the positioning function. APP monitor is based on Android 4.4 and AutoNavi map package development, support domestic arbitrary locations show easy tracking view. Practical application and test results show that, the system has the advantages of simple operation, accurate positioning, fall alarm precision, meet the design requirements.%为了实现对老年人跌倒报警的需求,提出了一种基于Arduino单片机的跌倒报警系统设计方案,并完成系统的软硬件设计。该系统由便携式设备与监护APP组成,便携式设备主要包括完成数据处理的8位AVR单片机Arduino NANO、实现通信功能及短信报警的SIM900A芯片、实现跌倒检测功能的ADXL345芯片与实现定位功能的WAVE-SHARE GPS NEO 6M芯片。监护APP部分采用基于Android 4.4与高德地图包开发,支持国内任意地点显示,支持路径规划及语音播报。实际应用与测试结果表明,该系统具有操作简便、跌倒报警准确、定位精度高等特点,具有很强的实用价值和良好的市场前景。

  17. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human nutrition, particularly in developing ... studied the effect of NaCl on the extractability of ... significant influence on the functional properties ..... Malaka, S. L. O. and Amund, O. O. Studies on the Life Cycle and Morphometrics of Honeybees,.

  18. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    GÜVENÇ, A.; MEHMETOĞLU, Ü.; ÇALIMLI, A.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of ethanol was studied from both synthetic ethanol solution and fermentation broth using supercritical CO2 in an extraction apparatus in ranges of 313 to 333 K and 80 to 160 atmospheres, for varying extraction times. The experimental system consists mainly of four parts: a CO2 storage system, a high-pressure liquid pump, an extractor and a product collection unit. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Effects of temperature, pressure, extraction time, initial ethan...

  19. Bevalac extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

  20. 基于STC12C5A60S2单片机的光立方设计%Design of Light Cube Based on STC12C5A60S2 MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志颖; 廖远; 聂玲子

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at the limitation of the traditional flat panel display, this paper puts forward a light cube based on STC12C5A60S2 MCU. It uses STC12C5A60S2 microcomputer as the core controller, adopts monochromatic fog shaped square LEDs to form the light cube, and chooses NPN transistors to form the driven circuit. So users can use the program to achieve 3D animation display. The system has excellent features of low cost of production, good dis-play effect and functional perfection.%针对传统平面显示单一的局限性,本文设计了一种基于STC12C5A60S2单片机的光立方。整个光立方以STC12C5A60S2单片机作为核心控制器,采用单色雾状方形LED组成光立方灯体,并配以NPN型三极管构成驱动电路。用户可以通过编程实现自定义3D动画显示功能,该系统具有制作成本低、显示效果好、功能完善的特点。

  1. Electronic, optical properties and chemical bonding in six novel 1111-like chalcogenide fluorides AMChF (A=Sr, Ba; M=Cu, Ag; and Ch=S, Se, Te) from first principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, V. V.; Shein, I. R.; Ivanovskii, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Employing first-principles band structure calculations, we have examined the electronic, optical properties and the peculiarities of the chemical bonding for six newly synthesized layered quaternary 1111-like chalcogenide fluorides SrAgSF, SrAgSeF, SrAgTeF, BaAgSF, BaAgSeF, and SrCuTeF, which are discussed in comparison with some isostructural 1111-like chalcogenide oxides. We found that all of the studied phases AMChF (A=Sr, Ba; M=Cu, Ag; and Ch=S, Se, Te) are semiconductors for which the fitted “experimental” gaps lie in the interval from 2.23 eV (for SrAgSeF) to 3.07 eV (for SrCuTeF). The near-Fermi states of AMChF are formed exclusively by the valence orbitals of the atoms from the blocks (MCh); thus, these phases belong to the layered materials with “natural multiple quantum wells”. The bonding in these new AMChF phases is described as a high-anisotropic mixture of ionic and covalent contributions, where ionic M-Ch bonds together with covalent M-Ch and Ch-Ch bonds take place inside blocks (MCh), while inside blocks (AF) and between the adjacent blocks (MCh)/(AF) mainly ionic bonds emerge.

  2. Application of RS232 serial port in communication between PC and MCU%RS232串口通信在PC机与单片机通信中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘方

    2012-01-01

    在功能比较复杂的自动控制系统中,通常以工控机为上位机,单片机为下位机,RS 232串口通信是工控机和单片机之间信息传递的枢纽,采用MAX232实现、TTL逻辑电平和RS 232电平之间的相互转换,如此连接,既可体现出单片机的灵活控制功能,又可发挥出PC机强大的计算和显示功能,有利于对现场信号的实时采集、处理和监控,确保了良好的人机界面的交互性.%In function relatively-complicated automatic control system, IPC is usually used as a upper computer, MCU as a lower computer, RS232 serial port as a messaging hub of communication between IPC and SCM, and MAX232 is adopted to implement the mutual conversion between TTL logic level and RS232 level. Such a connection can embody the flexible control function of SCM, express the powerful computation and display functions of PC, and is of benefit to signal real-time acquisition, processing, and monitoring on site, so as to ensure the perfect interactivity of man-machine interface.

  3. C8051F040单片机的机器人自主定位系统设计%Design of Robot Self-positioning System Based on C8051F040 MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈阳; 张海

    2012-01-01

    A data acquisition and positioning system integrating inertial devices and code wheel based on C8051F040 MCU,and the detailed design of hardware and software are presented. The outputs of tri-axial orthogonal gyroscope, accelerometer and magnetometer are used to calculate the carrier's attitude. Robot short-time location in 2D surface is completed according to carrier's speed and displacement information from code wheel and motion trajectory. This system has a certain practical value because of its low power consumption, small size and low cost.%设计了基于C8051F040单片机的惯性/码盘数据采集和定位系统,并给出了具体的软硬件设计方法.利用三轴陀螺、加速度计和磁阻传感器完成载体姿态的计算,结合码盘获取的载体速度和位移信息,根据航迹递推完成机器人在二维平面的短时定位.整个系统具有功耗低、体积小、成本低的优点,具有一定实用价值.

  4. Design of Intelligent Street Lamp Remote Monitoring Terminal Based on the Structure of Double MCU%基于双MCU结构的路灯远程监控终端设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘暾平; 罗世亮

    2012-01-01

    A kind of of the street lamp remote monitoring terminal based on the structure of double MCU was designed in this paper. Monitoring terminal using GPRS and power carrier communication technology realize the remote communication connection of street lamp monitoring ,and using the hybrid control strategy realize accurate control of the street lamp. Field application tests show that the performance of monitoring terminal is stable, and realize the street lamp monitoring of the dy- namic remote management.%设计一种双MCU结构的路灯远程监控终端。该终端利用GPRS和电力载波通信技术,实现路灯监控的远程通信连接;并采用复合控制策略实现路灯精准控制。现场应用测试表明该监控终端性能稳定,实现了路灯监控的动态化远程管理。

  5. 基于STC单片机的家用智能节水系统的设计与研究%Designed and Researched on Water-saving Control System for Household Based on STC MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟丽琼; 王璨; 周潜

    2012-01-01

    A water-saving control system for household based on STC MCU is designed. The sensor of PH value is used to detect PH value of the laundry discharge water. Through the pH value determination test, the PH value of 7.2 is used as the exci tation signal. This signal is used to control the work of electromagnetic valve, so that the recyclable wash water is recovered.%设计一种基于STC单片机的家用智能节水系统,利用pH值传感器检测出洗衣时排出水的pH值,通过排水pH值测定试验,得出了pH等于7.2可为信号激发值,控制电磁换向阀换向,从而实现对可回收利用的洗涤用水的回收。

  6. Novel CX⋯π halogen bonds in complexes of acetylene and its derivatives of Na and MPH3 (M=Cu, Ag, Au) with XCCF (X=Cl, Br, I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Hongying; Liu, Mingjuan; Li, Qingzhong; Li, Wenzuo; Cheng, Jianbo

    2014-06-05

    Ab initio calculations have been carried out for a variety of model systems with a T-shaped CX⋯π motif. The CX⋯π interaction of acetylene with the halogen donor molecule XCCF (X=Cl, Br, I) is invariably found to be weak with the interaction energy less than 11kJ/mol in magnitude. Substitution of the two protons in acetylene with more electron-donating sodium atoms increases the π electron density in the CC bond and leads to a substantial enhancement in its interaction with the halogen donor. The calculated interaction energies increase to as much as 73kJ/mol in the case of C2Na2-ICCF. The interaction of XCCF with a model coinage metal ethynide, H3PMCCMPH3 (M=Cu, Ag, Au), is intermediate between these two extremes, and the interaction energy is related to the nature of coinage metals. The CX⋯π halogen bonds have been analyzed with natural bond orbital, atoms in molecules, and energy decomposition.

  7. 基于AVR单片机的瓦斯预警运动控制器设计%Design of Motion Controller Based on AVR MCU for Gas Alarming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a motion control system of a robot which can make autonomous decision on the basis of path condition in atrocious environment such as mine .The control system uses AVR MCU as the processor ,takes DC motor as driving device . When the robot meets a barrier in running ,it will change the driving direction rapidly and voluntarily .The control system can monitor the gas density real-timely ,and sends acquired data to communication station with wireless transceiver in mine .The system is characterized by autonomous decision ,stable motion control and real-time communication capabilities .%  设计了一种在井下能根据道路情况自主进行运动决策的机器人控制系统。以 AVR单片机为控制器件,利用直流电机作为驱动装置,遇到障碍物能够进行自主决策,实时检测瓦斯浓度,并能超限报警,同时采用无线收发模块将采集数据发送到井下设置的通信节点。该系统具有运动控制稳定、实时通信、自主决策等特点。

  8. Information extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lei; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to extract relevant information by knowledge graphs from natural language text. We give a multiple level model based on knowledge graphs for describing template information, and investigate the concept of partial structural parsing. Moreover, we point out that

  9. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the phenomeno

  10. Development of a prototype of a Master Central Unit (MCU) for the automation of Distribution Control Centers; Desarrollo de un prototipo de Unidad Central Maestra (UCM) para la automatizacion de Centros de Control de Distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe Blanco, Carlos Eduardo; Mata Almanza, Rafael; Picasso Blanquel, Cuitlahuac [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the strategic plan and to the improvement of productivity and competitiveness levels, the Federal Electric Commission (CFE, Spanish acronym) is making a significant investment in human resources and materials to modernize electric energy supply systems, including monitoring, protection and automatic control for operating all the elements of the electrical process, from generating plants to transmission lines, distribution systems and commercial applications. With this modernization, the CFE is also creating the infrastructure for the interoperability and interconnectivity of the above systems, in such a way to enable it to broaden, continue and complement the functional integration of the linked institutional systems of the latest generation. The total integration of the systems will allow the CFE to move toward Intelligent Electric Networks. Therefore, the CFE requested help from the Electric Research Institute (IIE, Spanish acronym) to develop part of the infrastructure to modernize the automation of distribution. This consists of the development of a prototype of the supervision and control system, using interoperable open technology owned by the CFE which enables using the functions of a SCADA system (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) to supervise and control electric distribution networks. [Spanish] Con el proposito de contribuir al plan estrategico y mejoramiento de los niveles de productividad y competitividad, la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) esta invirtiendo fuertemente en recursos humanos y materiales para la modernizacion de los sistemas de suministro de energia electrica, incluyendo el monitoreo, proteccion y control automatico para la operacion de todos los elementos del proceso electrico, desde los centros de generacion hasta las lineas de transmision, los sistemas de distribucion y las aplicaciones de comercializacion. Con dicha modernizacion, la CFE tambien esta generando la infraestructura para la interoperabilidad e interconectividad de los sistemas antes mencionados, de tal forma que le permita ampliar, continuar y complementar la integracion funcional de los sistemas institucionales legados y de ultima generacion. La integracion total de los sistemas le permitiran a la CFE su migracion a lo que son las Redes Electricas Inteligentes. Por lo anterior, la CFE solicito apoyo al Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para desarrollar parte de la infraestructura para la modernizacion de la automatizacion de la distribucion, que consiste en el desarrollo de un prototipo de sistema de supervision y control, con tecnologia abierta interoperable y propietaria de la CFE, que le permita realizar las funciones de un sistema SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) para supervision y control de redes electricas de distribucion.

  11. 基于C8051F040单片机的智能枪柜设计%Design of Intelligent Gun Cabinet Based on C8051F040 MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张聪; 李艾华; 姚良; 申森

    2012-01-01

    针对目前部队应用的机械式枪柜中出现的不安全因素,提出了一种基于单片机的智能枪柜设计;智能枪柜系统采用指纹识别技术提高了枪柜门禁系统的安全性,采用视频监控技术实现了对枪柜的实时监控,设计电子检锁达到枪支在位检测功能,并通过以太网可将枪械操作信息实时上传;主要介绍智能枪柜系统的实现方案,实现枪械的在位检测功能、门禁权限控制功能以及视频录像采集功能.%According to the unsafe factors of mechanical gun cabinet used in army, this paper puts forward a design based on MCU for intelligent gun cabinet. Intelligent gun cabinet system uses fingerprint identification technology to improve the security of the access control system, takes the video monitoring technology to realize the real — time monitoring, the design of electron gun locks provides the on—line measurement, and through the Ethernet can upload real—time operation information. This paper introduces the realization of intelligent gun cabinet system solutions, achieves on—line measurement, access control and video collection functions.

  12. Design of Low-power Intelligent Tire Monitoring System Based on MSP430 MCU%基于MSP430单片机的低功耗智能轮胎监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛益娴; 杨博; 张加宏; 吴雨生

    2013-01-01

    设计了一种超低功耗的轮胎压力智能监测系统.该系统由轮胎监测模块和中心接收模块两大模块组成,以低功耗MSP430单片机为主控,监测模块利用MPXY8020A传感芯片,进行轮胎温度和压力的检测,并将数据转化后无线发送.中心模块接受数据后进行分析、处理,实现胎压的显示、语音提示、智能管理等功能.该智能轮胎监测系统可以实现对轮胎压力的智能化监测和管理,且功耗特别低,耐用性强,具有较大的实用价值.%A low-power intelligent tire pressure monitor system is designed.This system is composed of two core modules,i.e.,tire monitoring module and central receiver module,which both takes MSP430 MCU as master control.The tire monitoring module utilizes MPXY8020A sensor chip to measure temperature and pressure of tire and send the data by wireless after the measurement data conversion.The central receiver module receives the converted data and analyses them to realize the function of display,voice prompt,intelligent management.The intelligent tire monitoring system with special low-power and strong durability can achieve the intelligent tire pressure monitoring and management,and has great practical value.

  13. 基于单片机ADuC842的酒精测试仪设计%Design of alcohol detector based on MCU ADuC842

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵婷婷; 董军堂; 王卓

    2015-01-01

    An alcohol detector based on MCU ADuC842 was designed. The working principle and design method of the de⁃tector are introduced. The alcohol information in expiration is sampled by gas sensor MQ⁃3,and its digital signal is converted and processed by microcontroller ADuC842. The detected alcohol concentration is displayed by LCD1602 in real time,and com⁃pared with the setting thresholds to determine the alarm levels. The experiment result shows that the testing range of alcohol con⁃centration is 0~0.72 mg/L and the error is less than 0.03 mg/L. The system is simple and easy to use,which can be used to de⁃tect the alcohol concentration of drivers.%设计一款基于单片机ADuC842的酒精测试仪,并介绍该系统的工作原理和设计方法。呼气中的酒精信息由气敏传感器MQ⁃3采集,送到单片机ADuC842进行A/D转换和处理,将检测的酒精浓度通过LCD1602实时显示,另一方面与预设的酒精浓度阈值范围比较并给出报警等级。实验样机测试表明,该系统结构简单,操作方便,呼气酒精浓度测量范围为0~0.72 mg/L,误差不超过0.03 mg/L,可用于驾驶员酒精浓度的自我检测和监控。

  14. Design and Implemention of Obstacle Avoidance Mobile Robot Based on STC89C51 MCU%基于 STC89C51单片机的避障移动机器人的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻伟闯; 王铭; 付豪; 周彬彬; 袁海林; 廖红华

    2016-01-01

    设计一种避障移动机器人,该机器人以 STC89C51单片机作为控制核心,通过两个四相六线步进电机控制转动,并由 L293D 专用电机驱动芯片驱动。避障模块采用四对反射式红外传感器检测障碍物位置,单片机控制系统通过 PID 控制算法对采集的信号进行处理,语音模块选用 ISD1420语音芯片进行报警。实验结果表明,该系统性能稳定,机器人能智能避障和自动语音报警。%In this paper,a kind of obstacle avoidance mobile robot was designed.It adopted the STC89C51 MCU as the control core,the rotation of the robot was controlled by two four-phase six-line stepping mo-tors,which were driven by the special driving chip L293D.Four pairs of reflective infrared sensor were used in the obstacle avoidance module to detect obstacle position.The collected signals were processed by PID control algorithm,and the robot alarmed by the voice chip ISD1420.The experimental results show that the system is stable,the robot is able to avoid obstacles intelligently and give voice alarm automatically.

