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Sample records for extraction fast liquid

  1. Contribution to the study of liquid-liquid extraction dynamics in the case of fast transfers. Extractions of uranium, plutonium and neptunium in a laboratory centrifugal extractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeonneau, Philippe

    1978-01-01

    The liquid-liquid extraction (also named solvent-based extraction) is a very important technique for the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels. This research thesis is based on the use of a laboratory centrifugal extractor which allows interesting conditions to be achieved: fast transfer due to an intense solution mixing, very short duration of contact between solutions. Thus, after a report of a bibliographical study on chemical mechanisms of extraction, on the composition of extracted species, on extraction kinetics, and on centrifugal extractors, this thesis reports the design, fabrication and use of a centrifugal extractor: presentation of fundamental principles, description and characteristics (materials, hydrodynamic operation test and problems, prototype). It reports studies of fast transfer kinetics: mathematical processing, result interpretation, results and discussions of extraction kinetics for nitric acid, uranium VI and IV, plutonium IV, neptunium IV, and comparison of the different extraction kinetics

  2. Fast and comprehensive analysis of secondary metabolites in cocoa products using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography directly after pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Irina; Enger, Eileen; Chrubasik-Hausmann, Sigrun; Schieber, Andreas; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2016-08-01

    Fast methods for the extraction and analysis of various secondary metabolites from cocoa products were developed and optimized regarding speed and separation efficiency. Extraction by pressurized liquid extraction is automated and the extracts are analyzed by rapid reversed-phase ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography methods. After extraction, no further sample treatment is required before chromatographic analysis. The analytes comprise monomeric and oligomeric flavanols, flavonols, methylxanthins, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids, and phenolic acids. Polyphenols and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids are separated in a single run of 33 min, procyanidins are analyzed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography within 16 min, and methylxanthins require only 6 min total run time. A fourth method is suitable for phenolic acids, but only protocatechuic acid was found in relevant quantities. The optimized methods were validated and applied to 27 dark chocolates, one milk chocolate, two cocoa powders and two food supplements based on cocoa extract. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Fast quantification of short chain fatty acids and ketone bodies by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after facile derivatization coupled with liquid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mingfei; Cao, Huachuan

    2018-04-15

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ketone bodies recently emerged as important physiological relevant metabolites because of their association with microbiota, immunology, obesity and other metabolic states. They were commonly analyzed by GC-MS with long run time and laborious sample preparation. In this study we developed a novel LC-MS/MS method using fast derivatization coupled with liquid-liquid extraction to detect SCFA and ketone bodies in plasma and feces. Several different derivatization reagents were evaluated to compare the efficiency, the sensitivity and chromatographic separation of structural isomers. O‑benzylhydroxylamine was selected for its superior overall performance in reaction time and isomeric separation that allowed the measurement of each SCFAs and ketone bodies free from interferences. The derivatization procedure is facile and reproducible in aqueous-organic medium, which abolished the evaporation procedure hampering the analysis of volatile short chain acids. Enhancement in sensitivity remarkably improved the detection limit of SCFA and ketone bodies to sub-fmol level. This novel method was applied to quantify these metabolites in fecal and plasma samples from lean and DIO mouse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasound assisted extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME)-a fast new approach to measure phthalate metabolites in nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    A new, fast, and environmentally friendly method based on ultrasound assisted extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME) was developed and optimized for assessing the levels of seven phthalate metabolites (including the mono(ethyl hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5-OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5-oxo-MEHP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP)) in human nails by UPLC-MS/MS. The optimization of the US-DLLME method was performed using a Taguchi combinatorial design (L9 array). Several parameters such as extraction solvent, solvent volume, extraction time, acid, acid concentration, and vortex time were studied. The optimal extraction conditions achieved were 180 μL of trichloroethylene (extraction solvent), 2 mL trifluoroacetic acid in methanol (2 M), 2 h extraction and 3 min vortex time. The optimized method had a good precision (6-17 %). The accuracy ranged from 79 to 108 % and the limit of method quantification (LOQm) was below 14 ng/g for all compounds. The developed US-DLLME method was applied to determine the target metabolites in 10 Belgian individuals. Levels of the analytes measured in nails ranged between <12 and 7982 ng/g. The MEHP, MBP isomers, and MEP were the major metabolites and detected in every sample. Miniaturization (low volumes of organic solvents used), low costs, speed, and simplicity are the main advantages of this US-DLLME based method. Graphical Abstract Extraction and phase separation of the US-DLLME procedure.

  5. Fast, simple and efficient salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction of naringenin from fruit juice samples prior to their enantioselective determination by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Sylwia; Kwietniowska, Ewelina

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an easy, simple and efficient method for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in fruit juices after salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) was developed. The sample treatment is based on the use of water-miscible acetonitrile as the extractant and acetonitrile phase separation under high-salt conditions. After extraction, juice samples were incubated with hydrochloric acid in order to achieve hydrolysis of naringin to naringenin. The hydrolysis parameters were optimized by using a half-fraction factorial central composite design (CCD). After sample preparation, chromatographic separation was obtained on a Chiralcel® OJ-RH column using the mobile phase consisting of 10mM aqueous ammonium acetate:methanol:acetonitrile (50:30:20; v/v/v) with detection at 288nm. The average recovery of the analyzed compounds ranged from 85.6 to 97.1%. The proposed method was satisfactorily used for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in various fruit juices samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  7. Generic solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for fast determination of drugs in biological fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellen, A.; Ooms, B.; Lagemaat, D. van de; Vreeken, R.; Dongen, W.D. van

    2003-01-01

    A generic method was developed for the fast determination of a wide range of drugs in serum or plasma. The methodology comprises generic solid-phase extraction, on-line coupled to gradient HPLC with tandem mass spectrometric detection (SPE-LC-MS/MS). The individual components of the SPE-LC-MS/MS

  8. Integrated Solid-Phase Extraction-Capillary Liquid Chromatography (speLC) Interfaced to ESI-MS/MS for Fast Characterization and Quantification of Protein and Proteomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenby, Lasse Gaarde; Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2014-01-01

    min speLC-MS/MS experiment. Analysis by selected reaction monitoring by speLC-SRM-MS/MS of distinct peptides derived from the blood proteins IGF1, IGF2, IBP2, and IBP3 demonstrated protein quantification with CV values below 10% across 96 replicates. The speLC-MS/MS system is ideally suited for fast......The high peptide sequencing speed provided by modern hybrid tandem mass spectrometers enables the utilization of fast liquid chromatographic (LC) separation techniques. We present a robust solid-phase extraction/capillary LC system (speLC) for 5-10 min separation of semicomplex peptide mixtures...

  9. Generic solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for fast determination of drugs in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellen, Anniek; Ooms, Bert; van de Lagemaat, Dick; Vreeken, Rob; van Dongen, William D

    2003-05-25

    A generic method was developed for the fast determination of a wide range of drugs in serum or plasma. The methodology comprises generic solid-phase extraction, on-line coupled to gradient HPLC with tandem mass spectrometric detection (SPE-LC-MS/MS). The individual components of the SPE-LC-MS/MS system were optimized in an integrated approach to maximize the application range and minimize the method development time. The optimized generic SPE-LC-MS/MS protocol was evaluated for 11 drugs with different physicochemical properties. Good quantification for 10 out of 11 of the pharmaceuticals in serum or plasma could be readily achieved. The quantitative assays gave recoveries better than 95%, lower quantification limits of 0.2-2.0 ng/ml, acceptable precision and accuracy and good linearity over 2-4 orders of magnitude. Carry-over was determined to be in the range of 0.02-0.10%, without optimization.

  10. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  11. Simultaneous extraction and determination of trace amounts of diclofenac from whole blood using supported liquid membrane microextraction and fast Fourier transform voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofidi, Zahra; Norouzi, Parviz; Sajadian, Masumeh; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2018-04-01

    A novel, simple, and inexpensive analytical technique based on flat sheet supported liquid membrane microextraction coupled with fast Fourier transform stripping cyclic voltammetry on a reduced graphene oxide carbon paste electrode was used for the extraction and online determination of diclofenac in whole blood. First, diclofenac was extracted from blood samples using a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane impregnated with 1-octanol and then into an acceptor solution, subsequently it was oxidized on a carbon paste electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. The optimal values of the key parameters influencing the method were as follows: scan rate, 6 V/s; stripping potential, 200 mV; stripping time, 5 s; pH of the sample solution, 5; pH of the acceptor solution,7; and extraction time, 240 min. The calibration curves were plotted for the whole blood samples and the method was found to have a good linearity within the range of 1-25 μg/mL with a determination coefficient of 0.99. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.1 and 1.0 μg/mL, respectively. Using this coupled method, the extraction and determination were merged into one step. Accordingly, the speed of detection for sensitive determination of diclofenac in complex samples, such as blood, increased considerably. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Fast determination of seven synthetic pigments from wine and soft drinks using magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Zhou, Li-Xin; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2014-06-13

    A novel, simple and sensitive method based on the use of magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (M-dSPE) procedure combined with ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) was developed to determine seven synthetic pigments (tartrazine, amaranth, carmine, sunset yellow, allura red, brilliant blue and erythrosine) in wines and soft drinks. An amino-functionalized low degrees of cross-linking magnetic polymer (NH2-LDC-MP) was synthesized via suspension polymerization, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The NH2-LDC-MP was used as the M-dSPE sorbent to remove the matrix from the solution, and the main factors affecting the extraction were investigated in detail. The obtained results demonstrated the higher extraction capacity of NH2-LDC-MP with recoveries between 84.0 and 116.2%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the seven synthetic pigments were between 1.51 and 5.0μg/L in wines and soft drinks. The developed M-dSPE UFLC-MS/MS method had been successfully applied to the real wines and soft drinks for food-safety risk monitoring in Zhejiang Province, China. The results showed that sunset yellow was in three out of thirty soft drink samples (2.95-42.6μg/L), and erythrosine in one out of fifteen dry red wine samples (3.22μg/L), respectively. It was confirmed that the NH2-LDC-MP was a kind of highly effective M-dSPE materials for the pigments analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fast analysis of capsaicinoids in Naga Jolokia extracts (Capsicum chinense) by high-performance liquid chromatography using fused core columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipcovich, Tea; Barbero, Gerardo F; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2018-01-15

    A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method with a C18 reverse-phase fused-core column has been developed for the determination and quantification of the main capsaicinoids (nornordihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin) present in Naga Jolokia peppers. A fused-core Kinetex™ C18 column (50×2.1mm i.d.; 2.6μm) was used for the analysis. The chromatographic separation was obtained with a gradient method in which the mobile phase was water (0.1% acetic acid) as solvent A and acetonitrile (0.1% acetic acid) as solvent B. The separation of all compounds was achieved in less than 3min with a total analysis time (sample-to-sample) of 10min. The robustness of the method was evaluated. The method showed excellent repeatability and intermediate precision expressed as coefficient of variance of less than 2%. The developed method was employed for the quantification of the major capsaicinoids present in different peppers and commercial products containing chilli peppers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in food additive residue analysis of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-11-09

    A novel and effective dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) procedure with rapid magnetic separation using ethylenediamine-functionalized magnetic polymer as an adsorbent was developed. The new procedure had excellent clean-up ability for the selective removal of the matrix in red wine. An accurate, simple, and rapid analytical method using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives (i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid, and neotame) in red wine was also used and validated. Recoveries ranging from 78.5% to 99.2% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.46% to 6.3% were obtained using the new method. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for the nine food additives were between 0.10 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L. The proposed dSPE-UFLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the food-safety risk monitoring of real red wine in Zhejiang Province, China. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. SISAK liquid-liquid extraction experiments with preseparated 257Rf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omtvedt, Jon Petter; Alstad, J.; Breivik, H.; Dyve, J.E.; Eberhardt, K.; Folden III, C.M.; Ginter, T.; Gregorich, K.E.; Hult, E.A.; Johansson, M.; Kirbach, U.W.; Lee, D.M.; Mendel, M.; Nahler, A.; Ninov, V.; Omtvedt, L.A.; Patin, J.B.; Skarnemark, G.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Wiehl, N.; Wierczinski, B.; Wilk, P.A.; Zielinski, P.M.; Kratz, J.V.; Trautmann, N.; Nitsche, H.; Hoffman, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    The SISAK liquid-liquid extraction system was used to extract 4.0-s 257Rf. The 257Rf was produced in the reaction 208Pb(50Ti, 1n)257Rf with 237-MeV beam energy on target, separated in the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS) and transferred to a gas jet using the Recoil Transfer Chamber (RTC). The activity delivered by the gas jet was dissolved in 6-M HNO3 and Rf was extracted into 0.25-M dibutyl-phosphoric acid in toluene. This was the first time a transactinide, i.e., an element with Z >= 104, was extracted and unequivocally identified by the SISAK system. Thus, this pilot experiment demonstrates that the fast liquid-liquid extraction system SISAK, in combination with liquidscintillation detectors, can be used for investigating the chemical properties of the transactinides. The extraction result is in accordance with the behaviour shown by the Rf group IV homologues Zr and Hf

  16. Plate performance in liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of perforated, nozzle, and burred plates from a capacity and extraction standpoint were studied in a pulsed liquid-liquid extraction system. The experiments were conducted in a 3.8 x 10 -2 m diameter column using a mixture of aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate as the aqueous phase, and tributyl phosphate dissolved in AMSCO 125-90 W as the organic phase. The uranium was extracted from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. A standard cartridge was made for each type of plate and consisted of an assembly of plates spaced 5.08 x 10 -2 m apart. Each plate had 3.2 x 10 -3 m holes spaced on 6.1 x 10 -3 -m centers, and contained 23% free area. 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  17. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Sik; Grandy, Andrew; Boroski, Andrew; Krajtl, Lubomir; Johnson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  18. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Grandy, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boroski, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Johnson, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  19. Use of micro-emulsions in liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komornicki, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    As liquid-liquid extraction of metallic cations is an important method of separation and concentration of metals present in diluted aqueous solutions, and as the extraction rate is limited by one or several steps of matter transfer at the liquid-liquid interface, the extraction kinetics can be improved by creating a wide surface interface and by allowing an increased reactivity between species. In this research thesis, the author aims at determining to which extent systems of interface with a wide surface obtained by using for example amphiphile molecules to create micro-emulsions, can be used as reaction media for physical-chemical processes of liquid-liquid extraction. He also aims at identifying their applicability limitations and problems which might arise with their application. The author notably focuses of the liquid-liquid extraction of metallic cations exhibiting particularly slow extraction kinetics

  20. Pool type liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, B.M.

    1978-08-01

    Various technical aspects of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), specifically pool type LMFBR's, are summarized. The information presented, for the most part, draws upon existing data. Special sections are devoted to design, technical feasibility (normal operating conditions), and safety (accident conditions). A survey of world fast reactors is presented in tabular form, as are two sets of reference reactor parameters based on available data from present and conceptual LMFBR's. (auth)

  1. Liquid metal fast reactor transient design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, C.; Purvis, E. III

    2000-01-01

    An examination has been made of how the currently available computing capabilities could be used to reduce Liquid Metal Fast Reactor design, manufacturing, and construction cost. While the examination focused on computer analyses some other promising means to reduce costs were also examined. (author)

  2. Characterization of Hydrotreated Fast Pyrolysis Liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oasmaa, A.; Kuoppala, E.; Ardiyanti, A.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Heeres, H. J.

    This paper focuses on analytical methods to determine the composition of hydrotreated fast pyrolysis liquids. With this information, it is possible to gain insights in the chemical transformations taking place during catalytic hydrotreatment (hydrogenation and/or hydrodeoxygenation, H DO) of

  3. Fast response densitometer for measuring liquid density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Densitometer was developed which produces linear voltage proportional to changes in density of flowing liquid hydrogen. Unit has fast response time and good system stability, statistical variation, and thermal equilibrium. System accuracy is 2 percent of total density span. Basic design may be altered to include measurement of other flowing materials.

  4. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.

    1979-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor has a core comprising a plurality of fuel assemblies supported on a diagrid and submerged in a pool of liquid metal coolant within a containment vessel, the diagrid being of triple component construction and formed of a short cylindrical plenum mounted on a conical undershell and loosely embraced by a fuel store carrier. The plenum merely distributes coolant through the fuel assemblies, the load of the assemblies being carried by the undershell by means of struts which penetrate the plenum. The reactor core, fuel store carrier and undershell provide secondary containment for the plenum. (UK)

  5. Metal extraction by solid-liquid agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Dissolved metal values are extracted from a liquid e.g. uranium from phosphoric acid by contacting the liquid with agglomerates for a time to load the agglomerate with the metal value, separating the loaded agglomerates from the liquid phase and stripping the metal value from the loaded agglomerate. The agglomerate may be made by combining finely divided solid particles with a binding liquid to form a paste, adding a suspending liquid to form a mixture, the suspending liquid and binding liquid being immiscible in each other and the solid particles being insoluble in the suspending liquid and shearing the mixture to form the agglomerate. (author)

  6. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Breeder fuel sub-assemblies with electromagnetic brakes and fluidic valves for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors are described. The electromagnetic brakes are of relatively small proportions and the valves are of the controlled vortex type. The outlet coolant temperature of at least some of the breeder sub-assemblies are maintained by these means substantially constant throughout the life of the fuel assembly without severely pressurising the sub-assembly. (UK)

  7. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Mitchell, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel sub-assemblies for liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors are described which each incorporate a fluid flow control valve for regulating the rate of flow through the sub-assembly. These small electro-magnetic valves seek to maintain the outlet coolant temperature of at least some of the breeder sub-assemblies substantially constant throughout the life of the fuel assembly without severely pressurising the sub-assembly. (U.K.)

  8. A fast and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of a wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in indoor dust using on-line solid phase extraction-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haug, Line Småstuen

    2016-05-06

    A fast and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of 18 traditional and 6 alternative per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) using solid-liquid extraction (SLE), off-line clean-up using activated carbon and on-line solid phase extraction-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-UHPLC-TOF-MS) was developed. The extraction efficiency was studied and recoveries in range the 58-114% were obtained. Extraction and injection volumes were also optimized to 2mL and 400μL, respectively. The method was validated by spiking dust from a vacuum cleaner bag that had been found to contain low levels of the PFASs in focus. Low method detection limits (MDLs) and method quantification limits (MQLs) in the range 0.008-0.846ngg(-1) and 0.027-2.820ngg(-1) were obtained, respectively. For most of the PFASs, the accuracies were between 70 and 125% in the range from 2 to100ngg(-1) dust. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were in general well below 30%. Analysis of a Standard Reference Material (SRM 2585) showed high accordance with results obtained by other laboratories. Finally, the method was applied to seven indoor dust samples, and PFAS concentrations in the range 0.02-132ngg(-1) were found. The highest median concentrations were observed for some of the alternative PFASs, such as 6:2-diPAP (25ngg(-1)), 8:2-diPAP (49ngg(-1)), and PFOPA (23ngg(-1)), illustrating the importance of inclusion of new PFASs in the analytical methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Primary metals extraction by liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, K.N.

    1980-01-01

    The extraction of copper and uranium by liquid membranes is presented. The recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid is described. The development of this process has progressed through three stages, firstly the chemistry of uranium extraction as it pertains to liquid membrane systems. This was followed by continuous extraction tests on fresh black acid and on aged acid. Results on a 1 litre/minute pilot plant demonstrated that the process could be operated with a minimum of feed pretreatment and about 90% of uranium could be extracted. The extraction of copper from copper leach liquors is also described. (U.K.)

  10. Separation of Asphaltenes by Polarity using Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the nature of petroleum asphaltenes in terms of polarity a process was developed using initial liquid-liquid extraction of the oil phase followed by precipitation of the asphaltenes using n-heptane. The liquid-liquid extraction was performed using toluene-methanol mixtures...... phase. The asphaltenes were analysed using FTir, Elemental analysis, and HPLC-SEC with a diode array detector. With increasing content of toluene in the methanol the molecular weight distribution of the asphaltenes significantly move to higher molecular weights. The content of nitrogen and sulfur...

  11. Development of alternate extractant systems for fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Suresh, A.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Raj, Baldev

    2007-01-01

    Due to the limitations of TBP in processing of high burn-up, Pu-rich fast reactor fuels, there is a need to develop alternate extractants for fast reactor fuel processing. In this context, our Centre has been examining the suitability of alternate tri-alkyl phosphates. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(IV) by TBP, tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) and tri-2-methyl-butyl phosphate (T2MBP) from nitric acid media has been investigated under various conditions to derive conclusions on their application for extraction of Pu at macro levels. The chemical and radiolytic degradation of tri-n-amyl-phosphate (TAP) diluted in normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) in the presence of nitric acid has been investigated by the measurement of plutonium retention in organic phase. The potential application of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been explored. Extraction of uranium (VI) and palladium (II) from nitric acid medium by commercially available RTIL and tri-n-butyl phosphate solution in RTIL have been studied and the feasibility of electrodeposition of uranium as uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and palladium (II) as metallic palladium from the loaded organic phase have been demonstrated. This paper describes results of the above studies and discusses the suitability of the systems for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. (authors)

  12. Liquid-liquid extraction in flow analysis: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Cristina I.C.; Santos, Joao L.M. [REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, R. Anibal Cunha, 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Lima, Jose L.F.C., E-mail: limajlfc@ff.up.pt [REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, R. Anibal Cunha, 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Zagatto, Elias A.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 96, Piracicaba 13400-970 (Brazil)

    2009-10-12

    Liquid-liquid extractions (LLE) are a common sample pre-treatment in many analytical applications. This review aims at providing a critical overview of the distinct automated continuous flow-based approaches that were developed for liquid-liquid extraction with the purpose of pre-concentration and/or separation of multiple analytes, such as ultra-trace metal and metalloid species, phenolic compounds, surfactants, pharmaceuticals, etc., hyphenated with many detection technique such as UV/vis spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometric detection systems and luminescent detectors, including distinct extraction strategies and applications like single and multiple extraction schemes, wetting film extraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, back extraction, closed-loop systems and the utilisation of zone sampling, chromatomembranes and iterative reversal techniques. The analytical performance of the developed flow-based LLE methods and the influence of flow manifold components such as the segmenter, extraction coil and phase separator, is emphasised and object of discussion. An overall presentation of each system components, selectivity, advantages and shortcomings is carried out and exemplified with selected applications.

  13. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durston, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that in a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor wherein the core, intermediate heat exchangers and liquid metal pumps are immersed in a pool of coolant such as Na, the intermediate heat exchangers are suspended from the roof, and ducting is provided in the form of a core tank or shroud interconnected with 'pods' housing the intermediate exchangers for directing coolant from the core over the heat exchanger tubes and thence back to the main pool of liquid metal. Seals are provided between the intermediate heat exchanger shells and the walls of their 'pods' to prevent liquid metal flow by-passing the heat exchanger tube bundles. As the heat exchangers must be withdrawable for servicing, and because linear differential thermal expansion of the heat exchanger and its 'pod' must be accommodated the seals hitherto have been of the sliding kind, generally known as 'piston ring type seals'. These present several disadvantages; for example sealing is not absolute, and the metal to metal seal gives rise to wear and fretting by rubbing and vibration. This could lead to seizure or jamming by the deposition of impurities in the coolant. Another difficulty arises in the need to accommodate lateral thermal expansion of the ducting, including the core tank and 'pods'. Hitherto some expansion has been allowed for by the use of expansible bellow pairs in the interconnections, or alternatively by allowing local deformations of the core tank 'pods'. Such bellows must be very flexible and hence constitute a weak section of the ducting, and local deformations give rise to high stress levels that could lead to premature failure. The arrangement described seeks to overcome these difficulties by use of a gas pocket trapping means to effect a seal against vertical liquid flow between the heat exchanger shell and the wall of the heat exchanger housing. Full details of the arrangement are described. (U.K.)

  14. Ionizable polyethers as specific metal ion carriers in liquid-liquid extraction and liquid membrane separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowiak, W.; Charewicz, W.A.; Bartsch, R.A.; Ndip, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigations into competitive extraction and penetration through a liquid membrane of alkali and alkaline earth cations from aqueous solutions by a series of lipophilic and ionizable acyclic polyethers of various molecular structure. It is shown that specificity and selectiviy of cation carriers in liquid-liquid extraction and liquid membrane separation depend on molecular structure of acyclic polyethers

  15. Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Systems Containing Butanol and Ionic Liquids – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kubiczek Artur; Kamiński Władysław

    2017-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a moderately new class of liquid substances that are characterized by a great variety of possible anion-cation combinations giving each of them different properties. For this reason, they have been termed as designer solvents and, as such, they are particularly promising for liquid-liquid extraction, which has been quite intensely studied over the last decade. This paper concentrates on the recent liquid-liquid extraction studies involving ionic liqu...

  16. Transuranium element purification by liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Koehly, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the transuranium element production, the liquid-liquid extraction purification is presented. The affinity of TBP and trilaurylammonium nitrate for these elements is given. Exemples of NP/Pu, Pu/Np, U/Pu, Am/Cm, Am and Cm/Ln separation are presented [fr

  17. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; Thatcher, G.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described relates to a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor in which the fuel assembly has an inner zone comprised mainly of fissile material and a surrounding outer zone comprised mainly of breeder material. According to the invention the sub-assemblies in the outer zone include electro-magnetic braking devices (magnets, pole pieces and armature) for regulating the flow of coolant through the sub-assemblies. The magnetic fields of the electro-magnetic breaking devices are temperature sensitive so that as the power output of the breeder sub-assemblies increases the electro-magnetic resistance to coolant flow is reduced thereby maintaining the temperature of the coolant outlets from the sub-assemblies substantially constant. (UK)

  18. Liquid metal tribology in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.; Mack, K.J.; Gegenheimer, M.

    1984-11-01

    Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) require mechanisms operating in various sodium liquid and sodium vapor environments for extended periods of time up to temperatures of 900 K under different chemical properties of the fluid. The design of tribological systems in those reactors cannot be based on data and past experience of so-called conventional tribology. Although basic tribological phenomena and their scientific interpretation apply in this field, operating conditions specific to nuclear reactors and prevailing especially in the nuclear part of such facilities pose special problems. Therefore, in the framework of the R and D-program accompanying the construction phase of SNR 300 experiments were carried out to provide data and knowledge necessary for the lay-out of friction systems between mating surfaces of contacting components. Initially, screening tests isolated material pairs with good slipping properties and maximum wear resistance. Those materials were subjected to comprehensive parameter investigations. A multitude of laboratory scale tests have been performed under largely reactor specific conditions. Unusual superimpositions of parameters were analyzed and separated to find their individual influence on the friction process. The results of these experiments were made available to the reactor industry as well as to factories producing special tribo-materials. (orig.) [de

  19. SISAK liquid-liquid extraction experiments with preseparated {sup 257}Rf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omtvedt, Jon Petter; Alstad, J.; Breivik, H. [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Oslo (NO)] (and others)

    2002-06-01

    The SISAK liquid-liquid extraction system was used to extract 4.0-s {sup 257}Rf. The {sup 257}Rf was produced in the reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 50}Ti, 1n){sup 257}Rf with 237-MeV beam energy on target, separated in the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS) and transferred to a gas jet using the Recoil Transfer Chamber (RTC). The activity delivered by the gas jet was dissolved in 6-M HNO{sub 3} and Rf was extracted into 0.25-M dibutyl-phosphoric acid in toluene. This was the first time a transactinide, i.e., an element with Z{>=}104, was extracted and unequivocally identified by the SISAK system. Thus, this pilot experiment demonstrates that the fast liquid-liquid extraction system SISAK, in combination with liquid-scintillation detectors, can be used for investigating the chemical properties of the transactinides. The extraction result is in accordance with the behaviour shown by the Rf group IV homologues Zr and Hf. (author)

  20. Liquid-liquid extraction by reversed micelles in biotechnological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilikian B. V.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In biotechnology there is a need for new purification and concentration processes for biologically active compounds such as proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, or cells that combine a high selectivity and biocompatibility with an easy scale-up. A liquid-liquid extraction with a reversed micellar phase might serve these purposes owing to its capacity to solubilize specific biomolecules from dilute aqueous solutions such as fermentation and cell culture media. Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant molecules containing an inner core of water molecules, dispersed in a continuous organic solvent medium. These reversed micelles are capable of selectively solubilizing polar compounds in an apolar solvent. This review gives an overview of liquid-liquid extraction by reversed micelles for a better understanding of this process.

  1. Recycling of Metal Containing Waste by Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Through the years, a large number of liquid-liquid extraction have been proposed for metal waste recovery and recycling(1,2). However, few of them have achieved commercial application. In fact, relatively little information is available on practical operation and economic feasibility. This presentation will give complementary information by describing and comparing three processes, based on the Am MAR hydrometallurgical concept and representing three different modes of operation

  2. Separation of rare earths by liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgorsky, M.; Leveque, M.

    1978-01-01

    The elements of the rare earth family are characterised by very similar chemical properties connected with their special electronic structure. The purification of the rare earths sold by RHONE-POULENC is now done by the liquid-liquid extraction technique. The development of different extracting agents and also counter-current techniques have led to solvent extraction replacing the other fractionation techniques because of its efficiency and low cost. There are usually several possible solutions to the main problem of choosing the extracting agent and its mode of use. The difficulty is to find the most economical one taking account of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic constraints of the solvent. It is shown how ideas about the separation have changed over the course of the development of the uses of the rare earths, ending finally in an integrated scheme that makes RHONE-POULENC a world leader of manufacturers of separated rare earths [fr

  3. Membrane assisted liquid-liquid extraction of cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldenhoff, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Membrane assisted liquid-liquid extraction of cerium was investigated, with emphasis placed on the study of the reaction chemistry and the kinetics of non-dispersive solvent extraction and stripping with microporous membranes. A bulk liquid membrane process was developed for the purification of cerium(IV) from sulfate solutions containing other rare earth elements. The cerium process was studied in both a flat sheet contained liquid membrane configuration and with hollow fibre contactors. Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) was identified as a suitable extractant for cerium(IV) from sulfuric acid solution, with due consideration of factors such as extraction ability, resistance to degradation, solvent selectivity and potential for sulfate transfer into a strip solution. A detailed study of the extraction of cerium(IV) with DEHPA defined the extraction reaction chemistry. The Ce/DEHPA/sulfate system was also investigated with a flat sheet bulk liquid membrane configuration, using both sulfuric and hydrochloric acid as receiver solutions. These tests identified that hydrophobic membranes provide better mass transfer for extraction and hydrophilic membranes are better for stripping. The presence of an impurity, mono 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (MEHPA), was found to have a dramatic accelerating effect on the rate of the chemical extraction reaction. This was attributed to its higher interfacial activity and population compared to DEHPA, and the fact that MEHPA was also found to be an active carrier for cerium(IV). The mass transfer rate of membrane assisted extraction and stripping of cerium, using hydrophobic and hydrophilic microporous membranes, respectively, was investigated using a modified Lewis-type cell. It was quantitatively demonstrated that the extraction process was mainly controlled by membrane diffusion and the stripping process was controlled by the chemical reaction rate, with membrane diffusion becoming important at low distribution coefficients

  4. Enhanced flavour extraction in continuous liquid-liquid extractors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Apps, P

    2005-08-12

    Full Text Available stirrer that prevents channelling improves extraction efficiency by between 2.8 and 17.6 times. Use of the stir bar extends the application of CLLE to samples that are not free-running liquids, thereby reducing sample manipulations with their associated...

  5. The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in liquid/liquid extraction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Bradshaw, L.; Tolchard, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic instruments can be used to determine many of the parameters of interest in a liquid/liquid extraction plant, eg liquid levels, the position of interfaces between immiscible liquids and the concentration of solutions. The determinations can often be made non-invasively. A number of instruments developed for a liquid/liquid extraction plant used for nuclear fuel reprocessing is described. These instruments have a wider application in liquid/liquid extraction plant in general. (author)

  6. Haze Formation and Behavior in Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arm, Stuart T.; Jenkins, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous haze formation and behavior was studied in the liquid-liquid system tri-n-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene and 3M nitric acid with uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate representing the major solute and an impurity, respectively. A pulsed column, mixer-settler and centrifugal contactor were chosen to investigate the effect of different turbulence characteristics on the manifestation of haze since these contactors exhibit distinct mixing phenomena. The dispersive processes of drop coalescence and breakage, and water precipitation in the organic phase were observed to lead to the formation of haze drops of ∼1 um in diameter. The interaction between the haze and primary drops of the dispersion was critical to the separation efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Conditions of high power input and spatially homogeneous mixing enabled the haze drops to become rapidly assimilated within the dispersion to maximize the scrub performance and separation efficiency of the equipment

  7. Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple sample pre-treatment method utilizing hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was carried out on pharmaceuticals samples comprising of cough syrups (CS1 and CS2) and an anti-inflammatory product (AI). The active ingredients targeted in the extraction process were diphenylhydramine (DPH), ...

  8. Ionic Liquids as Extraction Media for Metal Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Naoki

    In solvent extraction separation of metal ions, recently, many researchers have investigated possible use of hydrophobic ionic liquids as extraction media instead of organic solvents. Ionic liquids are salts of liquid state around room temperature and can act not only as solvents but also as ion-exchangers. Therefore, the extraction mechanism of metal ions into ionic liquids is complicated. This review presents current overview and perspective on evaluation of nature of hydrophobic ionic liquids as extraction media for metal ions.

  9. Determination of aminoglycoside residues in milk and muscle based on a simple and fast extraction procedure followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Jank, Louíse; Martins, Magda Targa; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Barreto, Fabiano; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara; Sirtori, Carla

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in veterinary medicine mainly for treatment and prevention of diseases. The aminoglycosides are one of the antibiotics classes that have been extensively employed in animal husbandry for the treatment of bacterial infections, but also as growth promotion. The European Union has issued strict Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) for aminoglycosides in several animal origin products including bovine milk, bovine, swine and poultry muscle. This paper describes a fast and simple analytical method for the determination of ten aminoglycosides (spectinomycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, hygromycin, apramycin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, amikacin and neomycin) in bovine milk and bovine, swine and poultry muscle. For sample preparation, an extraction method was developed using trichloroacetic acid and clean up with low temperature precipitation and C18 bulk. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to carry out quantitative analysis and liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) was used to screening purposes. Both methods were validated according to the European Union Commission Directive 2002/657/EC. Good performance characteristics were obtained for recovery, precision, calibration curve, specificity, decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCβ) in all matrices evaluated. The detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit (LOQ) were ranging from 5 to 100ngg(-1) and 12.5 to 250ngg(-1), respectively. Good linearity (r)-above 0.99-was achieved in concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 2.0×MRL. Recoveries ranged from 36.8% to 98.0% and the coefficient of variation from 0.9 to 20.2%, noting that all curves have been made into their own matrices in order to minimize the matrix effects. The CCβ values obtained in qualitative method were between 25 and 250ngg(-1). The proposed method showed to be simple, easy, and adequate for high-throughput analysis of a large

  10. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors of the 'pool' kind. In this type of reactor the irradiated fuel is lowered into a transfer rotor for removal to storage facilities, this rotor normally having provision for the temporary storage of 20 irradiated fuel assemblies, each within a stainless steel bucket. For insertion or withdrawal of a fuel assembly the rotor is rotated to bring the fuel assembly to a loading or discharging station. The irradiated fuel assembly is withdrawn from the rotor within its bucket and the total weight is approximately 1000 kg, which is lifted about 27 m. In the event of malfunction the combination falls back into the rotor with considerable force. In order to prevent damage to the rotor fracture pins are provided, and to prevent damage to the reactor vessel and other parts of the reactor structure deformable energy absorbing devices are provided. After a malfunction the fractured pins and the energy absorbing devices must be replaced by remote control means operated from outside the reactor vault - a complex operation. The object of the arrangement described is to provide improved energy absorbing means for fuel assemblies falling into a fuel transfer rotor. The fuel assemblies are supported in the rotor by elastic means during transfer to storage and a hydraulic dash pot is provided in at least one position below the rotor for absorbing the energy of a falling fuel assembly. It is preferable to provide dash pots immediately below a receiving station for irradiated fuel assemblies and immediately below a discharge station. Each bucket is carried in a container that is elastically supported in the transfer rotor on a helical coil compression spring, so that, in the event of a malfunction the container and bucket are returned to their normal operating position after the force of the falling load has been absorbed by the dash pot. The transfer rotor may also be provided with recoil springs to absorb the recoil energy

  11. Continuous extraction of molten chloride salts with liquid cadmium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    A pyrochemical method is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide contnuous multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and liquid cadmium alloys at 500 degrees C. The extraction method will be used to recover transuranic (TRU) elements from the process salt in the electroretiner used in the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR is one of the Department of Energy's advanced power reactor concepts. The recovered TRU elements are returned to the electrorefiner. The extracted salt undergoes further processing to remove rare earths and other fission products so that most of the purified salt can also be returned to the electrorefiner, thereby extending the useful life of the process salt many times

  12. Determination of preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals using fast liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, Irena; Wojciechowska, Iwona; Solarz, Natalia; Krutysza, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a method for simultaneously determining five preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals by fast liquid chromatography. Methylisothiazolinone, methylchloroisothiazolinone, benzyl alcohol, sodium benzoate and methylparaben were separated on a Chromolith Fast Gradient reversed-phase 18e column using gradient elution with acetonitrile and a 0.1% aqueous solution of formic acid, with a run time of 3 min. The preparation of solid and liquid samples included ultrasonic extraction with methanol with recoveries ranging from 69 to 119%. The developed method was used to analyze samples of cosmetics (66 samples), cleaning agents (five samples) and pharmaceutical industry products (17 samples).

  13. PERFORMANCE OF A PACKED LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. Metin HASDEMİR

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of feed ratios ((LE/LR on the performance of a packed liquid-liquid extraction column, with a diameter of 5.86 cm and a column height of 132 cm was investigated. The column is made of borosilicate glass and packed with 10 x 10 mm glass Raschig rings. In this study, a ternary system composed of water + propionic acid + trichloroethylene was used. The data used to triangular diagram were obtained experimentally. The overall mass transfer coefficients, the numbers of overall mass transfer units, the heights of mass transfer units, the numbers of theoretical stages and height equivalent to a theoretical stage (H. E. T. S. values were calculated and compared with each other.

  14. Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Systems Containing Butanol and Ionic Liquids – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubiczek Artur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs are a moderately new class of liquid substances that are characterized by a great variety of possible anion-cation combinations giving each of them different properties. For this reason, they have been termed as designer solvents and, as such, they are particularly promising for liquid-liquid extraction, which has been quite intensely studied over the last decade. This paper concentrates on the recent liquid-liquid extraction studies involving ionic liquids, yet focusing strictly on the separation of n-butanol from model aqueous solutions. Such research is undertaken mainly with the intention of facilitating biological butanol production, which is usually carried out through the ABE fermentation process. So far, various sorts of RTILs have been tested for this purpose while mostly ternary liquid-liquid systems have been investigated. The industrial design of liquid-liquid extraction requires prior knowledge of the state of thermodynamic equilibrium and its relation to the process parameters. Such knowledge can be obtained by performing a series of extraction experiments and employing a certain mathematical model to approximate the equilibrium. There are at least a few models available but this paper concentrates primarily on the NRTL equation, which has proven to be one of the most accurate tools for correlating experimental equilibrium data. Thus, all the presented studies have been selected based on the accepted modeling method. The reader is also shown how the NRTL equation can be used to model liquid-liquid systems containing more than three components as it has been the authors’ recent area of expertise.

  15. Design of fast extraction system for the KEK proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, J.D.; Kimura, Yoshitaka.

    1975-03-01

    A fast beam extraction system is designed for the KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron. The extraction is performed by the multi-turn beam shaving method in which hyper thin electrostatic septum inflectors are used as shaving elements. The beam loss and the emittance of the extracted beam are analyzed numerically as a function of thickness of the electrostatic septum wires. Specifications of the extraction elements, electrostatic septa, fast and slow bumps, and septum magnets, are given for the configuration of the designed system. (auth.)

  16. Advanced liquid metal fast breeder reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayles, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fast Breeder reactor power plants in the 1000-1200 MW(e) range are being built overseas and are being designed in this country. While these reactors have many characteristics in common, a variety of different approaches have been adopted for some of the major features. Some of those alternatives are discussed

  17. Ionic liquids used in extraction and separation of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xinghai; Xu Chao; Liu Xinqi; Chu Taiwei

    2006-01-01

    Ionic liquids as green solvents now have become a research hotspot in the field of separation of metal ions by solvent extraction. Experimental results of extraction of various metal ions with ionic liquids as solvents, including that of alkali metals, alkaline earths, transition metals rare earths and actinides are introduced. The extraction of uranium, plutonium and fission products that are involved in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing is also reviewed. The possible extraction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the prospect of replacement of volatile and/or toxic organic solvents with environmentally benign ionic liquids for solvent extraction and the potency of applications of ionic liquids in solvent extraction are also commented. (authors)

  18. A fast, simple and green method for the extraction of carbamate pesticides from rice by microwave assisted steam extraction coupled with solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weitao; Zhang, Yiqun; Li, Guijie; Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Qi; He, Dong; Zhao, Chun; Ding, Lan

    2014-01-15

    This paper presented a fast, simple and green sample pretreatment method for the extraction of 8 carbamate pesticides in rice. The carbamate pesticides were extracted by microwave assisted water steam extraction method, and the extract obtained was immediately applied on a C18 solid phase extraction cartridge for clean-up and concentration. The eluate containing target compounds was finally analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimised. The limits of detection ranging from 1.1 to 4.2ngg(-1) were obtained. The recoveries of 8 carbamate pesticides ranged from 66% to 117% at three spiked levels, and the inter- and intra-day relative standard deviation values were less than 9.1%. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method cost less extraction time and organic solvent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Liquid-liquid extraction of plutonium(IV) in monoamide - ammonium ionic liquid mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Alok; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) can be regarded as a sustainable alternative to the conventional molecular diluent, n-dodecane (n-DD), in solvent extraction process. Replacement of volatile organic solvents by RTILs in solvent extraction could lead to inherently safer processes. As far as the cation is concerned, most of the studies reported in literature are focused on imidazolium-based ionic liquids. In contrast to imiadazolium ionic liquids, quarternary ammonium ionic liquids like trioctylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336), trioctylmethylammonium nitrate etc., do not exhibit any cation exchange with the metal ions from aqueous phase during extraction. However, there is no report available in literature that emphasizes the application of trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide ((N_1_8_8_8)(NTf_2)) ionic liquid, for the extraction of Pu(IV). In this paper, we report the advantages of using the ionic liquid, trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ((N_1_8_8_8)(NTf_2)), as diluent, for the extraction of plutonium(IV) in DHOA/(N_1_8_8_8)(NTf_2)

  20. Liquid metal cooled experimental fast reactor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine; Braz Filho, Francisco; Borges, Eduardo M.; Rosa, Mauricio A.P.; Rocamora, Francisco; Hirdes, Viviane R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the work that has been done in the area of fast reactor component dynamic analysis, as part of the REARA project at the IEAv/CTA-Brazil. A couple of preceding papers, presented in other meetings, introduced major concept design components of the REARA reactor. The components are set together in order to represent a full model of the power plant. Full model transient results will be presented, together with several parameters to help us to better establish the REARA experimental plant concept. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Fast and sensitive method for detecting volatile species in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimarco, Daniel B.; Pedersen, Thomas; Hansen, Ole; Chorkendorff, Ib; Vesborg, Peter C. K.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a novel apparatus for extracting volatile species from liquids using a "sniffer-chip." By ultrafast transfer of the volatile species through a perforated and hydrophobic membrane into an inert carrier gas stream, the sniffer-chip is able to transport the species directly to a mass spectrometer through a narrow capillary without the use of differential pumping. This method inherits features from differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) and membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), but brings the best of both worlds, i.e., the fast time-response of a DEMS system and the high sensitivity of a MIMS system. In this paper, the concept of the sniffer-chip is thoroughly explained and it is shown how it can be used to quantify hydrogen and oxygen evolution on a polycrystalline platinum thin film in situ at absolute faradaic currents down to ˜30 nA. To benchmark the capabilities of this method, a CO-stripping experiment is performed on a polycrystalline platinum thin film, illustrating how the sniffer-chip system is capable of making a quantitative in situ measurement of <1 % of a monolayer of surface adsorbed CO being electrochemically stripped off an electrode at a potential scan-rate of 50 mV s-1.

  2. Extraction by means of emulsified liquid membranes; Extraction par membranes liquides emulsionnees (MLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareau, D.; Stambouli, M. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, 75 (France)

    2006-12-15

    It is an alternative of the liquid-liquid extraction process where extraction and stripping are simultaneously carried out. The stripping solution is dispersed in the solvent in micro-droplets. This emulsion, stabilised by a surface-active agent, is then dispersed in the liquid to be treated and, during that step, the metal is transferred to the stripping solution, moving through the solvent which operates as an organic membrane. The paper describes in detail the mechanism of the process, its advantages and its disadvantages. Its field of applications is wide, but only a few units are now industrially in operation, most of them exists only at the pilot scale. It is particularly adapted for the treatment of effluents with a very low content in metallic impurities. As examples, the paper describes the recovery of zinc from viscose plant effluents (Lenzing plant, Austria) and the removal of free cyanide ions and cyanide metallic complexes (pilot scale). (authors)

  3. The method for simultaneous extraction and back extraction in liquid three-phase system and equipment for simultaneous extraction and back extraction in liquid three-phase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palyska, W.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The method for simultaneous extraction and back extraction in liquid three-phase system has been worked out. The equipment designed for that process has been also subject of the patent. The interesting component is extracted first to intermediate phase consists of magnetic solvent keeping two extracting phases separately. The intermediate magnetic liquid has been kept in its position using a stable magnet maintained on the surface of the extraction vessel. Then the component pass from intermediate phase to the third phase as a result of back extraction. Mixing in the extraction and back extraction zones is organized by means of rotating shaft going along the whole apparatus. The extraction and back extraction processes occur simultaneously as a result of continuous flow of solvent in their zones. The single extraction back extraction facilities can be joined in larger batteries. 3 figs

  4. Liquid-liquid extraction of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products by use of ionic liquids: from discovery to understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, Isabelle; Ouadi, Ali; Gaillard, Clotilde

    2011-06-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of actinides and lanthanides by use of ionic liquids is reviewed, considering, first, phenomenological aspects, then looking more deeply at the various mechanisms. Future trends in this developing field are presented.

  5. Liquid-liquid extraction of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products by use of ionic liquids: from discovery to understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Isabelle; Ouadi, Ali; Gaillard, Clotilde

    2011-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of actinides and lanthanides by use of ionic liquids is reviewed, considering, first, phenomenological aspects, then looking more deeply at the various mechanisms. Future trends in this developing field are presented. (orig.)

  6. Status of liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    During the period 1985-1998, there have been substantial advances in fast reactor technology development. Chief among these has been the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at high burnup. At the IAEA meetings on liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology (LMFR), it became evident that there have been significant technological advances as well as changes in the economic and regulatory environment since 1985. Therefore the International working group on Fast Reactors has recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactors. The present report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on LMFR technology. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction and operation, reactor physics and safety, sore structural material and fuel technology, fast reactor engineering and activities in progress on LMFR plants Refs, figs, tabs

  7. Status of liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    During the period 1985-1998, there have been substantial advances in fast reactor technology development. Chief among these has been the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at high burnup. At the IAEA meetings on liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology (LMFR), it became evident that there have been significant technological advances as well as changes in the economic and regulatory environment since 1985. Therefore the International working group on Fast Reactors has recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactors. The present report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on LMFR technology. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction and operation, reactor physics and safety, sore structural material and fuel technology, fast reactor engineering and activities in progress on LMFR plants

  8. Determination of Niacinamide in Lotions and Creams Using Liquid-Liquid Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Karyn M.; Simmons, Carolyn R.; Keating, Daniel W.; Rossi, Henry F., III

    2015-01-01

    Chemical separations are an important part of an undergraduate chemistry curriculum. Sophomore students often get experience with liquid-liquid extraction in organic chemistry classes, but liquid-liquid extraction is not as often introduced as a quantitative sample preparation method in honors general chemistry or quantitative analysis classes.…

  9. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with magnetic nanoparticles for extraction of zearalenone in wheat samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Amoli-Diva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, sensitive and fast dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME coupled with micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE was developed for determination of zearalenone (ZEN in wheat samples. The DLLME was performed using acetonitrile/water (80:20 v/v as the disperser solvent and 1-octanol as the extracting solvent.  The acetonitrile/water (80:20 v/v solvent was also used to extract ZEN from solid wheat matrix, and was directly applied as the disperser solvent for DLLME process. Additionally, hydrophobic oleic-acid-modified magnetic nanoparticles were used in μ-SPE approach to retrieve the analyte from the DLLME step. So, the method uses high surface area and strong magnetism properties of these nanoparticles to avoid time-consuming column-passing processes in traditional SPE. Main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency and signal enhancement were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve showed a good linearity in the range of 0.1-500 μg kg−1 (R2=0.9996 with low detection limit of 83 ng g−1. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (as RSD % in the range of 2.6-4.3 % and high recoveries ranging from 91.6 to 99.1 % were obtained. The pre-concentration factor was 3. The method is simple, inexpensive, accurate and remarkably free from interference effects.

  10. Liquid-liquid extraction. Choice, calculation and design of devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybros, J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the problematic due to the choice of an equipment, to its size and to its industrial bringing into operation. Besides its efficiency to carry out a mass transfer, the economical interest of an industrial device will be proportional to its specific rate (volume treated by surface unit of the cross section of the extractor). Nevertheless, as it seems to be logic to maximize the three parameters which have an influence on it (transfer coefficient, interfacial surface and transfer potential), there exists no device which can modify separately any of these parameters. In order to satisfy these aims, a great diversity of devices have been put on the market. Indeed, it exists about twenty different industrial devices. This diversity leads the engineer, during the design of a solvent extraction device, to take difficult and subjective decisions without pilot experiment on the considered system. The main problem of an economical and optimized calculation of the liquid-liquid extractors from theoretical data has still not found totally satisfying solutions. Thus, except in some cases where we have empirical correlations, the recourse to prototype experiments is required and the most recent advances have resulted essentially to define more reliable rules for the extrapolation of these experiments for the size of industrial devices. (O.M.)

  11. Mixing-settling apparatus for liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolokin, L.I.; Leif, V.E.; Sednev, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A mixing-settling apparatus for liquid-liquid extraction comprises a casing. A first partition is mounted along its longitudinal axis and above an overflow device. The mixing device is connected to a means of feeding at least one of the phases and is shaped as at least one hollow element mounted essentially perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the casing. The walls of the hollow element are provided with openings, the outlet cross-sections of which are directed to the first partition. The first partition is provided with a means for regulating the height of the layer of the mixed phases M in the mixing zone, said means being located in the partition at the point most distant from the means for feeding phases L, S in the longitudinal direction. A second transporting device is mounted in the settling zone. It is fixed on to the casing and is located after the overflow device in the direction of movement of the light phase l. (author) 10 figs

  12. Development of an ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of seven flavonoids in rat plasma: Application to a comparative pharmacokinetic investigation of Ginkgo biloba extract and single pure ginkgo flavonoids after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Xiao, Jie; Hou, Huiping; Li, Pei; Yuan, Ziyue; Xu, Huarong; Liu, Ran; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2017-08-15

    For deeper pharmacokinetic investigation and further curative application of ginkgo flavonoids, a delicate, efficient and precise UFLC-MS/MS technique for synchronous quantitation of seven flavonoids, apigenin, luteolin, naringenin, quercetin, diosmetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in rat plasma has been established. After mixing with the internal standard (IS) linarin, bio-samples were pretreated via ethyl acetate for liquid-liquid extraction, then isolated at 0.2ml/min flow rate on a Venusil MP C 18 chromatographic column (100mm×2.1mm, 3μm) by means of gradient elution. 0.1% formic acid-water and methanol system was used as the mobile phase. Mass spectrometric inspection was conducted on a 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in patterns of negative ion and multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM). All calibration curves proved favorable linearity (R 2 ≥0.9918) in linear ranges. Intra-day and inter-day precisions didn't exceed 14.0% for all the analytes, and the accuracy was within 6.9%. Extraction recoveries of analytes and IS were less than ±15.0% of nominal concentrations. This method has been under thorough and firm verification for a comparative pharmacokinetic research after gavage between Ginkgo biloba extract and single pure ginkgo flavonoids. The results demonstrated that there're evident pharmacokinetic discrepancies, and possible structural influences were innovatively proposed. Generally, substitution with 3-hydroxylation, a double bond in ring C, ring B methoxylation often confer longer onset period. The existence of ring B catechol group gives rise to faster clearance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. One-step extraction of polar drugs from plasma by Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilařová, Veronika; Sultani, Mumtaz; Ask, Kristine Skoglund

    2017-01-01

    in the pores of a thin polymeric membrane, a well-known extraction principle also used in hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME). However, the new PALME technique offers a more user-friendly setup in which the supported liquid membrane is incorporated in a 96 well plate system. Thus, high......The new microextraction technique named parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) was introduced as an alternative approach to liquid-liquid extraction of charged analytes from aqueous samples. The concept is based on extraction of analytes across a supported liquid membrane sustained...... for extraction of polar basic drugs was developed in the present work. The basic drugs hydralazine, ephedrine, metaraminol, salbutamol, and cimetidine were used as model analytes, and were extracted from alkalized human plasma into an aqueous solution via the supported liquid membrane. The extraction...

  14. Pressurized liquid extracts from Spirulina platensis microalga Determination of their antioxidant activity and preliminary analysis by micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; Señorans, F. Javier; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    In this work, different extracts from the microalga Spirulina platensis are obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and four different solvents (hexane, light petroleum, ethanol andwater). Different extraction temperatures (115 and 170 ◦C) were tested using extraction times ranging from 9 to 15 min. The antioxidant activity of the different extracts is determined by means of an in vitro assay using a free radical method. Moreover, a new and fast method is developed using m...

