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Sample records for extract ursolic acid

  1. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid from Ligustrum lucidum Ait

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    Yang Song

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main active components in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, and possess anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiprotozoal activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum was investigated with HPLC-photodiode array detection. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and concentration of extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to material, microwave power, extraction temperature and microwave time, on the extraction efficiencies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum were evaluated. The influence of experimental parameters on the extraction efficiency of ursolic acid was more significant than that of oleanolic acid (p < 0.05. The optimal extraction conditions were 80% ethanol aqueous solution, the ratio of material to liquid was 1:15, and extraction for 30 min at 70 °C under microwave irradiation of 500 W. Under optimal conditions, the yields of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 4.4 ± 0.20 mg/g and 5.8 ± 0.15 mg/g, respectively. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of Ligustrum lucidum, which also indicated that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from plant materials.

  2. Subcritical Water Extraction of Ursolic Acid from Hedyotis diffusa

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    Shangzhen Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and environmental-friendly extraction method has been developed for extraction of ursolic acid (UA from Hedyotis diffusa by using subcritical water extraction (SWE. The experiments were carried out at different particle sizes (20–100 mesh, extraction temperature (120–200 °C, extraction time (10–50 min, solvent/solid ratio (20–40 mL/g, and extraction pressure (0.6–3.0 MPa. Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize SWE conditions, and the maximum UA yield was 6.45 mg/g material. Optimal conditions are as follows: Particle size of 80 mesh, extraction temperature at 157 °C and a solvent/solid ratio of 30 mL/g. The model of experimental response was proved to predict the experimental results very well and demonstrated that UA yield was mainly depended on solvent/solid ratio, followed by particle size and temperature. The purified extract was analyzed by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS. The acquired precursor ion was m/z 455.3532, which is consistent with calculated value of UA. Furthermore, different extraction methods, including maceration extraction, heat reflux extraction, ultrasonic extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and SWE were comparatively analyzed, which indicated that SWE was a time-saving, cost-saving and environment-friendly extraction technology for extraction of UA from Hedyotis diffusa.

  3. Ultrasound versus microwave as green processes for extraction of rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids from rosemary.

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    Jacotet-Navarro, M; Rombaut, N; Fabiano-Tixier, A-S; Danguien, M; Bily, A; Chemat, F

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound and microwave as green processes are investigated in this study, focusing on the extraction selectivity towards antioxidant extraction from rosemary leaves. Due to its richness in valuable compounds such as rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids, rosemary is a reference matrix for extraction study. In this work, six alternative processes are compared: ultrasound (bath, reactor and probe), microwave (reflux under microwave, microwave under nitrogen pressure and microwave under vapor pressure). The main result of this study is that selective extraction can be achieved according to extraction techniques and therefore to the extraction process.

  4. [Optimization of SFE-CO2 Extraction for Ursolic Acid from Punica granatum Peel by Plackett-Burman and Central Composite Design].

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    Wang, Zhan-yi; Jin, Mei-hua; Wang, Yu-hai; Zhang, Li-hua; Bi, Hai-dan; Li, Zhuo-wa

    2015-03-01

    The optimum extraction of ursolic acid from Punica granatum peel by SFE-CO2 was investigated. Based on the design of Plackett-Burman(PB), significant factors influencing the yield of ursolic acid in the operation process were filtered, with the extraction rate of ursolic acid as the index. The results obtained by steepest ascent method approximated the maximum area of ursolic acid yield. Then the Central Composite Design(CCD) design was used to carry on the response surface optimization of significant factors, getting a two order mathematical model affecting the ursolic acid yield, as well as the optimum process conditions. The best technological conditions of the extraction of ursolic acid from Punica granatum peel by SFE-CO2 were that the extraction temperature was 46. 29 °C, extraction time was 91. 6 min and the extraction pressure was 34. 49 MPa. Under the optimal conditions, verification test of ursolic acid yield was 12. 508 mg/g, approximating to the predicted value of 12. 645 mg/g. The PB test and CCD test design are combined to optimize the extraction process of ursolic acid from Punica granatum peel by SFE-CO2. The screening results are statistically significant and the process operation is feasible.

  5. Use of Experimental Design in the Optimization of Extraction of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid in Fructus crataegi

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    Kariuki Nancy N; LUO Guoan

    2001-01-01

    Extraction of active constituents is the key to economic exploitation of herbal drugs in which appropriate use of experimental design can be employed.This paper used even-plan design to assess parameters for optimum extraction of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid in Fructus crataegi.In this approach,three factors,namely solvent concentration,extraction time and solvent volume,were evaluated according to even-plan design,in which several factors are usually simultaneously varied.As a result the number of experiments as well as time,was reduced as compared with the univariate approach and other designs.It was demonstrated that with even-plan design,useful information on extraction parameters can be obtained for the extraction of herbal drugs and could therefore be successfully applied to screen extraction conditions for herbal drugs.

  6. Determination of ursolic acid and ursolic acid lactone in the leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis by HPLC

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    Maurya, Anupam; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar [Analytical Chemistry Division, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow (India)

    2012-03-15

    A simple isocratic HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of two bioactive triterpenes, ursolic acid and ursolic acid lactone in E. tereticornis leaves. Samples were analyzed on RP-18 (4.6 x 250 mm, 5 {sup m}u{sup m}) column with methanol and water acidified to pH 3.5 with TFA (88:12) at 210 nm. The method was validated and applied for the simultaneous quantification of the individual triterpenes in E. tereticornis extract. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 0.05-0.3 mg mL{sup -1} (r = 0.999 and 0.998, respectively). The limits of detection and quantification were 0.190 and 0.644 {mu}g for ursolic acid, and 0.176 and 0.587 {mu}g for ursolic acid lactone, while the percentage recoveries were 97.32 and 96.23% for ursolic acid and ursolic acid lactone, respectively. This is the first report on the HPLC method of ursolic acid lactone with high precision and accuracy. (author)

  7. Permeability of Rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and Ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis Extracts across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

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    Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. Aim of the study To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in P. vulgaris and S. officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Materials and methods The permeabilities and Phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. Results The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for RA and RA in P. vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10−6 cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. Papp for UA and UA in S. officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10−6 cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10−6 cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. Conclusion RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. PMID:21798330

  8. Optimization of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid extraction from oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.).

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    Baranauskaitė, Justė; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Kopustinskienė, Dalia M; Drakšienė, Gailutė; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to increase the extraction efficiency of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid from the different species of oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.). Various extraction methods (ultrasound-assisted, heat-reflux, continuous stirring, maceration, percolation) and extraction conditions (different solvent, material:solvent ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time) were used, and the active substances were determined by HPLC. The lowest content of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid was obtained by percolation. During heat-reflux extraction, the content of active substances depended on the solvent used: ethanol/non-aqueous solvent (glycerol or propylene glycol) mixture was more effective compared with ethanol alone. The results showed that for each species of oregano the most optimal extraction method should be selected to maximize the content of biologically active substances in the extracts.

  9. Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids in Hedyotis diffusa Using Hyphenated Ultrasound-Assisted Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Chromatography

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    Ming-Chi Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA were extracted from Hedyotis diffusa using a hyphenated procedure of ultrasound-assisted and supercritical carbon dioxide (HSC–CO2 extraction at different temperatures, pressures, cosolvent percentages, and SC–CO2 flow rates. The results indicated that these parameters significantly affected the extraction yield. The maximal yields of OA (0.917 mg/g of dry plant and UA (3.540 mg/g of dry plant were obtained at a dynamic extraction time of 110 min, a static extraction time of 15 min, 28.2 MPa, and 56°C with a 12.5% (v/v cosolvent (ethanol/water = 82/18, v/v and SC–CO2 flowing at 2.3 mL/min (STP. The extracted yields were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the OA and UA. The present findings revealed that H. diffusa is a potential source of OA and UA. In addition, using the hyphenated procedure for extraction is a promising and alternative process for recovering OA and UA from H. diffusa at high concentrations.

  10. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Ursolic Acid and Derivatives

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    Patrícia G.G. do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid, an important bioactive compound, was isolated from ethanol extract of aerial parts of Sambucus australis. In order to develop bioactive ursolic acid derivatives, two semi-synthetic compounds were obtained through modification at C-3. The antibacterial activity of the ursolic acid and its derivatives was investigated. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, against twelve bacterial strains. The influence of ursolic acid and its derivatives on the susceptibility of some bacterial pathogens to the aminoglycosides antibiotics neomycin, amikacin, kanamycin and gentamicin was evaluated. The most representative synergistic effect was observed by 3β-formyloxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid at the concentration of 64 μg/mL in combination with kanamycin against Escherichia coli (27, a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate from sputum, with reduction of MIC value from 128 μg/mL to 8 μg/mL. Ursolic acid and its derivatives were examined for their radical scavenger activity using the DPPH assay, and showed significant activity.

  11. The cytotoxic activity of ursolic acid derivatives.

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    Ma, Chao-Mei; Cai, Shao-Qing; Cui, Jing-Rong; Wang, Rui-Qing; Tu, Peng-Fei; Hattori, Masao; Daneshtalab, Mohsen

    2005-06-01

    Ursolic acid and 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid isolated from apple peels were found to show growth inhibitory activity against four tumor cell lines, HL-60, BGC, Bel-7402 and Hela. Structural modifications were performed on the C-3, C-28 and C-11 positions of ursolic acid and the cytotoxicity of the derivatives was evaluated. The SAR revealed that the triterpenes possessing two hydrogen-bond forming groups (an H-donor and a carbonyl group) at positions 3 and 28 exhibit cytotoxic activity. The configuration at C-3 was found to be important for the activity. Introduction of an amino group increased the cytotoxicity greatly. A 3beta-amino derivative was 20 times more potent than the parent ursolic acid. The 28-aminoalkyl dimer compounds showed selective cytotoxicity.

  12. Leonurus cardiaca L. herb--a derived extract and an ursolic acid as the factors affecting the adhesion capacity of Staphylococcus aureus in the context of infective endocarditis.

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    Micota, Bartłomiej; Sadowska, Beata; Podsędek, Anna; Redzynia, Małgorzata; Różalska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The objective was an assessment of the impact of Leonurus cardiaca L. extract (LCE) and ursolic acid (UA) on the adhesive properties of Staphylococus aureus NCTC 8325 strain, expressing virulence factors important in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. The adhesion and biofilm formation of bacteria cultured in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of LCE or UA on the abiotic surface or covered with fibrinogen, fibronectin or collagen, were evaluated. Inhibitory effects of LCE and UA on staphylococcal adherence to both types of surface were demonstrated. This, in the case of UA, resulted in a significant reduction of biofilm formation.

  13. Induced accumulation of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in cell suspension cultures of Uncaria tomentosa.

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    Feria-Romero, Iris; Lazo, Elizabeth; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C

    2005-06-01

    Increasing sucrose from 20 to 50 g l(-1) in Uncaria tomentosa cell suspension cultures enhanced ursolic acid and oleanolic acid production from 129 +/- 61 to 553 +/- 193 microg g(-1) cell dry wt. The maximal concentration of both triterpenes (1680 +/- 39 microg g(-1) cell dry wt) was 8 days after elicitation by jasmonic acid, while yeast extract or citrus pectin treatments produced 1189 +/- 20 or 1120 +/- 26 microg g(-1) cell dry wt, respectively. The ratio of ursolic acid:oleanolic acid was constant at 70:30.

  14. Production process for ursolic acid%乌索酸的生产工艺

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    李开泉; 陈武; 李翔一

    2006-01-01

    Production of ursolic acid, the anti-hepatitis effective composition from natural plant,Sambucus chinensis Lindl.was carried out and the scale-up preparation technology was studied.Extraction of the herb Sambucus chinensis Lindl.was extracted in reflux with 7 volume times of refluxing ethanol at 80℃ for 1 h for two times.The extract was purified with a selt-made specific impurity remover "YCXY-1" to yield ursolic acid of high purity.A new "Extraction/Gelation" technology for the production of ursolic acid was developed. The specific impurity remover "YCXY-1" showed high effectiveness in purification. The purity of the mass-produced ursolic acid was up to 99.8%. The chemical structure of the product was confirmed by the physicochemical constants and spectroscopic identification. The production of high-purity ursolic acid was optimized with natural plant as raw material and with only ethanol as extracting solvent. The difficulties such as isolation and impurity removal were addressed effectively. The novel technology is reasonable, convenient, practical, low-cost, high-yield, suitable for mass production.

  15. Visual analysis of extraction process of ursolic acid with supercritical carbon dioxide%超临界二氧化碳萃取熊果酸工艺的可视化分析

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    孙益民; 汤宏; 陶伟; 卞国琛; 孙若琼; 江飚

    2011-01-01

    采用超临界二氧化碳流体技术萃取枇杷叶中熊果酸进行了较为系统的研究。选择萃取压力、萃取温度、萃取时间及分离温度4个影响因素,运用多因素多水平法安排试验,以高效液相色谱测定熊果酸的含量。选择萃取物中熊果酸含量为试验指标,用自主提出的多因素多水平试验可视化分析方法对多维空间试验数据进行分析。找出最佳工艺范围为:萃取压力为22~30MPa,分离温度为33~37℃,萃取时间为75~80min,萃取温度影响较为复杂,可以在20~38℃内进一步试验选优确定。研究证明多因素多水平可视化分析法对于多维空间多水平试验结果分析正确,应用成功。%Extracting ursolic acid from Folium Eriobotryae with supercritical carbon dioxide technology was systematically investigated.Four factors(extracting pressure,extracting temperature,extracting time and separating temperature) were chosen as influencing ones and the multifactor and multilevel method was applied to arrange the experiments.The content of ursolic acid was determined with HPLC method.The experimental target was the content of ursolic acid in the extracted products.This paper used the multifactor and multilevel visual analysis method(m2VA) proposed by our research group to analyze experimental data in multi-dimension space.Finally the best extracting process parameters were found:extracting pressure is 22~30 MPa,separating temperature 33~37 ℃,extracting time 75~80 min.Generally,extracting temperature is more complex and it could be selective in the range of 30~38 ℃ by the further test.The study proved that the multifactor and multilevel visual analysis method(m2VA) shows correctness and practice well in analysis of experimental data in multi-dimension space.

  16. The Hypoglycemic and Synergistic Effect of Loganin, Morroniside, and Ursolic Acid Isolated from the Fruits of Cornus officinalis.

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    He, Kai; Song, Shanghua; Zou, Zongyao; Feng, Min; Wang, Dezhen; Wang, Yanzhi; Li, Xuegang; Ye, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    Hypoglycemic activity-guided separation of ethanol extracts from the fruits of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc (CO) led to the isolation of loganin, morroniside, and ursolic acid. The antidiabetic capacity of CO extracts and related compounds was further investigated in diabetes mellitus mice. The results suggested that both CO extracts and pure compounds could ameliorate diabetes-associated damages and complications. Oral administration of loganin and morroniside decreased fasting blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus mice. Ursolic acid exhibited the highest reactive oxygen species scavenging activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Notably, we noticed an interesting synergistic effect between loganin and ursolic acid. Given these favorable hypoglycemic properties, C. officinalis, a food and medicinal plant in China, may be used as a valuable food supplement for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  17. In vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ursolic acid and oleanoic acid from Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae).

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    Vasconcelos, Maria Anita L; Royo, Vanessa A; Ferreira, Daniele S; Crotti, Antonio E Miller; Andrade e Silva, Márcio L; Carvalho, José Carlos T; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Cunha, Wilson R

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use in vivo models to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanoic acid (OA), the major compounds isolated as an isomeric mixture from the crude methylene chloride extract of Miconia albicans aerial parts in an attempt to clarify if these compounds are responsible for the analgesic properties displayed by this plant. Ursolic acid inhibited abdominal constriction in a dose-dependent manner, and the result obtained at a content of 40 mg kg(-1) was similar to that produced by administration of acetylsalicylic acid at a content of 100 mg kg(-1). Both acids reduced the number of paw licks in the second phase of the formalin test, and both of them displayed a significant anti-inflammatory effect at a content of 40 mg kg(-1). It is noteworthy that the administration of the isolated mixture, containing 65% ursolic acid/35% oleanolic acid, did not display significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. On the basis of the obtained results, considering that the mixture of UA and OA was poorly active, it is suggested that other compounds, rather than UA and OA, should be responsible for the evaluated activities in the crude extract, since the crude extract samples displayed good activities.

  18. The Pleiotropic Antibacterial Mechanisms of Ursolic Acid against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Chao-Min Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Several triterpenoids were found to act synergistically with classes of antibiotic, indicating that plant-derived chemicals have potential to be used as therapeutics to enhance the activity of antibiotics against multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, the mode of action of triterpenoids against bacterial pathogens remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between ursolic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; (2 Methods: The ability of ursolic acid to damage mammalian and bacterial membranes was examined. The proteomic response of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in ursolic acid treatment was investigated using two-dimensional (2D proteomic analysis; (3 Results: Ursolic acid caused the loss of staphylococcal membrane integrity without hemolytic activity. The comparison of the protein pattern of ursolic acid–treated and normal MRSA cells revealed that ursolic acid affected a variety of proteins involved in the translation process with translational accuracy, ribonuclease and chaperon subunits, glycolysis and oxidative responses; (4 Conclusion: The mode of action of ursolic acid appears to be the influence on the integrity of the bacterial membrane initially, followed by inhibition of protein synthesis and the metabolic pathway. These findings reflect that the pleiotropic effects of ursolic acid against MRSA make it a promising antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical research.

  19. Ubiquitous Ursolic Acid: A Potential Pentacyclic Triterpene Natural Product

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    Ibrahim T Babalola

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an unprecedented growing interest in natural triterpenes in the last few decades due to the discovery of their potential biological and pharmacological activities. Ursolic acid (3β-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic (UA (4 is a pentacyclic triterpene, occurring in many plant parts including fruits and seeds. This paper reviews several studies on the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities of UA (4. This review brings to limelight sources and the beneficial potentials of UA (4 in foods, cosmetics and medicine.

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Nanoemulsion Containing Ursolic Acid: a Promising Trypanocidal Agent : Nanoemulsion with Ursolic Acid Against T. cruzi.

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    Vargas de Oliveira, Erika Cristina; Carneiro, Zumira Aparecida; de Albuquerque, Sérgio; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2017-02-21

    Over a hundred years after the discovery of Chagas disease, this ailment continues to affect thousands of people. For more than 40 years, only two drugs have been available to treat it. Ursolic acid is a naturally occurring terpene that has shown a good trypanocidal action. However, the hydrophobicity of this compound presents a challenge for the development of proper delivery systems. Nanostructured systems are a prominent in delivering lipophilic drugs. Thus, a nanoemulsion containing ursolic acid was developed and had its trypanocidal activity and cytotoxicity evaluated. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) system were used in the development. The system was stable throughout 90 days of testing, as evidenced by turbidimetry analysis and measurements of the droplet size (57.3 nm) and polydispersity index (0.24). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry evidenced drug's integrity in the formulation. An in vitro dissolution profile showed 75% of ursolic acid release after 5 min from the nanoemulsion into the alkaline dissolution medium, while only 20% could be released from a physical mixture after 2 h. Trypanocidal activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated on the CL Brener strain and LLC-MK2 (monkey kidney) fibroblast by chlorophenol red-β-D-galactoside (CPRG) method. Biological studies showed that the developed formulation was nontoxic and effective against replicant forms of the parasite. A stable and efficient nanoemulsion could be developed to improve the delivery of a promising drug to treat a threatening illness such as Chagas disease.

  1. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

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    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  2. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

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    Kunkel, Steven D; Elmore, Christopher J; Bongers, Kale S; Ebert, Scott M; Fox, Daniel K; Dyle, Michael C; Bullard, Steven A; Adams, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II), blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa) and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1). As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  3. Ursolic Acid provides kidney protection in diabetic rats.

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    Ling, Chen; Jinping, Lu; Xia, Li; Renyong, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal failure. However, the treatment of DN is still a problem in the world. Inflammatory process plays a critical role in the development of DN. Therefore, anti-inflammatory treatment of DN is worth exploring now and in the future. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of ursolic acid (UA) on renal function in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with UA for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, urine albumin excretion, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were measured. In addition, renal oxidative stress level, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activity, P-selectin expression, and kidney histopathologic changes were evaluated. Sixteen weeks following streptozotocin injection, the rats produced significant alteration in renal function and increased oxidative stress, NF-κB activity, and P-selectin expression in the kidneys. Interestingly, UA significantly prevented biochemical and histopathologic changes in the kidneys associated with diabetes. Compared with untreated diabetic rats, UA treatment lowered urine albumin excretion, renal oxidative stress level, NF-κB activity, and P-selectin expression. Moreover, UA treatment also improved renal histopathologic changes in rats with diabetes. UA treatment exhibited a protective effect on kidneys in diabetic rats, implying that UA could be a potential treatment for diabetic nephropathy.

  4. Ursolic Acid Provides Kidney Protection in Diabetic Rats☆

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    Ling, Chen; Jinping, Lu; Xia, Li; Renyong, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal failure. However, the treatment of DN is still a problem in the world. Inflammatory process plays a critical role in the development of DN. Therefore, anti-inflammatory treatment of DN is worth exploring now and in the future. Objective The study aimed to evaluate the impact of ursolic acid (UA) on renal function in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with UA for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, urine albumin excretion, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were measured. In addition, renal oxidative stress level, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activity, P-selectin expression, and kidney histopathologic changes were evaluated. Results Sixteen weeks following streptozotocin injection, the rats produced significant alteration in renal function and increased oxidative stress, NF-κB activity, and P-selectin expression in the kidneys. Interestingly, UA significantly prevented biochemical and histopathologic changes in the kidneys associated with diabetes. Compared with untreated diabetic rats, UA treatment lowered urine albumin excretion, renal oxidative stress level, NF-κB activity, and P-selectin expression. Moreover, UA treatment also improved renal histopathologic changes in rats with diabetes. Conclusions UA treatment exhibited a protective effect on kidneys in diabetic rats, implying that UA could be a potential treatment for diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24465045

  5. Macrophage Activation by Ursolic and Oleanolic Acids during Mycobacterial Infection

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    Sonia López-García

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic (OA and ursolic acids (UA are triterpenes that are abundant in vegetables, fruits and medicinal plants. They have been described as active moieties in medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis. In this study, we analyzed the effects of these triterpenes on macrophages infected in vitro with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. We evaluated production of nitric oxide (NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and cytokines (TNF-α and TGF-β as well as expression of cell membrane receptors (TGR5 and CD36 in MTB-infected macrophages following treatment with OA and UA. Triterpenes caused reduced MTB growth in macrophages, stimulated production of NO and ROS in the early phase, stimulated TNF-α, suppressed TGF-β and caused over-expression of CD36and TGR5 receptors. Thus, our data suggest immunomodulatory properties of OA and UA on MTB infected macrophages. In conclusion, antimycobacterial effects induced by these triterpenes may be attributable to the conversion of macrophages from stage M2 (alternatively activated to M1 (classically activated.

  6. Ursolic acid, an antagonist for transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Takashima, Hajime; Sato-Watanabe, Mariko; Chonan, Sumi; Yamamoto, Koji; Saitoh, Masako; Saito, Shiuji; Yoshimura, Hiromitsu; Sugawara, Koko; Yang, Junshan; Gao, Nannan; Zhang, Xinggao

    2004-05-21

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a multifunctional cytokine which is involved in extracellular matrix modulation, has a major role in the pathogenesis and progression of fibrotic diseases. We now report the effects of ursolic acid on TGF-beta1 receptor binding and TGF-beta1-induced cellular functions in vitro. Ursolic acid inhibited [(125)I]-TGF-beta1 receptor binding to Balb/c 3T3 mouse fibroblasts with an IC(50) value of 6.9+/-0.8 microM. Ursolic acid dose-dependently recovered reduced proliferation of Minc Mv1Lu cells in the presence of 5 nM of TGF-beta1 and attenuated TGF-beta1-induced collagen synthesis and production in human fibroblasts. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that ursolic acid may interact with the hydrophobic region of the dimeric interface and thereby inhibit the binding of TGF-beta1 to its receptor. All these findings taken together show that ursolic acid functions as an antagonist for TGF-beta1. This is the first report to show that a small molecule can inhibit TGF-beta1 receptor binding and influence functions of TGF-beta1.

  7. Ursolic acid reduces prostate size and dihydrotestosterone level in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young; Jung, Da-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Ha, Hye-Kyung; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells, which can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. The prevalence of BPH increases in an age-dependent manner. We investigated the protective effect of ursolic acid in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (TP), for a period of four weeks. Ursolic acid was administrated daily by oral gavage at a dose level of 5mg/kg during the four weeks of TP injections. Animals were sacrificed on the scheduled termination, before prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. TP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in the serum and prostate were also measured. BPH-induced animals displayed an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate. However, ursolic acid treatment resulted in significant reductions in prostate weight and testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, compared with BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also showed that ursolic acid treatment suppressed TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that ursolic acid may effectively inhibit the development of BPH and it may be a useful agent in BPH treatment.

  8. Ursolic acid mediates photosensitization by initiating mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis

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    Lee, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Exing; Kumar, Neeru; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2013-02-01

    The signaling pathways PI3K/Akt and MAPK play key roles in transcription, translation and carcinogenesis, and may be activated by light exposure. These pathways may be modulated or inhibited by naturally-occurring compounds, such as the triterpenoid, ursolic acid (UA). Previously, the transcription factors p53 and NF-kB, which transactivate mitochondrial apoptosis-related genes, were shown to be differentially modulated by UA. Our current work indicates that UA causes these effects via the mTOR and insulin-mediated pathways. UA-modulated apoptosis, following exposure to UV radiation, is observed to correspond to differential levels of oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and skin melanoma (SM) cells. Flow cytometry analysis, DHE (dihydroethidium) staining and membrane permeability assay showed that UA pretreatment potentiated cell cycle arrest and radiation-induced apoptosis selectively on SM cells while DNA photo-oxidative damage (i.e. strand breakage) was reduced, presumably by some antioxidant activity of UA in RPE cells. The UA-mediated NF-κB activation in SM cells was reduced by rapamycin pretreatment, which indicates that these agents exert inter-antagonistic effects in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In contrast, the antagonistic effect of UA on the PI3K/Akt pathway was reversed by insulin leading to greater NF-κB and p53 activation in RPE cells. MitoTracker, a mitochondrial functional assay, indicated that mitochondria in RPE cells experienced reduced oxidative stress while those in SM cells exhibited increased oxidative stress upon UA pretreatment. When rapamycin administration was followed by UA, mitochondrial oxidative stress was increased in RPE cells but decreased in SM cells. These results indicate that UA modulates p53 and NF-κB, initiating a mitogenic response to radiation that triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

  9. Therapeutic effect of ursolic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis

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    Jéssica A. Jesus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important neglected tropical disease, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated and present diverse side effects in patients, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the therapeutic potential and toxicity of ursolic acid (UA, isolated from the leaves of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae, were evaluated in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of UA, hamsters infected with L. (L. infantum were treated daily during 15 days with 1.0 or 2.0 mg UA/kg body weight, or with 5.0 mg amphotericin B/kg body weight by intraperitoneal route. Fifteen days after the last dose, the parasitism of the spleen and liver was stimated and the main histopathological alterations were recorded. The proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells was evaluated and IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 gene expressions were analyzed in spleen fragments. The toxicity of UA and amphotericin B were evaluated in healthy golden hamsters by histological analysis and biochemical parameters. Animals treated with UA had less parasites in the spleen and liver when compared with the infected control group, and they also showed preservation of white and red pulps, which correlate with a high rate of proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells, IFN-γ mRNA and iNOS production. Moreover, animals treated with UA did not present alterations in the levels of AST, ALT, creatinine and urea. Taken together, these findings indicate that UA is an interesting natural compound that should be considered for the development of prototype drugs against visceral leishmaniasis.

  10. Ursolic acid from apple pomace and traditional plants: A valuable triterpenoid with functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnin, Simone Tasca; Gnoatto, Simone Baggio

    2017-04-01

    Apple juice production generates a large amount of residue comprising mainly peels, seeds, and pulp, known as apple pomace. In the global context, Brazil ranks 11th in apple production and thousands of tons of apple pomace are produced every year. This by-product is little explored, since it is a rich and heterogeneous mixture, containing interesting phytochemical groups. Among them, ursolic acid (UA) has attracted attention because of its therapeutic potential. UA is a pentacyclic triterpene found too in several traditional plants, and has shown several functional properties such as antibacterial, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory and antitumor. Therefore, this review attempts to shed some light on the economical viability of apple and apple pomace as sources of bioactive compounds, highlighting the UA extraction, and its main functional properties published in the last 5years (2010-2015).

  11. Influence of ursolic acid on glucooligosaccharides synthesized by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides Lm 28

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    TONKA VASILEVA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of modulation of the reactions catalyzed by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides Lm 28 strain in the presence of triterpenoid ursolic acid was carried out. This compound showed concentration dependent inhibition of the studied dextransucrase and Ki = 1.9 mM, which is about 5 times higher than Ki value of the known glucansucrase inhibitor acarbose. Ursolic acid affected significantly the acceptor reactions catalyzed by Lm 28 dextransucrase in the presence of maltose and sucrose to maltose ratio 2. Increasing concentrations of ursolic acid shifted concentration and degree of polymerization (DP distribution of the synthesized glucooligosaccharides (GOS to acceptor products with DP ≤ 5. The oligosaccharide synthesis scheme applied in this study is a promising approach for production of GOS with controlled length of the chain.

  12. Ursolic Acid, a Natural Pentacylcic Triterpene from Ochrosia elliptica and Its Role in The Management of Certain Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Rola M.; Ebada, Sherif S.; Youssef, Fadia S.; Ashour, Mohamed L.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis are recognized as the leading causes of mortality and morbidity with the greatest prevalence in the developing countries. They affect more than one billion of the poorest people on the globe. Objective: To find a cheap, affordable, safe, and efficacious antileshmanial and antitrypanosomal natural drug and to elucidate its probable mode of action. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical investigation of the non-polar fraction of the methanol extract of leaves of Ochrosia elliptica Labill. (Apocyanaceae) resulted in the isolation of ursolic acid, which was unambiguously determined based on HR-ESI-FTMS, extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. It was further tested for its cytotoxicity, antimicrobial, antimalarial, antileishmanial, and trypanocidal potency. in-silico molecular modeling studies were conducted on six vital parasitic enzymes including farnesyl diphosphate synthase, N-myristoyl transferase, pteridine reductase 1, trypanothione reductase, methionyl-tRNA synthetase, and inosine–adenosine–guanosine nucleoside hydrolase to discover its potential mode of action as antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial agent. Results: Ursolic acid displayed considerable antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activities with IC50 values ranging between 1.53 and 8.79 μg/mL. It showed superior antitrypanosomal activity as compared to the standard drug difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), with higher binding affinities towards trypanothione reductase and pteridine reductase 1. It displayed free binding energy of -30.73 and -50.08 kcal/mole towards the previously mentioned enzymes, respectively. In addition, ursolic acid exhibited considerable affinities to farnesyl diphosphate synthase, N-myristoyl transferase and methionyl-tRNA synthetase with free binding energies ranging from -42.54 to -63.93 kcal/mole. Conclusion: Ursolic acid offers a safe, effective and cheap antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial candidate acting on several key

  13. Variation of Ursolic Acid Content in Eight Ocimum Species from Northeastern Brazil

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    Selene M. Morais

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocimum species, UA was detected in different yields, with O. tenuiflorum showing the highest content (2.02%. This yield is very significant when compared with other sources of UA.

  14. Synthesis and Anti-tumor Activity of Novel Amide Derivatives of Ursolic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Ursolic acid was modified at C3 and C28 position to obtain fourteen derivatives including twelve novel compounds, and their chemical structures were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and MS. Cell growth inhibitory effects of the derivatives against Hela cell were evaluated by MTT assay. All these derivatives were found to have stronger cell growth inhibitory than their parent compound, ursolic acid. The derivatives with a substituted acetyl group at C3hydroxyl group show better activities than those with an unsubstituted hydroxyl group.

  15. Ursolic acid and mechanisms of actions on adipose and muscle tissue: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katashima, Carlos K; Silva, Vagner R; Gomes, Tatyanne L; Pichard, Claude; Pimentel, Gustavo D

    2017-06-01

    This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression. Therefore, supplementation with ursolic acid may be an adjunctive therapy for prevention and treatment of obesity-mediated and muscle mass-mediated metabolic consequences. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Synthesis and bioactivity of novel nitric oxide-releasing ursolic acid derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chen; Wen Qiu; Jia Tang; Zhi Feng Wang; Shu Ying He

    2011-01-01

    A series of furoxan-based novel nitric oxide-donating ursolic acid (UA) derivatives (7a-f) were synthesized, and their cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cells in vitro were evaluated by MTT method. It was found that 7a-d and 7f showed more potent cytotoxic activities than control 5-fluorouracil and UA.

  17. 2D Raman spectroscopy as an alternative technique for distinguishing oleanoic acid and ursolic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, César; Crotti, Antônio E. M.; Vessecchi, Ricardo; Cunha, Wilson R.

    2006-11-01

    The isomeric triterpenes oleanoic acid and ursolic acid are compounds exhibiting a variety of biological activities. Structurally, they differ only in the position of the methyl group (C-29) at ring E. The differentiation of these two compounds requires a detailed analysis of their 13C and 1H NMR spectra which is often tedious and time-consuming, besides the need of using deuterated solvents. In this work, we report the use of bidimensional Raman spectroscopy as a fast technique to distinguish these two bioactive isomeric compounds.

  18. Isobolographic analysis of the antinociceptive interaction between ursolic acid and diclofenac or tramadol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Cortés, Alejandra; Pellicer, Francisco; Díaz-Reval, Irene; González-Trujano, María Eva

    2014-02-01

    It is considered that natural products used in folk medicine can potentiate the effect of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological interaction between ursolic acid, a triterpene isolated from herbal medicines to treat pain, and the analgesics diclofenac or tramadol. Individual dose-response curves of the antinociceptive effect of these compounds were built to calculate the ED50, as well as the pharmacological interaction, by using isobolographic analysis. All treatments decreased significantly and in a dose-dependent manner the writhing behavior with ED50 values of 103.50 ± 19.66, 20.54 ± 6.05, and 9.60 ± 1.69 mg/kg, for ursolic acid, diclofenac, and tramadol, respectively. An isobolographic analysis allowed the characterization of the pharmacological interaction produced by a fixed ratio combination of 1 : 1 and 1 : 3 of equi-effective doses of these compounds. Theoretical antinociceptive ED50 values of ursolic acid-diclofenac were 62.12 ± 10.28 and 41.43 ± 6.69 mg/kg, respectively, not statistically different from those obtained experimentally (44.52 ± 5.25 and 44.89 ± 49.05 mg/kg, respectively), reporting an additive interaction. Theoretical antinociceptive ED50 values of ursolic acid-tramadol (56.56 ± 9.87 and 33.08 ± 5.07 mg/kg, respectively) were significantly lower than those observed experimentally (138.36 ± 49.05 and 67.34 ± 18.98 mg/kg, respectively) reporting antagonism in this interaction. Antinociceptive response obtained from isobolograms in the writhing test was corroborated by using formalin test in mice. Adverse effects such as gastric damage in the ursolic acid-diclofenac combination did not increase in an additive form similarly as with antinociception. Conversely, sedative response was significantly increased in the ursolic acid-tramadol combination. As observed in the formalin test, the antagonism on the antinociceptive response between ursolic acid

  19. Oxidation and Acetylation of Ursolic and Oleanolic Acids Isolated from Fragraea fragrans fruits; Antiproliferation of P388 Leukemia Cells

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    Dasril Basir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An interesting natural product chemistry aspect of Fragraea fragrans is that their fruits are richness with ursolic acid and its isomer oleanolic acid (3.05% of dried powder. As our continuous work on these inseparable structural isomeric triterpenes, this paper reports that 51.0% of inseparable 3-oxo-ursolic[3-oxo-oleanolic] acids and 48.6% of inseparable 3-acethyl-ursolic [3-acethyl-oleanolic] acids have already been made from those triterpenes as starting materials of the oxidized and acetylated compounds and evaluated their activity against P388 leukemia cells. The activity of 3-oxo-ursolic [3-oxo-oleanolic] acids with IC50 = 18.6 µg/mL exhibited three-fold more potent against P388 leukemia cell proliferations compared to ursolic [oleanolic] acids with IC50 = 53.5 µg/mL; while the 3-acethyl-ursolic [3-acethyl-oleanolic] acids with IC50 = 37.9 µg/mL showed two-fold more potent then their parent triterpenes (IC50 = 53.5 µg/mL in the inhibition of P388 leukemia cell growth.

  20. Development and validation of high-performance thin layer chromatographic method for ursolic acid in Malus domestica peel

    OpenAIRE

    P H Nikam; Kareparamban, J. A.; A P Jadhav; Kadam, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. It shows hypoglycemic, antiandrogenic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, diuretic and cynogenic activity. It is commonly present in plants especially coating of leaves and fruits, such as apple fruit, vinca leaves, rosemary leaves, and eucalyptus leaves. A simple high-performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the quantification of ursolic acid from apple peel (Ma...