  15. 基于STC12C5A60S2单片机的视频遥控小车设计%The Design of Wireless Video Remote Control Car Based on STC12 Series MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋扬; 朱江

    2014-01-01

    该文对视频遥控小车进行了深入的研究,设计出了一套基于STC12C5A60S2单片机的视频遥控小车系统。为了能够远程控制小车的运行状态,采用无线视频发射与接收模块将小车在现场采集到的视频信号显示在PC机上,以便控制室的人能够观察到小车现场的实时情况,利用无线数据传输模块完成主控体对小车的控制及小车运行状态的反馈,最终实现了小车的远程实时控制。%In this paper, wireless video remote control car is studied deeply, and designs a system of wireless video remote control car based on STC12C5A60S2 MCU. In order to control operation state of car wirelessly, by using the wireless video transmission and reception module, the video signal is displayed on PC in time to make person who is in control room observe the scene of the car, the use of wireless date transmission module completes the control of controller for car and a feedback of car for control-ler.

  16. 基于ATmega16单片机的空气净化器控制系统设计%Design of Air-purifier Control System Based on ATmega16 MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余阿陵; 陈显彬

    2016-01-01

    本文提供一种能使室内空气得到净化的空气净化器设计。以Atmel公司的AVR单片机ATmega16为核心处理器,通过相应气体传感器进行信号检测,由检测结果,实现了空气排风过滤系统的三个不同等级动力驱动的自动控制。该空气净化器还具有PM2.5检测值显示、甲醛检测值显示、紫外线发生器控制、负离子发生器控制、定时与睡眠设置以及遥控等功能。%This article provides a kind of design of air purifier for indoor air purification. The ATmega16 MCU as the core processor is to use,which is one of the products of Atmel company. Through signal detecting with corre-sponding gas sensor,and base on the detection results,it is achieved the air exhaust air filter system of three differ-ent levels of power driven automatic control. At the same time,This air-purifier is equipped with the PM2. 5 detec-tion data display,the CHOH detection data display,the ultraviolet generator control,the negative ion generator con-trol,the time and the sleep setting ,the remote control and other functions.

  17. 基于MCU新型智能励磁仪的设计与实现%Design and implementation of a type of new experimental instrument of ferromagnetic materials based on MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵继; 朱彦菘; 孙立

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种以现代化的单片机控制技术为基础,结合D/A转换、模拟电子开关、功率放大、液晶显示和串行通信等技术实现对铁磁材料的磁滞回线进行测量的新方法,并在该方法的基础上成功设计并研制出一种新型智能励磁仪,将新仪器与分析仪、上位机等进行联机试验,结果表明新仪器具有更加友好的用户界面,所得实验数据的精度高、可靠性好.同时新仪器具有手动/自动两种工作模式,且可以实现与上位机的数据通信,自动化和智能化程度大大提高.%A new method is presented, which is based on MCU control technology and combined with digital to analog conversion, analog electric switch, power amplifying, liquid crystal display and serial communication technology, to achieve the measurement of the Hysteresis loop. A type of new experimental instrument of Ferromagnetic materials is designed and fabricated successfully based on this new method. Make the new instrument tested with the analysis instrument and the host computer and the result of the test shows the new instrument has more user-friendly interface, the experiment data of the new instrument is more accurate and more reliable. New instrument has a manual/automatic two operating modes and the data communication with the host computeris also can be realized by the new instrument The degree of automation and intelligence is greatly enhanced.

  18. Quantitative metamaterial property extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Schurig, David

    2015-01-01

    We examine an extraction model for metamaterials, not previously reported, that gives precise, quantitative and causal representation of S parameter data over a broad frequency range, up to frequencies where the free space wavelength is only a modest factor larger than the unit cell dimension. The model is comprised of superposed, slab shaped response regions of finite thickness, one for each observed resonance. The resonance dispersion is Lorentzian and thus strictly causal. This new model is compared with previous models for correctness likelihood, including an appropriate Occam's factor for each fit parameter. We find that this new model is by far the most likely to be correct in a Bayesian analysis of model fits to S parameter simulation data for several classic metamaterial unit cells.

  19. Comparison of Codes and Neutronics Data Used in the United States and Russia for the TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Safety Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, Y. S.; Ponomarov-Stepnoy, N. N.; Kompaniets, G. V.; Gomin, Y. A.; Mayorov, L. V.; Lobyntsev, V. A.; Polyakov, D. N.; Sapir, Joe; Pelowitz, Denise; Streetman, J. Robert

    1994-07-01

    The TOPAZ-2 reactor system is a heterogeneous epithermal system fueled with highly-enriched fuel based on uranium oxide, cooled by a sodium-potassium liquid metal (NaK), using a zirconium hydride moderator, with 37 thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) built into the core. The core is surrounded by a radial beryllium reflector which contains rotating regulating drums with moderating segments. An important problem is the guaranteeing of nuclear safety upon the accidental falling of the TOPAZ-2 reactor into water, which leads to the growth of the reactivity of the reactor. It has turned out that it is necessary to use the Monte-Carlo method for the conduct of neutronics calculations of such a complex reactor. In the United States (U.S.) and Russia, different codes based on the Monte-Carlo method are used for calculations - the MCNP code in the U.S., and the MCU-2 code in Russia. The goal of this work is the comparison of the codes and neutronics data used in the U.S. and Russia for the basis of the TOPAZ-2 nuclear safety. With this goal, a joint computer model benchmark of the TOPAZ-2 reactor was developed and the calculations of a series of variants, differing by the presence and absence of water in the reactor cavities and behind the radial reflector, in the position of the regulating drums, in the presence of the radial reflector, etc. were done independently by specialists in both the U.S. and Russia. Along with the reactor calculations, calculations were also done of the nuclei of the core using the MCNP code (U.S.) and the MCU-2 code (Russia). The work done allowed one to obtain results comparing the MCNP code to the MCU-2 code which gave somewhat different results both for the absolute values of Keff and for reactivity effects. In the future it remains to conduct a detailed analysis of the reasons for the discrepancies. For this it is necessary to exchange neutronics data used for TOPAZ-2 reactor calculations in the U.S. and Russia.

  20. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  1. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  2. 基于单片机的食用油掺假探测器的设计%Design of edible oil adulterated detector based on MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国丰; 任忠先; 董荣杰

    2016-01-01

    食用油是人们日常生活中的必需品。为了获取更高利润,不法分子所做的食用油掺假行为已经严重侵害消费者利益并损害其身体健康。因此,开展简便、快速检测食用油掺假情况仪器设计非常有现实意义。基于电导率测量法原理,利用NE555定时器构成检测电路和STC12C5A60S2单片机构成显示电路,检测食用油电导率变化情况,快速判断食用油是否掺假以及掺假程度。结果表明该设计具有线路简单、成本低、使用方便和工作稳定可靠等特点,可用于食用油掺假的检测初筛阶段。%Edible oil is necessary in people’s daily life .In order to obtain higher profits ,the criminal actions of edible oil adulteration have harmed the benefits of consumers and damaged the health of their bodies seriously .Therefore ,it has very practical significance to design the instrument for simple and rapid detection of edible oil adulterated . In this paper , based on the principle of electric conductivity measurement ,a timer NE555 of detection circuit and STC12C5A60S2 micro control unit display circuit are used to detect the changes of edible oil electric conductivity and quickly determine the edible oil adulteration and degree of adulteration .Results show that the designed circuit is simple with low cost , easy to use ,stable and reliable work ,which can be used for edible oil adulteration detection in the initial screening stage .

  3. Design of an Intelligent Fire-ifghting Car Based on MSP430F169MCU%基于MSP430F169的智能灭火小车设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    淮文军; 赵双剑; 仲启磊

    2013-01-01

    设计一个基于MSP430F169单片机的智能灭火小车,系统由电机驱动、距离传感器、灰度传感器、火焰传感器模块组成。通过距离传感器判断小车的行驶状态,改变2路PWM信号的占空比驱动左右轮运动,确保小车在规定场地上不碰擦墙壁。当检测到门口白线时,启动火焰传感器检测房间内有无火源。如果检测到火源则进一步调整位置灭火,如果没有发现火源则继续搜索其他房间后返回原点。经试验测试,小车能在规则内自主完成灭火任务。%Based on MSP430F169 MCU,an intelligent fire-fighting car is designed whose system is composed of a motor module,grayscale sensor module,a distance sensor module and a flame sensor module. Six distance sensors control the travelling attitude of the car and the car’s left and right wheels are driven by changing the duty cycle of the 2-channel PWM signals to ensure that the car will not graze walls on its specified venue. The flame sensor is started to search the source of fire on touching the white line at the gate. If the fire is located,it further adjusts its position to extinguish the fire. Otherwise,it continues to search the other rooms and returns where it starts. By testing,the intelligent fire-fighting car can complete its task automatically within the rules.

  4. 用于8051微控制器的片上调试系统的硬件设计%Hardware Design of an Onchip Debug System for 8051 MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖哲靖; 徐静平; 雷青松; 钟德刚

    2011-01-01

    This paper designed an onchip debug system for industrial 8051 MCU with the process of ASIC and put the all debug fuction into one chip. The debug system not only can make the 8051 halt, run, step into or skip an instruction, but also can read and write all registers, internal and external program memories, data memories and SFRs and set hardware breakpoints in them. A three-wire interface is used by the debug system to connect computer which takes less space than the standard JTAG. It was verified on Xilinx's xc3s400 FPGA and P&R with SMIC 0.18μm technology library. Results shows the system can effectively avoid the disadvantages of traditional debug method based on software simulation or emulator and it also can save much money for users spent on the commercial emulator and improve debug efficiency. The proposed design method is also applicable to other microcontroller.%为工业用8051微控制器设计了一个片上调试系统,将调试功能集成到单片机芯片内部.该系统基于专用集成电路的设计流程设计,不仅具有控制8051单片机挂起、正常运行、单步运行和指令跳转的能力,而且能够读写片内寄存器、内外部数据,程序存储器、特殊功能寄存器的值,并能在其中设置硬件断点.该调试系统使用比工业上的JTAG标准接口占用空间更少的三线接口作为其和计算机的连接通道.系统在Xilinx的xc3s400 FPGA上完成功能验证,利用SMIC0.18μm工艺库完成版图设计.结果表明,系统有效解决基于传统软件调试和仿真器调试方式的弊端,并能省去用户购买商业仿真器的调试花费,减少调试成本,提高调试效率.提出的设计方法同样适用于其他微控制器片上调试系统的设计.

  5. Electronic, optical properties and chemical bonding in six novel 1111-like chalcogenide fluorides AMChF (A=Sr, Ba; M=Cu, Ag; and Ch=S, Se, Te) from first principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, V.V.; Shein, I.R. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ivanovskii, A.L., E-mail: ivanovskii@ihim.uran.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15

    Employing first-principles band structure calculations, we have examined the electronic, optical properties and the peculiarities of the chemical bonding for six newly synthesized layered quaternary 1111-like chalcogenide fluorides SrAgSF, SrAgSeF, SrAgTeF, BaAgSF, BaAgSeF, and SrCuTeF, which are discussed in comparison with some isostructural 1111-like chalcogenide oxides. We found that all of the studied phases AMChF (A=Sr, Ba; M=Cu, Ag; and Ch=S, Se, Te) are semiconductors for which the fitted 'experimental' gaps lie in the interval from 2.23 eV (for SrAgSeF) to 3.07 eV (for SrCuTeF). The near-Fermi states of AMChF are formed exclusively by the valence orbitals of the atoms from the blocks (MCh); thus, these phases belong to the layered materials with 'natural multiple quantum wells'. The bonding in these new AMChF phases is described as a high-anisotropic mixture of ionic and covalent contributions, where ionic M-Ch bonds together with covalent M-Ch and Ch-Ch bonds take place inside blocks (MCh), while inside blocks (AF) and between the adjacent blocks (MCh)/(AF) mainly ionic bonds emerge. - Graphical Abstract: Isoelectronic surface for SrAgSeF and atomic-resolved densities of states for SrAgTeF, and SrCuTeF. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very recently six new layered 1111-like chalcogenide fluorides AMChF were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic, optical properties for AMChF phases were examined from first principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All these materials are characterized as non-magnetic semiconductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bonding is highly anisotropic and includes ionic and covalent contributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduction of magnetic ions in AMChF is proposed for search of novel magnetic materials.

  6. APortable InspectionApparatus forTrain Temporary Speed Restriction Based onAVR MCU%基于AVR单片机的列车临时限速手持巡检设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊; 吴宗泽

    2014-01-01

    近年来为提高列车安全运行,列车临时限速技术被应用到铁路系统,手持巡检设备是临时限速系统的重要组成部分。列车临时限速是指铁道线路固定限速之外的、具有时效性的限速。本文介绍了一种基于AVR单片机ATmega1280处理器的列车临时限速手持巡检设备的工作原理及主要功能。该设备通过ZigBee无线通信技术,准确及时获取布置在铁路上的RFID(射频识别)标签信息,并结合GSM网络及时将标签数据传输给后台系统,以便在出现紧急情况时,快速反应,及时处理危机,最大限度减少损失。%In recent years, in order to improve the safe operation of the train, the temporary speed limiting technology is applied to the rail system. Hand-held inspection equipment is an important part of the temporary speed limiting system. Temporary Speed Restriction For Train refers to the time-based speed limiting except for the fixed speed restriction of the railway line. This paper introduces the work principles and main functions of a hand-held inspection equipment for the temporary speed limiting based on AVR MCU, Atmega1280 microcomputer. The device uses ZigBee wireless communication technology, accurately and timely gets the RFID tag information on the railway, and combines with the GSM network to timely transfer the real-time label data to the back-end systems, so that in case of emergency, realizing rapid response, timely deal with the crisis, and minimizing the loss.

  7. Continental Divide of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Continental Divide of the United States. The map layer was created by extracting Hydrologic Unit Boundary line features from an existing...

  8. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  9. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  10. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  11. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  12. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  13. S12ZVM系列:MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    飞思卡尔半导体公司推出S12MagniV16位S12ZVM系列混合信号微控制器。S12ZVM是集成度较高的无刷直流(BLDC)电机控制解决方案,有助于加快从直流(DC)到BLDC电机的过渡。

  14. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  15. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  16. CO2-emissions from Norwegian oil and gas extraction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from oil and gas extraction matter for the lifecycle emissions of fossil fuels, and account for significant shares of domestic emissions in many fossil fuel exporting countries. In this study we investigate empirically the driving forces behind CO2-emission intensities of Norwegian oil and gas extraction, using detailed field-specific data that cover all Norwegian oil and gas activity. We find that emissions per unit extraction increase significantly as a field’s extraction declines...

  17. CO2-emissions form Norwegian oil and gas extraction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from oil and gas extraction matter for the lifecycle emissions of fossil fuels, and account for significant shares of domestic emissions in many fossil fuel exporting countries. In this study we investigate empirically the driving forces behind CO2-emission intensities of Norwegian oil and gas extraction, using detailed field-specific data that cover all Norwegian oil and gas activity. We find that emissions per unit extraction increase significantly as a field's extraction declines...