  15. Kinetic of liquid-liquid extraction for uranyl nitrate and actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates by amide extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulemonde, V.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 -Marcoule

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of liquid-liquid extraction by amide extractants have been investigated for uranyl nitrate (monoamide extractants), actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates (diamide extractants). The transfer of the metallic species from the aqueous phase to the organic phase was studied using two experimental devices: ARMOLLEX (Argonne Modified Lewis cell for Liquid Liquid Extraction) and RSC (Rotating Stabilized Cell). The main conclusions are: for the extraction of uranyl nitrate by DEHDMBA monoamide, the rate-controlling step is the complexation of the species at the interface of the two liquids. Thus, an absorption-desorption (according to Langmuir theory) reaction mechanism was proposed; for the extraction of actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates in nitric acid media by DMDBTDMA diamide, the kinetic is also limited by interfacial reactions. The behavior of Americium and Europium is very similar as fare as their reaction kinetics are concerned. (author)

  16. Performance of metallic fuels in liquid-metal fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.; Kittel, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in metallic fuels for liquid-metal fast reactors has come full circle. Metallic fuels are once again a viable alternative for fast reactors because reactor outlet temperature of interest to industry are well within the range where metallic fuels have demonstrated high burnup and reliable performance. In addition, metallic fuel is very tolerant of off-normal events of its high thermal conductivity and fuel behavior. Futhermore, metallic fuels lend themselves to compact and simplified reprocessing and refabrication technologies, a key feature in a new concept for deployment of fast reactors called the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR concept is a metallic-fueled pool reactor(s) coupled to an integral-remote reprocessing and fabrication facility. The purpose of this paper is to review recent metallic fuel performance, much of which was tested and proven during the twenty years of EBR-II operation

  17. The Influence of Extractant TOA, Stirring Time on the Extraction ProcessLiquid-liquid, and Liquid Membrane on the Liquid Wastes Containing Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Djoko-Sardjono; Nurimaniwati; Adhe-Helmayani

    2000-01-01

    The influence of extractant and stirring time on the reduction componentcadmium on liquid wastes has been investigated. The method of experimentalused the extraction with liquid membrane emulsion. The parameters to beinvestigated were extractant amount tri-n octylamine (TOA), duration ofstirring time. In this investigated, extractant amount was varied from 5 to25 % (v/v) TOA, duration of stirring time varied from 5 to minutes. Theresult of experimental can be concluded that the best condition obtained forreducing cadmium component was on extractant amount 20 % (v/v) TOA, stirringtime 25 minutes. The best condition for reducing the cadmium component wasefficiency factor 98.35%. (author)

  18. Synergistic extraction of europium(III) in ammonium ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Alok; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids have been receiving increased attention for possible applications in the area of nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste management due to their fascinating properties such as good ionicity, high solvation capability, properties tunable etc. Most of the studies in the literature on the extraction of metal ions with molecular extractants dissolved in ionic liquid diluents are making use of the hydrophobic ionic liquids containing imidazolium cations such as the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ion. From an environmental point of view, such ionic liquids are not suitable as the primary mode of the metal extraction is by cation exchange mechanism wherein ionic liquid cation is lost to the aqueous phase leading to aqueous contamination and issue of recyclability of organic phase. However, there are some hydrophobic ionic liquids such as trioctylmethylammonium chloride ((N 1888 )(Cl)), and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phoshonium chloride (Cyphos IL 101) that exhibit no cation exchange in the aqueous phase during extraction. In this context, the extraction behavior of europium(III) using a neutral extractant, octyl, phenyl-N.N-diisobutylmethylcarbamoylphophinoxide (CMPO) and/or an acidic extractant bis(ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) dissolved in the ammonium ionic liquid diluent, trioctylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, (N 1888 )(NTf 2 ). The extraction behavior of CMPO (or D2EHPA)/(N 1888 )((Tf 2 ) system was investigated as a function of different extraction parameters such as feed acidity, extractant concentration, equilibration time etc.

  19. Ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction of pesticides from bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Asensio-Ramos, María; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-10-23

    This paper describes a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection capable of quantifying trace amounts of eight pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox and fenazaquin) in bananas. Fruit samples were first homogenized and extracted (1g) with acetonitrile and after suitable evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in 10 mL of water, a DLLME procedure using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) as extraction solvent was used. Experimental conditions affecting the DLLME procedure (sample pH, sodium chloride percentage, ionic liquid amount and volume of disperser solvent) were optimized by means of an experimental design. In order to determine the presence of a matrix effect, calibration curves for standards and fortified banana extracts (matrix matched calibration) were studied. Mean recovery values of the extraction of the pesticides from banana samples were in the range of 69-97% (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 53-63%) with a relative standard deviation lower than 8.7% in all cases. Limits of detection achieved (0.320-4.66 microg/kg) were below the harmonized maximum residue limits established by the European Union (EU). The proposed method, was also applied to the analysis of this group of pesticides in nine banana samples taken from the local markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RTILs as extraction solvents for DLLME of pesticides from samples different than water.

  20. High-throughput liquid-liquid extraction in 96-well format: Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Andresen, Alf Terje; Dahlgren, Anders

    2017-01-01

    , highly efficient sample cleanup, and direct compatibility with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). The consumption of hazardous organic solvents is also almost eliminated using PALME as the sample preparation technique. This article summarizes current experiences with PALME, based on work...

  1. Uranium Extraction From Artificial Liquid Waste Using Continuous Extraction Liquid membrane Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusdianasari; Buchari

    2002-01-01

    The continuous extraction of uranium from artificial liquid waste by emulsion liquid membrane was carried out using one stage mixer-settler. This emulsion liquid membrane containing di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tri-n-buthyl phosphate (TBP) as carrier were carried out using one stage mixer-settler. The optimum condition gave the ratio of emulsion velocity to the feed velocity 1:4 and steady state reached after five minutes. The optimum condition was obtained at the 90.91 % of uranium recovered from raffinate, using EDTA as the masking agent with concentration 5x10 - 2 M . The total concentration of carrier was 3% with ratio D2EHPA and TBP 3:1. The emulsion liquid membrane has high relative selectivity after steady state with separation factors were α U , N i= 115,43 and α U , Fe 328,55. The result of experiment showed that emulsion liquid membrane containing D2EHPA and TBP as carrier have good performance for continuous system

  2. Model potentials in liquid water ionization by fast electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sanctis, M L; Stia, C R; Fojón, O A; Politis, M-F; Vuilleumier, R

    2015-01-01

    We study the ionization of water molecules in liquid phase by fast electron impact. We use our previous first-order model within an independent electron approximation that allows the reduction of the multielectronic problem into a monoelectronic one. The initial molecular states of the liquid water are represented in a realistic way through a Wannier orbital formalism. We complete our previous study by taking into account approximately the influence of the passive electrons of the target by means of different model potentials. We compute multiple differential cross sections for the most external orbital 1B 1 and compare them with other results

  3. Considerations on a new fast extraction kicker concept for SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M

    2010-01-01

    An alternative extraction kicker concept is investigated for the SPS, based on open C-type kickers and a fast-bumper system. The beam is moved into the kicker gap some tens of ms before extraction. The concept is illustrated in detail with the LSS4 extraction from the SPS – very similar parameters and considerations apply to LSS6. A similar concept could also be conceived for injection but is more difficult due to the larger beam size. The technical issues are presented and the potential impact on the machine impedance outlined.

  4. Pesticide extraction from table grapes and plums using ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-12-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of eight multi-class pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox, and fenazaquin) in table grapes and plums. The developed method involves the combination of DLLME and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Samples were first homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in water containing sodium chloride, a quick DLLME procedure that used the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) and methanol was developed. The RTIL dissolved in a very small volume of acetonitrile was directed injected in the chromatographic system. The comparison between the calibration curves obtained from standards and from spiked sample extracts (matrix-matched calibration) showed the existence of a strong matrix effect for most of the analyzed pesticides. A recovery study was also developed with five consecutive extractions of the two types of fruits spiked at three concentration levels. Mean recovery values were in the range of 72-100% for table grapes and 66-105% for plum samples (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 64-75% and 58-66%, respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.651-5.44 microg/kg for table grapes and 0.902-6.33 microg/kg for plums, representing LODs below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union in these fruits. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing 12 commercial fruit samples (six of each type).

  5. Glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents as extractants for the separation of MEK and ethanol via liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, N.R.; Ferré Güell, J.; Kroon, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Four different glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were tested as extracting agents for the separation of the azeotropic mixture {methyl ethyl ketone + ethanol} via liquid-liquid extraction. The selected DESs for this work were: glycerol/choline chloride with molar ratios (4:1) and (2:1),

  6. Kinetics of glycoalkaloid hydrolysis and solanidine extraction in liquid-liquid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mihajlo Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of glycoalkaloid hydrolysis and solanidine extraction in Analyzed in this study. obtained from dried and milled potato haulm to to which hydrochlotic acid was added is the first liquid phase, while chloroform trichloroethylene or carbon tetrachlondeisthe second organic, liquid phase. The purpose of this paper was to combine the processes of glycoalkaloid hydrolysis to solanidine and solanidine extraction into one step, and to find the optimal liquid-liquid system for such a process.

  7. Study on the extraction of rare earth elements in liquid bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, M.; Adachi, M.; Kai, Y.; Koike, K.

    1987-01-01

    Three factors, which are important for the extraction of rare earth elements in liquid bismuth - molten salt system, were studied, i. e., the equilibrium distribution of neodymium, samarium and bismuth between molten LiCl - liquid Bi-Li alloys, the extraction rate of rare earths, and the characteristics of the extractor with drop dispersion. The rare earth elements were extracted through redox reactions. In high range of Li-mole fraction in the alloy phase, X Li , the distribution of neodymium and bismuth in the salt phase markedly increased as X Li increased. The anomalous increase is attributed to the formation of the compound comprised of Nd, Li, Bi and oxygen in the salt phase. The redox reaction processes were very fast and the extraction rates for rare earths are controlled by the diffusion processes of the solute and the metallic lithium. The process for the formation of liquid metal drops in the continuous phase is predictable from semiempirical correlations reported for aqueous solution - organic solvent systems. The height of droplet bed being accumulated on drop settling portion is predictable from the coalescence time of single drop to a flat metal interface. The coalescence of metal drop to clean interface was very fast. The extractor type of liquid metal dispersion in molten salt is suitable for the extraction process in the fuel reprocessing of MSR or MSBR. (author)

  8. Pyrochemical reprocessing of molten salt fast reactor fuel: focus on the reductive extraction step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Davide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel reprocessing is a prerequisite for nuclear energy to be a clean and sustainable energy. In the case of the molten salt reactor containing a liquid fuel, pyrometallurgical way is an obvious way. The method for treatment of the liquid fuel is divided into two parts. In-situ injection of helium gas into the fuel leads to extract the gaseous fission products and a part of the noble metals. The second part of the reprocessing is performed by ‘batch’. It aims to recover the fissile material and to separate the minor actinides from fission products. The reprocessing involves several chemical steps based on redox and acido-basic properties of the various elements contained in the fuel salt. One challenge is to perform a selective extraction of actinides and lanthanides in spent liquid fuel. Extraction of actinides and lanthanides are successively performed by a reductive extraction in liquid bismuth pool containing metallic lithium as a reductive reagent. The objective of this paper is to give a description of the several steps of the reprocessing retained for the molten salt fast reactor (MSFR concept and to present the initial results obtained for the reductive extraction experiments realized in static conditions by contacting LiF-ThF4-UF4-NdF3 with a lab-made Bi-Li pool and for which extraction efficiencies of 0.7% for neodymium and 14.0% for uranium were measured. It was concluded that in static conditions, the extraction is governed by a kinetic limitation and not by the thermodynamic equilibrium.

  9. Liquid membrane extraction techniques for trace metal analysis and speciation in environmental and biological matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndungu, Kuria

    1999-04-01

    In this thesis, liquid-membrane-based methods for the analysis of trace metal species in samples of environmental and biological origin were developed. By incorporating extracting reagents in the membrane liquid, trace metal ions were selectively separated from humic-rich natural waters and urine samples, prior to their determination using various instrumental techniques. The extractions were performed in closed flow systems thus allowing easy automation of both the sample clean-up and enrichment. An acidic organophosphorus reagent (DEHPA) and a basic tetraalkylammonium reagent (Aliquat-336) were used as extractants in the membrane liquid to selectively extract and enrich cationic and anionic metal species respectively. A speciation method for chromium species was developed that allowed the determination of cationic Cr(III) species and anionic CR(VI) species in natural water samples without the need of a chromatographic separation step prior to their detection. SLM was also coupled on-line to potentiometric stripping analysis providing a fast and sensitive method for analysis of Pb in urine samples. A microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (MMLLE) method was developed for the determination of organotin compounds in natural waters that reduced the number of manual steps involved in the LLE of organotin compounds prior to their CC separation. Clean extracts obtained after running unfiltered humic-rich river water samples through the MMLLE flow system allowed selective determination of all the organotin compounds in a single run using GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) 171 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  10. The transfer of rare earth elements through liquid extraction membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapranchik, V.P.; Proyaev, V.V.; Kopyrin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The transfer of rare earth elements through liquid extraction membranes, presenting Dacron nuclear filters, impregnated by extractants of different types (tributylphosphine oxide; di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid, HDEHP; trioctylamine, TOA) is investigated. It is ascertained that in systems with extractant-carriers TOA and HDEHP inversion of dependences of flow values and distribution coefficients on the element atomic number is observed. Mathematical model of transfer, permitting to establish relation between extractional and transport characteristics of the membrane, is suggested

  11. A generalized theory of chromatography and multistep liquid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhkov, V. P.; Boitsov, V. N.

    2017-03-01

    A generalized theory of chromatography and multistep liquid extraction is developed. The principles of highly efficient processes for fine preparative separation of binary mixture components on a fixed sorbent layer are discussed.

  12. Radioactive waste management at a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Fryer, R.H.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the radioactive waste production and management at a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), which is operated for the US Department of Energy by the Argonne National Laboratory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Since this facility, in addition to supplying power has been used to demonstrate the breeder, fuel cycling, and recently operations with defective fuel elements, various categories of waste have been handled safely over some 14 years of operation. Liquid wastes are processed such that the resulting effluent can be discharged to an uncontrolled area. Solid wastes up to 10,000 R/hr are packaged and shipped contamination-free to a disposal site or interim storage with exposures to personnel approximately 10 mrem. Gaseous waste discharges are low such as 143 Ci of noble gases in 1978 and do not have a significant effect on the environment even with operations with breached fuel

  13. Fast differential scanning calorimetry of liquid samples with chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Splinter, R.; van Herwaarden, A. W.; van Wetten, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a modified version of standard chips for fast differential scanning calorimetry, DSC of liquid samples has been performed at temperature scan rates of up to 1000 °C/s. This paper describes experimental results with the protein lysozyme, bovine serum, and olive oil. The heating and cooling....... The bovine serum measurements show two main peaks, in good agreement with standard DSC measurements. Olive oil has been measured, with good agreement for the cooling curve and qualitative agreement for the heater curve, compared to DSC measurements....

  14. Cone-shaped membrane liquid phase micro extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Heng See; Sanagi, M.M.; Ibrahim, W.A.W.; Naim, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A novel sample pre-treatment technique termed cone-shaped membrane liquid phase micro extraction (CSM-LPME) was developed and combined with micro-liquid chromatography (micro-LC) for the determination of selected pesticides in water samples. Several important extraction parameters such as types of extraction solvent, agitation rate, pH value, total exposure time and effect of salt and humic acids were investigated and optimized. Enrichment factors of >50 folds were easily achieved within 20 min of extraction. The new developed method demonstrated an excellent performance in terms of speed, cost effectiveness, reproducibility, as well as exceptional low detection limits. Current work provides a great interest to further investigate on the applicability of the CSM-LPME technique in analytical chemistry and explores the possibility of replacing conventional extraction techniques such as soxhlet, solid phase extraction (SPE) and solid phase micro extraction (SPME). (author)

  15. determination of lipophilic extractives in ionic liquid extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Chem. 9: 63-69. Freire CSR, Pinto PCR, Santiago AS,. Silvestre AJD, Evtuquin DV and Neto. CP 2006a Comparative study of lipophilic extractives of hardwoods and corresponding ECF bleached kraft pulps. BioResources. 1: 3-17. Freire CSR, Silvestre AJD and Neto CP. 2005. Lipophilic extractives in. Eucalyptus globulus.

  16. Liquid to liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of hainanmycin in feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze Ping; Shen, Jian Zhong; Linhardt, Robert J; Jiang, Hui; Cheng, Lin Li

    2017-03-01

    Hainanmycin is a new veterinary polyether antibiotic and has few sensitive analytical method in present days. In this study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) relying on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection was developed for analysis of hainanmycin in animal feed. Feed samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and purified by two steps of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) to get rid of water solvable matrix and lipids one by one. The final simple was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The LC mobile phase was composed of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and 0.1% formic acidified acetonitrile by gradient elution. Average recoveries ranged from 74.22% to 87.85%, as determined by spiking with 2.0 (LOQ) ∼2500μgkg -1 of hainanmycin. The inter-day and intra-day coefficient of variation was 9.21% to 11.77% and 7.67% to 13.49%, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.36μgkg -1 and 2.0μgkg -1 , respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic/Microwave-Assisted Extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Compared with traditional methods, IL-UMAE method uses Ionic liquid-solvent which greatly shortens the extraction time. IL-UMAE as a simple, effective and environmentally friendly approach shows a broad prospect for active ingredient extraction. Keywords: Dioscorea zingiberensis Steroidal saponins, Ionic ...

  18. Ionic liquid performance in pilot plant contactors for aromatics extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onink, S.A.F.

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were an investigation into the applicability, in this case extraction capacity and equipment performance, of room temperature ionic liquids as solvent in the extraction of aromatics from aliphatics and a comparison of three types of contactors (a rotating disc

  19. Solid-Phase Extraction Combined with High Performance Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Solid-phase extraction method was employed for the extraction of the estrogen from milk and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was used for the determination of estrogen. Results: Optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on an Eclipse XDB-C18 column at a ...

  20. Fast Extraction Kicker for the Accelerator Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Santis, Stefano; Urakawa, Junji; Naito, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a study for the design of a fast extraction kicker to be installed in the Accelerator Test Facility ring at KEK. This activity is carried on in the framework of the ATF2 project, which will be built on the KEK Tsukuba campus as an extension of the existing ATF, taking advantage of the worlds smallest normalized emittance achieved there. ATF2's primary goal is to operate as a test facility and establish the hardware and beam handling technologies envisaged for the International Linear Collider. In particular, the fast extraction kicker object of the present paper is an important component of the ILC damping rings, since its rise and fall time define the minimum distance between bunches and ultimately the damping rings length itself. Building on the initial results presented at EPAC '06, we report on the present status of the kicker design and define the minimum characteristics for pulsers and other subsystems. In addition to the original scheme with multiple stripline modules producing a total deflection of 5 mrad, we also investigated a scheme with a single kicker module for a reduced deflection of 1 mrad placed inside a closed orbit bump, which takes the electron closer to the extraction septum

  1. Selective solvent extraction of actinides associated to liquid scintillation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardois, C.; Musikas, C.

    1997-01-01

    The problems associated to radioactive waste disposal have acquired a special attention due, particularly, to the element instability and, consequently, to their lixiviation and to their peculiarities which are essential in the radioactivity penetration in the food chains; the other important parameters are the produced amounts and the noxiousnesses. New commercial liquid scintillation counters allow rapid α/β measurements. Associated with liquid-liquid extraction techniques, rapid and selective actinide analyses are possible. Among various actinide extractants, such as amines or organophosphorus compounds, we were particularly interested in tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide (TOPO). Uranium, thorium and americium extractions with (TOPO) in toluene have been investigated. A systematic study of the counting parameters of a PACKARD 2550 TR/AB TM liquid scintillation analyzer is under completion

  2. Fast and simple screening for the simultaneous analysis of seven metabolites derived from five volatile organic compounds in human urine using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Chao-Yu; Lee, Ting-Chen; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on cancer classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter from outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1), based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong mechanistic evidence. In particular, a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are volatized or released into the atmosphere and can become ubiquitous, as they originate from many different natural and anthropogenic sources, such as paints, pesticides, vehicle exhausts, cooking fumes, and tobacco smoke. Humans may be exposed to VOCs through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal contact, which may increase the risk of leukemia, birth defects, neurocognitive impairment, and cancer. Therefore, the focus of this study was the development of a simple, effective and rapid sample preparation method for the simultaneous determination of seven metabolites (6 mercaptic acids+t,t-muconic acid) derived from five VOCs (acrylamide, 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, and xylene) in human urine by using automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). An aliquot of each diluted urinary sample was directly injected into an autosampler through a trap column to reduce contamination, and then the retained target compounds were eluted by back-flush mode into an analytical column for separation. Negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was utilized for quantification. The coefficients of correlation (r(2)) for the calibration curves were greater than 0.995. Reproducibility was assessed by the precision and accuracy of intra-day and inter-day precision, which showed results for coefficient of variation (CV) that were low 0.9 to 6.6% and 3.7 to 8.5%, respectively, and results for recovery that ranged from 90.8 to 108.9% and 92.1 to 107.7%, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of

  3. Trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Hu Rui; Xie Shuxian; Weng Kuiping

    2010-01-01

    In order to finish the design of tritium extraction system (TES) of fusion fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) tritium blanket, involving the dynamic mathematical model of liquid metal in contact with a gaseous atmosphere, approximate mathematical equation of tritium in lithium tin alloy was deduced. Moreover, carrying process used for trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy was investigated with hydrogen being used to simulate tritium in the study. The study results indicate that carrying process is effective way for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy, and the best flow velocity of carrier gas is about 4 L/min under 1 kg alloy temperatures and carrying numbers are the main influencing factors of hydrogen number. Hydrogen extraction efficiency can reach 85% while the alloy sample is treated 6 times at 823 K. (authors)

  4. An inkjet-printed microfluidic device for liquid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masashi

    2011-04-07

    A microfluidic device for liquid-liquid extraction was quickly produced using an office inkjet printer. An advantage of this method is that normal end users, who are not familiar with microfabrication, can produce their original microfluidic devices by themselves. In this method, the printer draws a line on a hydrophobic and oil repellent surface using hydrophilic ink. This line directs a fluid, such as water or xylene, to form a microchannel along the printed line. Using such channels, liquid-liquid extraction was successfully performed under concurrent and countercurrent flow conditions. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  5. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION OF IRON (III) FROM OUENZA IRON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Nouioua

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... protection of the environment or their recovery for use in the industrial sector [1]. In the extraction .... in Fig.6 with slop value of 3.9 indicating the involvement .... [1] El Bar D, Barket D. Journal of Mining Science, 2015, Vol. 51, N.

  6. Novel thiosalicylate-based ionic liquids for heavy metal extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyma, Raphlin; Platzer, Sonja [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Jirsa, Franz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kandioller, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.kandioller@univie.ac.at [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Six thiosalicylate-based ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) were newly synthesized. • ILs showed good extraction of cadmium, copper, and zinc. • Phosphonium ILs showed better extraction efficiencies than their ammonium counterparts. - Abstract: This study aims to develop novel ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) with thiosalicylate (TS) derivatives as anions and evaluate their extracting efficiencies towards heavy metals in aqueous solutions. Six ILs were synthesized, characterized, and investigated for their extracting efficacies for cadmium, copper, and zinc. Liquid-liquid extractions of Cu, Zn, or Cd with ILs after 1–24 h using model solutions (pH 7; 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}) were assessed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS). Phosphonium-based ILs trihexyltetradecylphosphonium 2-(propylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][PTB] and 2-(benzylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][BTB] showed best extraction efficiency for copper and cadmium, respectively and zinc was extracted to a high degree by [P{sub 66614}][BTB] exclusively.

  7. CONTINOUS EXTRACTED BEAM IN THE AGS FAST EXTERNAL BEAM LINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GLENN, J.W.; TSOUPAS, N.; BROWN, K.A.; BIRYUKOV, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    A method to split off a few percent of the 6 x 10 13 AGS beam delivered to the Slow External Beam (SEB) lines and send it down the Fast External Beam line (FEB) has been developed. The mission is to feed a counter experiment off the FEB that directly measures the neutrino mass using the muon storage ring. The use of normal thin septum splitters would have an excessive loss overhead and been optically difficult. The AGS Slow Extraction uses a third integer resonance with sextuple strength so the resonance width is a few percent of the beam width. This results in a low density tail which will be clipped by a bent crystal and deflected into the FEB channel. This clipping off of the tail should reduce losses in the SEB transport line. Details of modeled orbits, particle distribution and extraction trajectories into and out off the crystal will be given

  8. AFM fluid delivery/liquid extraction surface sampling/electrostatic spray cantilever probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-06-23

    An electrospray system comprises a liquid extraction surface sampling probe. The probe comprises a probe body having a liquid inlet and a liquid outlet, and having a liquid extraction tip. A solvent delivery conduit is provided for receiving solvent liquid from the liquid inlet and delivering the solvent liquid to the liquid extraction tip. An open liquid extraction channel extends across an exterior surface of the probe body from the liquid extraction tip to the liquid outlet. An electrospray emitter tip is in liquid communication with the liquid outlet of the liquid extraction surface sampling probe. A system for analyzing samples, a liquid junction surface sampling system, and a method of analyzing samples are also disclosed.

  9. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Zaixiang; Wang Hongxin; Zhu Song; Chen Shangwei; Zhang Ming; Wang Zhouping

    2012-01-01

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid–liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8–17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5 h to 30 s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  10. Performance of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter with fast readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Franz, A.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.F.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sala, P.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Jean, P.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.; Towers, S.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype lead-liquid-argon electromagnetic calorimeter with parallel plates and Accordion geometry has been equipped with high speed readout electronics and tested with electron and muon beams at the CERN SPS. For a response peaking time of about 35 ns, fast enough for operation at the future hadron colliders, the energy resolution for electrons is 9.6%/√E[GeV] with a local constant term of 0.3% and a noise contribution of 0.33/E[GeV]. The spatial accuracy achieved with a detector granularity of 2.7 cm is 3.7 mm/√E[GeV] and the angular resolution 12 mrad at 60 GeV. (orig.)

  11. Hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium-lead alloy by gas-liquid contact method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Weng Kuiping; Hou Jianping; Yang Guangling; Zeng Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen extraction experiment from liquid lithium-lead alloy by gas-liquid contact method has been carried out in own liquid lithium-lead bubbler (LLLB). Experimental results show that, He is more suitable than Ar as carrier gas in the filler tower. The higher temperature the tower is, the greater hydrogen content the tower exports. Influence of carrier gas flow rate on the hydrogen content in the export is jagged, no obvious rule. Although the difference between experimental results and literature data, but it is feasible that hydrogen isotopes extraction experiment from liquid lithium-lead by gas-liquid contact method, and the higher extraction efficiency increases with the growth of the residence time of the alloy in tower. (authors)

  12. Feature extraction from mammographic images using fast marching methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottigli, U.; Golosio, B.

    2002-01-01

    Features extraction from medical images represents a fundamental step for shape recognition and diagnostic support. The present work faces the problem of the detection of large features, such as massive lesions and organ contours, from mammographic images. The regions of interest are often characterized by an average grayness intensity that is different from the surrounding. In most cases, however, the desired features cannot be extracted by simple gray level thresholding, because of image noise and non-uniform density of the surrounding tissue. In this work, edge detection is achieved through the fast marching method (Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999), which is based on the theory of interface evolution. Starting from a seed point in the shape of interest, a front is generated which evolves according to an appropriate speed function. Such function is expressed in terms of geometric properties of the evolving interface and of image properties, and should become zero when the front reaches the desired boundary. Some examples of application of such method to mammographic images from the CALMA database (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 460 (2001) 107) are presented here and discussed

  13. Treatment of fast reactor liquid waste- electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahato, Swapan Kumar; Sudha, R.; Anthonysamy, S.; Muralidaran, P.

    2015-01-01

    During the operation of fast reactors, components get wetted by sodium. The sodium wetted primary components such as pumps and intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) in fast reactors are cleaned free of sodium followed by suitable chemical decontamination process before taking them for maintenance or for disposal. This helps in reduction of radiation dose to the operating personnel. Sodium cleaning and decontamination generates large volumes of liquid effluent. The activity in the liquid effluent during sodium cleaning/decontamination is due to 22 Na, 54 Mn, 58 Co, 60 Co, 59 Fe, 137 Cs and 134 Cs. It is required to chemically treat the effluent to reduce the activity levels prior to storage in tanks and transportation to the waste management facility for final disposal. Conventionally the ion exchange method is used for removal of radionuclides which produces large quantities of secondary waste. A method which is suitable both for removal of radionuclides present in low concentration and that avoids generation of large quantities of secondary waste is required. Hence an electrochemical method for metal ion removal is attempted in this work which produces little or no secondary waste. Electrochemical method towards removal of manganese ions was finalized earlier using reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) from simulated decontamination solution containing a mixture of sulphuric and phosphoric acids. In continuation of the experiments for the removal of cesium ions from simulated cleaning solution which has an alkaline pH, a thin film of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) was deposited electrochemically on the surface of RVC. Hexacyanoferrates are known for selectively binding cesium. This NiHCF coated RVC was used for electrodeposition of Cs ions. NiHCF coated and Cs deposited RVC was characterized using SEM/EDX analysis. EDX analysis confirms the presence of Cs on NiHCF coated RVC. (author)

  14. Materials requirements for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.W.; Horton, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    Materials requirements for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) are quite varied with requisite applications ranging from ex-reactor components such as piping, pumps, steam generators and heat exchangers to in-reactor components such as heavy section reactor vessels, core structurals, fuel pin cladding and subassembly flow ducts. Requirements for ex-reactor component materials include: good high temperature tensile, creep and fatigue properties; compatibility with high temperature flowing sodium; resistance to wear, stress corrosion cracking, and crack propagation; and good weldability. Requirements for in-reactor components include most of those cited above for ex-reactor components as supplemented by the following: resistance to radiation embrittlement, swelling and radiation enhanced creep; good neutronics; compatibility with fuel and fission product materials; and resistance to mass transfer via flowing sodium. Extensive programs are currently in place in a number of national laboratories and industrial contractors to address the materials requirements for LMFBRs. These programs are focused on meeting the near term requirements of early LMFBRs such as the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor as well as the longer term requirements of larger near-commercial and fully-commercial reactors

  15. Fast Ignition and Sustained Combustion of Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash B. (Inventor); Piper, Lawrence G. (Inventor); Oakes, David B. (Inventor); Sabourin, Justin L. (Inventor); Hicks, Adam J. (Inventor); Green, B. David (Inventor); Tsinberg, Anait (Inventor); Dokhan, Allan (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A catalyst free method of igniting an ionic liquid is provided. The method can include mixing a liquid hypergol with a HAN (Hydroxylammonium nitrate)-based ionic liquid to ignite the HAN-based ionic liquid in the absence of a catalyst. The HAN-based ionic liquid and the liquid hypergol can be injected into a combustion chamber. The HAN-based ionic liquid and the liquid hypergol can impinge upon a stagnation plate positioned at top portion of the combustion chamber.

  16. Application of liquid metals for the extraction of solid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    Liquid metals dissolve several solid metals in considerable amounts at moderate temperatures. The dissolution processes may be based upon simple physical solubility, formation of intermetallic phases. Even chemical reactions are often observed in which non-metallic elements might be involved. Thus, the capacity to dissolve metals and chemical properties of the liquid metals play a role in these processes. Besides the solubility also chemical properties and thermochemical data are of importance. The dissolution of metals in liquid metals can be applied to separate the solutes from other metals or non-metallic phases. Relatively noble metals can be chemically reduced by the liquid phases. Such solution processes can be applied in the extractive metallurgy, for instance to extract metals from metallic waste. The recycling of metals is of high economical and ecological importance. Examples of possible processes are discussed. (author)

  17. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO₂ extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-03-15

    In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO₂ extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Purification process for aqueous solutions of rare earths by liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollat, A.; Sabot, J.L.; Burgard, M.; Delloye, T.

    1986-01-01

    Alkaline earth metals are removed by liquid-liquid extraction between on aqueous nitric phase of impure rare earth compounds and an organic phase of polyether (crown ether). This process is particularly suited to removal of Ca, Ba and Ra contained in nitric solutions of rare earths [fr

  19. Hybrid Multiphase CFD Solver for Coupled Dispersed/Segregated Flows in Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent E. Wardle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flows in stage-wise liquid-liquid extraction devices include both phase segregated and dispersed flow regimes. As a additional layer of complexity, for extraction equipment such as the annular centrifugal contactor, free-surface flows also play a critical role in both the mixing and separation regions of the device and cannot be neglected. Traditionally, computional fluid dynamics (CFD of multiphase systems is regime dependent—different methods are used for segregated and dispersed flows. A hybrid multiphase method based on the combination of an Eulerian multifluid solution framework (per-phase momentum equations and sharp interface capturing using Volume of Fluid (VOF on selected phase pairs has been developed using the open-source CFD toolkit OpenFOAM. Demonstration of the solver capability is presented through various examples relevant to liquid-liquid extraction device flows including three-phase, liquid-liquid-air simulations in which a sharp interface is maintained between each liquid and air, but dispersed phase modeling is used for the liquid-liquid interactions.

  20. Extraction of tritium from liquid lithium by permeation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alire, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper assesses a method for extracting tritium from liquid lithium for specific application to the conceptual laser fusion reactor that uses a continuous lithium ''waterfall.'' The tritium diffuses through a refractory metal that contains a getter and is then stored in a hydride-forming alloy. There are various uncertainties with this method including helium-4 extraction, unknown impurities that may accumulate in liquid lithium, the effects of these impurities on tritium separation, and the maintenance of tritium-contaminated equipment. Our study indicates that major tritium losses will occur during equipment maintenance rather than as a result of permeation losses through the primary vessel

  1. Cyclotrons with fast variable and/or multiple energy extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility in principle of stripping extraction in combination with reverse bends in isochronous separate-sector cyclotrons (and/or fixed field alternating gradient accelerators. If one uses reverse bends between the sectors (instead of or in combination with drifts and places stripper foils at the sector exit edges, the stripped beam has a reduced bending radius and it should be able to leave the cyclotron within the range of the valley—even if the beam is stripped at less than full energy. We are especially interested in stripping of H_{2}^{+}, as it doubles the charge to mass ratio of the ions. However the method could be applied to other ions or ionized molecules as well. For the production of proton beams by stripping extraction of an H_{2}^{+} beam, we discuss possible designs for three types of machines: First, a low-energy cyclotron for the simultaneous production of several beams at multiple energies—for instance 15, 30, and 70 MeV—thus allowing beam delivery on several isotope production targets. In this case it can be an advantage to have a strong energy dependence of the direction of the extracted beam. Second, we consider a fast variable-energy proton machine for cancer therapy that should allow extraction (of the complete beam at all energies in the range of about 70 MeV to about 250 MeV into the same beam line. Third, we consider a high-intensity high-energy machine, where the main design goals are extraction with low losses, low activation of components, and high reliability. Especially if such a machine is considered for an accelerator driven system (ADS, this extraction mechanism has advantages: Beam trips by the failure of electrostatic elements could be avoided and the turn separation would be less critical, which allows operation at lower main cavity voltages. This would in turn reduce the number of rf trips. The price that has to be paid for these advantages is an increase in size and/or field

  2. Application of solid-liquid extraction separation in analytical chemistry: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zulan; Dai Lixin

    1985-01-01

    Low m.p. waxes as solid solvents for solid-liquid extraction separation are advanced. Uranium in aqueous phase is extracted by homogeneous organic phase which is composed of waxes and various kinds of extractants. Various parameters of this extraction separation method are studied and compared with one of liquid-liquid extraction. The characteristic of wax as solvent, speciality and applicability of solid-liquid extraction separation method are evaluated

  3. Design of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction for the efficient extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xueqin; Li, Li; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-12-01

    A series of novel tetramethylguanidinium ionic liquids and hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids were confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A green guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction method has been developed with these guanidinium ionic liquids for the effective extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani. After extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was employed for the analysis of Praeruptorin A. Several significant operating parameters were systematically optimized by single-factor and L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. The amount of Praeruptorin A extracted by [1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine]CH2CH(OH)COOH is the highest, reaching 11.05 ± 0.13 mg/g. Guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction presents unique advantages in Praeruptorin A extraction compared with guanidinium ionic liquid based maceration extraction, guanidinium ionic liquid based heat reflux extraction and guanidinium ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted extraction. The precision, stability, and repeatability of the process were investigated. The mechanisms of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction were researched by scanning electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. All the results show that guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction has a huge potential in the extraction of bioactive compounds from complex samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction...... approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most...... constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500...

  5. Asymmetric anode and cathode extraction structure fast recovery diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiaqiang; Ma, Li; Gao, Yong

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents an asymmetric anode structure and cathode extraction fast and soft recovery diode. The device anode is partial-heavily doped and partial-lightly doped. The P+ region is introduced into the cathode. Firstly, the characteristics of the diode are simulated and analyzed. Secondly, the diode was fabricated and its characteristics were tested. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation results. The results show that, compared with the P–i–N diode, although the forward conduction characteristic of the diode is declined, the reverse recovery peak current is reduced by 47%, the reverse recovery time is shortened by 20% and the softness factor is doubled. In addition, the breakdown voltage is increased by 10%. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51177133).

  6. Pre-concentration of uranium from water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Nemch, Tabandeh Karimi [Zabol Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a simple and rapid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed for the determination of uranium in water samples prior to high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) was used as complexing agent. The effect of various parameters on the extraction step including type and volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, pH of solution, concentration of PAN, extraction time, sample volume and ionic strength were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and preconcentration factor were 0.3 μg L{sup -1} and 194, respectively. Furthermore, the relative standard deviation of the ten replicate was <2.6%. The developed procedure was then applied to the extraction and determination of uranium in the water samples.

  7. Pre-concentration of uranium from water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Nemch, Tabandeh Karimi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a simple and rapid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed for the determination of uranium in water samples prior to high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) was used as complexing agent. The effect of various parameters on the extraction step including type and volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, pH of solution, concentration of PAN, extraction time, sample volume and ionic strength were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and preconcentration factor were 0.3 μg L -1 and 194, respectively. Furthermore, the relative standard deviation of the ten replicate was <2.6%. The developed procedure was then applied to the extraction and determination of uranium in the water samples.

  8. SYNTHESE D’EXTRACTANTS ACIDES HEXADECYL- ET DECYLAMINOBIMETHYLENEDIPHOSPHONIQUES APPLICATION A L’EXTRACTION LIQUIDE-LIQUIDE DE Ni (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A DIDI

    2007-06-01

    Après purification puis caractérisation des produits, nous avons réalisé divers tests d’extraction liquide - liquide de Ni (II en milieu sulfaté. Le temps d’équilibre déterminé par étude cinétique a été fixé à 40 minutes. Les paramètres changeant tels la température ( T = 20°C, 30°C et 50°C, le rapport du nombre de moles (n extractant / n métal (Q =1 à 6 et le rapport des volumes (Vaq / Vorg= 1, 2, 3 et 4 ont permis de maximiser le rendement d’extraction qui est de 46% avec le HABMP et de 44% pour le DADMP et ceci pour des extractions à un seul plateau.

  9. Liquid-solid extraction of cationic metals by cationic amphiphiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the field of selective separation for recycling of spent nuclear fuel, liquid-liquid extraction processes are widely used (PUREX, DIAMEX..) in industrial scale. In order to guarantee a sustainable nuclear energy for the forthcoming generations, alternative reprocessing techniques are under development. One of them bases on the studies from Heckmann et al in the 80's and consists in selectively precipitating actinides from aqueous waste solutions by cationic surfactants (liquid-solid extraction). This technique has some interesting advantages over liquid-liquid extraction techniques, because several steps are omitted like stripping or solvent washing. Moreover, the amount of waste is decreased considerably, since no contaminated organic solvent is produced. In this thesis, we have carried out a physico-chemical study to understand the specific interactions between the metallic cations with the cationic surfactant. First, we have analysed the specific effect of the different counter-ions (Cl - , NO 3 - , C 2 O 4 2- ) and then the effect of alkaline cations on the structural properties of the surfactant aggregation in varying thermodynamical conditions. Finally, different multivalent cations (Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , UO 2 2+ , Fe 3+ , Nd 3+ , Eu 3+ , Th 4+ ) were considered; we have concluded that depending on the anionic complex of these metals formed in acidic media, we can observe either an adsorption at the micellar interface or not. This adsorption has a large influence of the surfactant aggregation properties and determines the limits of the application in term of ionic strength, temperature and surfactant concentration. (author) [fr

  10. Continuous process for selective metal extraction with an ionic liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parmentier, D.; Paradis, S.; Metz, S.J.; Wiedmer, S.K.; Kroon, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes for the first time a continuous process for selective metal extraction with an ionic liquid (IL) at room temperature. The hydrophobic fatty acid based IL tetraoctylphosphonium oleate ([P8888][oleate]) was specifically chosen for its low viscosity and high selectivity towards

  11. Lunar Oxygen Production and Metals Extraction Using Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Matthew; Paley, Mark Steven; Donovan, David N.; Karr, Laurel J.

    2009-01-01

    Initial results indicate that ionic liquids are promising media for the extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith. IL acid systems can solubilize regolith and produce water with high efficiency. IL electrolytes are effective for water electrolysis, and the spent IL acid media are capable of regeneration.

  12. Ionic liquids as alternative solvents for aromatics extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansmeier, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was the development of an extraction process for the removal of multiple aromatics from several petrochemical streams by means of an ionic liquid. Due to environmental legislation, the demand of ‘clean’ fuels is increasing and most likely will increase even more towards

  13. Fast Detection of Phenolic Compounds in Extracts of Easter Pears (Pyrus communis) from the Atacama Desert by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/Orbitrap/MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simirgiotis, Mario J; Quispe, Cristina; Bórquez, Jorge; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz

    2016-01-15

    A small Chilean variety of pears growing in the town of Toconao, an oasis located at the northeastern edge of the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile, was studied by means of modern PDA and high resolution mass spectral data (UHPLC-PDA-HESI-orbitrap-MS/MS). In addition, the antioxidant features of the fruits were compared with the varieties Packhman's Triumph and Abate Fetel and correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds. The non-pigmented phenolics were fingerprinted and related to the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics and flavonoids measured by spectroscopic methods. The machine allowed a fast separation of 15 min employing a flow rate of 1 mL per minute and could accurately identify 25 compounds, including several isorhamnetin derivatives and phenolic acids, present in the peel and pulps of this Chilean variety for the first time. The compounds were monitored using a wavelength range of 210-800 nm. The native small Chilean pear showed the highest antioxidant activity measured as the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power and superoxide anion scavenging activity (8.61 ± 0.65 μg/mL, 712.63 ± 12.12 micromols trolox equivalents (μmol/TE)/100 g FW, and 82.89% ± 2.52% at 100 μg/mL, respectively).

  14. Extraction efficiency of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants from lyophilized foods using pressurized liquid extraction and manual extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun; Oki, Tomoyuki; Takebayashi, Jun; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    The efficient extraction of antioxidants from food samples is necessary in order to accurately measure their antioxidant capacities. α-Tocopherol and gallic acid were spiked into samples of 5 lyophilized and pulverized vegetables and fruits (onion, cabbage, Satsuma mandarin orange, pumpkin, and spinach). The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the samples were sequentially extracted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane and dichloromethane, and then with acetic acid-acidified aqueous methanol. Duplicate samples were extracted: one set was extracted using an automated pressurized liquid extraction apparatus, and the other set was extracted manually. Spiked α-tocopherol and gallic acid were recovered almost quantitatively in the extracted lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively, especially when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The expected increase in lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (L-ORAC) due to spiking with α-tocopherol, and the expected increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total polyphenol content due to spiking with gallic acid, were all recovered in high yield. Relatively low recoveries, as reflected in the hydrophilic ORAC (H-ORAC) value, were obtained following spiking with gallic acid, suggesting an interaction between gallic acid and endogenous antioxidants. The H-ORAC values of gallic acid-spiked samples were almost the same as those of postadded (spiked) samples. These results clearly indicate that lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effectively extracted from lyophilized food, especially when pressurized liquid extraction is used. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Liquid-liquid extraction kinetics of uranyl nitrate and actinides (III)-lanthanides nitrates by extractants with amide function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulemonde, V.

    1995-01-01

    Nowadays, the most important part of electric power is generated by fission energy. But spent fuels have then to be reprocessed. The production of these reprocessed materials separately and with a high purity level is done according to a liquid-liquid extraction process (Purex process) with the use of tributyl phosphate as solvent. Optimization studies concerning the extracting agent have been undertaken. This work gives the results obtained for the uranyl nitrate and the actinides (III)-lanthanides (III) nitrates extraction by extractants with amide function (monoamide for U(VI) and diamide for actinides (III) and lanthanides (III)). The extraction kinetics have been studied in the case of a metallic specie transfer from the aqueous phase towards the organic phase. The experiments show that the nitrates extraction kinetics is limited by the complexation chemical reaction of the species at the interface between the two liquids. An adsorption-desorption interfacial reactional mechanism (Langmuir theory) is proposed for the uranyl nitrate. (O.M.)

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium from nitric acid solution using di-n-butylsulfoxide in petroleum ether as extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M.H.; Shahida, S. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad (Pakistan); Ali, A. [Nuclear Chemistry Div., Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-07-01

    A simple, efficient and economical liquid-liquid extraction method has been developed for quantitative extraction of uranium from 2 M HNO{sub 3} using di-n-butyl sulfoxide in petroleum ether. The dependence of the partition reaction of U(VI) on the concentration of HNO{sub 3}, extractant and temperature was studied. The reaction was found to be inversely dependent upon the temperature and the values for related thermodynamics functions ({delta}H, {delta}S, {delta}G) for extraction equilibrium were determined to be -33.6 kJ/mol, -1.29 kJ/mol/degree and -0.11 kJ/mol/degree, respectively. The effect of Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as salting-out agent and diverse ions on the extraction was examined. The salting-out agent slightly enhanced the extraction. All cations studied have showed negligible effect on the extraction, whereas phosphate and fluoride interfered seriously. Among others, oxalate, citrate and sulphide ions affect the extraction to a lesser extent. Uranium was successfully extracted from a synthetic mixture of Ti{sup +4}, Zr{sup +4}, Hf{sup +4} and Th{sup +4} using EDTA as masking agent. Among strippants, deionized water was found most suitable, and the recovery of uranium was noted to be {>=} 96%. The stoichiometric composition of the extracted species was found to be UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} . 2DBSO. The extraction mechanism is discussed on the basis of the results obtained. The extractant has high loading as well as recycling capacity without any degradation. The method was also applied to the Standard Reference Material (NBL-49) and the measured value was found to be in agreement with the reported value within {+-}2% deviation. (orig.)

  17. Application of liquid-liquid extraction in uranium hydrometallurgy (Paper No. : V-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, T K.S.; Koppiker, K S

    1979-01-01

    Uranium recovery from the ores is carried out exclusively by hydrometallurgical techniques. The initial solubilisation of uranium is achieved by either sodium carbonate or sulphuric acid leaching, the latter being more common. Further purification and upgrading of uranium from the sulphate liquors is carried out by an ion-exchange process. Solid resin type anion exchangers or liquid ion-exchangers are employed. The processing of uranium liquors is, perhaps, the first major application of liquid-liquid extraction in metal recovery. Organophosphoric acids were initially used but later the long-chain aliphatic amines have superseded them. The amine extraction system has been widely studied and several variations are now known. Chloride, nitrate, carbonate or sulphate or acid stripping can be used for getting back the uranium into the aqueous phase. Combination of ion exchange (resin type) and solvent extraction processes called Eluex processes are developed for special applications. Studies have also been made of solvent extraction of uranium from leach pulps instead of clear liquors. Tributylphosphate has found wide application in the refining of uranium concentrates to meet the stringent needs of nuclear purity. liquid-liquid extraction is, perhaps, the only successful technique for the recovery of uranium, as by-product, from wet-process phosphoric acid. This has opened up a new source of uranium.

  18. Improved alloys for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An alloy is specified suitable for use at elevated temperatures and especially in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor consisting essentially of a nickel-chromium steel having a specified range of composition of C, Mn, Si, Zr, V, Ni, Cr, Ti, Al, Mo, B, and the balance iron with incidental impurities, the alloy exhibiting a swelling at peak swelling temperature of less than 10% wherein the matrix composition has after heat treatment at a temperature within the range of 1000 0 C to 1100 0 C for about one half hour followed by aging at a temperature within the range of from 700 0 C to 815 0 C for a time period of between 10 to 24 hours, the longer hours being associated with the lower temperatures and vice-versa, and after the removal of the non-equilibrium gamma prime and other precipitated phases a composition within a specified range of composition of Ni, Cr, Ti, Al, Mo, the balance being essentially iron. (U.K.)

  19. Flow induced vibrations in liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations are well known phenomena in industry. Engineers have to estimate their destructive effects on structures. In the nuclear industry, flow induced vibrations are assessed early in the design process, and the results are incorporated in the design procedures. In many cases, model testing is used to supplement the design process to ensure that detrimental behaviour due to flow induced vibrations will not occur in the component in question. While these procedures attempt to minimize the probability of adverse performance of the various components, there is a problem in the extrapolation of analytical design techniques and/or model testing to actual plant operation. Therefore, sodium tests or vibrational measurements of components in the reactor system are used to provide additional assurance. This report is a general survey of experimental and calculational methods in this area of structural mechanics. The report is addressed to specialists and institutions in industrialized and developing countries who are responsible for the design and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. 92 refs, 90 figs, 8 tabs

  20. Alkylsulfate-based ionic liquids in the liquid–liquid extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Silvia; Larriba, Marcos; García, Julián; Torrecilla, José S.; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Values of α 2,1 for the four R-SO 4 ionic liquids are higher than those of sulfolane. ► Values of D 2 for all the ionic liquids are lower than those of sulfolane. ► Values of D 2 for [emim][C 2 H 5 SO 4 ] are the highest among the R-SO 4 ionic liquids. - Abstract: The (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data (LLE) for the extraction of toluene from heptane with different ionic liquids (ILs) based on the alkylsulfate anion (R-SO 4 ) was determined at T = 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The effect of more complex R-SO 4 anions on capacity of extraction and selectivity in the liquid–liquid extraction of toluene from heptane was studied. The ternary systems were formed by {heptane + toluene + 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulfate ([mmim][CH 3 SO 4 ]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogensulfate ([emim][HSO 4 ]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate ([emim][CH 3 SO 4 ]), or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ([emim][C 2 H 5 SO 4 ])}. The degree of quality of the experimental LLE data was ascertained by applying the Othmer–Tobias correlation. The phase diagrams for the ternary systems were plotted, and the tie lines correlated with the NRTL model compare satisfactorily with the experimental data.

  1. Determination of Organic Pollutants in Small Samples of Groundwaters by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary Gas Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, I.; Leader, R.U.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 22 organic compounds in polluted groundwaters. The method includes liquid-liquid extraction of the base/neutral organics from small, alkaline groundwater samples, followed by derivatisation and liquid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds after neu...... neutralisation. The extracts were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. Dual detection by flame Ionisation and electron capture was used to reduce analysis time....

  2. Task-specific thioglycolate ionic liquids for heavy metal extraction: Synthesis, extraction efficacies and recycling properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, Sonja [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kar, Mega [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Leyma, Raphlin; Chib, Sonia; Roller, Alexander [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Jirsa, Franz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 Johannesburg (South Africa); Krachler, Regina [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); MacFarlane, Douglas R. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Kandioller, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.kandioller@univie.ac.at [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Keppler, Bernhard K. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Thioglycolate-based ionic liquids have been synthesized and their physicochemical properties have been examined. • The developed ionic liquids can efficiently remove Cu(II) and Cd(II). • Loaded ionic liquids can be recycled by application of different stripping protocols. - Abstract: Eight novel task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) based on the thioglycolate anion designed for heavy metal extraction have been prepared and characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, UV-Vis, infrared, ESI-MS, conductivity, viscosity, density and thermal properties. Evaluation of their time-resolved extraction abilities towards cadmium(II) and copper(II) in aqueous solutions have been investigated where distribution ratios up to 1200 were observed. For elucidation of the IL extraction mode, crystals were grown where Cd(II) was converted with an excess of S-butyl thioglycolate. It was found by X-ray diffraction analysis that cadmium is coordinated by five oxygen and one sulfur donor atoms provided by two thioglycolate molecules and one water molecule. Leaching behavior of the hydrophobic ionic liquids into aqueous systems was studied by TOC (total dissolved organic carbon) measurements. Additionally, the immobilization on polypropylene was elucidated and revealed slower metal extraction rates and similar leaching behavior. Finally, recovery processes for cadmium and copper after extraction were performed and recyclability was successfully proven for both metals.