  1. Cardiotonic and antidysrhythmic effects of oleanolic and ursolic acids, methyl maslinate and uvaol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, L I; Shode, F O; Mipando, M

    2004-02-01

    The cardiotonic and antidysrhythmic effects of four triterpenoid derivatives, namely oleanolic acid (OA), ursolic acid (UA), and uvaol (UV), isolated from the leaves of African wild olive (Olea europaea, subsp. africana) as well as methyl maslinate (MM) isolated from the leaves of Olea europaea (Cape cultivar) were examined. The derivatives showed low toxicity on brine shrimp test. They displayed significant, dose-response vasodepressor effect and sinus bradicardia, most prominent for OA and MM. The derivatives acted as beta-adrenergic antagonists, blocking the effect of adrenaline and isoprenaline. The established positive inotropic and dromotropic effects were most distinctive for OA and MM. The antidysrhythmic effects were evaluated on CaCl2- and adrenaline-induced chemical arrhythmias, and on ischemia-reperfusion arrhythmia. OA and UA displayed antidysrhythmic effects on both types of chemical arrhythmia; OA and UV in dose 40 mg/kg conferred significant antidysrhythmic activity on ischemia and reperfusion arrhythmias. The effect was comparable to that of propranolol and suggestive of beta-adrenergic antagonistic activity. On the basis of the vasodepressor, cardiotonic and antidysrhythmic effects of these compounds, it was concluded that OA and UV isolated from wild African olive leaves, or crude extract containing all components, can provide a cheap and accessible source of additive to conventional treatment of hypertension, complicated by stenocardia and cardiac failure.

  2. Evolution in Medicinal Chemistry of Ursolic Acid Derivatives as Anticancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Haijun; Gao, Yu; Wang, Ailan; Zhou, Xiaobin; Zheng, Yunquan; Zhou, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a renewed interest in common dietaries and plant-based traditional medicines for the prevention and treatment of cancer. In the search for potential anticancer agents from natural sources, ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid widely found in various medicinal herbs and fruits, exhibits powerful biological effects including its attractive anticancer activity against various types of cancer cells. However, the limited solubility, rapid metabolism and poor bioavailab...

  3. Ursolic acid inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK pathway.

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    Yonghan He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ursolic acid (UA is a triterpenoid compound with multiple biological functions. This compound has recently been reported to possess an anti-obesity effect; however, the mechanisms are less understood. OBJECTIVE: As adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of UA on adipogenesis and mechanisms of action in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence or absence of UA for 6 days. The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular targets that regulate or are involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. The results demonstrated that ursolic acid at concentrations ranging from 2.5 µM to 10 µM dose-dependently attenuated adipogenesis, accompanied by reduced protein expression of CCAAT element binding protein β (C/EBPβ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, respectively. Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, but decreased protein expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4. Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and protein expression of (silent mating type information regulation 2, homolog 1 (Sirt1. Further studies demonstrated that the anti-adipogenic effect of UA was reversed by the AMPK siRNA, but not by the Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1, the upstream kinase of AMPK, was upregulated by UA. When LKB1 was silenced with siRNA or the inhibitor radicicol, the effect of UA on AMPK activation was diminished. CONCLUSIONS: Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK

  4. Encapsulation of bio active compound ursolic acid as proniosomes and its evaluation

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    Munish Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, novel proniosomal gel of ursolic acid was prepared by encapsulation of the drug in a mixture of span 60, cholesterol and alcohol by coacervation phase separation method to overcome the bioavailability problem of this potential biologically active compound. The formulated system was characterized for size, drug entrapment, in-vitro drug release studies and in-vivo anti-inflammatory effect through animal model. In-vitro release data of ursolic acid from proniosomal gel revealed a time dependent near linear relationship. Entrapment efficiency of the formulated gel was found > 90% and total % cumulative release of ursolic acid satisfactory as 60.8% after 24 h. Release pattern was also found almost constant. In-vivo evaluation revealed that the developed formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory value (P < 0.05 in carrageenan induced rat paw edema model and was found quite comparable with the standard diclofenac gel (voveran gel in terms of % inhibition of edema.

  5. Blockage of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and upregulation of let 7b are critically involved in ursolic acid induced apoptosis in malignant mesothelioma cell

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Eun Jung; Won, Gunho; Lee, Jihyun; Yoon, Sang Wook; Lee, Ilho; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPN), which is caused by asbestos exposure, is one of aggressive lung tumors. In the present study, we elucidated the anti-tumor mechanism of ursolic acid in malignant mesotheliomas. Ursolic acid significantly exerted cytotoxicity in a time and dose dependent manner in H28, H2452 and MSTO-211H mesothelioma cells and inhibited cell proliferation by colony formation assay in a dose-dependent fashion. Also, ursolic acid treatment accumulated the sub-G1 population,...

  6. Ursolic acid improves domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong-mei [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Jiangsu Province (China); Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Lu, Jun, E-mail: lu-jun75@163.com [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Yan-qiu [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Jiangsu Province (China); Zheng, Yuan-lin, E-mail: ylzheng@xznu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Hu, Bin [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Cheng, Wei [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Zi-feng; Li, Meng-qiu [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2013-09-01

    Our previous findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is the mechanism underlying cognitive deficits induced by domoic acid (DA). Ursolic acid (UA), a natural triterpenoid compound, possesses many important biological functions. Evidence shows that UA can activate PI3K/Akt signaling and suppress Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) activity. FoxO1 is an important regulator of mitochondrial function. Here we investigate whether FoxO1 is involved in the oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in DA-treated mice and whether UA inhibits DA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through regulating the PI3K/Akt and FoxO1 signaling pathways. Our results showed that FoxO1 knockdown reversed the mitochondrial abnormalities and cognitive deficits induced by DA in mice through decreasing HO-1 expression. Mechanistically, FoxO1 activation was associated with oxidative stress-induced JNK activation and decrease of Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through promoting Akt phosphorylation and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in the hippocampus of DA-treated mice. LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling, significantly decreased Akt phosphorylation in the hippocampus of DA/UA mice, which weakened UA actions. These results suggest that UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for the prevention and therapy of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic brain disorders. - Highlights: • Ursolic acid (UA) is a naturally triterpenoid compound. • UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits. • Mechanistically, UA activates PI3K/Akt signaling and suppresses FoxO1 activity. • UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for anti-excitotoxic brain disorders.

  7. Role of Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in the Vasodilator Effect of Ursolic Acid and Uvaol from Black Cherry Prunus serotina Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Romo-Mancillas, Antonio; López-Vallejo, Fabián H; Solís-Gutiérrez, Mariana; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Rivero-Cruz, Fausto

    2016-01-12

    The present research aimed to isolate the non-polar secondary metabolites that produce the vasodilator effects induced by the dichloromethane extract of Prunus serotina (P. serotina) fruits and to determine whether the NO/cGMP and the H2S/KATP channel pathways are involved in their mechanism of action. A bioactivity-directed fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of P. serotina fruits led to the isolation of ursolic acid and uvaol as the main non-polar vasodilator compounds. These compounds showed significant relaxant effect on rat aortic rings in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and glibenclamide (Gli). Additionally, both triterpenes increased NO and H2S production in aortic tissue. Molecular docking studies showed that ursolic acid and uvaol are able to bind to endothelial NOS and CSE with high affinity for residues that form the oligomeric interface of both enzymes. These results suggest that the vasodilator effect produced by ursolic acid and uvaol contained in P. serotina fruits, involves activation of the NO/cGMP and H2S/KATP channel pathways, possibly through direct activation of NOS and CSE.

  8. Ursolic acid sensitized colon cancer cells to chemotherapy under hypoxia by inhibiting MDR1 through HIF-1α*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jian-zhen; Xuan, Yan-yan; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Jian-jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the efficacy of ursolic acid in sensitizing colon cancer cells to chemotherapy under hypoxia and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: Three colon cancer cell lines (RKO, LoVo, and SW480) were used as in vitro models. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin were used as chemotherapeutic drugs. Cell viability and apoptosis were tested to evaluate the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to chemotherapy. The transcription and expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1), and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting. Cycloheximide and MG132 were used to inhibit protein synthesis and degradation, respectively. In vitro tube formation assay was used to evaluate angiogenesis. Results: We demonstrated the chemosensitizing effects of ursolic acid with 5-FU and oxaliplatin in three colon cancer cell lines under hypoxia. This effect was correlated to its inhibition of MDR1 through HIF-1α. Moreover, ursolic acid was capable of inhibiting HIF-1α accumulation with little effects on its constitutional expression in normoxia. In addition, ursolic acid also down-regulated VEGF and inhibited tumor angiogenesis. Conclusions: Ursolic acid exerted chemosensitizing effects in colon cancer cells under hypoxia by inhibiting HIF-1α accumulation and the subsequent expression of the MDR1 and VEGF. PMID:27604859

  9. Exploration of the preventive effect of ursolic acid on retinopathy in diabetic mice and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Zhong Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the preventive effect of ursolic acid on retinopathy in diabetic mice through adjusting insulin sensitivity, glucose transport, angiogenesis and inflammation. Methods:Male C57BL/6 mice were selected as experimental animals and randomly divided into control group (N group), model group (D group) and intervention group (D+UA group), D group and D+UA group established diabetes models through intraperitoneal injection of STZ, D+UA group received intragastric administration of ursolic acid, and then insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism in retina as well as the expression levels of GLUTs, HIF-1α/VEGF/VEGFR2 pathway and IKKβ/IKBα/NF-κB pathway in retina tissue of three groups were detected. Results:AUC of D group was significantly lower than that of N group, and HOMA-IR, sugar content in retina tissue as well as GLUT-1, GLUT-3, HIF-1α, VEGF, VEGFR2, IKKβ, IKBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin levels were significantly higher than those of N group;AUC of D+UA group was significantly higher than that of D group, and HOMA-IR, sugar content in retina tissue as well as GLUT-1, GLUT-3, HIF-1α, VEGF, VEGFR2, IKK毬, IKBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin levels were significantly lower than those of D group. Conclusion:Ursolic acid can increase insulin sensitivity, reduce sugar content in retina tissue and inhibit angiogenesis and inflammation degree in retina tissue, and has preventive effect on retinopathy in diabetic mice.

  10. [Ursolic acid as antitumor agent and inductor of PTEN and brown fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershteĭn, L M

    2012-01-01

    In this mini-review the basic evidence about anticancer properties of ursolic acid (UA), the compound belonging to the class of triterpenoids, is given. Beside inhibiting tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo and activating of apoptosis, UA (as well as some other related and not related compounds) is capable to induce PTEN (a tumor suppressor mutation of which is rather often discovered in human tumors including endometrial cancer type I) and amount/activity of brown fat. The latter action may explain obesity-preventing capacity of UA that also may lead to an additional antiblastomogenic effect.

  11. Anti-tumor Effect and Its Mechanisms of Ursolic Acid on Human Esophageal Carcinoma Cell Eca-109 in Vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-qing; SHEN Yi; DUANG Hong

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the anti-tumor effect and possible mechanisms of ursolic acid on human esophageal carcinoma in vivo.Methods:A transplanted tumor model by injecting Eca-109 cells into subcutaneous tissue of BALB/c nude mice was established.40 nude mice bearing tumors were randomly divided into 4 groups and 0.2 ml saline or 0.2 ml ursolic acid(25-100 mg·kg-1.d-1)was injected into abdominal cavity respectively once everyday and lasted for fourteen days.The changes of tumor volume were measured continuously and tumor inhibition rate was calculated.The morphological changes of apoptosis were observed by electron microscope.The expressions of COX-2,bcl-2 and Bax protein in transplanted tumors were detected by immunohistochemistry.At last the PGE2 level of transplanted tumors was detected by radioimmunoassay.Results:Treatment of nude mice with 25,50,or 100 mg·kg-1.d-1 of ursolic acid significantly inhibited the growth of the human esophageal carcinoma tumor in nude mice and induced Eca-109 cells apoptosis as demonstrated by electron microscopy analyses.The expressions of COX-2 and bcl-2 in the transplanted tumors were decreased in ursolic acid groups,while the Bax increased.The PGE2 level of transplanted tumors was decreased in ursolic acid groups with a dose-related manner.Conclusion:Ursolic acid has anti-tumor effects against human esophageal carcinoma cells in vivo,which are likely mediated via induction of tumor cell apoptosis and inhibition of COX-2 and PGE2.

  12. Ursolic acid attenuates oxidative stress-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma induction by diethylnitrosamine in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Renganathan; Priya, D Kalpana Deepa; Gunassekaran, G R; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary cancer of the liver in Asian countries. For more than a decade natural dietary agents including fruits, vegetables and spices have drawn a great deal of attention in the prevention of diseases, preferably cancer. Ursolic acid is a natural triterpenoid widely found in food, medicinal herbs, apple peel and other products it has been extensively studied for its anticancer and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ursolic acid in diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced and phenobarbital promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. Antioxidant status was assessed by alterations in level of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls. Damage to plasma membranes was assessed by levels of membrane and tissue ATPases. Liver tissue was homogenized and utilized for estimation of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls and glycoproteins. Anticoagulated blood was utilized for erythrocyte membrane isolation. Oral administration of UA 20 mg/kg bodyweight for 6 weeks decreased the levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls at a significance of p< 0.05. Activities of membrane and tissue ATPases returned to normal after UA administration. Levels of glycoproteins were also restored after treatment. Histopathological observations were recorded. The findings from the above study suggest the effectiveness of UA in reducing the oxidative stress mediated changes in liver of rats. Since UA has been found to be a potent antioxidant, it can be suggested as an excellent chemopreventive agent in overcoming diseases like cancer which are mediated by free radicals.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of methyl ursolate obtained from a chemically derived crude extract of apple peels: potential use in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, Tatiana A; de Abreu, Bianca S S C; Costa, Thadeu E M M; Nakamura, Marcos J; Valente, Lígia M M; Henriques, Maria das Graças; Siani, Antonio C; Rosas, Elaine C

    2014-11-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid found in apple peels (Malus domestica, Borkh, Rosaceae), has a large spectrum of pharmacological effects. However, the vegetal matrix usually produces highly viscous and poorly soluble extracts that hamper the isolation of this compound. To overcome this problem, the crude EtOH-AcOEt extract of commercial apple peels was exhaustively treated with diazomethane, after which methyl ursolate (MU) was purified by column chromatography and characterized spectrometrically. The anti-inflammatory effects of UA and MU (50 mg/kg) were analyzed by zymosan-induced paw edema, pleurisy and in an experimental arthritis model. After 4 h of treatment with UA and MU, paw edema was reduced by 46 and 44 %, respectively. Both UA and MU inhibited protein extravasation into the thoracic cavity; tibio-femoral edema by 40 and 48 %, respectively; and leukocyte influx into the synovial cavity after 6 h by 52 and 73 %, respectively. Additionally, both UA and MU decreased the levels of mediators related to synovial inflammation, such as KC/CXCL-1 levels by 95 and 90 %, TNF-α levels by 76 and 71 %, and IL-1β levels by 57 and 53 %, respectively. Both the compounds were equally effective when assayed in different inflammatory models, including experimental arthritis. Hence, MU may be considered to be a useful anti-inflammatory derivative to overcome the inherent poor solubility of UA for formulating pharmaceutical products.

  14. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase3 β mediate ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2 liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Hee Young; Sohn, Eun Jung; Lee, Jang-Hoon; Woo, Hong-Jung; Yun, Miyong; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Chul

    2013-11-01

    Despite the antitumour effect of ursolic acid observed in several cancers, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, the roles of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) were examined in ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Ursolic acid significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased the sub-G1 population and the number of ethidium homodimer and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase(TdT) mediated dUTP nick end labeling positive cells in HepG2 cells. Also, ursolic acid enhanced the cleavages of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase3, attenuated the expression of astrocyte elevated gene (AEG1) and survivin in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and coenzyme A carboxylase and also enhanced phosphorylation of GSK3β at inactive form serine 9, whereas ursolic acid attenuated the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR in HepG2 cells. Conversely, AMPK inhibitor compound C or GSK3β inhibitor SB216763 blocked the cleavages of PARP and caspase 3 induced by ursolic acid in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, proteosomal inhibitor MG132 suppressed AMPK activation, GSK3β phosphorylation, cleaved PARP and deceased AEG-1 induced by ursolic acid in HepG2 cells. Overall, our findings suggest that ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via AMPK activation and GSK3β phosphorylation as a potent chemopreventive agent. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Evolution in medicinal chemistry of ursolic acid derivatives as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Gao, Yu; Wang, Ailan; Zhou, Xiaobin; Zheng, Yunquan; Zhou, Jia

    2015-03-06

    Currently, there is a renewed interest in common dietaries and plant-based traditional medicines for the prevention and treatment of cancer. In the search for potential anticancer agents from natural sources, ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid widely found in various medicinal herbs and fruits, exhibits powerful biological effects including its attractive anticancer activity against various types of cancer cells. However, the limited solubility, rapid metabolism and poor bioavailability of UA restricted its further clinical applications. In the past decade, with substantial progress toward the development of new chemical entities for the treatment of cancer, numerous UA derivatives have been designed and prepared to overcome its disadvantages. Despite extensive effort, discovery of effective UA derivatives has so far met with only limited success. This review summarizes the current status of the structural diversity and evolution in medicinal chemistry of UA analogues and provides a detailed discussion of future direction for further research in the chemical modifications of UA.

  16. Anxiolytic potential of ursolic acid derivative-a stearoyl glucoside isolated from Lantana camara L. (verbanaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imran Kazmi; Muhammad Afzal; Babar Ali; Zoheir A Damanhouri; Aftab Ahmaol; Firoz Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anxiolytic activity of newly isolated compound by our lab called ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG) from the leaves of Lantana camara (L. camara). Methods:Column chromatography was used to isolate UASG. Anxiolytic potential was experimentally proved and demonstrated through Elevated plus-maze, Open field and light and dark test.Results:The UASG showed marked increased in time spent (%) and number of frequent movements made by animals in open arm of elevated plus-maze apparatus. In light and dark model, UASG produced marked increase in time spent by animal, number of crossing and reduced duration of immobility in light box. Conclusions: UASG showed significant increase in number of rearing, assisted rearing and number of square crossed in open field established test model. UASG showed its anxiolytic effect in dose dependent manner.

  17. Physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability of ursolic acid nanoparticles using supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Sun, Zhen; Zu, Yuangang; Zhao, Chunjian; Sun, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhonghua; Zhang, Lin

    2012-05-01

    The objective of the study was to prepare ursolic acid (UA) nanoparticles using the supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process and evaluate its physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability. The effects of four process variables, pressure, temperature, drug concentration and drug solution flow rate, on drug particle formation during SAS process, were investigated. Particles with mean particle size ranging from 139.2±19.7 to 1039.8±65.2nm were obtained by varying the process parameters. The UA was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, specific surface area, dissolution test and bioavailability test. It was concluded that physicochemical properties and bioavailability of crystalline UA could be improved by physical modification, such as particle size reduction and generation of amorphous state using SAS process. Further, SAS process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of UA.

  18. Effects of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid on human colon carcinoma cell line HCT15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Li; Wei-Jian Guo; Qing-Yao Yang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) aretriperpene acids having a similar chemical structure and aredistributed wildly in plants all over the world. In recentyearn, it was found that they had marked anti-tumor effects.There is little literature currently available regarding theireffects on colon carcinoma cells. The present study wasdesigned to investigate their inhibitory effects on humancolon carcinoma cell line HCT15 METHODS: HCT15 cells were cultured with different drugs.The treated cells were stained with hematoxylin-eosin andtheir morphologic changes observed under a lightmicroscope. The cytotoxicity of these drugs was evaluatedby tetrazolium dye assay. Cell cycle analysis was performedby flow cytometry (FCM). Data were expressed as means +SEM and Analysis of variance and Student' t-test forindividual comparisons.RESULTS: Twenty-four to 72 h after UA or OA 60 μmol/Ltreatment, the numbers of dead cells and cell fragmentswere increased and most cells were dead at the 72 nd hour.The cytotoxicity of UA was stronger than that of OA.Seventy-eight hours after 30 μmol/L of UA or OA treatment,a number of cells were degenerated, but cell fragments wererarely seen. The IC50 values for UA and OA were 30 and 60μmol/L, respectively. Proliferation assay showed thatproliferation of UA and OA-treated cells was slightlyincreased at 24 h and significantly decreased at 48 h and 60h, whereas untreated control cells maintained anexponential growth curve. Cell cycle analysis by FCMshowed HCT15 cells treated with UA 30 and OA 60 for 36 h and72 h gradually accumulated in G0/G1 phase (both drugs P< 0.05 for 72 h), with a concomitant decrease of cell populationsin S phase (both drugs P< 0.01 for 72 h) and no detectableapoptotic fraction.CONCLUSION: UA and OA have significant anti-ttumor activity.The effect of UA is stronger than that of OA. The possiblemechanism of action is that both drugs have an inhibitoryeffect on tumor cell proliferation through cell-cycle arrest.

  19. Development and validation of high-performance thin layer chromatographic method for ursolic acid in Malus domestica peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P H Nikam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. It shows hypoglycemic, antiandrogenic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, diuretic and cynogenic activity. It is commonly present in plants especially coating of leaves and fruits, such as apple fruit, vinca leaves, rosemary leaves, and eucalyptus leaves. A simple high-performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the quantification of ursolic acid from apple peel (Malus domestica. The samples dissolved in methanol and linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber. The mobile phase was selected as toluene:ethyl acetate:glacial acetic acid (70:30:2. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r 2 =0.9982 in the concentration range 0.2-7 ΅g/spot with respect to peak area. According to the ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of ursolic acid.

  20. Development and Validation of High-performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Method for Ursolic Acid in Malus domestica Peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, P H; Kareparamban, J A; Jadhav, A P; Kadam, V J

    2013-07-01

    Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. It shows hypoglycemic, antiandrogenic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, diuretic and cynogenic activity. It is commonly present in plants especially coating of leaves and fruits, such as apple fruit, vinca leaves, rosemary leaves, and eucalyptus leaves. A simple high-performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the quantification of ursolic acid from apple peel (Malus domestica). The samples dissolved in methanol and linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber. The mobile phase was selected as toluene:ethyl acetate:glacial acetic acid (70:30:2). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r(2)=0.9982 in the concentration range 0.2-7 μg/spot with respect to peak area. According to the ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of ursolic acid.

  1. Simultaneous HPTLC analysis of ursolic acid, betulinic acid, stigmasterol and lupeol for the identification of four medicinal plants commonly available in the Indian market as Shankhpushpi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethiya, Neeraj Kumar; Mishra, Shrihari

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new, simple, sensitive, selective and precise high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint and quantitative estimation method for the analysis of ursolic acid, betulinic acid, stigmasterol and lupeol in Shankhpushpi botanicals. Linear ascending development was carried out in a twin trough glass chamber saturated with petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-toluene (7:2:1, v/v/v). The plate was dried, sprayed with anisaldehyde reagent and analyzed by CAMAG TLC scanner III at 580 nm. The system was found to give compact spots for ursolic acid (0.21), betulinic acid (0.29), stigmasterol (0.33) and lupeol (0.50). The relationship between the concentration of standard solutions and the peak response is linear within the concentration range of 100-600 ng/spot for ursolic acid, betulinic acid, stigmasterol and lupeol. The concentration of 134.2 and 146.1 mg of ursolic acid per gram of Clitorea ternatea (CT) and Canscora decussata (CD); 110.6 mg of betulinic acid per gram of EA; 92.75, 154.95, 31.947 and 39.21 mg of stigmasterol per gram of Evolvulus alsinoides (EA), Convolvulus pluricaulis (CP), CT and CD; 30.12 mg of lupeol per gram of CT were found. The proposed HPTLC method may use for routine quality testing and identification of Shankhpushpi botanicals.

  2. Ursolic acid, a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits intracellular trafficking of proteins and induces accumulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 linked to high-mannose-type glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Mitsuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid that is present in many plants, including medicinal herbs, and foods. Ursolic acid was initially identified as an inhibitor of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in response to interleukin-1α (IL-1α. We report here a novel biological activity: ursolic acid inhibits intracellular trafficking of proteins. Ursolic acid markedly inhibited the IL-1α-induced cell-surface ICAM-1 expression in human cancer cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. By contrast, ursolic acid exerted weak inhibitory effects on the IL-1α-induced ICAM-1 expression at the protein level. Surprisingly, we found that ursolic acid decreased the apparent molecular weight of ICAM-1 and altered the structures of N-linked oligosaccharides bound to ICAM-1. Ursolic acid induced the accumulation of ICAM-1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, which was linked mainly to high-mannose-type glycans. Moreover, in ursolic-acid-treated cells, the Golgi apparatus was fragmented into pieces and distributed over the cells. Thus, our results reveal that ursolic acid inhibits intracellular trafficking of proteins and induces the accumulation of ICAM-1 linked to high-mannose-type glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum.

  3. Ursolic acid inhibits the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Shuang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Yu-Hao; Zheng, Ling

    2015-05-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid compound, which is enriched with many herbs and plants, such as apple, cranberry and olive. UA performs multiple biological activities including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and hepatoprotection. However, the exact mechanism underlying the hepatoprotective activity of UA remains unclear. In this study, the effects of UA on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated. In vivo, UA treatment (0.14%, w/w) significantly decreased the liver weight, serum levels of ALT/AST and hepatic steatosis in db/db mice (a type 2 diabetic mouse model). In vitro, UA treatment (10-30 μg ml(-1)) significantly decreased palmitic acid induced intracellular lipid accumulation in L02 cells. Our results suggested that the beneficial effects of UA on NAFLD may be due to its ability to increase lipid β-oxidation and to inhibit the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Together, UA may be further considered as a natural compound for NAFLD treatment.

  4. Blockage of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and upregulation of let 7b are critically involved in ursolic acid induced apoptosis in malignant mesothelioma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Eun Jung; Won, Gunho; Lee, Jihyun; Yoon, Sang Wook; Lee, Ilho; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPN), which is caused by asbestos exposure, is one of aggressive lung tumors. In the present study, we elucidated the anti-tumor mechanism of ursolic acid in malignant mesotheliomas. Ursolic acid significantly exerted cytotoxicity in a time and dose dependent manner in H28, H2452 and MSTO-211H mesothelioma cells and inhibited cell proliferation by colony formation assay in a dose-dependent fashion. Also, ursolic acid treatment accumulated the sub-G1 population, attenuated the expression of procapase 9, cyclin D1, pAKT, p-glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha/beta (pGSK3α/β), β-catenin and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) and also cleaved caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in mesothelioma cells. Furthermore, ursolic acid treatment blocked epithelial and mesenchymal transition (EMT) molecules by activating E-cadherin as an epithelial marker and attenuating Vimentin, and Twist as mesenchymal molecules. Interestingly, miRNA array revealed that 23 miRNAs (>2 folds) including let-7b and miRNA3613-5p, miRNA134 and miRNA196b were significantly upregulated while 33 miRNAs were downregulated in ursolic acid treated H2452 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of let 7b using let-7b mimics enhanced the antitumor effect of ursolic acid to attenuate the expression of procaspases 3, pro-PARP, pAKT, β-catenin and Twist and increase sub-G1 accumulation in H2452 mesothelioma cells. Overall, our findings suggest that ursolic acid induces apoptosis via inhibition of EMT and activation of let7b in mesothelioma cells as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of malignant mesotheliomas.

  5. An evaluation of anti-tumor effect and toxicity of PEGylated ursolic acid liposomes

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    Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Tingting; Liu, Yanping; Xing, Shanshan; Li, Lei; Gao, Dawei, E-mail: dwgao@ysu.edu.cn [Yanshan University, Applying Chemistry Key Lab of Hebei Province, Department of Bioengineer (China)

    2016-02-15

    Therapy of solid tumors mediated by nano-drug delivery has attracted considerable interest. In our previous study, ursolic acid (UA) was successfully encapsulated into PEGylated liposomes. The study aimed to evaluate the tumor inhibition effect and cytotoxicity of the PEGylated UA liposomes by U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice. The liposomes were spherical particles with mean particle diameters of 127.2 nm. The tumor inhibition rate of PEGylated UA liposomes was 53.60 % on U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice, which was greater than those of the UA solution (18.25 %) and traditional UA liposome groups (40.75 %). The tumor cells apoptosis rate of PEGylated UA liposomes was 25.81 %, which was significantly higher than that of the traditional UA liposomes (13.37 %). Moreover, the kidney and liver did not emerge the pathological changes in UA therapeutic mice by histopathological analysis, while there were significant differences on tumor tissues among three UA formulation groups. The PEGylated UA liposomes exhibited higher anti-tumor activity and lower cytotoxicity, and the main reason was that the coating PEG layer improved UA liposome properties, such as enhancing the stability of liposomes, promoting the effect of slow release, and prolonging the time of blood circulation. This may shed light on the development of PEGylated nano-vehicles.

  6. Enhancement of Radiation Effects by Ursolic Acid in BGC-823 Human Adenocarcinoma Gastric Cancer Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Recent research has suggested that certain plant-derived polyphenols, i.e., ursolic acid (UA, which are reported to have antitumor activities, might be used to sensitize tumor cells to radiation therapy by inhibiting pathways leading to radiation therapy resistance. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects and possible mechanism of radiosensitization by UA in BGC-823 cell line from human adenocarcinoma gastric cancer in vitro. UA caused cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, and we used a sub-cytotoxicity concentration of UA to test radioenhancement efficacy with UA in gastric cancer. Radiosensitivity was determined by clonogenic survival assay. Surviving fraction of the combined group with irradiation and sub-cytotoxicity UA significantly decreased compared with the irradiation group. The improved radiosensitization efficacy was associated with enhanced G2/M arrest, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS, down-regulated Ki-67 level and improved apoptosis. In conclusion, as UA demonstrated potent antiproliferation effect and synergistic effect, it could be used as a potential drug sensitizer for the application of radiotherapy.

  7. Synthesis, stability and pharmacological evaluation of a novel codrug consisting of lamivudine and ursolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yan; Dai, ZhaoHui; Xu, Yi; Teng, YanBo; Wu, Bin

    2012-01-23

    A novel codrug (LMX) was obtained from lamivudine (LMV) and ursolic acid (UA) coupled with ethyl chloroacetate through an amide and ester linkage. The structure of LMX was confirmed by ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, IR and HRMS. Herein, the in vitro non-enzymatic and enzymatic hydrolysis and in vivo pharmacological activities of LMX were studied. The kinetics of hydrolysis of LMX was studied in aqueous solution of pH 1-10, 80% buffered human plasma and in the presence of lipase from Porcine pancreas (EC 3.1.1.3) at 37°C. It is found that LMX hydrolysis rate was significantly faster in lipase with half-life of 1.4h compared to pH 7.4 phosphate buffer (t(1/2) 11.2h) and buffered human plasma (t(1/2) 5.4h). The decomposition rates in aqueous solution (pH 1-10) showed a U-shaped curve. LMX was comparatively stable between pH 3 and 6 (half-life >40 h). Pharmacological studies indicated that LMX had the dual action of anti-hepatitis B virus activity and hepatoprotective effects against acute liver injury. These findings suggest that LMX could be a promising candidate agent for the treatment of hepatitis.

  8. Ursolic acid regulates aging process through enhancing of metabolic sensor proteins level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Soroush Alaghehband; Bakhtiari, Nuredin

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that Ursolic Acid (UA) ameliorates skeletal muscle performance through satellite cells proliferation and cellular energy status. In studying the potential role of the hypothalamus in aging, we developed a strategy to pursue UA effects on the hypothalamus anti-aging proteins such as; SIRT1, SIRT6, PGC-1β and α-Klotho. In this study, we used a model of aging animals (C57BL/6). UA dissolved in Corn oil (20mg/ml) and then administrated (200mg/Kg i.p injection) to mice, twice daily for 7days. After treatment times, the mice perfused and the hypothalamus isolated for preparing of tissue to Immunofluorescence microscopy. The data illustrated that UA significantly increased SIRT1 (∼3.5±0.3 folds) and SIRT-6 (∼1.5±0.2 folds) proteins overexpression (Presults showed that UA enhanced α-Klotho (∼3.3±0.3) and PGC-1β (∼2.6±0.2 folds) proteins levels (PUA through enhancing of anti-aging biomarkers (SIRT1 and SIRT6) and PGC-1β in hypothalamus regulates aging-process and attenuates mitochondrial-related diseases. In regard to the key role of α-Klotho in aging, our data indicate that UA may be on the horizon to forestall diseases of aging.

  9. [Research on ursolic acid production of Eriobotrya japonica cell suspension culture in WAVE bioreactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-hua; Yao, De-heng; Xu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Chang, Qiang; Su, Ming-hua

    2015-05-01

    Through scale-up cultivation of Eriobotrya japonica suspension cells using WAVE bioreactor, the cell growth and ursolic acid (UA) accumulation were studied. The comparison test was carried out in the flask and the reactor with cell dry weight (DW) and UA content as evaluation indexes. The culture medium, DW and UA content were compared in 1 L and 5 L working volumes of bioreactor. The orthogonal test with main actors of inoculation amount, speed and angle of rotation was developed to find the optimal combination, in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. DW of the cell growth and the UA content in bioreactor were higher than those of the shaker by 105.5% and 27.65% respectively. In bioreactor, the dynamic changes of elements in the fluid culture, the dry weight of the cell growth and the UA content in 1 L and 5 L working volumes were similar. Inoculation of 80 g, rotational speed of 26 r · min(-1), and angle of 6 ° was the optimal combination, and the cell biomass of 19.01 g · L(-1) and the UA content of 27.750 mg · g(-1) were achieved after 100 h cultivation in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. WAVE Bioreactor is more suitable than flasks for the E. japonica cell suspension culture, and culture parameters can be achieved from 1 L to 5 L amplification.

  10. Ursolic Acid Mediates Hepatic Protection through Enhancing of anti-aging Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Shadi; Bakhtiari, Nuredin; Jalalvand, Elham-Moslemee

    2017-05-30

    Age-associated loss of liver function has been recognized for decades. But, the mechanism driving liver regeneration and its decline with age remains elusive. Hence, to support of our previous studies about anti-aging effects of Ursolic Acid (UA), a compound which extensively present in apple peels. The aim of this study is to address whether UA might alter sensors of the cell metabolic state such as SIRT1, SIRT6, PGC-1β and Klotho proteins. To evaluate the effect of UA on hepatic indicated proteins, mice were administrated with UA twice daily for 7 days. The involvements of these proteins in the UA-mediated effect harmony hepatic protection were investigated by immunofluorescence microscopy technique. Our findings clearly illustrated that UA enhanced SIRT1 (~ 5 ± 0.2 folds) and SIRT6 (~ 8 ± 0.5 folds) proteins levels in hepatic, p<0.001. In addition, the data showed that UA increased PGC-1β (~ 7 ± 0.4 folds) protein overexpression, p<0.001. Moreover, we showed that UA up-regulated Klotho (~ 3.5 ± 0.2 folds) protein in order to improve hepatic performance, p<0.01. Our results suggest that UA through increasing of SIRT1 up-regulation ameliorate reverse cholesterol transport, fatty acid use and oxidative stress defense. In addition, it seems that UA by enhancing of SIRT6 expression promotes cholesterol homeostasis through repressing of SREBP1 and SREBP2. Reciprocally, UA might be involved in VLDL synthesis and exportation through PGC-1β up-regulation. Finally, UA might be as key regulators of mineral homeostasis and bile acid/cholesterol metabolism, by inducing of Klotho overexpression. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Studies of selected plant raw materials as alternative sources of triterpenes of oleanolic and ursolic acid types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Radosław

    2007-02-07

    The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of triterpene aglycones of saponin fractions isolated from vegetative and generative organs of three Silphium species, Silphium perfoliatum, Silphium trifoliatum, and Silphium integrifolium, as compared to materials used in the herbal industry such as Panax quinquefolium root and Calendula officinalis flower, was performed. The analyses revealed that triterpene aglycones of saponins isolated from tested Silphium and Calendula species were oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. It was found that Panax roots contained only the aglycone of oleanolic acid within the triterpene saponin group. The leaves of Silphium harvested in May were characterized by the highest content of oleanolic acid-They contained 17.03 mg/g dry weight of the triterpenic acid, on average. The seasons before flowering and at the beginning of that stage appeared to be the most efficient periods for leaf collection in reference to triterpene aglycone contents in plant yield. Moreover, it was found that inflorescences of S. trifoliatum and S. integrifolium contained oleanolic acid in amounts of 22.05 and 17.95 mg/g dry weight respectively, whereas Calendula flowers contained 20.53 mg/g dry weight. The oleanolic acid content in Panax roots was 3.15 mg/g dry weight. Ursolic acid most abundantly occurred in S. integrifolium and S. trifoliatum at concentrations of about 14.98 mg/g dry weight in leaves harvested before flowering (June) and to 15.50 mg/g dry weight in leaves collected during flowering.