  18. FLYING UNITED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apart from selling hundreds of airplanes to China, Boeing buys locally made aircraft parts and transfers technology, in the true spirit of partnership Whenever Boeing's senior manager hear of a visit by one of China's state leaders, it's no doubt cause for celebration. Since China and the United States established diplomatic ties in 1978, every official trip by China's top statesmen has included a meeting with Boeing that

  19. 台湾铭传大学英语教学模式对应用型本科院校大学英语教学的启发%The implications of the English teaching model at MCU for ELT in Chinese application-oriented university

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑珺

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the successful factors that contribute to the Application-Oriented Model implemented at MCU (Minchuan University, Taiwan) which is based on an investigation into the teaching of English at this University. In addition, it also provides many suggested solutions to some of the problems in ELT in the application-oriented universities in China.%  本文在对台湾铭传大学的英语教学情况进行跟踪调查的基础上,对其“应用导向”教学模式的成功要素进行了分析,并结合我国应用型本科院校大学英语教学的特点,对这类大学英语教学的一些重要环节提出建议。

  20. Optimal Extraction of Fibre Optic Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sharp, R

    2009-01-01

    We report an optimal extraction methodology, for the reduction of multi-object fibre spectroscopy data, operating in the regime of tightly packed (and hence significantly overlapping) fibre profiles. The routine minimises crosstalk between adjacent fibres and statistically weights the extraction to reduce noise. As an example of the process we use simulations of the numerous modes of operation of the AAOmega fibre spectrograph and observational data from the SPIRAL Integral Field Unit at the Anglo-Australian Telescope.

  1. Pain experience after simple tooth extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Taiseer Hussain; Alnahar, Amir

    2008-05-01

    To assess pain experience after simple uncomplicated tooth extraction and to see if there is a need to prescribe analgesic drugs after such a procedure. A random sample of patients presenting for tooth extraction at the Maxillofacial Unit, Jordan University of Science and Technology was included. A baseline assessment of previously experienced general and dental pains using numeric scales was done. Subsequently, tooth extractions were done and telephone interviews were made during evenings for a week. Pain intensity was assessed on a numeric scale, and use of analgesic drugs and pain quality were recorded. At the evening of extraction 81.8% of patients had pain. Female gender predominance in pain reporting was statistically significant on postextraction days 3 and 5. Chronically inflamed teeth caused the highest mean pain intensity scores and nonsmokers showed significantly higher mean pain intensity scores compared with smokers. Mild pain was experienced by most patients (38.6%) on the evening of extraction. It was found that 55.3% of participants (largely females) used analgesic drugs on the evening of extraction, and 6.8% of participants still used analgesic drugs on day 7 postextraction. There was a significant correlation between mean pain intensity score and previous dental injection pain. Patients, notably females, experienced pain of varying intensity after simple uncomplicated tooth extraction maximally at the evening of extraction; and greater than 50% of the patients used analgesic drugs. We recommend offering regular analgesic drugs during the first week after tooth extraction.

  2. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  3. Lubricating System of Wind Power Generator Sets Based on 51 Microcontroller Unit%基于51单片机的风力发电机组润滑系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国强

    2013-01-01

    为解决风力发电机组各轴承及齿轮在运行时能自动加注润滑油脂的问题,通过单片机技术开发了一套独立于风电机组主控的润滑自动控制系统,利用单片机对风电机组各轴承及齿轮工作信息的采集并结合预设的工作参数,自动进行内部程序的处理,进而对润滑泵的工作状态加以控制。通过仿真验证,结果表明该系统实现了对风电机组润滑系统的自动控制。%In order to solve the problem of automatically filling in lubrication oil to each bearing and gear of wind power generator unit when they operate, this paper developed a set of lubrication autocontrol system independent of main control of wind power gen-erator sets via 51 microcontroller unit (MCU) technology. The MCU was used to collect the working information of each bearing and gear and to combine pre-set working parameters to automatically carry out internal program processing, which controlled the working state of lubrication pump further. Simulation verification shows that the system has achieved auto-control for the lubrication system of wind power generator sets.

  4. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior across the High-Level Waste Evaporator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, D. G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shah, H. B. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Jain, V. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Occhipinti, J. E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-17

    The Mercury Program team’s effort continues to develop more fundamental information concerning mercury behavior across the liquid waste facilities and unit operations. Previously, the team examined the mercury chemistry across salt processing, including the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU), and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheets. This report documents the data and understanding of mercury across the high level waste 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  5. Distribution of Mosquitoes in the Continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    ISa . DECLASSIFICATION DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 17...smithii Anopheles crucians pufletipenflis quadrir7mcu~attus walkeri CoquiZ Zettidia pe rtu rhans pip iens restuans sactinarius territans iJ0 UJSAF

  6. Extraction parameters for metabolomics from cell extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Zheng; Liu, Xiaojing; Tang, Ngoc Nu; Locasale, Jason W

    2015-01-01

    The successful extraction of metabolites is a critical step in metabolite profiling. By optimizing metabolite extraction, the range and quantitative capacity of metabolomics studies can be improved. We considered eight separate extraction protocols for the preparation of a metabolite extract from cultured mammalian cells. Parameters considered included temperature, pH, and cell washing before extraction. The effects on metabolite recovery were studied using a high resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) platform that measures metabolites of diverse chemical classes including among others amino acids, lipids, and sugar derivatives. The temperature considered during the extraction or the presence of formic acid, a commonly used additive, was shown to have minimal effects on the measured ion intensities of metabolites. However, washing of samples before metabolite extraction whether with water or PBS (both commonly considered practices) exhibited dramatic effects on measured intensities of both intra- and extra-cellular metabolites. Together these findings present a systematic assessment of extraction conditions for metabolite profiling. PMID:25613493

  7. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  8. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce inflammation. Grape seed extract contains the antioxidant compound oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC), which has been studied for a variety of health conditions. OPCs are found in extracts of grape skin and seeds, which are by-products of the ...

  9. 皮肤软组织扩张术联合毛囊单位提取技术治疗烧伤后瘢痕性秃发%Application of soft tissue expansion combined with follicular unit extraction for burn cicatricial bald

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海华; 张菊芳; 李金晟; 贾明; 郭晓波; 王宇燕; 沈海燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of soft tissue expansion combined with follicular unit extraction(FUE) for burn cicatricial bald.Methods 48 patients with burn cicatricial bald (> 25 cm2) were treated in three stages.The expanders were implanted on the first stage.After expansion for 8 weeks,the expanders were taken out and local flaps were transferred.One year later,follicular unit extraction(FUE) was applied on the bald area.Results 48 cases were followed up for 5 years with satisfactory cosmetic results.The VAS assessment of satisfaction on hair appearance after three-staged surgery was 8.2 ± 2.1.Conclusions Soft tissue expansion combined with FUE has a reliable effect for burn cicatricial bald.%目的 探讨并分析皮肤软组织扩张术联合毛囊单位提取技术治疗烧伤后瘢痕性秃发的效果.方法 2007年3月至2013年6月共收治48例患者,秃发面积均大于25 cm2.一期手术行扩张器置入,注入额定容量的200%~ 300%;二期手术在注水完成后8周,行局部皮瓣转移修复术;三期手术在皮瓣修复后1年,行瘢痕区单体式毛发移植.结果 经扩张器联合毛发移植后,48例患者瘢痕区毛发生长自然,随访5年,效果满意.三期手术后的毛发形态满意度的VAS评分为(8.2±2.1)分.结论 皮肤软组织扩张术联合毛囊单位提取技术对头部烧伤后瘢痕性秃发修复效果确切.

  10. FUE高密度毛囊单位移植治疗各部位毛发缺失的回顾性研究%The retrospective study of using high density follicular unit extraction to cure hair loss in every part of the body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛萍; 徐盼盼; 周聪

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo retrospective study and analyze the effect of hair loss treated by follicular unit extraction(FUE). Methods Using FUE technique to extract the follicles of postauricular or occipital region, isolating the follicles to remove redundant adipose and epidermal tissue, then transplant the follicle unit into the forehead hairline, scalp scar, eyebrow, beard, eyelash, pubic hair, et al, with high density. Results All 218 cases treated with FUE were satisifed, got matural appearance, there are no signiifcant scar in the donor site.Conclusion The effect of FUE technology treatment in every part of the body are well, with little trauma, rapid postoperative recovery, natural and beautiful appearance, the method is worth promoting.%目的:回顾性研究并分析毛囊单位移植术( FUE 技术)治疗毛发缺失的应用效果。方法:采用 FUE 技术,选取患者耳后或者枕后区毛囊并提取毛囊单位,对所获得毛囊进行分离,去除多余的脂肪及表皮组织,然后将完整的毛囊单位高密度移植于患者的发际线、头皮瘢痕、眉毛、胡须、睫毛、阴毛等部位。结果:218例患者经过FUE手术均获得了满意的临床效果,外观自然,供区不遗留瘢痕。结论:FUE技术能够有效地治疗瘢痕及各种类型毛发缺失,手术创伤小,术后恢复快,外观自然美观,值得推广使用。

  11. Method of infusion extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  12. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço; Mônica Tirre de Souza Araújo

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portugue...

  13. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  14. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de S. Dardengo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases.

  15. 五倍子水提取物清除牙科综合治疗椅水路生物膜的效果%The clearing effect of Chinese gallnut water extract on the biofilms in dental unit water lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞雪芬; 李聪; 王欣芝; 胡国庆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clearing effect of different concentration Chinese Gallnut water extract on the biofilms in dental unit water lines. Methods The dental unit water lines were divided into two groups. The biofilms in the two groups were cleared by different concentration Chinese Gallnut water extract (lOOmg/ml vs. 62.5mg/ml) for four weeks. The formation of biofilms were observed through laser confocal microscopy after they were dyed by fluorescent yellow at the first,second, third and fourth week after intervention. At the same time,the samples were collected in the cooling water for bacteria culture. Results Before intervention, there was no significant difference in the fluorescent intensity or the bacteria colonies in the cooling water between the two groups(P>0.05). After intervention,there were significant differences in the above index between the two groups (P<0.05). There was positive correlation between the bacteria colonies and the fluorescent intensity. Conclusion Chinese Gallnut water extract can effectively remove the biofilm. The removal efficiency is proportional to the concentration and time.%目的 评价不同浓度五倍子水提取物对牙科综合治疗椅水路生物膜的清除作用.方法 根据干预所用的五倍子水提取物浓度分为A组与B组,两组在实验起始点形成相同的生物膜后进行干预.每天治疗结束后,A组将浓度为100mg/ml的五倍子水提取物、B组将浓度为62.5mg/ml的五倍子水提取物,分别抽吸入综合治疗椅水道内,并保留至次晨,连续使用4周.分别于干预前及干预后1、2、3、4周时采样,荧光黄染色后激光共聚焦电镜观察生物膜的形成情况,照片进行定量分析,同时采集手机冷却水培养计数细菌菌落数.结果 生物膜荧光强度及细菌生长菌落数干预前两组比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);干预后同组不同时间点比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),组间比

  16. Logical unit and scene detection: a comparative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersohn, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Logical units are semantic video segments above the shot level. Depending on the common semantics within the unit and data domain, different types of logical unit extraction algorithms have been presented in literature. Topic units are typically extracted for documentaries or news broadcasts while scenes are extracted for narrative-driven video such as feature films, sitcoms, or cartoons. Other types of logical units are extracted from home video and sports. Different algorithms in literature used for the extraction of logical units are reviewed in this paper based on the categories unit type, data domain, features used, segmentation method, and thresholds applied. A detailed comparative study is presented for the case of extracting scenes from narrative-driven video. While earlier comparative studies focused on scene segmentation methods only or on complete news-story segmentation algorithms, in this paper various visual features and segmentation methods with their thresholding mechanisms and their combination into complete scene detection algorithms are investigated. The performance of the resulting large set of algorithms is then evaluated on a set of video files including feature films, sitcoms, children's shows, a detective story, and cartoons.

  17. A range-rate extraction unit for determining Doppler effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Active ranging technique devised for VHF or S-band radar systems divides target Doppler frequency by counter-generated number that is proportional to transmitting frequency, thus producing target velocity data in terms of speed and distance relative to target transponder.

  18. 1:100,000-scale Counties of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the county boundaries of the conterminous United States (AK, HI and Puerto Rico are available separately). The lines were extracted from U.S....

  19. 1990 County Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the 1990 State and county boundaries of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting...

  20. 2000 County Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the 2000 State and county boundaries of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting...

  1. Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from an extract of the Public-Use Airports...

  2. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehala. G

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS. FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extracting true minutiae.

  3. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  4. Extractant Design by Covalency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Angela Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozimor, Stosh Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cross, Justin Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, Enrique Ricardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Macor, Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.

  5. Parallel Feature Extraction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHuimin; WANGYan

    2003-01-01

    Very high speed image processing is needed in some application specially for weapon. In this paper, a high speed image feature extraction system with parallel structure was implemented by Complex programmable logic device (CPLD), and it can realize image feature extraction in several microseconds almost with no delay. This system design is presented by an application instance of flying plane, whose infrared image includes two kinds of feature: geometric shape feature in the binary image and temperature-feature in the gray image. Accordingly the feature extraction is taken on the two kind features. Edge and area are two most important features of the image. Angle often exists in the connection of the different parts of the target's image, which indicates that one area ends and the other area begins. The three key features can form the whole presentation of an image. So this parallel feature extraction system includes three processing modules: edge extraction, angle extraction and area extraction. The parallel structure is realized by a group of processors, every detector is followed by one route of processor, every route has the same circuit form, and works together at the same time controlled by a set of clock to realize feature extraction. The extraction system has simple structure, small volume, high speed, and better stability against noise. It can be used in the war field recognition system.

  6. Extraction of polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loucif Seiad L.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of certain parameters on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols from an Algerian tree (Pinus Halepensis Mill. Extraction was conducted in a stirred closed extractor. Our study was conducted to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic contents (TPC using Folin Ciocalteu method. A response surface methodology (RSM was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on extraction followed by a composite design (CD approach. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were for a temperature of 45°C and for the smallest particles.

  7. Research on a New United Process of Flotation and Hydrometallurgy for Vanadium Extraction from a Low- grade Vanadium- bearing Stone Coal%某低品位石煤钒矿选冶联合提钒新工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢可可; 薛俊杰; 梅光军; 涂雅洁; 翁孝卿

    2012-01-01

    为了更好地开发利用低品位的石煤钒矿,采用“浮选-焙烧-浸出-萃取”选冶联合工艺制取V2O5。重点介绍了浮选方面的实验研究,确立了浮选的最佳条件为:磨矿细度83.15%-0.074mm、氢氧化钠1500g/t(pH=11)、水玻璃500g/t、煤油150g/t、捕收剂醚胺200g/t。得到混合钒精矿的品位为0.99%,并以浮选的钒精矿为原料,通过焙烧-浸出-萃取工艺,最终制取纯度达98.46%的V2O5。该工艺具有良好的可行性。%In order to develop and utilize low - grade vanadium - bearing stone coal ore, the experiment used a united process of beneficiation and hydrometallurgy consisting of flotation, roasting,leaching and extraction to prepare V205. In this paper, the experimental research on flotation process was primarily introduced. The optimum conditions for flotation were confirmed to be as follows: grinding fineness was 83. 15% - 0. 074 ram, the dosages of sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, kerosene and col- lector was 1500 g/t(pH = 11) ,500 g/t, 150 g/t, 200 g/t respectively. The grade of obtained vanadium concentrate mixture was 0.99%. Taking the flotation concentrate as raw material, a V205 product with a purity of 98.46% was prepared by the process of roasting - leaching - extraction. It was proved that the process has a good feasibility.

  8. Design of voice alarm device for automobile handbrake misuse and overspeed based on MCU%基于单片机的汽车手刹使用不当和超速语音提示装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾萍; 梁文鑫

    2012-01-01

    以STC89C52单片机为核心,综合运用霍尔传感、热释电红外传感、无线传输、数字语音等技术,设计了汽车手刹使用不当和超速行驶语音提示装置.该装置增加了无线发射接收模块编码加载道路限速标准,实现了对汽车的智能限速提示,且安装简单、易于实现.%Voice alarm device for misuse of automobile handbrake and overspeed driving were designed. The device comprehensively applied technologies with Holzer sensing, pyroelectric infrared sensor, wireless transmission and digital voice and so on with STC89C52 MCU as the core, thus increasing standards for speed limit to loading road of wireless transmitting and receiving module code and achieving smart prompt to speed limit of automobile, which was characterized by simple installation and easy realization.