  3. Simultaneous quantification of chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma by ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and application of the technique to comparative pharmacokinetic studies of Radix et Rhei Rhizoma extract alone and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Li; Xing, Jiangwa; Poh, Yanhong; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao Chang

    2015-02-01

    Most herbal medicines are prescribed in combination based on the theory of TCM to obtain synergistic effects or diminish the possible adverse reactions. Compatibility refers to the combination of two or more herbs based on the clinical settings and the properties of herbs. Chrysophanol and physcion are the main effective compounds in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction which is the combination of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata and Radix et Rhizoma Asari. However, chrysophanol and physcion are difficult to detect in vivo because of their low concentration and interference from endogenous compounds. The aim of this study is to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass method to simultaneously quantify chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma, in order to better understand the pharmacokinetics and compatibility mechanism of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction for the first time. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied for the quantitation at [M-H](-)m/z 253.0→m/z 225.1 for chrysophanol, [M-H](-) for m/z 283.1→m/z 240.0 physcion and [M-H](-)m/z 239.0→m/z 211.0 for IS. The analytes were separated on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) column within a total running time of 6.5min using a mixture of 3mM ammonium acetate in water and methanol (95:5, v/v) with a time program flow gradient according to the "plus gradient chromatography" theory. The inclusion of the ammonium acetate in the UFLC mobile phase dramatically improved the detection limit of the tested compounds and decreased the interference by matrix effects, which have been referred to as "LC-electrolyte effects". Finally, we demonstrated the application of a validated method in a comparative pharmacokinetic study of rats receiving an oral dose of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction or Radix et Rhei Rhizoma, the monarch drug in the prescription. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed

  4. Salting-out homogenous extraction followed by ionic liquid/ionic liquid liquid-liquid micro-extraction for determination of sulfonamides in blood by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongling; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Hanqi; Gu, Fanbin; Jin, Xiangqun

    2016-12-01

    Salting-out homogenous extraction followed by ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction system was developed and applied to the extraction of sulfonamides in blood. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the determination of the analytes. The blood sample was centrifuged to obtain the serum. After the proteins in the serum were removed in the presence of acetonitrile, ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, ionic liquid 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were added into the resulting solution. After the resulting mixture was ultrasonically shaken and centrifuged, the precipitate was separated. The acetonitrile was added in the precipitate and the analytes were extracted into the acetonitrile phase. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as volume of ionic liquid, amount of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, volume of dispersant, extraction time and temperature were investigated. The limits of detection of sulfamethizole (STZ), sulfachlorpyridazine (SCP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Sulfisoxazole (SSZ) were 4.78, 3.99, 5.21 and 3.77μgL -1 , respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of real blood samples, the recoveries of analytes ranged from 90.0% to 113.0% and relative standard deviations were lower than 7.2%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of salting-out and sugaring-out liquid-liquid extraction methods for the partition of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid in royal jelly and their co-extracted protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xijuan; Sun, Fanyi; Wu, Siyuan; Liu, Weiyi; Gao, Zhaosheng; Huang, Shaokang; Chen, Wenbin

    2018-01-15

    Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (h-LLE) has been receiving considerable attention as a sample preparation method due to its simple and fast partition of compounds with a wide range of polarities. To better understand the differences between the two h-LLE extraction approaches, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and sugaring-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SULLE), have been compared for the partition of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) from royal jelly, and for the co-extraction of proteins. Effects of the amount of phase partition agents and the concentration of acetonitrile (ACN) on the h-LLE were discussed. Results showed that partition efficiency of 10-HDA depends on the phase ratio in both SALLE and SULLE. Though the partition triggered by NaCl and glucose is less efficient than MgSO 4 in the 50% (v/v) ACN-water mixture, their extraction yields can be improved to be similar with that in MgSO 4 SALLE by increasing the initial concentration of ACN in the ACN-water mixture. The content of co-extracted protein was correlated with water concentration in the obtained upper phase. MgSO 4 showed the largest protein co-extraction at the low concentration of salt. Glucose exhibited a large protein co-extraction in the high phase ratio condition. Furthermore, NaCl with high initial ACN concentration is recommended because it produced high extraction yield for 10-HDA and the lowest amount of co-extracted protein. These observations would be valuable for the sample preparation of royal jelly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quaternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the extraction of toluene from alkanes using the ionic liquid [EMim][MSO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corderí, Sandra; Calvar, Noelia; Gómez, Elena; Domínguez, Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • EMim[MSO 4 ] was proposed as solvent for the extraction of toluene from alkanes. • The quaternary system {heptane + cyclohexane + toluene + [EMim][MSO 4 ]} was evaluated. • The extraction of toluene would be facilitated in the presence of one alkane. • Experimental LLE data were successfully correlated with the NRTL model. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) studies for the extraction of aromatics from alkanes present in the petroleum fractions are important to develop theoretical/semiempirical (liquid + liquid) equilibrium models, which are used in the design of extraction processes. In this work, the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate, [EMim][MSO 4 ], was evaluated as potential solvent for the separation of toluene from heptane and cyclohexane. The LLE data for the quaternary system {heptane (1) + cyclohexane (2) + toluene (3) + [EMim][MSO 4 ] (4)} were experimentally determined at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the LLE data for the ternary systems {heptane or cyclohexane (1) + toluene (2) + [EMim][MSO 4 ] (3)} were also determined. Solute distribution ratios and selectivities were calculated and analysed in order to evaluate the capability of the ionic liquid to accomplish the separation target. A comparison between the solute distribution ratios and selectivities for the quaternary and the ternary systems was also made. Finally, the experimental tie-line data were correlated with the NRTL model

  7. Separation of phosphorous by liquid-liquid extraction for the measurement of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.N.; Yang, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorous containing radioisotope waste was separated and determined by liquid-liquid extraction method through liquid scintillation counter (LSC). In this process, ammonium phosphate was converted to phosphomolybdate (PMo) by the reaction of ammonium molybdate (Mo) in HCl solution (0.02 M) and maximum UV/VIS absorbance (λ max ) 218 nm was observed. The PMo solution was extracted with TOA (Tri-n-Octylamine)/xylene mixture and λ max 290 nm was found for this organic layer. Absorbance of aqueous and organic layer was linear through concentration. The impurities such as Co, Cr, Gd, etc. remain in aqueous layer by treating with Mo which was determined by ICP-AES and AAS. The quenching correction curve for 32 P was calculated using LSC results. No counting change was observed as the volume of quenchers increased. The recovery was 98% and 81% for the extraction and separation process from the test using H 3 32 PO 4 as standard tracer. (author)

  8. Pyridinium ionic liquid-based liquid-solid extraction of inorganic and organic iodine from Laminaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Qing; Yu, Wen-Yan; Xu, Jing-Jing; Cao, Jun

    2018-01-15

    A simple, green and effective extraction method, namely, pyridinium ionic liquid- (IL) based liquid-solid extraction (LSE), was first designed to extract the main inorganic and organic iodine compounds (I - , monoiodo-tyrosine (MIT) and diiodo-tyrosine (DIT)). The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic intensity 100W, IL ([EPy]Br) concentration 200mM, extraction time 30min, liquid/solid ratio 10mL/g, and pH value 6.5. The morphologies of Laminaria were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The recovery values of I - , MIT and DIT from Laminaria were in the range of 88% to 94%, and limits of detection were in the range of 59.40 to 283.6ng/g. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of iodine compounds in three Laminaria. The results showed that IL-based LSE could be a promising method for rapid extraction of bioactive iodine from complex food matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Task-specific ionic liquids for An and Ln extraction: unusual speciation and extraction mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billard, Isabelle; Jobin, Emilie; Ouadi, Ali; Gaillard, Clotilde [IPHC-DRS, Chimie nucleaire, 23 rue du Loess, BP28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Extraction mechanisms of uranium by TBP (tributylphosphate) diluted in an ionic liquid BumimTf{sub 2}N (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(tri-fluoro-methyl-sulfonyl)imide) and by Task-Specific Ionic Liquids (TSILs) bearing a phosphoryl group were investigated. Great differences between these mechanisms and the one in the industrial solvent, dodecane, have been put in evidence. While in dodecane, the neutral species, UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(TBP){sub 2}, is the major extracted complex, in BumimTf{sub 2}N and TSILs, at least two species are extracted with more or less similar proportions. Moreover, no uranyl species with two nitrates could be observed in these ionic liquids. Finally, the mechanisms vary from TBP in BumimTf{sub 2}N to TSILs. These results led to a so-to-say new kind of actinide chemistry. (authors)

  10. Reprocessing technology of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetsle, L.H.; Broothaerts, J.; Heylen, P.R.; Eschrich, H.; Geel, J. van

    1974-11-01

    All the important aspects of LMFBR fuel reprocessing are critically reviewed in this report. Storage and transportation techniques using sodium, inert gas, lead, molten salts and organic coolants are comparatively discussed in connection with cooling time and de-activation techniques. Decladding and fuel disaggregation of UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel are reviewed according to the present state of R and D in the main nuclear powers. Strong emphasis is put on on voloxidation, mechanical pulverization and molten salt disaggregation in connection with volatilization of gaseous fission products. Release of fission gases and the resulting off-gas treatment are discussed in connection with cooling time, burn up and dissagregation techniques. The review is limited to tritium, iodine xenon-krypton and radioactive airborne particulates. Dissolution, solvent extraction and plutonium purification problems specifically connected to LMFBR fuel are reviewed with emphasis on the differences between LWR and fast fuel reprocessing. Finally the categories of wastes produced by reprocessing are analysed according to their origin in the plant and their alpha emitters content. The suitable waste treatment techniques are discussed in connection with the nature of the wastes and the ultimate disposal technique. (author)

  11. Selective Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Lead Ions Using Newly Synthesized Extractant 2-(Dibutylcarbamoylbenzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Soltani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new carboxylic acid extractant, named 2-(dibutylcarbamoylbenzoic acid, is prepared and its potential for selective solvent extraction and recovery of lead ions from industrial samples was investigated. The slope analysis indicated that the lead ions are extracted by formation of 1:2 metal to ligand complexes. The effect of the parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including kind of the organic diluent, extractant concentration, type of the salt used for ionic strength adjustment, contact time and temperature was evaluated and discussed. Under optimized conditions (aqueous phase: 5 ml, initial lead concentration 1 × 10-4 M, pH 4, sodium chloride 0.1 M; organic phase: 5 ml dichloromethane, ligand concentration 0.05 M, a quantitative (75.2 ± 0.8% and highly selective extraction of lead ions in the presence of zinc, nickel, cobalt and cadmium ions (each 1 × 10-4 M was achieved, after 20 min. magnetically stirring of the phases, at      25 °C. The extracted lead ions were stripped from the organic phase by diluted nitric acid (0.1 M solution. The proposed method was successfully applied for separation of lead from industrial samples. The study of the effect of temperature allowed evaluating the thermodynamic parameters of the extraction process of lead ions by the studied extractant into dichloromethane.

  12. Slow and fast pyrolysis of Douglas-fir lignin: Importance of liquid-intermediate formation on the distribution of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shuai; Pecha, Brennan; Kuppevelt, Michiel van; McDonald, Armando G.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The formation of liquid intermediates and the distribution of products were studied under slow and fast pyrolysis conditions. Results indicate that monomers are formed from lignin oligomeric products during secondary reactions, rather than directly from the native lignin. Lignin from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) wood was extracted using the milled wood enzyme lignin isolation method. Slow pyrolysis using a microscope with hot-stage captured the liquid formation (>150 °C), shrinking, swelling (foaming), and evaporation behavior of lignin intermediates. The activation energy (E a ) for 5–80% conversions was 213 kJ mol −1 , and the pre-exponential factor (log A) was 24.34. Fast pyrolysis tests in a wire mesh reactor were conducted (300–650 °C). The formation of the liquid intermediate was visualized with a fast speed camera (250 Hz), showing the existence of three well defined steps: formation of lignin liquid intermediates, foaming and liquid intermediate swelling, and evaporation and droplet shrinking. GC/MS and UV-Fluorescence of the mesh reactor condensate revealed lignin oligomer formation but no mono-phenols were seen. An increase in pyrolytic lignin yield was observed as temperature increased. The molar mass determined by ESI-MS was not affected by pyrolysis temperature. SEM of the char showed a smooth surface with holes, evidence of a liquid intermediate with foaming; bursting from these foams could be responsible for the removal of lignin oligomers. Py-GC/MS studies showed the highest yield of guaiacol compounds at 450–550 °C. - Highlights: • The formation of a liquid intermediate phase is a critical step during lignin pyrolysis. • The lignin oligomers are thermally ejected from the liquid intermediate phase. • The mono-phenols are formed mainly from the secondary reactions of lignin oligomers

  13. Microsystems for liquid-liquid extraction of radionuclides in the analytical protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, Gwendolyne

    2014-01-01

    Radiochemical analyses are necessary to numerous steps for nuclear wastes management and for the control of the environment. An analytical protocol generally includes different steps of chemical separations which are lengthy, manual and complicated to implement because of their confinement in glove boxes and because of the hostile chemical and radiochemical media. Thus there is a huge importance to propose innovative and robust solutions to automate these steps but also to reduce the volumes of the radioactive and chemical wastes at the end of the analytical cycle. One solution consists in the miniaturization of the analyses through the use of lab-on-chip. The objective of this thesis work was to propose a rational approach to the conception of separative microsystems for the liquid-liquid extraction of radionuclides. To achieve this, the hydrodynamic behavior as well as the extraction performances have been investigated in one chip for three different chemical systems: Eu(III)-HNO 3 /DMDBTDMA, Eu(III)-AcO(H,Na)-HNO 3 /HDEHP and U(VI)-HCl/Aliquat336. A methodology has been developed for the implementation of the liquid-liquid extraction in micro-system for each chemical system. The influence of various geometric parameters such as channel length or specific interfacial area has been studied and the comparison of the liquid-liquid extraction performances has led to highlight the influence of the phases viscosities ratio on the flows. Thanks to the modeling of both hydrodynamics and mass transfer in micro-system, the criteria related to physical and kinetic properties of the chemical systems have been distinguished to propose a rational conception of tailor-made chips. Finally, several examples of the liquid-liquid extraction implementation in micro-system have been described for analytical applications in the nuclear field: U/Co separation by Aliquat336, Eu/Sm separation by DMDBTDMA or even the coupling between a liquid-liquid extraction chip and the system of

  14. Feasibility of bio-based lactate esters as extractant for biobutanol recovery: (Liquid + liquid) equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Shaohua; Cheng, Hongye; Chen, Lifang; Qi, Zhiwen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Lactate esters were studied as solvent to remove butanol from aqueous media. • (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data were measured at T = 298.15 K and 1 atm. • Selectivity and 1-butanol partition coefficient were calculated. • COSMO-based study of separation efficiency on solvent structure was conducted. - Abstract: As bio-based solvents, lactate esters can be used as extractant for removing 1-butanol from the aqueous fermentation broths. In order to evaluate the separation efficiency of butyl lactate and 2-ethylhexyl lactate for the extraction of 1-butanol from its mixture with water, the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium for the ternary systems {water (1) + 1-butanol (2) + lactate ester (3)} were measured at T = 298.15 K. The 1-butanol partition coefficient varied in the range of 4.46 to 10.29, and the solvent selectivity within 32.12 to 108.18. For the separation of low-concentration butanol from fermentation broths, butyl lactate exhibits higher partition coefficient and lower selectivity than 2-ethylhexyl lactate. The NRTL model was employed to correlate the experimental data, and the COSMO-RS theory was utilized to predict the (liquid + liquid) equilibria and to analyze the influence of lactate esters on extraction efficiency.

  15. Removal of nitrogen compounds from Brazilian petroleum samples by oxidation followed by liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, L.; Pergher, S.B.C. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], E-mail: pergher@uricer.edu.br; Oliveira, J.V. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia dos Alimentos; Souza, W.F. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2009-10-15

    This work reports liquid-liquid extraction of nitrogen compounds from oxidized and non-oxidized Brazilian petroleum samples. The experiments were accomplished in a laboratory-scale liquid-liquid apparatus in the temperature range of 303 K-323 K, using methanol, n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and N,Ndimethylformamide (DMF), and their mixtures as extraction solvents, employing solvent to sample volume ratios of 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1, exploring up to three separation stages. Results show that an increase in temperature, solvent to oil ratio, and number of equilibrium stages greatly improves the nitrogen removal from the oxidized sample (from 2600 to 200 ppm). The employed oxidation scheme is thus demonstrated to be an essential and efficient step of sample preparation for the selective liquid-liquid removal of nitrogen compounds. It is shown that the use of mixtures of DMF and NMP as well their use as co-solvents with methanol did not prove to be useful for selective nitrogen extraction since great oil losses were observed in the final process. (author)

  16. On-line control of a liquid-liquid extraction column by the modal control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefoi, P.; Poujol, A.; Zwingelstein, G.; Dargier, C.; Rouyer, H.

    1977-02-01

    The application of modal analysis to the on-line control of a liquid-liquid extraction column is presented. This process is used in reprocessing for U purification. U in the aqueous acid phase is extracted by a solvent flowing at counter-current. The process is described by 4 nonlinear equations and gives the U and acid concentrations in the two phases. An approximative model is established adapted to the control of the column. Some results of a numerical simulation are given when a single mode is controled. They show that a single sensor allows a good control [fr

  17. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) using Cyanex 272 in kerosene from sodium salicylate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamble, Pravin N.; Mohite, Baburao S.; Suryavanshi, Vishal J.; Salunkhe, Suresh T.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) from sodium salicylate media using Cyanex 272 in kerosene has been carried out. Uranium (VI) was quantitatively extracted from 1x10 -4 M sodium salicylate with 5x10 -4 M Cyanex 272 in kerosene. It was stripped quantitatively from the organic phase with 4M HCl and determined spectrophotometrically with arsenazo(III) at 600 nm. The effects of concentrations of sodium salicylate, metal ions and strippants have been studied. Separation of uranium (VI) from other elements was achieved from binary as well as from multicomponent mixtures. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately ±2%). (author)

  18. Liquid-liquid extraction and separation studies of uranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langade, A.D.; Shinde, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separation of uranium(VI) from iron(III), molybdenum(VI), vanadium(V), bismuth(III), zirconium(IV) and thorium(IV) is achieved by liquid-liquid extraction with 4-methyl-3-pentene-2-one (mesityl oxide; MeO) from sodium salicylate media (0.1M, pH 6.0). The extracted species is UO 2 (HO.C 6 H 4 COO) 2 .2MeO. A procedure for separating 50 μg of uranium from mg amounts of the other metals is described. (author)

  19. Extraction of metal ions through ligand assisted ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Vincent, T.; Khanna, A.

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of Strontium by crown ether (DCH18C6) has been investigated in [BMIM][TF2N] Ionic Liquid (IL) giving higher extraction ~98% and distribution ratio as compared to other organic solvents (Dodecane, Hexane, & Isodecyl alcohol + Dodecane). Distribution ratio of Sr in IL at 0.15M DCH18C6 indicates an enhancement of 20000, 2000, 500 times over Dodecane, Hexane and 5% Isodecyl Alcohol + 95 % Dodecane at 0.01M aqueous acidity respectively. In presence of IL Sr extraction decreases with increase in HNO 3 concentration in aqueous phase whereas opposite trend was observed with organic solvents. Extraction of Sr initially increases with increase in DCH18C6 concentration in IL, finally reaching an asymptotic constant. Sr can be stripped from the organic phase by precipitating with K 2 SO 4 . (author)

  20. Association of solvent extraction and liquid-liquid flotation processes for metal recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puget, Flavia P.; Mendonca, Luciano A. de; Massarani, Giulio

    2000-01-01

    From the batch solvent extraction process, in this work it has been carried out a preliminary study aiming the determination of the optimal operating conditions for zirconium recovery (10 ppm) using alamine 336 (tricaprylylamine) as extractor. The results have shown that the extraction takes place instantaneously (5s of manual agitation) and that at pH around 2.0 the extraction efficiency is up to 98-99% for an aqueous/organic phase volumetric ratio of 10. Based on these results, it is proposed to evaluate the possibility of using of a pioneering technology for metal recovery at low concentrations, using a experimental set-up that associates standard solvent extraction process with liquid-liquid flotation process. (author)

  1. Liquid-liquid extraction of plutonium and americium by cekanoic acid from alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal Chetty, K.; Sagar, V.; Swarup, R.

    2001-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of plutonium and americium from aqueous carbonate medium using a high molecular weight carboxylic acid namely cekanoic acid in different diluents has been carried out. The distribution ratio (D) values for Pu(IV) and Am(III) under various parameters such as concentration of extractant, Na 2 CO 3 and initial pH were obtained. Results indicated that Pu(IV) and Am(III) could be satisfactorily extracted together or individually from aqueous carbonate medium using cekanoic acid in different diluents like carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, n-dodecane or solvesso-100. The D values for Pu(IV) and Am(III) also indicated the possibility of their mutual separation. The back extraction of Pu and Am with different reagents was also studied. (orig.)

  2. Liquid liquid extraction of Th(IV) and its complexation study by Calix(4)pyrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, N.V.; Kamble, J.H.; Malkhede, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    Due to increased demand for carbon-free energy, accelerated growth of nuclear power is foreseen in several countries, especially in China and India. This has made the sustainable use of fuel resources such as uranium and thorium very important. Today, uranium is the main-stay of the present generation of nuclear power plants. However, the anticipated growth in nuclear energy may require introducing thorium as a fuel in future. Meso-octamethyl calix(4)pyrole is known for anion receptor however the present study evaluate the effect of cation for complexation of thorium by liquid liquid extraction technique. Calix(4)pyrole was evaluated for extraction of Th(IV), and 97% extraction efficiency was obtained. Th(IV) was determine with arsenazo(III) at 655 nm. The effect of acid molarity of 0.1 M, 1:5 metal to ligand ratio found efficient for maximum extraction. The stoichiometry ratio 1:2 between metal to ligand is established

  3. Equilibrium Studies on Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Amino Acid Extraction Using a Cinchona Alkaloid Extractant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, Boelo; Winkelman, Jozef G. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2008-01-01

    The enantioselective extraction of aqueous 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-R,S-leucine (A(R,S)) by a cinchona alkaloid extractant (C) in 1,2-dichloroethane was studied at room temperature (294 K) in a batch system for a range of intake concentrations (10(-4)-10(-3) mol/L) and pH values (3.8-6.6). The

  4. Counter current 'emulsion flow' extractor for continuous liquid-liquid extraction from suspended solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanase, Nobuyuki; Naganawa, Hirochika; Nagano, Tetsushi; Noro, Junji

    2011-01-01

    A single current 'emulsion flow' liquid-liquid extraction apparatus has a head with a number of holes from which micrometer-sized droplets of an aqueous phase spout into an organic phase to mix the two liquid phases. For practical use, however, a fatal problem can occur when particulate components in the aqueous phase plug the holes. In the present study, we have succeeded in solving the problem by applying a counter current-type emulsion flow extractor where micrometer-sized droplets of the organic phase are generated. (author)

  5. Cloud point extraction: an alternative to traditional liquid-liquid extraction for lanthanides(III) separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Réguillon, Alain; Draye, Micheline; Lebuzit, Gérard; Thomas, Sylvie; Foos, Jacques; Cote, Gérard; Guy, Alain

    2004-06-17

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) was used to extract and separate lanthanum(III) and gadolinium(III) nitrate from an aqueous solution. The methodology used is based on the formation of lanthanide(III)-8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) complexes soluble in a micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant. The lanthanide(III) complexes are then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase at a temperature above the cloud point temperature (CPT). The structure of the non-ionic surfactant, and the chelating agent-metal molar ratio are identified as factors determining the extraction efficiency and selectivity. In an aqueous solution containing equimolar concentrations of La(III) and Gd(III), extraction efficiency for Gd(III) can reach 96% with a Gd(III)/La(III) selectivity higher than 30 using Triton X-114. Under those conditions, a Gd(III) decontamination factor of 50 is obtained.

  6. Separation of tungsten from molybdenum by liquid-liquid extraction and extraction chromatography using thiocyanate and a quarternary ammonium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, C.; Onishi, H.

    1977-01-01

    Methods were developed for the separation of tungsten from molybdenum by liquid-liquid extraction and extraction chromatography using thiocyanate and a quaternary ammonium salt, Zephiramine. Tungsten was extracted into chloroform as an ion associate of tungsten(V)-thiocyanate complex and Zephiramine cation was retained on a column of Teflon powder coated with Zephiramine, but molybdenum(III) was neither extracted nor retained. The extraction chromatographic method was succesfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of tungsten in molybdenum by neutron activation analysis. The γ-ray spectrum, observed with the Ge(Li) detector, of tungsten fraction separated from irradiated molybdenum are shown. The peaks of 99 Mo, sup(99m)Tc, and sup(99m)Nb (produced by 92 Mo(n,p)sup(99m)Nb) were seen, but these nuclides did nit interfere with the determination of tungsten using a NaI(Tl) detector. The results of the neutron activation analysis of a sample of ammonium molybdate agreed quite well with that of the spectrophotometric determination after extraction chromatographic separation. (T.G.)

  7. Ionic Liquids as Benign Solvents for the Extraction of Aromatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Md. Anwar; Lee, Jeesun; Kim, Dai Hyun; Nguyen, Dinh Quan; Cheong, Minserk; Kim, Hoon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been extensively investigated as promising alternatives to conventional organic solvents such as sulfolane and N,N-dimethylformamide for the selective extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from the C 6 -C 10 hydrocarbon mixtures produced from the cracking processes of naphtha and light oils. The most important advantage of ILs over conventional organic solvents is that they are immiscible with aliphatic hydrocarbons, and thus the back extraction of ILs from the raffinate phases and top hydrocarbon-rich layers is not necessary. In this paper, a brief review on the state of the art in the utilization of ILs for aromatics separation is presented

  8. Poisoning of liquid membrane carriers in extraction of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuchun; Wang, Dexian

    1992-01-01

    As means of effective separation and preconcentration, emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs) have found application in many fields including biochemical separation, wastewater treatment, hydrometallurgy, and preconcentration in analytical chemistry. In the extraction of desired metal (scandium, mixed rare earths) ions using chelating extractants (TTA, HDEHP) as liquid membrane carriers, the carriers will become poisoned owing to the presence of even minute quantity of certain high ionic potential ions in the feed solution. The reason for the poisoning of carriers is that those ions have so much greater affinity than the desired ions for the membrane carrier that the ion-carrier coordination compound cannot be stripped at the interior interface of the membrane and gradually no more free carrier transports any metal ions across the membrane. The calculated results are in agreement with the experiments, and methods to avoid the poisoning are given in the paper

  9. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  10. Liquid-solid extraction of metallic cations by cationic amphiphiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Wolfram; Sievers, Torsten K.; Zemb, Thomas; Diat, Olivier; Sievers, Torsten K.; Dejugnat, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In the field of selective metal ion separation, liquid-liquid extraction is usually conducted through an emulsion mixing of hydrophobic complexants dispersed in an organic phase and acidic water containing the ionic species. Recently, it has been shown that amphiphilic complexants could influence strongly extraction efficiency by enhancing the interfacial interaction between the metal ion in the aqueous and the complexant in the organic phase. Moreover, these amphiphiles can also substitute the organic phase if an appropriate aliphatic chain is chosen. The dispersion of such amphiphilic complexants in an aqueous solution of salt mixtures is not only attractive for studying specific interactions but also to better the understanding of complex formation in aqueous solution of multivalent metal ions, such as lanthanides and actinides. This understanding is of potential interest for a broad range of industries including purification of rare earth metals and pollute treatment e.g. of fission byproducts. This principle can also be applied to liquid-solid extraction, where the final state of the separation is a solid phase containing the selectively extracted ions. Indeed, a novel solid-liquid extraction method exploits the selective precipitation of metal ions from an aqueous salt mixture using a cationic surfactant, below its Krafft point (temperature below which the long aliphatic chains of surfactant crystallize). This technique has been proven to be highly efficient for the separation of actinides and heavy metal using long chain ammonium or pyridinium amphiphiles. The most important point in this process is the recognition of cationic metal ions by cationic surfactants. By computing the free energy of the polar head group per micelle as a function of the different counter-anions, we have demonstrated for the first time that different interactions exist between the micellar surface and the ions. These interactions depend on the nature of the cation but also on

  11. Kissinger method applied to the crystallization of glass-forming liquids: Regimes revealed by ultra-fast-heating calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orava, J., E-mail: jo316@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Greer, A.L., E-mail: alg13@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    Highlights: • Study of ultra-fast DSC applied to the crystallization of glass-forming liquids. • Numerical modeling of DSC traces at heating rates exceeding 10 orders of magnitude. • Identification of three regimes in Kissinger plots. • Elucidation of the effect of liquid fragility on the Kissinger method. • Modeling to study the regime in which crystal growth is thermodynamically limited. - Abstract: Numerical simulation of DSC traces is used to study the validity and limitations of the Kissinger method for determining the temperature dependence of the crystal-growth rate on continuous heating of glasses from the glass transition to the melting temperature. A particular interest is to use the wide range of heating rates accessible with ultra-fast DSC to study systems such as the chalcogenide Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} for which fast crystallization is of practical interest in phase-change memory. Kissinger plots are found to show three regimes: (i) at low heating rates the plot is straight, (ii) at medium heating rates the plot is curved as expected from the liquid fragility, and (iii) at the highest heating rates the crystallization rate is thermodynamically limited, and the plot has curvature of the opposite sign. The relative importance of these regimes is identified for different glass-forming systems, considered in terms of the liquid fragility and the reduced glass-transition temperature. The extraction of quantitative information on fundamental crystallization kinetics from Kissinger plots is discussed.

  12. Kissinger method applied to the crystallization of glass-forming liquids: Regimes revealed by ultra-fast-heating calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orava, J.; Greer, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of ultra-fast DSC applied to the crystallization of glass-forming liquids. • Numerical modeling of DSC traces at heating rates exceeding 10 orders of magnitude. • Identification of three regimes in Kissinger plots. • Elucidation of the effect of liquid fragility on the Kissinger method. • Modeling to study the regime in which crystal growth is thermodynamically limited. - Abstract: Numerical simulation of DSC traces is used to study the validity and limitations of the Kissinger method for determining the temperature dependence of the crystal-growth rate on continuous heating of glasses from the glass transition to the melting temperature. A particular interest is to use the wide range of heating rates accessible with ultra-fast DSC to study systems such as the chalcogenide Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 for which fast crystallization is of practical interest in phase-change memory. Kissinger plots are found to show three regimes: (i) at low heating rates the plot is straight, (ii) at medium heating rates the plot is curved as expected from the liquid fragility, and (iii) at the highest heating rates the crystallization rate is thermodynamically limited, and the plot has curvature of the opposite sign. The relative importance of these regimes is identified for different glass-forming systems, considered in terms of the liquid fragility and the reduced glass-transition temperature. The extraction of quantitative information on fundamental crystallization kinetics from Kissinger plots is discussed

  13. Hard cap espresso extraction and liquid chromatography determination of bioactive compounds in vegetables and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sena, María Teresa; de la Guardia, Miguel; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Armenta, Sergio

    2017-12-15

    A new analytical procedure, based on liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection, has been proposed for the determination of bioactive compounds in vegetables and spices after hard cap espresso extraction. This novel extraction system has been tested for the determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from fresh chilli and sweet pepper, piperine from ground pepper, curcumin from turmeric and curry, and myristicin from nutmeg. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by using acetonitrile:water and ethanol:water mixtures. The proposed method allows the extraction of samples with 100mL of 60% (v/v) ethanol in water. The obtained limits of quantification for the proposed procedure ranged from 0.07 to 0.30mgg -1 and results were statistically comparable with those obtained by ultrasound assisted extraction. Hard cap espresso machines offer a fast, effective and quantitative tool for the extraction of bioactive compounds from food samples with an extraction time lower than 30s, using a global available and low cost equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Liquid-liquid extraction from molten alkaline nitrates by using nitrogenous and organophosphorus derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittori, Olivier

    1971-01-01

    This research thesis reports the use of a system made of the LiNO 3 -KNO 3 eutectic at 160 deg. C and poly-phenyls in order to study the behaviour of phosphine and arsine oxides as extracting agents in a liquid-liquid process. In a first part, the author presents the studied system, its physical characteristics and its preparation, and the various analytical methods which have used. He discusses existing computation methods adapted to the separation of molten salts and organic phase, and proposes a specific method. Then, he reports the study of the behaviour of a phosphine oxide with Cobalt II and Nickel II, and discusses its application to the separation of this pair, Co II and Ni II. He highlights the different possibilities of three agents which are derivatives of phosphine and arsine in their ability to extract rare earths. A study of separation of rare earths is then addressed. The author reports the application of extraction equilibriums to the study of equilibriums in environments of molten salts with the Co II - chloride ions system. The author finally addresses the synergic phenomenon that pairs of neutral complexing agents of neighbouring structure or different donor central atom may display in liquid-liquid extraction

  15. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked fish using pressurized liquid extraction with integrated fat removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mette; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Jan H.

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish products often requires multiple clean-up steps to remove fat and other compounds that may interfere with the chemical analysis. We present a novel pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method that integrates exhaustive...

  16. Micro-electromembrane extraction across free liquid membranes. Extractions of basic drugs from undiluted biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1337, Apr (2014), s. 32-39 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : micro-electromembrane extraction * free liquid membranes * biological samples Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014

  17. Concept of a subcritical transmutation system with fast neutron spectrum and liquid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittelbach, S.

    2002-11-01

    The annual amount of nearly 9500 t of spent fuel from worldwide industrial nuclear energy utilization has to be disposed as high level waste. The retention of nuclear waste from the biosphere has to be assured until the radiological risk decreases to tolerable levels. The long-term radiological risk of spent fuel is dominated by actinide elements, i.e. plutonium, americium and curium. It is intended to reduce this amount of high level waste by Partitioning and Transmutation, so that the radiotoxicity of the disposed waste falls short of the reference value of fresh fuel decaying naturally after about thousand years. For this time period the retention of high level waste can be assured by technical means. The scope of this work is the design of a subcritical fast transmutation system with liquid metal cooling and liquid metal fuel. The lead bismuth eutectic has been choosen as the liquid metal coolant and fuel carrier. To dissolve at least 3 at% of transuran elements, a minimum fuel temperature of 600 C is required. The calculations were carried out with a fuel composition, which results from two plutonium recycling steps in a thorium fuel cycle. Two homogeneous and two heterogeneous blankets have been designed and evaluated leading to one preferred heterogeneous blanket design, which has been investigated in more detail. This blanket design merges the positive properties of a solid fuel system (better control of fuel and reactivity because of smaller and closed fuel volumina) and a liquid fuel system (continous charge and discharge or extraction of fission products). The blanket design is based on the core design of fast breeder liquid metal reactors. It consists of hexagonal fuel elements housing up to six annular shaped fuel cylinders. The hexagonal shape of the fuel elements leads to three fuel zones positioned concentrically around the central spallation target. There is a strong heterogeneous distribution of power and heat flux in this blanket design. Besides

  18. Dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy for use in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy is provided which has high-temperature strength and is readily fabricable at ambient temperatures, and which is useful as structural elements of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors. 4 tables

  19. Solid-Liquid Separation Properties of Thermoregulated Dicationic Ionic Liquid as Extractant of Dyes from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lv

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two thermoregulated dicationic ionic liquids were synthesized and applied for effective extraction of the common dye malachite green oxalate (MG. The extraction parameters such as amount of ionic liquids, pH of water phase, extraction time, cooling time, and centrifugal time on the extraction efficiency were investigated systematically. It revealed that the dye has been successfully extracted into the ionic liquids, with high extraction efficiency higher than 98%, and recovery of 98.2%–100.8%, respectively. Furthermore, these ionic liquids can be recycled easily after elution. The reusable yields were 87.1% and 88.7%. The extraction of the dye into the thermoregulated ionic liquid provides a method of minimizing pollution of waste water potentially.

  20. Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Determination of Trace Elements in Iron Minerals by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taseska, Milena; Stafilov, Trajche; Makreski, Petre; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jovanovski, Gligor

    2006-01-01

    Various trace elements (cadmium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, manganese) in some iron minerals were determined by flame (FAAS) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The studied minerals were chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2 ), hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and pyrite (FeS 2 ). To avoid the interference of iron, a method for liquid-liquid extraction of iron and determination of investigated elements in the inorganic phase was proposed. Iron was extracted by diisopropyl ether in hydrochloride acid solution and the extraction method was optimized. Some parameters were obtained to be significantly important: Fe mass in the sample should not exceed 0.3 g, the optimal concentration of HCI should be 7.8 mol 1 -1 and ratio of the inorganic and organic phase should be 1: 1. The procedure was verified by the method of standard additions and by its applications to reference standard samples. The investigated minerals originate from various mines in the Republic of Macedonia. (Author)

  1. Determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental and biological matrices using pressurised liquid extraction--are we developing sound extraction methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runnqvist, Hannah; Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is now a well established and extensively applied extraction technique in environmental analysis for pollutants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). During the past decade, an emerging group of environmentally interesting analytes are pharmaceuticals...

  2. Fast and Simple Forensic Red Pen Ink Analysis Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.C.; Ying, S.L.; Wan Nur Syazwani Wan Mohamad Fuad; Ab Aziz Ishak; Khairul Osman

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) is more effective than high performance liquid chromatography in terms of analysis speed and sensitivity. This paper presents a feasibility study on forensic red pen inks analysis using UPLC. A total of 12 varieties of red ball point pen inks were purchased from selected stationary shop. For each variety, four different individual pens were sampled to provide intra-variability within a particular variety of pen. The proposed approach is very simple that it only involved limited analysis step and chemicals. A total of 144 chromatograms were obtained from red ink entries extracted with 1.5 mL 80 % (v/v) acetonitrile. Peaks originated from pen inks were determined by comparing the chromatograms of both blank paper and blank solvent against that of ink samples. Subsequently, one-way ANOVA was conducted to discriminate all 66 possible pairs for red pen inks. Results showed that the proposed approach giving discriminating power of 95.45 %. The outcome of the study indicates that UPLC could be a fast and simple approach to red ball point pen inks analysis. (author)

  3. Approaches to measurement of thermal-hydraulic parameters in liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture considers instrumentation for liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). Included is instrumentation to measure sodium flow, pressure, temperature, acoustic noise, and sodium purity. It is divided into three major parts: (1) measurement requirements for sodium cooled reactor systems, (2) in-core and out-of-core measurements in liquid metal systems, and (3) performance measurements of water steam generators

  4. [Preparation and applications of a supported liquid-liquid extraction column with a composite diatomite material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jianmin; Ma, Zhishuang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Yongzun; Li, Youxin

    2012-08-01

    A rapid and special supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) column was developed with a composite diatomite material. The SLE column was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with acidic, neutral and alkaline compounds dissolved in water. Furthermore, some real complex samples were also analyzed by HPLC with the SLE method. The recoveries of benzoic acid (acidic), p-nitroaniline (alkaline) and 4-hydroxy-benzoic methyl ester (neutral) treated by the SLE column were 90.6%, 98.1% and 97.7%. However, the recoveries of the three compounds treated by traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method were 71.9%, 81.9% and 83.9%. The results showed that the SLE technique had higher recoveries than the traditional LLE method. The spiked recoveries of the complex samples, such as benzoic acid in Sprite and dexamethasone acetate, chlorphenamine maleate, indomethacin in bovine serum, were between 80% and 110% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 15%. For biological specimen, the results could be accepted. Meantime, many disadvantages associated with traditional LLE method, such as emulsion formation, didn't occur using SLE column. The SLE column technique is a good sample preparation method with many advantages, such as rapid, simple, robust, easily automated, high recovery and high-throughput, which would be widely used in the future.

  5. Factors influencing the thermodynamic isotope effect of lithium in polyetherlithium liquid-liquid extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Lian; Fang Shengqiang; Yao Zhongqi; Gao Zhichang; Tan Ganzhu

    1989-01-01

    The published data up to now concerning polyether-lithium liquid-liquid extraction systems, can be summarized by the equation, ε p = (α-1)/[1 + 0.46(1-P)], where α denotes the isotope separation factor; P - the ratio of the lithium concentration in the organic phase to the initial concentration of crown ethers; ε p -the enrichment coefficient as P = 100%. Based on the changes in ε p , P, α and D(distribution ratio), the functions of factors such as polyether's structure, polyether's side group, polyether's concentration, organic solvent, negative ion of lithium salt and lithium salt's concentration, are discussed and reported

  6. Acid extraction by supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Cianetti, C.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The extraction of HNO 3 (nitric acid) from aqueous solutions by permeation through a number of supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers dissolved in diethylbenzene has been studied. The results have shown that the best permeations are obtained with long chain aliphatic amines (TLA, Primene JM-T) followed by TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide) and then by other monofunctional and bifunctional organophosphorous basic carriers. The influence of an aliphatic diluent on the permeability of HNO 3 through a supported liquid membrane containing TLA as carrier was also investigated. In this case the permeability to HNO 3 decreases as a result of the lower diffusion coefficient of the acid-carrier complex in the more vicous aliphatic solvent. 4 figures

  7. Solvent extraction of gold using ionic liquid based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, Megawati; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    In decades, many research and mineral processing industries are using solvent extraction technology for metal ions separation. Solvent extraction technique has been used for the purification of precious metals such as Au and Pd, and base metals such as Cu, Zn and Cd. This process uses organic compounds as solvent. Organic solvents have some undesired properties i.e. toxic, volatile, excessive used, flammable, difficult to recycle, low reusability, low Au recovery, together with the problems related to the disposal of spent extractants and diluents, even the costs associated with these processes are relatively expensive. Therefore, a lot of research have boosted into the development of safe and environmentally friendly process for Au separation. Ionic liquids (ILs) are the potential alternative for gold extraction because they possess several desirable properties, such as a the ability to expanse temperature process up to 300°C, good solvent properties for a wide range of metal ions, high selectivity, low vapor pressures, stability up to 200°C, easy preparation, environmentally friendly (commonly called as "green solvent"), and relatively low cost. This review paper is focused in investigate of some ILs that have the potentials as solvent in extraction of Au from mineral/metal alloy at various conditions (pH, temperature, and pressure). Performances of ILs extraction of Au are studied in depth, i.e. structural relationship of ILs with capability to separate Au from metal ions aggregate. Optimal extraction conditon in order to gain high percent of Au in mineral processing is also investigated.

  8. Evaluation of a contact device type ejector system for liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwamback, Niomedes

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate an ejector system, operated simultaneously with two immiscible liquid phases and a gas phase, as a contact device for liquid-liquid extraction processes. The ejector, made of perspex, has a variable geometry, although this feature was not explored in the thesis. Motivated by recent uses of liquid-liquid extraction processes for the removal of traces of heavy metal from waste waters, it was decided to carry out tests with synthetic effluents. This strategy, typical of experimental work under evaluation of technical feasibility, greatly simplifies experiments, since the nature of the chemical species involved and their feed concentrations are known exactly and do not fluctuate. The extractant used was DEHPA (diethyl hexyl phosphoric acid). The metal chosen for tests was iron with oxidation number +3, because of its high extraction coefficient towards DEHPA and also for its chemical behavior similar to americium and other heavy metals. In addition to that, iron forms soluble coloured complexes adequate to spectrophotometric determination analysis, a simple, quick and very reliable analytical technique. The effects of electrolytes of interest, namely NaCl, FeSO 4 and Al(NO 3 ) 3 , upon the extraction process were investigated. The effects resulting from the introduction of a gas phase, actually air (bubbles), in the ejector upon the extraction efficiency were studied. By coupling advanced digital photographic technique and image analysis with microcomputer, the bubble mean size was measured. It was then correlated with equipment's geometrical (characteristic diameters) and operational variables (phases' flow rates and gas hold-ups). To enable scale-up procedures, data were preferably correlated by means of dimensionless groups. For the systems and conditions investigated in this thesis and under the same operational conditions, the introduction of air bubbles by means of an ejector has greatly improved the process

  9. Fast-extraction modulators for Los Alamos Scientific LaboratorY Proton Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunnally, W.C.; Hudgings, D.W.; Sarjeant, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a short-bunch mode fast-extraction modulator for the LASL proton storage ring has made necessary the design and development of a resonant transformer charging circuit and the design of a new FIB line circuit to provide bipolar pulse outputs with low prepulse, postpulse, and an optimum high-voltage switch environments. The systems are now being developed to operate reliably at the high-average powers required. The short-bunch mode fast-extraction modulator prototype is presently operating. The initial construction of the long-bunch mode fast-extraction modulator prototype is under way, with results expected within the year

  10. Application of liquid-liquid extraction in separation of rare earths [Paper No. : V-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.M.; Krishnan, N.P.K.; Murthy, T.K.S.; Swaminathan, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    The rare earths consist of fifteen elements which have very similar chemical properties and are difficult to separate from each other. Since they exist together in all naturally occurring minerals their separation is one of the important and difficult aspects of their technology. Liquid-liquid extraction has proved to be an efficient technique for their separation. The two important extraction systems that find practical and large scale application, the nitric acid + tri-n-butyl phosphate, and mineral acid (particularly hydrochloric acid) + organo phosphoric acid (like di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid), are briefly reviewed. The factors affecting the extraction and separation of rare earths in the two systems are discussed. On an industrial scale the extraction process is very often employed for an initial concentration of the desired rare earths from complex mixtures. The final purification is generally achieved by the ion exchange method. The utility of the solvent extraction process for the upgrading of selected rare earths-europium, samarium and gadolinium-from a mixed rare earth chloride, derived from monazite, is illustrated by the work carried out in this laboratory and pilot plant operation at the Alwaye plant of M/s. Indian Rare Earths Ltd. (author)

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction of beryllium (II) using Cyanex 923 in kerosene from sodium acetate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamble, Pravin N.; Madane, Namdev S.; Mohite, Baburao S.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of beryllium(II) from sodium acetate media using cyanex 923 in kerosene has been carried out. Beryllium(II) was quantitatively extracted from 1x10 -1 M sodium acetate with 1x10 -2 M cyanex 923 in kerosene. It was stripped quantitatively from the organic phase with 1M H 2 SO 4 and determined spectrophotometrically with eriochrome cyanine R at 525 nm. The effect of concentrations of sodium acetate, metal ions and strippants have been studied. Separation of beryllium(II) from other elements was achieved from binary as well as from multicomponent mixtures. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately±2%). (author)

  12. Quartz fast component opticallystimulated luminescence: Towards routine extraction for dating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhixiong; Lang, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Using an uncontaminated fast component is a key for improving the reliability of quartz OSL dating for many deposits. So far no approach to extract the fast component of quartz OSL has routinely been adopted for dating practice. Key challenges for extracting fast components are (1) the difficulty of finding a unique solution in curve-fitting deconvolution of OSL decay curves and (2) the relatively poor dating precision when using experimental fast component extraction. Here, a simple mathematic solution for fast component extraction is presented that is not relying on curve-fitting deconvolution and can easily be adopted into routine dating practices. By using specifically selected data points from smoothed OSL decay curves, the precision of equivalent doses calculated using the extracted fast component can be improved over equivalent doses calculated using bulk OSL. The fast component extraction is tested on a group of age-constrained samples containing both insufficiently bleached and sufficiently bleached deposits. Fast component OSL ages are as accurate as bulk OSL ages for the sufficiently bleached deposits, but more accurate for samples where bulk OSL is affected by insufficient bleaching. We also demonstrate how using a curve smoothing procedure can improve dating precision in case of both sufficiently and insufficiently bleached deposits. - Highlights: • A simple mathematical method to extract quartz OSL fast component is presented. • The method can be adopted in D_e calculation programs for routine extraction. • The method leads to an increase in accuracy and precision of D_e. • The method works for relatively dim samples with low signal-to-noise ratios.

  13. Advancing liquid/liquid extraction through a novel microfluidic device: Theory, instrumentation and applications in gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peroni, D.; van Egmond, W.; Kok, W.T.; Janssen, J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    A new chip-based liquid-liquid extraction technique for sample preparation of aqueous samples for GC was developed. Extraction is performed in a segmented flow system with additional mixing provided by an etched channel structure. The dimensions of the device are optimized to allow benefiting of the

  14. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection following salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the analysis of benzimidazole residues in farm fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Casado, Carmen; Lara, Francisco J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud

    2018-03-30

    Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection (FL) has been proposed for the first time to determine thirteen benzimidazoles (BZs) in farmed fish samples. In order to optimize the chromatographic separation, parameters such as mobile phase composition and flow rate were carefully studied, establishing a gradient mode with a mobile phase consisted of water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The separation was performed on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus RRHD C 18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm), involving a total analysis time lower than 12 min. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) was applied as sample treatment to different types of farmed fish (trout, sea bream and sea bass). To obtain satisfactory extraction efficiencies for the studied analytes, several parameters affecting the SALLE procedure were optimized including the amount of sample, type and volume of the extraction solvent, and the nature and amount of the salt used. Characterization of the method in terms of performance characteristics was carried out, obtaining satisfactory results for the linearity (R 2  ≥ 0.997), repeatability (RSD ≤ 6.1%), reproducibility (RSD ≤ 10.8%) and recoveries (R ≥ 79%; RSD ≤ 7.8%). Detection limits between 0.04-29.9 μg kg -1 were obtained, demonstrating the applicability of this fast, simple and environmentally friendly method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-porous membrane-assisted liquid-liquid extraction of UV filter compounds from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Rosario; Schrader, Steffi; Moeder, Monika

    2009-06-12

    A method for the determination of nine UV filter compounds [benzophenone-3 (BP-3), isoamyl methoxycinnamate, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, octocrylene (OC), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), ethylhexyl salicylate and homosalate] in water samples was developed and evaluated. The procedure includes non-porous membrane-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (MALLE) and LC-atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI)-MS/MS. Membrane bags made of different polymeric materials were examined to enable a fast and simple extraction of the target analytes. Among the polymeric materials tested, low- and high-density polyethylene membranes proved to be well suited to adsorb the analytes from water samples. Finally, 2 cm length tailor-made membrane bags were prepared from low-density polyethylene in order to accommodate 100 microL of propanol. The fully optimised protocol provides recoveries from 76% to 101% and limits of detection (LOD) between 0.4 ng L(-1) (OD-PABA) and 16 ng L(-1) (EHMC). The interday repeatability of the whole protocol was below 18%. The effective separation of matrix molecules was proved by only marginal matrix influence during the APPI-MS analysis since no ion suppression effects were observed. During the extraction step, the influence of the matrix was only significant when non-treated wastewater was analysed. The analysis of lake water indicated the presence of seven UV filter compounds included in this study at concentrations between 40 ng L(-1) (BP-3) and 4381 ng L(-1) (OC). In non-treated wastewater several UV filters were also detected at concentration levels as high as 5322 ng L(-1) (OC).

  16. Selective extraction of emerging contaminants from water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using functionalized ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Cong; Li, Tianhao; Twu, Pamela; Pitner, William R; Anderson, Jared L

    2011-03-25

    Functionalized ionic liquids containing the tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (FAP) anion were used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the extraction of 14 emerging contaminants from water samples. The extraction efficiencies and selectivities were compared to those of an in situ IL DLLME method which uses an in situ metathesis reaction to exchange 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM-Cl) to 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (BMIM-NTf(2)). Compounds containing tertiary amine functionality were extracted with high selectivity and sensitivity by the 1-(6-amino-hexyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (HNH(2)MPL-FAP) IL compared to other FAP-based ILs and the BMIM-NTf(2) IL. On the other hand, polar or acidic compounds without amine groups exhibited higher enrichment factors using the BMIM-NTf(2) IL. The detection limits for the studied analytes varied from 0.1 to 55.1 μg/L using the traditional IL DLLME method with the HNH(2)MPL-FAP IL as extraction solvent, and from 0.1 to 55.8 μg/L using in situ IL DLLME method with BMIM-Cl+LiNTf(2) as extraction solvent. A 93-fold decrease in the detection limit of caffeine was observed when using the HNH(2)MPL-FAP IL compared to that obtained using in situ IL DLLME method. Real water samples including tap water and creek water were analyzed with both IL DLLME methods and yielded recoveries ranging from 91% to 110%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Miniaturized preconcentration methods based on liquid-liquid extraction and their application in inorganic ultratrace analysis and speciation: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is widely used as a pre-treatment technique for separation and preconcentration of both organic and inorganic analytes from aqueous samples. Nevertheless, it has several drawbacks, such as emulsion formation or the use of large volumes of solvents, which makes LLE expensive and labour intensive. Therefore, miniaturization of conventional liquid-liquid extraction is needed. The search for alternatives to the conventional LLE using negligible volumes of extractant and the minimum number of steps has driven the development of three new miniaturized methodologies, i.e. single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of these novel preconcentration approaches and their potential use in analytical labs involved in inorganic (ultra)trace analysis and speciation. Relevant applications to the determination of metal ions, metalloids, organometals and non-metals are included

  18. Extraction of plutonium(IV) by diglycolamide extractants in room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, Dattaprasad R.; Raut, Dhaval R.; Murali, Mallekav S.; Mohapatra, Prasanta K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.

    2017-06-01

    Extraction of Pu(IV) was investigated using solutions of two diglycolamide extractants viz., N,N,N{sup '},N{sup '}-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide (TODGA) and its branched homolog, N,N,N{sup '},N{sup '}-tetra(2-ethylhexyl) diglycolamide (T2EHDGA), dissolved in two imidazolium based room temperature ionic liquids viz., 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl) imide ([C{sub 4}mim][NTf{sub 2}]) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl) imide ([C{sub 8}mim][NTf{sub 2}]) from aqueous nitric acid medium. The extraction kinetics was found to be extremely slow which is reported for the first time for analogous extraction systems and took as long as 30 h to attain equilibrium D{sub Pu} values. In general, TODGA based solvents showed better extraction of Pu(IV) than the T2EHDGA based solvents, one order of magnitude higher, and though both the ionic liquids ultimately yielded comparable D{sub Pu} values, attainment of equilibrium was slower with [C{sub 4}mim][NTf{sub 2}]. The extracted species conformed to 1:1 for TODGA in both the ionic liquids while a mixture of 1:1 and 1:2 species was observed for T2EHDGA at 1 M HNO{sub 3} which changed to 1:1 species at 4 M HNO{sub 3}. The extracted species is proposed to be (Pu(L){sub x}{sup 4+}){sub IL} (where, L is the extractant and x=1 or 2) at lower acidities suggesting a cation exchange mechanism which changes over to (Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} .L){sub IL} at 4 M HNO{sub 3} conforming to a solvation mechanism for all the systems except for T2EHDGA-[C{sub 8}mim][NTf{sub 2}]. UV-VIS spectroscopic studies were carried out to throw light on the nature of the extracted species.

  19. CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMULATION SOFTWARE PERFORMANCE AND SHARING RATIO IN LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hadj Seyd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work is to develop software to predict the value yield and the distribution coefficient in the process of liquid-liquid extraction of components of a mixture, from mathematical models expressing these entities, based on equations equilibrium between liquid-liquid phases, and predict the conditions under which the extraction operation is favorable, unfavorable or impossible to realize, by studying the variation of the entities cited, based on the parameters influencing the extraction, which are: initial concentrations, rate of solvent and pH, in the case of a simple extraction (extraction of neutral products or when it is reactive (extraction of complex acids or bases for one or more components.The programming language used is "Delphi" which is a very powerful oriented object programming under Windows.

  20. Fast and sensitive method for detecting volatile species in liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimarco, Daniel Bøndergaard; Pedersen, Thomas; Hansen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    to a mass spectrometer through a narrow capillary without the use of differential pumping. This method inherits features from differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) and membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), but brings the best of both worlds, i.e., the fast time-response of a DEMS system...

  1. A simple and fast method for extraction and quantification of cryptophyte phycoerythrin

    OpenAIRE

    Thoisen, Christina; Hansen, Benni Winding; Nielsen, S?ren Laurentius

    2017-01-01

    The microalgal pigment phycoerythrin (PE) is of commercial interest as natural colorant in food and cosmetics, as well as fluoroprobes for laboratory analysis. Several methods for extraction and quantification of PE are available but they comprise typically various extraction buffers, repetitive freeze-thaw cycles and liquid nitrogen, making extraction procedures more complicated. A simple method for extraction of PE from cryptophytes is described using standard laboratory materials and equip...

  2. Determination of the phosphorylated sugars of the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas Pathway in Lactococcus lactis using a fast sampling technique and solid phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels B.s.; Jokumsen, Kirsten Væver; Villadsen, John

    1999-01-01

    with chloroform at -25 degrees C ensures a total permeability of the cellular membrane towards the metabolites of interest as well as the inactivation of enzymes liable to alter their levels. The final step of the procedure consists in a solid phase extraction using columns with a high affinity for phosphorylated...... to -35 degrees C, bringing about a fast and complete stop of all metabolic activity. In contrast to yeast the metabolites leak out of the cells when these are brought into contact with methanol and are present in the medium and in the biomass after the quenching. A liquid-liquid extraction...