  12. Preparation and transdermal diffusion of ursolic acid ethosomes%熊果酸醇质体的制备和体外透皮研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦; 吴青青; 张振海; 周蕾; 刘璇; 杜萌; 贾晓斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To prepare ursolic acid ethosomes and investigate the penetration characteristics of ursolic ethosomes as a transdermal vehicle. Method: Ursolic acid ethosomes were prepared by injection method, and the shape and particle size of the ethosomes were analyzed. Ursolic acid permeation tests in vitro through the skin of rats were performed in TP-3 diffusion cell. The accumulated permeation amounts of ursolic acid 10% isopropanol solution, ursolic acid liposomes, ursolic acid ethosomes were compared. Result: The average encapsulation percentage, particle size, and Zeta potential of the ethosomes were (95.83 ±0. 86 ) %, ( 87. 5 ± 7. 5 ) nm and - (38.4 ±3.6) mV, respectively. The accumulated permeation amount of the ethosomes in 12 h was 146. 49 μg ·cm-2, and its transdermal permeability in 12 h was 12. 17 μg · cm-2 · h-1. Conclusion: The encapsulation percentage of the ethosomes is good,and the stability of the ursolic acid ethosomes is fine. Ethosomes can significantiy enhance the diffusion rate of ursolic acid through the skin of rats.%目的:制备熊果酸醇质体并考察醇质体作为熊果酸经皮给药载体的渗透特性.方法:采用乙醇注入法制备熊果酸醇质体,并对其形态及粒径进行分析;采用TP-3型透皮扩散实验仪进行体外透皮吸收试验,比较熊果酸10%异丙醇溶液、熊果酸醇质体、熊果酸脂质体的经皮累积渗透量和渗透速率.结果:此方法制得的醇质体平均包封率为(95.83±0.86)%,平均粒径为(87.5±7.5)nln,Zata电位为-(38.4±3.6)mV.醇质体12 h的累积透过量为146.49μg·cm-2,12 h的渗透速率为12.17μg·cm-2.h-1.结论:醇质体包封率高,稳定性好,可显著促进熊果酸的透皮吸收.

  13. Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. as an Alternative Source of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA have been proven to possess many biological activities, and much attention is focused on the search for plants which are rich in OA and UA. In this report, the OA and UA accumulation characteristics were investigated in 47 cultivars of Chinese herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. and were followed in three cultivars over different developmental stages as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. OA and UA levels in leaves and stems demonstrated an overall upward trend from May 1 to September 15 except for UA in the leaves of “Hong Feng”. The maximum values of OA and UA in leaves of “Yangfei Chu Yu”, “Fen Zhu Pan” and “Hong Feng” were 852.98, 575.60, 290.48 μg/g FW and 924.94, 827.36, 432.67 μg/g FW, respectively. The maximum values of OA and UA in stems of “Yangfei Chu Yu”, “Fen Zhu Pan” and “Hong Feng” were 359.28, 90.49, 43.90 μg/g FW and 326.86, 82.25, 56.63 μg/g FW, respectively. OA and UA contents in leaves of 47 different herbaceous peony cultivars ranged from 66.73–618.12 and 36.23–665.14 μg/g FW, respectively, with average values of 171.62 and 227.57 μg/g FW, respectively. The results suggested that the aboveground parts of herbaceous peony may be used as an alternative source of OA and UA for medicinal purposes in addition to its ornamental purposes.

  14. Ursolic acid ameliorates aging-metabolic phenotype through promoting of skeletal muscle rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Nuredin; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Tashakor, Amin; Hemmati, Roohullah

    2015-07-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a lipophilic compound, which highly found in apple peels. UA has some certain features, of the most important is its anabolic effects on skeletal muscles, which in turn plays a prominent role in the aging process, encouraged us to evaluate skeletal muscle rejuvenation. This study seeks to address the two following questions: primarily, we wonder to know if UA increases anti-aging biomarkers (SIRT1 and PGC-1α) in the isolated satellite cells, to pave the way for satellite cells proliferation. The results revealed that UA elevated the expression of SIRT1 (∼ 35 folds) and PGC-1α (∼ 175 folds) genes. The other question that needs to be asked, however, is to understand whether it is possible to generalize the in vitro findings to in vivo. For this, a study was designed to investigate the effects of UA on the cellular energy status in the animal models (C57BL/6 mice). We found that UA decreased cellular energy charges such as ATP (∼ 3 times) and ADP (∼ 18 times). With respect to the role of UA in energy expenditure and as an anti-aging biomarker, one might wonder to elucidate skeletal muscle rejuvenation as well as satellite cells proliferation and neomyogenesis. The results illustrated that UA boosted neomyogenesis through enhancing the number of satellite cells. In addition, rejuvenation effects of UA on the skeletal muscle promptly encouraged us to reexamine the performance of skeletal muscles. The results indicated that UA through increasing myoglobin expression (∼ 2 folds) accompanied with transforming of glycolytic to fast oxidative status chiefly and slow-twitch muscle fibers. To the best of our knowledge, it seems that UA might be considered as a potential candidate for treatment of pathological conditions associated with muscular atrophy and dysfunction, including skeletal muscle atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), sarcopenia and metabolic diseases of the muscles.

  15. SIRT1/Atg5/autophagy are involved in the antiatherosclerosis effects of ursolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qixiao; Hao, Ranran; Wang, Wencheng; Gao, Hui; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiatherosclerosis effects of ursolic acid (UA) in high-fat diet-fed quails (Coturnix coturnix) and potential mechanism. Quails were treated with high-fat diet (14 % pork oil, 1 % cholesterol w/w) with or without UA (50, 150, or 300 mg/kg/day) for 10 weeks. Serum lipid profile was assessed at 0, 4.5, and 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, serum antioxidant status and morphology of aorta were assessed. Additionally, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to 100 μg/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) for 24 h, with or without pretreatment with UA (5, 10 or 20 μM) for 16 h, autophagy inhibitor 3-MA 5 mM for 2 h, or SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 10 μM for 2 h. Cell viability and oxidative stress status were assessed and autophagy status was determined. Acetylation of lysine residue on Atg5 was assessed with immunoprecipitation. In results, high-fat diet negatively affected serum lipid profile and antioxidant status in quails and induced significant histological changes. Cotreatment with UA remarkably alleviated such changes. In HUVECs, ox-LDL treatment induced significant cytotoxicity along with oxidative stress, while UA cotreatment alleviated such changes significantly. UA treatment induced autophagy, enhanced SIRT1 expression, and decreased acetylation of lysine residue on Atg5. Cotreatment with 3-MA or EX-527 effectively abolished UA's protective effects. In summary, UA exerted antiatherosclerosis effects in quails and protected HUVECs from ox-LDL induced cytotoxicity, and the mechanism is associated with increased SIRT1 expression, decreased Atg5 acetylation on lysine residue, and increased autophagy.

  16. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on composite resins containing ursolic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyeon; Song, Minju; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Park, Sung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid (UA)-containing composites on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm. Materials and Methods Composite resins with five different concentrations (0.04, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt%) of UA (U6753, Sigma Aldrich) were prepared, and their flexural strengths were measured according to ISO 4049. To evaluate the effect of carbohydrate source on biofilm formation, either glucose or sucrose was used as a nutrient source, and to investigate the effect of saliva treatment, the specimen were treated with either unstimulated whole saliva or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). For biofilm assay, composite disks were transferred to S. mutans suspension and incubated for 24 hr. Afterwards, the specimens were rinsed with PBS and sonicated. The colony forming units (CFU) of the disrupted biofilm cultures were enumerated. For growth inhibition test, the composites were placed on a polystyrene well cluster, and S. mutans suspension was inoculated. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was recorded by Infinite F200 pro apparatus (TECAN). One-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction were used for the data analyses. Results The flexural strength values did not show significant difference at any concentration (p > 0.01). In biofilm assay, the CFU score decreased as the concentration of UA increased. The influence of saliva pretreatment was conflicting. The sucrose groups exhibited higher CFU score than glucose group (p composite showed inhibitory effect on S. mutans biofilm formation and growth. PMID:23741708

  17. [Mechanism of antitumor effect of ursolic acid on T (8;21) leukemia cell kasumi-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Feng; Gao, Li; Duan, Hao-Qing; Wang, Wei; Li, Yan; Ma, Yi-Gai

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the anti-tumor effect of ursolic acid (UA) on t(8;21) leukemia cell line kasumi-1 and its possible mechanisms. The kasumi-1 cells were treated with UA at different concentration for different duration of time. The growth inhibition of kasumi-1 treated with UA was detected by using CCK-8 test, and the morphological changes of kasumi-1 cells were observed by Wright's staining. Furthermore, the apoptosis rate of kasumi-1 was examined by flow cytometry. Lastly, the expression of AML1-ETO, KIT, MYC, CCND1, BCL-2, P53, BAX, MDM2 and protein were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot respectively. The results showed that the UA obviously inhibited the growth of kasumi-1 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. The apoptotic morphological changes of cells were presented when kasumi-1 cells were treated with UA for 48 hours. The apoptotic rate of kasumi-1 cells increased in a dose- and time-dependent ways, and the mRNA levels of AML1-ETO, KIT, MYC, CCND1, BCL2, MDM2 decreased in kasumi-1 cells treated with UA, as well as the protein levels. Meanwhile, UA up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of P53 in the same manner. It is concluded that UA can exert its anti-tumor effect by inhibiting the proliferation and inducing the apoptosis of kasumi-1 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manners, that may provide the clues for a new targeting therapy to t(8;21) leukemia.

  18. Particle size tailoring of ursolic acid nanosuspensions for improved anticancer activity by controlled antisolvent precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yancai; Song, Ju; Chow, Shing Fung; Chow, Albert H L; Zheng, Ying

    2015-10-15

    The present study was aimed at tailoring the particle size of ursolic acid (UA) nanosuspension for improved anticancer activity. UA nanosuspensions were prepared by antisolvent precipitation using a four-stream multi-inlet vortex mixer (MIVM) under defined conditions of varying solvent composition, drug feeding concentration or stream flow rate. The resulting products were characterized for particle size and polydispersity. Two of the UA nanosuspensions with mean particle sizes of 100 and 300 nm were further assessed for their in-vitro activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells using fluorescence microscopy with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, as well as flow cytometry with propidium (PI) staining and with double staining by fluorescein isothiocyanate. It was revealed that the solvent composition, drug feeding concentration and stream flow rate were critical parameters for particle size control of the UA nanosuspensions generated with the MIVM. Specifically, decreasing the UA feeding concentration or increasing the stream flow rate or ethanol content resulted in a reduction of particle size. Excellent reproducibility for nanosuspension production was demonstrated for the 100 and 300 nm UA preparations with a deviation of not more than 5% in particle size from the mean value of three independent batches. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that these two different sized UA nanosuspensions, particularly the 300 nm sample, exhibited a higher anti-proliferation activity against the MCF-7 cells and afforded a larger population of these cells in both early and late apoptotic phases. In conclusion, MIVM is a robust and pragmatic tool for tailoring the particle size of the UA nanosuspension. Particle size appears to be a critical determinant of the anticancer activity of the UA nanoparticles.

  19. Ursolic acid, a natural pentacylcic triterpene from Ochrosia elliptica and its role in the management of certain neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola M Labib

    2016-01-01

    Abbreviations used: AHT: African Human Trypanosomiasis, ATCC: American type cell culture, BuOH: n -butanol, DCM: dichloromethane, DFMO: difluoromethylornithine, EtOAc: ethyl acetate, FCS: fetal calf serum, HMBC: Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation, HMQC: Heteronuclear Multiple-Quantum Correlation, HR-ESI-FTMS: High Resolution Electrospray ionozation Mass Spectrometry, MENA: Middle East and North Africa, MeOH: Methanol, MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , NTDs: Neglected tropical diseases, TLC: Thin layer chromatography, UA: Ursolic acid, UV: Ultra violet, WHO: World Health Organization.

  20. Poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles loaded with ursolic acid: Characterization and in vitro evaluation of radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antônio, Emilli; Antunes, Osmar Dos Reis; de Araújo, Isis Souza; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles containing ursolic acid (UA) by an emulsification-solvent evaporation technique and evaluate the radical scavenging activity over hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and cytotoxicity over erythrocytes and tumor cells. Nanoparticles were successfully obtained and presented mean size of 246nm with spherical or slightly oval morphology, negative zeta potential and 96% of UA encapsulation efficiency. Analyses of FTIR, XRD and DSC-DTG suggest interaction/complexation of UA with PLA matrix and drug amorphization promoted by nanoencapsulation process. Stability study showed that room temperature was the best condition for nanoparticles storage. The in vitro release study showed UA was released from the polymeric matrix over two constants (α, β), suggesting a second order kinetics. After 120h of assay, 60% of UA were released by diffusion. In the HOCl scavenging activity, after 72h of assay UA-loaded nanoparticles presented the same efficacy of free drug. In cytotoxicity test over red blood cells, UA-loaded nanoparticles showed less toxicity on cells than free drug. The cytotoxicity assay over melanoma cells line (B16-F10) showed after 72h that nanoparticles were able to reduce the cell viability in 70%. PLA nanoparticles showed be potential carriers for UA maintaining the antioxidant and antitumor activity of the UA and decreasing its cytotoxicity over normal cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ursolic acid increases glucose uptake through the PI3K signaling pathway in adipocytes.

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    Yonghan He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ursolic acid (UA, a triterpenoid compound, is reported to have a glucose-lowering effect. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Adipose tissue is one of peripheral tissues that collectively control the circulating glucose levels. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to determine the effect and further the mechanism of action of UA in adipocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate and treated with different concentrations of UA. NBD-fluorescent glucose was used as the tracer to measure glucose uptake and Western blotting used to determine the expression and activity of proteins involved in glucose transport. It was found that 2.5, 5 and 10 µM of UA promoted glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner (17%, 29% and 35%, respectively. 10 µM UA-induced glucose uptake with insulin stimulation was completely blocked by the phosphatidylinositol (PI 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor wortmannin (1 µM, but not by SB203580 (10 µM, the inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, or compound C (2.5 µM, the inhibitor of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK inhibitor. Furthermore, the downstream protein activities of the PI3K pathway, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK and phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threoninekinase (AKT were increased by 10 µM of UA in the presence of insulin. Interestingly, the activity of AS160 and protein kinase C (PKC and the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 were stimulated by 10 µM of UA under either the basal or insulin-stimulated status. Moreover, the translocation of GLUT4 from cytoplasm to cell membrane was increased by UA but decreased when the PI3K inhibitor was applied. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that UA stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the PI3K pathway, providing important information regarding the mechanism of action of UA for its anti-diabetic effect.

  2. In vitro anticancer activities of the ursolic acid isoluted from salvia chinensis beth%中药石见穿提取物熊果酸体外抑制肿瘤细胞增殖的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓萍; 徐敬宣; 林黎; 薛姣; 胡静; 杨阳; 胡文静; 刘宝瑞

    2012-01-01

    目的:考察从石见穿醇提物氯仿部位提取分离得到的熊果酸对5株人肿瘤细胞株的体外增殖抑制作用,为开发新的抗癌药物提供理论依据.方法:使用95%工业酒精对石见穿饮片进行提取,然后分别用石油醚、乙酸乙酯、氯仿和正丁醇依次对乙醇提取部位进行分段萃取,采用系统溶剂法、梯度洗脱、柱色谱分离、重结晶等方法,从石见穿醇提物氯仿部位中分离得到熊果酸.采用MTT法测定熊果酸对体外培养的5株人肿瘤细胞株的增殖抑制作用.结果:在体外,熊果酸对于5株细胞株具有较强的增殖抑制作用.结论:熊果酸是石见穿醇提物、氯仿部位发挥体外抗肿瘤作用的主要有效成分之一.%Objective:To investigate in vitro anticancer activities of ursolic acid isoluted from salvia chinensis beth. MethodS;The extraction from salvia chinensis beth. with 95% ethanol and then from the ethanol extraction part in turn with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, trichloromethane and n - butanol was conducted. The means of systematic solvent extraction, gradient elution, column chromatography and recrystallization were used to separate the trichlo-romethane extraction part from salvia chinensis beth. The inhibitory effects of ursolic acid on 5 human tumor lines were measured by MTT assay. Results: The ursolic acid isoluted from salvia chinensis beth. had more effective inhibitory effects on 5 human tumor lines in vitro. Conclusion: The ursolic acid is main anticancer effective component of etha-nol extraction part and trichloromethane extraction part from salvia chinensis beth. in vitro.

  3. A New Synthetic Ursolic Acid Derivative IUA with Anti-Tumor Efficacy Against Osteosarcoma Cells via Inhibition of JNK Signaling Pathway

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    Jian Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents and is characterized by frequent metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Because osteosarcoma cells are not highly susceptible to current chemotherapy drugs, new alternative strategies for the treatment of osteosarcoma are needed. This study was undertaken to investigate the inhibitory effects of a new synthetic ursolic acid derivative IUA on osteosarcoma cells and to explore its molecular mechanism. We also intended to identify new therapeutic candidates. Methods: We used MTT assay to assess the effect of IUA on the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells. Western-blot analysis was performed to examine downstream molecular events. The Annexin V method was used to evaluate the effect of IUA on apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells. The cell cycle of IUA-treated cells was examined by flow cytometry, and the in vivo effects of this new ursolic acid derivative were evaluated in a mouse osteosarcoma model. Results: The results showed that the new synthetic ursolic acid derivative IUA significantly decreased viability of osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. It could also induce apoptosis and G1 phase arrest of osteosarcoma cells. The JNK signaling pathway was significantly inhibited, and cleaved caspase-3 protein was increased. Conclusion: We concluded that the new synthetic ursolic acid derivative IUA induces proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo via the down-regulation of the JNK signaling pathway, making it a promising agent for the prevention and treatment of human osteosarcoma.

  4. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of the in vivo trypanocidal activity of ursolic acid-loaded solid dispersion with poloxamer 407 and sodium caprate

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    Josimar Oliveira Eloy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid is a promising candidate for treatment of Chagas disease; however it has low aqueous solubility and intestinal absorption, which are both limiting factors for bioavailability. Among the strategies to enhance the solubility and dissolution of lipophilic drugs, solid dispersions are growing in popularity. In this study, we employed a mixture of the surfactants poloxamer 407 with sodium caprate to produce a solid dispersion containing ursolic acid aimed at enhancing both drug dissolution and in vivo trypanocidal activity. Compared to the physical mixture, the solid dispersion presented higher bulk density and smaller particle size. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy results showed hydrogen bonding intermolecular interactions between drug and poloxamer 407. X-ray diffractometry experiments revealed the conversion of the drug from its crystalline form to a more soluble amorphous structure. Consequently, the solubility of ursolic acid in the solid dispersion was increased and the drug dissolved in a fast and complete manner. Taken together with the oral absorption-enhancing property of sodium caprate, these results explained the increase of the in vivo trypanocidal activity of ursolic acid in solid dispersion, which also proved to be safe by cytotoxicity evaluation using the LLC-MK2 cell line.

  5. Antidepressant-like effect of ursolic acid isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L. in mice: evidence for the involvement of the dopaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, D G; Neis, V B; Balen, G O; Colla, A; Cunha, M P; Dalmarco, J B; Pizzolatti, M G; Prediger, R D; Rodrigues, A L S

    2012-12-01

    Ursolic acid, a constituent from Rosmarinus officinalis, is a triterpenoid compound which has been extensively known for its anticancer and antioxidant properties. In the present study, we investigated the antidepressant-like effect of ursolic acid isolated from this plant in two predictive tests of antidepressant property, the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Furthermore, the involvement of dopaminergic system in its antidepressant-like effect was investigated in the TST. Ursolic acid reduced the immobility time in the TST (0.01 and 0.1mg/kg, p.o.) and in the FST (10mg/kg, p.o.), similar to fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o.), imipramine (1mg/kg, p.o.) and bupropion (10mg/kg, p.o.). The effect of ursolic acid (0.1mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST was prevented by the pretreatment of mice with SCH23390 (0.05mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist) and sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist). The administration of a sub-effective dose of ursolic acid (0.001mg/kg, p.o.) in combination with sub-effective doses of SKF38393 (0.1mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D(1) receptor agonist), apomorphine (0.5μg/kg, i.p., a preferential dopamine D(2) receptor agonist) or bupropion (1mg/kg, i.p., a dual dopamine/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor) reduced the immobility time in the TST as compared with either drug alone. Ursolic acid and dopaminergic agents alone or in combination did not cause significant alterations in the locomotor and exploratory activities. These results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of ursolic acid in the TST is likely mediated by an interaction with the dopaminergic system, through the activation of dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors.

  6. Variation of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acid in the Flesh of Persimmon Fruit among Different Cultivars

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    Jun Tao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA are important bioactive components in many plants, including persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.. The present work was carried out to determine OA and UA contents in the flesh of persimmon fruit from 32 cultivars, including 23 astringent and 9 non-astringent ones, by applying high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection. Both OA and UA were present in all of the investigated cultivars, except for three, ‘Hiratanenashi’, ‘Ribenhongshi’ and ‘Matsumotowase’. The OA content ranged from traces to 88.57 μg/g FW, and that of UA were between traces and 27.64 μg/g FW.

  7. 熊果酸抑制P-糖蛋白外排功能%Inhibition of the function of p-glycoprotein by ursolic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任华益

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究女贞子中的熊果酸对P-糖蛋白(P-gp)功能的影响.方法 用环孢素A作为P-糖蛋白功能抑制的阳性对照,用流式细胞术分析熊果酸对P-糖蛋白底物--罗丹明123在Caco-2细胞中外排的影响.结果 当熊果酸浓度在0.01 μmol·L-1时,实验组细胞内荧光与阴性对照组间无显著性差异(P>0.05); 当熊果酸浓度在0.1~1 μmol·L-1时,实验组细胞内荧光强度显著强于阴性对照组(P0.05). When the concentration was 0.1~1 μmol·L-1, the intracellular fluorescence of ursolic acid group was significantly higher than that of the negative control group(P<0.05),and the concentration increased with the intracellular fluorescence of ursolic acid group. When the concentration was 10 μmol·L-1, the intracellular fluorescence of ursolic acid group was significantly lower than that of the negative control group(P<0.05),and the reason to be found out in later researches.Conclusion At low concentration (0.01 μmol·L-1), ursolic acid has no effect on the function of P-glycoprotein;while at high concentration while(0.1~1 μmol·L-1), ursolic acid inhibits the function of P-glycoprotein.

  8. Determination of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and amygdalin in the flower of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunhua; Chen, Kunsong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Qingjun; Zhang, Wangshu; Li, Xian

    2007-07-01

    Simple and accurate HPLC methods were developed for the determination of oleanolic acid (OA), ursolic acid (UA) and amygdalin in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) flower, which is commonly used for the treatment of various diseases as a traditional Chinese medicine. HPLC assay was performed on a reversed-phase C(18) column and all three compounds were detected at 210 nm with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The mobile phase consisted of methanol (A) and 0.03 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 2.8) (B) with a ratio of 88:12 (A:B, v/v) for simultaneous detection of OA and UA, and 25:75 (A:B, v/v) for detection of amygdalin. The established methods showed good precision and accuracy with overall intra-day and inter-day variation of 0.99-3.55 and 1.05-4.05%, respectively, and overall recoveries of 97.37-99.32% for the three compounds. Application of these methods to determine the OA, UA and amygdalin contents in loquat flower showed that cultivar had a minor effect on the contents of all three compounds, with average amounts of 0.38-0.51 mg OA/g dry weight (DW), 2.15-2.68 mg UA/g DW and 1.23-1.56 mg amygdalin/g DW among five loquat cultivars tested. However, developmental stages and flower tissues showed significant effect on the contents of all three bioactive components. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Discovery of ursolic acid prodrug (NX-201): Pharmacokinetics and in vivo antitumor effects in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeohong; Lim, Jee Woong; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Younggi; Chun, Keun Ho

    2016-11-15

    The aim of our study was to develop ursolic acid (UA) prodrugs in order to overcome UA's weakness, which has an extremely low bioavailability. UA-medoxomil (NX-201), one of our UA prodrugs, showed an improved bioavailability about 200times better than UA in rodent model. According to in vivo test performed with PANC-1 xenograft SCID mouse model, tumor growth rate decreased dose-dependently and 100mg/kg dose of NX-201 had an anticancer effect comparable to gemcitabine. Most of all the combination of NX-201 (50mg/kg, po, daily) and gemcitabine (40mg/kg, iv, 2timesperweek) even reduced tumor size after three weeks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous estimation of three triterpenoids-ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from flowers, leaves and formulations of Rhododendron arboreum Smith. using validated HPTLC method

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    Sunita Shilajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper enfolds a rapid and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method for the simultaneous estimation of three triterpenoids namely ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from the leaves, flowers and herbal formulations of Rhododendron arboreum Smith., an ethnomedicinal Himalayan tree. All the three phytoconstituents have high therapeutic value. Aims and Objectives: The main aim is to separate, resolve and simultaneously quantitate the three markers-ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from R. arboreum using normal phase HPTLC. Materials and Methods: Separation was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica 60 F 254 followed by detection of ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol carried out by derivatizing the plate with 10% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent followed by heating at 110΀C for 7 min. Camag TLC scanner 4 equipped with winCATS software was used for densitrometric scanning at 366 nm. The proposed method was further validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and sensitivity as per the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH guidelines. Results: A good linear relationship was obtained for the calibration plots with r 2 = 0.999, 0.993 and 0.995 for ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol, respectively. Accuracy of the method was checked by recovery study conducted at three different levels with the average recovery between 95% and 98% for all the three markers. Conclusion: The developed method can be used for the assessment of the quality of botanicals in terms of bioactive content.

  11. Simultaneous estimation of three triterpenoids-ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from flowers, leaves and formulations of Rhododendron arboreum Smith. using validated HPTLC method

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Shilajan; Gauri Swar

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper enfolds a rapid and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous estimation of three triterpenoids namely ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from the leaves, flowers and herbal formulations of Rhododendron arboreum Smith., an ethnomedicinal Himalayan tree. All the three phytoconstituents have high therapeutic value. Aims and Objectives: The main aim is to separate, resolve and simultaneously quantitate the three markers-ur...

  12. Efficiency and selectivity of triterpene acid extraction from decoctions and tinctures prepared from apple peels

    OpenAIRE

    Siani, Antonio C.; Nakamura, Marcos J.; dos Santos, Daniel S.; Jose L. Mazzei; do Nascimento, Adriana C.; Ligia M.M. Valente

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the extraction efficiency of ursolic (UA) and oleanolic acids (OA), as well as the total phenols in aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of dry apple peels at room temperature. Materials and Methods: After running preliminary assays on decoctions and tinctures (ethanol: water 7:3 v/v), the extracts from dried apple (cv. Fuji) peels were obtained by static maceration over varied intervals (2 to 180 days). The UA and OA content in the extracts was quantified by Hi...

  13. Ursolic acid sensitizes cisplatin-resistant HepG2/DDP cells to cisplatin via inhibiting Nrf2/ARE pathway

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    Wu S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Shouhai Wu,1,2 Tianpeng Zhang,1 Jingsheng Du3 1School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Center for Regenerative and Translational Medicine, 3Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Background: Combinations of adjuvant sensitizers with anticancer drugs is a promising new strategy to reverse chemoresistance. Ursolic acid (UA is one of the natural pentacyclic triterpene compounds known to have many pharmacological characteristics such as anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. This study investigates whether UA can sensitize hepatocellular carcinoma cells to cisplatin.Materials and methods: Cells were transfected with nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 small interfering RNA and Nrf2 complementary DNA by using Lipofectin 2000. The cytotoxicity of cells was investigated by Cell Counting Kit 8 assay. Cell apoptosis, cell cycle, reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by flow cytometry fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The protein level of Nrf2, NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, glutathione S-transferase (GST, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 was detected by Western blot analysis.Results: The results showed that the reverse index was 2.9- and 9.69-fold by UA of 1.125 µg/mL and 2.25 µg/mL, respectively, for cisplatin to HepG2/DDP cells. UA–cisplatin combination induced cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species, blocked the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase, and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, UA–cisplatin dramatically decreased the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes. The sensibilization of UA–cisplatin combination was diminished in Nrf2 small interfering RNA-transfected HepG2/DDP cells, as well as in Nrf2 complementary DNA-transfected HepG2/DDP cells.Conclusion: The results confirmed the sensibilization of UA on HepG2/DDP cells to

  14. Ursolic acid attenuates temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma cells by downregulating O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression

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    Zhu, Zhongling; Du, Shuangshuang; Ding, Fengxia; Guo, Shanshan; Ying, Guoguang; Yan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The DNA-alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent against malignant glioma, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, the clinical efficacy of TMZ is limited in many patients because of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)-driven resistance. Thus, new strategies to overcome TMZ resistance are urgently needed. Ursolic acid (UA) is a naturally derived pentacyclic triterpene acid that exerts broad anticancer effects, and shows capability to cross the blood-brain barrier. In this study, we evaluated the possible synergistic effect of TMZ and UA in resistant GBM cell lines. The results showed that UA prevented the proliferation of resistant GBM cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with TMZ or UA treatment alone, the combination treatment of TMZ and UA synergistically enhanced cytotoxicity and senescence in TMZ-resistant GBM cells. This effect was correlated with the downregulation of MGMT. Moreover, experimental results with an in vivo mouse xenograft model showed that the combination treatment of UA and TMZ reduced tumor volumes by depleting MGMT. Therefore, UA as both a monotherapy and a resensitizer, might be a candidate agent for patients with refractory malignant gliomas. PMID:27508051

  15. Ursolic acid attenuates diabetic mesangial cell injury through the up-regulation of autophagy via miRNA-21/PTEN/Akt/mTOR suppression.

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    Xinxing Lu

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of ursolic acid on autophagy mediated through the miRNA-21-targeted phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway in rat mesangial cells cultured under high glucose (HG conditions.Rat glomerular mesangial cells were cultured under normal glucose, HG, HG with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or HG with ursolic acid conditions. Cell proliferation and hypertrophy were assayed using an MTT assay and the ratio of total protein to cell number, respectively. The miRNA-21 expression was detected using RT-qPCR. The expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling signatures, autophagy-associated protein and collagen I was detected by western blotting and RT-qPCR. Autophagosomes were observed using electron microscopy.Compared with mesangial cells cultured under normal glucose conditions, the cells exposed to HG showed up-regulated miRNA-21 expression, down-regulated PTEN protein and mRNA expression, up-regulated p85PI3K, pAkt, pmTOR, p62/SQSTMI, and collagen I expression and down-regulated LC3II expression. Ursolic acid and LY294002 inhibited HG-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy and proliferation, down-regulated p85PI3K, pAkt, pmTOR, p62/SQSTMI, and collagen I expression and up-regulated LC3II expression. However, LY294002 did not affect the expression of miRNA-21 and PTEN. Ursolic acid down-regulated miRNA-21 expression and up-regulated PTEN protein and mRNA expression.Ursolic acid inhibits the glucose-induced up-regulation of mesangial cell miRNA-21 expression, up-regulates PTEN expression, inhibits the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, and enhances autophagy to reduce the accumulation of the extracellular matrix and ameliorate cell hypertrophy and proliferation.

  16. Folate-Chitosan Nanoparticles Loaded with Ursolic Acid Confer Anti-Breast Cancer Activities in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Pi, Jiang; Yang, Fen; Jiang, Jinhuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Bai, Haihua; Shao, Mingtao; Huang, Lei; Zhu, Haiyan; Yang, Peihui; Li, Lihua; Li, Ting; Cai, Jiye; Chen, Zheng W.

    2016-07-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) has proved to have broad-spectrum anti-tumor effects, but its poor water solubility and incompetent targeting property largely limit its clinical application and efficiency. Here, we synthesized a nanoparticle-based drug carrier composed of chitosan, UA and folate (FA-CS-UA-NPs) and demonstrated that FA-CS-UA-NPs could effectively diminish off-target effects and increase local drug concentrations of UA. Using MCF-7 cells as in vitro model for anti-cancer mechanistic studies, we found that FA-CS-UA-NPs could be easily internalized by cancer cells through a folate receptor-mediated endocytic pathway. FA-CS-UA-NPs entered into lysosome, destructed the permeability of lysosomal membrane, and then got released from lysosomes. Subsequently, FA-CS-UA-NPs localized into mitochondria but not nuclei. The prolonged retention of FA-CS-UA-NPs in mitochondria induced overproduction of ROS and destruction of mitochondrial membrane potential, and resulted in the irreversible apoptosis in cancer cells. In vivo experiments showed that FA-CS-UA-NPs could significantly reduce breast cancer burden in MCF-7 xenograft mouse model. These results suggested that FA-CS-UA-NPs could further be explored as an anti-cancer drug candidate and that our approach might provide a platform to develop novel anti-cancer drug delivery system.

  17. Sequential treatment with ursolic acid chlorophenyl triazole followed by 5-fluorouracil shows synergistic activity in small cell lung cancer cells

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    Rui-Xia Zhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Combination therapy has prolonged the survival of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC, an aggressive neoplasm characterized by a high rate of metastasis. In the present study the effect of sequential treatment of ursolic acid chlorophenyl triazole (UACT followed by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU on human small cell lung cancer cells was investigated. The results revealed a synergistic effect of the sequential treatment with UACT and 5-FUcombination on cytotoxic activities, NF-kB protein activation, repression of TNF-induced NF-kB-dependent reporter gene expression, and TNF-induced COX-2, MMP-9 and Cyclin D1 activation in H209 cells. The synergism in apoptotic cell death was observed in H209, H69, 87-5,and Lu135 cells. The synergistic effect of UACT and 5-FU was observed at a concentration of 50 nM of UACT and 20 µM of 5-FU. These results indicate that UACT and 5-FU combination can be a promising chemotherapeutic regimen in the treatment of SCLC.

  18. Crucial role of heme oxygenase-1 in the sensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia cell line Kasumi-1 to ursolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dan; Fang, Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Jishi; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Yaming; Hu, Xiuying; Wang, Ping; Zhou, Shengshu

    2014-04-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), which has been used extensively as an antileukemic agent in traditional Chinese medicine, is safely edible if originating from food. We found that the apoptotic rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtype M2 (AML-M2) cell line Kasumi-1 treated by UA was higher than those of other leukemia cell lines, but was not as high as that treated by arabinofuranosyl cytidine (Ara-C), suggesting that UA is an important chemotherapeutic agent to treat AML-M2. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a key enzyme exerting potent cytoprotection, cell proliferation, and drug resistance. HO-1 in Kasumi-1 cells was upregulated by being treated with low-dose rather than high-dose UA. Inhibition of HO-1 by zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) IX sensitized Kasumi-1 cells to UA, and the apoptotic rate was close to that induced by Ara-C (PKasumi-1 cell line was the most sensitive to UA, but the apoptotic effect was inferior to that treated by Ara-C because of HO-1 upregulation. AML-M2 can feasibly be treated by target-inhibiting HO-1 that enhances the antileukemia effects of UA in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Ursolic acid inhibits leucine-stimulated mTORC1 signaling by suppressing mTOR localization to lysosome.

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    Xiang Ou

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid (UA, a pentacyclic triterpenoid widely found in medicinal herbs and fruits, has been reported to possess a wide range of beneficial properties including anti-hyperglycemia, anti-obesity, and anti-cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of UA remain largely unknown. Here we show that UA inhibits leucine-induced activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 signaling pathway in C2C12 myotubes. The UA-mediated inhibition of mTORC1 is independent of Akt, tuberous sclerosis complex 1/2 (TSC1/2, and Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb, suggesting that UA negatively regulates mTORC1 signaling by targeting at a site downstream of these mTOR regulators. UA treatment had no effect on the interaction between mTOR and its activator Raptor or inhibitor Deptor, but suppressed the binding of RagB to Raptor and inhibited leucine-induced mTOR lysosomal localization. Taken together, our study identifies UA as a direct negative regulator of the mTORC1 signaling pathway and suggests a novel mechanism by which UA exerts its beneficial function.