  9. Equilibrium studies of oxalate and aluminum containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to develop data on the solubility and conditions leading to precipitation of sodium oxalate, sodium nitrate, Bayerite (a polymorph of gibbsite, Al(OH)3), and sodium aluminosilicate solids recently found in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The data generated will be used to improve the OLI Systems thermodynamic database for these compounds allowing better prediction of solids formation by the modeling software in the future.

  10. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing...

  11. Compact Design of 10 kW Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Systems with Microcontroller Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiaokang Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fuel, oxidant supply and cooling systems with microcontroller units (MCU are developed in a compact design to fit two 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stacks. At the initial stage, the testing facility of the system has a large volume (2.0 m × 2.0 m × 1.5 m with a longer pipeline and excessive control sensors for safe testing. After recognizing the performance and stability of stack, the system is redesigned to fit in a limited space (0.4 m × 0.5 m × 0.8 m. Furthermore, the stack performance is studied under different hydrogen recycling modes. Then, two similar 5 kW stacks are directly coupled with diodes to obtain a higher power output and safe operation. The result shows that the efficiency of the 5 kW stack is 43.46% with a purge period of 2 min with hydrogen recycling and that the hydrogen utilization rate µf is 66.31%. In addition, the maximum power output of the twin-coupled module (a power module with two stacks in electrical cascade/parallel arrangement is 9.52 kW.

  12. Design of a Distributed Control System Using a Personal Computer and Micro Control Units for Humanoid Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Yamano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Humanoid robots have many motors and sensors and many control methods are used to carry out complicated tasks of the robots. Therefore, efficient control systems are required for the robots. Approach: This study presented a distributed control system using a Personal Computer (PC and Micro Control Units (MCUs for humanoid robots. Distributed control systems have the advantages that parallel processing using multiple computers is possible and cables in the system can be short. For the control of the humanoid robots, required functions of the control system were discussed. Based on the discussion, the hardware of the system including a PC and MCUs was proposed. The system was designed to carry out the process of the robot control efficiently. The system can be expanded easily by increasing the number of MCU boards. The software of the system for feedback control of the motors and the communication between the computers was proposed. Flexible switching of motor control methods can be achieved easily. Results: Experiments were performed to show the effectiveness of the system. The sampling frequency of the whole system can be about 0.5 kHz and that in local MCUs can be about 10 kHz. Control method of the motor can be changed during the motion in an experiment controlling four joints of the robot. Conclusion: The results of the experiments showed that the distributed control system proposed in this study is effective for humanoid robots.

  13. HOUSING UNITS Units in Structure for Vacant Units NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. HOUSING UNITS Units in Structure for Occupied Units NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. HOUSING UNITS Units in Structure for Vacant Units NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. HOUSING UNITS Units in Structure for All Units NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. HOUSING UNITS Units in Structure for Occupied Units NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. HOUSING UNITS Units in Structure for All Units NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Skin Soft Tissue Expansion Operation Combined with Follicular Unit Extraction Technique in the Treatment of Burn Scar Baldness%皮肤软组织扩张术联合毛囊单位提取技术治疗烧伤后瘢痕性秃发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓斌; 耿康; 刘洪均; 熊爱兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical ef ect of extraction technology for the treatment of Burn Scar Baldness after soft tissue expansion application of skin and hair fol icle unit. Methods In our hospital from 2012 March~2014 year in May 98 cases receiving the burn scar alopecia patients, randomly divided into observation group and control group, each 49 cases, observation group of patients with Burn Scar Baldness after application of skin soft tissue expansion operation combined with treatment of fol icular unit extraction technology. The control group of patients with Burn Scar Baldness after application of conventional composite skin graft. Observation of two groups of patients before and after treatment in two groups were recorded respectively, needed for cure time and whether adverse reactions were observed during the treatment. Results The time of cicatricial alopecia patients with skin healing in two groups after burn, the observation group was significantly shorter than the control group, there was significant dif erence, with statistical significance ( <0.05). The total ef iciency of the observation group 95.9%, control group total ef ective rate 77.5%, total ef ective rate of observation group is higher than that of the control group, there was significant dif erence, with statistical significance ( <0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions in 6.1%, the control group adverse reaction rate was 22.4%, the adverse reaction rate of observation group was lower than that of control group were significantly dif erent, with statistical significance ( < 0.05). Conclusion Skin soft tissue expansion operation combined with fol icular unit extraction of significant technique in treating burn scar baldness, significantly improve the healing rate of burn patients, promote the recovery and reconstruction of damaged hair, its clinical advantages of higher, no serious adverse reactions, it is worthy of clinical popularization and application.%目的观察探讨应用皮肤

  20. Nano-electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.

    2013-01-01

    The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 μL acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE......), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary...... as extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction...

  1. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barbosa Suffredini

    Full Text Available Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon and Atlantic rain forest plants, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Seventeen organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 16 plants showed activity against both Gram-positive bacteria. None of the extracts showed relevant activity against the Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  2. Working Condition Characteristics Identification for Extraction Unit By Using M5' Model Tree and Measured Data%采用M5’模型树和测量数据识别抽汽式机组汽耗量特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章坚民; 刘登涛; 吴光中; 张云雷

    2011-01-01

    The working condition characteristics of steam turbine unit will be changed due to aging, so routine shut down test in regular intervals is adopted with special equipment and system in costly expense, identification method using the of existed automation and therefore, the characteristics historical measurement records information system becomes necessary. The steam turbine characteristics normally has the property of non-convex and non-continuity, and multivariate linear regression model is not able to deal with. M5' model tree, a data mining method, is good for segmental linearization of single-output multi-output system, was introduced to model the working condition characteristics of extraction unit and to identify the model structure and its parameters. Such model identification method can be used to achieve the latest characteristics by a scroll way using latest measurement data, which can replace the traditional regular characteristics test. Such method has advantages of effective and efficient in implementation, good in approximation, and special property on processing of non-convex and non-continuous fimction of unit characteristics, and was approved by many CHP stations which shows its good performance and better than the general practiced multi-variables linear model.%汽轮机组特性随着机组老化而变化,传统上采用定期现场实测,需停机和采用专门的设备与系统,费用很高,因此基于现有自动化系统历史测量数据的特性曲线识别方法十分必要。一般汽轮机组汽耗量特性具有非凸和非连续等特点,常规的多元线性回归拟合不能适应。M5’模型树算法是一种多输入单输出系统的分段线性化的数据挖掘算法。提出采用M5’模型树的抽汽式机组汽耗量特性模型和其模型结构及参数识别算法,用于滚动利用最新的电厂测量历史数据获取最新的汽耗量特性。该方法简单、有效,逼近能力强,自动化

  3. Legal Regime of Shale Gas Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some countries with large reserves intend to promote shale gas production, in order to reduce their dependency on imported gas. Shale gas will be an important new aspect in the world energy scene, with many effects.European Union wants secure and affordable sources of energy. Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel and a vital component of European Union's energy strategy. One of the most important aspects is that gas produces significantly cleaner energy than other fossil fuels.From a legal point of view, extraction of oil and natural gas is one of the most highly-regulated activities.In European Union, the regulation of shale gas activities is different if we compare with United States. United States has a complete framework of federal and state regulation of shale gas extraction. More than that, these regulations have evolved in order to respond to the United States shale gas boom.Legal regime of shale gas extraction in every member state of European Union must put together national and European Union regulations in this field of activity.

  4. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-12-01

    Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

  5. Extracting laboratory test information from biomedical text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna Shen Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: No previous study reported the efficacy of current natural language processing (NLP methods for extracting laboratory test information from narrative documents. This study investigates the pathology informatics question of how accurately such information can be extracted from text with the current tools and techniques, especially machine learning and symbolic NLP methods. The study data came from a text corpus maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, containing a rich set of information on laboratory tests and test devices. Methods: The authors developed a symbolic information extraction (SIE system to extract device and test specific information about four types of laboratory test entities: Specimens, analytes, units of measures and detection limits. They compared the performance of SIE and three prominent machine learning based NLP systems, LingPipe, GATE and BANNER, each implementing a distinct supervised machine learning method, hidden Markov models, support vector machines and conditional random fields, respectively. Results: Machine learning systems recognized laboratory test entities with moderately high recall, but low precision rates. Their recall rates were relatively higher when the number of distinct entity values (e.g., the spectrum of specimens was very limited or when lexical morphology of the entity was distinctive (as in units of measures, yet SIE outperformed them with statistically significant margins on extracting specimen, analyte and detection limit information in both precision and F-measure. Its high recall performance was statistically significant on analyte information extraction. Conclusions: Despite its shortcomings against machine learning methods, a well-tailored symbolic system may better discern relevancy among a pile of information of the same type and may outperform a machine learning system by tapping into lexically non-local contextual information such as the document structure.

  6. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  7. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  8. CARICA PAPAYA EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Powdered leaves of Carica papaya (L.) were extracted with ethanol and partitioned in chloroform and distilled .... employed in this research is important in determining whether the ... Screening of higher plants reputed as pesticides using brine ...

  9. Using SI Units in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard

    2011-12-01

    1. Introduction; 2. An introduction to SI units; 3. Dimensional analysis; 4. Unit of angular measure (radian); 5. Unit of time (second); 6. Unit of length (metre); 7. Unit of mass (kilogram); 8. Unit of luminous intensity (candela); 9. Unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin); 10. Unit of electric current (ampere); 11. Unit of amount of substance (mole); 12. Astronomical taxonomy; Index.

  10. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mehala. G

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE) algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS). FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extractin...

  11. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  12. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  13. The Design of Intelligent Temperature Control System Based on MCU IAP15 F2 K61 S2%基于IAP15 F2 K61 S2的智能温度控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚娟; 郭丹; 董春梅; 徐荣梦

    2015-01-01

    本文阐述了智能温度控制系统主要实现两部分功能来设计:一是利用温度传感器测量水温,当水温低于设定的温度值时,继电器闭合,加热器加热,待水温升至预定水温时,继电器断开,蜂鸣器报警,停止加热;二是利用液位传感器测量当前液面高度,当液面高度低于设定的液面下限或超出设定的液面上限,蜂鸣器报警。本次设计的核心单片机为IAP15F2K61S2,温度传感器选用防水型DS18B20,液位传感器选用超声波传感器。%In this paper the temperature control system have two main functions. One is the temperature will be measured with temperature sensor, when the temperature is below the set value, the relay is closed and the heater is heating, when the temperature is equal to the set value, the relay open and the buzzer is alarm and the heater is not heating . Secondly, liquid level sensor is measuring the liquid surface height, when the height is lower than set lower limit or exceeds the maximum temperature, the buzzer alarm. The main microcomputer is MCU IAP15F2K61S2, temperature sensor is DS18B20 , liquid level sensor is based on the ultrasonic sensor.

  14. An Efficient Micro Control Unit with a Reconfigurable Filter Design for Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-An Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low-cost, low-power and high performance micro control unit (MCU core is proposed for wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs. It consists of an asynchronous interface, a register bank, a reconfigurable filter, a slop-feature forecast, a lossless data encoder, an error correct coding (ECC encoder, a UART interface, a power management (PWM, and a multi-sensor controller. To improve the system performance and expansion abilities, the asynchronous interface is added for handling signal exchanges between different clock domains. To eliminate the noise of various bio-signals, the reconfigurable filter is created to provide the functions of average, binomial and sharpen filters. The slop-feature forecast and the lossless data encoder is proposed to reduce the data of various biomedical signals for transmission. Furthermore, the ECC encoder is added to improve the reliability for the wireless transmission and the UART interface is employed the proposed design to be compatible with wireless devices. For long-term healthcare monitoring application, a power management technique is developed for reducing the power consumption of the WBSN system. In addition, the proposed design can be operated with four different bio-sensors simultaneously. The proposed design was successfully tested with a FPGA verification board. The VLSI architecture of this work contains 7.67-K gate counts and consumes the power of 5.8 mW or 1.9 mW at 100 MHz or 133 MHz processing rate using a TSMC 0.18 μm or 0.13 μm CMOS process. Compared with previous techniques, this design achieves higher performance, more functions, more flexibility and higher compatibility than other micro controller designs.

  15. Method of gentle extraction and subsequent concentration at low temperature of natural compounds in the extract from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norddahl, Birgir; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2007-01-01

    membranes for polar solvents and pervaporation membranes for unpolar solutes, where solutes with a low vapour pressure are retained, while components with higher vapour pressures permeate the membrane including water and most other solvents. The operation is performed at relatively low temperature enabling......A unit performing a simple and effective way to extract active phytochemicals from the plant specimens has been developed. The unit is mobile enabling operation near the place of collection of plant specimens reducing waste of potential valuable phytochemicals. The design is based on counter...... current liquid extraction following a pretreatment, where the plant material is harvested and macerated to an extent increasing the extraction of relevant components. The pretreated plant material is fed to an inclined conveyor, counter currently with the extracting solution. The technology, known...

  16. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  17. Tevatron extraction microcomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, L.; Finley, D.A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.

    1985-06-01

    Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance.

  18. EXTRACTION, QUANTIFICATION, AND MOLAR MASS DETERMINATION OF HYALURONIC ACID EXTRACTED FROM CHICKEN CREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. ROSA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Hyaluronic acid (HA is part of the connective tissue. The polymer is composed of alternating units of ß-d-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosamine linked, respectively, via 1-3 and 1-4 bonds. The chicken crest is one of the richest tissues in this polysaccharide. Since Brazil is one of the main chicken exporters in the world, the utilization of the crests of abated animals for the HA obtaining is particularly attractive. The present work sought to extract HA from chicken crest and to determine the molar mass of the extracted acid. Extraction was accomplished by proteolytic digestion with papain during 24 h at 60oC, followed by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC. Hexuronic acid content was determined via the carbazole method, the intrinsic viscosity was measured using the ball viscosimeter, and the molar mass was calculated by extrapolating the calibration line to zero. In addition, qualitative infrared spectroscopy was carried out on the sample using the Bomem MB spectrophotometer. The results show that the extraction method was effective: the extracted acid possesses a large molecular mass, and the extract contains a signifi cant amount of HA.

  19. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  20. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be sure to follow us on Twitter . United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  1. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  2. Extracting oil from coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil having a high volatile load is thus obtained, presenting favourable sensory characteristics. The pulp was physically and chemically analysed to show its benefit and particular properties and, according to the results so obtained, it is a product having potential usefulness.

  3. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition

  4. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  5. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  6. Unitals in Projective Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Barwick, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Unitals are key structures in projective planes, and have connections with other structures in algebra. This book presents a monograph on unitals embedded in finite projective planes. It offers a survey of the research literature on embedded unitals. It is suitable for graduate students and researchers who want to learn about this topic

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  8. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  9. A new model for solvent extraction in columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-12-08

    A new model was developed for analyzing solvent extraction processes carried out in columns. Each column is treated as a series of well-defined equilibrium stages where the backmixing (other-phase carryover) between stages can be large. By including all mass transfer effects in the backmixing value, the same number of stages can be used for all extracted components no matter what their distribution coefficients. This greatly simplifies the calculations required when modeling multicomponent solvent extraction processes. Initial testing shows the new model to be better than either the Height of an Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) or the Height of a Transfer Unit (HTU) method.

  10. Commercial Mobile Device Technology Implementation Implications in United States Marine Corps Processes: A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Martial Arts Program MCRC Marine Corps Recruiting Command MCRD Marine Corps Recruit Depot MCRP Marine Corps Reference Publication MCU Marine Corps... Martial Arts Program (MCMAP), Chemical Biological Radiological & Nuclear (CBRN) training, and annual administrative training. Additionally, the...K., & Garstka, J. J. (1998). Network-centric warfare: Its origin and future. US Naval Institute Proceedings, 124(1), 28–35. Retrieved from http

  11. Design of Display Control System for Quenching Machine Based on MCU%基于单片机淬火机床显示控制仪系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 梅建伟; 周祥成

    2015-01-01

    A new display control system of the quenching machine tool was introduced based on the mi-cro controller unit technology, which communicated with the machine tool detection control system and remote control system by the serial port. The main parameters of the machine tool running were ob-tained and the quenching machine operation was controlled by the display control system. A good inter-active interface was designed with the industrial grade LCD screen. The machine parameters were set and stored through the keyboard. Through a long period use on quenching machine tool, the results show the function parameters meet the design requirements.%介绍了基于单片机技术的新型淬火机床显示控制系统,该系统利用串口分别与机床检测控制系统、远程控制系统通信,获取机床运行的主要参数,并控制机床的运行.系统使用工业级液晶屏设计了良好的人机交互界面,可通过键盘设置机床参数并储存.经长期在淬火机床上使用,结果表明各项功能指标满足设计要求.