  3. Predictive thermodynamic models for liquid--liquid extraction of single, binary and ternary lanthanides and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoh, Y.C.

    1977-03-01

    Chemically based thermodynamic models to predict the distribution coefficients and the separation factors for the liquid--liquid extraction of lanthanides-organophosphorus compounds were developed by assuming that the quotient of the activity coefficients of each species varies slightly with its concentrations, by using aqueous lanthanide or actinide complexes stoichiometric stability constants expressed as its degrees of formation, by making use of the extraction mechanism and the equilibrium constant for the extraction reaction. For a single component system, the thermodynamic model equations which predict the distribution coefficients, are dependent on the free organic concentration, the equilibrated ligand and hydrogen ion concentrations, the degree of formation, and on the extraction mechanism. For a binary component system, the thermodynamic model equation which predicts the separation factors is the same for all cases. This model equation is dependent on the degrees of formation of each species in their binary system and can be used in a ternary component system to predict the separation factors for the solutes relative to each other

  4. Solvent Extraction: Structure of the Liquid-Liquid Interface Containing a Diamide Ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoppola, Ernesto [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble France; Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257 CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/Université Montpellier, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze France; Watkins, Erik B. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble France; Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Campbell, Richard A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble France; Konovalov, Oleg [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38430 Grenoble France; Girard, Luc [Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257 CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/Université Montpellier, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze France; Dufrêche, Jean-Francois [Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257 CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/Université Montpellier, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze France; Ferru, Geoffroy [Argonne National Labororatory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Fragneto, Giovanna [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble France; Diat, Olivier [Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257 CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/Université Montpellier, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze France

    2016-06-20

    Knowledge of the (supra)molecular structure of an interface that contains amphiphilic ligand molecules is necessary for a full understanding of ion transfer during solvent extraction. Even if molecular dynamics already yield some insight in the molecular configurations in solution, hardly any experimental data giving access to distributions of both extractant molecules and ions at the liquid–liquid interface exist. Here, the combined application of X-ray and neutron reflectivity measurements represents a key milestone in the deduction of the interfacial structure and potential with respect to two different lipophilic ligands. Indeed, we show for the first time that hard trivalent cations can be repelled or attracted by the extractant-enriched interface according to the nature of the ligand.

  5. A rapid method to estimate uranium using ionic liquid as extracting agent from basic aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhath Ravi, K.; Sathyapriya, R.S.; Rao, D.D.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids, as their name suggests are salts with a low melting point typically less than 100 °C and exist as liquid at room temperature. The common cationic parts of ionic liquids are imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, quaternary ammonium, or phosphonium ions, and common anionic parts are chloride, bromide, boron tetrafluorate, phosphorous hexafluorate, triflimide etc. The physical properties of ionic liquids can be tuned by choosing appropriate cations with differing alkyl chain lengths and anions. Application of ionic liquids in organic synthesis, liquid-liquid extractions, electrochemistry, catalysis, speciation studies, nuclear reprocessing is being studied extensively in recent times. In this paper a rapid method to estimate the uranium content in aqueous media by extraction with room temperature ionic liquid tricaprylammoniumthiosalicylate ((A- 336)(TS)) followed by liquid scintillation analysis is described. Re-extraction of uranium from ionic liquid phase to aqueous phase was also studied

  6. Removal of actinide elements from liquid scintillation cocktail wastes using liquid-liquid extraction and demulsification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz, K.; Landsberger, S.; Srinivasan, B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    For many years liquid scintillation cocktail (LSC) wastes have been generated and stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). These wastes are stored in thousands of 10--20 m scintillation vials, many of which contain elements with Z > 88. Because storage space is limited, disposal of this waste is pressing. These wastes could be commercially incinerated if the radionuclides with Z>88 are reduced to sufficiently low levels. However, there is currently no deminimus level for these radionuclides, and separation techniques are still being tested. The University of Illinois is conducting experiments to separate radionuclides with Z > 88 from simulated LSC wastes by using liquid-liquid extraction (LLX) and demulsification techniques. The actinide elements are removed from the LSC by extraction into an aqueous phase after the cocktail has been demulsified. The aqueous and organic phases are separated and the organic phase, now free from radionuclides with Z > 88, can be sent to a commercial incineration facility. The aqueous phase may be treated and disposed of using existing techniques. The LLX separation techniques used solutions of sodium oxalate, aluminum nitrate, and tetrasodium EDTA at varying concentrations. These extractants were mixed with the simulated waste in a 1:1 volume ratio. Using 1.0M Na 4 EDTA salt solutions, decontamination ratios as high as 230 were achieved

  7. Antifouling booster biocide extraction from marine sediments: a fast and simple method based on vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Soares, Bruno Meira; Abreu, Fiamma; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the development of an analytical method employing vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for the extraction of diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMTB (2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole), DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3-(2H)-isothiazolin-3-one), and dichlofluanid from sediment samples. Separation and determination were performed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Important MSPD parameters, such as sample mass, mass of C18, and type and volume of extraction solvent, were investigated by response surface methodology. Quantitative recoveries were obtained with 2.0 g of sediment sample, 0.25 g of C18 as the solid support, and 10 mL of methanol as the extraction solvent. The MSPD method was suitable for the extraction and determination of antifouling biocides in sediment samples, with recoveries between 61 and 103% and a relative standard deviation lower than 19%. Limits of quantification between 0.5 and 5 ng g -1 were obtained. Vortex-assisted MPSD was shown to be fast and easy to use, with the advantages of low cost and reduced solvent consumption compared to the commonly employed techniques for the extraction of booster biocides from sediment samples. Finally, the developed method was applied to real samples. Results revealed that the developed extraction method is effective and simple, thus allowing the determination of biocides in sediment samples.

  8. Extraction of rare earth elements with organophosphorus extractants as carriers in supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopunec, R.; Benitez, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The membrane extraction of Y, Ce, Eu, Tm and their binary mixtures Ce-Y, Ce-Eu, Ce-Tm with supported liquid membranes containing TBP and HDEHP as carriers in decane-dodecane hydrocarbon solvent, has been studied. Upon extraction with TBP aqueous nitrate solutions of rare earth elements (REE) were used as feed phase. In some cases they also contained EDTA or DCTA. In most cases, the receiving phase was an aqueous solution of EDTA. Extraction with HDEHP was performed from nitrate and chloride solutions and the receiving phase was the corresponding dilute acid. Pertraction of an element through a membrane was studied as a function of time and of initial composition of phases. The results are presented in the following forms: flux of metal through membrane, coefficients of permeability, separation factors and effective diffusion coefficients. (author) 24 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective Extraction of Organic Contaminants from Soil Using Pressurised Liquid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Osman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the application of sorbents in pressurised liquid extraction (PLE cell to establish a selective extraction of a variety of organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, chlorpyrifos, phenol, pentachlorophenol, and sterols from soil. The selectivity and efficiency of each sorbent depend on the properties of the material, extracting solvent, capacity factor, organic compounds of interest, and PLE operating parameters (temperature, pressure, and extraction time. Several sorbents (silica, alumina, and Florisil were evaluated and with the proper choice of solvents, polar and nonpolar compounds were successfully separated in two fractions. Nonpolar compounds (PAHs, chlorpyrifos, and pentachlorophenol were recovered in the first fraction using a polar sorbent such as Florisil or alumina, and n-hexane as eluting solvent, while more polar compounds (phenol and sterols were recovered in the second fraction using methanol. Silica (5 g was found to be effective for selective extraction with the satisfactory recoveries for all compounds (PAHs from 87.1–96.2%, chlorpyrifos 102.9%, sterols from 93.7–100.5%, phenol 91.9%, and pentachlorophenol 106.2%. The efficiency and precision of this extraction approach and the existing EPA Method 3545 were compared.

  11. Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine using room temperature ionic liquid in tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Chenglong; Jia, Yongzhong; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Hong; Jing, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a new system for Li recovery from salt lake brine by extraction using an ionic liquid. • Cation exchange was proposed to be the mechanism of extraction followed in ionic liquid. • This ionic liquid system shown considerable extraction ability for lithium and the single extraction efficiency of lithium reached 87.28% under the optimal conditions. - Abstract: Lithium is known as the energy metal and it is a key raw material for preparing lithium isotopes which have important applications in nuclear energy source. In this work, a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4 mim][PF 6 ]), was used as an alternative solvent to study liquid/liquid extraction of lithium from salt lake brine. In this system, the ionic liquid, NaClO 4 and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were used as extraction medium, co-extraction reagent and extractant respectively. The effects of solution pH value, phase ratio, ClO 4 − amount and other factors on lithium extraction efficiency had been investigated. Optimal extraction conditions of this system include the ratio of TBP/IL at 4/1 (v/v), O/A at 2:1, n(ClO 4 − )/n(Li + ) at 2:1, the equilibration time of 10 min and unadjusted pH. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of lithium was 87.28% which was much higher than the conventional extraction system. Total extraction efficiency of 99.12% was obtained by triple-stage countercurrent extraction. Study on the mechanism revealed that the use of ionic liquid increased the extraction yield of lithium through cation exchange in this system. Preliminary results indicated that the use of [C 4 mim][PF 6 ] as an alternate solvent to replace traditional organic solvents (VOCs) in liquid/liquid extraction was very promising

  12. Beam extraction control systems of the fast-cycling synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumanian, A.; Zapolski, N.; Nickogosian, V.; Ananian, A.; Kazarian, A.; Khoetsian, M.; Agababian, A.; Matevosian, A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact system controlling the extraction of different beams (gamma, electron, synchrotron radiation) in single and simultaneous operation modes at high electromagnetic disturbances level based on using one computer of IBM PC/AT type is described. (author)

  13. The French liquid metal fast breeder reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapin, M.

    1980-01-01

    The strong French LMFBR development and the corresponding success obtained up to now show that there is no technical insuperable barrier to fast breeder construction. This satisfactory evolution is in fact the conjunction of a strong incentive due to the lack of other resources, a firm and permanent stand of the government, and an obstinate effort of all the teams involved in the LMFBR field. The changeover to industrial level should be helped by the simplicity of the French organization for fast breeder. Finally, the development of LMFBR on a larger scale is helped by international agreements through which the present French know-how can be put at the disposal of other partners, and the general knowledge can be improved by setting common R and D programmes. A quite successful example of such agreements is given by the German-French agreement, and we hope that new partners will join us soon. (orig.) [de

  14. Pressurized liquid extracts from Spirulina platensis microalga. Determination of their antioxidant activity and preliminary analysis by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Señoráns, Javier

    2004-08-27

    In this work, different extracts from the microalga Spirulina platensis are obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and four different solvents (hexane, light petroleum, ethanol and water). Different extraction temperatures (115 and 170 degrees C) were tested using extraction times ranging from 9 to 15 min. The antioxidant activity of the different extracts is determined by means of an in vitro assay using a free radical method. Moreover, a new and fast method is developed using micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode array detection (MEKC-DAD) to provide a preliminary analysis on the composition of the extracts. This combined application (i.e., in vitro assays plus MEKC-DAD) allowed the fast characterization of the extracts based on their antioxidant activity and the UV-vis spectra of the different compounds found in the extracts. To our knowledge, this work shows for the first time the great possibilities of the combined use of PLE-in vitro assay-MEKC-DAD to investigate natural sources of antioxidants.

  15. Solvent extraction of Sr2+ and Cs+ based on hydrophobic protic ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Huimin; Yu, Miao; Dai, Sheng

    2007-01-01

    A series of new hydrophobic and protic alkylammonium ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide or bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide as conjugated anions was synthesized in a one-pot reaction with a high yield. In essence our synthesis method involves the combination of neutralization and metathesis reactions. Some of these hydrophobic and protic ionic liquids were liquids at room temperature and therefore investigated as new extraction media for separation of Sr 2+ and Cs + from aqueous solutions. An excellent extraction efficiency was found for some of these ionic liquids using dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 and calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) as extractants. The observed enhancement in the extraction efficiency can be attributed to the greater hydrophilicity of the cations of the protic ionic liquids. The application of the protic ionic liquids as new solvent systems for solvent extraction opens up a new avenue in searching for simple and efficient ionic liquids for tailored separation processes. (orig.)

  16. Inorganic Surface Coating with Fast Wetting-Dewetting Transitions for Liquid Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yajie; Zhang, Liaoliao; Wang, Jue; Wang, Xinwei; Duan, Libing; Wang, Nan; Xiao, Fajun; Xie, Yanbo; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-06-06

    Liquid manipulation is a fundamental issue for microfluidics and miniaturized sensors. Fast wetting-state transitions by optical methods have proven being efficient for liquid manipulations by organic surface coatings, however rarely been achieved by using inorganic coatings. Here, we report a fast optical-induced wetting-state transition surface achieved by inorganic coating, enabling tens of second transitions for a wetting-dewetting cycle, shortened from an hour, as typically reported. Here, we demonstrate a gravity-driven microfluidic reactor and switch it to a mixer after a second-step exposure in a minimum of within 80 s of UV exposure. The fast wetting-dewetting transition surfaces enable the fast switchable or erasable smart surfaces for water collection, miniature chemical reaction, or sensing systems by using inorganic surface coatings.

  17. Direct mass spectrometric screening of antibiotics from bacterial surfaces using liquid extraction surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Marco; González, Ignacio; Genilloud, Olga; Singh, Sheo B; Svatoš, Aleš

    2012-10-30

    There is a need to find new antibiotic agents to fight resistant pathogenic bacteria. To search successfully for novel antibiotics from bacteria cultivated under diverse conditions, we need a fast and cost-effective screening method. A combination of Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA), automated chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization, and high-resolution mass or tandem mass spectrometry using an Orbitrap XL was tested as the screening platform. Actinobacteria, known to produce well-recognized thiazolyl peptide antibiotics, were cultivated on a plate of solid medium and the antibiotics were extracted by organic solvent mixtures from the surface of colonies grown on the plate and analyzed using mass spectrometry (MS). LESA combined with high-resolution MS is a powerful tool with which to extract and detect thiazolyl peptide antibiotics from different Actinobacteria. Known antibiotics were correctly detected with high mass accuracy (antibiotics in particular and natural products in general. The method described in this paper is suitable for (1) screening the natural products produced by bacterial colonies on cultivation plates within the first 2 min following extraction and (2) detecting antibiotics at high mass accuracy; the cost is around 2 Euro per sample. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with magnetic solid-phase extraction for the determination of aflatoxins B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in animal feeds by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Zhu, Yan; Jiao, Yang; Ning, Jinyan; Yang, Yaling

    2016-10-01

    A novel two-step extraction technique combining ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with magnetic solid-phase extraction was developed for the preconcentration and separation of aflatoxins in animal feedstuffs before high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. In this work, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was used as the extractant in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and hydrophobic pelargonic acid modified Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent were applied to retrieve the aflatoxins-containing ionic liquid. Notably, the target of magnetic nanoparticles was the ionic liquid rather than the aflatoxins. Because of the rapid mass transfer associated with the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and magnetic solid phase steps, fast extraction could be achieved. The main parameters affecting the extraction recoveries of aflatoxins were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, vortexing at 2500 rpm for 1 min in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and magnetic solid-phase extraction and then desorption by sonication for 2 min with acetonitrile as eluent. The recoveries were 90.3-103.7% with relative standard deviations of 3.2-6.4%. Good linearity was observed with correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9986 to 0.9995. The detection limits were 0.632, 0.087, 0.422 and 0.146 ng/mL for aflatoxins B 1 , B2, G1, and G2, respectively. The results were also compared with the pretreatment method carried out by conventional immunoaffinity columns. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Reactive liquid/liquid extraction of heavy metals from landfill seepage waters. Its characterisation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woller, N.

    1994-06-01

    This study demonstrates the applicability of liquid-liquid extraction by means of the commercial complexers LIX26 R and LIX84 R to heavy metal removal from waste waters. The composition of this oil-soluble complex is MeR 2 , where Me denotes Hg 2+ , Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Ni 2+ , and R denotes LIX84 R . This composition makes the complex electrically neutral, and all polar groups are located inside the molecule. The extraction efficiency of the complexer LIX84 R for the various metal ions is evident in the succession Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ >> Zn 2+ > Hg 2+ > Cd 2+ . These heavy metal ions are even readily extractable at chloride concentrations of up to 1 mol/l. As the structure of the complexer is that of an oil-soluble surfactant with complexing properties, it accumulates at the phase boundary between oil and water. Measurement of interfacial tension in various solvent systems showed that the polar solvent chloroform permits only a weak accumulation of the complexer (400 nmol/m 2 ), whereas the unpolar solvent kerosine permits greater accumulation specifically on the water side of the phase boundary (1958 nmol/m 2 ). Organic solvents solvate the complexer so well, that it is even removed from the air side of the phase boundary. The differing accumulation of the complexer at the water/oil phase boundary explains the differing increase of phase separation time for polar and unpolar solvents. (orig.) [de

  20. Kinetic of liquid-liquid extraction for uranyl nitrate and actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates by amide extractants; Cinetique d`extraction liquide-liquide du nitrate d`uranyle et des nitrates d`actinides (III) et de lanthanides (III) par des extractants a fonction amide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulemonde, V [CEA Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 -Gif-sur-Yvette (France); [CEA Centre d` Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 -Marcoule (France). Dept. d` Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement

    1995-12-20

    The kinetics of liquid-liquid extraction by amide extractants have been investigated for uranyl nitrate (monoamide extractants), actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates (diamide extractants). The transfer of the metallic species from the aqueous phase to the organic phase was studied using two experimental devices: ARMOLLEX (Argonne Modified Lewis cell for Liquid Liquid Extraction) and RSC (Rotating Stabilized Cell). The main conclusions are: for the extraction of uranyl nitrate by DEHDMBA monoamide, the rate-controlling step is the complexation of the species at the interface of the two liquids. Thus, an absorption-desorption (according to Langmuir theory) reaction mechanism was proposed; for the extraction of actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates in nitric acid media by DMDBTDMA diamide, the kinetic is also limited by interfacial reactions. The behavior of Americium and Europium is very similar as fare as their reaction kinetics are concerned. (author). 89 refs.

  1. Status of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This document represents a compilation of the information on the status of fast breeder reactor development. It is intended to provide complete and authoritative information for academic, energy, industrial and planning organizations in the IAEA Member States. The Report also provides extended reference and bibliography lists. A summarized overview of the national programmes of LMFBR development is given in Chapter II. Chapter III on LMFBR experience provides a brief description and purpose of all fast reactors - experimental, demonstration and commercial size - that have been or are planned for construction and operation. Fast reactor physics is dealt with in Chapter IV. Besides the basic facts and definitions of neutronics and the compilation and measurement of nuclear data, a broad range of the calculation methods, codes, and the state of the art is described. In Chapter V, fuels and materials are described. The emphasis is on the design and development experience gained with mixed oxide fuel pins and subassemblies. Structural materials, blanket elements and absorber materials are also discussed. Chaper VI presents a broad overview of the technical and engineering aspects of LMFBR power plants. LMFBR core design is described in detail, followed by the components of the main heat transport system, the refuelling equipment, and auxiliary systems. Chapter VII on safety is a compilation of the current safety design concepts of LMFBRs and new trends in safety criteria and safety goals. The chapter concludes with risk analyses of LMFBR technology. In Chapter VIII, the systems approach has been emphasized in the consideration of the whole LMFBR fuel cycle. Special emphasis is placed on safeguards aspects and the environmental impact of the LMFBR fuel cycle. Chapter IX describes deployment considerations of LMFBRs. Special emphasis is placed on economic aspects of the LMFBR power plant and its related fuel cycle. Finally, Chapter X provides an overall summary and a

  2. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor plant maintenance and equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannack, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of maintenance equipment considerations and actual plant handling experiences from operation of a sodium-cooled reactor, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Equipment areas relating to design, repair techniques, in-cell handling, logistics and facility services are discussed. Plant design must make provisions for handling and replacement of components within containment or allow for transport to an ex-containment area for repair. The modular cask assemblies and transporter systems developed for FFTF can service major plant components as well as smaller units. The plant and equipment designs for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) plant have been patterned after successful FFTF equipment

  3. Determination of methylphenidate in Calliphorid larvae by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry - Forensic entomotoxicology using an in vivo rat brain model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bushby, Sarah K.; Thomas, Nicky; Priemel, Petra A.

    2012-01-01

    and Calliphorid larvae) by liquid-liquid extraction with recovery of >80%, and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS assay was validated for entomotoxicological use and initially applied to male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6) that were dosed with MPH (20mg/kg) ante...

  4. Air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction using floating organic droplet solidification for simultaneous extraction and spectrophotometric determination of some drugs in biological samples through chemometrics methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Farnaz; Ghasemzadeh, Bahar; Naseri, Abdolhossein

    2018-01-01

    An air assisted liquid-liquid microextraction by applying the solidification of a floating organic droplet method (AALLME-SFOD) coupled with a multivariate calibration method, namely partial least squares (PLS), was introduced for the fast and easy determination of Atenolol (ATE), Propanolol (PRO) and Carvedilol (CAR) in biological samples via a spectrophotometric approach. The analytes would be extracted from neutral aqueous solution into 1-dodecanol as an organic solvent, using AALLME. In this approach a low-density solvent with a melting point close to room temperature was applied as the extraction solvent. The emulsion was immediately formed by repeatedly pulling in and pushing out the aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent mixture via a 10-mL glass syringe for ten times. After centrifugation, the extractant droplet could be simply collected from the aqueous samples by solidifying the emulsion at a lower than the melting point temperature. In the next step, analytes were back extracted simultaneously into the acidic aqueous solution. Derringer and Suich multi-response optimization were utilized for simultaneous optimizing the parameters of three analytes. This method incorporates the benefits of AALLME and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction considering the solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFOD). Calibration graphs under optimized conditions were linear in the range of 0.30-6.00, 0.32-2.00 and 0.30-1.40 μg mL- 1 for ATE, CAR and PRO, respectively. Other analytical parameters were obtained as follows: enrichment factors (EFs) were found to be 11.24, 16.55 and 14.90, and limits of detection (LODs) were determined to be 0.09, 0.10 and 0.08 μg mL- 1 for ATE, CAR and PRO, respectively. The proposed method will require neither a highly toxic chlorinated solvent for extraction nor an organic dispersive solvent in the application process; hence, it is more environmentally friendly.

  5. Liquid jets for fast plasma termination in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbluth, M.N.; Putvinskij, S.V.; Parks, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Recent simulations by Putvisnkij et al. (PSI Conference, 1996) have shown that introducing impurities into the plasma in order to mitigate adverse disruption effects in ITER may actually be deleterious because of a potentially unwelcome phenomenon: generation of multi-MeV runaway electrons by the collisional avalanche mechanism (Rosenbluth, M.N., et al., in Fusion Energy 1996 (Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Montreal, 1996) Vol. 2, IAEA, Vienna (in press) Paper FP-26). The injection of a liquid hydrogen jet to deliver a massive density increase is proposed as a means of avoiding runaways, while providing the same beneficial effects as impurities. A discussion of many jet related topics, such as ablation/penetration, jet breakup time and stability, is presented. Owing to an ablation pressure instability, it is predicted that the jet will quickly break up into a regular chain of droplets with dimensions of approximately the size of the jet radius. It is found that while deep penetration in the plasma can easily be achieved, bubble growth and disruptive boiling (flashing) during the propagation in the vacuum gap between the nozzle exit and the plasma are the main processes limiting the jet survival time. Calculations indicate that for ITER reference parameters, the jet can remain coherent in vacuum for a distance ∼ 1 m before disintegrating. On the basis of this present understanding, the prospect for the safe termination of ITER discharges by high density liquid jet injection appears promising. (author). 20 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Kinetic aspects of hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction and electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Jensen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Knut Einar

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, extraction kinetics was investigated experimentally and theoretically in hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and electromembrane extraction (EME) with the basic drugs droperidol, haloperidol, nortriptyline, clomipramine, and clemastine as model analytes. In HF...

  7. Functionalized ionic liquids: new agents for the extraction of actinides/lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouadi, A.; Hesemann, P.; Billard, I.; Gaillard, C.; Gadenne, B.; Moreau, Joel J.E; Moutiers, G.; Mariet, C.; Labet, A.

    2004-01-01

    The potentialities of hydrophobic ionic liquids BumimPF 6 and BumimTf 2 N for their use in the nuclear fuel cycle were investigated, in particular for the liquid liquid extraction. We demonstrate that the use of RTILs in replacement of the organic diluents for actinides partitioning is promising. In our contribution, we present the synthesis of several task-specific ionic liquids. Our results show that grafting metal complexing groups increases the affinity of metals to the IL phase and gives rise to suitable media for the liquid-liquid extraction of actinides. (authors)

  8. Magnetic ionic liquids as non-conventional extraction solvents for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Nacham, Omprakash; Clark, Kevin D; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2016-08-31

    This work describes the applicability of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) in the analytical determination of a group of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Three different MILs, namely, benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL A), methoxybenzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL B), and 1,12-di(3-benzylbenzimidazolium) dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)]imide bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL C), were designed to exhibit hydrophobic properties, and their performance examined in a microextraction method for hydrophobic analytes. The magnet-assisted approach with these MILs was performed in combination with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The study of the extraction performance showed that MIL A was the most suitable solvent for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and under optimum conditions the fast extraction step required ∼20 μL of MIL A for 10 mL of aqueous sample, 24 mmol L(-1) NaOH, high ionic strength content of NaCl (25% (w/v)), 500 μL of acetone as dispersive solvent, and 5 min of vortex. The desorption step required the aid of an external magnetic field with a strong NdFeB magnet (the separation requires few seconds), two back-extraction steps for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons retained in the MIL droplet with n-hexane, evaporation and reconstitution with acetonitrile. The overall method presented limits of detection down to 5 ng L(-1), relative recoveries ranging from 91.5 to 119%, and inter-day reproducibility values (expressed as relative standard derivation) lower than 16.4% for a spiked level of 0.4 μg L(-1) (n = 9). The method was also applied for the analysis of real samples, including tap water, wastewater, and tea infusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples—Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xungang Gu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%–109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%–12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Fasted State Colonic Liquid Pockets in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Mudie, Deanna M; Wright, Jeff; Heissam, Khaled; Abrehart, Nichola; Pritchard, Susan E; Al Atwah, Salem; Gowland, Penny A; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Marciani, Luca

    2017-08-07

    The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent on the volume of liquid in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, little is known about the time course of GIT liquid volumes after drinking a glass of water (8 oz), particularly in the colon, which is a targeted site for both locally and systemically acting drug products. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies offered novel insights on GIT liquid distribution in fasted humans in the stomach and small intestine, and showed that freely mobile liquid in the intestine collects in fairly distinct regions or "pockets". Based on this previous pilot data, we hypothesized that (1) it is possible to quantify the time course of the volume and number of liquid pockets in the undisturbed colon of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of 240 mL, using noninvasive MRI methods; (2) the amount of freely mobile water in the fasted human colon is of the order of only a few milliliters. Twelve healthy volunteers fasted overnight and underwent fasted abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (∼8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water they were scanned at frequent intervals for 2 h. The images were processed to quantify freely mobile water in the total and regional colon: ascending, transverse, and descending. The fasted colon contained (mean ± SEM) 11 ± 5 pockets of resting liquid with a total volume of 2 ± 1 mL (average). The colonic fluid peaked at 7 ± 4 mL 30 min after the water drink. This peak fluid was distributed in 17 ± 7 separate liquid pockets in the colon. The regional analysis showed that pockets of free fluid were found primarily in the ascending colon. The interindividual variability was very high; the subjects showed a range of number of colonic fluid pockets from 0 to 89 and total colonic freely mobile fluid volume from 0 to 49 mL. This is the first study measuring the time course of the number, regional location, and volume of

  11. Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ionsfrom water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; VonStosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25

    Extraction of dilute metal ions from water was performed near room temperature with a variety of ionic liquids. Distribution coefficients are reported for fourteen metal ions extracted with ionic liquids containing cations 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium [4MOPYR]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPYRRO]{sup +} or 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPIP]{sup +}, and anions tetrafluoroborate [BF{sub 4}]{sup +}, trifluoromethyl sulfonate [TfO]{sup +} or nonafluorobutyl sulfonate [NfO]{sup +}. Ionic liquids containing octylpyridinium cations are very good for extracting mercury ions. However, other metal ions were not significantly extracted by any of these ionic liquids. Extractions were also performed with four new task-specific ionic liquids. Such liquids containing a disulfide functional group are efficient and selective for mercury and copper, whereas those containing a nitrile functional group are efficient and selective for silver and palladium.

  12. Fast ultrasonic imaging in a liquid filled pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.T.; Leskovar, B.

    1986-01-01

    A new method is described for the imaging of the interior of a liquid filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The experimental system incorporates an array of 20 acoustical transducers and is capable of capturing the images of moving bubbles at a frame rate in excess of 300/s. The transducers are mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echoes reflected from vapor bubbles in the interior are detected, digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The high rate of speed was achieved by the use of newly developed software and electronic circuitry. This approach has eliminated most of the spurious echo signals which degraded the performance of previous imaging systems. The capability of the method is illustrated by imaging actual vapor bubbles in rapid sequence in the pipe. The described imaging system is used to examine reactor cooling systems

  13. Fast ultrasonic imaging in a liquid filled pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.T.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-10-01

    A new method is described for the imaging of the interior of a liquid filled metallic pipe using acoustical techniques. The experimental system incorporates an array of 20 acoustical transducers and is capable of capturing the images of moving bubbles at a frame rate in excess of 300/s. The transducers are mounted circumferentially around the pipe. Each transducer is pulsed in sequence, and the echoes reflected from vapor bubbles in the interior are detected, digitized and processed by a computer to generate an image. The high rate of speed was achieved by the use of newly developed software and electronic circuitry. This approach has eliminated most of the spurious echo signals which degraded the performance of previous imaging systems. The capability of the method is illustrated by imaging actual vapor bubbles in rapid sequence in the pipe. 13 refs

  14. Ionic-liquid-impregnated resin for the microwave-assisted solid-liquid extraction of triazine herbicides in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Yu, Cui; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-09-01

    Microwave-assisted ionic-liquid-impregnated resin solid-liquid extraction was developed for the extraction of triazine herbicides, including cyanazine, metribuzin, desmetryn, secbumeton, terbumeton, terbuthylazine, dimethametryn, and dipropetryn in honey samples. The ionic-liquid-impregnated resin was prepared by immobilizing 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the microspores of resin. The resin was used as the extraction adsorbent. The extraction and enrichment of analytes were performed in a single step. The extraction time can be shortened greatly with the help of microwave. The effects of experimental parameters including type of resin, type of ionic liquid, mass ratio of resin to ionic liquid, extraction time, amount of the impregnated resin, extraction temperature, salt concentration, and desorption conditions on the extraction efficiency, were investigated. A Box-Behnken design was applied to the selection of the experimental parameters. The recoveries were in the range of 80.1 to 103.4% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.8%. The present method was applied to the analysis of honey samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Liquid-liquid extraction assisted by a carbon nanoparticles interface. Electrophoretic determination of atrazine in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Díaz, Encarnación; Simonet, Bartolomé; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2013-10-21

    A novel method for the determination of atrazine, using liquid-liquid extraction assisted by a nanoparticles film formed in situ and composed of organic solvent stabilized-carbon nanoparticles, is described. The presence of nanoparticles located at the liquid-liquid interface reinforced the extraction of analyte from matrix prior to capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis. Some influential experimental variables were optimized in order to enhance the extraction efficiency. The developed procedure confirmed that carbon nanoparticles, especially multi-walled carbon nanotubes, are suitable to be used in sample treatment processes introducing new mechanisms of interaction with the analyte. The application of the proposed preconcentration method followed by CE detection enabled the determination of atrazine in spiked river water providing acceptable RSD values (11.6%) and good recoveries (about 87.0-92.0%). Additionally, a similar extraction scheme was tested in soil matrices with a view to further applications in real soil samples.

  16. Development of a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: Application for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides from fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Feriduni, Behruz; Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza Afshar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction (CCSHLLE) followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides in fruit juice samples prior to their analysis by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In this method, initially, sodium chloride as a separation reagent is filled into a small column and a mixture of water (or fruit juice) and acetonitrile is passed through the column. By passing the mixture sodium chloride is dissolved and the fine droplets of acetonitrile are formed due to salting-out effect. The produced droplets go up through the remained mixture and collect as a separated layer. Then, the collected organic phase (acetonitrile) is removed with a syringe and mixed with 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (extraction solvent at µL level). In the second step, for further enrichment of the analytes the above mixture is injected into 5 mL de-ionized water placed in a test tube with conical bottom in order to dissolve acetonitrile into water and to achieve a sedimented phase at µL-level volume containing the enriched analytes. Under the optimal extraction conditions (extraction solvent, 1.5 mL acetonitrile; pH, 7; flow rate, 0.5 mL min(-1); preconcentration solvent, 20 µL 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; NaCl concentration; 5%, w/w; and centrifugation rate and time, 5000 rpm and 5 min, respectively), the extraction recoveries and enrichment factors ranged from 87% to 96% and 544 to 600, respectively. Repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviations, ranged from 2% to 6% for intra-day (n=6, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) and inter-days (n=4, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) precisions. Limits of detection are obtained between 2 and 12 µg L(-1). Finally, the proposed method is applied for the determination of the target pesticide residues in the juice samples. Copyright © 2015

  17. Research and Development Roadmaps for Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-04-20

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned the development of technology roadmaps for advanced (non-light water reactor) reactor concepts to help focus research and development funding over the next five years. The roadmaps show the research and development needed to support demonstration of an advanced (non-LWR) concept by the early 2030s, consistent with DOE’s Vision and Strategy for the Development and Deployment of Advanced Reactors. The intent is only to convey the technical steps that would be required to achieve such a goal; the means by which DOE will determine whether to invest in specific tasks will be treated separately. The starting point for the roadmaps is the Technical Readiness Assessment performed as part of an Advanced Test and Demonstration Reactor study released in 2016. The roadmaps were developed based upon a review of technical reports and vendor literature summarizing the technical maturity of each concept and the outstanding research and development needs. Critical path tasks for specific systems were highlighted on the basis of time and resources needed to complete the tasks and the importance of the system to the performance of the reactor concept. The roadmaps are generic, i.e. not specific to a particular vendor’s design but vendor design information may have been used as representative of the concept family. In the event that both near-term and more advanced versions of a concept are being developed, either a single roadmap with multiple branches or separate roadmaps for each version were developed. In each case, roadmaps point to a demonstration reactor (engineering or commercial) and show the activities that must be completed in parallel to support that demonstration in the 2030-2035 window. This report provides the roadmaps for two fast reactor concepts, the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). The SFR technology is mature enough for commercial demonstration by the early 2030s

  18. Compilation of data and descriptions for United States and foreign liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleby, E.R.

    1975-08-01

    This document is a compilation of design and engineering information pertaining to liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors which have operated, are operating, or are currently under construction, in the United States and abroad. All data has been taken from publicly available documents, journals, and books

  19. Loop-mirror laser neural network using a fast liquid-crystal display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos, E.C.; Schleipen, J.J.H.B.; Waardt, de H.; Khoe, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    In our laser neural network (LNN) all-optical threshold action is obtained by application of controlled optical feedback to a laser diode. Here an extended experimental LNN is presented with as many as 32 neurons and 12 inputs. In the setup we use a fast liquid-crystal display to implement an

  20. Literature Review: Crud Formation at the Liquid/Liquid Interface of TBP-Based Solvent-Extraction Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Casella, Amanda J.

    2016-09-30

    This report summarizes the literature reviewed on crud formation at the liquid:liquid interface of solvent extraction processes. The review is focused both on classic PUREX extraction for industrial reprocessing, especially as practiced at the Hanford Site, and for those steps specific to plutonium purification that were used at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford Site.

  1. HPLC/Fluorometric Detection of Carvedilol in Real Human Plasma Samples Using Liquid-Liquid Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Bilal; Arslan, Sakir

    2016-03-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to quantify carvedilol in human plasma using an isocratic system with fluorescence detection. The method included a single-step liquid-liquid extraction with diethylether and ethylacetate mixture (3 : 1, v/v). HPLC separation was carried out by reversed-phase chromatography with a mobile phase composed of 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7)-acetonitrile (65 : 35, v/v), pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Fluorescence detection was performed at 240 nm (excitation) and 330 nm (emission). The calibration curve for carvedilol was linear from 10 to 250 ng/mL. Intra- and interday precision values for carvedilol in human plasma were plasma averaged out to 91.8%. The limits of detection and quantification of carvedilol were 3.0 and 10 ng/mL, respectively. Also, the method was successfully applied to three patients with hypertension who had been given an oral tablet of 25 mg carvedilol. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A fast and remote magnetonanothermometry for a liquid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Le; Liu, Wenzhong; Xie, Qingguo; Pi, Shiqiang; Morais, P. C.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports on a new approach for remote nanothermometry with short response time (milliseconds) aiming to operate in liquid media using AC susceptibility components of a suspended magnetic nanoparticle subjected to the Brownian relaxation mechanism. A simple, low cost, and accurate system was designed to measure AC susceptibility using an AC magnetic field at small amplitude (6 Oe) and frequency range (5 kHz) superimposed on a weak DC magnetic field (up to 30 Oe). A model based on the AC susceptibility of magnetic nanoparticles (30 nm average diameter) was constructed to describe the temperature measurement sensitivity of the dominated Brownian relaxation time. A new approach for remote nanothermometry was achieved with measured AC susceptibility by the designed system and the proposed model. Our experimental results show that our magnetonanothermometer allows temperature errors lower than 0.3 K with standard deviations lower than 0.1 K in the temperature range from 310 to 320 K.

  3. A fast and remote magnetonanothermometry for a liquid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Le; Xie, Qingguo; Liu, Wenzhong; Pi, Shiqiang; Morais, P C

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a new approach for remote nanothermometry with short response time (milliseconds) aiming to operate in liquid media using AC susceptibility components of a suspended magnetic nanoparticle subjected to the Brownian relaxation mechanism. A simple, low cost, and accurate system was designed to measure AC susceptibility using an AC magnetic field at small amplitude (6 Oe) and frequency range (5 kHz) superimposed on a weak DC magnetic field (up to 30 Oe). A model based on the AC susceptibility of magnetic nanoparticles (30 nm average diameter) was constructed to describe the temperature measurement sensitivity of the dominated Brownian relaxation time. A new approach for remote nanothermometry was achieved with measured AC susceptibility by the designed system and the proposed model. Our experimental results show that our magnetonanothermometer allows temperature errors lower than 0.3 K with standard deviations lower than 0.1 K in the temperature range from 310 to 320 K. (paper)

  4. Proof of concept for continuous enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction in capillary microreactors using 1-octanol as a sustainable solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, S.; Meinds, Tim G.; Pinxterhuis, Erik B.; Schuur, Boelo; De Vries, Johannes G.; Feringa, Ben L.; Winkelman, Jozef G.M.; Yue, Jun; Heeres, Hero J.

    2017-01-01

    The use of capillary microreactors for enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) was successfully demonstrated using a model system consisting of a buffered aqueous amino acid derivative (3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-(R,S)-leucine) solution (phosphate buffer, pH 6.58) and a chiral cinchona alkaloid

  5. The development of a fast response thermocouple for use in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, A.G.; Vincent, B.

    1987-03-01

    Work carried out at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories to develop a fast-response thermocouple for use in liquid metals is described. This thermocouple because of its unique construction, has a junction mass approaching zero and hence its frequency response should be very high. Some of the problems of manufacture are discussed, in particular the high quality of seal required to avoid ingress of liquid metal. A comparison of results obtained with the fast-response thermocouple and with conventional stainless-steel-sheathed thermocouples is made. The improved response of the new thermocouple is clearly visible, hence confirming that measurements made with sheathed thermocouples suffer attenuation. It is concluded that results obtained with the fast-response thermocouple are close to the real magnitude of temperature fluctuations present in turbulent flow. It is also demonstrated that, with suitable corrections, results obtained with sheathed thermocouples can be used to estimate the real signals present in the flow. (author)

  6. Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen preserves bulk dissolved organic matter concentrations, but not its composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieme, Lisa; Graeber, Daniel; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    -freezing with liquid nitrogen) on DOM concentrations measured as organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and on spectroscopic properties of DOM from different terrestrial ecosystems (forest and grassland). Fresh and differently frozen throughfall, stemflow, litter leachate and soil solution samples were analyzed for DOC...... concentrations, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excitation–emission matrices combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen prevented a significant decrease of DOC concentrations observed after freezing at −18 °C. Nonetheless, the share of PARAFAC components 1 (EXmax...... component 4 (EXmax: 280 nm, EXmax: 328 nm) to total fluorescence was not affected by freezing. We recommend fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen for preservation of bulk DOC concentrations of samples from terrestrial sources, whereas immediate measuring is preferable to preserve spectroscopic properties...

  7. Blind Extraction of Chaotic Signals by Using the Fast Independent Component Analysis Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Bin, Chen; Jiu-Chao, Feng; Yong, Fang

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of using the fast independent component analysis (FastICA) algorithm to realize blind extraction of chaotic signals. Two cases are taken into consideration: namely, the mixture is noiseless or contaminated by noise. Pre-whitening is employed to reduce the effect of noise before using the FastICA algorithm. The correlation coefficient criterion is adopted to evaluate the performance, and the success rate is defined as a new criterion to indicate the performance with respect to noise or different mixing matrices. Simulation results show that the FastICA algorithm can extract the chaotic signals effectively. The impact of noise, the length of a signal frame, the number of sources and the number of observed mixtures on the performance is investigated in detail. It is also shown that regarding a noise as an independent source is not always correct

  8. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of dioxin-furans and dioxin-like PCBs from environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Capelo, J L; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2008-05-30

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) applying three extraction cycles, temperature and pressure, improved the efficiency of solvent extraction when compared with the classical Soxhlet extraction. Polychlorinated-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs (coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs)) in two Certified Reference Materials [DX-1 (sediment) and BCR 529 (soil)] and in two contaminated environmental samples (sediment and soil) were extracted by ASE and Soxhlet methods. Unlike data previously reported by other authors, results demonstrated that ASE using n-hexane as solvent and three extraction cycles, 12.4 MPa (1800 psi) and 150 degrees C achieves similar recovery results than the classical Soxhlet extraction for PCDFs and Co-PCBs, and better recovery results for PCDDs. ASE extraction, performed in less time and with less solvent proved to be, under optimized conditions, an excellent extraction technique for the simultaneous analysis of PCDD/PCDFs and Co-PCBs from environmental samples. Such fast analytical methodology, having the best cost-efficiency ratio, will improve the control and will provide more information about the occurrence of dioxins and the levels of toxicity and thereby will contribute to increase human health.

  9. Ionic liquid pre-treatment of microalgae and extraction of biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desai, Rupali K.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) techniques are widely used in separation primarily due to ease of scale up. Conventional (LLE) systems based on organic solvents are not suitable for extraction of fragile molecules such as proteins as it would result in denaturation. On the other hand aqueous

  10. Quantification of four ionophores in soil, sediment and manure using pressurised liquid extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin; Pedersen, Kenneth Munk

    2013-01-01

    A multi-residue pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) methodology has been established for the determination of the four ionophores: lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin in solid environmental matrices. The PLE methodology is combined with solid phase extraction as clean-up using liquid...

  11. Determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in fruits by combining acetonitrile-based extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chunqiang; Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Chenglan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a simple and low-organic-solvent-consuming method combining an acetonitrile-partitioning extraction procedure followed by "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" cleanup with ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for the determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in grapes and pears. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was performed using the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as the extractive solvent and acetonitrile extract as the dispersive solvent. The main factors influencing the efficiency of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were evaluated, including the extractive solvent type and volume and the dispersive solvent volume. The validation parameters indicated the suitability of the method for routine analyses of benzoylurea insecticides in a large number of samples. The relative recoveries at three spiked levels ranged between 98.6 and 109.3% with relative standard deviations of less than 5.2%. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/kg for the two insecticides. The proposed method was successfully used for the rapid determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron residues in real fruit samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu, E-mail: suixiaoyu@outlook.com; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  13. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  14. Fast Conversion of Ionic Liquids and Poly(Ionic Liquid)s into Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbons in Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Yongjun; Ambrogi, Martina; Han, Baohang; Yuan, Jiayin

    2016-04-08

    Ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s have been successfully converted into nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tunable surface area up to 1200 m²/g at high temperatures in air. Compared to conventional carbonization process conducted under inert gas to produce nitrogen-doped carbons, the new production method was completed in a rather shorter time without noble gas protection.

  15. Evaluation of a novel task specific ionic liquid for actinide ion extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramanik, M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Raut, D.R.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2016-01-01

    Separation of U and Pu from nuclear waste is of great relevance for a sustainable closed fuel cycle point of view. Spent fuel reprocessing by the well known PUREX process is done world wide for the recovery of U and Pu using TBP as the extractant. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have shown significantly higher extraction of metal ions, particularly at lower acidity as compared to the molecular diluents. Functionalization of ionic liquids has resulted in highly efficient task specific ionic liquids (TSILs) with superior extraction properties than the analogous extractants dissolved in ionic liquids. The present paper reports the evaluation of a novel task specific ionic liquid (TSIL) containing >P=O functional group for the extraction of actinides like U(VI) and Pu(IV)

  16. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia; Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi; Eckert, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF 3 -ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids’ ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF 3 were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests

  17. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Pijuan, Mercedes; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    The new sample preparation concept “Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME)” was evaluated for extraction of the acidic drugs ketoprofen, fenoprofen, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil from human plasma samples. Plasma samples (250 μL) were loaded into individual......-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection of the individual acceptor solutions. Important PALME parameters including the chemical composition of the liquid membrane, extraction time, and sample pH were optimized, and the extraction performance was evaluated. Except for flurbiprofen, exhaustive...

  18. Ultra-fast solid state electro-optical modulator based on liquid crystal polymer and liquid crystal composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouskova, Elena; Sio, Luciano De, E-mail: luciano@beamco.com; Vergara, Rafael; Tabiryan, Nelson [Beam Engineering for Advanced Measurements Company, Winter Park, Florida 32789 (United States); White, Timothy J.; Bunning, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    A different generation of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) based on a liquid crystalline polymer host is reported wherein the fluid behavior of the reactive mesogenic monomer is an enabler to concentration windows (liquid crystal polymer/liquid crystal) (and subsequent morphologies) not previously explored. These liquid crystal (LC) polymer/LC composites, LCPDLCs, exhibit excellent optical and electro-optical properties with negligible scattering losses in both the ON and OFF states. These systems thus have application in systems where fast phase modulation of optical signal instead of amplitude control is needed. Polarized optical microscopy and high resolution scanning electron microscopy confirm a bicontinuous morphology composed of aligned LC polymer coexisting with a phase separated LC fluid. Operating voltages, switching times, and spectra of LCPDLCs compare favourably to conventional PDLC films. The LCPDLCs exhibit a low switching voltage (4–5 V/μm), symmetric and submillisecond (200 μs) on/off response times, and high transmission in both the as formed and switched state in a phase modulation geometry.

  19. Niobium, tantalum and titanium extraction from natural and technogenic raw materials of the Kola Peninsula by liquid-liquid extraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassikova, N.I.; Kassikov, A.G.; Balabanov, Yu.I.; Petrov, V.B.; Kalinnikov, V.T.

    2003-01-01

    Such rare metals as niobium and tantalum are important strategic materials underlying many of the modern advanced technologies. Since the extraction and processing of rare metal concentrates from own deposits has diminished abruptly in recent years, it is essential to look into the possibility of extracting these elements from various production wastes. This work discusses liquid-liquid extraction and purification of niobium, tantalum and titanium from process solutions of loparite, perovskite and sphene concentrate decomposition with sulphuric and hydrochloric acids; niobium from lithium niobate production wastes decomposed by hydrochloric acid; and tantalum from tantalum capacitor and heat-resistant alloy wastes. (Original)

  20. Stage wise modeling of liquid-extraction column (RDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastani, B.

    2004-01-01

    Stage wise forward mixing model considering coalescence and re dispersion of drops was used to predict the performance of Rotating Disk Liquid Extraction Contactors. Experimental data previously obtained in two RDC columns of 7-62 cm diameter, 73.6 cm height and 21.9 cm diameter,150 cm height were used to evaluate the model predications. Drops-side mass transfer coefficients were predicted applying Hand los-baron drop model and onley's model was used to predict velocities. According to the results obtained the followings could be concluded: (1) If the height of coalescence and re dispersion i.e.:h=h p Q p / Q could be estimated, the stage wise forward mixing with coalescence and re dispersion model will predict the column height and efficiency with the acceptable accuracy, (2) The stage wise modeling predictions are highly dependent on the number of stages used when the number of stages is less than 10 and (3) Application of continuous phase mass transfer axial dispersion coefficients (k c and E c ) obtained from the solute concentration profile along the column height will predict the column performance more accurately than the Calder bank and moo-young (for K c ) and Kumar-Heartland (for E c ) correlations

  1. Determination of Zinc Ions in Environmental Samples by Dispersive Liquid- Liquid Micro Extraction and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Arabi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work preconcentration of the Zn ions was investigated in water sample by Dispersive liquid- liquid micro extraction (DLLME using chloroform as an extraction solvent, methanol as a disperser solvent and 8-Hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. The determination of extracted ions was done by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The influence of various analytical parameters including pH, extraction and disperser solvent type and volume and concentration of the chelating agent on the extraction efficiency of analyses was investigated. After extraction, the enrichment factor was 26 and the detection limit of the method was 0.0033 µg l-1 and the relative standard deviations (R.S.D for five determinations of 1 ng/ml Zn were 7.41%. 

  2. Fast technetium Eigen-colloid determination: preparative CPC combined with suspension liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breynaert, E.; Maes, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Both medical and environmental studies concerned with the solubility and the complexation chemistry of technetium have encountered colloidal Tc(IV)-forms. Although the existence of the Tc colloids has been proven by various techniques [1-6], their determination still remains an issue. Recently a Column Precipitation Chromatography (CPC) technique was developed which enabled the quantitative determination of technetium Eigen-colloids. Based on this technique, a solid phase extraction (SPE)-like methodology was developed that can be used in combination with suspension liquid scintillation to provide a fast analysis of the Eigen-colloid content of a sample. The CPC technique is a thorough analysis methodology for the quantitative determination of the Eigen-colloid content of a sample containing reduced technetium species. This technique requires a relative long elution scheme and fractionation of the eluate. The fractionation also implies a relatively long counting time to determine the Eigen-colloid activity of a sample. Currently an SPE-like analysis methodology was developed which combines a good estimate of the Eigen-colloid content with fast analysis times. To construct a methodology providing both features a specialized extraction apparatus was constructed and a quantitative suspension liquid scintillation technique was developed. This combination enables the Eigen-colloid determination within a short experimental time (15 min) and a limited counting time (60 min). The authors acknowledge a grant from KULeuven University and financial support from the KULeuven Geconcerteerde Onderzoeksacties (GOA2000/007). We also kindly acknowledge NIRAS/ONDRAF for financial support from Contract CCHO 20004004862 [1] Grossmann, B. and R. Muenze, Relationship between complex formation by 99 Tc(IV) and the chemical structure of aliphatic carboxylic acid ligands. The International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 1982. 33(3): p. 189

  3. Melted Paraffin Wax as an Innovative Liquid and Solid Extractant for Elemental Analysis by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papai, Rodrigo; Sato, Roseli Hiromi; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Krug, Francisco José; Gaubeur, Ivanise

    2017-03-07

    This work proposes a new development in the use of melted paraffin wax as a new extractant in a procedure designed to aggregate the advantages of liquid phase extraction (extract homogeneity, fast, and efficient transfer, low cost and simplicity) to solid phase extraction. As proof of concept, copper(II) in aqueous samples was converted into a hydrophobic complex of copper(II) diethyldithiocarbamate and subsequently extracted into paraffin wax. Parameters which affect the complexation and extraction (pH, DDTC, and Triton X-100 concentration, vortex agitation time and complexation time) were optimized in a univariate way. The combination of the extraction proposed procedure with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy allowed the precise copper determination (coefficient of variation = 3.1%, n = 10) and enhanced detectability because of the concentration factor of 18 times. A calibration curve was obtained with a linear range of 0.50-10.00 mg L -1 (R 2 = 0.9990, n = 7), LOD = 0.12 mg L -1 , and LOQ = 0.38 mg L -1 under optimized conditions. An extraction procedure efficiency of 94% was obtained. The accuracy of the method was confirmed through the analysis of a reference material of human blood serum, by the spike and recovery trials with seawater, tap water, mineral water, and alcoholic beverages and by comparing with those results obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

  4. Quantitation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in ready to eat meatballs by ultra fast liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Fatih

    2011-06-15

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) in meatballs ready to eat and sold in restaurants in Turkey were determined. A solid phase extraction method was used to isolate HCAs from meatballs. Various HCAs analysed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) were varying levels of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) (up to 1.59ng/g), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (IQx) (up to 3.81ng/g), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) (up to 0.66ng/g), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) (not detected or not quantified), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) (not detected or not quantified), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx) (up to 0.43ng/g), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) (up to 1.93ng/g), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) (up to 0.35ng/g), and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAαC) (up to 0.43ng/g) in cooked meatballs which are consumed in Turkey. Overall average of total HCA amount was 5.54ng/g. The present study is to prove that HCAs can be isolated in a very short time (5min) by using UFLC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic silica nanomaterials for solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of ultra-trace quantities of plasticizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamini, Yadollah; Faraji, Mohammad; Adeli, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting surface modified magnetic silica nanoparticles (m-Si-NPs) for use in solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The m-Si-NPs were surface-functionalized with octadecyl groups to give a material for the extraction of the plasticizers dibutyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from water samples. The functionalized m-Si-NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results showed that the m-Si-NPs were well functionalized with octadecyl groups. The effects of various experimental variables on the extraction efficiencies were investigated. The analytes were quantified by GC/FID. Under optimal conditions, the calibration plots are linear in the range from 0.01 to 100 μg∙L -1 , and very high enrichment factors (mean value ∼20,000) were obtained. As a result of the high enrichment factors, the detection limits are as low as 2–3 ng∙L -1 . The method was successfully employed to the extraction of the plasticizers from (spiked) water samples, and recoveries are in the order of 93.9 to 106.7 %. The method is low cost, fast, and very sensitive (author)

  6. A FAST AND ROBUST ALGORITHM FOR ROAD EDGES EXTRACTION FROM LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast mapping of roads plays an important role in many geospatial applications, such as infrastructure planning, traffic monitoring, and driver assistance. How to extract various road edges fast and robustly is a challenging task. In this paper, we present a fast and robust algorithm for the automatic road edges extraction from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data. The algorithm is based on a key observation: most roads around edges have difference in elevation and road edges with pavement are seen in two different planes. In our algorithm, we firstly extract a rough plane based on RANSAC algorithm, and then multiple refined planes which only contains pavement are extracted from the rough plane. The road edges are extracted based on these refined planes. In practice, there is a serious problem that the rough and refined planes usually extracted badly due to rough roads and different density of point cloud. To eliminate the influence of rough roads, the technology which is similar with the difference of DSM (digital surface model and DTM (digital terrain model is used, and we also propose a method which adjust the point clouds to a similar density to eliminate the influence of different density. Experiments show the validities of the proposed method with multiple datasets (e.g. urban road, highway, and some rural road. We use the same parameters through the experiments and our algorithm can achieve real-time processing speeds.