  20. Down-Regulation of AKT Signalling by Ursolic Acid Induces Intrinsic Apoptosis and Sensitization to Doxorubicin in Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Victor Hugo; Vögler, Oliver; Barceló, Francisca; Martín-Broto, Javier; Martínez-Serra, Jordi; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Alemany, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Several important biological activities have been attributed to the pentacyclic triterpene ursolic acid (UA), being its antitumoral effect extensively studied in human adenocarcinomas. In this work, we focused on the efficacy and molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumoral effects of UA, as single agent or combined with doxorubicin (DXR), in human soft tissue sarcoma cells. UA (5–50 μM) strongly inhibited (up to 80%) the viability of STS cells at 24 h and its proliferation in soft agar, with higher concentrations increasing apoptotic death up to 30%. UA treatment (6–9 h) strongly blocked the survival AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signalling pathway, which led to a concomitant reduction of the anti-apoptotic proteins c-Myc and p21, altogether resulting in the activation of intrinsic apoptosis. Interestingly, UA at low concentrations (10–15 μM) enhanced the antitumoral effects of DXR by up to 2-fold, while in parallel inhibiting DXR-induced AKT activation and p21 expression, two proteins implicated in antitumoral drug resistance and cell survival. In conclusion, UA is able to induce intrinsic apoptosis in human STS cells and also to sensitize these cells to DXR by blocking the AKT signalling pathway. Therefore, UA may have beneficial effects, if used as nutraceutical adjuvant during standard chemotherapy treatment of STS. PMID:27219337

  1. Anti-angiogenic activity and antitumor efficacy of amphiphilic twin drug from ursolic acid and low molecular weight heparin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wenming; Zohra Dahmani, Fatima; Zhang, Juan; Xiong, Hui; Wu, Yuanyuan; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Heparin, a potential blood anti-coagulant, is also known for its binding ability to several angiogenic factors through electrostatic interactions due to its polyanionic character. However, the clinical application of heparin for cancer treatment is limited by several drawbacks, such as unsatisfactory therapeutic effects and severe anticoagulant activity that could induce hemorrhaging. Herein, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was conjugated to ursolic acid (UA), which is also an angiogenesis inhibitor, by binding the amine group of aminoethyl-UA (UA-NH2) with the carboxylic groups of LMWH. The resulting LMWH-UA conjugate as an amphiphilic twin drug showed reduced anticoagulant activity and could also self-assemble into nanomicelles with a mean particle size ranging from 200-250 nm. An in vitro endothelial tubular formation assay and an in vivo Matrigel plug assay were performed to verify the anti-angiogenic potential of LMWH-UA. Meanwhile, the in vivo antitumor effect of LMWH-UA was also evaluated using a B16F10 mouse melanoma model. LMWH-UA nanomicelles were shown to inhibit angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the i.v. administration of LMWH-UA to the B16F10 tumor-bearing mice resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth as compared to the free drug solutions. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of LMWH-UA as a new therapeutic remedy for cancer therapy.

  2. Preparation, Physicochemical Characterization, and Cell Viability Evaluation of Long-Circulating and pH-Sensitive Liposomes Containing Ursolic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira de Araújo Lopes, Sávia; Vinícius Melo Novais, Marcus; Salviano Teixeira, Cláudia; Honorato-Sampaio, Kinulpe; Tadeu Pereira, Márcio; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda; Braga, Fernão Castro; Cristina Oliveira, Mônica

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Although several drugs are used clinically, some tumors either do not respond or are resistant to the existing pharmacotherapy, thus justifying the search for new drugs. Ursolic acid (UA) is a triterpene found in different plant species that has been shown to possess significant antitumor activity. However, UA presents a low solubility in aqueous medium, which presents a barrier to its biological applications. In this context, the use of liposomes presents a promising strategy to deliver UA and allow for its intravenous administration. In this work, long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes containing UA (SpHL-UA) were developed, and their chemical and physicochemical properties were evaluated. SpHL-UA presented adequate properties, including a mean diameter of 191.1 ± 6.4 nm, a zeta potential of 1.2 ± 1.4 mV, and a UA entrapment of 0.77 ± 0.01 mg/mL. Moreover, this formulation showed a good stability after having been stored for 2 months at 4°C. The viability studies on breast (MDA-MB-231) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cell lines demonstrated that SpHL-UA treatment significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, the results of the present work suggest the applicability of SpHL-UA as a new and promising anticancer formulation. PMID:23984367

  3. Down-Regulation of AKT Signalling by Ursolic Acid Induces Intrinsic Apoptosis and Sensitization to Doxorubicin in Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Villar

    Full Text Available Several important biological activities have been attributed to the pentacyclic triterpene ursolic acid (UA, being its antitumoral effect extensively studied in human adenocarcinomas. In this work, we focused on the efficacy and molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumoral effects of UA, as single agent or combined with doxorubicin (DXR, in human soft tissue sarcoma cells. UA (5-50 μM strongly inhibited (up to 80% the viability of STS cells at 24 h and its proliferation in soft agar, with higher concentrations increasing apoptotic death up to 30%. UA treatment (6-9 h strongly blocked the survival AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signalling pathway, which led to a concomitant reduction of the anti-apoptotic proteins c-Myc and p21, altogether resulting in the activation of intrinsic apoptosis. Interestingly, UA at low concentrations (10-15 μM enhanced the antitumoral effects of DXR by up to 2-fold, while in parallel inhibiting DXR-induced AKT activation and p21 expression, two proteins implicated in antitumoral drug resistance and cell survival. In conclusion, UA is able to induce intrinsic apoptosis in human STS cells and also to sensitize these cells to DXR by blocking the AKT signalling pathway. Therefore, UA may have beneficial effects, if used as nutraceutical adjuvant during standard chemotherapy treatment of STS.

  4. Hawthorn ethanolic extracts with triterpenoids and flavonoids exert hepatoprotective effects and suppress the hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in rats

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    Ali Rezaei-Golmisheh

    2015-07-01

    Results: The highest phenol content, oleanolic acid, quercetin and lupeol levels and free radical scavenging potency were found in the bark extract, and the highest ursolic acid level was found in the berries extract. Orlistat and extracts significantly (P

  5. Ursolic acid simultaneously targets multiple signaling pathways to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

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    Jingshu Wang

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid (UA, a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid distributed in medical herbs, exerts antitumor effects and is emerging as a promising compound for cancer prevention and therapy, but its excise mechanisms of action in colon cancer cells remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the molecular mechanisms by which UA inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human colon cancer SW480 and LoVo cells. Treatment with UA led to significant inhibitions in cell viability and clone formation and changes in cell morphology and spreading. UA also suppressed colon cancer cell migration by inhibiting MMP9 and upregulating CDH1 expression. Further studies showed that UA inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK proteins. Pretreatment with an Akt or ERK-specific inhibitor considerably abrogated the proliferation inhibition by UA. UA also significantly inhibited colon cancer cell COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Pretreatment with a COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib abrogated the UA-induced cell proliferation. Moreover, we found that UA effectively promoted NF-κB and p300 translocation from cell nuclei to cytoplasm, and attenuated the p300-mediated acetylation of NF-κB and CREB2. Pretreatment with a p300 inhibitor (roscovitine abrogated the UA-induced cell proliferation, which is reversed by p300 overexpression. Furthermore, UA treatment induced colon cancer cell apoptosis, increased the cleavage of PARP, caspase-3 and 9, and trigged the release of cytochrome c from mitochondrial inter-membrane space into cytosol. These results indicate that UA inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells through simultaneous modulation of the multiple signaling pathways such as MMP9/CDH1, Akt/ERK, COX-2/PGE2, p300/NF-κB/CREB2, and cytochrome c/caspase pathways.

  6. Epigenetic modifications of triterpenoid ursolic acid in activating Nrf2 and blocking cellular transformation of mouse epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuck; Ramirez, Christina N; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2016-07-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a well-known natural triterpenoid found in abundance in blueberries, cranberries and apple peels, has been reported to possess many beneficial health effects. These effects include anticancer activity in various cancers, such as skin cancer. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of antioxidative stress response with anticarcinogenic activity against UV- and chemical-induced tumor formation in the skin. Recent studies show that epigenetic modifications of Nrf2 play an important role in cancer prevention. However, the epigenetic impact of UA on Nrf2 signaling remains poorly understood in skin cancer. In this study, we investigated the epigenetic effects of UA on mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cells. UA inhibited cellular transformation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate at a concentration at which the cytotoxicity was no more than 25%. Under this condition, UA induced the expression of the Nrf2-mediated detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1. DNA methylation analysis revealed that UA demethylated the first 15 CpG sites of the Nrf2 promoter region, which correlated with the reexpression of Nrf2. Furthermore, UA reduced the expression of epigenetic modifying enzymes, including the DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 and DNMT3a and the histone deacetylases (HDACs) HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3 and HDAC8 (Class I) and HDAC6 and HDAC7 (Class II), and HDAC activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the epigenetic effects of the triterpenoid UA could potentially contribute to its beneficial effects, including the prevention of skin cancer.

  7. Short-term ursolic acid promotes skeletal muscle rejuvenation through enhancing of SIRT1 expression and satellite cells proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Nuredin; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Soleimani, Masoud; Hemmati, Roohullah; Noori-Zadeh, Ali; Javan, Mohammad; Tashakor, Amin

    2016-03-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a triterpenoid compound, which exerts its influences on the skeletal muscles. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unclear. In this study, muscle satellite cells were isolated and purified by high-throughput pre-plating method (∼>60%) from 10 days old mice skeletal muscles. Evaluation of paired-box 7 (Pax7) expressions then confirmed the purification. Treatment of the cells with UA showed that UA up-regulated SIRT1 (∼35 folds) and overexpressed PGC-1α (∼175 folds) gene significantly. Moreover, the number of muscle satellite cells, which accompanied by initiation of neomyogenesis in the animal skeletal muscles, was increased (∼3.4 times). We also evaluated UA-mediated changes in the cellular energy status in the skeletal muscles. The results revealed that in the UA-treated mice, ATP and ADP contents in the various skeletal muscle tissue types, including: Gastrocnemius (Gas), Tibialis Anterior (Tib) and Gluteus Maximus (Glu) have been significantly decreased (P≤0.001); 2.2, 3.2, 2 times for ATP, and 9.6, 35.7, 11.6 times for ADP, respectively; however to compensate this process mitochondrial biogenesis occurred (12.33%±1.5 times). Furthermore, a rise in ATP/ADP ratio was observed 2.5, 4.5, 2.05 times for Gas, Tib and Glu muscles, respectively (P≤0.001). Alternatively, UA enhanced the expression of myoglobin (∼2 folds) in concert with remodeling of glycolytic muscle fibers to mainly fast IIA (∼30%) and slow-twitch (∼4%) types as well. Finally, our study indicated that UA indirectly mimicked beneficial effects of short-term calorie restriction and exercise (fast-oxidative) by directing the skeletal muscle composition toward oxidative metabolism.

  8. In vitro, in silico and in vivo studies of ursolic acid as an anti-filarial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Komal; Kushwaha, Vikas; Sharma, Pooja; Verma, Richa; Srivastava, Mukesh; Khan, Feroz; Murthy, P K; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    As part of our drug discovery program for anti-filarial agents from Indian medicinal plants, leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of an anti-filarial agent, ursolic acid (UA) as a major constituent. Antifilarial activity of UA against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using in vitro and in vivo assays, and in silico docking search on glutathione-s-transferase (GST) parasitic enzyme were carried out. The UA was lethal to microfilariae (mf; LC100: 50; IC50: 8.84 µM) and female adult worms (LC100: 100; IC50: 35.36 µM) as observed by motility assay; it exerted 86% inhibition in MTT reduction potential of the adult parasites. The selectivity index (SI) of UA for the parasites was found safe. This was supported by the molecular docking studies, which showed adequate docking (LibDock) scores for UA (-8.6) with respect to the standard antifilarial drugs, ivermectin (IVM -8.4) and diethylcarbamazine (DEC-C -4.6) on glutathione-s-transferase enzyme. Further, in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that UA possesses drug-like properties. Furthermore, UA was evaluated in vivo in B. malayi-M. coucha model (natural infection), which showed 54% macrofilaricidal activity, 56% female worm sterility and almost unchanged microfilaraemia maintained throughout observation period with no adverse effect on the host. Thus, in conclusion in vitro, in silico and in vivo results indicate that UA is a promising, inexpensive, widely available natural lead, which can be designed and developed into a macrofilaricidal drug. To the best of our knowledge this is the first ever report on the anti-filarial potential of UA from E. tereticornis, which is in full agreement with the Thomson Reuter's 'Metadrug' tool screening predictions.

  9. In vitro, in silico and in vivo studies of ursolic acid as an anti-filarial agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Kalani

    Full Text Available As part of our drug discovery program for anti-filarial agents from Indian medicinal plants, leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of an anti-filarial agent, ursolic acid (UA as a major constituent. Antifilarial activity of UA against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using in vitro and in vivo assays, and in silico docking search on glutathione-s-transferase (GST parasitic enzyme were carried out. The UA was lethal to microfilariae (mf; LC100: 50; IC50: 8.84 µM and female adult worms (LC100: 100; IC50: 35.36 µM as observed by motility assay; it exerted 86% inhibition in MTT reduction potential of the adult parasites. The selectivity index (SI of UA for the parasites was found safe. This was supported by the molecular docking studies, which showed adequate docking (LibDock scores for UA (-8.6 with respect to the standard antifilarial drugs, ivermectin (IVM -8.4 and diethylcarbamazine (DEC-C -4.6 on glutathione-s-transferase enzyme. Further, in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that UA possesses drug-like properties. Furthermore, UA was evaluated in vivo in B. malayi-M. coucha model (natural infection, which showed 54% macrofilaricidal activity, 56% female worm sterility and almost unchanged microfilaraemia maintained throughout observation period with no adverse effect on the host. Thus, in conclusion in vitro, in silico and in vivo results indicate that UA is a promising, inexpensive, widely available natural lead, which can be designed and developed into a macrofilaricidal drug. To the best of our knowledge this is the first ever report on the anti-filarial potential of UA from E. tereticornis, which is in full agreement with the Thomson Reuter's 'Metadrug' tool screening predictions.

  10. Ursolic acid inhibits the proliferation of human ovarian cancer stem-like cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Wenjing; Qian, Lin; Zhang, Qiuwan; Lai, Dongmei; Qi, Cong

    2015-11-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer-related death among all gynecological cancers. Increasing evidence suggests that human ovarian cancer stem-like cells could be enriched under serum-free culture conditions. In the present study, SKOV3 ovarian epithelial cancer cells were cultured for sphere cells. Ursolic acid (UA) with triterpenoid compounds exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. Evidence shows that UA has anticancer activities in human ovarian cancer cells, but he role of UA in ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects of UA in combination with cisplatin in ovarian CSCs (in vitro and in vivo), along with the molecular mechanism of action. Treatment with UA at various concentrations was examined in combination with cisplatin in human ovarian CSCs. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used for cell viability and apoptosis analysis, and qRT-PCR for stem cell markers and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers for mRNA expression. Transwell assay was employed to observe the migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells and SKOV3 sphere cells after treatment. Moreover, athymic BALB/c-nu nude mice were injected with SKOV3 sphere cells to obtain a xenograft model for in vivo studies. The results showed that CSCs possessed mesenchymal characteristics and EMT ability, and the growth of SKOV3 and sphere cells was significantly inhibited by UA. Transplanted tumors were significantly reduced after injection of UA and UA plus cisplatin. Furthermore, we found that UA could play a role in enhancing the sensitivity of CSCs to cisplatin resistance. Our findings suggested that UA is involved in EMT mechanism to affect the proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer stem-like cells and it is a potent anti-ovarian cancer agent.

  11. Research progress of the effects of ursolic acid on bone remodeling%熊果酸对骨重塑的相关研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉琢; 崔聪聪; 包幸福; 姜欢; 胡敏

    2016-01-01

    The delicate balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts plays a key role in bone remodeling.Ursolic acid (UA)is a kind of pentacyclic triterpene compounds extracted from Chinese herbal medicine.It has several functions of anti-inflammatory,anti-oxidation,anti-tumor and has already got preliminary progress in the field of bone remodeling over recent years.It shows the functions of promoting bone formation and in-hibiting bone absorption.It will be the research focus to identify the mechanism,and this will be helpful to the anabolic actions of UA for osteoporosis treatment and bone remodeling.%成骨细胞参与的骨形成与破骨细胞参与的骨吸收之间的动态平衡,是骨重塑过程中的关键。熊果酸(ur-solic acid,UA)是一种从中草药中提取的五环三萜类化合物,具有抗炎、抗氧化、抗肿瘤等多种功效,在骨重塑方面的研究近年来已有了初步进展,主要表现为促进骨合成,抑制骨吸收作用,明确其机制是今后研究的重点,这将有助于UA 在治疗骨质疏松症及骨重塑方面更好地应用。

  12. Ursolic acid inhibits tumor angiogenesis and induces apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, Sarita; Agrawal, S S; Alhaider, Abdulqader A

    2013-11-25

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpene naturally occurring in many plant foods. In the present study, we investigated anti-cancer activity of UA in vivo in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor. 15 × 10(6) EAC cells were implanted intraperitoneally (i.p., ascitic tumor) and subcutaneous (s.c., solid tumor) in Swiss albino mice. Mice with established tumors received UA i.p. at 25, 50 and 100mg/kg bw for 14 d in ascitic and 100mg/kg bw in solid tumor for 30 d. On day 15, blood samples were collected for hematological assessment of hemoglobin (Hb%), RBCs, WBCs and PCV. Tumor volume, cell viability, angiogenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory factors and antioxidant parameters were determined. Immunohistochemistry analysis for VEGF, iNOS, CD31, caspase-3 and Bax were also performed. UA significantly inhibited tumor growth, cell viability, in both ascites and solid tumor model in vivo (p<0.001). The anti-angiogenic effects were accompanied with decreased VEGF, iNOS, TNF-α and increased IL-12 levels. UA at 100mg/kg bw dose significantly increased SOD and CAT activity (p<0.01). GSH and TBARS were increased as compared to control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, UA increased total RBCs, WBCs as well as Hb% significantly (p<0.05) compared to cyclophosphamide (CP). Histopathological examination of tumor cells in the treated group demonstrated signs of apoptosis with chromatin condensation and cell shrinkage. Decreased peritoneal angiogenesis showed the anti-angiogenic potential. UA downregulated VEGF & iNOS expression whereas bax and caspase-3 expressions were upregulated suggesting drug induced tumor cell apoptosis through activating the pro-apoptotic bcl-2 family and caspase-3 and downregulation of VEGF. The present study sheds light on the potent antitumor property of the UA and can be extended further to develop therapeutic protocols for treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ursolic Acid-Regulated Energy Metabolism—Reliever or Propeller of Ultraviolet-Induced Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Hao; Sun, Youping; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is a leading cause of diseases, such as skin cancers and cataracts. A main process mediating UV-induced pathogenesis is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excessive ROS levels induce the formation of DNA adducts (e.g., pyrimidine dimers) and result in stalled DNA replication forks. In addition, ROS promotes phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase-coupled hormone receptors and alters downstream energy metabolism. With respect to the risk of UV-induced photocarcinogenesis and photodamage, the antitumoral and antioxidant functions of natural compounds become important for reducing UV-induced adverse effects. One important question in the field is what determines the differential sensitivity of various types of cells to UV light and how exogenous molecules, such as phytochemicals, protect normal cells from UV-inflicted damage while potentiating tumor cell death, presumably via interaction with intracellular target molecules and signaling pathways. Several endogenous molecules have emerged as possible players mediating UV-triggered DNA damage responses. Specifically, UV activates the PIKK (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase) family members, which include DNA-PKcs, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), whose signaling can be affected by energy metabolism; however, it remains unclear to what extent the activation of hormone receptors regulates PIKKs and whether this crosstalk occurs in all types of cells in response to UV. This review focuses on proteomic descriptions of the relationships between cellular photosensitivity and the phenotypic expression of the insulin/insulin-like growth receptor. It covers the cAMP-dependent pathways, which have recently been shown to regulate the DNA repair machinery through interactions with the PIKK family members. Finally, this review provides a strategic illustration of how UV-induced mitogenic activity is modulated by the insulin sensitizer, ursolic

  14. Pharmacokinetics in Vivo of Ursolic Acid by Intragastric Administration in Rats%熊果酸灌胃给药大鼠体内药代动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨巧虹; 蒙明姜; 王林丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究熊果酸在大鼠体内的药代动力学特征。方法10只 SD大鼠给予熊果酸20 mg/kg 单次灌胃,采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)法测定熊果酸的血药浓度,检测波长为221 nm,流动相为乙腈-0.1%磷酸水溶液(78.5:21.5)。采用DAS 2.1.1药动学软件计算熊果酸的主要药代动力学参数。结果熊果酸进样质量浓度线性范围为0.05~50.00μg/mL( r=0.9995),方法回收率为97.63%~102.42%,日内和日间精密度的 RSD均小于12%( n=6)。熊果酸的大鼠体内过程符合一室模型,峰浓度( Cmax)为(35.64±8.63)μg/mL,消除半衰期( t1/2)为(4.421±1.835)h,0~18 h药时曲线下面积( AUC0-18)为(15.52±3.387)μg·h/mL,0~∞药时曲线下面积( AUC0-∞)为(28.540±6.172)μg·h/mL。结论所建立的HPLC法准确、灵敏、快速,适用于熊果酸的血药浓度测定;熊果酸的药代动力学参数为其制剂研究奠定了良好的基础。%Objective To study the pharmacokinetic characteristics in vivo of ursolic acid in rats. Methods 10 SD rats were given ur-solic acid 20 mg/kg by once gavage. Plasma ursolic acid concentration was determined by HPLC at the wavelength of 221 nm. The mixture of acetonitrile-0. 1% phosphoric acid ( 78. 5 :21. 5 ) was used as the mobile phase. And the main pharmacokinetic parameters of ursolic acid were calculated with the DAS 2. 1. 1 software. Results The mass concentration linear range of ursolic acid sample size was 0. 05-50. 00 μg/mL ( r=0. 999 5 ) . The method recovery rate was 97. 63% -102. 42%. Both the within-day and between-day RSD were less than 12%( n=6 ) . The rat in vivo process of ursolic acid was fitted to one-compartment open pharmacokinetic model. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: Cmax was (35. 64 ±8. 63)μg/mL,t1/2 was (4. 421 ±1. 835)h,AUC0-18 was (15. 52 ± 3. 387 )μg · h/mL,AUC0 -∞ was ( 28. 540 ± 6. 172 )μg · h/mL. Conclusion

  15. Radioprotective effect of ursolic acid in radiation-induced impairment of neurogenesis, learning and memory in adolescent BALB/c mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong; Yan, Wong Pei; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2017-03-21

    The effect of acute irradiation with 5Gy or fractionated exposure with 0.5Gy continuously for 10days (a total dose of 5Gy) was evaluated in an immature BALB/c mouse model. Radioprotective effect of ursolic acid (at 25mg/kg/daily administered 1h after acute or each of fractionated irradiations, and continuously for 30days) was also investigated. We found that both acute and fractionated irradiation at a total dose of 5Gy did not induce any mortality within 30days after exposure to postnatal day 26 (P26) BALB/c mice, but reduced animal weigh gain in the first few weeks. At 90days after irradiation, the weight of animals with acute irradiation was still significantly lower than the control group; no significant difference though was observed for those fractionatedly exposed mice compared to the control group. Behavioral tests indicated that acute irradiation at 5Gy induced deficits in learning and memory in the contextual fear conditioning test. The memory for novel object recognition was also impaired. Similar changes were not observed in mice with fractionated irradiation. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated clearly that acute and fractionated irradiations induced impairment of neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus although fractionated exposure induced much lesser loss of newly generated neurons. Ursolic acid administered at 25mg/kg/daily for 30days after irradiation greatly improved acute irradiation-induced deficits in contextual learning and memory and in novel object recognition memory although it exacerbated radiation-induced reduction of neurogenesis in SGZ.

  16. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic ultra-violet (photo diode array quantification of oleanolic acid and its isomer ursolic acid for phytochemical comparison and pharmacological evaluation of four Leucas species used in ayurveda

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    Pushpendra Kumar Shukla

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Physicochemical parameters are within the limit as per the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of IndiaMaximum concentration of oleanolic acid was found in Leucas cristata; however, ursolic acid was highest in Leucas mollissimaIn vitro antidiabetic activity of Leucas aspera and L. mollissima was found tobe heighest as compared to other species. However, antioxidant capacity is almost similar in targeted species.Promising activities were observed in all the species, thus L. mollissima, Leucas biflora, and L. cristata can be used alternatively as a substitute to L. aspera.

  17. Antileishmanial Activity of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Miconia langsdorffii, Isolated Compounds, and Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

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    Wilson R. Cunha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. was evaluated against the promastigote forms of L. amazonensis, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans. The bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to identification of the triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid as the major compounds in the fraction that displayed the highest activity. Several ursolic acid semi-synthetic derivatives were prepared, to find out whether more active compounds could be obtained. Among these ursolic acid-derived substances, the C-28 methyl ester derivative exhibited the best antileishmanial activity.

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of extracts of Tibouchina candolleana (melastomataceae, isolated compounds and semi-synthetic derivatives against endodontic bacteria

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    Fernanda M. dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phytochemical study of the extracts from aerial parts of Tibouchina candolleana as well as the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of extracts, isolated compounds, and semi-synthetic derivatives of ursolic acid against endodontic bacteria. HRGC analysis of the n-hexane extract of T. candolleana allowed identification of b-amyrin, a-amyrin, and b-sitosterol as major constituents. The triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated from the methylene chloride extract and identified. In addition, the flavonoids luteolin and genistein were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified. The antimicrobial activity was investigated via determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC using the broth microdilution method. Amongst the isolated compounds, ursolic acid was the most effective against the selected endodontic bacteria. As for the semi-synthetic ursolic acid derivatives, only the methyl ester derivative potentiated the activity against Bacteroides fragilis.

  19. The Apoptotic Effect of Ursolic Acid on SK-Hep-1 Cells is Regulated by the PI3K/Akt, p38 and JNK MAPK Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Wan-Ling; Lin, Ping-Yi; Lin, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Yao-Li

    2016-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpene acid that is present in a wide variety of medicinal herbs and edible plants. This study investigated the effect of UA on apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells. After treatment of SK-Hep-1 cells with different concentrations of UA, we observed that cell viability was reduced in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 and G2/M phases, with cells treated with 60 μM showing the highest percentages of cells in those phases. UA-induced chromatin condensation of nuclei was observed by using DAPI staining. The western blot results revealed that exposure to UA was associated with decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and TCTP and increased expression of apoptosis-related proteins TNF-α, Fas, FADD, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and PARP. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that treatment with UA resulted in increased expression of caspase-3. Moreover, exposure to UA resulted in the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. These findings suggest that UA inhibits the proliferation of SK-Hep-1 cells and induces apoptosis.

  20. Effect of ursolic acid and Rosiglitazone combination on hepatic lipid accumulation in high fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Arjunan; Radhiga, Thangaiyan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated the combined effect of ursolic acid (UA) and Rosiglitazone (RSG) on lipid regulatory genes in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either normal diet or HFD for 10 weeks, after which animals in each dietary group were divided into following six groups, (normal diet, normal diet plus UA and RSG, HFD alone, HFD plus UA, HFD plus RSG, and HFD plus UA and RSG), for the next 5 weeks. UA (5mg/kg BW) and RSG (4mg/kg BW) were administered as suspensions directly into the stomach using a gastric tube. At the end of the study (106th day), their liver was analyzed for lipid content. RT-PCR and western blotting methods were used to analyze lipid regulatory genes. HFD-fed mice showed increased activities of hepatic marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) in plasma and an increased concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid in liver. These results were confirmed by upregulated mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase and downregulated mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidative genes such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α in HFD-fed mice. Combined treatment (UA/RSG) significantly reduced the hepatic marker enzyme activities and decreased the lipid accumulation in liver. Furthermore, combination treatment (UA/RSG) down-regulated lipogenic genes and upregulated fatty acid oxidative genes in HFD-fed mice. This study suggests that UA in combination with RSG reduced lipid accumulation in liver.

  1. Ursolic acid benzaldehyde chalcone leads to inhibition of cell proliferation and arrests cycle in G1/G0 phase in ovarian cancer

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    Yan Jia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of ursolic acid benzaldehyde chalcone (UABC on ovarian carcinoma cells was studied. The results revealed that ovarian carcinoma cells on UABC treatment increased Sub-G1 cell population, increased rate of cell apoptosis and morphological changes in mitochondrial membrane. In OVCAR 432 cells treatment with UABC increased the Sub-G1 cell population to 72.3% and growth inhibition rate of >72%. Treatment with 20 µM of UABC for 48 hours, led to an induction of apoptosis in 67.2% and induced morphological changes in OVCAR 432 cells. The Western blot results showed high concentration of cytochrome c in the cell cytosol after 48 hours of UABC treatment. Treatment of RMS-13 cells with UABC resulted in inhibition of GLI1, GLI2, PTCH1, and IGF2 genes. In addition, we found a significant reduction in hedgehog activity of RMS-13 cells after UABC treatment by means of a hedgehog-responsive reporter assay. Therefore, UABC can be a promising agent for the treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  2. 生物活性物质熊果酸资源分布状况研究进展%Research Progress of Resource Distribution of Bioactive Compound Ursolic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶渊博; 邢雅丽; 方芝娟; 毕良武; 赵振东

    2012-01-01

    The general survey, species distribution and distribution differences of ursolic acid plant resources were reviewed. Ur-solic acid was widely distributed in plants, richly in Greek sage, oleander, rosemay , Spanish sage, periwinkle, Nepeta faassenii Berg. , Ocimum tenuiflorum, spike lavender, thyme, winter savory, broadleaf dolly leaf, loquat, homy holly, spreading hedyotis and cherry laurel. Their ursolic acid contents were 74. 50, 43.00, 41. 00, 40. 20. 37. 00 , 29.20, 20.20, 19.00, 18.80. 17. 70,16.()(), 12.30,10.60, 10.07 and 10.00 mg/g respectively. Ursolic arid was mainly present in tea trees, fruit trees, medicinal plants, spice plants and other plants such as paulownia. The distribution of ursolic acid also had breed difference, plant parts difference, region difference, season difference, growth condition difference, etc. The full understanding of ursolic acid plant resource distribution would provide material basis for sustainable research and development, high-valued and scaled-up use of bioactive compound ursolic acid.%综述了生物活性物质熊果酸的植物资源概况、种类分布和分布差异性.熊果酸在植物中分布很广,其中熊果酸含量较高的植物有:希腊鼠尾草、夹竹桃、迷迭香、西班牙鼠尾草、长春花、六座大山荆芥、小冠薰、长穗薰表草、百里香、苦丁茶、冬季香薄荷、枇杷、枸骨、白花蛇舌草和樱桃肉桂,分别选74.50、43.00、41.00、40.20、37.00、29 20、20 20、19.00、18.80、17.70、16.00、12.30、10.60、10.07和10.00 mg/g.熊果酸主要分布于茶树、果树、药用植物、香草植物及泡桐等其它植物中,熊果酸的分布还存在着品种差异性、植物部位差异性、区域差异性、季节差异性和生长条件差异性等.对熊果酸植物资源分布状况的充分了解,可为生物活性物质熊果酸的可持续研究开发、高值化和规模化利用提供物质基础.

  3. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimisation of Simultaneous UHPLC-PDA Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids and Standardisation of Ericaceae Medicinal Plants

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    Aleksandra Owczarek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A fast and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UHPLC-PDA method for simultaneous quantification of oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA in plant materials was developed. A central composite design combined with a response surface methodology was utilized to establish optimal separation conditions. The final separation was accomplished on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (1.8 μm, 100 mm × 3 mm I.D., Agilent, Santa Clara, CA, USA using a mixture 90:10 (v/v of methanol and 1% (w/v aqueous orthophosporic acid as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.44 mL/min and temperature of 18 °C. The analysis was completed in 6.2 min with satisfactory resolution of 1.5 between the target analytes. The developed method proved to be precise (relative standard deviations below 3.2%, accurate (recoveries in the range of 95.27%–98.60%, and sensitive (limits of detection (LODs in the range of 0.047–0.051 mg/mL. The method was then successfully applied to evaluate OA and UA content in real samples of selected Ericaceae plant materials (leaves of Arctostaphylos uva ursi, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis idaea, Gaultheria procumbens. The content of OA and UA in investigated samples varied in the range of 0.74–4.47 mg/g dry weight (dw and 1.30–18.61 mg/g dw, respectively.

  4. 桐叶中齐墩果酸和熊果酸的薄层色谱鉴别%TLC Identification of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid in Fortune Paulownia Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德泉; 杨昌武; 韩湘云

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To establish thin layer chromatography ( TLC) method for identification of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in for-tune paulownia leaf.Methods:The sample points on silica gel G board with 1% iodine-dichloromethane solution on the spot by in situ pretreatment.Cyclohexane-acetone ethyl-acetate-formic acid (10∶3∶0.5) as developing agent.Results:The separation and detection of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in fortune paulownia leaf can achieve effective knowledge .Conclusion:This TLC method is simple and re-liable, and it is more objective and specific for the identification of the fortune paulownia leaf .%目的:建立桐叶齐墩果酸和熊果酸的薄层色谱( TLC)鉴别方法。方法:将点于硅胶G板上的样品点以1%碘-二氯甲烷溶液对斑点进行原位预处理,环已烷-乙酸乙酯-冰醋酸(10∶3∶0.5)为展开剂。结果:桐叶中齐墩果酸和熊果酸能够达到有效的分离和检识。结论:本TLC法简便、可靠,使桐叶鉴别更具客观性和专属性。

  5. Ursolic acid inhibited growth of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through AMPKα-mediated reduction of DNA methyltransferase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yie, Yinyi; Zhao, Shunyu; Tang, Qin; Zheng, Fang; Wu, Jingjing; Yang, LiJuan; Deng, ShiGuan; Hann, Swei Sunny

    2015-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the major histological subtype of primary liver cancer, remains one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Due to the complicated pathogenesis of this malignancy, the outcome for comprehensive treatment is limited. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is emerging as a promising choice for its multi-targets and coordinated intervention effects against HCC. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid found in CHM, exerts anti-tumor effects and is emerging as an effective compound for cancer prevention and therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of UA remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that UA inhibited the growth of HCC cells and induced apoptosis in the dose- and time-dependent fashion. Furthermore, we found that UA induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and suppressed the protein expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the dose-dependent manner. The inhibitor of AMPK, compound C blocked, while an activator of AMPK, metformin augmented the effect of UA on DNMT1 expression. In addition, UA suppressed the expression of transcription factor Sp1. Conversely, overexpression of Sp1 reversed the effect of UA on DNMT1 expression and cell growth. Collectively, our results show for the first time that UA inhibits growth of HCC through AMPKα-mediated inhibition of Sp1; this in turn results in inhibition of DNMT1. This study reveals a potential novel mechanism by which UA controls growth of HCC cells and suggests that DNMT1 could be novel target for HCC chemoprevention and treatment.

  6. Ursolic acid prevents augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in high-fat diet-induced obese rats by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Song, Chengwei; Li, Haiou; Hou, Jingdong; Li, Dongliang

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several pain syndromes and is associated with increased pain sensitivity. Evidence suggests that obesity causes the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)α in the spinal cord, contributing to augmented peripheral edema and inflammatory hyperalgesia. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, has been shown to upregulate PPARα in the peripheral tissues of obese animals. The present study hypothesized that UA prevents augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in obesity by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα. The present study demonstrated that Sprague‑Dawley rats fed a high‑fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks developed obesity and metabolic disorder. Following carrageenan injection, the HFD rats exhibited increased thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema, compared with the rats fed a low‑fat diet. Molecular investigations revealed that the HFD rats exhibited decreased PPARα activity, and exaggerated expression of inflammatory mediators and nuclear factor‑kB activity in the spinal cord in response to carrageenan. Oral administration of UA ameliorated obesity and metabolic disorder, and prevented increased thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema in the HFD rats. Additionally, UA normalized PPARα activity and inhibited the exaggerated spinal cord inflammatory response to carrageenan. Although the knockdown of spinal PPARα with small interfering RNA following the administration of UA did not alter obesity or metabolic parameters, it eradicated the beneficial effects of UA on thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema, and reversed the spinal cord inflammatory response. These results suggested that the systemic administration of UA inhibited the exaggerated spinal cord inflammatory response to peripheral inflammatory stimulation in HFD‑induced obesity by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα, preventing peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia. UA may be a

  7. The Effect of Ursolic Acid on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Is Related to Programed Cell Death and Presents Therapeutic Potential in Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Eduardo S.; Campos, Bruno L. S.; Jesus, Jéssica A.; Laurenti, Márcia D.; Ribeiro, Susan P.; Kallás, Esper G.; Rafael-Fernandes, Mariana; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Silva, Marcelo S.; Sessa, Deborah P.; Lago, João H. G.; Levy, Débora; Passero, Luiz F. D.