  12. Advances in hair transplantation: longitudinal partial follicular unit transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gho, Coen G; Neumann, H A Martino

    2015-01-01

    There are different techniques of hair transplantation. The most common and known hair transplantation methods are the 'strip' method, where a strip of skin containing hair follicles is removed, cut into grafts and implanted in the recipient area, and the follicle unit extraction (FUE) method, in which whole follicle units are extracted one by one and implanted one by one back into the recipient area. The FUE method is more patient friendly and leaves only tiny scars compared to the strip method, which leaves visible linear scars at the donor area. Both methods, however, have the major disadvantage that the extracted hair follicles are removed and the availability of donor hair follicles are limited and results in a decrease in hair density, as no re-grow will occur in the donor area. Since partial longitudinal-follicular unit transplantation (PL-FUT) extracts partial longitudinal follicular units that can be used as complete follicular units to regenerate completely differentiated hair growth and the partial follicular units that remain in the dermis in the donor area can survive and produce hair, PL-FUT enables us to multiply hair follicles in vivo while preserving the donor area. Although this technique is suitable for androgenic alopecia, PL-FUT could also be suitable in persons who have a relative small donor area compared to the recipient area like burn victims, as well as scarring alopecia's like frontal fibrosing alopecia.

  13. Second premolar serial extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joondeph, D R; Riedel, R A

    1976-02-01

    Serial extraction of mandibular second premolars should be considered if they are impacted or in cases with moderate arch length deficiency combined with an absence of dentofacial protrusion. The favorable dental changes associated with this approach greatly minimize future orthodontic treatment complexity and time.

  14. [Amebicidal plants extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara; Sułek, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The free-living amoebae from genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system; amebic keratitis (AK), a chronic eye infection; amebic pneumitis (AP), a chronic lung infection, and skin infection. Chemotherapy of Acanthamoeba infection is problematic. The majority of infections have been fatal. Only a few cases are reported to have been treated successfully with very highly toxic drugs. The therapy might be succeed, if the diagnosis and therapy is made at very early stage of infection. In our experiments we used the following plant extracts: Solidago virgaurea, Solidago graminifolia, Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, and natural plants products as ellagic acid and puerarin. Those therapeutic agents and plants extracts have been tested in vitro for amebicidal or amebostatic activity against pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. Our results showed that methanol extracts obtained from plants are active against axenic pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. trophozoites in vitro at concentration below 0.1 mg/ml. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these extracts are also effective in vivo in animal model of infection with Acanthamoeba sp.

  15. SPS extraction systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    One of the 3-m long electrostatics septa. The septum itself consists of 0.15 mm thick molybdenum wires with a 1.5 mm pitch. Each of the two SPS extraction systems will contain four of these electrostatic septa.

  16. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ilhan Ocakcioglu; Serhat Koyuncu; Mustafa Kupeli; Oguzhan Bol

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum.

  17. Endophthalmitis following cataract extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, K; Coster, D J; Badenoch, P R; Sanders, R; Chandraratnam, E; Kupa, A

    1987-02-01

    We describe a case of bacterial endophthalmitis complicating routine cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation in a 91-year-old woman. The ocular and systemic factors that may have predisposed to intraocular infection in this case, and the possibility of predicting these pre-operatively, are discussed.

  18. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  19. Research of the Control System of Automotive Stabilizer Bar Based on MCU%基于单片机的一种车用稳定杆控制系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙浩; 赵韩; 黄康; 陈奇

    2012-01-01

    叙述了一种车用稳定杆的控制系统,其采用16位飞思卡尔单片机MC9S12XF512为核心CPU,利用横向加速度传感器、方向盘转角传感器和速度传感器等采集车辆行驶时的一些必要信号,根据车辆行驶的实际工况制定相应的控制策略,通过控制单元实现执行机构及时、合理的动作.系统可以根据车辆的不同需要进行设计,能最大程度保证车辆的安全、舒适行驶.%This paper describes a kind of control system of automotive stabilizer bar. It uses the 16 - bit freescale single - chip microcomputer MC9S12XF512 as the core CPU and several sensors to collect some signals of the vehicle, such as the lateral acceleration sensor, the steering wheel angle sensor, speed sensor, etc. According to the actual working condition of the vehicle we should formulate the corresponding control strategy to control the actuator acting timely and reasonably through the control unit. This system can be designed according to the different needs of the vehicle and it can guarantee the vehicle to run safely and comfortably to the maximum extent.

  20. Hot Carrier extraction with plasmonic broadband absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Charlene; Dligatch, Svetlana; Roberts, Ann; Davis, Timothy J; Mulvaney, Paul; Gomez, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Hot charge carrier extraction from metallic nanostructures is a very promising approach for applications in photo-catalysis, photovoltaics and photodetection. One limitation is that many metallic nanostructures support a single plasmon resonance thus restricting the light-to-charge-carrier activity to a spectral band. Here we demonstrate that a monolayer of plasmonic nanoparticles can be assembled on a multi-stack layered configuration to achieve broad-band, near-unit light absorption, which is spatially localised on the nanoparticle layer. We show that this enhanced light absorbance leads to $\\sim$ 40-fold increases in the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency by the plasmonic nanostructures. We developed a model that successfully captures the essential physics of the plasmonic hot-electron charge generation and separation in these structures. This model also allowed us to establish that efficient hot carrier extraction is limited to spectral regions where the photons possessing energies higher than the S...

  1. Rule Extraction using Artificial Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been successfully applied to a variety of business application problems involving classification and regression. Although backpropagation neural networks generally predict better than decision trees do for pattern classification problems, they are often regarded as black boxes, i.e., their predictions are not as interpretable as those of decision trees. In many applications, it is desirable to extract knowledge from trained neural networks so that the users can gain a better understanding of the solution. This paper presents an efficient algorithm to extract rules from artificial neural networks. We use two-phase training algorithm for backpropagation learning. In the first phase, the number of hidden nodes of the network is determined automatically in a constructive fashion by adding nodes one after another based on the performance of the network on training data. In the second phase, the number of relevant input units of the network is determined using pruning algorithm. The ...

  2. Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Sandall, Jane

    2012-01-01

    women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 lowrisk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were...... prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher...

  3. Design of numerical control DC current source based on 89C2051 MCU%基于89C2051单片机控制的数控直流电流源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康学福

    2014-01-01

    数字化电源的发展,已经形成了一门综合性的学科。在现代化工农业生产、通信、电子仪器仪表、国防事业以及高新技术的装备中,高可靠性、高效率的电源,是不可缺少的设备之一。该设计采用89C2051单片机作为控制单元,利用X9241数字电位器、模/数转换器与恒流源电路部分构成数控可调的恒流电流源,系统中主要应用了数字电位器,它的输出电压作为恒流源部分的参考电压,该电压通过电压跟随器送入恒流源控制电路,从而实现恒流的输出。输出电流的给定由输入键盘来设定,89C2051通过I2C总线方式与X9241实现数据的传输。显示采用4位LED数码管,显示驱动采用软译码方式。%The digital power supply has formed a comprehensive discipline. The power supply with high reliability and high efficiency is one of the necessary equipments in the modern industry and agriculture production,communication,electronic in-strumentation,national defense and high-tech equipments. 89C2051 single chip microcomputer is used as the control unit in this design. The constant current source with numerical control and adjustability is made up by X9241 digital potentiometer,A/D converter and constant current source circuit. The system is applied mainly to the digital potentiometer. Its output voltage is taken as the reference voltage of the constant current source. The voltage is sent into constant current source control circuit through a voltage follower to achieve the constant current output. The output current is set by the keyboard. The data transmission of 89C2051 is realized by I2C bus and X9241. The four-bit LED nixie tube is adopted for display. The soft decoding mode is em-ployed for display drive.

  4. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  5. Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    In 1937,Zhang Ying studied at the Lu Xun Art Institute in Yan’an.After graduation she began working in the art world under Zhou Enlai’s direction.In 1983, she followed her husband Zhang Wenjin to the United States as wife of the ambassador.During her two-year stay in the U.S., she came into close contact with many American women while working to promote mutual understanding and friendship between the people of the two countries.After her retirement in 1991,she sponsored the production of a 10-episode documentary TV program,"Zhou Enlai and the Arts."She also wrote a book about her experience in the United States,Called,Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States—Notes of an Ambassador’s Wife.The following are extracts from the book.

  6. Comparison of the outcomes of the lower incisor extraction, premolar extraction and non-extraction treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan; Malkoc, Siddik; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the treatment outcome of lower incisor extraction and to compare it with premolar extraction and non-extraction treatment. The sample consisted of 60 subjects with Class I malocclusion and moderate crowding. The sample was separated into three groups: extraction of a lower incisor group, extraction of a four first premolar group and a non-extraction group. All groups involved 13 girls and 7 boys with a total of 20 patients. The Peer assessment rating (PAR) index was applied to a patient's pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) dental casts. T1 dental casts were also used for determining Bolton discrepancy. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. For the mean percentage PAR score reduction for each group, there was one significant difference seen between the lower incisor extraction group and the non-extraction group (P = 0.047). For the mean anterior ratios, there were significant differences among premolar extraction group versus non-extraction group (P = 0.042) and non-extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.000). For the mean overall ratios, there were significant differences among the premolar extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.048) and the non-extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.001). Orthodontic treatment without extraction has a better treatment outcome than the four-first premolar extraction and single lower incisor extraction protocols in Class I cases with moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding.

  7. Extracting tag hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...

  8. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  9. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Organic Matter from Petroleum Source Rocks and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈忠民; 周光甲; 等

    1996-01-01

    Organic matter was experimentally extracted by supercritical fluids(CO2+1% isopropanol)from petroleum source rocks of different thermo-maturities at different buried depths in the same stratigraphic unit in the Dongying Basin.The results show that supercritical fluid extraction(SFE)is more effective than Soxhlet extraction(SE),with higher amounts and greater varieties of hydrocarbons and soluble organic matter becoming extractive.The supercritical CO2 extraction is therefore considered more valuable in evaluation of petroleum source rocks and oil resources,particularly those of immature types.

  10. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  11. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  12. Extracting viral RNAs from plant protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Marc R; Andrew White, K

    2007-08-01

    The analysis of viral RNA is a fundamental aspect of plant RNA virus research. Studies that focus on viral RNAs often involve virus infections of plant protoplasts (see UNITS 16D.1-16D.4). Protoplast offer the advantage of simultaneous initiation of infections, which allows for superior temporal and quantitative analyses of viral RNAs. The efficient isolation of intact viral RNA is key to any such investigations. This unit describes two basic protocols for extracting viral RNAs from plant protoplasts. An approach for preparing double-stranded viral RNA from total RNA pools is also provided. The viral RNA prepared by using these techniques can be used for further analyses such as primer extension, reverse transcription-PCR, and northern blotting.

  13. Box-Behnken实验设计法优化荚蒾果中绿原酸的提取工艺%Optimization of Extraction Process of Chlorogenic Acid in Viburnum Sargenti Koehne by Box-Behnken Centre-united Experiment Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇; 李洪阳; 祝天恩; 肖光玲; 李彦冰

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the extraction condition of chlorogenic acid in Viburnum sargenti Koehne .Methods: The condition for the extraction technique of chlorogenic acid in by response surface method was optimized based on the single factor tests, with the extraction rate of chlorogenic acid as the response value.Results: The optimal extraction process was as follows:extraction time 70 min,ratio of solid to liquid 1:14 and two time of extraction .Conclusion:The study provides a theoretical basis for the industri-alized production of chlorogenic acid in Viburnum sargenti Koehne.%目的:优选鸡树条芙蒾果实中有效成分绿原酸的最佳提取工艺。方法:采用Box-Behnken的实验设计,利用响应面法对荚蒾果中绿原酸的水提工艺进行优化,以绿原酸的含量为考察指标,采用紫外分光光度法进行测定。结果:最佳提取工艺为以14倍量的水提取2次,每次70分钟。结论:该工艺方法对有效成分提取率较高,合理,可行,为荚蒾果绿原酸的工业化生产提供一定的理论依据。

  14. SURFACTANT-ENHANCED EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION VERSUCHSEININCHTUNG ZUR GRUNDWASSER-UND ALTLASTENSANIERUNG (VEGAS) FACILITY, STUTTGART, GERMANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) summarized the results of an evaluation of a surfactant-enhanced extraction technology. This evaluation was conducted under a bilateral agreement between the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund ...

  15. In-Situ Liquid Extraction and Analysis Platform for Mars and Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, F.; Wu, D.; Mora, M. F.; Creamer, J. S.; Willis, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    We present a compact sample extractor and analysis unit, based on subcritical water extraction and flow injection analysis, that could be used to support robotic missions seeking chemical signatures of life on Mars, Europa, Enceladus or Titan.

  16. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  17. Driver Fatigue Features Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengtian Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver fatigue is the main cause of traffic accidents. How to extract the effective features of fatigue is important for recognition accuracy and traffic safety. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new method of driver fatigue features extraction based on the facial image sequence. In this method, first, each facial image in the sequence is divided into nonoverlapping blocks of the same size, and Gabor wavelets are employed to extract multiscale and multiorientation features. Then the mean value and standard deviation of each block’s features are calculated, respectively. Considering the facial performance of human fatigue is a dynamic process that developed over time, each block’s features are analyzed in the sequence. Finally, Adaboost algorithm is applied to select the most discriminating fatigue features. The proposed method was tested on a self-built database which includes a wide range of human subjects of different genders, poses, and illuminations in real-life fatigue conditions. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. 基于PIC16 F877单片机的加热炉模糊控制系统设计与研究%Design and research of heating furnace fuzzy control system based on PIC16 F877 MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓侃; 上官建林; 朱振伟

    2015-01-01

    针对热处理加热炉具有大惯性、纯滞后等非线性时变的特点,基于精确数学模型的常规PID控制难以保证加热工艺要求。设计一种基于PIC16 F877单片机的加热炉模糊控制系统,具有数据采集、炉温控制以及故障监测等功能,采用规则自寻优的控制算法进行过程控制,对该算法进行了深入的研究,从而实现了对整个加热过程的全自动智能控制。以某加热炉为对象用MATLAB进行了仿真,结果表明该系统控制精度高,超调量小,鲁棒性强,对工业加热炉的控制具有一定的推广价值。%The conventional PID control based on precise mathematical model is difficult to guarantee heating process requirements because the heat treatment furnace with large inertia and time delay of non-linear and time -varying characteristics. Designed the heating furnace fuzzy control system based on PIC16F877 MCU with the functions of data acquisition, furnace temperature control and fault detection. The process control uses the algorithm of self-optimizing rules wihich is studied thoroughly,and the en-tire heating process has realized automatic intelligent control in this way. A furnace for the object was simulated with MATLAB, simulation results show that the control system of high precision, small over-shoot, reliability, wihich has some promotional value for the control of industrial furnace.