  7. Non-local Fast Extraction from the CERN SPS at 100 and 440 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, F M; Bartmann, W; Carlier, E; Cornelis, K; Efthymiopoulos, I; Goddard, B; Jensen, L K; Kain, V; Kowalska, M; Mertens, V; Steerenberg, R

    2013-01-01

    The Long Straight Section 2 (LSS2) of the CERN SPS is connected with the North Area (NA), to which the beam to date has always been extracted using a resonant extraction technique. For new proposed short- and long-baseline neutrino experiments, a fast single turn extraction to this experimental area is required. As there are no kickers in LSS2, and the integration of any new kickers with the existing electrostatic septum would be problematic, a solution has been developed to fast extract the beam using non-local extraction with other SPS kickers. Two different kicker systems have been used, the injection kicker in LSS1 and the stronger extraction kicker in LSS6 to extract 100 and 440 GeV beam, respectively. For both solutions a large emittance beam was extracted after 5 or 9 full betatron periods. The concept and simulation details are presented with the analysis of the aperture and beam loss considerations and experimental results collected during a series of beam tests.

  8. The removal of dinitrochlorobenzene from industrial residuals by liquid-liquid extraction with chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. M. Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrochlorobenzenes (NCBs are very important in the chemical industry since they have been used as raw material for the manufacture of crop protection products, as active ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry, as pigments and as antioxidants as well as for other uses. In industrial processes, NCBs are produced by monochlorobenzene (MCB nitration reactions and one of the main residuals formed is dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB, which is mainly composed of the isomer 2,4DNCB. This subproduct, although of commercial interest when in its pure state, is generally incinerated due to the high costs of recovery treatment and purification. The objective of this study is to present an alternative to the treatment of industrial residuals containing DNCB. The technique consists of converting DNCB into sodium dinitrophenolate, which is very soluble in water and is also easy to reuse. For this purpose, liquid-liquid extraction with chemical reaction (alkaline hydrolysis with a rotating disc contactor (RDC is used. Experimental data on MCB nitration reactions as well as alkaline hydrolysis using a rotating disc contactor are presented.

  9. Identification of chemical compounds in a liquid-liquid extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez C, F de M de la.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to identify the chemical compounds that are distributed in a liquid-liquid extraction system in which the third phase is observed; for this purpose the FeCl 3 (0.12M) - HCl (8.43M) - Diisopropilic ether - system was used, for the quantitative determination of the chemical compounds, FeCl 3 solutions labelled with 59 Fe or witH 38 Cl were used; the Karl Fischer method for the determination of the water concentration at the organic phases was used, the obtained data was used for the calculations of the H + distribution in each phase. The results are that when the distribution equilibrium is reached, the aqueous phase is a 7.5M HCl solution; the light organic phase contains 2 H[FeCl 4 ].6H 2 O and the dense organic phase contains 2 H[FeCl 4 ].6H 2 O.3HCl.12H 2 O. The differences between these compounds are due to a high concentration of water and the HCl in the organic solvent. This causes a heterogeneous physic field, and then the third phase formation. (author)

  10. Experimental study of suitable methods for measuring the radioactivity of 90Sr during its fast quantitation by extraction with dicarbollides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, K.; Kyrs, M.

    1994-04-01

    The measurement of activity of 90 Sr during its fast isolation by extraction with cobalt dicarbollide and Slovafol 909 in a nitrobenzene-carbon tetrachloride mixed solvent and re-extraction with 0.15 M Chelaton IV at pH 10.2 was investigated. The use of a liquid scintillator allows the effect of the 90 Y beta activity to be eliminated more efficiently than if the evaporation residue is measured with a solid scintillator. Traces of dicarbollide, nitrobenzene and CCl 4 passed into the aqueous solution exert an unfavorable effect by shifting the spectral curve of the 90 Sr+ 90 Y beta radiation towards lower energies, the shift being dependent on the concentration of the above interferents in the aqueous phase. This effect can be eliminated by extracting the aqueous phase with the same volume of octyl alcohol or amyl acetate; while removing the organic interferents, this extraction brings about no apparent loss of strontium. (author). 3 tabs., 7 figs., 5 refs

  11. A Simple and Fast Extraction Method for the Determination of Multiclass Antibiotics in Eggs Using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Lin, Kunde; Huang, Xinwen; Chen, Meng

    2017-06-21

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a simple, fast, and specific extraction method for the analysis of 64 antibiotics from nine classes (including sulfonamides, quinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides, lincosamide, nitrofurans, β-lactams, nitromidazoles, and cloramphenicols) in chicken eggs. Briefly, egg samples were simply extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile-water (90:10, v/v) and 0.1 mol·L -1 Na 2 EDTA solution assisted with ultrasonic. The extract was centrifuged, condensed, and directly analyzed on a liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with conventional cleanup methods (passing through solid phase extract cartridges), the established method demonstrated comparable efficiencies in eliminating matrix effects and higher or equivalent recoveries for most of the target compounds. Typical validation parameters including specificity, linearity, matrix effect, limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs), the decision limit, detection capability, trueness, and precision were evaluated. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 70.8% to 116.1% at three spiking levels (5, 20, and 50 μg·kg -1 ), with relative standard deviations less than 14%. LODs and LOQs were in the ranges of 0.005-2.00 μg·kg -1 and 0.015-6.00 μg·kg -1 for all of the antibiotics, respectively. A total of five antibiotics were successfully detected in 22 commercial eggs from local markets. This work suggests that the method is suitable for the analysis of multiclass antibiotics in eggs.

  12. A simple and fast method for extraction and quantification of cryptophyte phycoerythrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoisen, Christina; Hansen, Benni Winding; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius

    2017-01-01

    The microalgal pigment phycoerythrin (PE) is of commercial interest as natural colorant in food and cosmetics, as well as fluoroprobes for laboratory analysis. Several methods for extraction and quantification of PE are available but they comprise typically various extraction buffers, repetitive freeze-thaw cycles and liquid nitrogen, making extraction procedures more complicated. A simple method for extraction of PE from cryptophytes is described using standard laboratory materials and equipment. The cryptophyte cells on the filters were disrupted at -80 °C and added phosphate buffer for extraction at 4 °C followed by absorbance measurement. The cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina was used as a model organism. •Simple method for extraction and quantification of phycoerythrin from cryptophytes.•Minimal usage of equipment and chemicals, and low labor costs.•Applicable for industrial and biological purposes.

  13. A simple and fast method for extraction and quantification of cryptophyte phycoerythrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoisen, Christina Vinum; Hansen, Benni Winding; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius

    2017-01-01

    The microalgal pigment phycoerythrin (PE) is of commercial interest as natural colorant in food and cosmetics, as well as fluoroprobes for laboratory analysis. Several methods for extraction and quantification of PE are available but they comprise typically various extraction buffers, repetitive...... freeze-thaw cycles and liquid nitrogen, making extraction procedures more complicated. A simple method for extraction of PE from cryptophytes is described using standard laboratory materials and equipment. Filters with the cryptophyte were frozen (−80 °C) and added phosphate buffer for extraction at 4 °C...... followed by absorbance measurement. The cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina was used as a model organism. •Simple method for extraction and quantification of phycoerythrin from cryptophytes. •Minimal usage of equipment and chemicals, and low labor costs. •Applicable for industrial and biological purposes....

  14. An overview of FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] contributions to Liquid Metal Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1990-11-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility has provided a very useful framework for testing the advances in Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Technology. During the licensing phase, the switch from a nonmechanistic bounding technique to the mechanistic approach was developed and implemented. During the operational phase, the consideration of new tests and core configurations led to use of the anticipated-transients-without-scram approach for beyond design basis events and the move towards passive safety. The future role of the Fast Flux Test Facility may involve additional passive safety and waste transmutation tests. 26 refs

  15. Fuel reprocessing of the fast molten salt reactor: actinides et lanthanides extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierowicz, S.

    2012-01-01

    The fuel reprocessing of the molten salt reactor (Gen IV concept) is a multi-steps process in which actinides and lanthanides extraction is performed by a reductive extraction technique. The development of an analytic model has showed that the contact between the liquid fuel LiF-ThF 4 and a metallic phase constituted of Bi-Li provide firstly a selective and quantitative extraction of actinides and secondly a quantitative extraction of lanthanides. The control of this process implies the knowledge of saline phase properties. Studies of the physico-chemical properties of fluoride salts lead to develop a technique based on potentiometric measurements to evaluate the fluoro-acidity of the salts. An acidity scale was established in order to classify the different fluoride salts considered. Another electrochemical method was also developed in order to determine the solvation properties of solutes in fluoride F- environment (and particularly ThF 4 by F-) in reductive extraction technique, a metallic phase is also involved. A method to prepare this phase was developed by electro-reduction of lithium on a bismuth liquid cathode in LiCl-LiF melt. This technique allows to accurately control the molar fraction of lithium introduced into the liquid bismuth, which is a main parameter to obtain an efficient extraction. (author)

  16. Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine using room temperature ionic liquid in tributyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Chenglong [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Jia, Yongzhong [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); Zhang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Liu, Hong [Qinghai Salt Chemical Products Supervision and Inspection Center, 816000 Golmud (China); Jing, Yan, E-mail: 1580707906@qq.com [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We proposed a new system for Li recovery from salt lake brine by extraction using an ionic liquid. • Cation exchange was proposed to be the mechanism of extraction followed in ionic liquid. • This ionic liquid system shown considerable extraction ability for lithium and the single extraction efficiency of lithium reached 87.28% under the optimal conditions. - Abstract: Lithium is known as the energy metal and it is a key raw material for preparing lithium isotopes which have important applications in nuclear energy source. In this work, a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]), was used as an alternative solvent to study liquid/liquid extraction of lithium from salt lake brine. In this system, the ionic liquid, NaClO{sub 4} and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were used as extraction medium, co-extraction reagent and extractant respectively. The effects of solution pH value, phase ratio, ClO{sub 4}{sup −} amount and other factors on lithium extraction efficiency had been investigated. Optimal extraction conditions of this system include the ratio of TBP/IL at 4/1 (v/v), O/A at 2:1, n(ClO{sub 4}{sup −})/n(Li{sup +}) at 2:1, the equilibration time of 10 min and unadjusted pH. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of lithium was 87.28% which was much higher than the conventional extraction system. Total extraction efficiency of 99.12% was obtained by triple-stage countercurrent extraction. Study on the mechanism revealed that the use of ionic liquid increased the extraction yield of lithium through cation exchange in this system. Preliminary results indicated that the use of [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] as an alternate solvent to replace traditional organic solvents (VOCs) in liquid/liquid extraction was very promising.

  17. Extraction Equilibrium of Acrylic Acid by Aqueous Two-Phase Systems Using Hydrophilic Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hwa; Lee, Woo Youn; Kim, Ki-Sub; Hong, Yeon Ki

    2014-01-01

    As an effective method for extraction of acrylic acid, aqueous two-phase systems based on morpholinium ionic liquids were used in this study. Effects of the alkyl chain length of cation in morpholinium ionic liquids on phase diagram and extraction efficiencies were investigated. Experimental results show that aqueous two phase systems can be formed by adding appropriate amount of morpholinium ionic liquids to aqueous K 2 HPO 4 solutions. It can be found that the ability of morpholinium ionic liquids for phase separation followed the order [HMMor][Br]>[OMMor][Br]>[BMMor][Br]>[EMMor][Br]. There was little difference between binodal curves of imidazolium ionic liquids and those of morpholinium ionic liquids. 50-90% of the extraction efficiency was observed for acrylic acid by aqueous two phase extraction of acrylic acid with morpholinium ionic liquids. It can be concluded that morpholinium ionic liquids/K 2 HPO 4 were effective for aqueous two phases extraction of acrylic acid comparing to imidazolium ionic liquids/K 2 HPO 4 systems because of their lower cost

  18. Homogeneous Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Rare Earths with the Betaine—Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerstraete, Tom Vander; Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Several fundamental extraction parameters such as the kinetics and loading were studied for a new type of metal solvent extraction system with ionic liquids. The binary mixture of the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and water shows thermomorphic behavior with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), which can be used to avoid the slower mass transfer due to the generally higher viscosity of ionic liquids. A less viscous homogeneous phase and mixing on a molecular scale are obtained when the mixture is heated up above 55 °C. The influence of the temperature, the heating and cooling times, were studied for the extraction of neodymium(III) with betaine. A plausible and equal extraction mechanism is proposed in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, nitrate, and chloride media. After stripping of the metals from the ionic liquid phase, a higher recovery of the ionic liquid was obtained by salting-out of the ionic liquid fraction lost by dissolution in the aqueous phase. The change of the upper critical solution temperature by the addition of HCl or betaine was investigated. In addition, the viscosity was measured below and above the UCST as a function of the temperature. PMID:24169434

  19. Rational approach to solvent system selection for liquid-liquid extraction-assisted sample pretreatment in counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Gu, Dongyu; Wang, Miao; Guo, Xinfeng; Li, Haoquan; Dong, Yue; Guo, Hong; Wang, Yi; Fan, Mengqi; Yang, Yi

    2017-05-15

    A rational liquid-liquid extraction approach was established to pre-treat samples for high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:5:4:5, v/v) and (1:5:1:5, v/v) were selected as solvent systems for liquid-liquid extraction by systematically screening K of target compounds to remove low- and high-polarity impurities in the sample, respectively. After liquid-liquid extraction was performed, 1.4g of crude sample II was obtained from 18.5g of crude sample I which was extracted from the flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L., and then separated with HSCCC by using a solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:2:1:2, v/v). As a result, 31mg of robinin and 37mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside were isolated from 200mg of crude sample II in a single run of HSCCC. A scale-up separation was also performed, and 160mg of robinin with 95% purity and 188mg of kaempferol 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside with 97% purity were produced from 1.2g of crude sample II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraction behaviour and mechanism of Pt(iv) and Pd(ii) by liquid-liquid extraction with an ionic liquid [HBBIm]Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Shubin; Yan, Yan; Yang, Yanzhao

    2017-06-06

    In this study, a method of one-step separation and recycling of high purity Pd(ii) and Pt(iv) using an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-benzimidazolium bromate ([HBBIm]Br), was investigated. The effects of [HBBIm]Br concentration, initial metal concentration, and loading capacity of [HBBIm]Br were examined in detail. It was observed that [HBBIm]Br was a very effective extractant for selectively extracting Pd(ii) and precipitating Pt(iv). Through selectively extracting Pd(ii) and precipitating Pt(iv), each metal with high purity was separately obtained from mixed Pd(ii) and Pt(iv) multi-metal solution. The method of one-step separation of Pd(ii) and Pt(iv) is simple and convenient. The anion exchange mechanism between [HBBIm]Br and Pt(iv) was proven through Job's method and FTIR and 1 H NMR spectroscopies. The coordination mechanism between [HBBIm]Br and Pd(ii) was demonstrated via single X-ray diffraction and was found to be robust and distinct, as supported by the ab initio quantum-chemical studies. The crystals of the [PdBr 2 ·2BBIm] complex were formed first. Moreover, the influence of the concentrations of hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride, and sodium nitrate on the precipitation of Pt(iv) and extraction of Pd(ii) was studied herein. It was found that only the concentration of H + could inhibit the separation of Pt(iv) because H + could attract the anion PtCl 6 2- ; thus, the exchange (anion exchange mechanism) between the anions PtCl 6 2- and Br - was prevented. However, both the concentration of H + and Cl - can obviously inhibit the extraction of Pd(ii) because H + and Cl - are the reaction products and increasing their concentration can inhibit the progress of the reaction (coordination mechanism).

  1. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for the quantitative determination of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor quizartinib in mouse plasma using salting-out liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retmana, Irene A; Wang, Jing; Schinkel, Alfred H; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Sparidans, Rolf W

    2017-01-01

    A bioanalytical assay for quizartinib -a potent, and selective FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor- in mouse plasma was developed and validated. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE), using acetonitrile and magnesium sulfate, was selected as sample pretreatment with deuterated quizartinib

  2. Quaternary ammonium based task specific ionic liquid for the efficient and selective extraction of neptunium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nishesh Kumar [National Institute of Technology, Odisha (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Sengupta, Arijit [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Biswas, Sujoy [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Uranium Extraction Div.

    2017-07-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of neptunium from aqueous acidic solution using quaternary ammonium based task specific ionic liquid (TSIL) was investigated. The extraction of Np was predominated by the 'cation exchange' mechanism via [NpO{sub 2}.Hpth]{sup +} species for NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, while NpO{sub 2}{sup +} was extracted in ionic liquid as [NpO{sub 2}.H.Hpth]{sup +}. The extraction process was thermodynamically spontaneous while kinetically slower. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as strippant showed quantitative back extraction of neptunium ions from TSIL. TSIL showed excellent radiolytic stability upto 500 kGy gamma exposure. Finally, the TSIL was employed for the processing of simulated high level waste solutions revealing high selectivity of TSIL towards neptunium.

  3. Recovery of Steroidal Alkaloids from Potato Peels Using Pressurized Liquid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. Hossain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A higher yield of glycoalkaloids was recovered from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction (1.92 mg/g dried potato peels compared to conventional solid–liquid extraction (0.981 mg/g dried potato peels. Response surface methodology deduced the optimal temperature and extracting solvent (methanol for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE of glycoalkaloids as 80 °C in 89% methanol. Using these two optimum PLE conditions, levels of individual steroidal alkaloids obtained were of 597, 873, 374 and 75 µg/g dried potato peel for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Corresponding values for solid liquid extraction were 59%, 46%, 40% and 52% lower for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively.

  4. Screening and quantitative determination of twelve acidic and neutral pharmaceuticals in whole blood by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Buck, Maike

    2010-01-01

    . The method was fully validated for salicylic acid, paracetamol, phenobarbital, carisoprodol, meprobamate, topiramate, etodolac, chlorzoxazone, furosemide, ibuprofen, warfarin, and salicylamide. The method also tentatively includes thiopental, theophylline, piroxicam, naproxen, diclophenac, and modafinil......We describe a multi-method for simultaneous identification and quantification of 12 acidic and neutral compounds in whole blood. The method involves a simple liquid-liquid extraction, and the identification and quantification are performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...

  5. Small liquid metal reactor for an initial phase of fast breeder reactor introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Nascimento, J.A. do.

    1985-01-01

    Safety and burnup characteristics of a 1000 MWth liquid metal reactor have been examined for various fuel types. With metallic Pu/Th fuel containing a small amount of zirconium hydride, low sodium-void reactivity, a high Doppler coefficient, and small burnup reactivity swings can be achieved. A conservative design is considered for an initial phase of fast breeder reactor development and possible modifications are discussed. (Author) [pt

  6. Measurements of thermal-hydraulic parameters in liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses instrumentation for liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). Included is instrumentation to measure sodium flow, pressure, temperature, acoustic noise, sodium purity, and leakage. The paper identifies the overall instrumentation requirements for LMFBR's and those aspects of instrumentation which are unique or of special concern to LMFBR systems. It also gives an overview of the status of instrument design and performance

  7. Uranium extraction process in a sulfuric medium by means of liquid emulsified membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteillet, A.

    1985-02-01

    Uranium ore processing, after leaching by sulfuric acid, by liquid-liquid extraction is a rather heavy process, not suitable for small deposits. Extraction by emulsions was suggested. In this process the leachate is contacted with an oil in water type emulsion, a liquid organic membrane is formed by the continuous phase. Uranium complexes diffuse through the liquid membrane towards the dispersed aqueous phase of the emulsion (stripping solution). Uranium is recovered by breaking the emulsion. Are successively studied: development of stable emulsions, influence of emulsion composition on uranium transfer kinetics, transfer mechanisms through the membrane and modelling of kinetics data obtained in the experimental study [fr

  8. Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2013-05-28

    A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

  9. Liquid fuels from Canadian peat by the Waterloo fast pyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskorz, J.; Majerski, P.; Scott, D.S. (Univ. of Waterloo, ON (Canada))

    1990-06-01

    Two Quebec peats were pyrolyzed in the Waterloo fast pyrolysis process with the objective of maximizing liquid yields. A young sphagnum peat gave maximum organic liquid yields of 45-47% in an optimum range of 450-550{degree}C and 1 atm pressure. Char yields varied from 35% to 26% and gas yields from 12% to 17% over the range. The character of the liquid product changed significantly over the optimum temperature range, with the ratio of water soluble to water insoluble components decreasing from 2.3 to 0.6 as temperature increased, with an accompanying decrease in oxygen content. Pyrolytic oil yields from an old black peat gave similar results, although with somewhat lower yields of organic liquids. Char yield was somewhat higher (33%) at optimum conditions, but gas yield was nearly identical. Upgrading tests of the peat oil obtained a yield of ca 33% of the liquid feed as a gasoline-like liquid under hydrodeoxygenation conditions. 7 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Economic performance of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor and gas-cooled fast reactor radial blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoulfanidis, N.; Jankhah, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    The economic performance of the radial blanket of a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) and a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) has been studied based on the calculation of the net financial gain as well as the value of the levelized fuel cost. The necessary reactor physics calculations have been performed using the code CITATION, and the economic analysis has been carried out with the code ECOBLAN, which has been written for that purpose. The residence time of fuel in the blanket is the main variable of the economic analysis. Other parameters that affect the results and that have been considered are the value of plutonium, the price of heat, the effective cost of money, and the holdup time of the spent fuel before reprocessing. The results show that the radial blanket of both reactors is a producer of net positive income for a broad range of values of the parameters mentioned above. The position of the fuel in the blanket and the fuel management scheme applied affect the monetary gain. There is no significant difference between the economic performance of the blanket of an LMFBR and a GCFR

  11. An overview of IPPE research on liquid metal fast reactor thermohydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, A. P.; Efanov, A. D.; Zhukov, A. V.; Bogoslovskaia, G. P.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents brief information on the most significant researches in the fields of liquid metal hydrodynamics and heat transfer performed in the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation 'Institute for Physics and Power Engineering' named after A.I.Leypunski applied to sodium-cooled fast reactors. Experimental methods for studying liquid metal thermohydraulics and applied measurement techniques are overviewed briefly in the paper. Some results of fundamental thermohydraulic investigations, such as quasi-universal character of velocity and temperature profile in liquid metals, if considered normally to the channel wall etc. are presented. Specific features of heat transfer in liquid metal cooled fuel subassembly are mentioned, among them there are: high level of coolant temperature; significant influence of an interchannel exchange on velocity and temperature distribution; an availability of contact thermal resistance; large azimuthal non-uniformity of velocity and temperature; 'conjugate' problem of heat transfer in combined geometry of fuel pin; an absence of stabilization of heat transfer in non-standard channels; an influence of non-uniform heat generation. Special attention is given to the temperature fields in fuel subassembly subjected to deformation because of radioactive swelling and creeping, as well as in case of blockage of a part of subassembly cross section. Some results of thermohydraulic investigation are demonstrated for intermediate heat exchangers, pressurized head collectors. Also the developed methods and codes of thermohydraulic calculations applied to fast reactor core are considered: subchannel approach, porous body model

  12. Connection between slow and fast dynamics of molecular liquids around the glass transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niss, Kristine; Dalle-Ferrier, Cecile; Frick, Bernhard; Russo, Daniela; Dyre, Jeppe; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The mean-square displacement (MSD) was measured by neutron scattering at various temperatures and pressures for a number of molecular glass-forming liquids. The MSD is invariant along the glass-transition line at the pressure studied, thus establishing an 'intrinsic' Lindemann criterion for any given liquid. A one-to-one connection between the MSD's temperature dependence and the liquid's fragility is found when the MSD is evaluated on a time scale of ∼4 ns, but does not hold when the MSD is evaluated at shorter times. The findings are discussed in terms of the elastic model and the role of relaxations, and the correlations between slow and fast dynamics are addressed.

  13. Review of algorithms for modeling metal distribution equilibria in liquid-liquid extraction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, L. J.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on general guidelines to be considered for application of least-squares routines and artificial neural networks (ANN in the estimation of metal distribution equilibria in liquid-liquid extraction process. The goal of the procedure in the statistical method is to find the values of the equilibrium constants (Kj for the reactions involved in the metal extraction which minimizes the differences between experimental distribution coefficient (Dexp and theoretical distribution coefficients according to the mechanism proposed (Dtheor- In the first part of the article, results obtained with the most frequently routine reported in the bibliography are compared with those obtained using the algorithms previously discussed. In the second part, the main features of a single back-propagation neural network for the same purpose are discussed, and the results obtained are compared with those obtained with the classical methods.

    El trabajo presenta las líneas generales a considerar para la estimación del equilibrio de distribución de metales en procesos de extracción líquido-líquido, según dos métodos: algoritmo clásico de mínimos cuadrados y redes neuronales artificiales. El objetivo del procedimiento, en el caso del método estadístico, es encontrar los valores de las constantes de equilibrio (Kj para las reacciones involucradas en la extracción del metal, que minimizan las diferencias entre el coeficiente de distribución experimental y el coeficiente de distribución teórico, de acuerdo al mecanismo propuesto. En la primera parte del artículo se comparan los resultados obtenidos a partir de los algoritmos usados más habitualmente en la bibliografía, con los datos obtenidos mediante el algoritmo previamente descrito. En la segunda parte, se presentan las características fundamentales para aplicar una red neuronal sencilla con algoritmo back-propagation y los

  14. Studies of extractant molecules in solution and at liquid-liquid interfaces: structural and mechanistic aspects of synergy effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baaden, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations reported herein provide new important insights into cation recognition and complexation in solution as well as liquid-liquid extraction, with a particular focus on the microscopic events taking place at the interface between two immiscible liquids. Preliminary studies concerned the representation of the trivalent rare earth cations La 3+ , Eu 3+ and Yb 3+ in force field simulations, probing structural and energetic features on an experimentally characterized model system based on substituted pyridine dicarboxamide ligands. Complexation of such cations by a novel calixarene derivative was investigated showing unexpected features, such as the position of the cation in the complex. Independent experimental studies published subsequently support these findings. Another part of the work is related to industrial liquid-liquid extraction systems using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as co-solvent, extractant, surfactant and synergist. We investigate 1) concentration effects simulating up to 60 TBP at a water/chloroform interface, 2) acidity using a neutral and ionic model of HNO 3 and 3) synergistic aspects of mixed TBP/calixarene extraction systems. These simulations provide the first microscopic insights into such issues. We finally addressed the topic of solute transfer across the water/chloroform interface. The potential of mean force for such a process has been calculated by both standard methods and novel approaches [fr

  15. Synchronous timing of multi-energy fast beam extraction during a single AGS cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabusi, J.; Naase, S.

    1985-01-01

    Synchronous triggering of fast beams is required because the field of Kicker Magnets must rise within the open space between one beam bunch and the next. Within the Brookhaven AGS, Fast Extracted Beam (FEB) triggering combines nominal timing, based on beam energy with bunch-to-bunch synchronization, based on the accelerating rf waveform. During beam acceleration, a single bunch is extracted at 22 GeV/c and within the same AGS cycle, the remaining eleven bunches are extracted at 28.4 GeV/c. When the single bunch is extracted, a ''hole'', which is left in the remaining circulating beam, can appear in random locations within the second extraction during successive AGS cycles. To overcome this problem, a synchronous rf/12 counting scheme and logic circuitry are used to keep track of the bunch positions relative to each other, and to place the ''hole'' in any desired location within the second extraction. The rf/12 signal is used also to synchronize experimenters triggers

  16. Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction of herbicides in peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2014-10-01

    Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction was developed and applied to the extraction of pesticides in high fatty matrices. The herbicides were ultrasonically extracted from peanut using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. The separation of the analytes from a large amount of co-extractive fat was achieved by dispersive solid-phase extraction using MIL-101(Cr) as sorbent. In this step, the analytes were adsorbed on MIL-101(Cr) and the fat remained in bulk. The herbicides were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental parameters, including type and volume of extraction solvent, ultrasonication time, volume of hexane and eluting solvent, amount of MIL-101(Cr) and dispersive solid phase extraction time, were optimized. The limits of detection for herbicides range from 0.98 to 1.9 μg/kg. The recoveries of the herbicides are in the range of 89.5-102.7% and relative standard deviations are equal or lower than 7.0%. The proposed method is simple, effective and suitable for treatment of the samples containing high content of fat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-01-01

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, 90 Sr and 137 Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed

  18. Some studies on extractive liquid scintillation counting for Th-234/P-234m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudpan, K.; Singjanusong, P.; Punyodom, W.

    1990-01-01

    A study on solvent extraction for Th-234/Pa-234m by liquid scintillation counting has not been reported. This paper will report an application of the technique on such a study. In a hydrochloric acid solution of an uranyl salt, Pa-234m which is one of the daughters of U-238 can be separated by extraction into isobutyl methyl ketone (IBMK). Cerenkov counting was applied for the extraction investigation. Solvent extraction of Th-234/Pa-234m from an aqueous nitric acid solution by TOPO/PPO in toluene by using liquid scintillation counting will be described

  19. Possible applications of crown-ethers to metal extraction using liquid membrane technology - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, M.

    1990-01-01

    Ether-crowns, discovered in 1967 by J.C. PEDERSEN, exhibit attractive complexive and extractive properties, enhanced in various fields, such as analytical chemistry, chemical synthesis, field of biology, or extractive chemistry. The investigations carried out on these macrocyclic compounds are continually increasing, as show in international literature. Among the focus of interest, the applications to metal extraction are extensively studied with crown compounds present in liquid phase or impregnated on supports (membranes or resins). The goal of this paper is to describe the application of crown-ethers to metal extraction, using liquid membrane processes. 69 refs

  20. The status of research on CFD-PBM simulation of liquid-liquid two-phase flow in extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaowei; Jing Shan; Wu Qiulin; Zhang Qi

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation has gained more and more interest in the chemical engineering researchers and is becoming a useful tool for the chemical engineering research. The research on liquid-liquid two-phase flow CFD simulation in extraction columns is now in its initial stage. There is much work to do for the developing of this research field. The purpose of this article is to review the CFD simulation methods for two-phase flow in extraction column. The population balance model (PBM) is detailedly described in this article because it is the main method used in the two-phase flow CFD simulation currently. Then some examples for the two-phase flow simulation in extraction columns are briefly introduced. The strategy for the research on CFD simulation of two-phase flow in extraction columns is suggested at last. (authors)

  1. Separation of cesium from intermediate level liquid radioactive waste by solvent extraction with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, G.

    1989-01-01

    Antioxidants AO 2246, AO 4, AO 4K, AO 301 (Czechoslovakia) and NOCRAC 2246 (Japan) were tested as extracting agents for the separation of cesiium by solvent extraction with substituted phenols. The following effects on extraction were studied: pH of water phase, influence of diluent and of antioxidant concentration, extraction time, influence of salt content. The extraction of cesium from liquid radioactive waste was tested. The best results were obtained by NOCRAC 2246 in nitrobenzene, the extraction efficiency was 92.3% with pH 13.23. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 4 tabs

  2. Determination of Gemfibrozil (Lipitor and Lopid in Water, Biological Fluids and Drug Matrix by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid micro Extraction (DLLME and Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study Dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (DLLME coupled with High performance liquid chromatography was applied for the determination of Gemfibrozil in water, drug`s matrix and biological liquids (human plasma and urine. In this method, the appropriate mixture of extraction solvent (200 μl chlorophorm and disperser solvent (1 ml methanol are injected rapidly into the aqueous sample (10.0 ml by syringe, cloudy solution is formed that consisted of fine particles of extraction solvent which is dispersed entirely into aqueous phase. The mixture was centrifuged and the extraction solvent is sedimented on the bottom of the conical test tube. 50 μl of the sedimented phase is puted in a vial and it`s solvent is evaporated. Then 1ml methanol injected to vial and 20 μL of it injected into the HPLC for separation and determination of Gemfibrozil. Some important parameters, such as kind of extraction and disperser solvent, volume of them, extraction time, pH and ionic strength of the aqueous feed solution were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors and extraction recoveries were 10 and 93.64%. The linear range was (0.1-100.0 mgl-1, limit of detection was 12.3 mgl-1. The relative standard deviations (RSD for 2 mgl-1 of Gemfibrozil in water were 1.3%, (n=10.

  3. Modified Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction Using Green Solvent for Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Vegetable Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kin, C.M.; Shing, W.L.

    2016-01-01

    According to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), most of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) known as genotoxic human carcinogen and mutagenic. PAHs represent as poorly degradable pollutants that exist in soils, sediments, surface water and atmosphere. A simple, rapid and sensitive extraction method termed modified Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro extraction (DLLME) using green solvent was developed to determine PAHs in vegetable samples namely radish, cabbage and cucumber prior to Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID). The extraction method is based on replacing chlorinated organic extraction solvent in the conventional DLLME with low toxic solvent, 1-bromo-3-methylbutane without using dispersive solvent. Several experimental factors such as type and volume of extraction solvents, extraction time, confirmation of 12 PAHs by GC-MS, recovery percentages on vegetable samples and the comparative analysis with conventional DLLME were carried out. Both DLLME were successfully extracted 12 types of PAHs. In modified DLLME, the recoveries of the analytes obtained were in a range of 72.72 - 88.07 % with RSD value below 7.5 % which is comparable to the conventional DLLME. The use of microliter of low toxic extraction solvent without addition of dispersive solvent caused the method is economic and environmental friendly which is fulfill the current requirement, green chemistry based analytical method. (author)

  4. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Chu, Kedan; Li, Huang; Zhang, Yuqin; Zheng, Haiyin; Chen, Ruilan; Chen, Lidian

    2012-12-03

    An ionic liquids (IL)-based microwave-assisted approach for extraction and determination of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. was proposed for the first time. Several ILs with different cations and anions and the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) conditions, including sample particle size, extraction time and liquid-solid ratio, were investigated. Two M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim] Br) solution with 0.80 M HCl was selected as the optimal solvent. Meanwhile the optimized conditions a ratio of liquid to material of 30:1, and the extraction for 10 min at 70 °C. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (CHRE) and the regular MAE, IL-MAE exhibited a higher extraction yield and shorter extraction time (from 1.5 h to 10 min). The optimized extraction samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS. IL extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.)Benth consisted mainly of flavonoids, among which myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, β-sitosterol, triacontane and hexacontane were identified. The study indicated that IL-MAE was an efficient and rapid method with simple sample preparation. LC-MS/MS was also used to determine the chemical composition of the ethyl acetate/MAE extract of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth, and it maybe become a rapid method to determine the composition of new plant extracts.

  5. Extraction of lithium ion from alkaline aqueous media by a liquid surfactant membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinugasa, Takumi; Ono, Yuri; Kawamura, Yuko; Watanabe, Kunio; Takeuchi, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    Extraction of lithium ion from aqueous alkaline media by a liquid surfactant membrane was performed using a mixture of LIX54 and TOPO as the extractant. Stripping of lithium from the kerosene solution to the acid solution was suppressed with increasing content of polyamine (ECA) surfactant. The extraction rate of lithium by the liquid membrane could be interpreted taking account of an interfacial resistance due to ECA. It was confirmed that swelling of the (W/O) emulsion drops by water permeation through the liquid membrane is evaluated in terms of a change in osmotic pressure gradient between the external and internal aqueous phases during the lithium extraction. In the present operation, the extraction ratio of Li + from the external feed and the uptake into the internal phase reached as high as 95%. (author)

  6. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Luque-Moreno, L.C.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Rehmann, L.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-01-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid–liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created

  7. Extractive behavior of U(VI) in the paraffin soluble ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama, R.; Kumaresan, R.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    An Aliquat-336 based ionic liquid namely, tri-n-octylmethylammonium bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ((A3636) + (DEHP) - ) was prepared and studied for the extraction of U(VI) from nitric acid medium. Since the ionic liquid, (A336) + (DEHP) - , was miscible in n-dodecane (n-DD), the extraction of U(VI) in the solution of tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) in n-DD, was investigated in the presence of small concentrations of ionic liquid. The distribution ratio of U(VI) in 0.3 M (A336) + (DEHP) - /n-DD decreased with increase in the concentration of nitric acid. The effect of concentration of TBP, ionic liquid nitric acid and nitrate ion on the extraction of U(VI) in ionic liquid medium was studied. The mechanistic aspect of extraction was investigated by the slope analysis of the extraction data. The studies indicated the feasibility of modifying the extractive properties of U(VI) in TBP/n-DD using ionic liquid. (author)

  8. Stability of Anthocyanins from Red Grape Skins under Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Liazid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of anthocyanins from grape skins after applying different extraction techniques has been determined. The following compounds, previously extracted from real samples, were assessed: delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, malvidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-acetylglucoside, malvidin 3-acetylglucoside, malvidin 3-caffeoylglucoside, petunidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside and malvidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside (trans. The techniques used were ultrasound-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction. In ultrasound-assisted extraction, temperatures up to 75 °C can be applied without degradation of the aforementioned compounds. In pressurized liquid extraction the anthocyanins were found to be stable up to 100 °C. The relative stabilities of both the glycosidic and acylated forms were evaluated. Acylated derivatives were more stable than non-acylated forms. The differences between the two groups of compounds became more marked on working at higher temperatures and on using extraction techniques with higher levels of oxygen in the extraction media.

  9. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of rutin from Chinese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huan; Wang, Yuzhi; Kong, Jinhuan; Nie, Chan; Yuan, Ya

    2010-12-15

    An ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) method has been developed for the effective extraction of rutin from Chinese medicinal plants including Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Bail. (S. chinensis) and Flos Sophorae. A series of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different anions were investigated. The results indicated that the characteristics of anions have remarkable effects on the extraction efficiency of rutin and among the investigated ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim]Br) aqueous solution was the best. In addition, the ILMAE procedures for the two kinds of medicinal herbs were also optimized by means of a series of single factor experiments and an L(9) (3(4)) orthogonal design. Compared with the optimal ionic liquid-based heating extraction (ILHE), marinated extraction (ILME), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (ILUAE), the optimized approach of ILMAE gained higher extraction efficiency which is 4.879 mg/g in S. chinensis with RSD 1.33% and 171.82 mg/g in Flos Sophorae with RSD 1.47% within the shortest extraction time. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was employed for the analysis of rutin in Chinese medicinal plants. Under the optimum conditions, the average recoveries of rutin from S. chinensis and Flos Sophorae were 101.23% and 99.62% with RSD lower than 3%, respectively. The developed approach is linear at concentrations from 42 to 252 mg L(-1) of rutin solution, with the regression coefficient (r) at 0.99917. Moreover, the extraction mechanism of ILMAE and the microstructures and chemical structures of the two researched samples before and after extraction were also investigated. With the help of LC-MS, it was future demonstrated that the two researched herbs do contain active ingredient of rutin and ionic liquids would not influence the structure of rutin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin Determination in Chili Pepper Genotypes Using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaji G. Usman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was carried out to estimate the levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin that may be found in some heat tolerant chili pepper genotypes and to determine the degree of pungency as well as percentage capsaicin content of each of the analyzed peppers. A sensitive, precise, and specific ultra fast liquid chromatographic (UFLC system was used for the separation, identification and quantitation of the capsaicinoids and the extraction solvent was acetonitrile. The method validation parameters, including linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, yielded good results. Thus, the limit of detection was 0.045 µg/kg and 0.151 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, whereas the limit of quantitation was 0.11 µg/kg and 0.368 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The calibration graph was linear from 0.05 to 0.50 µg/g for UFLC analysis. The inter- and intra-day precisions (relative standard deviation were <5.0% for capsaicin and <9.9% for dihydrocapsaicin while the average recoveries obtained were quantitative (89.4%–90.1% for capsaicin, 92.4%–95.2% for dihydrocapsaicin, indicating good accuracy of the UFLC method. AVPP0705, AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (12,776, 5,828, 4,393, 4,760, 3,764 and 4,120 µg/kg and the highest pungency level, whereas AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 recorded no detection of capsaicin and hence were non-pungent. All chili peppers studied except AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 could serve as potential sources of capsaicin. On the other hand, only genotypes AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 gave a % capsaicin content that falls within the pungency limit that could make them recommendable as potential sources of capsaicin for the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Solvent extraction of titanium(IV), zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) salicylates using liquid ion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaramurthi, N M; Shinde, V M

    1989-02-01

    A solvent extraction method is proposed for the extraction of quadrivalent titanium, zirconium an hafnium from salicylate media using liquid ion exchangers such as Aliquat 336 and trioctylamine dissolved in xylene. The optimum conditions were evaluated from a critical study of the following: pH, salicylate concentration, amine concentration, diluent and period of equilibration. The method allows the separation of titanium, zirconium and hafnium from binary mixtures containing commonly associated metal ions and is applicable to the analysis of real samples such as BCS-CRM 387 nimonic 901, BCS-CRM 243/4 ferro-titanium, BCS-CRM 307 magnesium alloy and BCS-CRM 388 zircon. Titanium is determined either with hydrogen peroxide or by atomic absorption spectrometry whereas zirconium and hafnium are determined spectrophotometrically with Alizarin Red S and Zylenol Orange, respectively. The results of both separation and analysis are reported. The method is precise, accurate and fast.

  12. Extraction of lanthanide elements and bismuth in molten lithium chloride-liquid bismuth-lithium alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Makoto; Adachi, Motonari; Kai, Yuichi; Koike, Kenichi

    1987-01-01

    The equilibrium distributions of neodymium and samarium between molten LiCl and liquid Bi-Li alloy were measured in a wide range of Li-mole fraction in the alloy phase, X Li . These lanthanide elements were extracted through redox reactions. In high X Li range, X Li > 0.03, the distributions of neodymium and bismuth in the salt phase increased markedly. The anomalous increase is attributed to the formation of the compound comprized of Nd, Li, Bi and oxygen in the salt phase. The reaction processes in samarium and neodymium were very fast and the extraction rates are controlled by the diffusion processes of the solutes and metallic lithium. (author)

  13. A quick DNA extraction protocol: Without liquid nitrogen in ambient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marker assisted selection is an effective technique for quality traits selection in breeding program which are impossible by visual observation. Marker assisted selection in early generation requires rapid DNA extraction protocol for large number of samples in a low cost approach. A rapid and inexpensive DNA extraction ...

  14. Storage stability of sterilized liquid extracts from pomegranate peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate marc, a byproduct of commercial juice production, has shown promise as a starting material for the recovery of health promoting phenolic compounds. The stability of aqueous extracts prepared from pomegranate marc was evaluated in preparation to directly using these extracts as nutraceuti...

  15. Thermal stability of liquid antioxidative extracts from pomegranate peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was carried out to assess the potential of using the natural antioxidants in pomegranate peel extracts as replacement for synthetic antioxidants. As a result the thermal stability of pomegranate peel extract products during sterilization and storage, and its effect on industrial, color...

  16. Liquid Wall Options for Tritium-Lean Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, S.; Schmitt, R.C.; Latkowski, J.F.; Durbin, S.G.' Sanz, J.

    2002-01-01

    In an inertial fusion energy (FE) thick-liquid chamber design such as HYLEE-II, a molten-salt is used to attenuate neutrons and protect the chamber structures from radiation damage. In the case of a fast ignition inertial fusion system, advanced targets have been proposed that may be self-sufficient in terms of tritium breeding (i.e., the amount of tritium bred in target exceeds the amount burned). This aspect allows for greater freedom when selecting a liquid for the protective blanket, given that lithium-bearing compounds are no longer required. The present work assesses the characteristics of many single, binary, and ternary molten-salts using the NIST Properties of Molten Salts Database. As an initial screening, salts were evaluated for their safety and environmental (S and E) characteristics, which included an assessment of waste disposal rating, contact dose, and radioactive afterheat. Salts that passed the S and E criteria were then evaluated for required pumping power. The pumping power was calculated using three components: velocity head losses, frictional losses, and lifting power. The results of the assessment are used to identify those molten-salts that are suitable for potential liquid-chamber fast-ignition IFE concepts, from both the S and E and pumping power perspective. Recommendations for further analysis are also made

  17. Chiral separation of substituted phenylalanine analogues using chiral palladium phosphine complexes with enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuijl, B.J.V.; Schuur, B.; Minnaard, A.J.; Vries, de J.G.; Feringa, B.L.

    2010-01-01

    Chiral palladium phosphine complexes have been employed in the chiral separation of amino acids and phenylalanine analogues in particular. The use of (S)-xylyl-BINAP as a ligand for the palladium complex in enantioselective liquid–liquid extraction allowed the separation of the phenylalanine

  18. Role of ethanol leaf extracts of Ficus Glumosa on fasting blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal saline 5ml/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of Ficus glumosa ethanol leaves extract respectively via ip while Group V received insulin 6 iu/kg. Fasting blood sugar levels were measured at one day intervals for 7 days. Rats were sacrifice for the Serum liver enzymes and liver the tissue for analysis on the 7 day ...

  19. Role of ethanol leaf extracts of Ficus glumosa on fasting blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal saline 5ml/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of Ficus glumosa ethanol leaves extract respectively via ip while Group V received insulin 6 iu/kg. Fasting blood sugar levels were measured at one day intervals for 7 days. Rats were sacrifice for the Serum liver enzymes and liver tissue for th analysis on the 7 day.

  20. Determination of trace amount of lead in industrial and municipal effluent water samples based on dispersive liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirkhanloo, H. [Iranian Petroleum Industry Health Research Institute, Occupational and Environmental Health Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sedighi, K.; Mousavi, H. Z., E-mail: hzmousavi@semnan.ac.ir [Semnan University, College of Science, Department of Chemistry, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a simple, sensitive and accurate method was developed for the determination of lead ion by combining ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid extraction (Il-DLL E) with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Tetraethyl thiuram disulfide (Tetd), acetone and 1-octyl-3m ethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [(C{sub 8}MIM) (PF{sub 6})] were used as the chelating agent, dispersive and extraction solvent, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 5-190 μg L{sup -1} of lead and the detection limit was 0.8 μg L{sup -1} with a sample volume of 200 ml. The proposed method was validated by the analysis of one certified reference material and applied successfully to the determination of lead in real water samples. (Author)

  1. Determination of trace amount of lead in industrial and municipal effluent water samples based on dispersive liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkhanloo, H.; Sedighi, K.; Mousavi, H. Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a simple, sensitive and accurate method was developed for the determination of lead ion by combining ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid extraction (Il-DLL E) with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Tetraethyl thiuram disulfide (Tetd), acetone and 1-octyl-3m ethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [(C 8 MIM) (PF 6 )] were used as the chelating agent, dispersive and extraction solvent, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 5-190 μg L -1 of lead and the detection limit was 0.8 μg L -1 with a sample volume of 200 ml. The proposed method was validated by the analysis of one certified reference material and applied successfully to the determination of lead in real water samples. (Author)

  2. The fast extraction kicker power supply for the main ring of J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, Kunio, E-mail: kunio.koseki@kek.jp

    2013-11-21

    An effect induced by parasitic inductance in a pulsed power supply for a fast extraction kicker was studied. The parasitic inductance in high voltage capacitors for a low impedance pulse forming network disturbs a sharp rise of an excitation current. A high voltage capacitor with a coaxial structure to minimize the parasitic inductance is proposed. The effectiveness was confirmed experimentally. An impedance mismatch by a leakage inductance of a pulse transformer in a transmission line was studied. The effect is serious at the flat-top period of the excitation current. By introducing a compensation circuit, which is composed by a capacitor and a resistor, impedance matching was established. The pulsed power supply for the fast extraction kicker was operated at a charging voltage of 30 kV. A required rise time of less than 1.1 μs was achieved. The flatness was also confirmed to be in an acceptable value of less than 1%. -- Highlights: ●An effect by parasitic inductance of the energy storage capacitor of the PFN was studied. ●A faster rise time was achieved by introducing a coaxial structure for the PFN capacitor. ●An impedance mismatch by a leakage inductance of a pulse transformer was studied. ●Serious deterioration of the pulsed waveform was cured by a compensation circuit. ●The pulsed power supply for the fast extraction kicker was developed and operated successfully.

  3. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman-Ware, Anne E., E-mail: anne.ware@nrel.gov; Sykes, Robert [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Peter, Gary F. [School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Davis, Mark [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-25

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.

  4. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert; Peter, Gary F.; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.

  5. Study on novel ionic liquids as extracting agent for priority metals from waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.; Falta, T.; Stingeder, G.; Koellensperger, G.; Hann, S.; Kogelnig, D.; Stojanovic, A.; Krachler, R.; Keppler, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: As the new EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) sets high environmental quality standards for priority substances in surface water, effective procedures for wastewater treatment are required. The characteristics of ionic liquids (IL) can be adjusted by modifying their ionic composition for liquid-liquid extraction of metals and metal containing compounds (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, tributyltin, cancerostatic platinum compounds) from the water phase. The potential of novel IL for selective removal of the above mentioned substances regarding extraction time, pH and matrix were determined by ICPSFMS, HPLC-ICPMS and GC-ICPMS measurements. (author)

  6. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of new psychoactive substances in plasma and whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vårdal, Linda; Askildsen, Hilde-Merete; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) was combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS) and the potential for screening of new psychoactive substances (NPS) was investigated for the first time. PALME was performed in 96-well format...... comprising a donor plate, a supported liquid membrane (SLM), and an acceptor plate. Uncharged NPS were extracted from plasma or whole blood, across an organic SLM, and into an aqueous acceptor solution, facilitated by a pH gradient. MDAI (5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane), methylone, PFA (para...

  7. Recent developments in the extraction separation method for treatment of high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Rongzhou; Song Chongli; Zhu Yongjun

    2000-01-01

    A description and review of the recent developments in the extraction separation method for partitioning transuranium elements from high-level liquid waste (HLLW) is presented. The extraction separation processes such as TRUEX process, DIAMEX process, DIDPA process, CTH process, TRPO process are briefly discussed

  8. Process of extraction in liquid way, of the bitumen from asphaltic and bituminous rocks, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freda, L

    1936-06-04

    A process is described for liquid extraction of the bitumen in asphaltic and bituminous rocks, shales, and the like. The substances impregnated with bitumen are suitably treated for the extraction of pitch with any given solvent derived from ethylene, in a series of apparatuses fixed and rotary at atmospheric pressure or in vacuum with vapor and hot air.

  9. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction as an efficient tool for removal of phospholipids from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Bardakci, Turgay; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2016-01-01

    Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic...

  10. Performance of a liquid-junction interface for capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry using continuous-flow fast-atom bombardment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhoud, N.J.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Tjaden, U.R.; Gramberg, L.G.; Verheij, E.R.; Greef, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    The on-line coupling of capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry using a continuous-flow fast-atom bombardment system in combination with a liquid-junction interface is described. The influence of the liquid-junction coupling on the efficiency and the resolution is investigated. Qualitative

  11. The determination of organochlorine pesticides based on dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with on-line solid-phase extraction of high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ligang; Ding Lan; Jin Haiyan; Song Daqian; Zhang Huarong; Li Jiantao; Zhang Kun; Wang Yutang; Zhang Hanqi

    2007-01-01

    A rapid technique based on dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with on-line solid-phase extraction of high-performance liquid chromatography (DMAE-SPE-HPLC) has been developed. A TM 010 microwave resonance cavity built in the laboratory was applied to concentrate the microwave energy. The sample placed in the zone of microwave irradiation was extracted with 95% acetonitrile (ACN) aqueous solution which was driven by a peristaltic pump at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min -1 . The extraction can be completed in a recirculating system in 10 min. When a number of extraction cycles were completed, the extract (1 mL) was diluted on-line with water. Then the extract was loaded into an SPE column where the analytes were retained while the unretained matrix components were washed away. Subsequently, the analytes were automatically transferred from the SPE column to the analytical column and determined by UV detector at 238 nm. The technique was used for determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in grains, including wheat, rice, corn and bean. The limits of detection of OCPs are in the range of 19-37 ng g -1 . The recoveries obtained by analyzing the four spiked grain samples are in the range of 86-105%, whereas the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values are <8.7% ranging from 1.2 to 8.7%. Our method was demonstrated to be fast, accurate, and precise. In addition, only small quantities of solvent and sample were required

  12. Contribution to the modelization of liquid-liquid extraction systems. Application to metallic nitrate extraction by TBP in nitric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, J.

    1984-10-01

    The validity of theoretical expression for activity coefficients, in concentrated aqueous solution, proposed by Mikulin-Stokes-Robinson and Ryazanov-Vdovenko is confirmed by numerous tests. This allows a better control of the reactivity of chemicals in the extraction system: nitric aqueous solution-TBP organic solution used in nuclear hydrometallurgy. A reliable methodology is proposed for the study of metal extraction mechanism. Application to palladium (II) evidences extracted species in the organic phase. Influence of degradation product from extractant radiolysis on the behavior of this metallic element is effected. 187 refs [fr

  13. The optimization of extraction of antioxidants from apple pomace by pressurized liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaard, Hilde; Brunton, Nigel

    2009-11-25

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) is a green extraction technique that can enhance extraction rates of bioactive compounds. PLE was used to extract antioxidants and polyphenols from industrially generated apple pomace at two different temperature ranges: 160 to 193 degrees C and 75 to 125 degrees C. Antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging test), total phenol content and three individual polyphenol groups were determined. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the five response values. Maximum antioxidant activity was obtained at a temperature of 200 degrees C, but unwanted compounds such as hydroxymethylfurfural were formed. Therefore a lower temperature range between 75 and 125 degrees C is recommended. Using this temperature range, a maximum antioxidant activity was determined at 60% ethanol and 102 degrees C. By using PLE the antioxidant activity was increased 2.4 times in comparison to traditional solid-liquid extraction, and the technique may be a promising alternative to conventional techniques for extracting antioxidants.