    2015-01-01

    Among neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most important ones, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated, and present diverse side effects, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the activity of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) were assayed in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (in vitro and in vivo). Promastigote forms of L. amazonensis were incubated with OA and UA for 24h, and effective concentration 50% (EC50) was estimated. Ultraestructural alterations in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes after UA treatment were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mode of action was assayed through Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, caspase 3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation and transmembrane mitochondrial potential. The UA potential was evaluated in intracellular amastigotes, and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice. UA eliminated L. amazonensis promastigotes with an EC50 of 6.4 μg/mL, comparable with miltefosine, while OA presented only a marginal effect on promastigote forms at 100 μg/mL. The possible mechanism by which promastigotes were eliminated by UA was programmed cell death, independent of caspase 3/7, but it was highly dependent on mitochondria activity. UA was not toxic for peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and it was able to eliminate intracellular amastigotes, associated with nitric oxide (NO) production. OA did not eliminate amastigotes nor trigger NO. L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice submitted to UA treatment presented lesser lesion size and parasitism compared to control. This study showed, for the first time, that UA eliminate promastigote forms through a mechanism associated with programed cell death, and importantly, was effective in vivo. Therefore, UA can be considered an interesting candidate for future tests as a prototype drug for the treatment

  8. Identification of Triterpene Acids Including Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid in Fructus chaenomelis by Thin-layer Chromatography%木瓜齐墩果酸和熊果酸等三萜酸类薄层色谱分离鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程菁菁; 谢晓梅; 张圣龙; 葛晓郡; 黄丽丹

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立木瓜齐墩果酸、熊果酸等三萜酸薄层色谱分离鉴别方法.方法 将点于硅胶G板上的样品点浸入1%碘-二氯甲烷溶液中预处理,以环己烷-丙酮-乙酸乙酯-甲酸(9∶2∶1∶0.2)为展开剂.结果 木瓜中熊果酸、齐墩果酸以及3-O-乙酰熊果酸能够被很好地分离和检识.结论 薄层色谱法简便、可靠,使木瓜鉴别更具客观性和专属性.%Objective To establish efficient methods for identifying triterpene acids, including oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, in Fructus chaenomelis by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Methods The drops of samples on the plate of silica gel G were preprocessed with methylene dichloride solution containing 1% iodine, and then developed with the developer consisting of cyclohexane-acetone-acetic ether - methanoic acid (9:2:1: 0. 2). Results Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and 3-O-acetyl ursolic acid in Fructus chaenomelis could be identified clearly. Conclusion TLC is simple and reliable, and it has specificity and objectivity for identifying Fructus chaenornelis.

  9. HPLC-ELSD法同时测定连翘叶中齐墩果酸和熊果酸%Simultaneous Determination of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid in the Leaves of Forsythia suspensa by HPLC-ELSD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵韶华; 刘敏彦; 王玉峰; 许红辉; 张永锋; 王猛

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测法(high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative lightscattering detector,HPLC-ELSD)法同时测定连翘叶中齐墩果酸和熊果酸。方法:色谱柱:Waters Symmetry C18(4.6mm×250mm,5μm);柱温25℃,流动相:甲醇-0.4%冰醋酸溶液(93:7,V/V),流速0.4mL/min;蒸发光散射检测器检测条件:漂移管温度80℃,气体压力25psi。结果:齐墩果酸在0.107~2.136μg范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9991),熊果酸在0.179~3.584μg范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9993);齐墩果酸和熊果酸的回收率分别为98.67%和9 8.5 6%。结论:此方法简便、准确,重现性良好,为评价连翘叶的质量提供可靠的分析方法。%Objective: To establish an high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector(HPLCELSD) method for the simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the leaves of Forsythia suspensa.Methods: The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Waters Symmetry C18column(4.6 mm× 250 mm,5μm) with a mobile phase composed of methanol and 0.4% acetic acid(93:7,V/V) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min.An evaporative light scattering detector was used to detect oleanolic acid and ursolic acid with a drift tube temperature of 80 ℃ and a gas pressure of 25 psi.Results: Both the developed calibration curves of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid revealed a good linear relationship over the ranges of 0.107-2.136 μg(r =0.9991) and 0.179-3.584μg(r= 0.9993),respectively.Therecovery ratesof oleanolicacid and ursolic acid were 98.67% and 98.56%,respectively.Conclusion: A simple,accurate and credible HPLC-ELSD method has been developed,which is suitable for the quality contro1 of the leaves of Forsythia suspensa.

  10. Ursolic acid inhibits the initiation, progression of prostate cancer and prolongs the survival of TRAMP mice by modulating pro-inflammatory pathways.

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    Muthu K Shanmugam

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among men worldwide. In this study, using transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP mice, the effect of diet enriched with 1% w/w ursolic acid (UA was investigated to evaluate the stage specific chemopreventive activity against prostate cancer. We found that TRAMP mice fed with UA diet for 8 weeks (weeks 4 to 12 delayed formation of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN. Similarly, mice fed with UA diet for 6 weeks (weeks 12 to 18 inhibited progression of PIN to adenocarcinoma as determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Finally, TRAMP mice fed with UA diet for 12 weeks (weeks 24 to 36 demonstrated markedly reduced tumor growth without any significant effects on total body weight and prolonged overall survival. With respect to the molecular mechanism, we found that UA down-regulated activation of various pro-inflammatory mediators including, NF-κB, STAT3, AKT and IKKα/β phosphorylation in the dorsolateral prostate (DLP tissues that correlated with the reduction in serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6. In addition, UA significantly down-regulated the expression levels of cyclin D1 and COX-2 but up-regulated the levels of caspase-3 as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissue sections. Finally, UA was detected in serum samples obtained from various mice groups fed with enriched diet in nanogram quantity indicating that it is well absorbed in the GI tract. Overall, our findings provide strong evidence that UA can be an excellent agent for both the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.

  11. Ursolic acid inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer and enhances the antitumor potential of gemcitabine in an orthotopic mouse model through suppression of the inflammatory microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Yadav, Vivek R; Sung, Bokyung; Gupta, Subash C; Tyagi, Amit K; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2016-03-15

    The development of chemoresistance in human pancreatic cancer is one reason for the poor survival rate for patients with this cancer. Because multiple gene products are linked with chemoresistance, we investigated the ability of ursolic acid (UA) to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, a standard drug used for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. These investigations were done in AsPC-1, MIA PaCa-2, and Panc-28 cells and in nude mice orthotopically implanted with Panc-28 cells. In vitro, UA inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, suppressed NF-κB activation and its regulated proliferative, metastatic, and angiogenic proteins. UA (20 μM) also enhanced gemcitabine (200 nM)-induced apoptosis and suppressed the expression of NF-κB-regulated proteins. In the nude mouse model, oral administration of UA (250 mg/kg) suppressed tumor growth and enhanced the effect of gemcitabine (25 mg/kg). Furthermore, the combination of UA and gemcitabine suppressed the metastasis of cancer cells to distant organs such as liver and spleen. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that biomarkers of proliferation (Ki-67) and microvessel density (CD31) were suppressed by the combination of UA and gemcitabine. UA inhibited the activation of NF-κB and STAT3 and the expression of tumorigenic proteins regulated by these inflammatory transcription factors in tumor tissue. Furthermore, the combination of two agents decreased the expression of miR-29a, closely linked with tumorigenesis, in the tumor tissue. UA was found to be bioavailable in animal serum and tumor tissue. These results suggest that UA can inhibit the growth of human pancreatic tumors and sensitize them to gemcitabine by suppressing inflammatory biomarkers linked to proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis.

  12. Effects of Ursolic Acid Derivatives on Caco-2 Cells and Their Alleviating Role in Streptozocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect and mechanism of a series of ursolic acid (UA derivatives on glucose uptake were investigated in a Caco-2 cells model. Their effect on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress were also demonstrated in streptozocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylamino]-2-deoxy-glucose (2-NBDG was used as a fluorescein in Caco-2 cells model to screen UA derivatives by glucose uptake and expression of glucose transporter protein (SGLT-1, GLUT-2. Moreover, STZ-induced diabetic rats were administered with these derivatives for 4 weeks of treatment. The fasting blood glucose (FBG, insulin levels, biochemical parameters, lipid levels, and oxidative stress markers were finally evaluated. The results of this study indicated that compounds 10 and 11 significantly inhibited 2-NBDG uptake under both Na+-dependent and Na+-independent conditions by decreasing SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 expression in the Caco-2 cells model. Further in vivo studies revealed that compound 10 significantly reduced hyperglycemia by increasing levels of serum insulin, total protein, and albumin, while the fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake were restored much closer to those of normal rats. Compounds 10 and 11 showed hypolipidemic activity by decreasing the total amounts of cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TG. Furthermore, compound 10 showed antioxidant potential which was confirmed by elevation of glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD and reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. It was concluded that compound 10 caused an apparent inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells and hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia and augmented oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Thus, compound 10 could be developed as a potentially complementary therapeutic or prophylactic agent for diabetics mellitus and its complications.

  13. Syzygium aromaticum extracts as good source of betulinic acid and potential anti-breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrahim F. A. Aisha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae, is an evergreen tree with anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, aphrodisiac, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. This study aims to investigate the anti-breast cancer effect of extracts from leaves, stem and bark of S. aromaticum and to develop a method for preparation of betulinic acid fraction from the leaves. Betulinic acid, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid contents of the extracts were determined by HPLC. A betulinic acid fraction was prepared by simple crystallization of leaves extract and was characterized by HPLC and mass analysis. Anti-breast cancer effects were studied on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The extracts were found to contain high levels of betulinic acid particularly the leaves extract which contained 17% wt/wt. The betulinic acid fraction contains 75% betulinic acid. Cytotoxicity testing reveals high and selective cytotoxic effect of the stem extract on MCF-7 cells with IC50 33±1.6 µg/mL. Cytotoxic effect of the stem extract was due to activation of apoptotic machinery of cell death. Combination studies of stem extract with tamoxifen reveals antagonistic effect at high concentration of tamoxifen and enhancement effect at low concentration. The selective cytotoxicity of the stem extract of S. aromaticum on MCF-7 is not due to betulinic acid but due to other constituents yet to be discovered.

  14. Antimicrobial activity and synergism of ursolic acid 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside with oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Li, Zhi; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Mun, Su-Hyun; Seo, Yun-Soo; Kong, Ryong; Shin, Dong-Won; Liu, Xiang-Qian; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of a single constituent, ursolic acid 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (URS), isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax henryi (Oliv.) Harms, alone and in combination with oxacillin (OXA) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The synergistic effects of URS and OXA were determined using a checkerboard dilution test and time-kill curve assay. The mechanism of action of URS against MRSA was analyzed using a viability assay in the presence of a detergent and an ATPase inhibitor. Morphological changes in the URS-treated MRSA strains were evaluated via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the producing penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) protein level was analyzed using western blotting. The MIC value of URS against MRSA was found to be 6.25 µg/ml and there was a partial synergistic effect between OXA and URS. The time-kill growth curves were suppressed by OXA combined with URS at a sub-inhibitory level. Compared to the optical density at 600 nm (OD600) value of URS alone (0.09 µg/ml), the OD600 values of the suspension in the presence of 0.09 µg/ml URS and 0.00001% Triton X-100 or 250 µg/ml N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide reduced by 56.6 and 85.9%, respectively. The TEM images of MRSA indicated damage to the cell wall, broken cell membranes and cell lysis following treatment with URS and OXA. Finally, an inhibitory effect on the expression of PBP2a protein was observed when cells were treated with URS and OXA compared with untreated controls. The present study suggested that URS was significantly active against MRSA infections and revealed the potential of URS as an effective natural antibiotic.

  15. [27-O-(E)-p-coumaric acyl ursolic acid via JNK/SAPK signal pathway regulates apoptosis of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-ting; Wang, Cun-qin

    2015-02-01

    27-O-(E)-p-coumaric acyl ursolic acid( DY-17) from Ilex latifolia is a compound of the monomer. To investigate the DY-17 inducing apoptosis in the human breast cancer cell line, the MDA-MB-231 cells were used as research object in this experiment. The proliferation activity of the MDA-MB-231 cells stimulated with the different concentrations of DY-17 (20, 40 µmol · L(-1)) was detected at different time( 12, 24, 36, 48, 60,72 h) . We surveyed the DY-17 inducing apoptosis of the MDA-MB-231 cells with the fluorescent staining technology. The rate of MDA-MB-231 cells apoptosis and necrosis was determined by flow cell cytometry (FCC). Moreover, expression of JNK, phosphorylated JNK, Bax, PARP shear and caspase-3 shear related to JNK/SAPK pathways were investigated in every group ( control group, EGF group, EGF + DY-17 40 µmol · L(1) group and EGF + SP600125 group) with Western blot. The MTT results showed that, in the presence of DY-17, the proliferation activity of MDA-MB-231 cells decreased in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. The apoptosis and necrosis rates of MDA-MB-231 cells with DY-17(20, 40 µmol · L(-1)) groups was respectively 31.86%, 49.91% by flow cytometry and significantly increased compared with control group under Fluores- cence microscopy. Up-regulation of the JNK phosphorylation protein expression was observed in EGF group compared with control group. In addition, markedly decreased the expression of JNK phosphorylation protein were also surveyed in EGF + DY-17 40 µmol · L(-1) group compared with EGF group. The expression of Bax, shear PARP and shear caspase-3 protein in EGF + DY-17 40 µmol · L(-1) group were significantly increased in comparison with EGF group. The results showed DY-17 induced apoptosis of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line related to down-regulating JNK/SAPK signal pathways.

  16. Urea derivates of ursolic, oleanolic and maslinic acid induce apoptosis and are selective cytotoxic for several human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerwerk, Sven; Heller, Lucie; Kuhfs, Julia; Csuk, René

    2016-08-25

    2,3-Di-O-acetyl-maslinic acid benzylamide (5) has previously been shown to possess high cytotoxicity for a variety of human tumor cell lines while being of low cytotoxicity to non-malignant cells. Structural modifications performed on 5 revealed that the presence of these acetyl groups in 5 and the presence of (2β,3β)-configurated centers seems necessary for obtaining high cytotoxicity combined with best selectivity between malignant cells and non-malignant mouse fibroblasts. Compounds carrying an ursane skeleton showed weaker cytotoxicity than their oleanane derived analogs. In addition, the benzylamide function in compound 5 should be replaced by a phenylurea moiety to gain better cytotoxicity while retaining and improving the selectivity. Thus, maslinic acid derived N-[2β,3β-di-O-acetyl-17β-amino-28-norolean-12-en-17-yl]phenylurea (45) gave best results showing EC50 = 0.9 μM (for A2780 ovarian cancer cells) with EC50 > 120 μM for fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and triggered apoptosis while caspase-3 was not activated by this compound.

  17. Determination of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid in Paulownia Leaves by HPLC%HPLC法测定桐叶中齐墩果酸和熊果酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘永红

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To establish a method for the determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in Paulownia Leaves. Methods:HPLC was applied, and column was Promosil C18(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm); mobile phase was acetonitrile- methanol -water-phosphoric acid (66∶12∶22∶0.02);flow rate was 1.0 mL·min -1; the detection wavelength was 210 nm; column temperature was 25 ℃; the injection volume was 20 μL. Results:Oleanolic acid in the range of 0.1296-1.5504 μg showed good linear relationship (r=0.9999),and the average recovery was 100.1%; RSD% was 3.4% (n=6). Ursolic acid in the range of 0.2428-2.9136 μg showed good linear relationship (r =0.9999), and the average recovery was 99.3% ; RSD% was 2.2% (n =6). Conclusion: The method is simple, accurate, reproducible,and can be used for Paulownia Leaves quality control.%目的:建立桐叶中齐墩果酸和熊果酸的含量测定方法。方法:采用HPLC法,色谱柱为Promosil C18柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),流动相为乙睛-甲醇-水-磷酸(66∶12∶22∶0.02),流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为210 nm,柱温为25℃,进样量为20μL。结果:齐墩果酸在0.1292-1.5504μg范围内呈良好的线形关系(r=0.9999),平均回收率为100.1%,RSD%为3.4%(n=6)。熊果酸在0.2428-2.9136μg范围内呈良好的线形关系(r=0.9999),平均回收率为99.3%,RSD%为2.2%(n=6)。结论:该方法操作简单、准确,重现性好,可用于桐叶的质量控制。

  18. 熊果酸对人肝癌SMMC-7721裸鼠移植瘤抑制作用的观察%Inhibitory effects of Ursolic acid on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 tumor xenograft in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩旭鹤; 唐新娜; 丁一

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察熊果酸对人肝癌SMMC-7721裸小鼠移植瘤生长的抑制作用及其强度,为本药的进一步临床应用研究提供基础数据.方法 采用荷瘤裸小鼠作为移植性肿瘤实验动物模型.将裸鼠随机分为3组,每组8只,分别为阴性对照组、环磷酰胺阳性对照组和熊果酸组.阳性对照组给予环磷酰胺20mg/kg,熊果酸组给药剂量为4.5mg/kg,阴性对照组给予等量无菌注射用水,每日一次腹腔注射,连续14天.给药期间定期测定动物体重和瘤体积.实验结束后处死裸鼠,取出瘤体称重,计算肿瘤抑制率.结果 给药期间动物一般状况未见明显改变,饮食未见异常,体重较实验前有所增加.熊果酸组瘤体积缩小,瘤株抑瘤率达53.7%,阳性对照组的抑瘤率为39.2%,两组与阴性对照组比较,均有显著差异(P<0.05).熊果酸组和阳性对照组的相对肿瘤体积(RTV)分别为33.16±22.36,21.61±12.88,明显低于阴性对照组(62.09±32.80)(P<0.05),两组的相对肿瘤增殖率均小于60%.结论 熊果酸对人肝癌SMMC-7721裸小鼠移植瘤有明显的抑制作用.%Objective: To observe the inhibition effect and strength of ursolic acid on the human hepatoma SMMC - 7721 tumor xenografts in nude mice and provide base data to further clinical research. Methods: SMMC -7721 was injected subscaneously in nude mice to establish the xenograft tumor animal model. All 24 nude mice were equally divided into three groups randomly: the negative control group, cyclophosphamide positive control group and ursolic acid groups. The mice of positive control group and ursolic acid group were intraperitoneal injected cyclophosphamide by 20 mg/kg and ursolic acid by 4. 5mg/kg daily for a 14 - day continuous administration. Meanwhile, the mice of negative control group were intraperitoneal given the same amount of sterile water daily. During the administration, the weight of mice and the size of xenografts were measured regularly. All mice were

  19. REACTIVE EXTRACTION OF TARTARIC ACID

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    Natalia Marchitan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the results of reactive extraction of tartaric acid in model systems, which can be used for its separation from secondary wine products. As extractant have been used a normal/isododecyl mixed secondary amine Amberlite LA-2. The following parameters of the separation process have been varied: nature of diluent and modifier; modifier concentration; concentration, temperature and pH of the tartaric acid solution and the stirring time, and the work intervals have been established. It was concluded that in determinated conditions the extent of tartaric acid extraction attains value 85-95%.

  20. HPLC-ELSD法测定山茱萸萜中齐墩果酸与熊果酸的含量%Content Determination of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid in Terpene of Cornus officinalis by HPLC-ELSD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄和军; 许惠琴; 崔小兵

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for the content determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in terpene of Cornus officinalis. METHODS: HPLC-ELSD method was adopted. The determination was performed on welchrom-C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase consisted of methanol-1% ammonium acetate (85:15, V/V) at the flow rate of 0.8 mL-miiT' and column temperature of 30 ℃. The temperature of drift tube was 90 ℃, and flow rate was 2.4 L-min-1. RESULTS: The linear range was 15.00~75.00 μg·mL-1 for oleanolic acid and 60.00~300.00 μg·mL-1 for ursolic acid (r=0.999 9); their average recovery rates were 99.14%(RSD= 1.46% ,n=6) and 97.37% (RSD= 1.79%, n=6). CONCLUSION: The method is accurate and reliable. It can be used for quality control of terpene of C. Officinalis.%目的:建立测定山茱萸萜中齐墩果酸与熊果酸含量的方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测器(HPLC-ELSD)法.色谱柱为Welchrom-C18(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),流动相为甲醇-1%醋酸铵(85∶15,V/V),流速为0.8 mL·min-1,柱温为30℃,ELSD检测器的漂移管温度为90℃,载气流量为2.4 L·min-1.结果:齐墩果酸、熊果酸的检测浓度分别在15.00~75.00、60.00~300.00 μg·mL-1范围内与各自峰面积积分值呈良好的对数线性关系(r均为0.999 9);二者平均加样回收率分别为99.14%、97.37%,RSD分别为1.46%、1.79%(n均为6).结论:本方法准确、可靠,可用于山茱萸萜的质量控制.

  1. Efficiency and selectivity of triterpene acid extraction from decoctions and tinctures prepared from apple peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Siani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study assessed the extraction efficiency of ursolic (UA and oleanolic acids (OA, as well as the total phenols in aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of dry apple peels at room temperature. Materials and Methods: After running preliminary assays on decoctions and tinctures (ethanol: water 7:3 v/v, the extracts from dried apple (cv. Fuji peels were obtained by static maceration over varied intervals (2 to 180 days. The UA and OA content in the extracts was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD with a reversed phase column and isocratic elution (CH 3 CN/H 2 O/H 3 PO 4 against calibration curves (R 2 > 0.9995. The total phenol content in the extracts was evaluated spectrophotometrically at 760 nm using the Folin-Ciocalteau method referencing gallic acid. Results: UA and OA in the hydroethanolic extracts ranged from 3.63-6.12 mg/g and 2.12-3.30 mg/g, corresponding to 1.72-3.07 and 1.00-1.66 mg/g in the raw material, respectively. Higher values of triterpene acid content corresponded to maceration periods of 10 or 30 days. The residual phenol and polyphenol content ranged from 6.97 to 11.6 mg/g. The UA and OA yields, as well as the total phenol content, versus the maceration time were plotted in Control Charts within confidence intervals (95% and were unaffected during the assayed period. Conclusion: Apple peel tinctures from 10% solids obtained at room temperature exhibited the highest content of triterpene acids when employing a maceration period of 10 to 30 days. Extracts prepared using this procedure contained an average of 7.33 mg/g of total triterpene acids and 10.6 mg/g phenolic compounds. These results establish supporting data for apple peel tinctures and their derived phytopharmaceuticals that are standardized on the ursolic-oleanolic acid content.

  2. Ursolic Acid—A Pentacyclic Triterpenoid with a Wide Spectrum of Pharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Woźniak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid (UA is a natural terpene compound exhibiting many pharmaceutical properties. In this review the current state of knowledge about the health-promoting properties of this widespread, biologically active compound, as well as information about its occurrence and biosynthesis are presented. Particular attention has been paid to the application of ursolic acid as an anti-cancer agent; it is worth noticing that clinical tests suggesting the possibility of practical use of UA have already been conducted. Amongst other pharmacological properties of UA one can mention protective effect on lungs, kidneys, liver and brain, anti-inflammatory properties, anabolic effects on skeletal muscles and the ability to suppress bone density loss leading to osteoporosis. Ursolic acid also exhibits anti-microbial features against numerous strains of bacteria, HIV and HCV viruses and Plasmodium protozoa causing malaria.

  3. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  4. Ursolic acid and rosiglitazone combination improves insulin sensitivity by increasing the skeletal muscle insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Arjunan; Radhiga, Thangaiyan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate the effect of ursolic acid (UA) and rosiglitazone (RSG) on insulin sensitivity and proximal insulin signaling pathways in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57/BL/6J mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either normal diet or HFD for 10 weeks, after which animals in each dietary group were divided into the following six groups (normal diet, normal diet plus UA and RSG, HFD alone, HFD plus UA, HFD plus RSG, and HFD plus UA and RSG) for the next 5 weeks. UA (5 mg/kg BW) and RSG (4 mg/kg BW) were administered as suspensions directly into the stomach using a gastric tube. The HFD diet elevated fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment index. The expression of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), Akt, and glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 were determined by Western blot analyses. The results demonstrated that combination treatment (UA/RSG) ameliorated HFD-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance by improving the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index. Further, combination treatment (UA/RSG) stimulated the IRS-1, PI3-kinase, Akt, and GLUT 4 translocation. These results strongly suggest that combination treatment (UA/RSG) activates IRS-PI3-kinase-Akt-dependent signaling pathways to induce GLUT 4 translocation and increases the expression of insulin receptor to improve glucose intolerance.

  5. Solvent extraction of metals with hydroxamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, F; Khorassani, J H

    1978-07-01

    Solvent extraction with hydroxamic acids has been investigated. with comparison of aliphatic and aromatic reagents for the extraction of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel. Caprylohydroxamic acid has been evaluated for use in extraction systems for titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and uranium, both in terms of acidity of aqueous phase and oxidation state of the metal. It has been established that caprylohydroxamic acid in 1-hexanol is a suitable extractant for the removal of titanium(IV), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) from 6M hydrochloric acid.

  6. 自噬在熊果酸抑制人脐静脉内皮细胞增殖中的作用%Role of autophagy in inhibition of proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by ursolic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕娟娟; 何林; 余音; 郭倩; 叶秀峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of aulophagy in inhibition of proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by ursolic acid (UA) as well as the relevant mechanism. Methods HUVECs were cultured in vitro and treated with various concentrations of UA and 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagy-specific inhibitor) + UA respectively. The effects of UA on proliferation as well as 3-MA + UA on survival of HUVECs were determined by MTT method. The ultrastructure of HUVECs was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The expressions of autophagy-associated proteins in HUVECs treated with UA were determined by fluorescent staining of mierotubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAPI-LC3) and flow cytometry. The transcription levels of autophagy-assoeiated gene Beclinl and MAP1-LC3B were determined by RT-PCR. Results UA showed dose-dependent inhibitory effect on proliferation of HUVECs. Autophagic vacuoles increased in the HUVECs after treatment with UA. UA treatment up-regulated the expression level of MAP1-LC3 protein in HUVECs. The fluorescent density of MAP1-LC3 positive HUVECs increased significantly as compared with those in control group. Treatment with UA for various hours up-regulated the transcription levels of MAP1-LC3B and Beclinl mRNAs in HUVECs. Treatment with 3-MA + UA enhanced the inhibitory effect on proliferation of HUVECs. Conclusion UA inhibited the proliferation and induced the autophagy of HUVECs, in which autophagy played a protective role. The inhibition of autophagy significantly promoted the death of HUVECs induced by UA.%目的 研究自噬在熊果酸( Ursolic acid,UA)抑制人脐静脉内皮细胞(Human umbilical vein endothelial cells,HUVECs)增殖中的作用,探讨UA抑制血管生长的机制.方法 体外培养HUVECs,分别采用不同浓度的UA和自噬特异性抑制剂3-甲基腺嘌呤(3-methyladenine,3-MA)+UA联合处理,采用MTT法检测UA对HUVECs增殖的抑制作用及其联合3-MA对HUVECs存活率的影

  7. In Vitro Study on the Anti-Proliferation and Apoptosis of Ursolic Acid in Human ACC 83 cells%熊果酸对ACC-83增殖抑制和诱导凋亡的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米磊; 张斌; 王岩松; 寇玉霞; 贾妮

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨熊果酸(ursolic acid,UA)XCX腺样囊性癌ACC-83细胞增殖及凋亡的影响.方法:MTT检测UA对ACC-83细胞体外生长的抑制作用;流式细胞仪测定细胞的周期和凋亡;瑞氏-吉姆萨染色,显示凋亡细胞形态;Western印迹法检测Bcl-2、Bax两个重要的细胞凋亡相关基因和细胞凋亡相天特殊蛋白COX-2表达的变化.结果:UA以剂量和时间依赖的方式抑制ACC-83细胞生长.以剂量依赖的方式使ACC-83细胞周期阻滞在S期,诱导细胞凋亡;染色可见细胞呈明显的凋亡特征:Western印迹法测得UA下调ACC-83细胞的Bcl-2和COX2的蛋白表达,随着药物浓度增加逐渐减少,对Bax的表达并无明显改变.结论:UA能够抑制ACC-83细胞的增殖.并使细胞大量累积于S期.UA可能通过减少COX2和Bcl-2的表达、降低Bcl-2/Bax比例来诱导细胞凋亡.

  8. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  9. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  10. Acid Release from an Acid Sulfate Soil Sample Under Successive Extractions with Different Extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An acid sulfate soil sample was successively extracted with deionized water, 1 mol L-1 KCI and 0.000 5 mol L-1 Ca(OH)2 solutions. The results showed that only very small amounts of acidity were extracted by deionized water, possibly through slow jarosite hydrolysis. Acid release through jarosite hydrolysis was greatly enhanced by Ca(OH)2 extraction at the expense of the added OH- being neutralized by the acid released. Successive extraction of the sample with KCI removed the largest amounts of acidity from the sample. However, it is likely that the major form of acidity released by KC1 extraction was exchangeable acidity. The results also show the occurrence of low or non charged A1 and Fe species in water and Ca(OH)2 extracts after first a few extractions. It appears that such a phenomenon was related to a decreasing EC value with increasing number of extractions.

  11. 熊果酸和齐墩果酸在枇杷叶枇杷花中的分布及动态变化%Distribution of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid in the Leaves and Flowers of Erobotrya japonica and Changes of Triterpene Acids Contents in the Leaves at Different Harvest Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圣龙; 谢晓梅; 程菁菁; 沈盼盼

    2013-01-01

    目的 考察熊果酸(UA)、齐墩果酸(OA)在枇杷落叶、树叶和枇杷花中的分布,并探索其在枇杷叶中含量的动态变化规律.方法 采用超高效液相色谱法(UPLC)测定熊果酸和齐墩果酸含量,色谱柱为Acquity BEH C1s (2.1 mm×100 mm,1.7μm);流动相为甲醇-水-冰醋酸三乙胺(体积比为250∶ 50∶0.10∶0.05),流速:0.25 mL·min-1;检测波长210 nm,柱温25℃.结果 熊果酸和齐墩果酸在枇杷叶中含量显著高于枇杷花;落叶中熊果酸和齐墩果酸的含量高于树叶;一年里每个月采摘的枇杷叶中熊果酸和齐墩果酸的总含量变化范围在0.874% ~0.988%.结论 熊果酸和齐墩果酸在枇杷花、枇杷树叶和落叶中有不同的含量分布;不同采收时期枇杷叶中两个三萜酸总量随月份发生小幅波动,该波动主要来源熊果酸;研究结果支持2010年版《中国药典》对枇杷叶“全年均可采收”的规定;同时提示枇杷叶采收在自然落叶前后为佳.%OBJECTIVE To find out the distribution of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid in fresh leaves, fallen leaves and flowers of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl, and to explore the variation in contents of the triterpene acids in the leaves at different harvest time. METHODS Samples were collected in the campus once every month for 12 months. Determination of ursolic and oleanolic acid was carried out by ultra-high performance liquid cromatography (UPLC) with an acquity BEH C18 column(2. 1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μn) using methanol-water-glacial acetic acid-triethylamine(250:50: 0.10:0. 05) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0. 25 mL · min-1. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm. RESULTS The contents of ursolic and oleanolic acids in Erobotrya japonica leaves were significantly higher compared with those in Erobotrya japonica flowers. The contents of the two triterpene acids in the fallen leaves were higher than those in the fresh leaves. The annual curves of dynamic

  12. High performance liquid chromatography in determining ursolic acid and oleanolic acid contents in Qinggansanjie granules%高效液相色谱法测定清肝散结颗粒中熊果酸及齐墩果酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮; 王新霞; 黎越丹; 周瑾; 张海; 吕磊; 张国庆; 柴逸峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determining the contents of ursolie acid and oleanolic acid in Qinggansanjie granules for quality control of the preparation. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) was used for determination at the following conditions: The column was Chromsil-Ci8 (4. 6 mmX 250 mm, 5 pm), mobile phase was A: 0. 1% (V/V) formic acid solution, B: methanol, A : B = 12 : 88. The flow rate was 1. 0 ml/min, the temperature of column was 25*C , the detection wavelength was set at 210 nm, the injection volume was 50 pi, and the running time was 25 min. Results Ursolic acid and oleanolic acid could be separated on baseline, with the linear range being 6. 1-97. 6 jug/ml for ursolic acid and 6. 4-102 jtg/ml for oleanolic acid. The results of intra-day and inter-day precisions were both within 2% (?= 3), and the average recovery was 95. 4% (RSD1. 54%, n = 6) and 99. 2% (RSDl.97%, n=6). Conclusion The present method is simple, rapid, accurate, and with satisfactory repeatability; it can be used for quality control of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid in Qinggansanjie granules.%目的 将本院协定处方清肝散结方制成颗粒剂后,对清肝散结颗粒中所含化学成分熊果酸及齐墩果酸进行含量测定,建立制剂质量控制方法.方法 采用高效液相色谱法,色谱柱Chromsil-C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),流动相A相为0.1%甲酸水溶液,B相为甲醇,A∶B=12∶88,流速为1.0 ml/min,柱温25℃,紫外检测波长210 nm,进样量50μl,运行时间为25 min.结果 熊果酸和齐墩果酸能够达到基线分离,二者分别在6.1~97.6、6.4~102 μg/ml范围内呈良好的线性关系(r>0.999),日内和日间精密度均小于2%(n=3),平均回收率分别为95.4%(RSD 1.54%,n=6)、99.2%(RSD 1.97%,n=6).结论 该法简便、快捷,结果准确、重复性好,可用于清肝散结颗粒中熊果酸和齐墩果酸的质量控制.

  13. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Yuguang Lin; Vermeer, Mario A.; Trautwein, Elke A.

    2011-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)) contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawtho...

  14. Reactive extraction of lactic acid using alamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting it out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent) sy

  15. Overproduction of clavulanic acid by extractive fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Costa,Cecília Ladeira; Colli Badino,Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Clavulanic acid is an important beta-lactamase inhibitor produced as a secondary metabolite by the actinomycete Streptomyces clavuligerus. Clavulanic acid is chemically unstable; therefore, it is degraded during bacterial cultivation. In this work, the adsorbents clinoptilolite, activated carbon, calcined hydrotalcite, and Amberlite IRA 400 anionic exchange resin were studied in terms of their ability to adsorb clavulanic acid during extractive fermentation, in order to prevent pro...

  16. 自噬在熊果酸诱导的人脐静脉内皮细胞损伤中的作用%Role of autophagy in ursolic acid-induced injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕娟娟; 何林; 余音; 郭倩; 叶秀峰

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究自噬在熊果酸诱导的人脐静脉内皮细胞(human umbilical vein endothelial cells,HUVECs)损伤中的作用.方法:体外培养HUVECs,运用不同浓度的熊果酸处理36 h,采用MTT法检测HUVECs增殖率的变化;透射电镜观察细胞超微结构的改变;单丹磺酰尸胺(MDC)荧光染色观察熊果酸对HUVECs自噬表达水平的影响;Western blotting检测微管相关蛋白轻链3(microtubule-associated protein light chain 3,LC3)及自噬相关蛋白Beclin-1的变化;RT-PCR检测LC3及Beclin-1 mRNA的变化;流式细胞术检测自噬抑制剂3-甲基腺嘌呤(3-methyladenine,3-MA)抑制自噬前后经熊果酸处理的HUVECs凋亡率的变化.结果:熊果酸抑制HUVECs增殖并呈剂量依赖性;熊果酸可诱导HUVECs产生自噬:透射电镜和MDC染色均显示HUVECs经熊果酸处理后自噬囊泡明显增加且自噬在基因及蛋白水平的表达均增加;3-MA与熊果酸联合作用于HUVECs时抑制了熊果酸诱导的HUVECs自噬空泡的积聚并且可明显促进HUVECs凋亡.结论:熊果酸抑制HUVECs增殖,并诱导其发生自噬,自噬在此过程中对HUVECs起保护作用.自噬抑制剂3-MA能够增强熊果酸诱导的HUVECs的增殖抑制作用并且促进HUVECs发生凋亡.%AIM: To investigate the role of autophagy in the injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by ursolic acid (UA). METHODS; HUVECs were cultured in vitro with UA at various concentrations for 36 h and the proliferation inhibitory rate of HUVECs was determined by MTT method . The change of ultrastructure was observed under transmission electronic microscope (TEM). The autophagy was observed using fluorescent microscope by monodansylcadaverin (MDC) staining. The protein level and mRNA expression of microtubule - associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin - 1 were detected by Western blotting and RT - PCR, respectively. Cell apoptotic rate was meas-ured by flow cytometry analysis. RESULTS: UA at various

  17. Nucleic acid protocols: Extraction and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed El-Ashram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield and quality are fundamental features for any researchers during nucleic acid extraction. Here, we describe a simplified, semi-unified, effective, and toxic material free protocol for extracting DNA and RNA from different prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources exploiting the physical and chemical properties of nucleic acids. Furthermore, this protocol showed that DNA and RNA are under triple protection (i.e. EDTA, SDS and NaCl during lysis step, and this environment is improper for RNase to have DNA liberated of RNA and even for DNase to degrade the DNA. Therefore, the complete removal of RNA under RNase influence is achieved when RNase is added after DNA extraction, which gives optimal quality with any protocols. Similarly, DNA contamination in an isolated RNA is degraded by DNase to obtain high-quality RNA. Our protocol is the protocol of choice in terms of simplicity, recovery time, environmental safety, amount, purity, PCR and RT-PCR applicability.