  19. 基于PIC16F877A单片机的无线遥控智能小车设计与实现%Design and Realization of Wireless Remote Control Smart Car Based on PIC16F877A MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆振先; 王倩

    2014-01-01

    The paper designs a wireless remote control smart car based on PIC16F877A MCU. The car operates with two run-modes: wireless remote control run mode and automatic run mode. The wireless remote control run mode is able to make an accurate control within 300 meters with the function of forwardness, backwardness ac-celeration, deceleration, left turn, and right turn .The automatic run mode has the obstacle avoidance in the right and left direction ahead. The wireless control mode adopts the RF technology, which overcomes the disadvantag-es of traditional infrared ray wireless control for the short-distance control and susceptible to interference. The car is equipped with a LCD screen, which displays the current state of the car including run speed, run direc-tion, run mode, etc. The car runs normally and steadily in testing.%设计了基于PIC16F877A单片机的无线遥控智能小车,使其具有无线遥控驾驶和自动驾驶两种模式,无线遥控驾驶模式能在300 m范围内对小车进行高精度控制,并能够实现小车的前进、后退、加速、减速、左转弯、右转弯的遥控功能。自动驾驶模式能够实现小车左右避障功能。无线模块采用射频无线收发技术,克服了传统红外遥控的控制范围小、抗干扰性不高的缺点。在小车上还配备液晶显示屏,能实时显示小车的行驶速度、方向、驾驶模式等信息。

  20. THE CHEMICAL AND RADIATION RESISTANCE OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE AS ENCOUNTERED IN THE NUCLEAR WASTE CLEANING PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.

    2011-10-20

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 16 years of gamma irradiation and several months of exposures to caustic solution, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, PPS is remarkably stable to the new solvent.

  1. Laboratory-scale integrated ARP filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. There is a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. This task attempted to simulate the entire ARP process, including multiple batches (5), washing, chemical cleaning, and blending the feed with heels and recycle streams. The objective of the tests was to determine whether one of these processes is causing excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter. The authors conducted the tests with feed solutions containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 simulant supernate with no MST.

  2. THE CHEMICAL AND RADIATION RESISTANCE OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE AS ENCOUNTERED IN THE NUCLEAR WASTE CLEANING PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.

    2011-10-20

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 16 years of gamma irradiation and several months of exposures to caustic solution, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, PPS is remarkably stable to the new solvent.

  3. A Novel System for Non-Invasive Method of Animal Tracking and Classification in Designated Area Using Intelligent Camera System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matuska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a novel system for non-invasive method of animal tracking and classification in designated area. The system is based on intelligent devices with cameras, which are situated in a designated area and a main computing unit (MCU acting as a system master. Intelligent devices track animals and then send data to MCU to evaluation. The main purpose of this system is detection and classification of moving animals in a designated area and then creation of migration corridors of wild animals. In the intelligent devices, background subtraction method and CAMShift algorithm are used to detect and track animals in the scene. Then, visual descriptors are used to create representation of unknown objects. In order to achieve the best accuracy in classification, key frame extraction method is used to filtrate an object from detection module. Afterwards, Support Vector Machine is used to classify unknown moving animals.

  4. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  5. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  6. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  7. DNA extraction from crayfish exoskeleton

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Yanhe; Wang, Weimin; Liu, Xiaolian; Luo, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Gul, Yasmeen

    2011-01-01

    .... However, it is difficult to extract DNA from them. This study was intended to investigate CE as a DNA source and design an easy and efficient DNA extraction protocol for polymerase chain reactions...

  8. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  9. Contact dermatitis to botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiken, David A; Cohen, David E

    2002-09-01

    A review of the literature of reported cases of contact dermatitis to a variety of natural herbal extracts is Presented. Natural extracts are commonly used ingredients in many cosmetic preparations and homeopathic remedies. Although the term natural botanical extracts inherently purports to have beneficial and benign properties, these extracts can cause adverse reactions in individuals. As such, dermatologists should be cognizant of these agents as possible sources of allergenicity in patients presenting with contact dermatitis.

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  11. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  12. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  13. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  14. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  15. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  16. Conflict Resolution Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busselle, Tish

    This 7-day unit, intended for use with secondary students, contains a statement of rationale and objectives, lesson plans, class assignments, teacher and student bibliographies, and suggestions for instructional materials on conflict resolution between individuals, groups, and nations. Among the six objectives listed for the unit are: 1) explain…

  17. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  18. Unit on Existentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Bobby

    1971-01-01

    A unit on existentialism is suggested to counteract the indifferent attitude that students have toward much of the literature with which they are presented. The key to a successful literature unit is immediate and total student involvement. Topics, authors, and works which may be used to arouse student interest are presented. (CK)

  19. Electrically propelled hang glider for small unit battlefield mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Rodney S.

    1999-01-01

    On the high speed, info-centric, dispersed battlefield of the future, information dominance will require increased small unit battlefield mobility. The trend of the future will be towards smaller units responsible for scouting, securing, and shaping the battlefield prior to a larger, heavier force being injected at the crucial time and place to decisively engage the enemy. This light scouting, shaping force has a need for some type of vehicle to provide battlefield mobility, insert, extract, ...

  20. Application of ultrasound in extractive metallurgy: Sonochemical extraction of nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesic, Batric; Zhou, Taili

    1992-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound in solvent extraction was examined by studying solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70 extractants. The studied parameters were ultrasonic energy and frequency, pH, temperature, and organic and aqueous solution composition. The stability of extractants under the influence of ultrasound was also examined. It was found that ultrasound had a significant importance, because it increased the extraction rates four- to sevenfold. The effect of ultrasound was physical, i.e., to increase the surface area. Ultrasonic energy consumption was also evaluated. The consumption was high, but it can be significantly reduced by the appropriate method of application. A novel solvent extraction method, extraction-in-pipe, was also proposed.

  1. Trainable unit selection speech synthesis under statistical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG RenHua; DAI LiRong; LING ZhenHua; HU Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a trainable unit selection speech synthesis method based on statistical modeling framework. At training stage, acoustic features are extracted from the training database and statistical models are estimated for each feature. During synthesis, the optimal candidate unit sequence is searched out from the database following the maximum likelihood criterion derived from the trained models. Finally, the waveforms of the optimal candidate units are concatenated to produce synthetic speech. Experiment results show that this method can improve the automation of system construction and naturalness of synthetic speech effectively compared with the conventional unit selection synthe-sis method. Furthermore, this paper presents a minimum unit selection error model training criterion according to the characteristics of unit selection speech synthesis and adopts discriminative training for model parameter estimation. This criterion can finally achieve the full automation of system con-struction and improve the naturalness of synthetic speech further.

  2. Construction of a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE equipment: validation using annatto and fennel and extract analysis by thin layer chromatography coupled to image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cezar Flores JOHNER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work describes setting up a laboratory unit for supercritical fluid extraction. In addition to its construction, a survey of cost was done to compare the cost of the homemade unit with that of commercial units. The equipment was validated using an extraction of annatto seeds’ oil, and the extraction and fractionation of fennel oil were used to validate the two separators; for both systems, the solvent was carbon dioxide. The chemical profiles of annatto and fennel extracts were assessed using thin layer chromatography; the images of the chromatographic plates were processed using the free ImageJ software. The cost survey showed that the homemade equipment has a very low cost (~US$ 16,000 compared to commercial equipment. The extraction curves of annatto were similar to those obtained in the literature (yield of 3.8% oil. The separators were validated, producing both a 2.5% fraction of fennel seed extract rich in essential oils and another extract fraction composed mainly of oleoresins. The ImageJ software proved to be a low-cost tool for obtaining an initial evaluation of the chemical profile of the extracts.

  3. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  4. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  5. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  6. Green Approaches to Extract Astaxanthin from Shrimp Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility...... of commercial use of the green solvents under plausible process conditions is compared to extraction with a mixture of hexane: isopropanol. Process flowsheets describing these processes were created using SuperPro Designer. Although the astaxanthin extraction yield was highest when using hexane: isopropanol......, according to the economic analysis, the green solvents showed lower capital and operating costs. Extraction with methyl ester of sunflower oil was found to be the more efficient green solvent process investigated with respect to production rate and unit cost of concentrated astaxanthin (155 ppm)....

  7. Extraction and Analysis of Terpenes/Terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zuodong; Kempinski, Chase; Chappell, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Terpenes/terpenoids constitute one of the largest classes of natural products, this is due to the incredible chemical diversity that can arise from the biochemical transformations of the relatively simple prenyl diphosphate starter units. All terpenes/terpenoids comprise a hydrocarbon backbone that is generated from the various length prenyl diphosphates (a polymer chain of prenyl units). Upon ionization (removal) of the diphosphate group, the remaining allylic carbocation intermediates can be coaxed down complex chemical cascades leading to diverse linear and cyclized hydrocarbon backbones, which can then be further modified with a wide range of functional groups (e.g. alcohol, ketones, etc.) and substituent additions (e.g. sugars, fatty acids). Because of this chemical diversity, terpenes/terpenoids have great industrial uses as flavors, fragrances, high grade lubricants, biofuels, agricultural chemicals and medicines. The protocols presented here focus on the extraction of terpenes/terpenoids from various plant sources and have been divided into extraction methods for terpenes/terpenoids with various levels of chemical decoration, from the relative small, nonpolar, volatile hydrocarbons to substantially large molecules with greater physical complexity due to their chemical modifications.

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction of hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN ZEKOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.

  9. Extracting Text from Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  10. EXTRACTING TEXT FROM VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  11. The constitutive equation for membrane tether extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Yao, Da-Kang; Shao, Jin-Yu

    2010-12-01

    Membrane tethers or nanotubes play a critical role in a variety of cellular and subcellular processes such as leukocyte rolling and intercellular mass transport. The current constitutive equations that describe the relationship between the pulling force and the tether velocity during tether extraction have serious limitations. In this article, we propose a new phenomenological constitutive equation that captures all known characteristics of nanotube formation, including nonlinearity, nonzero threshold force, and possible negative tether velocity. We used tether extraction from endothelial cells as a prototype to illustrate how to obtain the material constants in the constitutive equation. With the micropipette aspiration technique, we measured tether pulling forces at both positive and negative tether velocities. We also determined the threshold force of 55 pN experimentally for the first time. This new constitutive equation unites two established ones and provides us a unified platform to better understand not only the physiological role of tether extraction during leukocyte rolling and intercellular or intracellular transport, but also the physics of membrane tether growth or retraction.

  12. United nations Orchestra

    CERN Multimedia

    MusiClub

    MusiClub United nations Orchestra www.ungenevaorchestra.ch An organizing committee has taken the initiative to create an Orchestra of the united nations at Geneva. In the context of this initiative, musicians in the following categories are invited to become members of the Orchestra and the Association: Active or retired staff of International organizations in Geneva; Active or retired employees of Permanent Missions to the United Nations at Geneva; as well as children and spouses of the above persons. For enrolment or for additional information, please contact: un.orchestra@yahoo.com

  13. Protease activity in cockroach and basidiomycete allergen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtim, S; Lehrer, S B; Salvaggio, J E; Horner, W E

    1993-01-01

    Inherent proteolytic activity was estimated in cockroach and basidiomycete extracts by quantifying acid soluble peptides that were released by incubating extracts with 1% bovine serum albumin as measured by Lowry (Sigma). Reference proteases released 740 (Proteinase K, 0.1 U), 248 (Trypsin, 1.0 U), and 533 micrograms/ml (Pronase, 0.5 U) of soluble peptides. American whole body cockroach extract (0.1 mg dry weight) released 330 micrograms/ml of soluble peptides, representing 13 trypsin equivalent units (TEU)/mg. Extracts from spores of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus released 230 micrograms/ml (0.9 TEU/mg) and Pleurotus cap extract released 112 micrograms/ml (0.5 TEU/mg). Mycelium of Pleurotus and the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis and spores of Psilocybe and the puffball Calvatia cyathiformis showed negligible amounts of proteolytic activity. The protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride reduced the proteolytic activity of American whole body cockroach extract by 80% (@1 mM) and the inhibitor ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of Pleurotus spores by 95% (@1 mM). Loss of allergen activity as determined by RAST inhibition and immunoprinting correlated with protease activity. Thus, in the preparation and handling of allergen extracts, one should employ conditions that minimize proteolysis.

  14. Congressional Districts of the United States - 107th Congress - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Congressional Districts of the United States for the 107th Congress. The map layer was created by extracting lines from existing...

  15. Congressional Districts of the United States - 106th Congress - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Congressional Districts of the United States for the 106th Congress. The map layer was created by extracting lines from existing...

  16. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Congressional Districts of the United States - 107th Congress 200201 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Congressional Districts of the United States for the 107th Congress. The map layer was created by extracting lines from existing...

  17. USGS Small-scale Dataset - County Boundaries of the United States, 2001 200506 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the State and county boundaries of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting...

  18. 1:1,000,000-Scale National Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the boundaries of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting county polygon...

  19. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Congressional Districts of the United States - 106th Congress 20000410 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Congressional Districts of the United States for the 106th Congress. The map layer was created by extracting lines from existing National...

  20. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  1. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  2. United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Ways to Give Matching Gifts Donate Your Car Online Options United Way Close About UMDF Our ... Rights Reserved | UMDF Donor Privacy Policy Facebook Twitter Google+ Youtube Vimeo Instagram Email STAY UPDATED! Join the ...

  3. Voltage verification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  4. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  5. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  6. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  7. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  8. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  9. Solvent extraction:The coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, Mn+, metalate anions, MXxn-, or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal ...

  10. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    OpenAIRE

    Haritha Kanne; Narayan Pandurang Burte; Prasanna, V; Ravi Gujjula

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: T...

  11. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  12. Major Dams of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting dams 50 feet or...

  13. Foreign Body Extraction Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract are common. Mostly they are swallowed accidentally by children but also by adults. When round and slippery, foreign bodies cause a technical problem for removal. After several days in the stomach they are covered with mucus and extraction becomes even harder. There are various devices designed for use through the flexible endoscope for grasping foreign bodies but due to the great variety of objects, one may face a real problem while trying to remove them. We faced a challenge in a woman who underwent vertical band gastroplasty and was obstructed by a round and slippery hazelnut. We managed to remove the nut using a simple homemade device. This device is easy to make, cheap, and simple to use and maybe useful for various foreign bodies.

  14. Feature Extraction Using Mfcc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mel Frequency Ceptral Coefficient is a very common and efficient technique for signal processing. Thispaper presents a new purpose of working with MFCC by using it for Hand gesture recognition. Theobjective of using MFCC for hand gesture recognition is to explore the utility of the MFCC for imageprocessing. Till now it has been used in speech recognition, for speaker identification. The present systemis based on converting the hand gesture into one dimensional (1-D signal and then extracting first 13MFCCs from the converted 1-D signal. Classification is performed by using Support Vector Machine.Experimental results represents that proposed application of using MFCC for gesture recognition havevery good accuracy and hence can be used for recognition of sign language or for other householdapplication with the combination for other techniques such as Gabor filter, DWT to increase the accuracyrate and to make it more efficient.

  15. Extraction studies of cobalt (Ⅱ) and nickel (Ⅱ) from chloride solution using PC88A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Lin; WEI Jian-hong; WU Gen-yi; F. TOYOHISA; S. ATSUSHI

    2006-01-01

    Solvent extraction study of cobalt and nickel were carried out from a chloride solution with a high ratio of Co to Ni using the sodium salt of PC88A as extractant diluted in kerosene. The solution was generated in batches by leaching a tungsten super alloy scraps. The results show that extraction rate of metal ions increases with increase of aqueous phase pH value. The pH0.5 value difference of 1.40 with PC88A indicates the possible separation of cobalt and nickel. Increase of the concentration of the solvent can enhance the percentage extraction of both metal ions. Improvement of temperature is beneficial to extraction separation of cobalt and nickel. Extraction and stripping processes were also studied in a cross-current solvent extraction unit and the results were also given.

  16. Dimensionless Units in the SI

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The International System of Units (SI) is supposed to be coherent. That is, when a combination of units is replaced by an equivalent unit, there is no additional numerical factor. Here we consider dimensionless units as defined in the SI, {\\it e.g.} angular units like radians or steradians and counting units like radioactive decays or molecules. We show that an incoherence may arise when different units of this type are replaced by a single dimensionless unit, the unit "one", and suggest how to properly include such units into the SI in order to remove the incoherence. In particular, we argue that the radian is the appropriate coherent unit for angles and that hertz is not a coherent unit in the SI. We also discuss how including angular and counting units affects the fundamental constants.