  14. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium(VI) using Cyanex 272 in toluene from sodium salicylate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madane, Namdev S.; Nikam, Gurunath H.; Jadhav, Deepali V.; Mohite, Baburao S.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of U(VI) from sodium salicylate media using Cyanex 272 in toluene has been carried out. Uranium(VI) was quantitatively extracted from 1 x 10 -3 M sodium salicylate with 5 x 10 -4 M Cyanex 272 in toluene. It was stripped quantitatively from the organic phase with 1M HCl and determined spectrophotometrically with arsenazo(III) at 660 nm. The effect of concentrations of sodium salicylate, extractant, diluents, metal ion and strippants have been studied. Separation of uranium(VI) from other elements was achieved from binary as well as from multicomponent mixtures. The method was extended to determination of uranium(VI) in geological samples. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately ± 2%). (author)

  15. Liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes of cobalt(II-4-(2-pyridylazoresorcinol with ditetrazolium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divarova Vidka V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes between Co(II-4-(2-Pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR anionic chelates and cations of three ditetrazolium chlorides were studied: Blue Tetrazolium chloride (BTC, Neotetrazolium chloride (NTC and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium chloride (NBT. The optimum conditions for the formation and solvent extraction of the ion-association comlpex chelates were determined. It has been found that in the systems of Co(II-PAR-DTS, the reactants are reacted in molar ratios 1:2:1 and the general formula of complexes was suggested. The extraction equilibria were investigated and quantitatively characterized by the equilibrium constants and the recovery factors. The analytical characteristics of the complexes were calculated.

  16. Liquid-liquid reductive extraction in molten fluoride salt/liquid aluminium as a core of process for the An/Ln group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conocar, O.

    2007-06-01

    This report concerns a pyrochemical process based on liquid-liquid extraction in a molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system as a core process for actinide (An)/lanthanide (Ln) group separation, studied at CEA. The basic and demonstrative experiments have established the feasibility of the An/Ln group separation in the molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system (U, Pu, Np, Am, Cm traces from Nd, Ce, Eu, Sm, Eu, La - An/Ln separation factors over 1000 - An recovery yield over 98 % in one batch). The main experimental efforts must now be targeted on the recovery of actinides from the Al matrix. A thermodynamic and bibliographical survey has been done. It shows that back-extraction in a molten chloride melt could be a promising technique for this purpose

  17. Liquid-liquid reductive extraction in molten fluoride salt/liquid aluminium as a core of process for the An/Ln group separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocar, O

    2007-06-15

    This report concerns a pyrochemical process based on liquid-liquid extraction in a molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system as a core process for actinide (An)/lanthanide (Ln) group separation, studied at CEA. The basic and demonstrative experiments have established the feasibility of the An/Ln group separation in the molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system (U, Pu, Np, Am, Cm traces from Nd, Ce, Eu, Sm, Eu, La - An/Ln separation factors over 1000 - An recovery yield over 98 % in one batch). The main experimental efforts must now be targeted on the recovery of actinides from the Al matrix. A thermodynamic and bibliographical survey has been done. It shows that back-extraction in a molten chloride melt could be a promising technique for this purpose.

  18. The role of structural integrity in liquid metal fast breeder reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.G.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive studies have demonstrated the favourable safety characteristics of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, which are attributable to both their inherent features and the engineered safeguards which are included. This requires demonstration that there is no risk of sudden catastrophic failure of the core support system allowing the core to drop off the control rods to give a prompt critical reactivity excursion. An important part of our work in support of the safety case for the U.K. Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor is to demonstrate that such a failure is virtually incredible. This covers design features, study of the fracture behaviour of stainless steel structures, and inspection and monitoring during fabrication and service. The paper gives a broad description of the relevant design features and supporting work programme

  19. Feasibility of liquid membrane extraction in nuclear field. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macasek, F [Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Comenius University SK-84215 Bratislava, (Slovakia)

    1996-03-01

    Membrane separation processes are widely used in separation science mainly in food and water processing. It is discussed, how far the liquid membranes, both supported and emulsion ones are suitable for trace metals, and radionuclides recovery from aqueous solutions and wastes. The advantage of liquid membranes processes are in high preconcentration capability, also emulsion membranes provides possibility to use kinetic effects for specific separation. Radiation sensitivity of the systems is considered as well as the main disadvantage because of surface active products accumulation in such systems. 3 figs.

  20. Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Staffan Alexander

    In light of the scientific evidence for changes in the climate caused by greenhouse-gas emissions from human activities, the world is in ever more desperate need of new, inexhaustible, safe and clean primary energy sources. A viable solution to this problem is the widespread adoption of nuclear breeder reactor technology. Innovative breeder reactor concepts using liquid-metal coolants such as sodium or lead will be able to utilize the waste produced by the current light water reactor fuel cycle to power the entire world for several centuries to come. Breed & burn (B&B) type fast reactor cores can unlock the energy potential of readily available fertile material such as depleted uranium without the need for chemical reprocessing. Using B&B technology, nuclear waste generation, uranium mining needs and proliferation concerns can be greatly reduced, and after a transitional period, enrichment facilities may no longer be needed. In this dissertation, new passively operating safety systems for fast reactors cores are presented. New analysis and optimization methods for B&B core design have been developed, along with a comprehensive computer code that couples neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and structural mechanics and enables a completely automated and optimized fast reactor core design process. In addition, an experiment that expands the knowledge-base of corrosion issues of lead-based coolants in nuclear reactors was designed and built. The motivation behind the work presented in this thesis is to help facilitate the widespread adoption of safe and efficient fast reactor technology.

  1. Quantification of four ionophores in soil, sediment and manure using pressurised liquid extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin; Pedersen, Kenneth Munk

    2013-01-01

    A multi-residue pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) methodology has been established for the determination of the four ionophores: lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin in solid environmental matrices. The PLE methodology is combined with solid phase extraction as clean-up using liquid...... chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry applying electrospray ionisation for detection. The samples were freeze-dried prior to extraction. The absolute recoveries for soil and sediment ranged from 71 to 123% (relative standard deviation (RSDs) below 16%) and in the range 94-133% (RSDs 9...

  2. Supported liquid membrane extraction of 17β- estradiol and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... respectively. For spiked water sample, the extraction efficiencies were of the order 82–96% from a 1 .... advantages of using SLM are that, the system uses very ..... electrochemical detection for the determination of chlorinated.

  3. U(VI) extraction by 8-hydroxyquinoline. A comparison study in ionic liquid and in dichloromethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Li-Yong; Shi, Wei-Qun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Nuclear Energy Chemistry; Liao, Xiang-Hong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Nuclear Energy Chemistry; East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang (China). School of Nuclear Engineering and Geophysics; Liu, Zhi-Rong [East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang (China). School of Nuclear Engineering and Geophysics; Chai, Zhi-Fang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Nuclear Energy Chemistry; Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China). School of Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine

    2017-08-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) represent a recent new class of solvents with potential application in liquid/liquid extraction based nuclear fuel reprocessing due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The work herein provides a comparison of U(VI) extraction by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HOX) in a commonly used RTIL, i.e. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]) and in conventional solvent, i.e. dichloromethane (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). The effect of HOX concentration, solution acidity and nitrate ions on the extraction were discussed in detail, and the speciation analyses of the extracted U(VI) were performed. One of the main emphasis of this work is the extraction mechanism of U(VI) extracted from aqueous phase into RTILs and conventional solvent. In CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, the extraction occurs through a combination of ion change and neutral complexation, and the extracted complex is proposed as UO{sub 2}(OX){sub 2}HOX. In [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}], although a cation-change mechanism as previously reported for RTILs-based system was involved, the extracted complex of UO{sub 2}(OX){sub 1.5}(HOX){sub 1.5}(PF6){sub 0.5} gave a clear indication that the usage of HOX as an acidic extractant markedly inhibited the solubility loss of [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] during the extraction by leaching H{sup +} to aqueous phase. Moreover, the extracted U(VI) in [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] can be easily stripped by using 0.01 M nitric acid, which provides a simple way of the ionic liquid recycling.

  4. Ionic-Liquid-Mediated Extraction and Separation Processes for Bioactive Compounds: Past, Present, and Future Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Sónia P M; E Silva, Francisca A; Quental, Maria V; Mondal, Dibyendu; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2017-05-24

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed as promising media for the extraction and separation of bioactive compounds from the most diverse origins. This critical review offers a compilation on the main results achieved by the use of ionic-liquid-based processes in the extraction and separation/purification of a large range of bioactive compounds (including small organic extractable compounds from biomass, lipids, and other hydrophobic compounds, proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids, and pharmaceuticals). ILs have been studied as solvents, cosolvents, cosurfactants, electrolytes, and adjuvants, as well as used in the creation of IL-supported materials for separation purposes. The IL-based processes hitherto reported, such as IL-based solid-liquid extractions, IL-based liquid-liquid extractions, IL-modified materials, and IL-based crystallization approaches, are here reviewed and compared in terms of extraction and separation performance. The key accomplishments and future challenges to the field are discussed, with particular emphasis on the major lacunas found within the IL community dedicated to separation processes and by suggesting some steps to overcome the current limitations.

  5. Characterization of rhamnolipids by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Beate; Engelen, Jeannine; Tiso, Till; Blank, Lars Mathias; Hayen, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Rhamnolipids are surface-active agents with a broad application potential that are produced in complex mixtures by bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis from fermentation broth is often characterized by laborious sample preparation and requires hyphenated analytical techniques like liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to obtain detailed information about sample composition. In this study, an analytical procedure based on chromatographic method development and characterization of rhamnolipid sample material by LC-MS as well as a comparison of two sample preparation methods, i.e., liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, is presented. Efficient separation was achieved under reversed-phase conditions using a mixed propylphenyl and octadecylsilyl-modified silica gel stationary phase. LC-MS/MS analysis of a supernatant from Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 pVLT33_rhlABC grown on glucose as sole carbon source and purified by solid-phase extraction revealed a total of 20 congeners of di-rhamnolipids, mono-rhamnolipids, and their biosynthetic precursors 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acids (HAAs) with different carbon chain lengths from C8 to C14, including three rhamnolipids with uncommon C9 and C11 fatty acid residues. LC-MS and the orcinol assay were used to evaluate the developed solid-phase extraction method in comparison with the established liquid-liquid extraction. Solid-phase extraction exhibited higher yields and reproducibility as well as lower experimental effort.

  6. Loop Mirror Laser Neural Network with a Fast Liquid-Crystal Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mos, Evert C.; Schleipen, Jean J. H. B.; de Waardt, Huug; Khoe, Djan G. D.

    1999-07-01

    In our laser neural network (LNN) all-optical threshold action is obtained by application of controlled optical feedback to a laser diode. Here an extended experimental LNN is presented with as many as 32 neurons and 12 inputs. In the setup we use a fast liquid-crystal display to implement an optical matrix vector multiplier. This display, based on ferroelectric liquid-crystal material, enables us to present 125 training examples s to the LNN. To maximize the optical feedback efficiency of the setup, a loop mirror is introduced. We use a -rule learning algorithm to train the network to perform a number of functions toward the application area of telecommunication data switching.

  7. In situ derivatization-liquid liquid extraction as a sample preparation strategy for the determination of urinary biomarker prolyl-4-hydroxyproline by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cimlová, Jana; Kružberská, Pavla; Švagera, Z.; Hušek, Petr; Šimek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2012), s. 294-302 ISSN 1076-5174 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/2014; GA MZd NS9755; GA MŠk 7F09028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : alkyl chloroformate derivatization * liquid liquid extraction * urine Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.214, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jms.2952/full

  8. Fast simultaneous analysis of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose in coffee by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Daniel; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; Farah, Adriana

    2008-10-15

    A rapid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose in coffee was developed and validated. The method involved extraction with hot water, clarification with basic lead acetate and membrane filtration, followed by chromatographic separation using a Spherisorb(®) S5 ODS2, 5μm chromatographic column and gradient elution with 0.3% aqueous formic acid/methanol at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The electrospray ionization source was operated in the negative mode to generate sucrose ions and in the positive mode to generate caffeine, trigonelline and nicotinic acid ions. Ionization suppression of all analytes was found due to matrix effect. Calibrations curves prepared in green and roasted coffee extracts were linear with r(2)>0.999. Roasted coffee was spiked and recoveries ranged from 93.0% to 105.1% for caffeine, from 85.2% to 116.2% for trigonelline, from 89.6% to 113.5% for nicotinic acid and from 94.1% to 109.7% for sucrose. Good repeatibilities (RSDcoffee samples (regular or decaffeinated green, ground roasted and instant) gave results in agreement with the literature. The method showed to be suitable for different types of coffee available in the market thus appearing as a fast and reliable alternative method to be used for routine coffee analysis. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Water storage of liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a general overview of a concept proposed for receiving and storing liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) spent fuel. This work was done as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The CFRP has as its major objective the development of technology for reprocessing advanced nuclear reactor fuels. The program plans that research and development will be carried through to a sufficient scale, using irradiated spent fuel under plant operating conditions, to establish a basis for confident projection of reprocessing capability to support a breeder industry

  10. Technology development program for safe shipment of spent fuel from liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, J.M.; Humphreys, J.R.

    1975-10-01

    A comprehensive plan to develop shipping cask technology is described. Technical programs in the disciplines of heat transfer, structures and containment, spent fuel characterization, hot laboratory verification, shielding, and hazards analysis are discussed. Both short- and long-term goals in each discipline are delineated and how the disciplines interrelate is shown. The technologies developed will be used in the design, fabrication, and testing of truck-mounted and rail-car casks. These casks will be used for safely transporting short-cooled, high-burnup Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) spent fuel from reactors to reprocessing plants

  11. Under-Sodium Viewing: A Review of Ultrasonic Imaging Technology for Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Peters, Timothy J.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Chien, Hual-Te; Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Raptis, Paul

    2009-03-27

    This current report is a summary of information obtained in the "Information Capture" task of the U.S. DOE-funded "Under Sodium Viewing (USV) Project." The goal of the multi-year USV project is to design, build, and demonstrate a state-of-the-art prototype ultrasonic viewing system tailored for periodic reactor core in-service monitoring and maintenance inspections. The study seeks to optimize system parameters, improve performance, and re-establish this key technology area which will be required to support any new U.S. liquid-metal cooled fast reactors.

  12. Current liquid metal cooled fast reactor concepts: use of the dry reprocess fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jee Won; Jeong, C. J.; Yang, M. S.

    2003-03-01

    Recent Liquid metal cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) concepts are reviewed for investigating the potential usability of the Dry Reprocess Fuel (DRF). The LFRs have been categorized into two different types: the sodium cooled and the lead cooled systems. In each category, overall design and engineering concepts are collected which includes those of S-PRISM, AFR300, STAR, ENHS and more. Specially, the nuclear fuel types which can be used in these LFRs, have been summarized and their thermal, physical and neutronic characteristics are tabulated. This study does not suggest the best-matching LFR for the DRF, but shows good possibility that the DRF fuel can be used in future LFRs

  13. Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Heo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose an initially transparent light shutter using polymer-networked liquid crystals with crossed patterned electrodes. The proposed light shutter is switchable between the transparent and opaque states, and it exhibits a fast response time and a low operating voltage. In the transparent state, the light shutter has high transmittance; in the opaque state, it can block the background image and provides black color. We expect that the proposed light shutter can be applied to see-through displays and smart windows.

  14. Dynamical analysis on carbon transfer in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Tadayuki; Matsumoto, Keishi

    1979-01-01

    The dynamical analysis was undertaken on the exchange of carbon taking place between the structural steels and sodium for the case of a bi-metallic secondary system constituted of type 304 stainless and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steels, representing the secondary system of a liquid sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. The analysis brought to light the effects to be expected on the long terms carbon transfer behavior of: (a) the surface areas of structural steels in contact with flowing sodium, (b) the thickness of the sodium-boundary layer, (c) the initial carbon concentration in the sodium, and (d) the rate of carbon contamination of the sodium. (author)

  15. Under-Sodium Viewing: A Review of Ultrasonic Imaging Technology for Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Peters, Timothy J.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Chien, Hual-Te; Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Raptis, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This current report is a summary of information obtained in the 'Information Capture' task of the U.S. DOE-funded 'Under Sodium Viewing (USV) Project.' The goal of the multi-year USV project is to design, build, and demonstrate a state-of-the-art prototype ultrasonic viewing system tailored for periodic reactor core in-service monitoring and maintenance inspections. The study seeks to optimize system parameters, improve performance, and re-establish this key technology area which will be required to support any new U.S. liquid-metal cooled fast reactors.

  16. Current liquid metal cooled fast reactor concepts: use of the dry reprocess fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee Won; Jeong, C. J.; Yang, M. S

    2003-03-01

    Recent Liquid metal cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) concepts are reviewed for investigating the potential usability of the Dry Reprocess Fuel (DRF). The LFRs have been categorized into two different types: the sodium cooled and the lead cooled systems. In each category, overall design and engineering concepts are collected which includes those of S-PRISM, AFR300, STAR, ENHS and more. Specially, the nuclear fuel types which can be used in these LFRs, have been summarized and their thermal, physical and neutronic characteristics are tabulated. This study does not suggest the best-matching LFR for the DRF, but shows good possibility that the DRF fuel can be used in future LFRs.

  17. Evolution of the liquid metal reactor: The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept has been under development at Argonne National Laboratory since 1984. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel. Metallic fuel was the original choice in early liquid metal reactor development. Solid technical accomplishments have been accumulating year after year in all aspects of the IFR development program. But as we make technical progress, the ultimate potential offered by the IFR concept as a next generation advanced reactor becomes clearer and clearer. The IFR concept can meet all three fundamental requirements needed in a next generation reactor. This document discusses these requirements: breeding, safety, and waste management. 5 refs., 4 figs

  18. Potential of multi-purpose liquid metallic fuelled fast reactor (MPFR) as a hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, H.; Ninokata, H.; Netchaev, A.; Sawada, T.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear energy is the only effective alternative energy source to fossil fuels in the next century. Therefore future nuclear power plants should satisfy the following three requirements: i) multiple energy conversion capability with high temperature not only for electricity generation but also for hydrogen production, ii) extended siting capability so as to eliminate on-site refuelling, and iii) passive safety features. An aim of this paper is to describe the basic concept of the multi-purpose liquid metallic fuelled fast reactor system (MPFR). The MPFR introduces the U-Pu-X (X: Mn, Fe, Co) liquid metallic alloy with Ta and Ta/TaC structural materials, and satisfies all of the conditions listed above based on the following characteristics of the liquid metallic fuel: high temperature operation between 650 deg C (sodium-cooled system) and 1 200 deg C (lead-cooled system), a core lifetime of 15-30 years without radiation damage of fuel materials, and enhanced passive safety by the thermal expansion of liquid fuel and the avoidance of re-criticality due to local core fuel dispersion at fuel failure events. (authors)

  19. Application of a bistable convection loop to LMFBR [liquid metal fast breeder reactor] emergency core cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, G.; Christensen, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of passive safety features for nuclear reactors has been developed in recent years and has gained wide acceptance. A literature survey of current reactors with passive features indicates that these reactors have some passive features but still do not fully meet the design objectives. Consider a current liquid-metal reactor design like PRISM. During normal operation, liquid sodium enters the reactor at ∼395 degree C and exits at ∼550 degree C. In the event of loss of secondary cooling with or without scram, the primary coolant (liquid sodium) initially acts as a heat sink and its temperature increases. For events without scram, the negative reactivity induced by the increase in temperature shuts the reactor down. When the average temperature of the sodium reaches ∼600 to 650 degree C, it overflows from the reactor vessel, activating the auxiliary cooling system. The auxiliary cooling system uses natural circulation of air around the reactor guard vessel. An alternative to the current design incorporates a bistable convection loop (BCL). The incorporation of the BCL concept remarkably improves the safety of the nuclear reactors. Application of the BCL concept to liquid-metal fast breeder reactors is described in this paper

  20. Analysis of endocrine disruptor compounds in marine sediments by in cell clean up-pressurized liquid extraction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro-González, N; Turnes-Carou, I; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2014-12-10

    A less time-, solvent- and sorbent-consuming analytical methodology for the determination of bisphenol A and alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, 4-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, nonylphenol) in marine sediment was developed and validated. The method was based on selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) with a simultaneous in cell clean up combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative mode (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The SPLE extraction conditions were optimized by a Plackett-Burman design followed by a central composite design. Quantitation was performed by standard addition curves in order to correct matrix effects. The analytical features of the method were satisfactory: relative recoveries varied between 94 and 100% and repeatability and intermediate precision were <6% for all compounds. Uncertainty assessment of measurement was estimated on the basis of an in-house validation according to EURACHEM/CITAC guide. Quantitation limits of the method (MQL) ranged between 0.17 (4-n-nonylphenol) and 4.01 ng g(-1) dry weight (nonylphenol). Sensitivity, selectivity, automaticity and fastness are the main advantages of this green methodology. As an application, marine sediment samples from Galicia coast (NW of Spain) were analysed. Nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol were measured in all samples at concentrations between 20.1 and 1409 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. Sediment toxicity was estimated and no risk to aquatic biota was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction of aromatics from naphtha with ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was the development of a separation technology for the selective recovery and purification of aromatic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) from liquid ethylene cracker feeds. Most ethylene cracker feeds contain 10 ¿ 25% of aromatic components,

  2. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre L. by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry combined with matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zuofu; Pan, Youzhi; Li, Lu; Huang, Yuyang; Qi, Xiaolin; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie

    2014-11-01

    A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is presented for the extraction and determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre. This method combines the high efficiency of matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and the rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The influential parameters of the matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction were investigated and optimized. The optimized conditions were as follows: silica gel was selected as dispersing sorbent, the ratio of silica gel to sample was selected to be 2:1 (400/200 mg), and 8 mL of 80% methanol was used as elution solvent. Furthermore, a fast and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of nine phenolic compounds in E. palustre. This method was carried out within <6 min, and exhibited satisfactory linearity, precision, and recovery. Compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction, the proposed matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure possessed higher extraction efficiency, and was more convenient and time saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent amounts. All these results suggest that the developed method represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and determination of active components in plant matrices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Extraction of three bioactive diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata: effect of the extraction techniques on extract composition and quantification of three andrographolides using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Dhanani, Tushar; Shah, Sonal

    2014-10-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) wall.ex Nees (Acanthaceae) or Kalmegh is an important medicinal plant finding uses in many Ayurvedic formulations. Diterpenoid compounds andrographolides (APs) are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and herbage of A. paniculata. The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide was compared with the solid-liquid extraction techniques such as solvent extraction, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and microwave-assisted solvent extraction with methanol, water and methanol-water as solvents. Also a rapid and validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the three biologically active compounds, AP, neoandrographolide and andrograpanin, in the extracts of A. paniculata. Under the best SFE conditions tested for diterpenoids, which involved extraction at 60°C and 100 bar, the extractive efficiencies were 132 and 22 µg/g for AP and neoandrographolide, respectively. The modifier percentage significantly affected the extraction efficiency. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Application of ionic liquid for extraction and separation of bioactive compounds from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids (ILs), as green and designer solvents, have accelerated research in analytical chemistry. This review highlights some of the unique properties of ILs and provides an overview of the preparation and application of IL or IL-based materials to extract bioactive compounds in plants. IL or IL-based materials in conjunction with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) analytical technologies etc., have been applied successfully to the extraction or separation of bioactive compounds from plants. This paper reviews the available data and references to examine the advantages of IL and IL-based materials in these applications. In addition, the main target compounds reviewed in this paper are bioactive compounds with multiple therapeutic effects and pharmacological activities. Based on the importance of the targets, this paper reviews the applications of ILs, IL-based materials or co-working with analytical technologies. The exploitation of new applications of ILs on the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant samples is expected to increase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Liquid-liquid transfer phenomena studies coupled with redox reactions: back-extraction of nitrous acid in the presence of scavengers in aqueous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K'zerho, R.

    1998-01-01

    This work deals with the investigation of redox reaction contribution to the kinetics of liquid-liquid transfer, in relation with PUREX reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The chemical system chosen concerns the tripping of nitrous acid from tributylphosphate organic phase into a nitric acid aqueous solution containing an 'anti-nitrous' component, namely hydrazinium nitrate. According to the abundant literature, a major attention is devoted to the very important role of interfacial phenomena on the kinetics of solvent extraction with tributylphosphate. Although, a suitable experimental technique is chosen, using a constant interfacial area cell of the ARMOLLEX-type. Furthermore, the effects of the hydrodynamical and the physico-chemical parameters on the extraction rate led to the identification of the extraction regime nature: diffusional, then chemical limitation. When no 'anti-nitrous' component is used, the diffusional resistance is found to be mainly located in the aqueous diffusion layer. The presence of hydrazinium nitrate into the aqueous solution has an overall accelerating effect on the rate of extraction, related to both a complete suppression of the aqueous diffusional resistance, and a very significant enhancement of the interfacial transfer of the nitrous acid, as a function of hydrazinium concentration. If the first effect could be expected because of the well known fast redox reaction in aqueous phase, the second phenomenon represents a quite original and new result which has never been explored before, to the best of our knowledge. A reaction mechanism is postulated and validated, taking into account the reactive effect of hydrazinium on the interfacial step. In order to support the drawn general patterns, different complementary studies were attempted. When hydroxyl-ammonium nitrate is used, a surprising interfacial transfer blockage is observed, pointing out the extreme performance and specificity of the common hydrazinium component. (author)

  6. Surfactant-enhanced liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to micro-solid phase extraction onto highly hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannoulis, Kiriakos M.; Giokas, Dimosthenis L.; Tsogas, George Z.; Vlessidis, Athanasios G.; Zhu, Qing; Pan, Qinmin

    2013-01-01

    We are presenting a simplified alternative method for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) by resorting to the use of surfactants as emulsifiers and micro solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE). In this combined procedure, DLLME of hydrophobic components is initially accomplished in a mixed micellar/microemulsion extractant phase that is prepared by rapidly mixing a non-ionic surfactant and 1-octanol in aqueous medium. Then, and in contrast to classic DLLME, the extractant phase is collected by highly hydrophobic polysiloxane-coated core-shell Fe 2 O 3 (at)C magnetic nanoparticles. Hence, the sample components are the target analyte in the DLLME which, in turn, becomes the target analyte of the μ-SPE step. This 2-step approach represents a new and simple DLLME procedure that lacks tedious steps such as centrifugation, thawing, or delicate collection of the extractant phase. As a result, the analytical process is accelerated and the volume of the collected phase does not depend on the volume of the extraction solvent. The method was applied to extract cadmium in the form of its pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate chelate from spiked water samples prior to its determination by FAAS. Detection limits were brought down to the low μg L −1 levels by preconcentrating 10 mL samples with satisfactory recoveries (96.0–108.0 %). (author)

  7. Fundamental study on the extraction of transuranium elements from high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Masumitsu; Morita, Yasuji; Tochiyama, Osamu; Inoue, Yasushi.

    1988-01-01

    A great many extractants have been studied for the separation of transuranium elements. The present study deals with the survey and classification of the extractants appearing in literature, bearing in mind the relationship between the molecular structure of extractants and their extractability for the transuranium elements from the standpoint of their selective separation from high-level liquid waste (HLW) generated from fuel reprocessing. The extractants surveyed were classified into six groups; unidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds, bidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds, acidic organophosphorus compounds, amines and ammonium salts, N,N-disubstituted amides and the other compounds. These extractants are not always applicable to the separation of transuranium elements from HLW because of their limitations in extractability and radiation durability. Only a limited number of extractants belonging to the bidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds and the acidic organophosphorus compounds are considered to be suitable for the present purpose. (author)

  8. Fast Swinnex Filtration (FSF): A fast and robust sampling and extraction method suitable for metabolomics analysis of cultures grown in complex media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Utrilla, Jose; Naviaux, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    , we develop a fast-filtration method using pressuredriven Swinnex filters. We show that the method is fast enough to provide an accurate snapshot of intracellular metabolism, reduces matrix interference from the media to improve the number of compounds that can be detected, and is applicable...... to anaerobic and aerobic liquid cultures grown in a variety of culturing systems. Furthermore, we apply the fast filtration method to investigate differences in the absolute intracellular metabolite levels of anaerobic cultures grown in minimal and complex media....

  9. Aluminium sensitized spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in milk samples coupled with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qinghai; Yang, Yaling; Liu, Mousheng

    2012-10-01

    An aluminium sensitized spectrofluorimetric method coupled with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction for the determination of four widely used fluoroquinolones (FQs) namely norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OFL), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and gatifloxacin (GAT) in bovine raw milk was described. The analytical procedure involves the fluorescence sensitization of aluminium (Al3+) by complexation with FQs, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction (SALLUE), followed by spectrofluorometry. The influence of several parameters on the extraction (the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, temperature and phase volume ratio) was investigated. Under optimized experimental conditions, the detection limits of the method in milk varied from 0.009 μg/mL for NOR to 0.016 μg/mL for GAT (signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 3). The relative standard deviations (RSD) values were found to be relatively low (0.54-2.48% for four compounds). The calibration graph was linear from 0.015 to 2.25 μg/mL with coefficient of determinations not less than 0.9974. The methodology developed was applied to the determination of FQs in bovine raw milk samples. The main advantage of this method is simple, accurate and green. The method showed promising applications for analyzing polar analytes especially polar drugs in various sample matrices.

  10. A validated solid-liquid extraction method for the HPLC determination of polyphenols in apple tissues Comparison with pressurised liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Salces, Rosa M; Barranco, Alejandro; Corta, Edurne; Berrueta, Luis A; Gallo, Blanca; Vicente, Francisca

    2005-02-15

    A solid-liquid extraction procedure followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array detector (DAD) for the determination of polyphenols in freeze-dried apple peel and pulp is reported. The extraction step consists in sonicating 0.5g of freeze-dried apple tissue with 30mL of methanol-water-acetic acid (30:69:1, v/v/v) containing 2g of ascorbic acid/L, for 10min in an ultrasonic bath. The whole method was validated, concluding that it is a robust method that presents high extraction efficiencies (peel: >91%, pulp: >95%) and appropriate precisions (within day: R.S.D. (n = 5) <5%, and between days: R.S.D. (n = 5) <7%) at the different concentration levels of polyphenols that can be found in apple samples. The method was compared with one previously published, consisting in a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by RP-HPLC-DAD determination. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed.

  11. Optimisation of pressurized liquid extraction using a multivariate chemometric approach for the determination of anticancer drugs in sludge by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Seira , Jordan; Claparols , Catherine; Joannis-Cassan , Claire; Albasi , Claire; Montréjaud-Vignoles , Mireille; Sablayrolles , Caroline

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The present paper describes an analytical method for the determination of 2 widely administered anticancer drugs, ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide, contained in sewage sludge. The method relies on the extraction from the solid matrix by pressurized liquid extraction, sample purification by solid-phase extraction and analysis by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The different parameters affecting the extraction efficiency...

  12. Liquid-liquid extraction of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium by zinc diethyldithiocarbamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1978-03-01

    The authors report the solvent extraction, oxidation, reduction, extraction in the presence of iron, and reextraction of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium. These processes were studied using radioactive tracers. (G.T.H.)

  13. Malonamide, phosphine oxide and calix[4]arene functionalized ionic liquids: synthesis and extraction of actinides and lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternova, Dariia

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment is a crucial problem nowadays. This work was dedicated to the development of the new extracting systems for radionuclides on the basis of 'green' solvents Ionic Liquids (Ils). For this purpose Ils were functionalized with various extracting patterns: phosphine oxide, carbamoyl phosphine oxide groups and malonamide fragment. Also the calix[4]arene platforms were used for the synthesis of functionalized ionic liquids (Fils) and their precursors. The Fils of both types cationic and anionic have been obtained. The synthesized Fils were tested for the liquid-liquid extraction of radionuclides. lt was found that extraction well occurs due to the extracting patterns, however a charge of a modified ion influences extraction.The various extracting experiments and mathematical modelling have been performed to determine the mechanisms of extraction. These studies showed that each extracting system is characterized by a different set of extracting equilibria, based mostly on cationic exchange. (author)

  14. Extraction of toluene from aliphatic compounds using an ionic liquid as solvent: Influence of the alkane on the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Emilio J.; Calvar, Noelia; Dominguez, Irene; Dominguez, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → An ionic liquid was analyzed as solvent for extraction of toluene from alkanes. → Liquid-liquid equilibrium data were measured at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. → Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were obtained and compared with literature. → The Othmer-Tobias equation was used to ascertain the experimental LLE data. → Experimental data were correlated using NRTL and UNIQUAC models. - Abstract: In this paper, the feasibility of using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ionic liquid, [EMim][ESO 4 ], as solvent for the extraction of toluene from aliphatic compounds (hexane, heptane, octane, or nonane) was analyzed. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems {alkane (1) + toluene (2) + [EMim][ESO 4 ] (3)} were measured at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were calculated from the experimental LLE data, and the obtained values were compared to those previously reported using other ionic liquids and sulfolane. The degree of consistency of the experimental LLE data was ascertained using the Othmer-Tobias equation. Finally, the experimental LLE data were satisfactorily correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC models.

  15. Evaluation of the Initial Isothermal Physics Measurements at the Fast Flux Test Facility, a Prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess

    2010-03-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was a 400-MWt, sodium-cooled, low-pressure, high-temperature, fast-neutron flux, nuclear fission reactor plant designed for the irradiation testing of nuclear reactor fuels and materials for the development of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The FFTF was fueled with plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) and reflected by Inconel-600. Westinghouse Hanford Company operated the FFTF as part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) for the U.S. Department of Energy on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Although the FFTF was a testing facility not specifically designed to breed fuel or produce electricity, it did provide valuable information for LMFBR projects and base technology programs in the areas of plant system and component design, component fabrication, prototype testing, and site construction. The major objectives of the FFTF were to provide a strong, disciplined engineering base for the LMFBR program, provide fast flux testing for other U.S. programs, and contribute to the development of a viable self-sustaining competitive U.S. LMFBR industry. During its ten years of operation, the FFTF acted as a national research facility to test advanced nuclear fuels, materials, components, systems, nuclear power plant operating and maintenance procedures, and active and passive reactor safety technologies; it also produced a large number of isotopes for medical and industrial users, generated tritium for the U.S. fusion research program, and participated in cooperative, international research work. Prior to the implementation of the reactor characterization program, a series of isothermal physics measurements were performed; this acceptance testing program consisted of a series of control rod worths, critical rod positions, subcriticality measurements, maximum reactivity addition rates, shutdown margins, excess reactivity, and isothermal temperature coefficient reactivity. The results of these

  16. Synergistic effect of dicarbollide anions in liquid-liquid extraction: a molecular dynamics study at the octanol-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrot, G; Schurhammer, R; Wipff, G

    2007-04-28

    We report a molecular dynamics study of chlorinated cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anions [(B(9)C(2)H(8)Cl(3))(2)Co](-)"CCD(-)" in octanol and at the octanol-water interface, with the main aim to understand why these hydrophobic species act as strong synergists in assisted liquid-liquid cation extraction. Neat octanol is quite heterogeneous and is found to display dual solvation properties, allowing to well solubilize CCD(-), Cs(+) salts in the form of diluted pairs or oligomers, without displaying aggregation. At the aqueous interface, octanol behaves as an amphiphile, forming either monolayers or bilayers, depending on the initial state and confinement conditions. In biphasic octanol-water systems, CCD(-) anions are found to mainly partition to the organic phase, thus attracting Cs(+) or even more hydrophilic counterions like Eu(3+) into that phase. The remaining CCD(-) anions adsorb at the interface, but are less surface active than at the chloroform interface. Finally, we compare the interfacial behavior of the Eu(BTP)(3)(3+) complex in the absence and in the presence of CCD(-) anions and extractant molecules. It is found that when the CCD(-)'s are concentrated enough, the complex is extracted to the octanol phase. Otherwise, it is trapped at the interface, attracted by water. These results are compared to those obtained with chloroform as organic phase and discussed in the context of synergistic effect of CCD(-) in liquid-liquid extraction, pointing to the importance of dual solvation properties of octanol and of the hydrophobic character of CCD(-) for synergistic extraction of cations.

  17. Ionic liquid-modified materials for solid-phase extraction and separation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Canals, Antonio

    2012-02-17

    In recent years, materials science has propelled to the research forefront. Ionic liquids with unique and fascinating properties have also left their footprints to the developments of materials science during the last years. In this review we highlight some of their recent advances and provide an overview at the current status of ionic liquid-modified materials applied in solid-phase extraction, liquid and gas chromatography and capillary electrochromatography with reference to recent applications. In addition, the potential of ionic liquids in the modification of capillary inner wall in capillary electrophoresis is demonstrated. The main target material modified with ionic liquids is silica, but polymers and monoliths have recently joined the studies. Although imidazolium is still clearly the most commonly used ionic liquid for the covalently modification of materials, the exploitation of pyridinium and phosphonium will most probably increase in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel materials and methods for solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, Diana [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-06-24

    This report contains a general introduction which discusses solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction as sample preparation techniques for high-performance liquid chromatography, which is also evaluated in the study. This report also contains the Conclusions section. Four sections have been removed and processed separately: silicalite as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction; a new, high-capacity carboxylic acid functionalized resin for solid-phase extraction; semi-micro solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from aqueous and biological samples; and the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of drugs and metabolites in human serum and urine using direct injection and a unique molecular sieve.

  19. Comparison of low-level polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment revealed by Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Nobuyasu; Numata, Masahiko; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yarita, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in lake sediment at low levels ( -1 ) by using Soxhlet extraction (Soxhlet), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in combination with gas chromatography and isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. Although all extraction techniques showed good repeatability for five target PAHs (relative standard deviation MAE > Soxhlet. Differences in the results originated mainly from differences in the extraction efficiencies of the techniques for native PAHs, because all techniques gave comparable recovery yields of corresponding 13 C-labeled PAHs ( 13 C-PAHs) (51-84%). Since non-negligible amounts of both native PAHs and 13 C-PAHs were re-adsorbed on matrix in MAE, not only recovery yields of 13 C-PAHs but also efficiencies of extraction of native PAHs should be examined to evaluate the appropriateness of any analytical procedures

  20. Stationary liquid fuel fast reactor SLFFR – Part I: Core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, T.; Yang, G.; Jung, Y.S.; Yang, W.S., E-mail: yang494@purdue.edu

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • An innovative fast reactor concept SLFFR based on liquid metal fuel is proposed for TRU burning. • A compact core design of 1000 MWt SLFFR is developed to achieve a zero conversion ratio and passive safety. • The core size and the control requirement are significantly reduced compared to the conventional solid fuel reactor with same conversion ratio. - Abstract: For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named the stationary liquid fuel fast reactor (SLFFR) has been proposed based on a stationary molten metallic fuel. A compact core design of a 1000 MWt SLFFR has been developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches have been adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses have been performed to evaluate the steady-state performance characteristics. The analysis results indicate that the SLFFR of a zero TRU conversion ratio is feasible while satisfying the conservatively imposed thermal design constraints. A theoretical maximum TRU consumption rate of 1.01 kg/day is achieved with uranium-free fuel. Compared to the solid fuel reactors with the same TRU conversion ratio, the core size and the reactivity control requirement are reduced significantly. The primary and secondary control systems provide sufficient shutdown margins, and the calculated reactivity feedback coefficients show that the prompt fuel expansion coefficient is sufficiently negative.

  1. Beam and radiation tests of a fast, warm liquid open-quotes swimming poolclose quotes calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyk, J.

    1993-09-01

    A fast, warm liquid calorimeter module with lead absorber immersed in tetramethyl pentane (TMP) as the liquid medium (i.e. a open-quotes swimming poolclose quotes configuration) has been built and tested in a high energy beam at FNAL, and exposed to intense radiation from a strong Co 60 source. A two-tower prototype, incorporating the concept of the electrostatic transformer for fast readout, exhibited very good uniformity and small cross-talk in the beam test. This same calorimeter was exposed to over 10 Mrad of radiation from the Co 60 source, and the electron drift lifetime was measured as a function of accumulated dose. The lifetime improved significantly with small doses of radiation, up to a few hundred krad, then decreased gradually at higher doses, and extrapolated to a minimum useful lifetime of 0.1 μs at over 150 Mrad. This result was confirmed by measurements on a small single-electrode test cell which was irradiated to more than 25 Mrad. In this case, the lifetime decreased from 10μs to 0.1 μs when extrapolated to a dose of over 600 Mrad. This cell was also used to measure the effect of positive ion open-quotes space chargeclose quotes buildup under intense radiation. The results suggest that such effects are small even at the highest intensity available, about 1.3 Mrad/day, for applied fields ≥25 kV/cm

  2. Liquid--liquid extraction of gold with nickel bis(diethyldithiocarbamate) and its application to activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajo, S.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1977-10-01

    The extraction of Au/sup 3 +/ with nickel bis(diethyldithiocarbamate), Ni((C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/NCS/sub 2/)/sub 2/, is investigated. It is shown that this extraction offers a simple, fast, and selective isolation of Au from a variety of matrices. Applications of this separation scheme to the neutron activation analysis of Sn, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, standard rocks, and biological materials are given. The recovery of Au is quantitative, and there is therefore no need to determine the chemical yield of the separation. The recovered Au is of high radiochemical purity.

  3. Selective extraction of high-value phenolic compounds from distillation wastewater of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Imma; Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea Del Pilar; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Campone, Luca; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Rastrelli, Luca; Ibañez, Elena

    2018-01-31

    During the essential oil steam distillation from aromatic herbs, huge amounts of distillation wastewaters (DWWs) are generated. These by-products represent an exceptionally rich source of phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA). Herein, the alternative use of dried basil DWWs (dDWWs) to perform a selective extraction of RA and CA by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) employing bio-based solvent was studied. To select the most suitable solvent for PLE, the theoretical modelling of Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) was carried out. This approach allows reducing the list of candidate to two solvents: ethanol and ethyl lactate. Due to the composition of the sample, mixtures of water with those solvents were also tested. An enriched PLE extract in RA (23.90 ± 2.06 mg/g extract) with an extraction efficiency of 75.89 ± 16.03% employing a water-ethanol mixture 25:75 (% v/v) at 50°C was obtained. In the case of CA, a PLE extract with 2.42 ± 0.04 mg/g extract, having an extraction efficiency of 13.86 ± 4.96% using ethanol absolute at 50°C was achieved. DWWs are proposed as new promising sources of natural additives and/or functional ingredients for cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Deterioration of limestone aggregate mortars by liquid sodium in fast breeder reactor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed Haneefa, K., E-mail: mhkolakkadan@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Santhanam, Manu [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Parida, F.C. [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Limestone mortars were exposed to liquid sodium exposure at 550 °C. • Micro-analytical techniques were used to characterize the exposed specimens. • The performance of limestone mortar was greatly influenced by w/c. • The fundamental degradation mechanisms of limestone mortars were identified. - Abstract: Hot liquid sodium at 550 °C can interact with concrete in the scenario of an accidental spillage of sodium in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. To protect the structural concrete from thermo-chemical degradation, a sacrificial layer of limestone aggregate concrete is provided over it. This study investigates the fundamental mechanisms of thermo-chemical interaction between the hot liquid sodium and limestone mortars at 550 °C for a duration of 30 min in open air. The investigation involves four different types of cement with variation of water-to-cement ratios (w/c) from 0.4 to 0.6. Comprehensive analysis of experimental results reveals that the degree of damage experienced by limestone mortars displayed an upward trend with increase in w/c ratios for a given type of cement. Performance of fly ash based Portland pozzolana cement was superior to other types of cements for a w/c of 0.55. The fundamental degradation mechanisms of limestone mortars during hot liquid sodium interactions include alterations in cement paste phase, formation of sodium compounds from the interaction between solid phases of cement paste and aggregate, modifications of interfacial transition zone (ITZ), decomposition of CaCO{sub 3}, widening and etching of rhombohedral cleavages, and subsequent breaking through the weakest rhombohedral cleavage planes of calcite, staining, ferric oxidation in grain boundaries and disintegration of impurity minerals in limestone.

  5. Deterioration of limestone aggregate mortars by liquid sodium in fast breeder reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Haneefa, K.; Santhanam, Manu; Parida, F.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Limestone mortars were exposed to liquid sodium exposure at 550 °C. • Micro-analytical techniques were used to characterize the exposed specimens. • The performance of limestone mortar was greatly influenced by w/c. • The fundamental degradation mechanisms of limestone mortars were identified. - Abstract: Hot liquid sodium at 550 °C can interact with concrete in the scenario of an accidental spillage of sodium in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. To protect the structural concrete from thermo-chemical degradation, a sacrificial layer of limestone aggregate concrete is provided over it. This study investigates the fundamental mechanisms of thermo-chemical interaction between the hot liquid sodium and limestone mortars at 550 °C for a duration of 30 min in open air. The investigation involves four different types of cement with variation of water-to-cement ratios (w/c) from 0.4 to 0.6. Comprehensive analysis of experimental results reveals that the degree of damage experienced by limestone mortars displayed an upward trend with increase in w/c ratios for a given type of cement. Performance of fly ash based Portland pozzolana cement was superior to other types of cements for a w/c of 0.55. The fundamental degradation mechanisms of limestone mortars during hot liquid sodium interactions include alterations in cement paste phase, formation of sodium compounds from the interaction between solid phases of cement paste and aggregate, modifications of interfacial transition zone (ITZ), decomposition of CaCO 3 , widening and etching of rhombohedral cleavages, and subsequent breaking through the weakest rhombohedral cleavage planes of calcite, staining, ferric oxidation in grain boundaries and disintegration of impurity minerals in limestone

  6. Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2014-12-01

    In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as solvents for the extraction of natural compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, lipids, among others, are outlined. The extraction techniques employed, namely solid-liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extractions, are emphasized and discussed in terms of extraction yields and purification factors. Furthermore, the evaluation of the IL chemical structure and the optimization of the process conditions (IL concentration, temperature, biomass-solvent ratio, etc.) are critically addressed. Major conclusions on the role of the ILs towards the extraction mechanisms and improved extraction yields are additionally provided. The isolation and recovery procedures of the value-added compounds are ascertained as well as some scattered strategies already reported for the IL solvent recovery and reusability. Finally, a critical analysis on the economic impact versus the extraction performance of IL-based methodologies was also carried out and is here presented and discussed.

  7. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides by dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Siti Umairah Mokhtar; Mazidatul Akmam Miskam; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method termed as dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was developed for the determination of selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) namely chloropyrifos, dimethoate and diazinon in water sample. In this method, a mixture of carbon disulfide, CS 2 (extraction solvent) and methanol (disperser solvent) was rapidly injected using syringe into the 5.00 mL water sample to form a cloudy solution where the OPPs were extracted into the fine droplets of extraction solvent. Upon centrifugation for 3 min at 3500 rpm, the fine droplets were sedimented at the bottom of the centrifuge tube. Sedimented phase (1 μL) was injected into the GC-ECD for separation and determination of OPPs. Important extraction parameters, such as type of disperser solvent, volume of extraction solvent and volume of disperser solvent were investigated. The optimized conditions for DLLME of the selected OPPs were methanol as disperser solvent, 30 μL of extraction solvent (CS 2 ) and 1.0 mL of disperser solvent (methanol). Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 0.1 to 1.0 μg/ mL with correlation coefficient (r 2 ), in the range of 0.9976 to 0.9994 and low limits of detection (LOD) between 0.047 and 0.201 μg/ mL. The proposed method provided acceptable recoveries (72.67- 144 %) with good RSDs ranging from 2.74 % to 7.48 %. This method was successfully applied to the determination of OPPs in water samples obtained from a golf course and chloropyrifos and diazinon were detected at concentration 0.18 μg/ mL and 0.07 μg/ mL, respectively. (author)

  8. Enhanced subject-specific resting-state network detection and extraction with fast fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Burak; Lee, Hsu-Lei; Hennig, Jürgen; LeVan, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Resting-state networks have become an important tool for the study of brain function. An ultra-fast imaging technique that allows to measure brain function, called Magnetic Resonance Encephalography (MREG), achieves an order of magnitude higher temporal resolution than standard echo-planar imaging (EPI). This new sequence helps to correct physiological artifacts and improves the sensitivity of the fMRI analysis. In this study, EPI is compared with MREG in terms of capability to extract resting-state networks. Healthy controls underwent two consecutive resting-state scans, one with EPI and the other with MREG. Subject-level independent component analyses (ICA) were performed separately for each of the two datasets. Using Stanford FIND atlas parcels as network templates, the presence of ICA maps corresponding to each network was quantified in each subject. The number of detected individual networks was significantly higher in the MREG data set than for EPI. Moreover, using short time segments of MREG data, such as 50 seconds, one can still detect and track consistent networks. Fast fMRI thus results in an increased capability to extract distinct functional regions at the individual subject level for the same scan times, and also allow the extraction of consistent networks within shorter time intervals than when using EPI, which is notably relevant for the analysis of dynamic functional connectivity fluctuations. Hum Brain Mapp 38:817-830, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The detection of sodium vapor bubble collapse in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, W.M.; Gavin, A.P.; Bobis, J.P.; Sheen, S.H.; Anderson, T.T.; Doolittle, R.D.; Albrecht, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Sodium boiling detection utilizing the sound pressure emanated during the collapse of a sodium vapour bubble in a subcooled media is discussed in terms of the sound characteristic, the reactor ambient noise background, transmission loss considerations and performance criteria. Data obtained in several loss of flow experiments on Fast Test Reactor Fuel Elements indicate that the collapse of the sodium vapour bubble depends on the presence of a subcooled structure or sodium. The collapse pressure pulse was observed in all cases to be on the order of a kPa, indicating a soft type of cavitational collapse. Spectral examination of the pulses indicates the response function of the test structure and geometry is important. The sodium boiling observed in these experiments was observed to occur at a low ( 0 C) liquid superheat with the rate of occurrence of sodium vapor bubble collapse in the 3 to 30 Hz range. Reactor ambient noise data were found to be due to machinery induced vibrations flow induced vibrations, and flow noise. These data were further found to be weakly stationary enhancing the possibility of acoustic surveillance of an operating Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. Based on these noise characteristics and extrapolating the noise measurements from the Fast Flux Test Facility Pump (FFTP), one would expect a signal to noise ratio of up to 20 dB in the absence of transmission loss. The requirement of a low false alarm probability is shown to necessitate post detection analysis of the collapse event sequence and the cross correlation with the second derivative of the neutronic boiling detection signal. Sodium boiling detection using the sounds emitted during sodium vapor bubble collapse are shown to be feasible but a need for in-reactor demonstration is necessary. (author)

  10. Feasibility of corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry for direct analysis of samples extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad T; Riahi, Farhad

    2014-05-23

    The capability of corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) for direct analysis of the samples extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was investigated and evaluated, for the first time. To that end, an appropriate new injection port was designed and constructed, resulting in possibility of direct injection of the known sample volume, without tedious sample preparation steps (e.g. derivatization, solvent evaporation, and re-solving in another solvent…). Malathion as a test compound was extracted from different matrices by a rapid and convenient DLLME method. The positive ion mobility spectra of the extracted malathion were obtained after direct injection of carbon tetrachloride or methanol solutions. The analyte responses were compared and the statistical results revealed the feasibility of direct analysis of the extracted samples in carbon tetrachloride, resulting in a convenient methodology. The coupled method of DLLME-CD-IMS was exhaustively validated in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, recovery, and enrichment factor. Finally, various real samples of apple, river and underground water were analyzed, all verifying the feasibility and success of the proposed method for the easy extraction of the analyte using DLLME separation before the direct analysis by CD-IMS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neutronics and thermal hydraulics coupling scheme for design improvement of liquid metal fast systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Espinoza, V.H.; Jaeger, W.; Travleev, A.; Monti, L.; Doern, R.

    2009-01-01

    Many advanced reactor concepts are nowadays under investigations within the Generation IV international initiative as well as in European research programs including subcritical and critical fast reactor systems cooled by liquid metal, gas and supercritical water. The Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH is involved in different European projects like IP EUROTRANS, ELSY, ESFR. The main goal of these projects is, among others, to assess the technical feasibility of proposed concepts regarding safety, economics and transmutation requirements. In view of increased computer capabilities, improved computational schemes, where the neutronic and the thermal hydraulic solution is iteratively coupled, become practicable. The codes ERANOS2.1 and TRACE are being coupled to analyze fuel assembly or core designs of lead-cooled fast reactors (LFR). The neutronic solution obtained with the coupled system for a LFR fuel assembly was compared with the MCNP5 solution. It was shown that the coupled system is predicting physically sound results. The iterative coupling scheme was realized using Perlscripts and auxiliary Fortran programs to ensure that the mapping between the neutronic and the thermal hydraulic part is consistent. The coupled scheme is very flexible and appropriate for the neutron physical and thermal hydraulic investigation of fuel assemblies and of cores of lead cooled fast reactors. The developed methods and the obtained results will be presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium data for mono ethylene glycol extraction from water with the new ionic liquid tetraoctyl ammonium 2-methyl-1-naphtoate as solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Chavez, L.Y.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal recovery of mono ethylene glycol (MEG) from aqueous streams is one of the most energy demanding operations in industry, because of the large amount of water that needs to be evaporated. The use of alternative technologies such as liquid–liquid extraction could save energy. A new tailor made

  13. Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for mono ethylene glycol extraction from water with the new ionic liquid tetraoctyl ammonium 2-methyl-1-naphtoate as solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Chavez, L.Y.; Schuur, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal recovery of mono ethylene glycol (MEG) from aqueous streams is one of the most energy demanding operations in industry, because of the large amount of water that needs to be evaporated. The use of alternative technologies such as liquid–liquid extraction could save energy. A new tailor made

  14. Combination of solvent extractants for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of fungicides from water and fruit samples by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Belda, Marta; Garrido, Isabel; Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2017-10-15

    A multiresidue method was developed to determine twenty-five fungicides belonging to three different chemical families, oxazoles, strobilurins and triazoles, in water and fruit samples, using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS 2 ). Solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile was used for the analysis in fruits, the extract being used as dispersant solvent in DLLME. Since some of the analytes showed high affinity for chloroform and the others were more efficiently extracted with undecanol, a mixture of both solvents was used as extractant in DLLME. After evaporation of CHCl 3 , the enriched phase was analyzed. Enrichment factors in the 23-119 and 12-60 ranges were obtained for waters and fruits, respectively. The approach was most sensitive for metominostrobin with limits of quantification of 1ngL -1 and 5ngkg -1 in waters and fruits, respectively, while a similar sensitivity was attained for tebuconazole in fruits. Recoveries of the fungicides varied between 86 and 116%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION WITH A TRIISOOCTYLAMINE DILUENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malmary

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary alkylamines in solution with organic diluents are attractive extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous phases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism for extraction of organic acids from water by a long-chain aliphatic tertiary amine. In order to attain this objective, we studied the liquid-liquid equilibria between the triisooctylamine + 1-octanol + n-heptane system as solvent and an aqueous solution of an individual carboxylic acid such as citric, lactic and malic acids. The experiments showed that the partition coefficient for a particular organic acid depends on the kind of solute, notably when the acid concentration in the aqueous phase is low. A mathematical model, where both chemical association and physical distribution are taken into consideration, is proposed. The model suggests that the various complexes obtained between amine and organic acids contribute to the distribution of the solute between the coexisting phases in equilibrium.