  18. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  19. Triterpene acids from apple peel inhibit lepidopteran larval midgut lipases and larval growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christeller, John T; McGhie, Tony K; Poulton, Joanne; Markwick, Ngaire P

    2014-07-01

    Fruit extracts from apple, kiwifruit, feijoa, boysenberry, and blueberry were screened for the presence of lipase inhibitory compounds against lepidopteran larval midgut crude extracts. From 120 extracts, six showed significant inhibition with an extract from the peel of Malus × domestica cv. "Big Red" showing highest levels of inhibition. Because this sample was the only apple peel sample in the initial screen, a survey of peels from seven apple cultivars was undertaken and showed that, despite considerable variation, all had inhibitory activity. Successive solvent fractionation and LC-MS of cv. "Big Red" apple peel extract identified triterpene acids as the most important inhibitory compounds, of which ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were the major components and oxo- and hydroxyl-triterpene acids were minor components. When ursolic acid was incorporated into artificial diet and fed to Epiphyas postvittana Walker (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera) larvae at 0.16% w/v, a significant decrease in larval weight was observed after 21 days. This concentration of ursolic acid is less than half the concentration reported in the skin of some apple cultivars. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  1. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  2. Treatment of Sebacic Acid Industrial Wastewater by Extraction Process Using Castor Oil Acid as Extractant*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐航; 周全; 王金福

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater containing high concentrations of phenol and sodium sulfate is generated in sebacic acid (SA) industry. Castor oil acid, a raw material for producing SA, can be used to extract phenol from wastewater in order to reduce the amount of phenol used in the process and discharge of phenol. The results show that the extrac-tion mechanism is that hydroxyl group of phenol is linked to carboxyl group of castor oil acid by hydrogen bond. The extraction process approaches equilibrium in 30 min. Extraction ratio increases with the increase of sodium sulfate and castor oil acid, and decreases as phenol increases. When the oil-water ratio is 1︰3, the optimal distribu-tion coefficient of 40 is obtained. Phenol saturation concentration in castor oil acid is 1.03 mol·L−1 after extraction for 4 times. The equilibrium constant (Kex) at 25 °C is 8.41 and the endothermic enthalpy (ΔH) is 1.513 kJ·mol−1. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is−5.277 kJ·mol−1 and the value ofΔS is calculated to be 22.3 J·mol−1·K−1.

  3. THE EFFECT OF CUCUMBER ( ) EXTRACT ON ACID INDUCED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    ... of corneal acid burn. Cucumber extract, corneal acid burn, guinea pigs, alpha hydroxyl acids, beta hydroxyl ..... cholesterol arteriosclerosis in rabbits. Circulation.12:696 ... production in human skin fibroblast cultures in vitro. Dermatol. Surg.

  4. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric characterization of essential oils and extracts from Lippia (Verbenaceae) aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, Elena E; Martínez, Jairo R; Cala, Mónica P; Durán, Diego C; Caballero, Deyanira

    2013-01-01

    Analytical methodologies based on GC and HPLC were developed for the separation and quantification of carnosic acid, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, and pinocembrin. These methods were used to characterize essential oils and extracts obtained by solvent (methanol) and by supercritical fluid (CO(2)) extraction from stems and leaves of Lippia (Verbenaceae family) aromatic plants (Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Lippia micromera, Lippia americana, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia citriodora). Supercritical CO(2) extraction isolated solely pinocembrin and narigenin from three L. origanoides chemotypes. Solvent extracts possessed a more varied composition that additionally included apigenin, quercetin, and luteolin. Solvent extraction afforded higher overall flavonoid yields from all species in comparison with supercritical CO(2) extraction. Pinocembrin was determined in L. origanoides extract at a concentration of 30 mg/g of plant material, which is more than ten times higher than the amount at which polyphenols are regularly found in aromatic plant extracts.

  5. Novel extractants for the recovery of fermentation derived lactic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzaniak, A.; Leeman, M.; Vossebeld, F.; Visser, T.J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive liquid–liquid extraction is a promising technology for the removal of lactic acid directly from fermentation media. For over five decades, tertiary amines (e.g. trioctyl amine) have been the state-of-the-art extractants for carboxylic acid extraction. However, to make fermentative carboxyli

  6. Astrobionibbler: In Situ Microfluidic Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, A. C.; Fisher, A. M.; Takano, N.; Fors-Francis, K.; Sherrit, S.; Grunthaner, F.

    2016-10-01

    A fluidic-chip based instrument for subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of amino acids and other organics from powder samples has been developed. A variety of soil analog extractions have been performed to better understand SCWE capabilities.

  7. 迷迭香叶中鼠尾草酸超声波辅助提取的优化%Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid from Rosemary Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大伟; 毕良武; 赵振东; 李冬梅; 刘先章

    2011-01-01

    利用超声波辅助提取法提取迷迭香中的主要生物活性成分鼠尾草酸,分别研究了不同条件对鼠尾草酸提取率的影响.对5.0 g粉碎后的迷迭香叶子进行超声波辅助提取的结果表明,室温较适宜的超声波提取条件是:乙醇质量分数75%、3 g盐酸为酸稳定剂、超声波频率28 kHz、超声波功率200W、超声波提取时间40min、料液比(g:g)1:16.在上述提取条件下,鼠尾草酸的得率可达18.64mg/g.%Carnosic acid, the key bioactive component, was extracted from leaves of roesmary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) using ultrasound-assisted extraction.The different factors such as ethanol concentration, variety of acid stabilizer, acid stabilizer dosage, ultronic frequency, ultrasonic power, ultrasonic extraction time and the solid-liquid ratio were studied.The content variations of carnosol, rosmarinic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were also examined.The experimental results for 5.0 g rosemary leaves showed that the optimum ultrasonic extraction conditions at room temperature were: ethanol solution concentration 75 %, acid stabilizer 3 g hydrochloric acid, ultrasonic frequency 28 kHz, ultrasonic power 200 W, ultrasonic extraction time 40 min, solid-liquid ratio( g∶ g) 1∶ 16.The extraction rate of carnosic acid reached 18.64 mg/g under the above extraction conditions.

  8. Integration of galacturonic acid extraction with alkaline protein extraction from green tea leaf residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Bozileva, Elvira; Klis, van der Frits; Dong, Yiyuan; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf pectin can be used as a feedstock for galacturonic acid (GA) production, but high extraction costs limit economic feasibility. To improve the extraction efficiency, leaf pectin extraction was integrated with an already cost-effective alkaline protein extraction, focusing on high yield of GA

  9. Application of solid phase extraction with the use of silica modified with polyaniline film for pretreatment of samples from plant material before HPLC determination of triterpenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Ireneusz; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Rokicka, Kamila; Kocjan, Ryszard; Szymczak, Grażyna

    2014-05-01

    The new sorbent based on silica gel coated with a film of polyaniline (Si-PANI) was obtained in a process of in situ polymerization directly on carrier particles and its potential application for pretreatment of plant material samples with the use of solid phase extraction (SPE) was investigated. Parameters such as cartridge conditioning, the volume and concentration of the sample, the type and volume of the elution solvent were optimized and compared with parameters obtained for RP-18 and aminopropyl silica cartridges. The high recovery values above 97% after the SPE procedure with the use of Si-PANI cartridges proves their utility for analysis of triterpenic acids. The sorbent tested was successfully used for clean-up of extracts from Salvia officinalis L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill., and Origanum vulgare L. prior to HPLC-DAD determination of oleanolic, ursolic and betulinic acid. The efficiency of sample purification was verified by monitoring of chromatograms in the region between 190 nm and 400 nm during the gradient elution. The fewest components or their lowest concentrations were observed for all the investigated samples after the SPE procedures.

  10. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  11. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  12. Pectin extraction from pomegranate peels with citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique F; Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Cavalcante, Fabio Lima; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-07-01

    Pectins were extracted from pomegranate peels with citric acid, according to a central composite design with three variables: pH (2-4), temperature (70-90°C), and extraction time (40-150min). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to follow changes in material composition during the main steps of pectin extraction, and also to determine the degree of methyl esterification and galacturonic acid content of pectins produced under different conditions. Harsh conditions enhanced the extraction yield and the galacturonic acid contents, but decreased the degree of methoxylation. The optimum extraction conditions, defined as those predicted to result in a yield of galacturonic acid higher than 8g/100g while keeping a minimum degree of methoxylation of 54% were: 88°C, 120min, pH 2.5. Close agreement was found between experimental and predicted values at the extraction conditions defined as optimum.

  13. Extraction of Glycyrrhizic Acid and Glabridin from Licorice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Row

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The extraction and separation conditions of glycyrrhizic acid and glabridin from licorice were investigated. By changing the different extraction solvents, procedures, times and temperature, the optimum extraction condition was established: the used of ethanol/water (30:70, v/v as an extraction solvent, and 60 min dipping time under 50°C. The extracts of licorice were separated and determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a methanol/water (70:30, v/v, containing 1% acetic acid as the mobile phase. Under the optimum extraction condition, 2.39 mg/g of glycyrrhizic acid and 0.92 mg/g of glabridin were extracted from Chinese licorice and the recoveries were 89.7% and 72.5% respectively.

  14. Extraction of Glycyrrhizic Acid and Glabridin from Licorice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Minglei; Yan, Hongyuan; Row, Kyung Ho

    2008-01-01

    The extraction and separation conditions of glycyrrhizic acid and glabridin from licorice were investigated. By changing the different extraction solvents, procedures, times and temperature, the optimum extraction condition was established: the used of ethanol/water (30:70, v/v) as an extraction solvent, and 60 min dipping time under 50°C. The extracts of licorice were separated and determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a methanol/water (70:30, v/v, containing 1% acetic acid) as the mobile phase. Under the optimum extraction condition, 2.39 mg/g of glycyrrhizic acid and 0.92 mg/g of glabridin were extracted from Chinese licorice and the recoveries were 89.7% and 72.5% respectively. PMID:19325770

  15. Hafnium extraction from acidic chloride solutions by Cyanex 923

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ammouri, E.; Distin, P.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    Hafnium extraction from hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride solutions into Cyanex 923 in kerosene has been studied. Variables investigated were hydrochloric acid, total chloride and hafnium concentrations in the aqueous phase, and extractant/modifier (isodecanol) levels in the organic phase. Hafnium is considered to load as the tetrachloride complex forming a disolvate with Cyanex 923. Results are compared with equivalent data for zirconium extraction. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  17. Enzymatic Extraction of Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Coffee Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Favela-Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids are classified as hydroxycinnamic acids, presenting anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this work, enzymatic extraction has been studied in order to extract high value-added products like hydroxycinnamic acids from coffee pulp. A commercial pectinase and enzyme extract produced by Rhizomucor pusillus strain 23aIV in solid-state fermentation using olive oil or coffee pulp (CP as an inducer of the feruloyl esterase activity were evaluated separately and mixed. The total content (covalently linked and free of ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids was 5276 mg per kg of coffee pulp. Distribution was as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 58.7, caffeic acid 37.6, ferulic acid 2.1 and p-coumaric acid 1.5. Most of the hydroxycinnamic acids were covalently bound to the cell wall (in %: p-coumaric acid 97.2, caffeic acid 94.4, chlorogenic acid 76.9 and ferulic acid 73.4. The content of covalently linked hydroxycinnamic acid was used to calculate the enzyme extraction yield. The maximum carbon dioxide rate for the solid-state fermentation using olive oil as an inducer was higher and it was reached in a short cultivation time. Nevertheless, the feruloyl esterase (FAE activity (units per mg of protein obtained in the fermentation using CP as an inducer was 31.8 % higher in comparison with that obtained in the fermentation using olive oil as the inducer. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating the composition of both esterified and free ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids in coffee pulp. The highest yield of extraction of hydroxycinnamic acids was obtained by mixing the produced enzyme extract using coffee pulp as an inducer and a commercial pectinase. Extraction yields were as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 54.4, ferulic acid 19.8, p-coumaric acid 7.2 and caffeic acid 2.3. An important increase in the added value of coffee pulp was mainly

  18. [Extraction of heavy metals from sewage sludge using aspartic acid and citric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Li-Hua; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Zhao, Jian-Fu

    2008-03-01

    Aspartic acid, as a biodegradable natural amino acid, was used to separate and remove the heavy metals from the sewage sludge based on chemical extraction technology. Under various conditions, the extraction processes were carried out for the sewage sludge from Shanghai Taopu Municipal Wastewater Plant. The comparison of extraction between aspartic acid and citric acid was also discussed for the separation of three heavy metals from sewage sludge. The results showed that pH and the dosage of aspartic acid or citric acid had a significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Zn, Ni and Cu can be apart extracted for more than 85% by aspartic acid at low pH. With the increment of pH value, the extraction ration decreased gradually for both two systems. Within the whole pH range, aspartic acid showed higher extraction efficiency for Ni, Cu than citric acid and the extraction efficiencies of aspartic acid for Ni, Cu were found to respectively be more than 50%, 40%. For the situation of Zn, citric acid had a higher extraction efficiency at pH > or = 3.0.

  19. Optimization of acidic extraction of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui NI; Qi-he CHEN; Guo-qing HE; Guang-bin WU; Yuan-fan YANG

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of a process for extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma by acidic method was investigated,regarding several extraction factors such as acids, organic solvents, temperature and time. Fractional factorial design, central composite design and response surface methodology were used to derive a statistically optimal model, which corresponded to the following optimal condition: concentration of lactic acid at 5.55 mol/L, ratio of ethanol to yeast dry weight at 20.25 ml/g, temperature for cell-disruption at 30 ℃, and extraction time for 3 min. Under this condition, astaxanthin and the total carotenoids could be extracted in amounts of 1294.7 μg/g and 1516.0 μg/g, respectively. This acidic method has advantages such as high extraction efficiency, low chemical toxicity and no special requirement of instruments. Therefore, it might be a more feasible and practical method for industrial practice.

  20. Lanthanide extraction with 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. H.

    1977-12-01

    This research is concerned with the solvent extraction into chloroform of the lanthanides, using 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid (DMHHA). This acid is the first ..cap alpha..-hydroxy aliphatic acid to be studied as an extracting agent for the lanthanides. The chloroform-water DMHHA partition constant was determined to be 1.0 (at 0.1 M ionic strength and 25/sup 0/C). The acid dimerizes in chloroform with a constant of 56. The light lanthanides can be extracted into chloroform by forming complexes with the DMHHA anions. The extracted metal species is highly aggregated. This extraction has a solubility limit which increases with the addition of unionized acid. The resultant extract is also highly aggregated. At unionized acid-to-metal ratios greater than one, extractions first occur followed by the slow precipitation of the lanthanide. At the tracer level, neodymium is extracted primarily as NdA/sub 3/(HA)/sub 5/ and (NdA/sub 3/)/sub 2/(HA)/sub q/. Very small amounts of (NdA/sub 3/)/sub 2/ and other metal aggregates are also present. The heavy lanthanides do not extract from solutions of DMHHA and its potassium salt, but form aqueous emulsions and precipitates. In the presence of the organic soluble tetrabutylammonium ion the heavy lanthanides can be extracted, presumably as ion pairs. The stability constants of the light lanthanides and DMHHA were determined. The separation factors obtained from DMHHA extractions of the light lanthanides were also investigated and found to be comparable to those obtained employing normal aliphatic carboxylic acid.

  1. Extraction of mono- and dicarboxylic acids from a curative water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, C; Weil, L; Niessner, R

    1995-09-01

    A method for the analysis of mono- and dicarboxylic acids from water is presented. For this purpose two techniques, a C(18) solid phase extraction (SPE) and a combination method of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and aminopropyl SPE, were tested. With the combination method all analytes, short-chain mono- and long-chain dicarboxylic acids, could be analysed in one approach. The C(18) SPE was not suitable for short-chain mono- but for dicarboxylic acids. Concentrations in the investigated water ranged from 315 mg/l (butanoic acid) to 2.9 mg/l (octanoic acid). Dicarboxylic acids were found from 5 mg/l (octanedioic acid) to 0.5 mg/l (dodecanedioic acid).

  2. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction to determine triterpene acids in olive skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pastor, Ignacio; Fernandez-Hernandez, Antonia; Perez-Criado, Sergio; Rivas, Francisco; Martinez, Antonio; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Parra, Andres

    2017-03-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction is compared with a more classical technique, Soxhlet extraction, to determine the content of triterpene acids in olive skins. The samples used in their original unmilled state and milled were extracted with ethyl acetate or methanol as solvents. The optimized operating conditions (e.g., amount and type of solvent, and time and temperature of extractions) to attain the better extraction yields have been established. For the identification and quantitation of the target compounds, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was employed. The best results were achieved using the microwave-assisted extraction technique, which was much faster than the Soxhlet extraction method, and showed higher efficiency in the extraction of the triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic).

  3. Chromium Extraction from Sewage Sludge Using Polyepoxysuccinic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Hua; ZHU Zhi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    An environmentally benign biodegradable chelant,polyepoxysuccinic acid (PESA),was used to separate heavy metals from sewage sludge from the Shanghai Taopu Wastewater Treatment Plant,China,based on chemical extraction technology.The extraction of chromium (Cr) from sewage sludge with an aqueous solution of PESA was studied under various conditions.It was found that the extraction of Cr using PESA was more efficient than that using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) under similar conditions.PESA was capable of extracting Cr from the sewage sludge,and the extraction efficiency was obviously dependent on both the pH and the concentration of the chelating reagent.The extraction efficiency decreased gradually with increasing pH,and the dependence on pH decreased as the concentration of PESA increased.The extraction efficiency reached 58% under conditions of pH =4 and a ratio of PESA to total heavy metals of 10∶1.The extraction efficiency was maintained above 40% within the pH range from 1 to 7 at the high ratio of PESA to total heavy metals of 10∶1.Comparing the contents of heavy metals in the sewage sludge before and after the extraction,it was found that the extracted Cr came mainly from the reducible and oxidizable fractions.

  4. Solvent extraction of vanadium from sulfuric acid solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mingyu; ZHANG Guiqing; WANG Xuewen; ZHANG Jialiang

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of vanadium(V) extracted from sulfuric acid solution was investigated using Cyanex 923 as an cxtractant. The effects of the concentration of Cyanex 923 and the pH of the solution were studied. The extraction of vanadium(V) increases with the increase of Cyanex 923 concentration and shaking time. Cyanex 923 can extract vanadium(V) fi'om sulfuric acid solution at low pH conditions, and the best pH conditions for exuaction of vanadium(V) are at pH 1.0-2.0. The species extracted into the organic phase is VO2HSO4 with one molecule of Cyanex 923. Equilibrium studies were used to assess the extraction efficiency of vanadium(V) recovery from the sulfuric acid solution.

  5. Mitotic apparatus: the selective extraction of protein with mild acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1968-07-26

    The treatment of isolated mitotic apparatus with mild (pH 3) hydrochloric acid results in the extraction of less than 10 percent of its protein, accompanied by the selective morphological disappearance of the microtubules. The same extraction can be shown to dissolve outer doublet microtubules from sperm flagella. A protein with points of similarity to the flagellar microtubule protein is the major component of the extract from mitotic apparatus.

  6. POLY(AMINOMETHYLENEPHOSPHONIC ACID FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METAL IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M’hamed Kaid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diaminododecyltetramethylenetetraphosphonic acid (DADTMTPA has been investigated in liquid - liquid extraction of Zn (II and Cu (II in acetate media. The extraction of both cations was carried out in different media with the addition of CH3COONa, CH3COOH, HCl and H2SO4 at different pH values. The maximum extraction yield for copper is 70% after addition of 10 mg of sodium acetate and for zinc is 30% after addition of acetic acid at pHi = 5.5, in one step.

  7. Extraction of L-Aspartic Acid with Reverse Micelle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem AYDOĞAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the extraction L-aspartic acid which is a hydrophobic amino acid with reverse micelle system. Production of amino acids by fermentation has been more important in recent years. These amino acids are obtained in dilute aqueous solutions and have to be separated from excess substrate, inorganic salts and by-products. Recently, separation of amino acids from fermentation media by reverse micelle extraction has received a great deal of attention. In this study, reverse micelle phase includes aliquat-336 as a surfactant, 1-decanol as a co-surfactant and isooctane as an apolar solvent. Experiments were performed at 150 rpm stirring rate, at 30 oC, for 30 min extraction time with equal volumes of reverse micelle and aqueous phases. Concentration of L-aspartic acid was analyzed by liquid chromatography (HPLC. The extraction yield increased with increasing pH and aliquat-336 concentration and with decreasing initial amino acid concentration. Maximum ekstraction yield (68 % was obtained at pH of 12, surfactant concentration of 200 mM and an initial amino acid concentration of 5 mM.

  8. Separation Characteristics of Succinic Acid in Reactive Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yeon Ki; Hong, Won Hi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Succinic acid has recently been drawing much interest as a raw material for biodegradable polymer. In this study succinic acid was separated by reactive extraction with tertiary amines dissolved in various diluents. Distribution coefficients were determined as the function of TPA(tripropylamine) concentrations, diluents, and chain length of tertiary amines. The extraction capacity increased with the polarity of diluents, the concentration of TPA in organic phase and the chain length of amines. Furthermore, the coextracted water into the organic phase enhanced the solubility of succinic acid into organic phase. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from nitric acid solutions by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid dissolved in kerosene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsai, Hung-Sheng; Tsai, Teh-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from a nitric acid solution using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an acidic extractant of organophosphorus compounds dissolved in kerosene was studied...

  10. Extraction, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of sesame extract (Sesamum Indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaustion of the oil contained in the seeds. The sequential extraction used ethyl ether, ethanol and water as solvents. The Soxhlet extraction was the most effective (58.93%, while the SFE technique obtained 26.47% as the best result. The antioxidant activity (AA was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with good oxidation inhibition percentages (29.32-83.49% for all the extracts. The main fatty acids (FA in sesame oil were oleic and linoleic acids.

  11. Chemical constituents of the leaves and anti-inflammatory activity evaluation of extracts of roots and leaves of Guettarda pohliana Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos das folhas e avaliacao da atividade anti-inflamatoria de extratos das raizes e folhas de Guettarda pohliana Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, Glaucio; Oliveira, Paulo Roberto Neves de; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da; Schuquel, Ivania Teresinha Albrecht; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira, E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Kato, Lucilia; Oliveira, Cecilia Maria Alves de [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Samambaia, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Departamento de Farmacologia e Terapeutica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringa, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This phytochemical investigation of Guettarda pohliana leaves led to the isolation of the triterpenes pomolic acid, rotundic acid, 3b,6a,19a,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, clethric acid, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, the monoterpenoids loliolide and secoxyloganin, besides daucosterol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of NMR data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanolic extracts from leaves and roots, as well as of their fractions, was evaluated. (author)

  12. EXTRACTION, QUANTIFICATION, AND MOLAR MASS DETERMINATION OF HYALURONIC ACID EXTRACTED FROM CHICKEN CREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. ROSA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Hyaluronic acid (HA is part of the connective tissue. The polymer is composed of alternating units of ß-d-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosamine linked, respectively, via 1-3 and 1-4 bonds. The chicken crest is one of the richest tissues in this polysaccharide. Since Brazil is one of the main chicken exporters in the world, the utilization of the crests of abated animals for the HA obtaining is particularly attractive. The present work sought to extract HA from chicken crest and to determine the molar mass of the extracted acid. Extraction was accomplished by proteolytic digestion with papain during 24 h at 60oC, followed by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC. Hexuronic acid content was determined via the carbazole method, the intrinsic viscosity was measured using the ball viscosimeter, and the molar mass was calculated by extrapolating the calibration line to zero. In addition, qualitative infrared spectroscopy was carried out on the sample using the Bomem MB spectrophotometer. The results show that the extraction method was effective: the extracted acid possesses a large molecular mass, and the extract contains a signifi cant amount of HA.

  13. Extraction of Cadmium from Sewage Sludge Using Polyepoxysuccinic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-Liang; ZHANG Li-Hua; ZHANG Hua; QIU Yan-Ling; ZHANG Rong-Hua; ZHAO Jian-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Polyepoxysuccinic acid (PESA),as an environmental benign biodegradable chelant,was used to remove heavy metals from the sewage sludge of Shanghai Taopu Wastewater Treatment Plant.The extraction of cadmium (Cd) from sewage sludge using aqueous solution of PESA was studied.It was found that PESA was capable of extracting Cd from the sludge,and the extraction efficiency was dependent on both pH and the concentration of the chelating reagent.The extraction efficiency decreased gradually with increasing of pH,whereas the dependency on pH decreased as the concentration of PESA increased.In the case of the high PESA to total metal ratio,e.g.,10:1,the extraction efficiency reached above 70% within the pH range from 1 to 7.The highest extraction efficiency obtained in the experiment was 78%.By comparing the contents of the heavy metals in sewage sludge before and after the extraction,it was found that the extracted Cd came mainly from the four fractious:acid-soluble,reducible,oxidizable,and water-soluble fractions.

  14. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organo-phosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乃扶; 吴瑾光; 俞致健; 王笃金; 徐光宪

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (Ⅰ) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP),(Ⅱ) 2-ethylhexyl phos-phonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (KEHPEHE) and (Ⅲ) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanlde-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems.Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) re-suits on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n -heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP.The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent,by which the mixed solvent was formed,increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates.Aggregates formed from the ianthamde ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable.In the case of naphthenic acid,PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mix

  15. Effects of ursolic acid on NADPH oxidase subunit p47Phox expression and ERK1/2 pathway activation in rat hepatic stellate cells%熊果酸对活化型肝星状细胞NADPH氧化酶亚基p47Phox表达及ERK1/2信号通路活化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新华; 何文华; 朱萱; 李弼民; 张焜和; 陈璐; 施凤

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究熊果酸(ursolic acid,UA)对瘦素诱导的大鼠肝星状细胞(HSC-T6) NADPH氧化酶(NOX)亚基p47Phox表达及ERK1/2信号通路活化的影响,并观察I 型胶原合成及细胞增殖情况.方法 将培养激活的HSC-T6细胞株分为6组:正常对照组,不加任何药物;瘦素组,给予重组大鼠瘦素(100 ng/ml)刺激细胞;各干预组分别给予UA (50 μmol/L)、JAK抑制剂AG490 (50 μmol/L)、NOX抑制剂DPI (20μmol/L)、ERK抑制剂PD98059(30 μmol/L)预处理30 min,再加入瘦素刺激不同时间.采用蛋白质印迹分析检测细胞膜移位的p47Phox蛋白、细胞总p47Phox蛋白和磷酸化的ERK1/2(p-ERK1/2)蛋白表达;采用RT-PCR法检测 I型胶原mRNA的表达;采用MTT法检测细胞增殖.结果 瘦素刺激HSC-T6细胞30 min后细胞膜p47Phox蛋白表达较正常对照组增高(P<0.01),细胞内p-ERK1/2蛋白表达也随之增高(P<0.05);UA、AG490、DPI、PD98059干预后抑制了p47Phox蛋白向细胞膜移位以及细胞内ERK1/2蛋白磷酸化.瘦素刺激HSO-T6细胞12h后I 型胶原的mRNA表达较正常对照组升高(P<0.01),UA、AG490、DPI及PD98059干预组I 型胶原mRNA的表达均低于瘦素组(P均<0.01).瘦素刺激HSC-T6细胞12、24、48 h后细胞增殖率高于正常对照组(P均<0.01);UA、AG490、DPI及PD98059干预不同时间点的细胞增殖率均低于瘦素组(P均<0.01),UA的抑制细胞增殖作用弱于DPI(P<0.01).结论 UA能抑制瘦素诱导的HSC-T6细胞增殖及I 型胶原表达,机制可能与抑制NOX亚基p47Phox向细胞膜移位及下游信号通路ERK1/2的激活有关.%Objective To investigate the effects of ursolic acid CUA) on leptin-induced NADPH oxidase (NOX) subunits p47phox expression and ERKi/2 pathway activation of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSOT6), and to observe the cells proliferation and collagen I synthesis. Methods Culture-activated HSC-T6 cells were divided into six groups: normal control group received no treatment; leptin

  16. Extraction of Aminobenzoic Acid with TOA and TBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑾; 戴猷元

    2002-01-01

    A series of extraction equilibrium experiments for aminobenzoic acid were carried out. Tri-n-octylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were selected as complexing agents. 1-Octanol and kerosene were selected as diluents. The effects of extractant concentration and pH on the distribution ratio were discussed in detail. It was found that there are ion-pair association and hydrogen-bond complexing in the extraction. Expressions of the equilibrium distribution for different solvent systems are proposed. The precision of the models is satisfactoy.

  17. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ramanauskiene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h. RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies.

  18. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:27688825

  19. Rapid Extraction of Human DNA Containing Humic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Sutlović, Davorka; Definis Gojanović, Marija; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2007-01-01

    The identification process of dead bodies or human remains is nowadays conducted in numerous fields of forensic science, archeology and other judicial cases. A particular problem is the isolation and DNA typing of human remains found in mass graves, due to the degradation process, as well as post mortal DNA contamination with bacteria, fungi, humic acids, metals, etc. In this study, the influence of humic acid (HA) on the DNA extraction and typing is investigated. If present in...

  20. CO2-enhanced extraction of acetic acid from fermented wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyhanitash, Ehsan; Zaalberg, B.; IJmker, H.M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Schuur, Boelo

    2015-01-01

    The industrial process of recovering fermentation-based volatile fatty acids (VFAs) utilizes H2SO4 to acidify the fermentation broth containing VFA-salts [e.g. Ca(CH3COO)2] to enable formation of molecular VFAs. Molecular VFAs are then recovered by liquid–liquid extraction. However, acidification

  1. CO2-enhanced extraction of acetic acid from fermented wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyhanitash, E.; Zaalberg, B.; IJmker, H.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Schuur, B.

    2015-01-01

    The industrial process of recovering fermentation-based volatile fatty acids (VFAs) utilizes H2SO4 to acidify the fermentation broth containing VFA-salts [e.g. Ca(CH3COO)2] to enable formation of molecular VFAs. Molecular VFAs are then recovered by liquid–liquid extraction. However, acidification wi

  2. Multicentre validation study of nucleic acids extraction from FFPE tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Serena; Hlubek, Falk; Benhattar, Jean; Denkert, Carsten; Dietel, Manfred; Fernandez, Pedro L; Höfler, Gerald; Kothmaier, Hannelore; Kruslin, Bozo; Mazzanti, Chiara Maria; Perren, Aurel; Popper, Helmuth; Scarpa, Aldo; Soares, Paula; Stanta, Giorgio; Groenen, Patricia J T A

    2010-09-01

    In most pathology laboratories worldwide, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples are the only tissue specimens available for routine diagnostics. Although commercial kits for diagnostic molecular pathology testing are becoming available, most of the current diagnostic tests are laboratory-based assays. Thus, there is a need for standardized procedures in molecular pathology, starting from the extraction of nucleic acids. To evaluate the current methods for extracting nucleic acids from FFPE tissues, 13 European laboratories, participating to the European FP6 program IMPACTS (www.impactsnetwork.eu), isolated nucleic acids from four diagnostic FFPE tissues using their routine methods, followed by quality assessment. The DNA-extraction protocols ranged from homemade protocols to commercial kits. Except for one homemade protocol, the majority gave comparable results in terms of the quality of the extracted DNA measured by the ability to amplify differently sized control gene fragments by PCR. For array-applications or tests that require an accurately determined DNA-input, we recommend using silica based adsorption columns for DNA recovery. For RNA extractions, the best results were obtained using chromatography column based commercial kits, which resulted in the highest quantity and best assayable RNA. Quality testing using RT-PCR gave successful amplification of 200 bp-250 bp PCR products from most tested tissues. Modifications of the proteinase-K digestion time led to better results, even when commercial kits were applied. The results of the study emphasize the need for quality control of the nucleic acid extracts with standardised methods to prevent false negative results and to allow data comparison among different diagnostic laboratories.

  3. Recovery of heavy metals from industrial sludge using various acid extraction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C H; Kuo, C Y; Lo, S L

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metals were removed from industrial sludge by traditional and microwave-assisted acid extraction approaches. The effects of acid concentration, extraction time, sludge particle size and solid/liquid (S/L) ratio on copper-extraction efficiency were assessed. Leaching with increased acid concentrations increased the yield of heavy metals from the industrial sludge. In microwave-assisted acid extraction, reducing the S/L ratio and sludge particle size increased copper-extraction efficiency. These experimental findings indicate that S/L ratio most strongly influenced microwave-assisted acid extraction. Both traditional and microwave-assisted acid extraction demonstrate that sulfuric acid was an effective extractant, and the copper fraction in extracted sludge shifted from being primarily bound to Fe-Mn oxides and organic-matter partition, to being mostly bound to organic matter, remaining as a residue during acid extraction.

  4. Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieciak, S.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: open air extraction at room temperature and Soxhlet exhaustive extraction. The additional yield is about 5% for a 2.5% acetic acid content in case of open air extraction and turns out to be 9% for 7.5% acetic acid content in the Soxhlet procedure. An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil. The improved yield may be attributed to the action of acetic acid on the decomposition of intercellular structures and binding of some polar lipids. The phospholipids content of oil extracted with 7.5% acidic hexane is found to be 25 times more than with pure hexane.

    El uso de hexano ácido como disolvente aumenta el rendimiento de aceite extraído de orujo de aceituna. Se han estudiado dos procedimientos de extracción: extracción al aire libre a temperatura ambiente y extracción exhaustiva en Soxhlet. En el caso de extracción al aire libre el rendimiento adicional es alrededor del 5% para un contenido del 2'5% en ácido acético y llega a ser en el procedimiento en Soxhlet del 9% para un contenido en ácido acético del 7'5%. Un análisis del aceite extraído mostró un ligero aumento de la acidez del aceite. La mejora del rendimiento puede ser atribuida a la acción del ácido acético sobre la descomposición de estructuras intercelulares y uniones de lípidos polares. Se ha encontrado que el contenido en fosfolípidos del aceite extraído con el 7*5% de hexano ácido es 25 veces mayor que con hexano puro.

  5. Possible prebiotics and gallic acid separations from jackfruit seed extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of jackfruit seeds can be extracted for possible prebiotics and phenolics (gallic acid and purified by crystallization and solid phase extraction (SPE, respectively. The studied parameters for crystallization were mixing speed, crystallizing temperature and cooling rate while the studied parameters for SPE were feed concentration, feed flow rate and length to diameter ratio (L/D of the extraction column. The optimal condition for the crystallization provided the crystal yield of 0.028 g crystal /g dry extract at 100 rpm mixing speed, 58°C crystallizing temperature and 1°C /min cooling rate. Molecular weight analysis of the crystals indicated that the crystals can be fructo-oligosaccharide or raffinose. The optimal condition for SPE obtaining gallic acid 92 percent yield was at 4% w/v feed concentration with 3 mL/min flow rate and L/D of 15.3. Finally a high temperature can degrade both possible prebiotic and gallic acid.

  6. Pentacyclic triterpene distribution in various plants - rich sources for a new group of multi-potent plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Sebastian; Trojan, Holger; Kopp, Thomas; Laszczyk, Melanie N; Scheffler, Armin

    2009-06-04

    Pentacyclic triterpenes are secondary plant metabolites widespread in fruit peel, leaves and stem bark. In particular the lupane-, oleanane-, and ursane triterpenes display various pharmacological effects while being devoid of prominent toxicity. Therefore, these triterpenes are promising leading compounds for the development of new multi-targeting bioactive agents. Screening of 39 plant materials identified triterpene rich (> 0.1% dry matter) plant parts. Plant materials with high triterpene concentrations were then used to obtain dry extracts by accelerated solvent extraction resulting in a triterpene content of 50 - 90%. Depending on the plant material, betulin (birch bark), betulinic acid (plane bark), oleanolic acid (olive leaves, olive pomace, mistletoe sprouts, clove flowers), ursolic acid (apple pomace) or an equal mixture of the three triterpene acids (rosemary leaves) are the main components of these dry extracts. They are quantitatively characterised plant extracts supplying a high concentration of actives and therefore can be used for development of phytopharmaceutical formulations.

  7. Pentacyclic Triterpene Distribution in Various Plants – Rich Sources for a New Group of Multi-Potent Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Scheffler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pentacyclic triterpenes are secondary plant metabolites widespread in fruit peel, leaves and stem bark. In particular the lupane-, oleanane-, and ursane triterpenes display various pharmacological effects while being devoid of prominent toxicity. Therefore, these triterpenes are promising leading compounds for the development of new multi-targeting bioactive agents. Screening of 39 plant materials identified triterpene rich (> 0.1% dry matter plant parts. Plant materials with high triterpene concentrations were then used to obtain dry extracts by accelerated solvent extraction resulting in a triterpene content of 50 - 90%. Depending on the plant material, betulin (birch bark, betulinic acid (plane bark, oleanolic acid (olive leaves, olive pomace, mistletoe sprouts, clove flowers, ursolic acid (apple pomace or an equal mixture of the three triterpene acids (rosemary leaves are the main components of these dry extracts. They are quantitatively characterised plant extracts supplying a high concentration of actives and therefore can be used for development of phytopharmaceutical formulations.

  8. Extraction Mechanism of La3+ from Hydrochloric Acid Solution Using Cyanex 302

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌东北; 牛春吉; 李德谦

    2004-01-01

    The solvent extraction of La3+ from hydrochloric acid solutions was investigated using bis(2, 4, 4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid(Cyanex 302, HL) as an extractant. The effect of equilibrium of aqueous acidity on extraction of La3+ using Cyanex 302 in different diluents was discussed. The effects of extractant concentration and chloride ion on the extraction reaction were also studied. Stoichiometry of the extraction reactions and the nature of metal complexes formed were determined using slope analysis technique and IR measurement.

  9. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280... extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid...