  17. Using SDI-12 with ST microelectronics MCU's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, Alexandra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hinzey, Shawn Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frigo, Janette Rose [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Proicou, Michael Chris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Borges, Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-03

    ST Microelectronics microcontrollers and processors are readily available, capable and economical processors. Unfortunately they lack a broad user base like similar offerings from Texas Instrument, Atmel, or Microchip. All of these devices could be useful in economical devices for remote sensing applications used with environmental sensing. With the increased need for environmental studies, and limited budgets, flexibility in hardware is very important. To that end, and in an effort to increase open support of ST devices, I am sharing my teams' experience in interfacing a common environmental sensor communication protocol (SDI-12) with ST devices.

  18. 瑞萨在华推广MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    尽管对高端32位MCU的市场需求日益增加,但随着中低端MCU性能的提升以及新应用的拓展,对中低端MCU需求的仍保持增长势态。例如在中国,消费电子产品仍显示出对中低端MCU的强劲需求。根据赛迪顾问数据显示.2004年,8位MCU销售量仍占据中国MCU市场51%的份额。

  19. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU): molecular identity and physiological roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Maria; Raffaello, Anna; Granatiero, Veronica; Tosatto, Anna; Merli, Giulia; De Stefani, Diego; Wright, Lauren; Pallafacchina, Giorgia; Terrin, Anna; Mammucari, Cristina; Rizzuto, Rosario

    2013-04-12

    The direct measurement of mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] with highly specific probes demonstrated that major swings in organellar [Ca(2+)] parallel the changes occurring in the cytosol and regulate processes as diverse as aerobic metabolism and cell death by necrosis and apoptosis. Despite great biological relevance, insight was limited by the complete lack of molecular understanding. The situation has changed, and new perspectives have emerged following the very recent identification of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter, the channel allowing rapid Ca(2+) accumulation across the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  20. Seismicity and faulting attributable to fluid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, R.F.; Castle, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The association between fluid injection and seismicity has been well documented and widely publicized. Less well known, but probably equally widespread are faulting and shallow seismicity attributable solely to fluid extraction, particularly in association with petroleum production. Two unequivocable examples of seismicity and faulting associated with fluid extraction in the United States are: The Goose Creek, Texas oil field event of 1925 (involving surface rupture); and the Wilmington, California oil field events (involving subsurface rupture) of 1947, 1949, 1951 (2), 1955, and 1961. Six additional cases of intensity I-VII earthquakes (M oil and gas fields. In addition to these examples are thirteen cases of apparently aseismic surface rupture associated with production from California and Texas oil fields. Small earthquakes in the Eloy-Picacho area of Arizona may be attributable to withdrawal of groundwater, but their relation to widespread fissuring is enigmatic. The clearest example of extraction-induced seismicity outside of North America is the 1951 series of earthquakes associated with gas production from the Po River delta near Caviga, Italy. Faulting and seismicity associated with fluid extraction are attributed to differential compaction at depth caused by reduction of reservoir fluid pressure and attendant increase in effective stress. Surface and subsurface measurements and theoretical and model studies show that differential compaction leads not only to differential subsidence and centripetally-directed horizontal displacements, but to changes in both vertical- and horizontal-strain regimes. Study of well-documented examples indicates that the occurrence and nature of faulting and seismicity associated with compaction are functions chiefly of: (1) the pre-exploitation strain regime, and (2) the magnitude of contractional horizontal strain centered over the compacting materials relative to that of the surrounding annulus of extensional horizontal

  1. [Quality control of plant extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yun-dong; Gao, Wen-yuan; Liu, Dan; Jia, Wei; Duan, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Tie-jun

    2003-10-01

    The current situation of plant extract in domestic and international market was analyzed in the paper. The quality control of 20 plant extracts which have reasonably good sales in USA market was compared and analyzed. The analysis of the quality control of six plant extracts indicated that there were two main reasons leading to the varied quality specifications among different suppliers. One reason was that the plant species utilized by different companies were different. The other reason was that the extraction processes were different among different production plants. Comparing with the significant international suppliers of plant extracts, the product quality of Chinese companies were not satisfactory. It was suggested that chromatography and chromatographic fingerprint techniques should be applied to improve the quality control standard of plant extract in our country.

  2. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  3. Nutrient intake and cataract extraction in women: a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hankinson, S. E.; Stampfer, M.J.; Seddon, J. M.; Colditz, G A; Rosner, B; Speizer, F. E.; Willett, W C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine prospectively the association between dietary intake of vitamins C and E, carotene, and riboflavin and cataract extraction in women. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study beginning in 1980 with eight years of follow up. SETTING--11 states of the United States. PARTICIPANTS--Female registered nurses who were 45 to 67 years of age. 50,828 women were included in 1980 and others were added as they became 45 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Incidence of extraction of senile cat...

  4. Accelerated solvent extraction of lignin from Aleurites moluccana (Candlenut) nutshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Andrew P; Beach, Evan S; Emerson, John W; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-09-22

    Lignin from candlenut shells was isolated using an ethanol-water accelerated solvent extraction method. Yields (based on Klason lignin) increased from about 14 to 33% as temperature increased from 100 to 195 °C and were also influenced by the amount of aqueous acid used to precipitate lignin from the extraction liquor. These yields were higher than could be obtained using a conventional dioxane-water acidolysis method. The resulting lignin was characterized by IR, 31P NMR, and 1H-13C HMQC NMR spectroscopic techniques. The lignin contained predominantly guaiacyl units, and both the total hydroxyl group content and phenolic hydroxyl group content were high.

  5. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  6. Complex Event Extraction using DRUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    read papers and combine results of individual studies into a comprehensive explanatory model. A first step is to automatically extract relevant events...for public release; distribution is unlimited. Complex Event Extraction using DRUM The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are...event extraction , big mechanism, deep reading REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S

  7. Quasi-linear Dialectica Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Trifon

    Gödel's functional interpretation [1] can be used to extract programs from non-constructive proofs. Though correct by construction, the obtained terms can be computationally inefficient. One reason for slow execution is the re-evaluation of equal subterms due to the use of substitution during the extraction process. In the present paper we define a variant of the interpretation, which avoids subterm repetition and achieves an almost linear bound on the size of extracted programs.

  8. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  9. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  10. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  11. Crystal extraction at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

  12. Evaluation of DNA and RNA extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Shiaw, C S; Shiran, M S; Cheah, Y K; Tan, G C; Sabariah, A R

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method (Methods C and D) and one commercial FFPE DNA Extraction kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). For RNA extraction, 2 extraction protocols were evaluated including the enzymatic extraction method (Method 1), and Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2). Results show that the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A) is an efficient DNA extraction protocol, while for RNA extraction, the enzymatic method (Method 1) and the Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2) are equally efficient RNA extraction protocols.

  13. Analysis of antioxidants extracted from polypropylene by supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, J A; Catalá, R; Gavara, R

    1998-01-01

    Maximal potential migration of six antioxidants (AO) from five polypropylene (PP) formulations was determined by two supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedures, both of which contained static and dynamic steps. All analytical conditions affecting the extraction were studied and optimized using Irgafos 168 as standard. SFE was more efficient as temperature and fluid density increased. During the static step in which the samples were exposed to the fluid without flux, the introduction of hexane and methanol as fluid modifiers significantly improved the extraction. Hexane appears to facilitate polymer swelling while methanol solvates the antioxidants. In the dynamic step (in which the extraction actually occurs) time is the key parameter. Extraction for 90 min results in an efficiency of around 75%. The introduction of modifiers during this step (by an HPLC-SFE procedure) did not produce any significant improvement. When SFE was carried out on all samples, extraction efficiency was around 75% except for Irganox 1010 and Hostanox O3. The large molecular volume of these antioxidants may be responsible for the considerable reduction of extraction efficiency. Particle size and shape of polymer sample were also important. The greater the surface to volume ratio the greater the extraction efficiency.

  14. Battery thermal management unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  15. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  16. Dispersion in unit disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    We present two new approximation algorithms with (improved) constant ratios for selecting $n$ points in $n$ unit disks such that the minimum pairwise distance among the points is maximized. (I) A very simple $O(n \\log{n})$-time algorithm with ratio 0.5110 for disjoint unit disks. In combination with an algorithm of Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, it yields a $O(n^2)$-time algorithm with ratio of 0.4487 for dispersion in $n$ not necessarily disjoint unit disks. (II) A more sophisticated LP-based algorithm with ratio 0.6495 for disjoint unit disks that uses a linear number of variables and constraints, and runs in polynomial time. The algorithm introduces a novel technique which combines linear programming and projections for approximating distances. The previous best approximation ratio for disjoint unit disks was 1/2. Our results give a partial answer to an open question raised by Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, who asked whether 1/2 could be improved.

  17. Antimycobacterial Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata Leaf Extracts Under Intracellular and Hypoxic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatter, Purva; Gupta, Pooja; Daswani, Poonam; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the extracts of Andrographis paniculata has been studied using intracellular and axenic hypoxic conditions. The inhibition (confirmed using the gold standard colony forming unit assay) was found to increase with "double stimuli" or higher concentration of the extract. Organic solvent extracts were found to inhibit bacterial growth more than the aqueous extracts under microaerophilic conditions mimicked through axenic and intracellular assays. This could be further explored to evaluate the potential of the plant to be used against nonreplicating/dormant bacilli.

  18. Signal processing unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J.

    1983-01-01

    The architecture of the signal processing unit (SPU) comprises an ROM connected to a program bus, and an input-output bus connected to a data bus and register through a pipeline multiplier accumulator (pmac) and a pipeline arithmetic logic unit (palu), each associated with a random access memory (ram1,2). The system pulse frequency is from 20 mhz. The pmac is further detailed, and has a capability of 20 mega operations per second. There is also a block diagram for the palu, showing interconnections between the register block (rbl), separator for bus (bs), register (reg), shifter (sh) and combination unit. The first and second rams have formats 64*16 and 32*32 bits, respectively. Further data are a 5-v power supply and 2.5 micron n-channel silicon gate mos technology with about 50000 transistors.

  19. Extractive Metallurgy Program funded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In an effort to concentrate research on ore dressing and metal production, the National Science Foundation (NSF) formed a new basic research program as a part of its Chemical and Process Engineering Division. This program will be under the auspices of NSF's Engineering Directorate. Research is to be supported on every step of extractive metallurgy, from mining to processing to production, and even to reprocessing and disposal. Budgeting for the new program is expected to be on the order of $1.2 million for fiscal year 1981.A program of this nature was apparently considered seriously by the Carter administration as a joint Department of Interior-private industry project of considerable size. Then-Secretary of Interior Cecil Andrus evidently did not support the program, but there is wide agreement throughout the mineral industries and the university community that such research is badly needed for the U.S. to compete. A joint program could benefit by cutting across the many difficult regulations that now are blamed for slowing research in minerals processing in this country.

  20. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... revenue. While there are many equilibria in this auction, only efficient equilibria remain when the truthful equilibrium restriction of the menu-auction literature is used. Focusing on these equilibria we first show that the first-price auction just described is revenue and outcome equivalent to a Vickrey...

  1. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Berceda, 572 F.2d 630 (9th Cir. 1978).. A mere request, such as that made by the defendant, is not sufficient; United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d...a mere request and more than mere speculation that disclosure will be helpful. United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1978), eect. dt...both known and unknown to the Grand Jury, including Lane Boudreau, Scott Willard Holland, James Allen Halperin, Maria Ximena Erlandsen, Derek Adrian

  2. Effect of soybean extract after tooth extraction on osteoblast numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sharon Suhono

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many researches were done to find natural materials that may increase and promote bone healing processes after trauma and surgery. One of natural material that had been studied was soybean extract which contains phytoestrogen, a non-steroidal compounds found in plants that may binds to estrogen receptors and have estrogen-like activity. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean extract feeding on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone socket after mandibular tooth extraction. Methods: This study was studied on male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. Seventeen rats divided into three groups were used in this study. Group 1 fed with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC solution 0,2% for seven days, and the left mandibular central incisivus was extracted; group 2 fed with soybean extract for seven days and the left mandibular central incisives was extracted; group 3 received the left mandibular central incisives extraction followed by soybean extract feeding for seven days after the extraction. All groups were sacrificed on the seventh day post-extraction, and the alveolar bone sockets were taken for histopathological observation. The tissues were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin to identify the amount of osteoblast cells. The number of osteoblast cells was counted using an Image Tool program. The data was analyzed statistically using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: Significant differences were found on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone after tooth extraction between groups. Group 2 (fed with soybean extract is higher than group 1 (fed with CMC and group 3 (fed with soybean extract after extraction. Conclusion: Soybean extract feeding that given for seven days pre-tooth extraction can increase the number of osteoblast cells compared with the group that were not given soybean extract feeding and also with the group that were given soybean extract feeding for seven days post

  3. Allylation of intraerythrocytic hemoglobin by raw garlic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Joseph; Rodriguez, Eva N; Beyley, Veronica; Vega, Irving E

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that deoxygenated human red blood cells (RBCs) converted garlic-derived polysulfides into hydrogen sulfide, which in turn produced vasorelaxation in aortic ring preparations. The vasoactivity was proposed to occur via glucose- and thiol-dependent acellular reactions. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of garlic extracts with human deoxygenated RBCs and its effect on intracellular hemoglobin molecules. The results showed that garlic extract covalently modified intraerythrocytic deoxygenated hemoglobin. The modification identified consisted of an addition of 71 atomic mass units, suggesting allylation of the cysteine residues. Consistently, purified human deoxyhemoglobin reacted with chemically pure diallyl disulfide, showing the same modification as garlic extracts. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that garlic extract and diallyl disulfide modified hemoglobin's beta-chain at cysteine-93 (beta-93C) or cysteine-112 (beta-112C). These results indicate that garlic-derived organic disulfides as well as pure diallyl disulfide must permeate the RBC membrane and modified deoxyhemoglobin at beta-93C or beta-112C. Although the physiological role of the reported garlic extract-induced allyl modification on human hemoglobin warrants further study, the results indicate that constituents of natural products, such as those from garlic extract, modify intracellular proteins.

  4. Analysis of human muscle extracts by proton NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, P.N.; Barany, M.; Arus, C.

    1986-03-01

    Perchloric acid extracts were prepared from pooled human muscle biopsies from patients diagnosed with scoliosis (SCOL) and cerebral palsy (CP). After neutralization with KOH and removal of perchlorate, the extracts were concentrated by freeze drying and dissolved in /sup 2/H/sub 2/O to contain 120 O.D. units at 280 nm per 0.5 ml. /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy was performed with the 5 mm probe of a Varian XL300 instrument. Creatine, lactate, carnosine, and choline were the major resonances in the one-dimensional spectra of both extracts. With creatine as reference, 2.5-fold more lactate was found in SCOL than in CP, and a much smaller difference was also found in their carnosine content. Two-dimensional COSY comparison revealed several differences between the two extracts. Taurine, N-acetyl glutamate, glycerophosphoryl choline (or phosphoryl choline) and an unidentified spot were present only in the extract from SCOL but not in that from CP. On the other hand, aspartate, hydroxy-proline, carnitine and glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine were only present in CP but absent in SCOL. Alanine, cysteine, lysine and arginine appeared in both extracts without an apparent intensity difference.

  5. Extraction treatment in lingual orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases.

  6. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  7. Extracting amplitudes from photoproduction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, R. L.

    2011-09-01

    We consider the problems associated with amplitude extraction, from meson photoproduction data, over the first resonance regions. The notion of a complete experiment has motivated the FROST program at Jefferson Lab. Exercises applied to pion photoproduction data illustrate the problems to be confronted in any attempt to extract underlying resonance signals from these data (without introducing a model for the resonant process).

  8. Extraction systems of the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    A pair of prototype septum magnets for the extraction systems of the SPS. Each of the two extraction systems will contain eighteen of these septum magnets (eight with a 4 mm septum and ten with a 16 mm septum) mounted in pairs in nine vacuum tanks.