  16. Innovating analytical spectroscopies for the improvement of liquid sodium cooled fast neutron reactors safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the project of sodium fast reactor ASTRID, CEA is currently developing new analytical techniques to monitor the chemical purity of liquid sodium. Indeed, incidental situations occurring in the reactor, such as fuel clad failures, leakages in the steam generator or in the coolant pumps, and accelerated corrosion, might release several elements in the sodium. Analytical techniques based on laser ablation and emission spectroscopy are well suited for this application. They do not require any sample preparation, and can perform direct on-line analysis. Amongst them, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Ablation coupled to Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LA-LIF) have been selected for this study. The objective of this work was to characterize the sensitivity of those two techniques for the detection of impurities in liquid sodium. Their limits of detection were calculated for model analytes using calibration lines. Then results were theoretically extrapolated to other analytes of interest. This study shows the feasibility of the detection of steel corrosion products in liquid sodium. However, the LIBS technique is more robust and easier to implement, and would therefore be more suited to nuclear conditions. (author) [fr

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of hydrophobous ions at the liquid-liquid interfaces: case of dicarbollide anions as synergy agents and of ionic liquids as extracting medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevrot, G.

    2008-01-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we first describe the distribution of dicarbollide salts (CCD - , Mn + ) in concentrated monophasic solutions (water, chloroform, octanol, nitrobenzene) and in the corresponding biphasic 'oil' - water solutions. We point to the importance of surface activity of the CCD - s and of their self-aggregation in water, with marked counterions effects, and we explain the synergistic effect of CCD - s in the Eu 3+ extraction by BTP ligands. In the second part of the thesis we report exploratory simulations on the extraction of Sr 2+ by 18-crown-6 to an hydrophobic ionic liquid ([BMI][PF6]), focusing on the liquid - liquid interface. Analogies and differences with a classical aqueous interface are outlined. (author)

  18. Separation of uranium from aqueous solutions using calix[6]arenes in liquid-liquid extraction as well as solid phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeide, K.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.

    2004-11-01

    The suitability of different calyx[n] arene types for uranyl extraction from liquid solutions was examined by means of liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous phases and organic solvents of varying compositions. It was found that COOH-derivatised calyx[6] arenes have good extraction properties and can even be used in the acid pH range. The use of calixarene-modified fleeces for the separation of uranyl from aqueous phases was examined in batch experiments with pH and uranyl concentration as variables and in the presence or absence of competing ions. The results showed that calixarene-modified fleeces can be used for uranium separation starting from pH 4. At pH 5, up to a maximum of 7.6 x 10 -7 mol uranium can be bound per 1 g of calixarene-modified fleece. The separation of uranyl from synthetic pit waters was examined as a means of testing the separation capacity of calixarene-modified fleeces in environmentally sensitive waters. Studies on the reversibility of uranium bonding to calixarene-treated polyester fleeces have shown that under environmentally realistic conditions (neutral pH range) the uranium is firmly bound to the calixarene-modified fleeces and cannot be mobilised. By contrast, in acidic environments calixarene-modified fleeces are capable of near-complete regeneration. Such regenerated textile filter materials can then be used for further uranium separation cycles [de

  19. Optimization of liquid-liquid extraction of biosurfactants from corn steep liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, X; Barbosa-Pereira, L; Devesa-Rey, R; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the optimization of the operational conditions for the chloroform-based extraction of surface-active compounds from corn steep liquor (CSL) was carried out and the nutritional properties of the remnant aqueous phase (CSL-less biosurfactant) was evaluated as microbial fermentation medium. The optimal conditions to obtain biosurfactants from CSL were as follows: chloroform/CSL ratio 2 (v/v), 56 °C at extraction times >30 min. At the optima conditions, 100 % of biosurfactant extract can be obtained from CSL, obtaining 12.0 ± 0.5 g of biosurfactant extract/Kg of CSL. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the biosurfactant extract was 399.4 mg L(-1). This value is similar to the CMC of cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), a cationic surfactant used in the formulation of nanoparticles. The extraction of biosurfactant can be also carried out at room temperature although in this case, the extraction yield decreased about 15 %. The extraction of surface-active compounds from agroindustrial streams can suppose important advances for the bio-based surfactants industry. Biosurfactants obtained in this work are not only more eco-friendly than chemical detergents but also can be cost competitive with its chemical counterparts. Furthermore, after the extraction of surface-active compounds, CSL-less biosurfactant was found to be suitable as nutritional supplement for lactic acid bacteria, maintaining its nutritional properties in comparison with regular CSL.

  20. Liquid-liquid extraction of actinides by means of dibutil-N, N-diethylcarbamylphosphanate (DBDECP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spezzano, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Sarzanini, C.; Volpe, P.; Benzi, P.

    1988-01-01

    The extraction of Th(IV), U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III) and Cm(III) by dibutyl-N, N-diethilcarbamoylphosphonate (DBDECP) from notric, hydrochloric and perchloric acid solutions has been studies as a function of a number of parameters. The effect of size and structure of the extractant molecules has been investigated for lower homologues of carbamoyphosphonate. After evaluating the effect of the diluent, the extraction of inorganic acid HNO 3 , HCl and HClO 4 and the dipendence of the distribution ratios of the actinides from organic extractant concentration and aqueous acid concentration has been studied for the DBDECP-xilene system

  1. Separation by liquid-liquid extraction of actinides(III) from lanthanides(III) using new molecules: the picolinamides; Separation par extraction liquide-liquide des actinides(III) des lanthanides(III) par de nouvelles molecules: les picolinamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, P Y [CEA Marcoule, Departement de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification, 30 - Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); [Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)

    1996-07-01

    In the field of long-lived radionuclides separation from waste generated during spent fuel reprocessing, the picolinamides have been chosen as potential extractants for the selective extraction of actinides (III) from lanthanides (III). The first studies initiated on the most simple molecule of the picolinamide family, namely 2-pyridinecarboxamide, pointed out that in an aqueous media the complexation stability constant between this ligand and Am(III) is roughly 10 times higher than the ones corresponding to Ln(III). The synthesis of lipophilic derivatives of 2-pyridinecarboxamide leaded to extraction experiments. The extraction of metallic cation by lipophilic picolinamides, according to a solvatation mechanism, is strongly dependent on the nature of the amide function: a primary amide function (group I) leads to a good extraction; on the contrary, there is a decrease for secondary (group II) and tertiary (group III) amide functions. From a theoretical point of view, this work leads finally to the following conclusions: confirmation of the importance of the presence of soft donor atoms within the extractants (nitrogen in our case) for An(III)/Ln(III). Also, sensitivity of this soft donor atom regarding the protonation reaction; prevalence in our case of the affinity of the extractant for the metallic cation over the lipophilia of the extractant to ensure good distribution coefficients. The extraction and Am(III)/Ln(III) separation performances of the picolinamides from pertechnetic media leads to the design of a possible flowsheet for the reprocessing of high level liquid waste, with the new idea of an integrated technetium reflux. (author) 105 refs.

  2. A simple liquid extraction protocol for overcoming the ion suppression of triacylglycerols by phospholipids in liquid chromatography mass spectrometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Pedro; Tilahun, Ephrem; Breivik, Joar Fjørtoft; Abdulkader, Bashir M; Frøyland, Livar; Zeng, Yingxu

    2016-02-01

    It is well-known that triacylglycerol (TAG) ions are suppressed by phospholipid (PL) ions in regiospecific analysis of TAG by mass spectrometry (MS). Hence, it is essential to remove the PL during sample preparation prior to MS analysis. The present article proposes a cost-effective liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method to remove PL from TAG in different kinds of biological samples by using methanol, hexane and water. High performance thin layer chromatography confirmed the lack of PL in krill oil and salmon liver samples, submitted to the proposed LLE protocol, and liquid chromatography tandem MS confirmed that the identified TAG ions were highly enhanced after implementing the LLE procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Liquid-liquid extraction to lithium isotope separation based on room-temperature ionic liquids containing 2,2'-binaphthyldiyl-17-crown-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaoli; Zhou Wen; Gu Lin; Qiu Dan; Ren Donghong; Gu Zhiguo; Li Zaijun

    2015-01-01

    A novel liquid-liquid extraction system was investigated for the selective separation of lithium isotopes using ionic liquids (ILs = C 8 mim + PF 6 - , C 8 mim + BF 4 - , and C 8 mim + NTf 2 - ) as extraction solvent and 2,2'-binaphthyldiyl-17-crown-5 (BN-17-5) as extractant. The effects of the concentration of lithium salt, counter anion of lithium salt, initial pH of aqueous phase, extraction temperature, and time on the lithium isotopes separation were discussed. Under optimized conditions, the maximum single-stage separation factor α of 6 Li/ 7 Li obtained in the present study was 1.046 ± 0.002, indicating the lighter isotope 6 Li was enriched in IL phase while the heavier isotope 7 Li was concentrated in the solution phase. The formation of 1:1 complex Li(BN-17-5) + in the IL phase was determined on the basis of slope analysis method. The large value of the free energy change (-ΔG° = 92.89 J mol -1 ) indicated the high separation capability of the Li isotopes by BN-17-5/IL system. Lithium in Li(BN-17-5) + complex was stripped by 1 mol L -1 HCl solution. The extraction system offers high efficiency, simplicity, and green application prospect to lithium isotope separation. (author)

  4. Analysis of 99Tc in the radioactive liquid waste after extraction into suitable solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonar, N.L.; Vaishali De; Pardeshi, V.; Raghvendra, Y.; Valsala, T.P.; Sonavane, M.S.; Kulkarni, Y.; Raj Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    99 Tc is one of the long lived fission product with high fission yield. >From radioactive waste management point of view it is very much essential to evaluate the concentration of technetium in the radioactive liquid waste in order to finalise the treatment process to extract/isolate it from the stream which is discharged to the environment. For the estimation of 99 Tc in the radioactive liquid waste stream, extraction of the stable complex of technetium-tetraphenyl arsonium chloride (TPAC) into chloroform followed by beta counting was studied. Various parameters like pH, time of equilibration, concentration of TPAC in chloroform, use of other solvent for extraction as well as interference of various other radionuclides present in the waste were also studied. The radioactive liquid waste being handled in plant contains high concentrations of salts in the form of sodium nitrate. Hence effect of salt concentration on the percentage extraction was also evaluated. The extraction behavior does not dependent on change in the pH of the solution. Almost 99.5% extraction was observed in the pH range of 1-13.0. High concentration of salt is affecting the extraction. However, this can be taken care by diluting the radioactive waste. It takes almost 90 min time for maximum extraction. Presence of radionuclides like 137 Cs, 90 Sr are not interfering the extraction of 99 Tc. However, 106 Ru is getting slightly extracted along with 99 Tc. The error due to 106 Ru can be eliminated by taking gamma spectrum and deducting the activity from the total beta activity to get 99 Tc activity. Nitrobenzene can be used for extraction of Tc-TPAC complex in place of chloroform. (author)

  5. Recent progress of task-specific ionic liquids in chiral resolution and extraction of biological samples and metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Datong; Cai, Pengfei; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Kong, Yong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2018-01-01

    Ionic liquids have been functionalized for modern applications. The functional ionic liquids are also called task-specific ionic liquids. Various task-specific ionic liquids with certain groups have been constructed and exploited widely in the field of separation. To take advantage of their properties in separation science, task-specific ionic liquids are generally used in techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. This review mainly covers original research papers published in the last five years, and we will focus on task-specific ionic liquids as the chiral selectors in chiral resolution and as extractant or sensor for biological samples and metal ion purification. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Separation of {sup 195(m,g),197m}Hg from bulk gold target by liquid-liquid extraction using hydrophobic ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Kaustab; Lahiri, Susanta [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India). Chemical Sciences Div.; Maiti, Moumita [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India). Dept. of Physics

    2017-07-01

    The {sup 195(m,g),197m}Hg radionuclides were produced in accelerator when natural Au foil was irradiated with 23 MeV protons. The no-carrier-added (NCA) Hg radioisotopes were separated from the bulk Au target by liquid-liquid extraction (LLX) employing hydrophobic RTILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate([C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide([bmim][Tf{sub 2}N]) as extractant with HNO{sub 3} and HCl. In each case, bulk Au was extracted into the RTIL phase leaving NCA Hg-radionuclides in the aqueous phase. The RTILs were recovered by washing with 1 M K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} and freshly prepared 1 M FeSO{sub 4}. The reported separation methods follow green chemistry approach as it does not involve any volatile reagents.

  7. Recovery of Acetic Acid from An Ethanol Fermentation Broth by Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE) Using Various Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Thi Thu Huong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Um, Byung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using various solvents was studied for recovery of acetic acid from a synthetic ethanol fermentation broth. The microbial fermentation of sugars presented in hydrolyzate gives rise to acetic acid as a byproduct. In order to obtain pure ethanol for use as a biofuel, fermentation broth should be subjected to acetic acid removal step and the recovered acetic acid can be put to industrial use. Herein, batch LLE experiments were carried out at 25°C using a synthetic fermentation broth comprising 20.0 g l -1 acetic acid and 5.0 g l -1 ethanol. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc), tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and tri-n-alkylphosphine oxide (TAPO) were utilized as solvents, and the extraction potential of each solvent was evaluated by varying the organic phase-to-aqueous phase ratios as 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0. The highest acetic acid extraction yield was achieved with TAPO; however, the lowest ethanol-to-acetic acid extraction ratio was obtained using TOPO. In a single-stage batch extraction, 97.0 % and 92.4 % of acetic acid could be extracted using TAPO and TOPO when the ratio of organic-to-aqueous phases is 4:1 respectively. A higher solvent-to-feed ratio resulted in an increase in the ethanol-to-acetic acid ratio, which decreased both acetic acid purity and acetic acid extraction yield.

  8. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, T

    2002-01-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 mu s from 700 mu s by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  9. FAST DISCRETE CURVELET TRANSFORM BASED ANISOTROPIC FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR IRIS RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol D. Rahulkar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The feature extraction plays a very important role in iris recognition. Recent researches on multiscale analysis provide good opportunity to extract more accurate information for iris recognition. In this work, a new directional iris texture features based on 2-D Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (FDCT is proposed. The proposed approach divides the normalized iris image into six sub-images and the curvelet transform is applied independently on each sub-image. The anisotropic feature vector for each sub-image is derived using the directional energies of the curvelet coefficients. These six feature vectors are combined to create the resultant feature vector. During recognition, the nearest neighbor classifier based on Euclidean distance has been used for authentication. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been tested on two different databases namely UBIRIS and MMU1. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach.

  10. A new license plate extraction framework based on fast mean shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luning; Li, Shuguang

    2010-08-01

    License plate extraction is considered to be the most crucial step of Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) system. In this paper, a region-based license plate hybrid detection method is proposed to solve practical problems under complex background in which existing large quantity of disturbing information. In this method, coarse license plate location is carried out firstly to get the head part of a vehicle. Then a new Fast Mean Shift method based on random sampling of Kernel Density Estimate (KDE) is adopted to segment the color vehicle images, in order to get candidate license plate regions. The remarkable speed-up it brings makes Mean Shift segmentation more suitable for this application. Feature extraction and classification is used to accurately separate license plate from other candidate regions. At last, tilted license plate regulation is used for future recognition steps.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the experimental data of extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM]BF4 have been presented. The data of FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]BF4. Further, the thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of the [BMIM]BF4 were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 73.02% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild reaction conditions. The ionic liquids could be reused four times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurizations of real fuels, multistage extraction were presented. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazoled ILs for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

  12. Metabolite Extraction from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrock, Adam P; Caudy, Amy A

    2017-09-01

    Prior to mass spectrometric analysis, cellular small molecules must be extracted and separated from interfering components such as salts and culture medium. To ensure minimal perturbation of metabolism, yeast cells grown in liquid culture are rapidly harvested by filtration as described here. Simultaneous quenching of metabolism and extraction is afforded by immediate immersion in low-temperature organic solvent. Samples prepared using this method are suitable for a range of downstream liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses and are stable in solvent for >1 yr at -80°C. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Solid-Liquid Extraction Kinetics of Total Phenolic Compounds (TPC from Red Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Lin Chua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Red dates are one of the most famous herbal plants in making traditional Chinese medicine. They contain large amount of bioactive compounds. The objectives of this research were to optimise the crude extract yield and total phenolic compounds (TPC yield from red dates using response surface methodology (RSM and model the extraction kinetics of TPC yield from red dates. Date fruits were dried in an oven under temperatures 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C until a constant weight was obtained. The optimum drying temperature was 60°C as it gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield. Besides that, single factor experiments were used to determine the optimum range of four extraction parameters which were: liquid-solid ratio (10-30 ml/g; ultrasonic power (70-90%; extraction temperature (50-70°C; and extraction time (40-60min. The optimum range of the four parameters were further optimised using the Box-Behken Design (BBD of RSM. The extraction conditions that gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield were chosen. The optimum value for liquid-solid ratio, ultrasonic power, extraction temperature and extraction time were 30ml/g, 70%, 60°C and 60 min respectively. The two equations generated from RSM were reliable and can be used to predict the crude extract yield and TPC yield. The higher the extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time and lower ultrasonic power, the higher the crude extract and TPC yield. Finally, the results of TPC yield versus time based on the optimum extraction parameters from RSM optimisation were fitted into three extraction kinetic models (Peleg’s model, Page’s model and Ponomaryov’s model. It was found that the most suitable kinetic model to represent the extraction process of TPC from red dates was Page’s model due to its coefficient of determination (R2 was the closest to unity, 0.9663 while its root mean square error (RMSE was the closest to zero, 0.001534.

  14. Liquid-liquid extraction of Th4+ and UO22+ by LIX-26 and its mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Panda, C.R.; Chakravortty, V.; Dash, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Solvent extractions of thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) by a commercially available chelating extractant LIX-26 (an alkylated 8-hydroxyquinoline) of 8-hydroxyquinoline, benzoic or salicylic acid, dipentyl sulfoxide (DPSO) and their mixtures with butanol as modifier in benzene/methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK) as a diluent were studied. The influence of concentration of various anions on the extraction of Th 4+ by mixtures of LIX-26 and benzoic acid was studied. Studies on extraction of thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) by mixtures of LIX-26 (HQ) and DPSO show that the extracted species are possibly of the type [(ThQ 2 (DPSO) 2 (SCN) 2 )] and [(UO 2 Q 2 (DPSO)]), respectively. (author) 22 refs.; 8 figs

  15. Stationary liquid fuel fast reactor SLFFR — Part II: Safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, T.; Jung, Y.S.; Yang, W.S., E-mail: yang494@purdue.edu

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A multi-channel safety analysis code named MUSA is developed for SLFFR transient analyses. • MUSA is verified against the SYS4A/SASSYS-1 code by simulating the ULOF accident for the advanced burner test reactor. • It is shown that SLFFR has a passive shutdown capability for double-fault, beyond-design-basis accidents UTOP, ULOHS and ULOF. - Abstract: Safety characteristics have been evaluated for the stationary liquid fuel fast reactor (SLFFR) proposed for effective burning of hazardous TRU elements of used nuclear fuel. In order to model the geometrical configuration and reactivity feedback mechanisms unique to SLFFR, a multi-channel safety analysis code named MUSA was developed. MUSA solves the time-dependent coupled neutronics and thermal-fluidic problems. The thermal-fluidic behavior of the core is described by representing the core with one-dimensional parallel channels. The primary heat transport system is modeled by connecting compressible volumes by liquid segments. A point kinetics model with six delayed neutron groups is used to represent the fission power transients. The reactivity feedback is estimated by combining the temperature and density variations of liquid fuel, structural material and sodium coolant with the corresponding axial distributions of reactivity worth in each individual thermal-fluidic channel. Preliminary verification tests with a conventional solid fuel reactor agreed well with the reference solutions obtained with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code. Transient analyses of SLFFR were performed for unprotected transient over-power (UTOP), unprotected loss of heat sink (ULOHS) and unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accidents. The results showed that the thermal expansion of liquid fuel provides sufficiently large negative feedback reactivity for passive shutdown of UTOP and ULOHS. The ULOF transient is also terminated passively with the negative reactivity introduced by the gas expansion modules installed at the core periphery

  16. Enhanced spot preparation for liquid extractive sampling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; King, Richard C.

    2015-09-22

    A method for performing surface sampling of an analyte, includes the step of placing the analyte on a stage with a material in molar excess to the analyte, such that analyte-analyte interactions are prevented and the analyte can be solubilized for further analysis. The material can be a matrix material that is mixed with the analyte. The material can be provided on a sample support. The analyte can then be contacted with a solvent to extract the analyte for further processing, such as by electrospray mass spectrometry.

  17. Radiation hardness tests of piezoelectric actuators with fast neutrons at liquid helium temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouaidy, M.; Martinet, G.; Hammoudi, N.; Chatelet, F.; Olivier, A.; Blivet, S.; Galet, F. [CNRS-IN2P3-IPN Orsay, Orsay (France)

    2007-07-01

    Piezoelectric actuators, which are integrated into the cold tuning system and used to compensate the small mechanical deformations of the cavity wall induced by Lorentz forces due to the high electromagnetic surface field, may be located in the radiation environment during particle accelerator operation. In order to provide for a reliable operation of the accelerator, the performance and life time of piezoelectric actuators ({approx}24.000 units for ILC) should not show any significant degradation for long periods (i.e. machine life duration: {approx}20 years), even when subjected to intense radiation (i.e. gamma rays and fast neutrons). An experimental program, aimed at investigating the effect of fast neutrons radiation on the characteristics of piezoelectric actuators at liquid helium temperature (i.e. T{approx}4.2 K), was proposed for the working package WPNo.8 devoted to tuners development in the frame of CARE project. A neutrons irradiation facility, already installed at the CERI cyclotron located at Orleans (France), was upgraded and adapted for actuators irradiations tests purpose. A deuterons beam (maximum energy and beam current: 25 MeV and 35{mu}A) collides with a thin (thickness: 3 mm) beryllium target producing a high neutrons flux with low gamma dose ({approx}20%): a neutrons fluence of more than 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} is achieved in {approx}20 hours of exposure. A dedicated cryostat was developed at IPN Orsay and used previously for radiation hardness test of calibrated cryogenic thermometers and pressure transducers used in LHC superconducting magnets. This cryostat could be operated either with liquid helium or liquid argon. This irradiation facility was upgraded for allowing fast turn-over of experiments and a dedicated experimental set-up was designed, fabricated, installed at CERI and successfully operated for radiation hardness tests of several piezoelectric actuators at T{approx}4.2 K. This new apparatus allows on-line automatic measurements

  18. Radiation hardness tests of piezoelectric actuators with fast neutrons at liquid helium temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouaidy, M.; Martinet, G.; Hammoudi, N.; Chatelet, F.; Olivier, A.; Blivet, S.; Galet, F.

    2007-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuators, which are integrated into the cold tuning system and used to compensate the small mechanical deformations of the cavity wall induced by Lorentz forces due to the high electromagnetic surface field, may be located in the radiation environment during particle accelerator operation. In order to provide for a reliable operation of the accelerator, the performance and life time of piezoelectric actuators (∼24.000 units for ILC) should not show any significant degradation for long periods (i.e. machine life duration: ∼20 years), even when subjected to intense radiation (i.e. gamma rays and fast neutrons). An experimental program, aimed at investigating the effect of fast neutrons radiation on the characteristics of piezoelectric actuators at liquid helium temperature (i.e. T∼4.2 K), was proposed for the working package WPNo.8 devoted to tuners development in the frame of CARE project. A neutrons irradiation facility, already installed at the CERI cyclotron located at Orleans (France), was upgraded and adapted for actuators irradiations tests purpose. A deuterons beam (maximum energy and beam current: 25 MeV and 35μA) collides with a thin (thickness: 3 mm) beryllium target producing a high neutrons flux with low gamma dose (∼20%): a neutrons fluence of more than 10 14 n/cm 2 is achieved in ∼20 hours of exposure. A dedicated cryostat was developed at IPN Orsay and used previously for radiation hardness test of calibrated cryogenic thermometers and pressure transducers used in LHC superconducting magnets. This cryostat could be operated either with liquid helium or liquid argon. This irradiation facility was upgraded for allowing fast turn-over of experiments and a dedicated experimental set-up was designed, fabricated, installed at CERI and successfully operated for radiation hardness tests of several piezoelectric actuators at T∼4.2 K. This new apparatus allows on-line automatic measurements of actuators characteristics and the

  19. Extraction of Uranium from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Conjunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Joanna S.; Sheaff, Chrystal N.; Yoon, Byunghoon; Addleman, Raymond S.; Wai, Chien M.

    2009-01-01

    Uranyl ions (UO2)2+ in aqueous nitric acid solutions can be extracted into supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) via an imidazolium-based ionic liquid using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as a complexing agent. The transfer of uranium from the ionic liquid to the supercritical fluid phase was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy using a high-pressure fiberoptic cell. The form of the uranyl complex extracted into the supercritical CO2 phase was found to be UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2. The extraction results were confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopy and by neutron activation analysis. This technique could potentially be used to extract other actinides for applications in the field of nuclear waste management.

  20. The liquid membrane for extraction of Yttrium and Dysprosium from Acid Nitric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johny, W.S.; Raldi-Artono-Koestoer; Kris-Tri-Basuki; Sudibyo

    1996-01-01

    The determination of surfactant in liquid membrane has been done. The surfactant is span-80 (sorbitol-monooleate), the liquid membrane phase was the organic phase (O), the internal liquid phase (W) with ratio O/W = 1, and surfactant. The organic phase using D 2 EHPA in the kerosene and the internal liquid phase using aqua des or acid nitric. The determination of surfactant with variation of span-80 (0,25 - 2%) in the liquid membrane volume. The speed of stirrer was 3500 rpm in 20 minute. The ratio of liquid membrane phase form and external phase (aqua des or acid nitric) was 1, the speed of stirrer was 350 rpm in 10 minute (permeation process). The liquid phase and the liquid membrane phase was separated and then determinated the volume of liquid membrane, the result of percentage of span-80 was 0,25 % volume. The extraction of yttrium and dysprosium in 2 M HNO 3 was Kd y = 2.945 and Kd D y = 0.019

  1. Optimization and application of homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction in preconcentration of copper (II) in a ternary solvent system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: farajzade@yahoo.com; Bahram, Morteza [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zorita, Saioa [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Lund, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mehr, Behzad Ghorbani [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-30

    In this study a homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction based on the Ph-dependent phase-separation process was investigated using a ternary solvent system (water-acetic acid-chloroform) for the preconcentration of Cu{sup 2+} ions. 8-Hydroxy quinoline was used as the chelating agent prior to its extraction. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using acetylene-air flame was used for the quantitation of analyte after preconcentration. The effect of various experimental parameters in extraction step was investigated using two optimization methods, one variable at a time and central composite design. The experimental design was done at five levels of operating parameters. Nearly the same optimized results were obtained using both methods: sample size, 5 mL; volume of NaOH 10 M, 2 mL; chloroform volume, 300 {mu}L; 8-hydroxy quinoline concentration more than 0.01 M and salt amount did not affect the extraction significantly. Under the optimum conditions the calibration graph was linear over the range 10-2000 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The relative standard deviation was 7.6% for six repeated determinations (C = 500 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Furthermore, the limit of detection (S/N = 3) and limit of quantification (S/N = 10) of the method were obtained as 1.74 and 6 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively.

  2. Oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene from model oil using ionic liquids as extracting agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mohd F.; Atikah, N.; Chong, F. K.; Shaharun, Maizatul S.

    2012-09-01

    The oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) from model oil (in n-dodecane) was carried out using ionic liquid as the extractant and catalyst, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in combination with acetic acid (CH3COOH) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) as the oxidant. The ionic liquids used were 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulphate ([Bmim][OcSO4]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Bmim][Ac]). The effect of the amounts of H2O2 on oxidative desulphurization of model oil was first investigated without the usage of ionic liquids at room temperature. The results indicate that greater amount of H2O2 give higher desulfurization and the maximum desulfurization in this study, i.e. 34 %, was occurred when the molar ratio of H2O2 to sulfur was 5:1. With the usage of ionic liquid and the molar ratio of 5:1 (H2O2:sulfur), the efficiency of DBT removal from model oil was increased significantly in terms of percent removal and removal time. Ionic liquid of [Bmim][OcSO4] performed better than [Bmim][Ac] with 72 % DBT removal. When molar ratio of H2O2 to sulphur was 5:1, volume ratio of ionic liquid to model oil was 1:1 and mixing time was 60 min at room temperature. The results indicate the potential of ionic liquids as the extractant and catalyst for oxidative desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels.

  3. Organic solvent-free air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction for optimized extraction of illegal azo-based dyes and their main metabolite from spices, cosmetics and human bio-fluid samples in one step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza; Rajabi, Maryam; Sabzalian, Sedigheh

    2015-08-15

    Air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME) has unique capabilities to develop as an organic solvent-free and one-step microextraction method, applying ionic-liquids as extraction solvent and avoiding centrifugation step. Herein, a novel and simple eco-friendly method, termed one-step air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (OS-AALLME), was developed to extract some illegal azo-based dyes (including Sudan I to IV, and Orange G) from food and cosmetic products. A series of experiments were investigated to achieve the most favorable conditions (including extraction solvent: 77μL of 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate; sample pH 6.3, without salt addition; and extraction cycles: 25 during 100s of sonication) using a central composite design strategy. Under these conditions, limits of detection, linear dynamic ranges, enrichment factors and consumptive indices were in the range of 3.9-84.8ngmL(-1), 0.013-3.1μgmL(-1), 33-39, and 0.13-0.15, respectively. The results showed that -as well as its simplicity, fastness, and use of no hazardous disperser and extraction solvents- OS-AALLME is an enough sensitive and efficient method for the extraction of these dyes from complex matrices. After optimization and validation, OS-AALLME was applied to estimate the concentration of 1-amino-2-naphthol in human bio-fluids as a main reductive metabolite of selected dyes. Levels of 1-amino-2-naphthol in plasma and urinary excretion suggested that this compound may be used as a new potential biomarker of these dyes in human body. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Separation by liquid-liquid extraction of actinides(III) from lanthanides(III) using new molecules: the picolinamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordier, P.Y.

    1996-07-01

    In the field of long-lived radionuclides separation from waste generated during spent fuel reprocessing, the picolinamides have been chosen as potential extractants for the selective extraction of actinides (III) from lanthanides (III). The first studies initiated on the most simple molecule of the picolinamide family, namely 2-pyridinecarboxamide, pointed out that in an aqueous media the complexation stability constant between this ligand and Am(III) is roughly 10 times higher than the ones corresponding to Ln(III). The synthesis of lipophilic derivatives of 2-pyridinecarboxamide leaded to extraction experiments. The extraction of metallic cation by lipophilic picolinamides, according to a solvatation mechanism, is strongly dependent on the nature of the amide function: a primary amide function (group I) leads to a good extraction; on the contrary, there is a decrease for secondary (group II) and tertiary (group III) amide functions. From a theoretical point of view, this work leads finally to the following conclusions: confirmation of the importance of the presence of soft donor atoms within the extractants (nitrogen in our case) for An(III)/Ln(III). Also, sensitivity of this soft donor atom regarding the protonation reaction; prevalence in our case of the affinity of the extractant for the metallic cation over the lipophilia of the extractant to ensure good distribution coefficients. The extraction and Am(III)/Ln(III) separation performances of the picolinamides from pertechnetic media leads to the design of a possible flowsheet for the reprocessing of high level liquid waste, with the new idea of an integrated technetium reflux. (author)

  5. Liquid-liquid extraction for purification of wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfollahi, Mohammad Nader; Bakshi, Mahdi

    2006-01-01

    The Wet Process Phosphoric Acid (WPA) is used to produce fertilizers and alimentary supplies for cattle. In each of these applications, the impurities contained in acid must be in standard range. In this paper purification of WPA by solvent extraction is performed and the effect of the mass ratio of solvent to feed on extraction efficiency is studied. The working solvents are Methyl Iso Butyl Ketone (MIBK), Iso Amyl Alcohol (IAA) and the mixture of them. The results show that the IAA is better than other solvents in extraction of WPA. This solvent can extract 82.2% of acid after two extraction stages but MIBK can extract only 73.5% of acid after three extraction stages. For all of these solvents, the Pb and Cd concentrations go down to trace. The experimental results show that the maximum separation of Mg with MIBK is 87.5% which occurs at the mass ratio of solvent to feed eual to 4. In the case of IAA solvent the percent is 91.7% and the ratio is 8

  6. Pressurised liquid extraction of flavonoids in onions. Method development and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Malene; Christensen, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2009-01-01

    A rapid and reliable analytical method for quantification of flavonoids in onions was developed and validated. Five extraction methods were tested on freeze-dried onions and subsequently high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection was used for quantification of seven flavonoids...... extraction methods. However. PLE was the preferred extraction method because the method can be highly automated, use only small amounts of solvents, provide the cleanest extracts, and allow the extraction of light and oxygen-sensitive flavonoids to be carried out in an inert atmosphere protected from light......-step PLE method showed good selectivity, precision (RSDs = 3.1-11%) and recovery of the extractable flavonoids (98-99%). The method also appeared to be a multi-method, i.e. generally applicable to, e.g. phenolic acids in potatoes and carrots....

  7. Maghemite nanoparticle-decorated hollow fiber electromembrane extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of thymol from Carum copticum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Bohlooli, Mousa

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND A novel technique using maghemite nanoparticle-decorated hollow fibers to assist electromembrane extraction is proposed. Electromembrane extraction combined with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (EME-DLLME) was applied for the extraction of thymol from Carum copticum, followed...... by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). RESULTS The use of maghemite nanoparticle-decorated hollow fibers was found to improve the extraction efficiency of thymol significantly. Important operational parameters, including pH of acceptor phase, extraction time, voltage...

  8. Studies on the liquid-liquid phase distribution equilibria of selenium and its measurement in water using extraction plant with a pulsation column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskanderani, F.; Sobhi, K.M.; Ejaz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Normal heptane, xylene and a 0.01 molar solution of 4-(5-nonyl)pyridine in toluene were investigated as extractants for selenium(IV) from nitric acid media in potassium iodide. Various parameters affecting the distribution of the element are investigated. Extraction at high aqueous to organic phase volume ratio was studied, using a liquid-liquid extraction plant with a pulsation column. The results were employed to measure selenium in spiked water samples. (author) 24 refs.; 8 figs

  9. Centrifuge-less dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction base on the solidification of switchable solvent for rapid on-site extraction of four pyrethroid insecticides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lu; Wang, Huazi; Qian, Heng; Liu, Chaoran; Lu, Runhua; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang; Xu, Donghui

    2016-11-11

    An on-site dispersive liquid liquid microextraction base on the solidification of switchable solvent has been developed as a simple, rapid and eco-friendly sample extraction method for the fast determination of pyrethroid insecticides in aqueous samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. In this extraction method, medium-chain saturated fatty acids (n≥10), which can rapidly solidify at low temperatures (centrifugation. The microextraction process was performed in a 10mL syringe and the pretreatment process could thus be finished in 5min. No external energy resources were required in this method, which makes it a potential method for on-site extraction. The optimal experimental parameters were as follows: 350μL of decanoic acid (1mol/L) was used as the extraction solvent, 150μL of sulfuric acid (2mol/L) was used to decrease the pH of the samples, no salt was added, and the temperature of the samples was in the range of 20-40°C. Finally, the sample was cooled in an ice bath for three minutes. Under these optimal conditions, good responses for four pyrethroid insecticides were obtained in the concentration ranges of 1-500μg/L, with coefficients of determination greater than 0.9993. The recoveries of the four pyrethroid insecticides ranged from 84.7 to 95.3%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 1.6 to 4.6%. The limits of detection based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were in the range of 0.24-0.68μg/L, and the enrichment factors were in the range of 121-136. The results demonstrate that this method was successfully applied to determine pyrethroid insecticides in real water samples. No centrifugation or any special apparatus are required, make this a promising method for rapid field-sampling procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experiments and numerical modeling of fast flowing liquid metal thin films under spatially varying magnetic field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Manmeet Singh

    Innovative concepts using fast flowing thin films of liquid metals (like lithium) have been proposed for the protection of the divertor surface in magnetic fusion devices. However, concerns exist about the possibility of establishing the required flow of liquid metal thin films because of the presence of strong magnetic fields which can cause flow disrupting MHD effects. A plan is underway to design liquid lithium based divertor protection concepts for NSTX, a small spherical torus experiment at Princeton. Of these, a promising concept is the use of modularized fast flowing liquid lithium film zones, as the divertor (called the NSTX liquid surface module concept or NSTX LSM). The dynamic response of the liquid metal film flow in a spatially varying magnetic field configuration is still unknown and it is suspected that some unpredicted effects might be lurking. The primary goal of the research work being reported in this dissertation is to provide qualitative and quantitative information on the liquid metal film flow dynamics under spatially varying magnetic field conditions, typical of the divertor region of a magnetic fusion device. The liquid metal film flow dynamics have been studied through a synergic experimental and numerical modeling effort. The Magneto Thermofluid Omnibus Research (MTOR) facility at UCLA has been used to design several experiments to study the MHD interaction of liquid gallium films under a scaled NSTX outboard divertor magnetic field environment. A 3D multi-material, free surface MHD modeling capability is under development in collaboration with HyPerComp Inc., an SBIR vendor. This numerical code called HIMAG provides a unique capability to model the equations of incompressible MHD with a free surface. Some parts of this modeling capability have been developed in this research work, in the form of subroutines for HIMAG. Extensive code debugging and benchmarking exercise has also been carried out. Finally, HIMAG has been used to study the

  11. Molecularly imprinted membrane extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for selective analysis of cloxacillin from shrimp samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Sun, Min; Guo, Pengqi; Chang, Chun; Fu, Qiang

    2018-09-01

    Nowadays, the abuse of antibiotics in aquaculture has generated considerable problems for food safety. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a simple and selective method for monitoring illegal use of antibiotics in aquatic products. In this study, a method combined molecularly imprinted membranes (MIMs) extraction and liquid chromatography was developed for the selective analysis of cloxacillin from shrimp samples. The MIMs was synthesized by UV photopolymerization, and characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermo-gravimetric analysis and swelling test. The results showed that the MIMs exhibited excellent permselectivity, high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate for cloxacillin. Finally, the method was utilized to determine cloxacillin from shrimp samples, with good accuracies and acceptable relative standard deviation values for precision. The proposed method was a promising alternative for selective analysis of cloxacillin in shrimp samples, due to the easy-operation and excellent selectivity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Autonomous celestial navigation based on Earth ultraviolet radiance and fast gradient statistic feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan; Zhang, Hanmo

    2016-01-01

    To meet the requirement of autonomous orbit determination, this paper proposes a fast curve fitting method based on earth ultraviolet features to obtain accurate earth vector direction, in order to achieve the high precision autonomous navigation. Firstly, combining the stable characters of earth ultraviolet radiance and the use of transmission model software of atmospheric radiation, the paper simulates earth ultraviolet radiation model on different time and chooses the proper observation band. Then the fast improved edge extracting method combined Sobel operator and local binary pattern (LBP) is utilized, which can both eliminate noises efficiently and extract earth ultraviolet limb features accurately. And earth's centroid locations on simulated images are estimated via the least square fitting method using part of the limb edges. Taken advantage of the estimated earth vector direction and earth distance, Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to realize the autonomous navigation finally. Experiment results indicate the proposed method can achieve a sub-pixel earth centroid location estimation and extremely enhance autonomous celestial navigation precision.

  13. Optimizing pressurized liquid extraction of microbial lipids using the response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescut, J; Severac, E; Molina-Jouve, C; Uribelarrea, J-L

    2011-01-21

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the determination of optimum extraction parameters to reach maximum lipid extraction yield with yeast. Total lipids were extracted from oleaginous yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis) using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The effects of extraction parameters on lipid extraction yield were studied by employing a second-order central composite design. The optimal condition was obtained as three cycles of 15 min at 100°C with a ratio of 144 g of hydromatrix per 100 g of dry cell weight. Different analysis methods were used to compare the optimized PLE method with two conventional methods (Soxhlet and modification of Bligh and Dyer methods) under efficiency, selectivity and reproducibility criteria thanks to gravimetric analysis, GC with flame ionization detector, High Performance Liquid Chromatography linked to Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSD) and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. For each sample, the lipid extraction yield with optimized PLE was higher than those obtained with referenced methods (Soxhlet and Bligh and Dyer methods with, respectively, a recovery of 78% and 85% compared to PLE method). Moreover, the use of PLE led to major advantages such as an analysis time reduction by a factor of 10 and solvent quantity reduction by 70%, compared with traditional extraction methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous extraction and clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites from small tissue samples using pressurized liquid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Zhao, Hongxia; Norstrom, Karin; Li, Xueshu; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    A pressurized liquid extraction-based method for the simultaneous extraction and in situ clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated (OH)-PCBs and methylsulfonyl (MeSO2)-PCBs from small (< 0.5 gram) tissue samples was developed and validated. Extraction of a laboratory reference material with hexane:dichloromethane:methanol (48:43:9, v/v) and Florisil as fat retainer allowed an efficient recovery of PCBs (78–112%; RSD: 13–37%), OH-PCBs (46±2%; RSD: 4%) and MeSO2-PCBs (89±21%; RSD: 24%). Comparable results were obtained with an established analysis method for PCBs, OH-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs. PMID:19019378

  15. Fission and corrosion product behaviour in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    It is intended that this review will be useful not only to scientists but also to those concerned with design, day-to-day operation of plant, with liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), safety and decommissioning. Because of this, the review has been widened to include not only the mass transfer behaviour of the various radionuclides in experimental and operating systems, but also the monitoring of the various species, the methods of measurement and the development of methods to control the build-up of the more important long half-life species in operating plants. The information used in the review has been taken from open literature sources to provide an up-to-date presentation of the behaviour of the various isotopes in LMFBRs. 172 refs, 14 figs, 22 tabs

  16. Thermal performance of fresh mixed-oxide fuel in a fast flux LMR [liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethridge, J.L.; Baker, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A test was designed and irradiated to provide power-to-melt (heat generation rate necessary to initiate centerline fuel melting) data for fresh mixed-oxide UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel irradiated in a fast neutron flux under prototypic liquid metal reactor (LMR) conditions. The fuel pin parameters were selected to envelope allowable fabrication ranges and address mass production of LMR fuel using sintered-to-size techniques. The test included fuel pins with variations in fabrication technique, pellet density, fuel-to-cladding gap, Pu concentration, and fuel oxygen-to-metal ratios. The resulting data base has reestablished the expected power-to-melt in mixed-oxide fuels during initial reactor startup when the fuel temperatures are expected to be the highest. Calibration of heat transfer models of fuel pin performance codes with these data are providing more accurate capability for predicting steady-state thermal behavior of current and future mixed-oxide LMR fuels

  17. Diversion analysis and safeguards measures for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1981-10-01

    The general objective of the study is to perform a diversion analysis and an assessment of the available safeguards methods and systems for verifying inventory and flow of nuclear material in accessible and inaccessible areas of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, LMFBR, systems. The study focuses primarily on the assembly-handling operations, assembly storage facilities, and reactor operations facilities relating to existing and/or near-term planned experimental, demonstration and prototypal reactor plants. The safeguards systems and methods presented are considered to be feasible for development and for implementation within the resource limitation of the IAEA and are considered to be consistent with the objectives, requirements, and constraints of the IAEA as outlined in the IAEA documents INFCIRC/153 and INFCIRC/66-Rev-2

  18. Application of acoustic agglomerators for emergency use in liquid-metal fast breeder reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.T.; Rajendran, N.

    1979-01-01

    The use of acoustic agglomerators for the suppression of sodium-fire aerosols in the case of a hypothetical core disruptive accident of a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor is discussed. The basic principle for the enhancement of agglomeration of airborne particles under the influence of an acoustic field is first discussed, followed by theoretical predictions of the optimum operating conditions for such application. It is found that with an acoustic intensity of 160 dB (approx. 1 W/cm 2 ), acoustic agglomeration is expected to be several hundred times more effective than gravitational agglomeration. For particles with a radius larger than approx. 2 μm, hydrodynamic interaction becomes more important than the inertial capture. For radii between 0.5 and 2 μm, both mechanisms have to included in the theoretical predictions of the acoustic agglomeration rate

  19. Fast switchable ferroelectric liquid crystal gratings with two electro-optical modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ying; Srivastava, A. K.; Chigrinov, V. G.; Kwok, H.-S.; Wang, Xiaoqian

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we reveal a theoretical and experimental illustration of the Ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) grating fabricated by mean of patterned alignment based on photo-alignment. The complexity related to the mismatching of the predefined alignment domains on the top and bottom substrate has been avoided by incorporating only one side photo aligned substrate while the other substrate does not have any alignment layer. Depending on the easy axis in the said alignment domains and the azimuth plane of the impinging polarized light, the diffracting element can be tuned in two modes i.e. DIFF/OFF switchable and DIFF/TRANS switchable modes, which can be applied to different applications. The diffraction profile has been illustrated theoretically that fits well with the experimental finding and thus the proposed diffraction elements with fast response time and high diffraction efficiency could find application in many modern devices.

  20. Anticipated transients without scram for light water reactors: implications for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Solomon, K.A.

    1979-07-01

    In the design of light water reactors (LWRs), protection against anticipated transients (e.g., loss of normal electric power and control rod withdrawal) is provided by a highly reliable scram, or shutdown system. If this system should become inoperable, however, the transient could lead to a core meltdown. The Nuclar Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed, in NUREG-0460 [1], new requirements (or acceptance criteria) for anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events and the manner in which they could be considered in the design and safety evaluation of LWRs. This note assesses the potential impact of the proposed LWR-ATWS criteria on the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) safety program as represented by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

  1. Fast quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in plasma using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Li, Xituo; Wang, Yan; Gu, Xue; Dai, Jieyu; Wang, Guiming; Cheng, Yu; Yan, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrates in biosamples are frequently highlighted as the most differential metabolites in many metabolomics studies. A simple, fast, simultaneous quantitative method for 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma has been developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. In order to quantify 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma, various conditions, including columns, chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometry conditions, and plasma preparation methods, were investigated. Different conditions in this quantified analysis were performed and optimized. The reproducibility, precision, recovery, matrix effect, and stability of the method were verified. The results indicated that a methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) mixture could effectively and reproducibly precipitate rat plasma proteins. Cold organic solvents coupled with vortex for 1 min and incubated at -20°C for 20 min were the most optimal conditions for protein precipitation and extraction. The results, according to the linearity, recovery, precision, matrix effect, and stability, showed that the method was satisfactory in the quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma. The quantified analysis of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma performed excellently in terms of sensitivity, high throughput, and simple sample preparation, which met the requirement of quantification in specific expanded metabolomic studies after the global metabolic profiling research. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Liquid-liquid extraction of iron (III) from Ouenza iron ore leach liquor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of several parameters, such as contact time, HCl concentration, TBP concentration and chloride inorganic salt (KCl) concentration on the efficiency of extraction of iron was examined at 19±2°C. It was found that, for 2 min 3M TBP in presence of 5M HCl and 2 M KCl solutions led to a high yiel of extraction (98.57 ...

  3. Acoustic monitoring of sodium boiling in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor from autoregressive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Issa Cherif; Bose, Tanmoy; Pekpe, Komi Midzodzi; Cassar, Jean-Philippe; Mohanty, A.R.; Paumel, Kévin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The work deals with sodium boiling detection in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. • The authors choose to use acoustic data instead of thermal data. • The method is designed to not to be disturbed by the environment noises. • A real time boiling detection methods are proposed in the paper. - Abstract: This paper deals with acoustic monitoring of sodium boiling in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) based on auto regressive (AR) models which have low computational complexities. Some authors have used AR models for sodium boiling or sodium–water reaction detection. These works are based on the characterization of the difference between fault free condition and current functioning of the system. However, even in absence of faults, it is possible to observe a change in the AR models due to the change of operating mode of the LMFBR. This sets up the delicate problem of how to distinguish a change in operating mode in absence of faults and a change due to presence of faults. In this paper we propose a new approach for boiling detection based on the estimation of AR models on sliding windows. Afterwards, classification of the models into boiling or non-boiling models is made by comparing their coefficients by two statistical methods, multiple linear regression (LR) and support vectors machines (SVM). The proposed approach takes into account operating mode information in order to avoid false alarms. Experimental data include non-boiling background noise data collected from Phenix power plant (France) and provided by the CEA (Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives, France) and boiling condition data generated in laboratory. High boiling detection rates as well as low false alarms rates obtained on these experimental data show that the proposed method is efficient for boiling detection. Most importantly, it shows that the boiling phenomenon introduces a disturbance into the AR models that can be clearly detected

  4. Hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction with osmosis: II. Application to quantification of endogenous gibberellins in rice plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wu, Dapeng; Duan, Chunfeng; Shen, Zheng; Guan, Yafeng

    2012-11-23

    The phenomenon and benefits of osmosis in hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction (HF-LLLME) were theoretically discussed in part I of this study. In this work, HF-LLLME with osmosis was coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-triple quadrupole MS/MS) to analyze eight gibberellins (gibberellin A(1), gibberellin A(3), gibberellin A(4), gibberellin A(7), gibberellin A(8), gibberellin A(9), gibberellin A(19) and gibberellin A(20)) in rice plant samples. According to the theory of HF-LLLME with osmosis, single factor experiments, orthogonal design experiments and mass transfer simulation of extraction process were carried out to select the optimal conditions. Cyclohexanol - n-octanol (1:3, v/v) was selected as organic membrane. Donor phase of 12 mL was adjusted to pH 2 and 20% NaCl (w/v) was added. Acceptor phase with an initial volume of 20 μL was the solution of 0.12 mol L(-1) Na(2)CO(3)-NaHCO(3) buffer (pH 9). Temperature was chosen to be 30 °C and extraction time was selected to be 90 min. Under optimized conditions, this method provided good linearity (r, 0.99552-0.99991) and low limits of detection (0.0016-0.061 ng mL(-1)). Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of endogenous gibberellins from plant extract which was obtained with traditional solvent extraction of rice plant tissues, and the relative recoveries were from 62% to 166%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Revealing Hidden Structural Order Controlling Both Fast and Slow Glassy Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Tong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a supercooled liquid near the glass transition is characterized by two-step relaxation, fast β and slow α relaxations. Because of the apparently disordered nature of glassy structures, there have been long debates over whether the origin of drastic slowing-down of the α relaxation accompanied by heterogeneous dynamics is thermodynamic or dynamic. Furthermore, it has been elusive whether there is any deep connection between fast β and slow α modes. To settle these issues, here we introduce a set of new structural order parameters characterizing sterically favored structures with high local packing capability, and then access structure-dynamics correlation by a novel nonlocal approach. We find that the particle mobility is under control of the static order parameter field. The fast β process is controlled by the instantaneous order parameter field locally, resulting in short-time particle-scale dynamics. Then the mobility field progressively develops with time t, following the initial order parameter field from disorder to more ordered regions. As is well known, the heterogeneity in the mobility field (dynamic heterogeneity is maximized with a characteristic length ξ_{4}, when t reaches the relaxation time τ_{α}. We discover that this mobility pattern can be predicted solely by a spatial coarse graining of the initial order parameter field at t=0 over a length ξ without any dynamical information. Furthermore, we find a relation ξ∼ξ_{4}, indicating that the static length ξ grows coherently with the dynamic one ξ_{4} upon cooling. This further suggests an intrinsic link between τ_{α} and ξ: the growth of the static length ξ is the origin of dynamical slowing-down. These we confirm for the first time in binary glass formers both in two and three spatial dimensions. Thus, a static structure has two intrinsic characteristic lengths, particle size and ξ, which control dynamics in local and nonlocal manners, resulting

  6. Revealing Hidden Structural Order Controlling Both Fast and Slow Glassy Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hua; Tanaka, Hajime

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of a supercooled liquid near the glass transition is characterized by two-step relaxation, fast β and slow α relaxations. Because of the apparently disordered nature of glassy structures, there have been long debates over whether the origin of drastic slowing-down of the α relaxation accompanied by heterogeneous dynamics is thermodynamic or dynamic. Furthermore, it has been elusive whether there is any deep connection between fast β and slow α modes. To settle these issues, here we introduce a set of new structural order parameters characterizing sterically favored structures with high local packing capability, and then access structure-dynamics correlation by a novel nonlocal approach. We find that the particle mobility is under control of the static order parameter field. The fast β process is controlled by the instantaneous order parameter field locally, resulting in short-time particle-scale dynamics. Then the mobility field progressively develops with time t , following the initial order parameter field from disorder to more ordered regions. As is well known, the heterogeneity in the mobility field (dynamic heterogeneity) is maximized with a characteristic length ξ4, when t reaches the relaxation time τα. We discover that this mobility pattern can be predicted solely by a spatial coarse graining of the initial order parameter field at t =0 over a length ξ without any dynamical information. Furthermore, we find a relation ξ ˜ξ4, indicating that the static length ξ grows coherently with the dynamic one ξ4 upon cooling. This further suggests an intrinsic link between τα and ξ : the growth of the static length ξ is the origin of dynamical slowing-down. These we confirm for the first time in binary glass formers both in two and three spatial dimensions. Thus, a static structure has two intrinsic characteristic lengths, particle size and ξ , which control dynamics in local and nonlocal manners, resulting in the emergence of the two

  7. Desulfurization of fuels with ionic liquids by extraction and oxidative extraction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Cabo, Borja

    2014-01-01

    The excessive emission of pollutants to the atmosphere has been a problem during the last few decades due to, among other reasons, the massive use of transports. In order to avoid this problem, many methods are being investigated as an alternative to the classical hydrodesulfurization technique, such as adsorption, biodesulfurization, extraction and oxidation. The extractive desulfurization is one of the most promising alternatives. Moreover, its enhancement with selective oxidation of sulfur...