  10. Distribution Behavior of Aminobenzoic Acid by Extraction with Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of extraction equilibrium experiments for aminobenzoic acid with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) dissolved in n-octane or 1-octanol was carried out. The effects of aminobenzoic acid concentration, D2EHPA concentration and pH on the distribution ratio were discussed in detail. The infrared spectra of the organic phase loaded with solute illustrated that pH had little effect on the structure of the complex formed. There proceed ion association and cation-exchange reaction in the extraction. An expression of the equilibrium distribution was proposed.

  11. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  12. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Elkacmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country’s climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  13. Application of carboxyphenylboronic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for extracting nucleic acid from seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Ge, Guanglu; Xia, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA-MNPs) were developed for extracting genomic DNA, total RNA and nucleic acids from seeds. The seed samples were genetically-modified maize seeds and unmodified soybean seeds infected by bean pod mottle virus and tobacco ringspot virus. The total nucleic acids, genomic DNA, and RNA could be separately extracted from these seeds with high qualities using CPBA-MNPs under different conditions. Furthermore, the results of real-time quantitative qPCR and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the nucleic acids extracted from these seeds using CPBA-MNPs were suitable for the detection of genetically-modified seeds and seed-borne viruses.

  14. Separation of middle rare earths by solvent extraction using 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester as an extractant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danilo; Fontana; Loris; Pietrelli

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of the trivalent middle rare earths from chloride media by kerosene solutions of 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester as an extractant was studied. The separation factors between the elements using solution simulating wastes from NiMH spent batteries have been evaluated: the order of the extractive ability of extractant can be confirmed in ThGdEuSm.

  15. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  16. Chemical Constituents in Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Mentha haplocalyx%薄荷乙酸乙酯提取部位的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明亮; 徐凌玉; 李振麟; 钱士辉; 李艺; 秦民坚

    2013-01-01

    从薄荷乙酸乙酯提取部位分离鉴定了8个化合物,分别为委陵菜酸(tormentic acid,1),野椿酸(euscaphic acid,2),乌苏酸(ursolic acid,3),齐墩果酸(oleanolic acid,4),尿嘧啶(uracil,5),琥珀酸(succinic acid,6),(9E)-8,11,12-trihydroxyoctadecenoic acid methyl ester(7),neoechinulin A(8).化合物1,2,5,6为首次从该植物中分到;7和8为在唇形科中首次分到.%Eight compounds were isolated in ethyl acetate extracts from Mentha haplocalyx Briq. Their structures were identified as tormentic acid (1), euscaphic acid (2), ursolic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), uracil (5), succinic acid (6), (9E)-8, 11, 12-trihydroxyoctadecenoic acid methyl ester (7) and neoechinulin A (8). Compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Compounds 7 and 8 were the first isolated from the family of Lamicaeae.

  17. Antibacterial activity of triterpene acids and semi-synthetic derivatives against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon Cunha, Luis C; Andrade e Silva, Márcio L; Cardoso Furtado, Niege A J; Vinhólis, Adriana H C; Gomes Martins, Carlos H; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Cunha, Wilson R

    2007-01-01

    Triterpene acids (ursolic, oleanoic, gypsogenic, and sumaresinolic acids) isolated from Miconia species, along with a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids and a mixture of maslinic and 2-a-hydroxyursolic acids, as well as ursolic acid derivatives were evaluated against the following microorganisms: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis, which are potentially responsible for the formation of dental caries in humans. The microdilution method was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) during the evaluation of the antibacterial activity. All the isolated compounds, mixtures, and semi-synthetic derivatives displayed activity against all the tested bacteria, showing that they are promising antiplaque and anticaries agents. Ursolic and oleanolic acids displayed the most intense antibacterial effect, with MIC values ranging from 30 microg/mL to 80 microg/mL. The MIC values of ursolic acid derivatives, as well as those obtained for the mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids showed that these compounds do not have higher antibacterial activity when compared with the activity observed with either ursolic acid or oleanolic acid alone. With regard to the structure-activity relationship of triterpene acids and derivatives, it is suggested that both hydroxy and carboxy groups present in the triterpenes are important for their antibacterial activity against oral pathogens.

  18. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  19. Solvent Extraction of Alkaline Earth Metals with Alkylphosphorus Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUXin; ZHUTun

    2002-01-01

    Solvent extraction equiliria of four main alkaline earth metals (magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium) with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA), 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-(2-ethylhexyl) ester, di(2,4,4-tri-methylpentyl) phosphinic acid and IR spectra of the extracts have been studied. The selectivity order is dependent of the e/r value and hydration energy of the metal ions. The minor shift of the P→O in IR absorption of the alkaline earth metal extracts indicates that the interaction between the metal ions and P→O is much weaker for alkaline earth metals than for transitional metals. The distribution of the four alkaline earth elements between aqueous solutions and solutions of DEHPA and neutral organophosphorus compunds, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) or tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene have been determined at varying ratio of TBP or TOPO to DEHPA and the positive synergism is observed. The synergic effects is explained by using IR spectra of the loaded organic phase.

  20. Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite has been determined. The unusually high D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios in the amino acid fraction are uniquely characteristic of known interstellar organic materials. The delta D value of the monocarboxylic acid fraction is lower but still consistent with an interstellar origin. These results confirm the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound and provide the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organosynthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of prebiotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies.

  1. Removal of low molecular organic acids from aqueous solutions with reactive extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dominika Szternel; Magdalena Regel-Rosocka; Maciej Wiśniewski

    2013-01-01

    ...) from aqueous solutions with reactive extraction. The results specifically show that the extraction efficiency of acids depends on the type of extractant, diluents of the organic phase and the initial pH of the aqueous phase...

  2. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid using ionic liquid solution from Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C(8)mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid-liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  3. Silica with immobilized phosphinic acid-derivative for uranium extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnyak, Tetyana M; Strizhak, Alexander V; Gładysz-Płaska, Agnieszka; Sternik, Dariusz; Komarov, Igor V; Kołodyńska, Dorota; Majdan, Marek; Tertykh, Valentin А

    2016-08-15

    A novel adsorbent benzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid/aminosilica adsorbent (BImPhP(O)(OH)/SiO2NH2) was prepared by carbonyldiimidazole-mediated coupling of aminosilica with 1-carboxymethylbenzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid. It was obtained through direct phosphorylation of 1-cyanomethylbenzoimidazole by phenylphosphonic dichloride followed by basic hydrolysis of the nitrile. The obtained sorbent was well characterized by physicochemical methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry-mass spectrometry (DSC-MS), surface area and pore distribution analysis (ASAP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The adsorption behavior of the sorbent and initial silica gel as well as aminosilica gel with respect to uranium(VI) from the aqueous media has been studied under varying operating conditions of pH, concentration of uranium(VI), contact time, and desorption in different media. The synthesized material was found to show an increase in adsorption activity with respect to uranyl ions in comparison with the initial compounds. In particular, the highest adsorption capacity for the obtained modified silica was found at the neutral pH, where one gram of the adsorbent can extract 176mg of uranium. Under the same conditions the aminosilica extracts 166mg/g, and the silica - 144mg/g of uranium. In the acidic medium, which is common for uranium nuclear wastes, the synthesized adsorbent extracts 27mg/g, the aminosilica - 16mg/g, and the silica - 14mg/g of uranium. It was found that 15% of uranium ions leached from the prepared material in acidic solutions, while 4% of uranium can be removed in a phosphate solution.

  4. Intensification of conversion of glucose to lactic acid : equilibria and kinetics for back extraction of lactic acid using trimethylamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2004-01-01

    Alamine 336 is an effective extractant for the recovery of lactic acid from aqueous solutions. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back extract lactic acid with a water soluble, volatile tertiary amine such as trimethyl amine. Equilibrium data are presented tha

  5. Hplc analysis of phenolic acids in mountain germander (Teucrium montanum L extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol and water extracts were obtained by extraction of mountain germander (Teucrium montanum L. The total phenolic content in extracts was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The 1-butanol extract had the highest phenolic content (296.00 mg/g. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to define qualitative and quantitative content of phenolic acids in mountain germander extracts. The largest number of phenolic acids were determined in ethyl acetate and 1-butanol extracts, while these acids were not present in petroleum ether extract. The highest content of phenolic acids (28.619 mg/g had ethyl acetate extract and gentisic acid (14.432 mg/g was its major component. Despite of a large number of phenolic acids in 1-butanol extract their content was only 3.740 mg/g.

  6. Extraction of palladium(Ⅱ) with OTMSO from acidic media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Songping; MENG Shuyuan; GU Guobang; ZHUANG Zhiqiang

    2004-01-01

    The extraction of palladium(Ⅱ) from acidic media with cyclic sulfoxide derivative-α-octyl-tetrahydrothiophene-l-oxide (OTMSO) was investigated. The extraction efficiency of palladination number was studied with slope method. The result indicates that coordination number is 2. FT-IR spectra were used to analyze the structure of complex and coordinated atom in complex. Pd is coordinated with both oxygen and sulfur atom in S=O group in OTMSO .The situation and intensity of peaks contributed by complex prepared from various acidity were different. The recovery of palladium(Ⅱ) with OTMSO from scrap containing palladium was discussed. After silver and bismuth were removed, the feed solution was extracted three times by 40% (volume fraction) OTMSO-kerosene. The loaded organic phase was scrubbed three times,and stripped three times by 2 mol@L-1 NH3·H2O solution.The total recovery of palladium was 99.8%,and the purity of palladium was 99.8%.

  7. Silica with immobilized phosphinic acid-derivative for uranium extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnyak, Tetyana M., E-mail: tetyanabudnyak@yahoo.com [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 17 General Naumov Str., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine); Strizhak, Alexander V. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Gładysz-Płaska, Agnieszka; Sternik, Dariusz [Maria Curie Skłodowska University, 2 M. Curie Skłodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Komarov, Igor V. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kołodyńska, Dorota; Majdan, Marek [Maria Curie Skłodowska University, 2 M. Curie Skłodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Tertykh, Valentin A. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 17 General Naumov Str., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel benzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid-silica gel material was prepared. • U(VI) ions are sorbed on the studied adsorbent from the acidic solution. • U(VI) ions form a stable complex with the grafted phosphinic ligand. - Abstract: A novel adsorbent benzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid/aminosilica adsorbent (BImPhP(O)(OH)/SiO{sub 2}NH{sub 2}) was prepared by carbonyldiimidazole-mediated coupling of aminosilica with 1-carboxymethylbenzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid. It was obtained through direct phosphorylation of 1-cyanomethylbenzoimidazole by phenylphosphonic dichloride followed by basic hydrolysis of the nitrile. The obtained sorbent was well characterized by physicochemical methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry-mass spectrometry (DSC-MS), surface area and pore distribution analysis (ASAP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The adsorption behavior of the sorbent and initial silica gel as well as aminosilica gel with respect to uranium(VI) from the aqueous media has been studied under varying operating conditions of pH, concentration of uranium(VI), contact time, and desorption in different media. The synthesized material was found to show an increase in adsorption activity with respect to uranyl ions in comparison with the initial compounds. In particular, the highest adsorption capacity for the obtained modified silica was found at the neutral pH, where one gram of the adsorbent can extract 176 mg of uranium. Under the same conditions the aminosilica extracts 166 mg/g, and the silica – 144 mg/g of uranium. In the acidic medium, which is common for uranium nuclear wastes, the synthesized adsorbent extracts 27 mg/g, the aminosilica – 16 mg/g, and the silica – 14 mg/g of uranium. It was found that 15% of uranium ions leached from the prepared material in acidic solutions, while 4% of uranium can be removed in a phosphate

  8. Determining the best extractant and extraction conditions for fulvic acid through qualitative and quantitative analysis of vermicompost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Shabnani Moghadam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fulvic acid is a natural tampon and an appropriate chelating agent that has high ion-exchange ability and increasing absorption of minerals in plants. This paper examined the effects of extractants (sodium hydroxide, sodium polyphosphate, urea and EDTA and the extraction time (1, 7 and 9 days on the physicochemical properties of vermicompost-produced fulvic acid. Finally, various methods were compared to the universal method of humic substances. Different qualitative and quantitative analysis such as detecting the functional groups (FTIR, measurement of functional groups, spectrophotometric ratios and humification indices were carried out on fulvic acid. Results showed that the highest and lowest amounts of fulvic acid were extracted by the sodium hydroxide and urea, respectively. Various extractants made negligible changes in the type and quality of the Fulvic acid functional groups. Results indicated that sodium hydroxide was the best extractant and the minimum amounts of fulvic acid were extracted by the urea. Urea-extracted fulvic acid had the most functional groups of total acidity and phenolic OH. The most carboxyl functional groups and spectrophotometric ratios were detected in EDTA solution. At the end, by the comparison of various methods, universal method despite the low extraction amount had more functional groups and higher efficiencies compare to others.

  9. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  10. Optimization and comparative evaluation of nucleic acids extraction protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Negura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern molecular applications have grown the need of biobanks, which contain DNA and RNA of high purety, quality, and quantity. Nucleic acid extraction methods have widely variate and evolve in time, from methods using toxic reagents to enzymatic protocols, and furthermore to DNA or RNA-binding polymers, separating membranes or highly eulogized commercially kits. In order to establish a constant, reproducible and ergonomic system in generating biobanks, we compared different available methods for the extraction of genomic DNA and total RNA, from peripheram blood or solid tumoral tissues. We evaluated the cost/effectiveness and time consumption of each method, tracking RNA/DNA quantity, quality and integrity. We imagined a “E-ratio” value to define these parameters, and a “NA- estimation” to integrate “E-ratio” with quality and integrity data.

  11. Effect of botanical extracts containing carnosic acid or rosmarinic acid on learning and memory in SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Susan A; Niehoff, Michael L; Ceddia, Michael A; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Lewis, Brandon J; Feng, Shulin; Welleford, Andrew; Butterfield, D Allan; Morley, John E

    2016-10-15

    Oxidative damage is one of the hallmarks of the aging process. The current study evaluated effects of two proprietary antioxidant-based ingredients, rosemary extract and spearmint extract containing carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, respectively, on learning and memory in the SAMP8 mouse model of accelerated aging. The two rosemary extracts contained carnosic acid (60% or 10% carnosic acid) and one spearmint extract contained 5% rosmarinic acid. Three doses of actives in each extract were tested: 32, 16, 1.6 or 0mg/kg. After 90days of treatment mice were tested in T-maze foot shock avoidance, object recognition and lever press. Rosemary extract containing 60% carnosic acid improved acquisition and retention in T-maze foot shock, object recognition and lever press. Rosemary extract with 10% carnosic acid improved retention in T-maze foot shock avoidance and lever press. Spearmint with 5% rosmarinic acid improved acquisition and retention in T-maze foot shock avoidance and object recognition. 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) was reduced in the brain cortex after treatment with all three extracts (P<0.001) compared to the vehicle treated SAMP8. Protein carbonyls were reduced in the hippocampus after administration of rosemary with 10% carnosic acid (P<0.05) and spearmint containing 5% rosmarinic acid (P<0.001). The current results indicate that the extracts from spearmint and rosemary have beneficial effects on learning and memory and brain tissue markers of oxidation that occur with age in SAMP8 mice.

  12. Arabinose and ferulic acid rich pectic polysaccharides extracted from sugar beet pulp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Arabinose and ferulic acid rich polysaccharides were extracted from sugar beet pulp using two extraction methods: a sequential extraction with H2O (2 times), NaOH/EDTA (2 times), and 4 M NaOH (2 times; method A) and a sequential extraction in which the NaOH/EDTA extraction was replaced by an

  13. Extraction Behaviors of Heavy Rare Earths with Organophosphoric Extractants: The Contribution of Extractant Dimer Dissociation, Acid Ionization, and Complexation. A Quantum Chemistry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yu; Chen, Ji; Chen, Li; Su, Wenrou; Liu, Yu; Li, Deqian

    2017-03-30

    Heavy rare earths (HREs), namely Ho(3+), Er(3+), Tm(3+), Yb(3+) and Lu(3+), are rarer and more exceptional than light rare earths, due to the stronger extraction capacity for 100 000 extractions. Therefore, their incomplete stripping and high acidity of stripping become problems for HRE separation by organophosphoric extractants. However, the theories of extractant structure-performance relationship and molecular design method of novel HRE extractants are still not perfect. Beyond the coordination chemistry of the HRE-extracted complex, the extractant dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and complexation behaviors can be crucial to HRE extraction and reactivity of ionic species for understanding and further improving the extraction performance. To address the above issues, three primary fundamental processes, including extractant dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and HRE complexation, were identified and investigated systematically. The intrinsic extraction performances of HRE cations with four acidic organophosphoric extractants (P507, P204, P227 and Cyanex 272) were studied by using relativistic energy-consistent 4f core pseudopotentials, combined with density functional theory and a solvation model. Four acidic organophosphoric extractants have been qualified quantitatively from microscopic structures to chemical properties. It has been found that the Gibbs free energy changes of the overall extraction process (sequence: P204 > P227 > P507 > Cyanex 272) and their differences as a function of HREs (sequence: Ho/Er > Er/Tm > Tm/Yb > Yb/Lu) are in good agreement with the experimental maximum extraction capacities and separation factors. These results could provide an important approach to evaluate HRE extractants by the comprehensive consideration of dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and complexation processes. This paper also demonstrates the importance of the P-O bond, the P-C bond, isomer substituent, and solvation effects on the structure

  14. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  15. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  16. Fast determination of bioactive phytic acid and pyrophosphate in walnuts using microwave accelerated extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; He, Liu; Valiente, Manuel; López-Mesas, Montserrat

    2017-04-15

    Bioactive compounds phytic acid (IP6) and pyrophosphate (PPi) are minor components of walnuts with the ability of being inhibitors of urolithiasis, among others. Since simultaneous analysis of IP6 and PPi have known drawbacks, a new method to determine their content in walnuts has been developed with emphasis on their extraction from walnuts by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Acid content of extracting solvent, extraction time and temperature were optimized. After extraction, compounds were purified by selective adsorption/desorption on an anion exchange solid phase extraction and analyzed by inductive coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. A mixture of H2SO4 and HCl as solvent to extract both, IP6 and PPi, provided results slightly higher than those determined by conventional extraction with no statistical difference. The possible hydrolysis of phytic acid by MAE was analyzed. Compared with the conventional acid extraction method, significant improvement is achieved by the MAE method reducing extraction time from 3h to 10min.

  17. A study of parameters affecting the solvent extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth

    OpenAIRE

    Udachan,I. S.; Sahoo, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid has recently been drawing much interest as a raw material for biodegradable polymer. One of the promising technologies for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is reactive liquid - liquid extraction. Equilibrium studies on the reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine (TOA) in various organic phases and its re-extraction into aqueous solutions were carried out. In this study distribution coefficient, extractability, stripping efficiency of various active and...

  18. Effect of Diluents on the Extraction of Oxalic Acid by Trialkylphosphine Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉鑫; 王运东; 戴猷元

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In liquid-liquid solvent extraction processes, diluents have a strong influence on the extraction mechanism and efficiency. In this study, benzene, cyclohexane, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), butyl acetate, and 1-octanol were used as diluents in the extraction of oxalic acid by trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO). The effects of extractant concentration, initial concentration of oxalic acid and diluent type on the extraction equilibrium partition coefficient are analyzed. The sequence of the extraction ability by different diluents is MIBK > butyl acetate > cyclohexane=benzene > carbon tetrachloride > 1-octanol > trichloromethane. Extraction mechanism was analyzed and extraction model parameters were evaluated.

  19. Optimization and orthogonal design of an ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process for extracting chlorogenic acid from dry tobacco leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Tongai Mazvimba; YU Ying; CUI Zhi-Qin; ZHANG Ying

    2012-01-01

    Processing parameters for heat reflux and ultrasonic-assisted extraction techniques were optimized.Optimal operating conditions,extraction solvents and extraction yields for both methods were established.Although methanol showed high extraction efficiency in heat reflux extraction,residual amounts of methanol caused adulteration of extracts.To circumvent this drawback,a novel ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process was optimized and orthogonally designed to pave the way for replacing the toxic organic solvent,methanol with water.A new approach which utilizes fractional volumes of an extraction solvent was developed to minimize solvent consumption,improve chlorogenic acid solubility in water and enhance its aqueous extraction from dried tobacco leaves.Desired trajectories for the new ultrasonic assisted aqueous extraction process were found.

  20. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of folklore: Mallotus peltatus leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Arunachalam, G; Mandal, Asit B; Sur, Tapas K; Mandal, Subash C; Bhattacharya, S K

    2002-10-01

    Since ages Mallotus peltatus (Geist) Muell. Arg. var acuminatus (Euphorbiaceae) leaf and stem bark is used in folk medicine to cure intestinal ailments and skin infections. In several intestinal ailments, localized inflammation is of common occurrence and hence we have evaluated the antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory activity of M. peltatus leaf extract. The crude methanol extract of M. peltatus leaves was found to be active against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis and the dermatophytic fungi Microsporum gypseum. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges from 128 to 2000 microg ml(-1) for bacteria and 128 mg ml(-1) for fungi, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 2-4-fold higher than MIC. The methanol-water fraction of the extract showed similar activity against Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Proteus isolates. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract against carrageenan (acute model) and dextran-induced (subacute model) rat paw oedema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma (chronic model) in rats were studied using indomethacin (10 mg kg(-1)), a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug, as standard. The methanol extract at 200 and 400 mg kg(-1), and the n-butanol fractions A and B at 25 mg kg(-1), exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in Albino rats, compared with indomethacin. Phytochemical study revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, terpenoids, steroids and reducing sugars in the crude extract while the n-butanol fractions showed the presence of ursolic acid, beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids as major compounds. Further study with fractions showed that the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity is due to either fraction A (ursolic acid) alone or the combination of fractions A and B (beta-sitosterol and fatty acids) of the extract.

  1. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. Role of modifier in microwave assisted extraction of oleanolic acid from Gymnema sylvestre: application of green extraction technology for botanicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Vivekananda; Dewanjee, Saikat; Mandal, Subhash C

    2009-08-01

    This work highlights the development of a green extraction technology for botanicals with the use of microwave energy. Taking into consideration the extensive time involved in conventional extraction methods, coupled with usage of large volumes of organic solvent and energy resources, an ecofriendly green method that can overcome the above problems has been developed. The work compares the effect of sample pretreatment with untreated sample for improved yield of oleanolic acid from Gymnema sylvestre leaves. The pretreated sample with water produced 0.71% w/w oleanolic acid in one extraction cycle with 500 W microwave power, 25 mL methanol and only an 8 min extraction time. On the other hand, a conventional heat reflux extraction for 6 hours could produce only 0.62% w/w oleanolic acid. The detailed mechanism of extraction has been studied through scanning electron micrographs. The environmental impact of the proposed green method has also been evaluated.

  3. An Experimental Method to Quantify Extractable Amino Acids in Soils from Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xian-you; WU Liang-huan; CAO Xiao-chuang; Sarkar Animesh; ZHU Yuan-hong

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and comparison of soil amino acids using different extractants (deionized water, K2SO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, KCl) were reported. Results showed that 0.5 mol L-1 K2SO4 with a 5 times extraction was a better method to assess the concentration of extractable amino acids in soils. The total amino acids extracted from soil planted for tea were similar to the total inorganic nitrogen. While they extracted from vegetable soil and paddy soil were much lower than the total inorganic nitrogen.

  4. Optimization of Extraction Technology of Ellagic Acid from Pomegranate Peels with Orthogonal Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the optimal condition for extrac- tion of ellagic acid from pomegranate peels. [Method] With ellagic acid yield as an indicator, ultrasound extraction method was adopted to extract the ellagic acid from pomegranate peels, and the concentration of ellagic acid was measured by using ul- traviolet spectrophotometry; L9(34) orthogonal experiment was designed with four fac- tors at three levels, to investigate the effect of extraction temperature, extraction du- ration, solid-liquid ratio and ultrasound power on extraction rate of ellagic acid. [Re- sult] The optimal extraction condition for ellagic acid is extraction temperature of 30 ~C, solid-liquid ratio of 1:200, extraction duration of 20 min, and ultrasound power of 50 W. The relationship between primary and secondary factors affecting experimental indicators was solid-liquid ratio 〉 extraction duration 〉 ultrasound power 〉 extraction temperature. [Conclusion] Solid-liquid ratio has the maximum effect on extraction rate of ellagic acid. The ellagic acid extraction technology identified in this study is rea- sonable and feasible.

  5. Characteristic of synergistic extraction of oxalic acid with system from rare earth metallurgical wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU

    2010-01-01

    Large amount of high concentration acidic wastewater would be produced in the conversion process of chloride rare earth into oxide rare earth.It was a mixed solution of oxalic acid and hydrochloric acid,so the recycling use was very difficult.The method of liquid-liquid extraction was proposed in this paper to achieve wastewater treatment and reclamation.The mechanism of extraction of oxalic acid from the wastewater with the systems of 50% TOB+45% kerosene and 5% 2-ethyl hexanol was investigated.The composition and structure of the extracted species and the establishment of the mathematical model of the oxalic acid extraction were determined by the use of saturation method,equimolar series method.The results showed that extraction of oxalic acid by TOB was a neutral association extraction,oxalic acid existed mainly in a molecular form in the organic phase,and the extraction combination ratio was 2:1.The duality extraction system composed of extractant TOB and TOC had synergistic extraction effect on oxalic acid and chlorhydric acid,and the extraction dislribution ratio was improved greatly.The optimum volume fiaction of TOB was 0.6-0.8.

  6. Improved extraction of saturated fatty acids but not omega-3 fatty acids from sheep red blood cells using a one-step extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Edward H; Gulliver, Catherine E; Piltz, John W; Taylor, Robert D; Blake, Robert J; Meyer, Richard G

    2012-07-01

    Several methods are available to extract total lipid and methylate fatty acids from a range of samples including red blood cells (RBC). Fatty acid analysis of human RBC can be undertaken using a two-step extraction and methylation or a combined one-step extraction and methylation procedure. The lipid composition of sheep RBC differs significantly from that of humans and may affect their extraction. The purpose of the current study was to examine the efficiency of extraction of lipid and detection of fatty acids from sheep RBC using a one-step procedure. Fatty acids were analysed using a one-step extraction and methylation procedure using methanol:toluene and acetyl chloride in comparison with a two-step procedure involving extraction of lipid using chloroform:methanol and separate methylation. Concentrations of saturated fatty acids including C16:0 and C18:0 were significantly higher (42.6 and 33.9 % respectively) following extraction using the one-step procedure compared with the two-step procedure. However, concentrations of some polyunsaturated fatty acids, including C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 were not significantly different between either procedure. The improved detection of fatty acids may be related to the ability of different solvents to extract different lipid fractions. The differential extraction of lipids and detection of fatty acids from sheep RBC may have important implications in studies examining the effect of dietary treatment on the possible health benefits of fatty acids.

  7. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  8. Hydrothermal Extraction of Microalgae Fatty Acid Influences Hydrochar Phytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ennis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC of microalgae biomass for the production of triacylglycerides is a potentially valuable enabling technology for a waste water treatment-based integrated biorefinery. Here, HTC was used to treat Phaeodactylum tricornutum lipid-rich biomass producing a solid hydrochar from the surface of which adsorbed lipids were removed by hexane extraction following filtration of the solid hydrochar from the process liquid product. Approximately 7% of the input biomass was recovered and transesterified for qualitative and quantitative GC-MS analysis for fatty acid methyl esters. Transesterifiable lipids accounted for 94% of the material recovered by solvent extraction. Of the transesterified fatty acids (FA analyzed, the majority was monounsaturated (40.4% and saturated (37% C-16 FA. Other FA detected included saturated and monounsaturated C-18 (7.7 and 1.9% and saturated C-14 (5.3% and C-25 (1.5%. Thermal analysis (TGA/DSC of the hydrochar in air showed calorific values of 10.6 MJ kg−1 (delipidated hydrochar and 3.1 MJ kg−1 (non-delipidated hydrochar with the latter exhibiting the presence of volatalizable components. Germination trials were conducted to assess the potential phytotoxic effects of these hydrochars. Delipidated hydrochar showed a germination index of 73% suggesting the presence of some phytotoxicity. Non-delipidated hydrochar showed high germination index results of 102% (unground and 126% (ground. Taken together with the observation of reduced root hair proliferation in these two test conditions, this suggests the operation of a second phytotoxic effect that is removed by delipidation.

  9. Extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from nitric acid solutions by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid dissolved in kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Sheng; Tsai, Teh-Hua

    2012-01-04

    The extraction equilibrium of indium(III) from a nitric acid solution using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an acidic extractant of organophosphorus compounds dissolved in kerosene was studied. By graphical and numerical analysis, the compositions of indium-D2EHPA complexes in organic phase and stoichiometry of the extraction reaction were examined. Nitric acid solutions with various indium concentrations at 25 °C were used to obtain the equilibrium constant of InR₃ in the organic phase. The experimental results showed that the extraction distribution ratios of indium(III) between the organic phase and the aqueous solution increased when either the pH value of the aqueous solution and/or the concentration of the organic phase extractant increased. Finally, the recovery efficiency of indium(III) in nitric acid was measured.

  10. Extraction of rare earth elements from a contaminated cropland soil using nitric acid, citric acid, and EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hailong; Shuai, Weitao; Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Yangsheng

    2017-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) contamination to the surrounding soil has increased the concerns of health risk to the local residents. Soil washing was first attempted in our study to remediate REEs-contaminated cropland soil using nitric acid, citric acid, and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) for soil decontamination and possible recovery of REEs. The extraction time, washing agent concentration, and pH value of the washing solution were optimized. The sequential extraction analysis proposed by Tessier was adopted to study the speciation changes of the REEs before and after soil washing. The extract containing citric acid was dried to obtain solid for the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The results revealed that the optimal extraction time was 72 h, and the REEs extraction efficiency increased as the agent concentration increased from 0.01 to 0.1 mol/L. EDTA was efficient to extract REEs over a wide range of pH values, while citric acid was around pH 6.0. Under optimized conditions, the average extraction efficiencies of the major REEs in the contaminated soil were 70.96%, 64.38%, and 62.12% by EDTA, nitric acid, and citric acid, respectively. The sequential extraction analyses revealed that most soil-bounded REEs were mobilized or extracted except for those in the residual fraction. Under a comprehensive consideration of the extraction efficiency and the environmental impact, citric acid was recommended as the most suitable agent for extraction of the REEs from the contaminated cropland soils. The XRF analysis revealed that Mn, Al, Si, Pb, Fe, and REEs were the major elements in the extract indicating a possibile recovery of the REEs.

  11. HCI Treatment Followed by Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    HCl Treatment Followed By Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples., S.K. Jensen, C. Lauridsen, Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele, Denmark. The official EU method for fatty acid analysis in feed is based...... on boiling of the feed sample in 3 M HCl followed by a filtration, drying, Soxhelet extraction of the fat with petrol ether, conversion of the fatty acids to their corresponding methyl esters and followed by GC separation. Besides being very time consuming, this method has several disadvantages, e.......g. the filtration step may allow some shorter chain free fatty acids and some phospholipids to be washed through the filter and escape the analysis. Further, during the drying step of filter paper, oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is a risk. Because of the mentioned disadvantages, a new method ("HCl...

  12. Fatty acid extracts from Lucilia sericata larvae promote murine cutaneous wound healing by angiogenic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianing

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background fatty acids are considered to be effective components to promote wound healing and Lucilia sericata larvae are applied clinically to treat intractable wounds. We aimed to investigat the effect of fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae on murine cutaneuous wound healing as well as angiogenesis. Results On day 7 and 10 after murine acute excision wounds creation, the percent wound contraction of fatty acid extracts group was higher than that of vaseline group. On day 3, 7 and 10 after wounds creation, the wound healing quality of fatty acid extracts group was better than that of vaseline group on terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. On day 3 after wounds creation, the micro vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression of fatty acid extracts group were higher than that of vaseline group. Component analysis of the fatty acid extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed there were 10 kinds of fatty acids in total and the ratio of saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was: 20.57%:60.32%:19.11%. Conclusions Fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae, four fifths of which are unsaturated fatty acids, can promote murine cutaneous wound healing probably resulting from the powerful angiogenic activity of the extracts.

  13. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  14. Extraction of amino acids from soils and sediments with superheated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. N.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    A method of extraction for amino acids from soils and sediments involving superheated water has been investigated. About 75-97 per cent of the amino acids contained in four soils of a soil profile from Illinois were extracted by this method. Deep penetration of water into soil aggregates and partial hydrolysis of peptide bonds during this extraction by water at high temperature are likely mechanisms responsible for the release of amino acids from samples. This extraction method does not require subsequent desalting treatments when analyses are carried out with an ion-exchange amino acid analyzer.

  15. Smashing Tissue Extraction and GC Analysis of Active Fatty Acids from Oil Cake of Perilla Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan-ling; LIU Yan-ze; XIAO Han; WEI Ying-feng; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology of perilla seeds oil from the oil cake of perilla seeds (OCPS) by using the contents of active fatty acids as evaluation standard. Methods The fatty acids were extracted from OCPS,the residue of perilla seeds after cold-press, by smashing tissue extraction (STE), the new technology selected through comparing with classical leaching extraction (LE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction (SFE). For optimized condition of STE, orthogonal test was designed and completed. The contents of five fatty acids in extracted oil and OCPS were determined by GC. Results The optimized extraction parameters were smashing for 1.5 min under extraction power of 150 W and 1:6 of the material/solvent ratio. The contents of five fatty acids in the oils extracted by five techniques from OCPS and determined by GC were as follows:a-linolenic acid (41.12%-51.81%), linoleic acid (15.38%-16.43%), oleic acid (18.93%-27.28010), stearic acid (2.56%-4.01%), and palmitic acid (7.38%-10.77%). Conclusion The results show that STE is the most efficient technology with the highest yield (LE:0.57%; SE:1.03%; UE:0.61%; SFE:0.8(r; STE:1.17%) and shortest time (LE:720 min; SE:360 min; UE:30 min; SFE:120 min; STE:1.5 min) among five tested extraction technologies. It is fast reported using STE to extract herbal oil enriched with active fatty acids.

  16. Selective solid-phase extraction of a triterpene acid from a plant extract by molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude, Bérengère; Morin, Philippe; Lafosse, Michel; Belmont, Anne-Sophie; Haupt, Karsten

    2008-04-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been prepared by a thermal polymerisation method using methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linking agent, chloroform as porogenic solvent and an oleanane triterpene compound (18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid) as imprinted molecule (template). Equilibrium ligand binding experiments were done to assess the performance of the MIP relative to non-imprinted polymer (NIP). After optimisation of SPE protocol (CHCl3 as washing solvent and MeOH as elution solvent), successful imprinting was confirmed by comparison of the recoveries between NIP (5%) and MIP (97%) cartridges. The binding capacity of the MIP for 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid was determined to be 0.94 mg g(-1). Four structurally related oleanane triterpenes (18-alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid, oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid, erythrodiol) were selected to assess the MIP selectivity. Experimental data illustrated the influence of functional groups on the triterpene skeleton. The MIP was applied to the solid-phase extraction of triterpenoids from a plant extract prior HPLC analysis. However, CHCl3 was replaced by ACN during the washing step in order to suppress non-specific interactions due to polar matrix components. A selective extraction of 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid from hydrolyzed extract of liquorice roots was achieved with a good extraction yield (98%).

  17. Review on aggregation of acid extractants in solvent extraction of metal ions: remark on the general model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The aggregation behavior of various acid extractants in the solvent extraction systems of metal ions is re-examined and explained according to knowledge obtained in recent work. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Complexes formed by the extractants and metal ions can form reversed micelles in organic diluents, depending on the microstructures of the complexes. The dimers of the acid extractant cannot percolate to the metal-extractant aggregates, and the acid-salt complexes are always formed in the aggregates. The reversed micelles or the W/O microemulsions formed by different species cannot be associated with each other to form a unified aggregate. (2) In solvent extraction systems, hydration of the extractants and metal ions can be considered as the driving force of forming reversed micelles. (3) Information of the first approach to the insight of the bicontinuous microemulsion of NaDEHP shows that various components in the aqueous phase behave confined and very similar to the typical AOT/n-heptane W/O microemulsions. (4) In the extraction of lanthanide ions by the W/O microemulsion of sodium naphthenate, the saponification is a process of forming reversed micelle or W/O microemulsion, while the extraction step is a process of destroying reversed micelles or W/O microemulsion droplets.