  9. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  10. The gastroprotective effects of Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract: the possible role of condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Ligia Carolina da Silva; Silva, Denise Brentan; de Oliveira-Silva, Grasielle Lopes; Hiraki, Karen Renata Nakamura; Canabrava, Hudson Armando Nunes; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz Borges

    2014-01-01

    We applied a taxonomic approach to select the Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract, known in Brazil as "cagaita," and evaluated its gastroprotective effect. The ability of the extract or carbenoxolone to protect the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced lesions was evaluated in mice. The contributions of nitric oxide (NO), endogenous sulfhydryl (SH) groups and alterations in HCl production to the extract's gastroprotective effect were investigated. We also determined the antioxidant activity of the extract and the possible contribution of tannins to the cytoprotective effect. The extract and carbenoxolone protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced ulcers, and the former also decreased HCl production. The blockage of SH groups but not the inhibition of NO synthesis abolished the gastroprotective action of the extract. Tannins are present in the extract, which was analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI); the tannins identified by fragmentation pattern (MS/MS) were condensed type-B, coupled up to eleven flavan-3-ol units and were predominantly procyanidin and prodelphinidin units. Partial removal of tannins from the extract abolished the cytoprotective actions of the extract. The extract exhibits free-radical-scavenging activity in vitro, and the extract/FeCl3 sequence stained gastric surface epithelial cells dark-gray. Therefore, E. dysenterica leaf extract has gastroprotective effects that appear to be linked to the inhibition of HCl production, the antioxidant activity and the endogenous SH-containing compounds. These pleiotropic actions appear to be dependent on the condensed tannins contained in the extract, which bind to mucins in the gastric mucosa forming a protective coating against damaging agents. Our study highlights the biopharmaceutical potential of E. dysenterica.

  11. Model analysis of mechanisms controlling pneumatic soil vapor extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Camilla Kruse; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Jensen, Karsten Høgh;

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency of heterogen...... level the pneumatic venting technology is superior to the traditional technique, and that the method is particularly efficient in cases where large permeability contrasts exist between soil units in the subsurface.......The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency...... of heterogeneous soils by enforcing large fluctuating pressure fronts through the contaminated area. Laboratory experiments have suggested that pneumatic SVE considerably improves the recovery rate from low-permeable units. We have analyzed the experimental results using a numerical code and quantified...

  12. Women's Rights Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weigel, Margaret

    Designed for use in the intermediate grades, this interdisciplinary unit helps students examine traditional and modern roles of women. Fourteen lessons focus on women's activities in colonial America, reasons for women's discontent, the women's rights movement of the 1800's, changes in the roles of women, enfranchisement of women, women's role…

  13. Consumer Mathematics. Teaching Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary school. SUBJECT MATTER: Consumer mathematics including--money management, transportation, probability, swindles and gyps, insurance, housing, taxes, consumer credit, banks, savings, and investments. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into ten parallel units, one for each of the above areas, which…

  14. United in change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanneke Posthumus; Josje den Ridder; Joep de Hart

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Verenigd in verandering The importance of citizens who unite in civil society organisations is broadly recognised. Organisations bind people to each other, to the community and to the political system. How are civil-society organisations in the Netherlands faring? Is there

  15. Outdoorsman, Unit III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    The third and final unit of the 4-H Outdoorsman Program covers the most advanced and challenging campcraft skills for 4-H members in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Survival camping (including building shelters and finding food), in-depth map-reading and orienteering, game management, hiking themes and recordkeeping are all…

  16. Sickle Cell Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    Included in this high school biology unit on sickle cell anemia are the following materials: a synopsis of the history of the discovery and the genetic qualities of the disease; electrophoresis diagrams comparing normal, homozygous and heterozygous conditions of the disease; and biochemical characteristics and population genetics of the disease. A…

  17. Whale Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Materials in this teaching unit are designed to foster an interest in whale preservation among intermediate grade and junior high school students. Several readings provide background information on various types of whales and the economic value of whales. Student activities include a true and false game, a crossword, and a mobile. A resource list…

  18. Whale Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Materials in this teaching unit are designed to foster an interest in whale preservation among intermediate grade and junior high school students. Several readings provide background information on various types of whales and the economic value of whales. Student activities include a true and false game, a crossword, and a mobile. A resource list…

  19. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  20. CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Boltz

    2005-03-01

    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions

  1. Electrodeposition in extractive metallurgy: An emerging technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Thomas J.

    1992-04-01

    The electrowinning and electrorefining of metals from aqueous solutions continues to be one of the essential unit processes employed in nonferrous extractive metallurgy. Current processes effectively address both ohmic and mass transport of the primary metal ion in their design. Some deficiencies exist, however, in the basic understanding of the other two critical elements essential in cathodic deposition: activation kinetics and electrocrystallization. The understanding of the latter two must be elevated to the level of understanding of ohmic and mass transport if truly new and innovative advances are to occur. Because of the increasingly demanding standards for electrometallurgy processes and products, technical progress must be made if a competitive edge is to be maintained in the future.

  2. Extraction of photomultiplier-pulse features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerg, Philipp; Baumann, Tobias; Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Kremser, Paul; Kunz, Tobias; Michalski, Christoph; Schopferer, Sebastian; Szameitat, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Experiments in subatomic physics have to handle data rates at several MHz per readout channel to reach statistical significance for the measured quantities. Frequently such experiments have to deal with fast signals which may cover large dynamic ranges. For applications which require amplitude as well as time measurements with highest accuracy transient recorders with very high resolution and deep on-board memory are the first choice. We have built a 16-channel 12- or 14 bit single unit VME64x/VXS sampling ADC module which may sample at rates up to 1GS/s. Fast algorithms have been developed and successfully implemented for the readout of the recoil-proton detector at the COMPASS-II Experiment at CERN. We report on the implementation of the feature extraction algorithms and the performance achieved during a pilot with the COMPASS-II Experiment.

  3. Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-22

    Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network

  4. Sulfur Speciation and Extraction in Jet A (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-16

    present in Jet A: • Detrimental to engine performance: coking, clogging, fouling, and deposits possible • SOx emissions are an...Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-August 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sulfur Speciation and Extraction in Jet A (Briefing Charts) 5a...T. Reams, Richard C. Lee, Joseph M. Mabry 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER Q0BG 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  5. Microwave assisted extraction of biodiesel feedstock from the seeds of invasive chinese tallow tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldor, Dorin; Kanitkar, Akanksha; Terigar, Beatrice G; Leonardi, Claudia; Lima, Marybeth; Breitenbeck, Gary A

    2010-05-15

    Chinese tallow tree (TT) seeds are a rich source of lipids and have the potential to be a biodiesel feedstock, but currently, its invasive nature does not favor large scale cultivation. Being a nonfood material, they have many advantages over conventional crops that are used for biodiesel production. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal oil extraction parameters in a batch-type and laboratory scale continuous-flow microwave system to obtain maximum oil recovery from whole TT seeds using ethanol as the extracting solvent. For the batch system, extractions were carried out for different time-temperature combinations ranging from 60 to 120 degrees C for up to 20 min. The batch system was modified for continuous extractions, which were carried out at 50, 60, and 73 degrees C and maintained for various residence times of up to 20 min. Control runs were performed under similar extraction conditions and the results compared well, especially when accounting for extremely short extraction times (minutes vs hours). Maximum yields of 35.32% and 32.51% (by weight of dry mass) were obtained for the continuous and batch process, respectively. The major advantage of microwave assisted solvent extraction is the reduced time of extraction required to obtain total recoverable lipids, with corresponding reduction in energy consumption costs per unit of lipid extracted. This study indicates that microwave extraction using ethanol as a solvent can be used as a viable alternative to conventional lipid extraction techniques for TT seeds.

  6. Screening for antibiofilm and antioxidant potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Sumreen; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2016-07-01

    The antibiofilm and antioxidant activities associated with turmeric were the main focus of the study. Antibacterial activity was explored against bacteria isolated from dental plaques and dental unit water lines exhibiting resistance against antibiotics and biocides respectively. This study provides a comparison of the natural plant extract against synthetic mouthwash, chemicals and commonly prescribed antibiotics. Methanol extract was more effective as compared to other extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 2.5-10mg/ml. Time based killing kinetic assay showed a significant reduction of bacterial load with increasing concentration of turmeric. Micro titer plate assay indicated significant inhibition of biofilm formation in cells treated with turmeric extract. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts showed the presence of vital secondary metabolites. Flavonoid content and total phenolic content varied among extracts, phenolic content for methanolic extract was 61.669 mg GAE/ gm dry extract and flavonoid content was 3.119mg quercitin/gm dry extract. The values of ferric reducing power were in the range of 5.55- 15.55 mmol of FeSO4 equivalent/ liter of the extract. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of the turmeric extracts had significant positive correlation. On the basis of these results turmeric may confidently be recommended as natural antibiofilm and antioxidant agent.

  7. Simulation of Multistage Countercurrent Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annasaheb WARADE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-Liquid Extraction is one of the most significant unit operations used widely in the chemical industry for the separation of liquid-liquid mixture with the aid of an extracting solvent. There are different contacting patterns for the said purpose viz. co-current, counter current and crosscurrent and also a variety of equipments are encountered. This paper deals with the simulation of counter current liquid-liquid extraction operation for the special case of immiscible solvent using MATLAB. In this paper seven case studies have been studied and the results obtained are compared with the literature and it was found that results are in good agreement with the literature available.

  8. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

    2014-08-01

    The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety.

  9. Event extraction for DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohta Tomoko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. Results We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts including a representative sample of all PubMed citations relevant to DNA methylation, and introduce manual annotation for this corpus marking nearly 3000 gene/protein mentions and 1500 DNA methylation and demethylation events. We retrain a state-of-the-art event extraction system on the corpus and find that automatic extraction of DNA methylation events, the methylated genes, and their methylation sites can be performed at 78% precision and 76% recall. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that reliable extraction methods for DNA methylation events can be created through corpus annotation and straightforward retraining of a general event extraction system. The introduced resources are freely available for use in research from the GENIA project homepage http://www-tsujii.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/GENIA.

  10. Microwave Extraction of Lunar Water for Rocket Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Donahue, Benjamin; Kaukler, William

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50% of the lunar surface is oxygen, present as oxides in silicate rocks and soil. Methods for reduction of these oxides could liberate the oxygen. Remote sensing has provided evidence of significant quantities of hydrogen possibly indicating hundreds of millions of metric tons, MT, of water at the lunar poles. If the presence of lunar water is verified, water is likely to be the first in situ resource exploited for human exploration and for LOX-H2 rocket fuel. In-Situ lunar resources offer unique advantages for space operations. Each unit of product produced on the lunar surface represents 6 units that need not to be launched into LEO. Previous studies have indicated the economic advantage of LOX for space tugs from LEO to GEO. Use of lunar derived LOX in a reusable lunar lander would greatly reduce the LEO mass required for a given payload to the moon. And Lunar LOX transported to L2 has unique advantages for a Mars mission. Several methods exist for extraction of oxygen from the soil. But, extraction of lunar water has several significant advantages. Microwave heating of lunar permafrost has additional important advantages for water extraction. Microwaves penetrate and heat from within not just at the surface and excavation is not required. Proof of concept experiments using a moon in a bottle concept have demonstrated that microwave processing of cryogenic lunar permafrost simulant in a vacuum rapidly and efficiently extracts water by sublimation. A prototype lunar water extraction rover was built and tested for heating of simulant. Microwave power was very efficiently delivered into a simulated lunar soil. Microwave dielectric properties (complex electric permittivity and magnetic permeability) of lunar regolith simulant, JSC-1A, were measured down to cryogenic temperatures and above room temperature. The microwave penetration has been correlated with the measured dielectric properties. Since the microwave penetration depth is a function of temperature

  11. Development of signal-extraction scheme for Resonant Sideband Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Kokeyama, K; Kawazoe, F; Sato, S; Kawamura, S; Sugamoto, A

    2008-01-01

    As a future plan, an advanced gravitational-wave detector will employ an optical configuration of resonant sideband extraction (RSE), achieved with an additional mirror at the signal-detection port of the power-recycled Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. To control the complex coupled cavity system, one of the most important design issues is how to extract the longitudinal control signals of the cavities. We developed a new signal-extraction scheme which provides an appropriate sensing matrix. The new method uses two sets of sidebands: one of the sideband components satisfies the critical coupling ondition for the RSE interferometer and reaches the signal-extraction port, and the other sideband is completely reflected by the Michelson interferometer. They provide a diagonalized sensing matrix and enable the RSE control to be robust.

  12. Establishment of a New Drug Code for Marihuana Extract. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is creating a new Administration Controlled Substances Code Number for "Marihuana Extract." This code number will allow DEA and DEA-registered entities to track quantities of this material separately from quantities of marihuana. This, in turn, will aid in complying with relevant treaty provisions. Under international drug control treaties administered by the United Nations, some differences exist between the regulatory controls pertaining to marihuana extract versus those for marihuana and tetrahydrocannabinols. The DEA has previously established separate code numbers for marihuana and for tetrahydrocannabinols, but not for marihuana extract. To better track these materials and comply with treaty provisions, DEA is creating a separate code number for marihuana extract with the following definition: "Meaning an extract containing one or more cannabinoids that has been derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis, other than the separated resin (whether crude or purified) obtained from the plant." Extracts of marihuana will continue to be treated as Schedule I controlled substances.

  13. Ultrasound assisted extraction of food and natural products. Mechanisms, techniques, combinations, protocols and applications. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Rombaut, Natacha; Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Meullemiestre, Alice; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Abert-Vian, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in food ingredients and products, nutraceutics, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and bioenergy applications. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about extraction by ultrasound, the techniques and their combinations, the mechanisms (fragmentation, erosion, capillarity, detexturation, and sonoporation), applications from laboratory to industry, security, and environmental impacts. In addition, the ultrasound extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each UAE techniques. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a research topic, which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. All the reported applications have shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for food and natural products. The main benefits are decrease of extraction and processing time, the amount of energy and solvents used, unit operations, and CO2 emissions.

  14. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated.

  15. Implantable defibrillator lead extraction with optimized standard extraction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Ming Chu; Xue-Bin Li; Ping Zhang; Yi An; Jiang-Bo Duan; Long Wang; Ding Li; Bing Li; Ji-Hong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads might not be extracted especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools. We aimed to evaluate transvenous extraction of ICD leads using optimized standard techniques. Methods We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, optimized extraction techniques and the feasibility of extraction for 40 patients (33 males; mean age 47.9 ± 16.1 years) with 42 ICD leads. Results Complete procedural success rate was 95.2% (40/42), and the clinical success rate was 97.6% (41/42). One ICD lead required cardiothoracic surgery. Minor complications occurred in three cases (7.5%), and no major complications or death occurred. Locking stylets were used to extract most leads (34, 81.0%) and almost half of the leads (20, 47.6%) required mechanical dilatation to free fibrotic adhesions; these leads had been implanted for a longer period of time than the others (43.7 ± 18.2 vs. 18.4 ± 13.4 months, P < 0.05). Three-quarters of the leads (30, 71.4%) were extracted with locking stylets plus manual traction (12, 28.6%), or mechanical dilatation with counter-traction (18, 42.8%) by the superior vena cava approach and one-quarter of the leads (11, per lead. Linear regression analysis showed that the extraction time was significantly correlated with implant duration (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). optimized procedure for transvenous extraction of ICD leads provides a practical and low-cost method for standard procedures.

  16. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  17. REACTIVE EXTRACTION OF TARTARIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Marchitan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the results of reactive extraction of tartaric acid in model systems, which can be used for its separation from secondary wine products. As extractant have been used a normal/isododecyl mixed secondary amine Amberlite LA-2. The following parameters of the separation process have been varied: nature of diluent and modifier; modifier concentration; concentration, temperature and pH of the tartaric acid solution and the stirring time, and the work intervals have been established. It was concluded that in determinated conditions the extent of tartaric acid extraction attains value 85-95%.

  18. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 1. Reactive extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of downstream processes for biosynthetic products constitutes a particularity of industrial biotechnologies, especially because of the biosynthetic product high dilution in fermentation broth, their chemical and thermal liability and the presence of secondary products. For these reasons, new separation techniques have been developed and applied to bioseparations. Among them, reactive extraction, pertraction (extraction and transport through liquid membranes and direct extraction from broths have considerable potential and are required for the further development of many biotechnologies. This review is structured on two parts and presents our original results of the studies on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, amino acids, alcohols by reactive extraction in the first part, and by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration in the second. For all the analyzed cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies by reducing material and energy consumption, by avoiding product inhibition, by increasing the separation selectivity, therefore decreasing the overall cost of the product.

  19. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Kanne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO 3 and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S 3 O 9 . Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements.

  20. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.