  8. Clinical applications of fast liquid chromatography: a review on the analysis of cardiovascular drugs and their metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, Irena; Magiera, Sylwia; Baranowski, Jacek

    2013-05-15

    One of the major challenges facing the medicine today is developing new therapies that enhance human health. To help address these challenges the utilization of analytical technologies and high-throughput automated platforms has been employed; in order to perform more experiments in a shorter time frame with increased data quality. In the last decade various analytical strategies have been established to enhance separation speed and efficiency in liquid chromatography applications. Liquid chromatography is an increasingly important tool for monitoring drugs and their metabolites. Furthermore, liquid chromatography has played an important role in pharmacokinetics and metabolism studies at these drug development stages since its introduction. This paper provides an overview of current trends in fast chromatography for the analysis of cardiovascular drugs and their metabolites in clinical applications. Current trends in fast liquid chromatographic separations involve monolith technologies, fused-core columns, high-temperature liquid chromatography (HTLC) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The high specificity in combination with high sensitivity makes it an attractive complementary method to traditional methodology used for routine applications. The practical aspects of, recent developments in and the present status of fast chromatography for the analysis of biological fluids for therapeutic drug and metabolite monitoring, pharmacokinetic studies and bioequivalence studies are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Consequence analysis of core meltdown accidents in liquid metal fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, S.D.; Hahn, D.

    2001-01-01

    Core disruptive accidents have been investigated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) as part of work to demonstrate the inherent and ultimate safety of the conceptual design of the Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor(KALIMER), a 150 Mw pool-type sodium cooled prototype fast reactor that uses U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel. In this study, a simple method was developed using a modified Bethe-Tait method to simulate the kinetics and hydraulic behavior of a homogeneous spherical core over the period of the super-prompt critical power excursion induced by the ramp reactivity insertion. Calculations of energy release during excursions in the sodium-voided core of the KALIMER were subsequently performed using the method for various reactivity insertion rates up to 100 $/s, which has been widely considered to be the upper limit of ramp rates due to fuel compaction. Benchmark calculations were made to compare with the results of more detailed analysis for core meltdown energetics of the oxide fuelled fast reactor. A set of parametric studies was also performed to investigate the sensitivity of the results on the various thermodynamics and reactor parameters. (author)

  10. Quantitative determination of hederagenin in rat plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuemei; Li, Guoliang; Chen, Lingyun; Zhang, Cong; Wan, Xinxiang; Xu, Jiangping

    2011-07-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective method was developed for the quantitative determination of hederagenin in rat plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). It has been successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of hederagenin in the central nervous system (CNS). Sample pretreatment involved a simple protein precipitation with methanol and a one-step extraction with ethyl acetate. Separation was carried out in a Shim-pack XR-ODS II (75 mm × 2.0 mm, i.d., 2.1 μm) column with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. The mobile phase was 5mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. Detection was performed in a triple-quadruple tandem mass spectrometer by multiple-reaction-monitoring mode via electrospray ionization. A linear calibration curve for hederagenin was obtained over a concentration range of 0.406 (lower limit of quantification, LLOQ) to 203 ng/mL (r² > 0.99) for both plasma and CSF. The intra-day and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) values were less than 15%. At all quality control (QC) levels, the accuracy (relative error, RE) was within -9.0% and 11.1% for plasma and CSF, respectively. The pharmacokinetics results indicated that hederagenin could pass through the blood-brain barrier. This UFLC-MS/MS method demonstrates higher sensitivity and sample throughput than previous methods. It was also successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of hederagenin following oral administration of Fructus akebiae extract in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A new analytical method for 32P. Liquid scintillation counting with solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanage, J.A.; Yonezawa, C.

    2003-01-01

    Trace determination of phosphorus has been studied using neutron activation analysis. Radioactivity of 32 P in tri-n-octylamine phosphomolybdate complex was measured using liquid scintillation counting by extracting the complex into xylene. Phosphorus can be quantitatively determined from 16.7 to 600 μg/10 ml by using the radiochemical analysis method described. (author)

  12. Liquid metal extraction of Nd from NdFeB magnet scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yanchen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-12-10

    This research involves using molten magnesium (Mg) to remove neodymium (Nd) from NdFeB magnet scrap by diffusion. The results show that liquid metal extraction of Nd may be a viable and inexpensive method for recovering the expensive rare earth element Nd for use in Mg castings.

  13. Extraction of zirconium from simulated acidic nitrate waste using liquid membrane in hollow fiber contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, G.; Chinchale, R.; Renjith, A.U.; Dixit, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    The acidic waste raffinate stream of zirconium (Zr) purification plant contains about 2 gpl of Zr in about 2M free nitric acid. TBP, which is the most commonly used solvent in the nuclear industry, is not suitable for the extraction of Zr from this lean solution as its distribution coefficient is less than one. In house synthesized Mixed Alkyl Phosphine Oxide (MAPO) is a potential extractant for Zr from this lean stream. Intensification of this process for recovery of Zr has been attempted through use of efficient contactor, namely, hollow fiber module and efficient process, namely, simultaneous extraction and stripping across liquid membrane containing MAPO. Based on batch equilibrium studies selection of suitable concentration of extractant, composition of diluent, selection and concentration of strippant for the proposed liquid membrane system was made. The selected organic and strippant concentration was used to study suitability of application of Dispersion Liquid Membrane (DLM) in hollow fiber contactor for recovery Zr from solution simulated to Zr plant raffinate. Challenges related to stable operation of the liquid membrane system like stability of the organic phase in the micropores of lumen and stability of the dispersion during the pertraction were addressed through pressure balance across the lumen and choice of adequate dispersion condition respectively. (author)

  14. Polonium-210 assay using a background-rejecting extractive liquid-scintillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, C.N.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure which combines solvent extraction with alpha liquid scintillation spectrometry. Pulse shape discrimination electronics are used to reject beta and gamma pulses and to lower the background count to acceptable levels. Concentration of 210 Po and separation from interferring elements are accomplished using a H 3 Po 4 -HCl solution with TOPO combined with a scintillor in toluene

  15. A fast isocratic liquid chromatography method for the quantification of xanthophylls and their stereoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Lopes-Lutz, Daise; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    A fast isocratic liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of eight xanthophylls (13-Z-lutein, 13'-Z-lutein, 13-Z-zeaxanthin, all-E-lutein, all-E-zeaxanthin, all-E-canthaxanthin, all-E-β-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester and all-E-β-apo-8'-carotenal) within 12 min, compared to 90 min by the conventional high-performance liquid chromatography method. The separation was achieved on a YMC C30 reversed-phase column (100 mm x 2.0 mm; 3 μm) operated at 20°C using a methanol/tert-butyl methyl ether/water solvent system at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The method was successfully applied to quantify lutein and zeaxanthin stereoisomers in egg yolk, raw and cooked spinach, and a dietary supplement. The method can be used for the rapid analysis of xanthophyll isomers in different food products and for quality control purposes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Multiple lead seal assembly for a liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, E.; Pardini, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A reusable multiple lead seal assembly provides leak-free passage of stainless-steel-clad instrument leads through the cover on the primary tank of a liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder nuclear reactor. The seal isolates radioactive argon cover gas and sodium vapor within the primary tank from the exterior atmosphere and permits reuse of the assembly and the stainless-steel-clad instrument leads. Leads are placed in flutes in a seal body, and a seal shell is then placed around the seal body. Circumferential channels in the body and inner surface of the shell are contiguous and together form a conduit which intersects each of the flutes, placing them in communication with a port through the wall of the seal shell. Liquid silicone rubber sealant is injected into the flutes through the port and conduit; the sealant fills the space in the flutes not occupied by the leads themselves and dries to a rubbery hardness. A nut, threaded onto a portion of the seal body not covered by the seal shell, jacks the body out of the shell and shears the sealant without damage to the body, shell, or leads. The leads may then be removed from the body. The sheared sealant is cleaned from the body, leads, and shell and the assembly may then be reused with the same or different leads. 3 claims, 6 figures

  17. Effect of pressurized liquids on extraction of antioxidants from Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kwang Hyun; Kang, Suk Woo; Kim, Chul Young; Um, Byung Hun; Na, Ye Rim; Pan, Cheol-Ho

    2010-04-28

    Chlorella vulgaris is a green microalga that contains various antioxidants, such as carotenoids and chlorophylls. In this study, antioxidants from C. vulgaris were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), which has been recently used for bioactive compound extraction. The antioxidant capacity of individual compounds in chlorella was determined by online HPLC ABTS(*+) analysis. According to the antioxidant analysis of total extracts, the extraction yield, radical scavenging activity, and phenolic compounds using PLE were relatively high compared to those obtained using maceration or ultrasound-assisted extraction. On the basis of online HPLC ABTS(*+) analysis, the 15 major antioxidants from chlorella extracts were identified as hydrophilic compounds, lutein and its isomers, chlorophylls, and chlorophyll derivatives. Using PLE at high temperature (85-160 degrees C) significantly increased antioxidant extraction from chlorella, improving the formation of hydrophilic compounds and yielding more antioxidative chlorophyll derivatives. Online HPLC ABTS(*+) analysis was a useful tool for the separation of main antioxidants from PLE extracts and allowed the simultaneous measurement of their antioxidant capacity, which clearly showed that PLE is an excellent method for extracting antioxidants from C. vulgaris.

  18. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol: an efficient and sustainable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne; Kristensen, Kasper; Xiao, Langtao; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-08-26

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500 psi and 100 °C for 20 min (static extraction time: 5 min) is recommended as optimized extraction conditions, achieving 106.8%, 109.3% and 108.0% yield of [6]-, [8]- and [10]-gingerol relative to the yield of corresponding constituent obtained by 8h Soxhlet extraction (absolute ethanol as extraction solvent). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Recovery of Ni Metal from Spent Catalyst with Emulsion Liquid Membrane Using Cyanex 272 as Extractant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Huda, M.; Ramadhan, I. T.; Farry, A. R.; Wulandari, P. T.; Alfia, R.

    2018-03-01

    In this study was conducted to recover nickel metal from spent nickel catalyst resulting from hydrotreating process in petroleum industry. The nickel extraction study with the emulsion liquid membrane using Cyanex 272 as an extractant to extract and separate nickel from the feed phase solution. Feed phase solution was preapred from spent catalyst using sulphuric acid. Liquid membrane consists of a kerosene as diluent, a Span 80 as surfactant, a Cyanex 272 as carrier and sulphuric acid solutions have been used as the stripping solution. The important parameters governing the permeation of nickel and their effect on the separation process have been studied. These parameters are surfactant concentration, extractant concentration feed phase pH. The optimum conditions of the emulsion membrane making process is using 0.06 M Cyanex 272, 8% w/v SPAN 80, 0.05 M H2SO4, internal phase extractant / phase volume ratio: 1/1, and stirring speed 1150 rpm for 60 Minute that can produce emulsion membrane with stability level above 90% after 4 hours. In the extraction process with optimum condition pH 6 for feed phase, ratio of phase emulsion/phase of feed: 1/2, and stirring speed 175 rpm for 15 minutes with result 81.51% nickel was extracted.

  20. Emulsion liquid membrane for selective extraction of bismuth from nitrate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Bahram; Pourabdollah, Kobra

    2013-01-01

    The novelty of this work is the selective extraction of bismuth ions from nitrate medium by emulsion liquid membrane. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was used as extractant of bismuth ions from nitrate medium by emulsion liquid membrane, and Triton X-100 was used as the biodegradable surfactant in n-pentanol n-pentanol bulk membrane. The extraction of bismuth ions was evaluated by the yield of extraction. The experimental parameters were evaluated and were optimized. They included the ratio of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid concentration to the concentration of /Triton X-100 concentration (1.0 : 0.5% w/w), nature of diluents (n-pentanol), nature and concentration of the stripping solution (sulfuric acid, 0.5M), stirring speed (1,800 rpm) and equilibrium time of extraction (20min), initial feed solution of bismuth (350 ppm) and the volume ratio of the internal stripping phase to the membrane phase (14 times). The experimental parameters of kinetic extraction revealed that the bismuth ions were extracted at 100% 97%

  1. Emulsion liquid membrane for selective extraction of bismuth from nitrate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Bahram; Pourabdollah, Kobra [Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    The novelty of this work is the selective extraction of bismuth ions from nitrate medium by emulsion liquid membrane. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was used as extractant of bismuth ions from nitrate medium by emulsion liquid membrane, and Triton X-100 was used as the biodegradable surfactant in n-pentanol n-pentanol bulk membrane. The extraction of bismuth ions was evaluated by the yield of extraction. The experimental parameters were evaluated and were optimized. They included the ratio of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid concentration to the concentration of /Triton X-100 concentration (1.0 : 0.5% w/w), nature of diluents (n-pentanol), nature and concentration of the stripping solution (sulfuric acid, 0.5M), stirring speed (1,800 rpm) and equilibrium time of extraction (20min), initial feed solution of bismuth (350 ppm) and the volume ratio of the internal stripping phase to the membrane phase (14 times). The experimental parameters of kinetic extraction revealed that the bismuth ions were extracted at 100% 97%.

  2. Thermodynamic equilibrium model to predict the cobalt distribution coefficient in the CoCl2--HCl--H2O--TBP liquid--liquid extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevarez, M.; Bautista, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a thermodynamic equilibrium model to predict the cobalt distribution coefficient in the CoCl 2 -HCl-H 2 O-TBP system is described. The model makes use of the various aqueous phase cobaltous chloride complexes stoichiometric stability constants expressed as their degree of formation, their mechanism of extraction into the organic phase, and the equilibrium constant for the extraction reaction. The model was verified by the good agreement between the calculated cobalt distribution coefficients and those obtained experimentally both in the present study and published by other investigators. The optimum extraction of cobalt by the TBP occurred at an HCl equilibrium aqueous place concentration between 8.5 and 9.5M. The development of efficient procedures for the separation and concentration of important industrial metals from their aqueous solutions by liquid-liquid extraction has recently been given impetus by the realization of an impending shortage of energy and mineral resources. Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the few methods by which it is possible to quantitatively separate elements which are similar in properties. The use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate cobalt and nickel, which very frequently occur in nature together, is an important separation problem in nonferrous metallurgy. There is some fundamental information available in the chemical literature regarding the mechanism and equilibrium thermodynamic properties of selected liquid-liquid extraction systems. This research effort shows how this available information can be utilized to improve existing separation and concentration theory and technique. The development and application of a thermodynamic equilibrium model for describing the liquid-liquid extraction of cobaltous chloride from aqueous HCl solutions by tributyl phosphate (TBP) using experimental data obtained in this investigation and from the literature are presented

  3. The Septum Magnet System of the New Fast Extraction Channel of the SPS at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Balhan, B; Rizzo, A; Weterings, W

    2004-01-01

    In the Long Straight Section LSS4 of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN, a new fast extraction system has been installed in order to extract the beam to ring 2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso facility (CNGS). The system consists of horizontal closed orbit bumper magnets, extraction kicker magnets, enlarged aperture quadrupoles and six conventional DC electromagnetic septum magnets (MSE). A protection element (TPSG) has been placed immediately upstream of the first septum coil. The septum magnets and TPSG are mounted on a single mobile retractable support girder. The MSE septa are connected by a so-called plug-in system to a rigid water-cooled bus-bar, powered by water-cooled cables. The whole system is kept at the required vacuum pressure by ion pumps attached to separate pumping modules. In this note we present the design features and parameters of the MSE septum magnets, describe the function of the related main equipment elements, briefly report on the control...

  4. Optimization of Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Three Major Acetophenones from Cynanchum bungei Using a Box-Behnken Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Li-Chun; Sun, Yin-Shi; Lei, Feng-Jie; Wang, Zi; Gui, Xiong-Bin; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    In this work, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of three acetophenones (4-hydroxyacetophenone, baishouwubenzophenone, and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone) from Cynanchum bungei (ACB) were investigated. The optimal conditions for extraction of ACB were obtained using a Box-Behnken design, consisting of 17 experimental points, as follows: Ethanol (100%) as the extraction solvent at a temperature of 120 °C and an extraction pressure of 1500 psi, using one extraction cycle with a static extraction time of 17 min. The extracted samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using an UV detector. Under this optimal condition, the experimental values agreed with the predicted values by analysis of variance. The ACB extraction yield with optimal PLE was higher than that obtained by soxhlet extraction and heat-reflux extraction methods. The results suggest that the PLE method provides a good alternative for acetophenone extraction. PMID:23203079

  5. Optimization of Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Three Major Acetophenones from Cynanchum bungei Using a Box-Behnken Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE of three acetophenones (4-hydroxyacetophenone, baishouwubenzophenone, and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone from Cynanchum bungei (ACB were investigated. The optimal conditions for extraction of ACB were obtained using a Box-Behnken design, consisting of 17 experimental points, as follows: Ethanol (100% as the extraction solvent at a temperature of 120 °C and an extraction pressure of 1500 psi, using one extraction cycle with a static extraction time of 17 min. The extracted samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using an UV detector. Under this optimal condition, the experimental values agreed with the predicted values by analysis of variance. The ACB extraction yield with optimal PLE was higher than that obtained by soxhlet extraction and heat-reflux extraction methods. The results suggest that the PLE method provides a good alternative for acetophenone extraction.

  6. Complex Formation in a Liquid-Liquid Extraction System Containing Cobalt(II, 4-(2-Pyridylazoresorcinol, and Nitron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya Vassileva Racheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex formation and liquid-liquid extraction were studied in a system containing cobalt(II, 4-(2-pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR, 1,4-diphenyl-3-(phenylamino-1H-1,2,4-triazole (Nitron, Nt, water, and chloroform. The effect of some experimental parameters (pH, shaking time, concentration of PAR, and concentration of Nt was systematically investigated, and the optimum conditions for cobalt extraction as an ion-association complex, (NtH+[Co3+(PAR2], were found. The following key equilibrium constants were calculated: constant of association (Log β=4.77±0.06, constant of distribution (LogKD=1.34±0.01, and constant of extraction (LogKex=6.11±0.07. Beer’s law was obeyed for Co concentrations up to 1.7 μg mL−1 with a molar absorptivity of 6.0×104 L mol−1 cm−1 at λmax=520 nm. Some additional characteristics, such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, and Sandell’s sensitivity, were estimated as well.

  7. Fertile assembly for a fast neutron nuclear reactor cooled by liquid sodium, with regulation of the cooling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradal, L.; Berte, M.; Chiarelli, C.

    1985-01-01

    The assembly has a casing in which are arranged the fertile elements, the liquid sodium flowing through the casing along these elements. It includes several apertured diaphragms transverse to the rods to regulate the liquid sodium flow rate. At least one diaphragm, in its central part around its aperture, of a material soluble in liquid sodium, such as copper. The invention applies, more particularly, to fast neutron nuclear reactor having a heterogeneous core. The coolant flow can increase with time to match the increased power generated by the fertile assembly along its life [fr

  8. Hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium-lead alloy by bubbling with rotational jet nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Yang Tongzai; Guan Rui; Weng Kuiping

    2010-01-01

    The technology of tritium extraction from lithium-lead alloy has been simulated, hydrogen extraction from lithium-lead alloy by bubbling with rotational jet nozzle being used to simulate tritium in the study based on the introduction of fluid dynamics to establish algebraic model. The results show that the higher than lithium-lead melting temperature, the higher cumulative hydrogen extraction efficiency, and gas holdup of bubble column is little affected by the impeller diameter. Gas holdup when using small aperture is slightly higher when using large aperture only at a high helium flow rate, but the smaller the aperture, the greater the bubble surface area, and a marked increase in intensity of flow circulation for liquid lithium-lead with the increase of helium flow rate, hydrogen extraction rate increases too. Moreover, influence of the jet rotational velocity on hydrogen extraction is limited. (authors)

  9. High-throughput liquid chromatography for drug analysis in biological fluids: investigation of extraction column life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Fisher, Alison L; Musson, Donald G; Wang, Amy Qiu

    2004-07-05

    A novel method was developed and assessed to extend the lifetime of extraction columns of high-throughput liquid chromatography (HTLC) for bioanalysis of human plasma samples. In this method, a 15% acetic acid solution and 90% THF were respectively used as mobile phases to clean up the proteins in human plasma samples and residual lipids from the extraction and analytical columns. The 15% acetic acid solution weakens the interactions between proteins and the stationary phase of the extraction column and increases the protein solubility in the mobile phase. The 90% THF mobile phase prevents the accumulation of lipids and thus reduces the potential damage on the columns. Using this novel method, the extraction column lifetime has been extended to about 2000 direct plasma injections, and this is the first time that high concentration acetic acid and THF are used in HTLC for on-line cleanup and extraction column lifetime extension.

  10. chemical studies on the extraction of certain metal ions from aqueous solution by liquid emulsion membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis four systems are addressed related to the use of liquid emulsion membranes (ELM) based on Co(III)dicarbiolide and. The system was dedicated for permeation of cadmium , cobalt Nickel and lead for use of this system for preconcentration and separation of cadmium, cobalt, nickel and lead. The work carried out in this thesis is presented in three parts, namely; introduction, experimental and results and discussion.The first chapter is the introduction which includes aim of work, basic concepts of liquid membranes; liquid emulsion membranes; different models of emulsion permeation, literature survey of extraction chemistry of cadmium, cobalt, nickel and lead. Chapter two includes the experimental part. In this part detailed outlines on the chemicals and different elements used were given. Different instruments as well as analytical techniques were outlines. The preparation of liquid emulsion membrane and the permeation techniques were presented in details. The third chapter deals with the results and discussion. This chapter is divided into four main parts, the four parts is concerned with cadmium/Co(III) dicarbolide/NTA, EDTA, DPTA and DCTA systems. In this part the permeation of Cd(II) aqueous solution by the membrane used was experimented based on liquid-liquid extraction studies of cadmium from different sodium chloride molarities (from 0.01 to 0.1 M) by 0.01 M Cobalt(III) dicarbolides. It was found that the extraction of with cadmium is higher following in the first system, the permeation of the toxic elements, Cd(II) from HCl/sodium chloride medium was carried out using liquid emulsion membrane containing Co(III)dicarbiolide in xylene as carrier, Spain 80/ Spain 85(1:3) as surfactant and NTA, EDTA, DPTA and DCTA as a stripping solutions.

  11. Fast copper extraction from printed circuit boards using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgaro, C O; Schlemmer, D F; da Silva, M D C R; Maziero, E V; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Technological development and intensive marketing support the growth in demand for electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), for which printed circuit boards (PCBs) are vital components. As these devices become obsolete after short periods, waste PCBs present a problem and require recycling. PCBs are composed of ceramics, polymers, and metals, particularly Cu, which is present in highest percentages. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative method to recover Cu from the PCBs of old mobile phones, obtaining faster reaction kinetics by means of leaching with supercritical CO2 and co-solvents. The PCBs from waste mobile phones were characterized, and evaluation was made of the reaction kinetics during leaching at atmospheric pressure and using supercritical CO2 with H2O2 and H2SO4 as co-solvents. The results showed that the PCBs contained 34.83 wt% of Cu. It was found that the supercritical extraction was 9 times faster, compared to atmospheric pressure extraction. After 20 min of supercritical leaching, approximately 90% of the Cu contained in the PCB was extracted using a 1:20 solid:liquid ratio and 20% of H2O2 and H2SO4 (2.5 M). These results demonstrate the efficiency of the process. Therefore the supercritical CO2 employment in the PCBs recycling is a promising alternative and the CO2 is environmentally acceptable and reusable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A new dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using ionic liquid based microemulsion coupled with cloud point extraction for determination of copper in serum and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Salma Aslam; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Khan, Naeemullah; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Faheem

    2016-04-01

    A simple and rapid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure based on ionic liquid assisted microemulsion (IL-µE-DLLME) combined with cloud point extraction has been developed for preconcentration copper (Cu(2+)) in drinking water and serum samples of adolescent female hepatitits C (HCV) patients. In this method a ternary system was developed to form microemulsion (µE) by phase inversion method (PIM), using ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4mim][PF6]) and nonionic surfactant, TX-100 (as a stabilizer in aqueous media). The Ionic liquid microemulsion (IL-µE) was evaluated through visual assessment, optical light microscope and spectrophotometrically. The Cu(2+) in real water and aqueous acid digested serum samples were complexed with 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) and extracted into IL-µE medium. The phase separation of stable IL-µE was carried out by the micellar cloud point extraction approach. The influence of of different parameters such as pH, oxine concentration, centrifugation time and rate were investigated. At optimized experimental conditions, the limit of detection and enhancement factor were found to be 0.132 µg/L and 70 respectively, with relative standard deviation <5%. In order to validate the developed method, certified reference materials (SLRS-4 Riverine water) and human serum (Sero-M10181) were analyzed. The resulting data indicated a non-significant difference in obtained and certified values of Cu(2+). The developed procedure was successfully applied for the preconcentration and determination of trace levels of Cu(2+) in environmental and biological samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The case for developing the liquid metal fast breeder reactor in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumier, J.; Duchatelle, L.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the economic aspects of electricity generation by fast breeder reactor (FBR) plants, with particular reference to FBRs planned in France during the 1980s, and in comparison with French pressurized water reactor (PWR) units. Individual sections deal with the following: an outline of the bases of comparison between FBRs and PWRs, describing methods used to calculate costs; a description of the FBRs and PWRs concerned, defining and explaining the concepts of breeding gain and doubling time for FBRs, and calculating the energy extracted from uranium by the two types of reactor; the results of analysis and FBR/PWR comparison for capital, operating, fuel cycle and total generating costs, drawing conclusions for the competitivity of FBRs; general conclusions on the advisability of large scale FBR deployment. (U.K.)

  14. Separation of aromatic precipitates from simulated high level radioactive waste by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, S.R.; Shah, H.B.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRS will be the United States' first facility to process High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass matrix. The removal of aromatic precipitates by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction will be a key step in the processing of the HLW. This step, titled the Precipitate Hydrolysis Process, has been demonstrated by the Savannah River Laboratory with the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The mission of the PHEF is to demonstrate processing of simulated high level radioactive waste which contains tetraphenylborate precipitates and nitrite. Reduction of nitrite by hydroxylamine nitrate and hydrolysis of the tetraphenylborate by formic acid is discussed. Gaseous production, which is primarily benzene, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, has been quantified. Production of high-boiling organic compounds and the accumulation of these organic compounds within the process are addressed

  15. Trace recovery of uranium and rare earth contained in phosphates by liquid-liquid extraction in sulfuric attack liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet, F.; Foraison, D.; Leveque, A.; Sabot, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium and rare earths can be recovered in sedimentary phosphates during the wet processing of the ore by sulfuric acid giving raw phosphoric acid at 30 per cent of P 2 O 5 . Practically all the uranium contained and only part of rare earths are put into solution in this treatment. Separation of these elements in the phosphoric solution is obtained by liquid-liquid extraction with alkylphosphoric acids and especially with their mono and di esters. Partition isotherms are determined and counter-current tests are effected. Uranium and rare earths reextraction from these solvents can be simultaneous or separate with aqueous solutions alkaline or containing HF or by antisynergism. Pros and cons of each reextraction process are discussed. In conclusion HDEHP or OPPA are recommended because of availability, stability and hydrodynamic, OPPA less selective with rare earths allows the recovery with uranium of ceric earths, yttrium and yttric earths [fr

  16. A microfluidic platform for the rapid determination of distribution coefficients by gravity assisted droplet-based liquid-liquid extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben; Wootton, Robert C. R.; Wolff, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The determination of pharmacokinetic properties of drugs, such as the distribution coefficient, D, is a crucial measurement in pharmaceutical research. Surprisingly, the conventional (gold standard) technique used for D measurements, the shake-flask method, is antiquated and unsuitable...... for the testing of valuable and scarce drug candidates. Herein we present a simple micro fluidic platform for the determination of distribution coefficients using droplet-based liquid-liquid extraction. For simplicity, this platform makes use of gravity to enable phase separation for analysis and is 48 times...... the apparent acid dissociation constant, pK', as a proxy for inter-system comparison. Our platform determines a pK' value of 7.24 ± 0.15, compared to 7.25 ± 0.58 for the shake-flask method in our hands and 7.21 for the shake-flask method in literature. Devices are fabricated using injection moulding, the batch...

  17. Separation of thorium and uranium by liquid-liquid extraction from mixed aqueous nitric acidic-methanolic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, E.R.; Kenndler, E.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the separation of Th and U from each other and from other elements, usually occuring in minerals, by liquid-liquid extraction with Aliquat Nitrate (tricaprylmethyl ammoniumnitrate, 6 vol%) in benzene from a mixed solution of 2.5 M HNO 3 and methanol (1:1 volume ratio). Permissible upper concentration ratios of interfering elements, such as Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Al, Cu, Co(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Ti(IV), La(III), U(VI), Cl - , ClO 4 - , SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- , have been determined. Following the separation, Th has been determined by spectrophotometry using Thorin, and U by fluorometry. Results for yield under varying conditions, together with elemental concentrations in the ppm range for U and Th in minerals, are given. (B.T.)

  18. A versatile, stability-indicating and high-throughput ultra-fast liquid chromatography method for the determination of isoflavone aglycones in soybeans, topical formulations, and permeation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemitz, Marina C; Yatsu, Francini K J; Bidone, Juliana; Koester, Letícia S; Bassani, Valquiria L; Garcia, Cássia V; Mendez, Andreas S L; von Poser, Gilsane L; Teixeira, Helder F

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing interest in the pharmaceutical field concerning isoflavones topical delivery systems, especially with regard to their skin care properties and antiherpetic activity. In this context, the present work describes an ultra-fast liquid chromatography method (UFLC) for determining daidzein, glycitein, and genistein in different matrices during the development of topical systems containing isoflavone aglycones (IA) obtained from soybeans. The method showed to be specific, precise, accurate, and linear (0.1 to 5 µg mL(-1)) for IA determination in soybean acid extract, IA-rich fraction obtained after the purification process, IA loaded-nanoemulsions, and topical hydrogel, as well as for permeation/retention assays in porcine skin and porcine esophageal mucosa. The matrix effect was determined for all complex matrices, demonstrating low effect during the analysis. The stability indicating UFLC method was verified by submitting IA to acidic, alkaline, oxidative, and thermal stress conditions, and no interference of degradation products was detected during analysis. Mass spectrometry was performed to show the main compounds produced after acid hydrolysis of soybeans, as well as suggest the main degradation products formed after stress conditions. Besides the IA, hydroxymethylfurfural and ethoxymethylfurfural were produced and identified after acid hydrolysis of the soybean extract and well separated by the UFLC method. The method's robustness was confirmed using the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Therefore, the new method affords fast IA analysis during routine processes, extract purification, products development, and bioanalytical assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Progress in liquid metal fast reactor technology. Proceedings of the 28th meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The key objectives and activities of Member State liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) programmes are: Demonstration of effective designs; demonstration of system safety; demonstration of economic competitiveness with other power generation systems. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) at its 1995 meeting observed that while some countries (as a result of static or falling power demand) are reducing the research and development programmes or delaying the commercial deployment of fast reactors, other countries are planning to introduce these reactors and are embarking on their own development programmes. In these circumstances the international exchange of information and experience is of increasing importance. These proceedings contain updated information from long standing members of the IWGFR and new information on the status of LMFR research and development from new members of the Group: Brazil, China, Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Korea. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Progress in liquid metal fast reactor technology. Proceedings of the 28th meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The key objectives and activities of Member State liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) programmes are: Demonstration of effective designs; demonstration of system safety; demonstration of economic competitiveness with other power generation systems. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) at its 1995 meeting observed that while some countries (as a result of static or falling power demand) are reducing the research and development programmes or delaying the commercial deployment of fast reactors, other countries are planning to introduce these reactors and are embarking on their own development programmes. In these circumstances the international exchange of information and experience is of increasing importance. These proceedings contain updated information from long standing members of the IWGFR and new information on the status of LMFR research and development from new members of the Group: Brazil, China, Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Korea. Refs, figs, tabs.

  1. High-throughput method for macrolides and lincosamides antibiotics residues analysis in milk and muscle using a simple liquid-liquid extraction technique and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Louise; Martins, Magda Targa; Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Campos Motta, Tanara Magalhães; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Barreto, Fabiano; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara

    2015-11-01

    A fast and simple method for residue analysis of the antibiotics classes of macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and spiramycin) and lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin) was developed and validated for cattle, swine and chicken muscle and for bovine milk. Sample preparation consists in a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with acetonitrile, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-ESI-MS/MS), without the need of any additional clean-up steps. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 column and a mobile phase composed by acidified acetonitrile and water. The method was fully validated according the criteria of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation parameters such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, specificity, reproducibility, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were evaluated. All calculated values met the established criteria. Reproducibility values, expressed as coefficient of variation, were all lower than 19.1%. Recoveries range from 60% to 107%. Limits of detection were from 5 to 25 µg kg(-1).The present method is able to be applied in routine analysis, with adequate time of analysis, low cost and a simple sample preparation protocol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Design and calculation of tritium extraction from liquid LiPb by bubble columns for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Bo

    2009-04-01

    A mathematical model describing the complex fluid-dynamics of a bubble extractor from liquid LiPb loop for ITER is presented. A parametric analysis of the extraction efficiency of a bubble column as a function of the process parameters is carried out and the design of a bubble extractor system is proposed. On this base, a mathematical model is built by taking into consideration the kinetics of deuterium desorption from liquid LiPb alloy. The calculation data of deuterium release-behavior from liquid LiPb under different operating conditions of temperature and deuterium partial pressures and helium gas flow-rates in the liquid LiPb alloy are obtained. These results have shown that the overall re- lease process is governed by the diffusion of deuterium atoms in the LiPb and by the heterogeneous reaction at the gas-eutectic interface of the deuterium atoms recombination under the probable working temperature range. (authors)

  3. Liquid Membrane System for Extraction and Electrodeposition of Lead(II During Electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadyrbaeva Tatiana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for lead(II removal from aqueous acidic solutions is presented. The method involves electrodialysis through bulk liquid membranes accompanied by electrodeposition of metal from the cathodic solution. Solutions of di(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid with admixtures of tri-n-octylamine in 1,2-dichloroethane were used as the liquid membranes. The effects of the main electrodialysis parameters as well as of the composition of the liquid membranes and aqueous solutions on the lead(II transport rate are studied. The optimal conditions are determined. A possibility of effective single-stage transfer of lead(II through the liquid membrane into dilute solutions of perchloric, nitric and acetic acids is demonstrated. Dense and adherent lead electrodeposits are obtained from perchloric acid solutions. Maximum extraction degree of 93 % and electrodeposition degree of ~60 % are obtained during 5 h of electrodialysis.

  4. Selective liquid-liquid extraction of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media by N-n-octylaniline in xylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ANUSE

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available N-n-Octylaniline in xylene was used for the extraction separation of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media. Antimony(III was extracted quantitatively with 10 mL 4 % N-n-octylaniline in xylene. It was stripped from the organic phase with 0.5 M ammonia and estimated photometrically by the iodide method. The effect of metal ion, acid, reagent concentration and various foreign ions was investigated. The method affords binary and ternary separation of antimony(III from tellurium(IV, selenium(IV, lead(II, bismuth(III, tin(IV, germanium(IV, copper(II, gold(III, iron(III and zinc(II. The method is applicable for the analysis of synthetic mixtures, alloys and semiconductor thin films. It is fast, accurate and precise.

  5. Slow and fast pyrolysis of Douglas-fir lignin: Importance of liquid-intermediate formation on the distribution of products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Shuai; Pecha, Brennan; van Kuppevelt, Michiel; McDonald, Armando G.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The formation of liquid intermediates and the distribution of products were studied under slow and fast pyrolysis conditions. Results indicate that monomers are formed from lignin oligomeric products during secondary reactions, rather than directly from the native lignin. Lignin from Douglas-fir

  6. Determination of carbohydrates in tobacco by pressurized liquid extraction combined with a novel ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Hu, Deyu; Lei, Bo; Zhao, Huina; Pan, Wenjie; Song, Baoan

    2015-07-02

    A novel derivatization-ultrasonic assisted-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) method for the simultaneous determination of 11 main carbohydrates in tobacco has been developed. The combined method involves pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), derivatization, and UA-DLLME, followed by the analysis of the main carbohydrates with a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). First, the PLE conditions were optimized using a univariate approach. Then, the derivatization methods were properly compared and optimized. The aldononitrile acetate method combined with the O-methoxyoxime-trimethylsilyl method was used for derivatization. Finally, the critical variables affecting the UA-DLLME extraction efficiency were searched using fractional factorial design (FFD) and further optimized using Doehlert design (DD) of the response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were found to be 44 μL for CHCl3, 2.3 mL for H2O, 11% w/v for NaCl, 5 min for the extraction time and 5 min for the centrifugation time. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limit of the method (LODs) and linear correlation coefficient were found to be in the range of 0.06-0.90 μg mL(-1) and 0.9987-0.9999. The proposed method was successfully employed to analyze three flue-cured tobacco cultivars, among which the main carbohydrate concentrations were found to be very different. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction of butan-1-ol from water with ionic liquids at T = 308.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domańska, Urszula; Królikowski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The LLE ternary phase diagrams with ionic liquids were measured. ► Separation of butan-1-ol/water system with tetracyanoborate-based ILs. ► Low solubility of water in [P 14,6,6,6 ][TCB] was observed. ► [P 14,6,6,6 ][TCB] is proposed for possible use in separation of butan-1-ol from aqueous phase. - Abstract: Ionic liquids (ILs) are novel green solvents that can be proposed for removing butan-1-ol from the aqueous fermentation media. Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data are presented for {ionic liquid (1) + butan-1-ol (2) + water (3)} at T = 308.15 K and ambient pressure to analyze the performance of the ionic liquid (IL) in the extraction of butan-1-ol from aqueous phase. The tetracyanoborate-based ILs have been studied: 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate, ([HMIM][TCB]), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate, ([DMIM][TCB]) and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetracyanoborate, ([P 14,6,6,6 ][TCB]). The results are discussed in terms of the selectivity and distribution ratio of separation of related systems. The complete miscibility in the binary liquid systems of butan-1-ol with all used ILs was observed. The imidazolium cation in comparison with phosphonium cation shows lower selectivity and distribution ratio. The IL with the longer alkyl chain at the cation shows higher selectivity and distribution ratio in this process. The non-random two liquid NRTL model was used successfully to correlate the experimental tie-lines and to calculate the phase composition error in mole fraction in the ternary systems. The average root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the phase composition was 0.0027. The data presented here indicates the usefulness of [P 14,6,6,6 ][TCB] as a solvent for the separation of butan-1-ol from water using solvent extraction. The density of [P 14,6,6,6 ][TCB] was measured as a function of temperature.

  8. Evaluation of ionic liquids as solvent for aromatic extraction: Experimental, correlation and COSMO-RS predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvar, Noelia; Domínguez, Irene; Gómez, Elena; Palomar, Jose; Domínguez, Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • BMimMSO 4 and BMimNTf 2 were studied as solvents to extract aromatic from aliphatic hydrocarbons. • Liquid + liquid equilibrium data were measured at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. • Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were obtained and compared with literature. • Experimental data were satisfactorily correlated using NRTL and UNIQUAC models. • COSMO-RS model was used as a predictive tool to describe the experimental LLE data for the studied ternary systems. -- Abstract: For the study of the separation of benzene or toluene from octane, nonane and cyclooctane, the ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate, BMimMSO 4 , and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, BMimNTf 2 , were used as solvents. The (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the ternary systems {octane, or nonane, or (cyclooctane + benzene + BMimMSO 4 )}, and {(nonane + toluene + BMimMSO 4 ) or BMimNTf 2 } at T = 298.15 K were determined, and an analysis of the influence of the structure of each compound was carried out. Besides, the experimental data have been compared with literature data with sulfolane as solvent. The experimental results obtained have been correlated using NRTL and UNIQUAC models. Finally, COSMO-RS has been used to predict the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium of the systems studied. The differences between the predicted and experimental values were used to evaluate the ability of the COSMO-RS model to describe the impact of the structure of the alkane, aromatic and ionic liquid on the (liquid + liquid) equilibria

  9. Extractive liquid-liquid spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of thiocyanate ions employing the ion pair reagent amiloride monohydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashammakh, A.S.; Bahaffi, S.O.; Al-Sibaai, A.A.; Al-Wael, H.O.; El-Shahawi, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate, inexpensive and less laborious liquid-liquid extractive spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of thiocyanate ions in aqueous media has been developed. The method has been based upon the formation of a yellow colored complex ion associate of the ion-pairing reagent 1-(3, 5-diamino-6-chloropyrazinecarboxyl) guanidine hydrochloride monohydrate, namely amiloride hydrochloride, DPG + .Cl - and the thiocyanate ions in aqueous media containing HNO 3 (0.5 mol L -1 ) and subsequent extraction with 4-methyl-2-pentanone. The absorption electronic spectrum of the ion associate showed one well-defined peak at λ max 366 nm. The stoichiometric mole ratio of DPG + .Cl - to the thiocyanate ions is 1:1.The effective molar absorptivity (ε) of the ion associate at λ max 366 nm is 1.1 ± 0.1 x 10 4 L mol -1 cm -1 . The extraction constants (K d , K ex , and β) enabled a simple and convenient use of the developed binary ion associate for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of traces of thiocyanate ions in the aqueous media. Beer's law and Ringbom's plots are obeyed in the concentration range 0.05-10 and 0.1-7 μg mL -1 of the thiocyanate ions, respectively with a relative standard deviation of ±2.3%. The calculated lower limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) of the developed procedure for the thiocyanate ions were found equal to 0.02 and 0.066 μg mL -1 , respectively. The developed method has been applied for the determination of trace amounts of thicyanate ions in tap-, waste- and natural water samples and compared successfully with the reported methods at the 95% confidence level. The proposed method was also applied successfully for the determination of thiocyanate ions in saliva samples

  10. Identification of fermentation inhibitors in wood hydrolyzates and removal of inhibitors by ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Caidian

    1998-12-01

    Common methods employed in the ethanol production from biomass consist of chemical or enzymatic degradation of biomass into sugars and then fermentation of sugars into ethanol or other chemicals. However, some degradation products severely inhibit the fermentation processes and substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. How to remove inhibitors from the reaction product mixture and increase the production efficiency are critical in the commercialization of any processes of energy from biomass. The present study has investigated anion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction as potential methods for inhibitor removal. An analytical method has been developed to identify the fermentation inhibitors in a hydrolyzate. The majority of inhibitors present in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate have positively been identified. Ion exchange with weak basic Dowex-MWA-1 resin has been proved to be an effective mean to remove fermentation inhibitors from hybrid poplar hydrolyzate and significantly increase the fermentation productivity. Extraction with n-butanol might be a preferred way to remove inhibitors from wood hydrolyzates and improve the fermentability of sugars in the hydrolyzates. n-Butanol also removes some glucose, mannose and xylose from the hydrolyzate. Inhibitor identification reveals that lignin and sugar degradation compounds including both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and carboxylic acids formed in hydrolysis, plus fatty acids and other components from wood extractives are major fermentation inhibitors in Sacchromyces cerevisiae fermentation. There are 35 components identified as fermentation inhibitors. Among them, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, syringic acid, syringaldehyde, and ferulic acid are among the most abundant aromatic inhibitors in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate. The conversion of aldehyde groups into carboxylic acid groups in the nitric acid catalyzed hydrolysis reduces the toxicity of the hydrolyzate. A wide spectrum of

  11. Genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid in multiples organs of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larangeira, Paula Martins; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2016-11-01

    The ionic liquid or melted salt 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium is an alternative process to extract natural pigments, such as carotenoids. Lycopene represents 80-90% of total of carotenoids presents in tomatoes and it has been widely studied due its potent antioxidant action. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid using experimental model in vivo. For this purpose, a total of 20 male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups (n=5), as follows: control group; received a corresponding amount of corn oil for 7days by intragastric gavage (i.g.), ionic liquid group, received 10mgkg -1 body weight for 7days by gavage; 10mg carotenoids group, received 10mgkg -1 bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage and 500mg carotenoids group, received 500mgkg -1 bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage. Rat liver treated with ionic liquid exhibited moderate histopathological changes randomly distributed in the parenchyma, such as cytoplasmic eosinophilia, apoptotic bodies, inflammatory infiltrate and focal necrosis. DNA damage was found in peripheral blood and liver cells of rats treated with ionic liquid or carotenoids at 500mg. An increase of micronucleated cells and 8-OhDG immunopositive cells were also detected in rats treated with carotenoids at 500mg. In summary, our results demonstrate that recommended dose for human daily intake of carotenoids extracted by ionic liquid did not induce genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in multiple organs of rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Obtaining anthocyanin-rich extracts from frozen açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. pulp using pressurized liquid extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Carolina ALCÁZAR-ALAY

    Full Text Available Abstract Açai is considered a functional food, and in addition to being a source of energy and fiber, it is a valuable source of bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, minerals and fatty acids. In the present work, antioxidant-rich extracts from açai pulp were obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE. The effects of the independent variables, including solvent type (pure ethanol and ethanol/water (50:50 v/v, citric acid (0 and 0.3%, w/w, pressure (20 and 80 bar and temperature (30 and 60 °C were evaluated using a full factorial design. The extraction was affected primarily by the solvent type and the citric acid percentage. The results indicate that the maximum overall yield (X0 was 64± 9 (%, d.b. when the process was performed using ethanol (99.5% and citric acid (0.3% w/w. The maximum total anthocyanin content and anthocyanin recovered from the raw material were 7 ± 1 (mg anthocyanin/g extract, d.b. and 11 ± 2 (%, d.b., respectively.

  13. Metabolic profiles and bile acid extraction rate in the liver of cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, T; Oikawa, S; Iwasaki, Y; Mizunuma, Y; Takehana, K; Endoh, D; Kurosawa, T; Sato, H

    2004-04-01

    This study was designed to monitor lipid profile in the portal and hepatic blood of cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis, and to compare the results with those in the jugular blood. The work was also carried out to investigate bile acid (BA) in these vessels, and further to investigate BA extraction rate in the liver. Five cows were equipped with catheters in the portal, hepatic and jugular veins (day 0), fasted for 4 days (day 1-day 4) and then refed (day 5-day 11). Before morning feeding, blood was sampled before, during and after fasting from the catheterized vessels. In the portal blood, the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) showed a progressive increase and at day 5 there was an approximate twofold rise. Increased NEFA concentrations were also found similarly in the other two veins. At day 5, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in the portal, hepatic and jugular blood rose to 197, 190 and 186% of the pre-fasting value, respectively. However, the concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in the three veins gradually returned to pre-fasting concentration during the refeeding period. Compared with the pre-fasting value at day 0, the content of liver triglyceride (TG) increased significantly at day 5 (P hepatic extraction rate of BA dropped from 3.1 times pre-fasting to 2.2 times during fasting. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of glucose, TG, total cholesterol, cholesterol esters, free cholesterol and phospholipids. The results of the current study show that metabolic alterations occur in the portal, hepatic and jugular veins during induction of hepatic lipidosis in cows, and mostly metabolites, with exception of BA concentration, run parallel. The decreased BA extraction rate in the liver of fasted cows was considered to reflect hepatic cell impairment caused by TG accumulation. Hopefully, the findings, at least in part, contribute to the explanation of the pathophysiology of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows.

  14. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu...

  15. Liquid Scoping Study for Tritium-Lean, Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R C; Latkowski, J F; Durbin, S G; Meier, W R; Reyes, S

    2001-08-14

    In a thick-liquid protected chamber design, such as HYLIFE-II, a molten-salt is used to attenuate neutrons and protect the chamber structures from radiation damage. The molten-salt absorbs some of the material and energy given off by the target explosion. In the case of a fast ignition inertial fusion system, advanced targets have been proposed that may be Self-sufficient in the tritium breeding (i.e., the amount of tritium bred in target exceeds the amount burned). These ''tritium-lean'' targets contain approximately 0.5% tritium and 99.5% deuterium, but require a large pr of 10-20 g/cm{sup 2}. Although most of the yield is provided by D-T reactions, the majority of fusion reactions are D-D, which produces a net surplus of tritium. This aspect allows for greater freedom when selecting a liquid for the protective blanket (lithium-bearing compounds are not required). This study assesses characteristics of many single, binary, and ternary molten-salts. Using the NIST Properties of Molten Salts Database, approximately 4300 molten-salts were included in the study [1]. As an initial screening, salts were evaluated for their safety and environmental (S&E) characteristics, which included an assessment of waste disposal rating, contact dose, and radioactive afterheat. Salts that passed the S&E criteria were then evaluated for neutron shielding ability and pumping power. The pumping power was calculated using three components: velocity head losses, frictional losses, and lift. This assessment left us with 57 molten-salts to recommend for further analysis. Many of these molten-salts contain elements such as sodium, lithium, beryllium, boron, fluorine, and oxygen. Recommendations for further analysis are also made.

  16. Liquid Scoping Study for Tritium-Lean, Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R C; Latkowski, J F; Durbin, S G; Meier, W R; Reyes, S

    2001-01-01

    In a thick-liquid protected chamber design, such as HYLIFE-II, a molten-salt is used to attenuate neutrons and protect the chamber structures from radiation damage. The molten-salt absorbs some of the material and energy given off by the target explosion. In the case of a fast ignition inertial fusion system, advanced targets have been proposed that may be Self-sufficient in the tritium breeding (i.e., the amount of tritium bred in target exceeds the amount burned). These ''tritium-lean'' targets contain approximately 0.5% tritium and 99.5% deuterium, but require a large pr of 10-20 g/cm 2 . Although most of the yield is provided by D-T reactions, the majority of fusion reactions are D-D, which produces a net surplus of tritium. This aspect allows for greater freedom when selecting a liquid for the protective blanket (lithium-bearing compounds are not required). This study assesses characteristics of many single, binary, and ternary molten-salts. Using the NIST Properties of Molten Salts Database, approximately 4300 molten-salts were included in the study [1]. As an initial screening, salts were evaluated for their safety and environmental (SandE) characteristics, which included an assessment of waste disposal rating, contact dose, and radioactive afterheat. Salts that passed the SandE criteria were then evaluated for neutron shielding ability and pumping power. The pumping power was calculated using three components: velocity head losses, frictional losses, and lift. This assessment left us with 57 molten-salts to recommend for further analysis. Many of these molten-salts contain elements such as sodium, lithium, beryllium, boron, fluorine, and oxygen. Recommendations for further analysis are also made

  17. Towards the Characterization of the Bubble Presence in Liquid Sodium of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaro, M.; Jeannot, J.P.; Payan, C.

    2013-06-01

    In a Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR), different phenomena such as gas entrainment or nucleation can lead to gaseous micro-bubbles presence in the liquid sodium of the primary vessel. Although this free gas presence has no direct impact on the core neutronics, the French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA) currently works on its characterization to, among others, check the absence of risk of large gas pocket formation and to assess the induced modifications of the sodium acoustic properties. The main objective is to evaluate the void fraction values (volume fraction of free gas) and the radii histogram of the bubbles present in liquid sodium. Acoustics and electromagnetic techniques are currently developed at CEA: - The low-frequency speed of sound measurement, which allows us to link - thanks to Wood's model - the measured speed of sound to the actual void fraction. - The nonlinear mixing of two frequencies, based on the nonlinear resonance behavior of a bubble. This technique allows knowing the radius histogram associated to a bubble cloud. Two different mixing techniques are presented in this paper: the mixing of two high frequencies and the mixing of a high and a low frequency. - The Eddy-current flowmeter (ECFM), the output signal of which is perturbed by free gas presence and in consequence allows detecting bubbles. For each technique, initial results are presented. Some of them are really promising. So far, acoustic experiments have been led with an air-water experimental set-up. Micro-bubbles clouds are generated with a dissolved air flotation device and monitored by an optical device which provides reference measurements. Generated bubbles have radii range from few micrometers to several tens of micrometers. Present and future air/water experiments are presented. Furthermore, a development plan of in-sodium tests is presented in terms of a device set-up, instrumentation, modeling tools and experiments. (authors)

  18. Rapid and simple extraction of lipids from blood plasma and urine for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Dae Young; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2014-02-28

    A simple and fast lipid extraction method from human blood plasma and urine is introduced in this study. The effective lipid extraction from biological systems with a minimization of the matrix effect is important for the successful qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipids in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The method described here is based on the modification of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method, which was originally developed for pesticide residue analysis in food, for the purpose of isolating lipids from biological fluids. Applicability of QuEChERS method for lipids was evaluated by varying organic solvents for the extraction/partitioning of lipids in MgSO4/CH3COONa for the removal of water and by varying sorbents (primary secondary amines, graphitized carbon black, silica, strong anion exchange resins and C18 particles) for the dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) step. This study shows that 2:1 (v/v) CHCl3/CH3OH is effective in the extraction/partitioning step and that 50mg of C18 particles (for 0.1mL plasma and 1mL of urine) are more suitable for sample cleanup for the dSPE step of the QuEChERS method. Matrix effects were calculated by comparing the recovery values of lipid standards spiked to both plasma and urine samples after extraction with those of the same standards in a neat solution using nanoflow LC-ESI-MS/MS, resulting in improved MS signals due to the decrease of the ion suppression compared to the conventional Folch method. The modified QuEChERS method was applied to lipid extracts from both human urine and plasma samples, demonstrating that it can be powerfully utilized for high-speed (<15min) preparation of lipids compared to the Folch method, with equivalent or slightly improved results in lipid identification using nLC-ESI-MS/MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction of cadmium(II) using an ionic liquid as the extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Yun; Hu, Yutao; Ni, Liang; Liu, Yingying; Kang, Wenbing; Liu, Yan; Han, Juan

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented for hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) of cadmium(II), which is chelated with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) to obtain a hydrophobic complex which then is extracted into a polypropylene hollow fiber containing an ionic liquid in its pores which acts as the membrane phase. EDTA is then injected into the lumen of the membrane as an acceptor phase to trap the analyte. The extraction time (20 min), agitation (400 rpm at 25 °C), pH value (10.0), and the concentrations of PAN (2.5 ng mL −1 ) and EDTA (250 ng mL −1 ) were optimized. With a sample volume of 50 mL and a stripping volume of 15 μL, the enrichment factor is 162. Cadmium(II) was then quantified by graphite furnace AAS. The limit of detection is 0.12 pg mL −1 , the relative standard deviation is 5.2 %, and the linear working range extends from 4 to 45 pg mL −1 . The method was successfully applied to the determination of Cd(II) in environmental and food samples. (author)

  20. Double-phase liquid membrane extraction for the analysis of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Nurul Auni Zainal Abidin; Heng, See Hong; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    A simple and solvent minimized sample preparation technique based on two-phase hollow fiber-protected liquid-phase micro extraction was investigated for HPLC analysis of selected pesticides in water samples. Four pesticides (procymidon, methidathion, quinalphos, and vinclozolin) were considered as target analysts. Parameters such as extraction solvent, salt concentration, stirring speed, extraction time, and pH value were optimized using spiked deionised water samples. The analysts were extracted from 12 mL water samples through organic solvent (n-hexane and isooctane) immobilized in the pores of a porous polypropylene hollow fiber into 50 μL acceptor phase present inside the hollow fiber. Excellent separations of analytes were obtained on C18 column using acetonitrile-water ratio of 55:45 v/v at elevated flow rate of 0.8 mL/ min. (author)