  18. Hydrothermal nitric acid treatment for effectual lipid extraction from wet microalgae biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ilgyu; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Oh, You-Kwan; Han, Jong-In

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal acid (combined with autoclaving and nitric acid) pretreatment was applied to Nannochloropsis salina as a cost-effective yet efficient way of lipid extraction from wet biomass. The optimal conditions for this pretreatment were determined using a statistical approach, and the roles of nitric acid were also determined. The maximum lipid yield (predicted: 24.6%; experimental: 24.4%) was obtained using 0.57% nitric acid at 120°C for 30min through response surface methodology. A relatively lower lipid yield (18.4%) was obtained using 2% nitric acid; however, chlorophyll and unsaturated fatty acids, both of which adversely affect the refinery and oxidative stability of biodiesel, were found to be not co-extracted. Considering its comparable extractability even from wet biomass and ability to reduce chlorophyll and unsaturated fatty acids, the hydrothermal nitric acid pretreatment can serve as one direct and promising route of extracting microalgae oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SEPARATION OF p-AMINOBENZOIC ACID BY REACTIVE EXTRACTION. 1. MECHANISM AND INFLUENCING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN CASCAVAL

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study on the reactive extraction of p-aminobenzoic acid with Amberlite LA-2 and D2EHPA in two solvents with different polarity (n-heptane and dichloromethane indicated that the extractant type and solvent polarity control the extraction mechanism. Thus, the reactive extraction with Amberlite LA-2 occurs by means of the interfacial formation of an aminic adduct with three extractant molecules in low-polar solvent, or of an salt with one extractant molecule in higher polar solvent. Similarly, the extraction with D2EHPA is based on the formation of an acidic adduct with two extractant molecules in n-heptane, or of a salt with one extractant molecule in dichloromethane. The most efficient extraction has been reached for the combination Amberlite LA-2-dichloromethane.

  20. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN CARNAÚBA SEED OIL

    OpenAIRE

    WELLINSON GADÊLHA GUIMARÃES; JOSÉ FERNANDO MOURÃO CAVALCANTE; ZILVANIR FERNANDES DE QUEIROZ; RONDINELLE RIBEIRO CASTRO; RONALDO FERREIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the composition of fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds of carnaúba ( Copernicia prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore), an important palm species native to Northeastern Brazil. After extracting the crude oil, the physico - chemical characteristics (density, refraction index, pH, acidity and saponi- fication index) were registered and the chemical composition of the fatty acids was determined by gas chroma- tography (GC - FID). The predominance of saturated fatty acids does n...

  1. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  2. Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Ormazabal, Markel; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, supercritical fluid extraction has been successfully applied to a sequential fractionation of fatty acids and polyphenols from wine wastes (2 different vitis vinifera grapes). To this aim, in a 1st step just fatty acids were extracted and in a 2nd one the polyphenols. The variables that affected to the extraction efficiency were separately optimized in both steps following an experimental design approach. The effect of extraction temperature flow, pressure, and time were thoroughly evaluated for the extraction of fatty acids, whereas the addition of methanol was also considered in the case of the polyphenols extraction. A quantitative extraction with high efficiency was achieved at a very short time and low temperatures. Concerning quantification, fatty acids were determined by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after a derivatization step, whereas the polyphenols were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  3. Development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction of waste with acidic extraction fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorini, S.S.

    1993-08-01

    Subject is characterization of waste materials. Since acid rain is increasingly prevalent throughout the world, a sequential batch extraction method was developed which uses a dilute acid solution as the extraction fluid. A collaborative study was conducted in which the draft method was used to treat a spray dryer waste from a clean coal technology process and a composite mining waste. Effects of filter pore size and digestion vs nondigestion on analytical concentrations in extracts were also studied. Elements determined included Al, Ba, B, Ca, Cr, Si, Na, Sr, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Zn. The draft method will be published as ASTM Method D5284-92.

  4. Antitrypanosomal compounds from the essential oil and extracts of Keetia leucantha leaves with inhibitor activity on Trypanosoma brucei glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bero, J; Beaufay, C; Hannaert, V; Hérent, M-F; Michels, P A; Quetin-Leclercq, J

    2013-02-15

    Keetia leucantha is a West African tree used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases among which parasitic infections. The dichloromethane extract of leaves was previously shown to possess growth-inhibitory activities on Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania mexicana mexicana with low or no cytotoxicity (>100 μg/ml on human normal fibroblasts) (Bero et al. 2009, 2011). In continuation of our investigations on the antitrypanosomal compounds from this dichloromethane extract, we analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS the essential oil of its leaves obtained by hydrodistillation and the major triterpenic acids in this extract by LC-MS. Twenty-seven compounds were identified in the oil whose percentages were calculated using the normalization method. The essential oil, seven of its constituents and the three triterpenic acids were evaluated for their antitrypanosomal activity on Trypanosoma brucei brucei bloodstream forms (Tbb BSF) and procyclic forms (Tbb PF) to identify an activity on the glycolytic process of trypanosomes. The oil showed an IC(50) of 20.9 μg/ml on Tbb BSF and no activity was observed on Tbb PF. The best antitrypanosomal activity was observed for ursolic acid with IC(50) of 2.5 and 6.5 μg/ml respectively on Tbb BSF and Tbb PF. The inhibitory activity on a glycolytic enzyme of T. brucei, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), was also evaluated for betulinic acid, olenaolic acid, ursolic acid, phytol, α-ionone and β-ionone. The three triterpenic acids and β-ionone showed inhibitory activities on GAPDH with oleanolic acid being the most active with an inhibition of 72.63% at 20 μg/ml. This paper reports for the first time the composition and antitrypanosomal activity of the essential oil of Keetia leucantha. Several of its constituents and three triterpenic acids present in the dichloromethane leaves extract showed a higher antitrypanosomal activity on bloodstream forms of Tbb as compared to procyclic forms

  5. The role of acid anion on the inhibition of the acidic corrosion of steel by lupine extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)], E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A.; Saadawy, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2009-05-15

    The inhibitive effect of lupine (Lupinous albus L.) extract on the corrosion of steel in aqueous solution of 1 M sulphuric and 2 M hydrochloric acids was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the lupine extract acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process is under activation control. The inhibition efficiency of the extract obtained from impedance and polarization measurements was in a good agreement and was found to increase with increasing concentration of the extract. The obtained results showed that, the lupine extract could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in acid media and the extract was more effective in case of hydrochloric acid. Theoretical fitting of the corrosion data to the kinetic-thermodynamic model was tested to show the nature of adsorption.

  6. Determination of free medium-chain fatty acids in beer by stir bar sorptive extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horák, Tomás; Culík, Jirí; Jurková, Marie; Cejka, Pavel; Kellner, Vladimír

    2008-07-04

    Free medium-chain fatty acids in beer originate from raw materials, mainly from the fermentation activity of yeasts, and can influence beer taste, vitality of yeasts and also the foam stability of beer. This study presents the development of the method for the determination of free fatty medium-chain acids including caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid and lauric acid in beer or wort using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The combination of this extraction technique with solvent back extraction of the extracted analytes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis with flame ionization detection was used for the determination of these compounds. The influences of different solvent back solutions, sampling time, solvent back extraction times and different contents of ethanol were studied. The method had high repeatability (RSD <6.7%), good linearity (the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.9963 for quadratic curves over the concentration range 0.5-8.0mg/l) and recoveries 57-89%.

  7. Aggregation and metal ion extraction properties of novel, silicon-substituted alkylenediphosphonic acids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlister, D. R.; Dietz, M. L.; Chiarizia, R.; Herlinger, A. W.

    2001-05-10

    In conjunction with efforts to develop novel actinide extractants exhibiting solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide, the effect of adding silicon-based functionalities to diphosphonic acids has been investigated. Specifically, a series of silyl-substituted diphosphonic acids has been prepared and characterized, and their aggregation and metal ion extraction properties compared with alkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids, reagents previously demonstrated to be effective extractants of actinides from acidic aqueous media into various organic solvents. In addition, the influence of the number of methylene groups bridging the phosphorus atoms of the diphosphonic acids on their extraction behavior has been investigated. Variations in the extraction behavior of the compounds arising from differences in the number of bridging methylene groups have been shown to be attributable to a combination of factors, in particular, the aggregation state of the ligand, the size of the chelate rings formed upon complexation, the basicity of the phosphoryl group and the relative acidities of the ligands.

  8. A study of parameters affecting the solvent extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Udachan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid has recently been drawing much interest as a raw material for biodegradable polymer. One of the promising technologies for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is reactive liquid - liquid extraction. Equilibrium studies on the reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine (TOA in various organic phases and its re-extraction into aqueous solutions were carried out. In this study distribution coefficient, extractability, stripping efficiency of various active and inert diluents with TOA as extractant were investigated, which were higher for active diluents. The effects of operating temperature, speed of agitation, agitation time and diluent composition on extraction efficiency were also studied. Temperature and extraction efficiency were inversely proportional to each other, whereas extraction efficiency was little affected by speed of agitation and agitation time.

  9. Synergistic extraction of rare earth by mixtures of 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid from sulfuric acid medium?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiaowei; LI Jianning; LONG Zhiqi; ZHANG Yongqi; XUE Xiangxin; ZHU Zhaowu

    2008-01-01

    The extraction of Nd3+ and Sm3+, including the extraction and stripping capability as well as the separation effect of Nd3+ or Sm3+, from a sulfuric acid medium, by mixtures of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP, H2A2(0)) and 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH/EHP, H2L2(0)) were studied. The distribution ratios and synergistic coefficients of Nd3+ and Sm3+ in different acidities were also determined. A synergistic extractive effect was found when HDEHP and HEH/EHP were used as mixed extractants for Sm3+ or Nd3+. The chemical compositions of the extracted complex were determined as Nd·(HA2)2·HL2 and Sm·(HA2)2·HL2. The extraction equilibrium constants, enthalpy change, and entropy change of the extraction reaction were also determined.

  10. Polydopamine-coated magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective solid-phase extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuli; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Luo, Ningjing

    2016-04-01

    We describe novel cinnamic acid polydopamine-coated magnetic imprinted polymers for the simultaneous selective extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample. The novel magnetic imprinted polymers were synthesized by surface imprinting polymerization using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the support material, cinnamic acid as the template and dopamine as the functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the magnetic imprinted polymers had outstanding magnetic properties, high adsorption capacity, selectivity and fast kinetic binding toward cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, the extraction conditions of the magnetic imprinted polymers as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent were investigated in detail. The proposed imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction procedure has been used for the purification and enrichment of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid successfully from radix scrophulariae extraction sample with recoveries of 92.4-115.0% for cinnamic acid, 89.4-103.0% for ferulic acid and 86.6-96.0% for caffeic acid. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Extraction and stripping of rare earths using mixtures of acidic phosphorusbased reagents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xianglan; LI Wei; LI Deqian

    2011-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the extraction characters of trivalent rare earths from chloride solutions using organophosphorus acids 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-(2-ethylhexyl) ester (HEHEHP) combined with [di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (HDEHP), isopropylphosphonic acid l-hexyl-4-ethyloctyl ester (HHEOIPP), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272), bis(2,4,4-trimethypen-tyl)-monothiophosphinic acid (Cyanex 302) or bis(2,4,4-trimethypentyl)-dithiophosphinic acid (Cyanex 301)] as extractants. The effect of the equilibrium aqueous acidity on the extraction was studied. According to the corresponding separation factors for adjacent pairs of rare earths,it could be concluded that HEHEHP and Cyanex 272 could be employed for the separation of Tm(Ⅲ), Yb(Ⅲ), Lu(Ⅲ) from the other rare earths. Taking Yb(Ⅲ) as an example, based on the different stripping acid, the potential of the stripping was estimated.

  12. STUDY ON CO2 SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF URSOLIC ACID FROM ASPARAGUS%CO2超临界流体萃取芦笋中熊果酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔星明; 王勇为; 陈光宇

    2004-01-01

    用CO2超临界流体萃取得到的芦笋(Asparagus officinalis L.)提取物,用甲醇抽提醇溶部分,经用液质联用仪检测,得到56个紫外检测峰.其中,有保留时间与熊果酸基本一致的峰.其质谱的分子离子峰及特征碎片峰也与熊果酸的一致.确定该化合物为熊果酸.

  13. Separation of Ursolic Acid from Cynomorium songaricum Rupr by Ionic Liquid/Salt Two Aqueous Phase Extraction%离子液体/盐双水相萃取分离锁阳中熊果酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜峰; 罗光宏; 张国娜; 钟家旺; 刘辉; 谢斌

    2014-01-01

    利用1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑氯([Bmim] Cl)和磷酸氢二钾(KH2 PO4)双水相体系萃取分离锁阳中熊果酸,首先对[Bmim] Cl质量分数、KH2PO4质量分数、熊果酸粗提取液质量分数、NaCl质量分数、pH进行单因素研究,确定双水相体系组成为质量分数25%[Bmim] Cl-21% KH2PO4.然后,利用Box-Benhnken Design实验,对黄酮粗提取液质量分数、pH、NaCl质量分数进行了优化,结果表明:粗提液质量分数8.5%、NaCl质量分数1%、pH =4.7,熊果酸萃取率可达97.85%,与预测值98.3%接近.说明该优化工艺具有可行性.

  14. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakota, Erica L; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Berhow, Mark A; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Salvia officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a concentration of 28.4 mg/g, representing a significant enrichment from the RA content in sage leaves. This extract was incorporated into oil-in-water emulsions as a source of lipid antioxidants and compared to emulsions containing pure rosmarinic acid. Both treatments were effective in suppressing lipid oxidation. The extract was evaluated by a trained sensory panel in a tea formulation. While the panel could discriminate among extract-treated and control samples, panelists demonstrated high acceptability of the sage extract in a tea.

  15. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573.500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal...

  16. Equilibria and kinetics for reactive extraction of lactic acid using Alamine 336 in decanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting this from aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation-based industries. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid-amine (solvent) system used. The equilibrium compl

  17. Analysis of heavy metals and fluoride in vegetation by extraction with concentrated mineral acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M S

    1975-01-01

    A rapid potentiometric method for determining fluoride in vegetation is described. Recovery of flouride by extraction with concentrated mineral acids compares favourably with standard methods of analysis in terms of accuracy and precision. The procedure affords the additional advantage that several citations are also quantitatively extracted and may be determined directly in the acid digest by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  18. Preparation method and stability of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate fruit peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Itsuriya, Atcharaporn; Sirikatitham, Anusak

    2010-02-01

    A simple one-step purification using liquid-liquid extraction for preparing pomegranate peel extract rich in ellagic acid has been demonstrated. The method involved partitioning of the 10% v/v water in methanol extract of pomegranate peel between ethyl acetate and 2% aqueous acetic acid. This method was capable of increasing the ellagic acid content of the extract from 7.06% to 13.63% w/w. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was also increased (ED(50) from 38.21 to 14.91 micro/mL). Stability evaluations of the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract in several conditions through a period of four months found that the extracts were stable either kept under light or protected from light. The extracts were also stable under 4 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, 30 degrees +/- 2 degrees C and accelerated conditions at 45 degrees C with 75% relative humidity. However, study on the effect of pH on stability of the extract in the form of solution revealed that the extract was not stable in all tested pH (5.5, 7 and 8). These results indicated that the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract was stable when it was kept as dried powder, but it was not stable in any aqueous solution.

  19. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  20. Reactive Extraction of L (+ Tartaric Acid by Amberlite LA-2 in Different Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Inci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of L(+ tartaric acid from aqueous solutions by amberlite LA-2 is a secondary amine mixture in different diluent solvents. Extraction equilibria of L(+ tartaric acid by amberlite LA-2 in 1-octanol, cyclohexane, isooctane, hexane, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK solvents at temperature 298.15 K have been measured. The batch extraction experiments distribution coefficients (D, loading factors ( Z and extraction efficiency (E were calculated. The maximum removal of L(+ tartaric acid is 91 % with MIBK and 0.92 mol.L-1 initial concentration of Amberlite LA-2.

  1. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres for solid-phase extraction of protocatechuic acid in Rhizoma homalomenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Wang, Guo-Ying; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2011-10-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) had been prepared by precipitation polymerization method using acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, acetonitrile as the porogen solvent and protocatechuic acid (PA), one of phenolic acids, as the template molecule. The MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared, and their performance relative to non-imprinted polymers was assessed by equilibrium binding experiments. Six structurally similar phenolic acids, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid were selected to assess the selectivity and recognition capability of the MIPs. The MIPs were applied to extract PA from the traditional Chinese medicines as a solid-phase extraction sorbent. The resultant cartridge showed that the MIPs have a good extraction performance and were able to selectively extract almost 82% of PA from the extract of Rhizoma homalomenae. Thus, the proposed molecularly imprinted-solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography method can be successfully used to extract and analyse PA in traditional Chinese medicines.

  2. N,N,N‘,N’—tetrabutylmalonamide as a new extractant for extraction of nitric acid and uranium(VI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYou-Shao; SunXiao-Yu; 等

    1997-01-01

    N,N,N',N'-tetrabutylmalonamide(TBMA) is synthesized and used for extraction of uranyl(Ⅱ) ion from nitric acid media in a diluent composed of 50% 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene (TMB) and 50% kerosene(OK),The effects of nitric acid concentration,extractant concentration,temperature,slating-out agent (LiNO3) and back extraction on distribution coefficients of uranyl(Ⅱ) ion have been studied.The extraction of nitric acid is also studied.The main adduct of TBMA and HNO3 is HNO3.TBMA,and there are more than two kinds of adducts in 3.0mol/L nitric acid solutions,such as HNO3.TBMA,(HNO3)2,TBMA and (NHO3)3.TBMA.The complex formation of uranyl(Ⅱ) ion,nitrate ion and TBMA(1:2:1) as extracted species is further confirmed by IR spectra of the saturated extraction of uranyl(Ⅱ) ion with TBMA,and the values of thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated.

  3. Study on Extracting Rare Earth from Sulfate System by Long-Chain Fatty Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yanhui; Zhao Zengqi; Liu Quansheng

    2004-01-01

    The extraction of rare earths by long-chain fatty acid in kerosene from sulphate system was described.It was demonstrated from the experimental results that the ratio of kerosene: fatty acid: isooctanol = 55 : 30: 15 ( V/V),By the saturation capability method and the slope method, the extracted reaction mechanism of the extraction of rare earth was studied.It is shown that the extraction reaction conform to the cation exchange reaction mechanism.The extracted sequence of rare earth was determined in this system and it is shown that there is no tetrad effect and the position of yttrium is between lanthanum and cerium.

  4. Thermodynamics and kinetics of lutetium extraction with HEH(EHP) in hydrochloric acid medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Jinshi; XU Yang; WANG Liangshi; HUANG Xiaowei; LONG Zhiqi; WU Shengxi

    2016-01-01

    Solvent extraction has been the most widely used technique for rare earths separation. In this study, thermodynamics and kinetics of lutetium extraction with HEH (EHP) in hydrochloric acid medium were investigated. The extraction mechanism and the relevant parameters were determined by experiment research which can guide the practical extraction process. The data indicated that chloride ion had no effect on lutetium extraction, the rate constant increased when stirring speed was enhanced. Effects of temperature, HEH (EHP) concentration, acidity, and chloride concentration were also studied. Thickness of the diffusion film was also calculated to be 4.66×10–3 cm at 150 r/min.

  5. Synergistic Extraction of Lactic Acid with Tri-n-Octylamine and Try-n-Butylphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Michiaki.; Yuba, Seiji.; Kondo, Kazuo. [Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    Synergistic extraction system of lactic acid is examined to develop to in situ extractive fermentation process. The addition of try-n-butyl phosphate(TBP) to the extraction system of lactic acid(HA) with tri-n-actylamine(TOA) diluted by hexane causes a large synergism. Extraction reaction with the mixed extractant is interpreted quite well based on the formation of mixed complex, HA{center_dot}TOA{center_dot}2TBP. Though the addition of hexane solution containing TBP and TOA to the culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus results in low lactate production, some lactate is produced. (author)

  6. Synergistic Extraction of Lactic Acid with Tri-n-Octylamine and Try-n-Butylphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Michiaki.; Yuba, Seiji.; Kondo, Kazuo. (Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan))

    1998-12-01

    Synergistic extraction system of lactic acid is examined to develop to in situ extractive fermentation process. The addition of try-n-butyl phosphate(TBP) to the extraction system of lactic acid(HA) with tri-n-actylamine(TOA) diluted by hexane causes a large synergism. Extraction reaction with the mixed extractant is interpreted quite well based on the formation of mixed complex, HA[center dot]TOA[center dot]2TBP. Though the addition of hexane solution containing TBP and TOA to the culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus results in low lactate production, some lactate is produced. (author)

  7. Synergistic extraction of praseodymium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester and 8-Hydroxyquinoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; WU Dong-bei; BAO Bo-rong

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic extraction of Pr3+ from hydrochloric medium using mixture of 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (P507, HL) and 8-Hydroxyquinoline (HQ) in heptane was investigated. The effect of equilibrium of aqueous acidity on extraction of Pr3+ was discussed. The effect of extractant concentraction, different diluents, equilibrium time and acetate ion concentration on extraction reaction were also studied. With a method of double-logarithmic slope, composition of the extracted species on 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester and 8-Hydroxyquinolinc was derived. The result shows that the synergistic extraction system not only overcomes emulsification of 8-Hydroxyquinoline, but also shows perfect capacity of synergistic extraction. The largest synergistic enhancement factor can be calculated to be 5.49 at pH 3.6 for Pr3+.

  8. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extrac...

  9. Apple Pomace Extract Improves Endurance in Exercise Performance by Increasing Strength and Weight of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji-Woong; Shim, Jae-Jung; Choi, Il-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ra, Jehyeon; Ku, Hyung Keun; Lee, Dong Eun; Kim, Tae-Youl; Jeung, Woonhee; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Ki Won; Huh, Chul-Sung; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2015-12-01

    Ursolic acid is a lipophilic pentacyclic triterpenoid found in many fruits and herbs and is used in several herbal folk medicines for diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of apple pomace extract (APE; ursolic acid content, 183 mg/g) on skeletal muscle atrophy. To examine APE therapeutic potential in muscle atrophy, we investigated APE effects on the expression of biomarkers associated with muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. We found that APE inhibited atrophy, while inducing hypertrophy in C2C12 myotubes by decreasing the expression of atrophy-related genes and increasing the expression of hypertrophy-associated genes. The in vivo experiments using mice fed a diet with or without APE showed that APE intake increased skeletal muscle mass, as well as grip strength and exercise capacity. In addition, APE significantly improved endurance in the mice, as evidenced by increased exhaustive running time and muscle weight, and reduced the expression of the genes involved in the development of muscle atrophy. APE also decreased the concentration of serum lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, inorganic phosphate, and creatinine, the indicators of accumulated fatigue and exercise-induced stress. These results suggest that APE may be useful as an ergogenic functional food or dietary supplement.

  10. Optimal Extraction of Gallic Acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. Leaves and Enhanced Efficiency by Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE was initially applied to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. using 70% ethanol as extraction solvent. Temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM, obtaining maximum levels of gallic acid (6.30 mg·g−1 at 51°C, 19.52 mL·g−1, and 42.68 min, respectively. The obtained model was statistically significant (p<0.0001. The verification experiments at the optimum conditions yielded gallic acid for 6.21 mg·g−1. Subsequently, under optimal conditions, four ionic liquids were used to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. The results indicated that the presence of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride allowed increasing the EE of gallic acid up to 8.90 mg·g−1. This might be interpreted in terms of the molecular interaction between ionic liquid and gallic acid. The use of ionic liquids involves a stronger gallic acid extraction capacity than conventional organic volatile solvents. A promising alternative process is proposed for the extraction of gallic acid of Suaeda glauca Bge.

  11. Extraction Behavior and Wastewater Treatment of Amino Sulfonic Acid with Alamine 336

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦炜; 李振宇; 汪敏; 戴猷元

    2004-01-01

    p-Amino benzene sulfonic acid (PABSA) is selected as the solute with amphoteric functional group, Lewis acid and Lewis base, to be separated from its dilute solutions. An aliphatic, straight chain amine, Alamine 336, is used as the extractant, and kerosene, 1-octanol, chloroform, butyl acetate and benzene as the diluent. The effects of pH value of solution, extractant concentration, salt and types of diluent on the distribution coefficient, D, are studied. There is a peak of D value with pH value of solution, the polar diluents are favorable for extracting PABSA, and the salt in aqueous phase reduces values of D apparently. The extraction equilibrium is described using the mass action law, and the calculated data according to the proposed model agree with the experimental data well. Further, the extraction behavior for other amino benzene sulfonic acids, 1-amino-8-naphtol-3,6-disulfonic acid (H acid) and 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DSD acid), is investigated in a wide pH value region. Finally. H acid and DSD acid are successfully removed from wastewater by the extraction with Alamine 336.

  12. Content of amino acids in dense extracts from raw material of Echium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mashtaler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Echium vulgare L. of Boraginaceae family is a biennial rigidly pubescent plant with a spindle-shaped root, which is rather widespread in Ukraine. Above-ground and underground part of the plant is used in folk medicine as a blood purifying agent and anticonvulsant, herb decoctions – as expectorant and calming agent for cough of various etiology. Owing to shikonin and its ethers presence, extracts from Echium vulgare L. have high antibacterial activity and stable fungistatic effect against yeast fungi. In addition, these substances also exibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and regenerative activity. Echium vulgare L., as most representatives of Boraginaceae, is not sufficiently studied. Continuing to study this species, we have determined amino acid composition of its aqueous extracts. This group of biologically active substances is present in easy-to-digest complexes and in biologically available concentrations; it demonstrates a number of biological actions, such as hepatoprotective, lipotropic, cardiotropic, regenerative, wound-healing, calming, etc. The objective of our work was to study qualitative composition and quantitative content of amino acids in dense extracts obtained from roots and herb of Echium vulgare L. Objects of our study were dense extracts obtained from roots and herb of Echium vulgare L. Roots were harvested in autumn, at the end of vegetation period (October – November 2009; herb was collected during the phase of mass flowering (June 2009 in Kharkov region. Well-known methods were used to obtain dense extracts (extraction agent: purified water. Output of root dense extract was 22,7%, and herb dense extract was 23,5%. Amino acid composition of dense extracts was studied with amino acid analyzer AAA-339 (Czech Republic after hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. There have been identified 16 amino acids, 7 of which are essential, 3 semiessential ones and the rest – nonessential amino acids. Qualitative composition and

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium and thorium from nitric acid medium using organophosphorous compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitchaiah, K.C.; Sujatha, K.; Rao, C.V.S. Brahmmananda; Subramaniam, S.; Sivaraman, N.; Rao, P.R. Vasudeva [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) technique has been widely used for the extraction of metal ions. In the present study, extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium was investigated using supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO{sub 2}) containing various organophosphorous compounds such as trialkyl phosphates e.g. tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP), tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), dialkylalkyl phosphonates, e.g. diamylamyl phosphonate (DAAP) and dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP), dialkyl hydrogen phosphonates, e.g. dioctyl hydrogen phosphonate (DOHP), dioctylphosphineoxide (DOPO), trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO), n-octylphenyl N,N-diisobutyl carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and di-2-ethyl-hexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP). Some of these ligands have been investigated for the first time in the supercritical phase for the extraction of uranium. The extraction efficiency of uranium was studied with TiAP, DAAP and DBBP as a function of nitric acid concentration; the kinetics of the equilibration period (static extraction) and transportation of the metal complex (dynamic extraction) was investigated. The influence of pressure and temperature on the extraction behaviour of uranium with DAAP was studied from 4 N HNO{sub 3}. The extraction efficiency of uranium from 4 N nitric acid medium was found to increase in the order of phosphates < phosphonates < HDEHP < TOPO < CMPO. In the case of phosphates and phosphonates, the maximum extraction of uranium was found to be from 4 N HNO{sub 3} medium. The acidic extractants, HDEHP and DOHP showed relatively higher extraction at lower acidities. The relative extraction of uranium and thorium from their mixture was also examined using Sc-CO{sub 2} containing phosphates, phosphonates and TOPO. The ligand, TsBP provided better fractionation between uranium and thorium compared to trialkyl phosphates, dialkyl alkyl phosphonates and TOPO.

  14. Solvent extraction of rare earth ions from nitrate media with new extractant di-(2,3-dimethylbutyl)-phosphinic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊莲; 陈广; 徐盛明; 尹祉力; 张覃

    2016-01-01

    As a relatively new extractant, di-(2,3-dimethylbutyl)-phosphinic acid (HYY-2) is more efficient to separate heavy rare earths Tm/Yb/Lu than Cyanex 272 and P507. In this paper, HYY-2 was synthesized in our lab, and the extraction equilibrium, ther-modynamics and stripping acidity for La, Gd and Y, which stood for light rare earth elements (REE), middle REE and heavy REE respectively, from nitrate media with this extractant were investigated. Meanwhile, extraction ability, capacity and stripping acidity of HYY-2 were investigated and compared with those of Cyanex 272 and P507. The separation performance for rare earth element cou-ples Gd/Eu and Er/Ywere also studied. Compared to Cyanex 272, it possessed higher extraction capacity; while compared with P507, it has lower stripping acidity. The maximumβGd/Eu 1.46 occurred at pHequilibrium=2.78 and the maximumβEr/Y was 1.47 when pHequilibrium= 2.01.

  15. Extraction Kinetics of Rare Earth Elements with sec-Octylphenoxy Acetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE,Shan-Tang(乐善堂); LIAO,Wu-Ping(廖伍平); LI,De-Qian(李德谦); SU,Qiang(苏锵)

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of RE (La, Gd, Er, Yb and Y)extraction with sec-octylphenoxy acetic acid was investigated using a constant interfacial area cell with laminar flow at 303 K. The natures of the extracted complexes have some effect on the extraction rate which is controlled by the reaction rate of M(Ⅲ) and extractant molecules at two-phase interface for Er(Ⅲ), Yb(Ⅲ) and Y(Ⅲ), by a mixed chemical reaction-diffusion for Gd(Ⅲ) and a diffusion for La(Ⅲ). The extractant molecules tend to adsorb at the interface. So an interfacial extraction reaction model was derived.

  16. Extraction process of chlorogenic acid in flos lonicerae by enzymatic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳佳; 赵国玲; 王晖; 章晓骅

    2002-01-01

    A new method of extracting chlorogenic acid from flos lonicerae, and treating the materials with enzyme before being extracted by ethanol is developed, and the optimum conditions are also investigated in detail. Three important factors, enzyme dosage, treatment time and treatment temperature are adapted to optimize the extraction process. The experimental results show that the extract yield of flos lonicerae and chlorogenic acid can be obviously increased by the cellulase treatment, 61.5 mg chlorogenic acid is obtained from 1.00 g flos lonicerae at most. The optimal temperature of enzymatic treatment is 40-50 ℃. Compared with the use of single cellulase, the combined treatment of cellulase and pectinase increase the extract yield obviously but fail to improve that of chlorogenic acid.

  17. Removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates by emulsion liquid membrane with organophosphorus extractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Selective removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates containing xylose and sulfuric acid was attempted in a batch emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system with organophosphorus extractants. Various experimental variables were used to develop a more energy-efficient ELM process. Total operation time of an ELM run with a very small quantity of trioctylphosphine oxide as the extractant was reduced to about a third of those required to attain almost the same extraction efficiency as obtained in previous ELM works without any extractant. Under specific conditions, acetic acid was selectively separated with a high degree of extraction and insignificant loss of xylose, and its purity and enrichment ratio in the stripping phase were higher than 92% and 6, respectively. Also, reused organic membrane solutions exhibited the extraction efficiency as high as fresh organic solutions did. These results showed that the current ELM process would be quite practical.

  18. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  19. Extraction and separation of U(VI and Th(IV from hydrobromic acid media using Cyanex-923 extractant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghag Snehal M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of the solvent extraction of uranium(VI and thorium(IV from hydrobromic acid media was performed using the neutral phosphine oxide extractant Cyanex-923 in toluene. These metal ions were found to be quantitatively extracted with Cyanex-923 in toluene in the acidity range 5x10-5-1x10-4 M and 5x10-5-5x10-3 M, respectively, and they are stripped from the organic phase with 7.0 M HClO4 and 2.0- 4.0 M HCl, respectively. The effect of the equilibrium period, diluents, diverse ions and stripping agent on the extraction of U(VI and Th(IV was studied. The stoichiometry of the extracted species of these metal ions was determined based on the slope analysis method. The extraction reactions proceed by solvation and their probable extracted species found in the organic phase were UO2Br2•2Cyanex-923 and ThBr4•2Cyanex-923. Based on these results, a sequential procedure for their separation from each other was developed.

  20. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives Obtained from a Commercial Crataegus Extract and from Authentic Crataegus spp. §

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczkowiak, Ulrich; Petereit,Frank; Nahrstedt,Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Eleven hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from a 70% methanolic Crataegus extract (Crataegi folium cum flore) and partly verified and quantified for individual Crataegus species (C. laevigata, C. monogyna, C. nigra, C. pentagyna) by HPLC: 3-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (1), 5-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-quinic acid (2), 4-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3), 3-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 4-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic a...

  1. Determination of organic acids in Salicornia herbacea by solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dandan; Tian, Minglei; Park, Dong Wha; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-02-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the determination of procatechuic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid in Salicornia herbacea L. (Hamcho) has been developed. The optimal conditions were obtained by using a C18 SPE cartridge. By using ethanol and acetonitrile /water/ trifluoracetic acid as washing and eluting solvents, most interfering compounds originating from the hamcho matrix were eliminated. The extracts were sufficiently clean to be directly injected into the HPLC for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.1 to 200 microg/mL (r > 0.999) for procatechuic acid, 0.2 to 400 microg/mL (r > 0.999) for caffeic acid and 0.3 to 600 microg/mL (r > 0.999) for ferulic acid, with the relative standard deviations being less than 3.6%. The mean recoveries of procatechuic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from hamcho were more than 79.2% and the detection limit (S/N = 3:1) was 0.02 microg/mL for procatechuic acid, 0.01 microg/mL for caffeic acid and 0.04 microg/mL for ferulic acid. This method is a viable alternative to the existing HPLC methods for analyzing the content of procatechuic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid in hamcho.

  2. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  3. Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Fruit Extract as Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    In routine experiments synthetic indicators are the choice of acid base titrations. But there are some limitations like environmental pollution, availability and higher cost which leads to search for natural compounds as an acid base indicator was started. The present work highlights theexploit of the methanolic and aqueous extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica plants as a natural acid base indicator in acid base titrations. Opuntia ficus indica plant was identified and fruits were was...

  4. Equilibrium of Extraction of Succinic,Malic,Maleic and Fumaric Acids with Trioctylamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhenyu; QINWei; 等

    2002-01-01

    Extraction equilibrium features of succinic acid,malic acid,maleic acid and fumaric acid were investigated systematically with trioctylamine (TOA) in chloroform,4-methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK) and 1-octanol.Fourier transform-infrared(FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of organic samples loaded with the acid show that amine forms 1:1 complex of ion-pair association with succinic acid,malic acid and maleic acid,and 1:1,2:1 complex of ion-pair association with fumaric acid.It is proposed that the complex forms depend on the second dissociation constant of the dibasic acid,pKa2.Results of equilibrium experiments show that diluents affects extraction behavior,and depend on the solute concentration.Protic diluents,chloroform and 1-octanol,are more effective than the others when the equilibrium solute concentration.Protic diluents,chloroform and 1-octanol,are more effective tthan the others when the equilibrium solute concentration is lower than 1:1 stoichiometry of TOA to acid,otherwise the extraction ability shows that MIBK>1-octanol>chloroform for malic and maleic acids,and 1-octanol>MIBK>chloroform for succinic acid.Overloading(Solute concentration in organic phase is lager than TOA concentration) appears for all of the studied acids, and the sequence of overloading amount is the same as that of distribution constant of diluent.The results show that the sequence of extraction ability of different acid is the same as that of acidity at low equilibrium solute concentrations,while it is the same as the sequence of hydrophobicity at high equilibrium concentrations.

  5. Ellagic acid, phenolic acids, and flavonoids in Malaysian honey extracts demonstrate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Mustafa; Achoui, Mouna; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Mohd, Mustafa Ali; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd

    2010-09-01

    Natural honey has been used in traditional medicine of different cultures throughout the world. This study looked into the extraction of Malaysian honey and the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts. It was hypothesized that honey extracts contain varying amounts of phenolic compounds and that they possess different in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. Honey extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and compare phenolic compounds, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography was used for their quantification. Subsequently, honey methanol extract (HME) and honey ethyl acetate extract (HEAE) were tested in vitro for their effect on nitric oxide production in stimulated macrophages. The extracts were also tested for their effects on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) cytotoxicity in L929 cells. The major phenolics in the extracts were ellagic, gallic, and ferulic acids; myricetin; chlorogenic acid; and caffeic acid. Other compounds found in lower concentrations were hesperetin, p-coumaric acid, chrysin, quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol. Ellagic acid was the most abundant of the phenolic compounds recorded, with mean concentrations of 3295.83 and 626.74 μg/100 g of honey in HME and HEAE, respectively. The median maximal effective concentrations for in vitro nitric oxide inhibition by HEAE and HME were calculated to be 37.5 and 271.7 μg/mL, respectively. The median maximal effective concentrations for protection from TNF cytotoxicity by HEAE and HME were 168.1 and 235.4 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, HEAE exhibited greater activity in vitro, whereas HME contained a higher concentration of phenolic compounds per 100 g of honey. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical composition of phase I Coxiella burnetii soluble antigen prepared by trichloroacetic acid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukácová, M; Brezina, R; Schramek, S; Pastorek, J

    1989-01-01

    Optimal conditions of extraction (time and temperature) by trichloroacetic acid of soluble antigen from phase I Coxiella burnetii (TCAE), possessing protective properties and used as a chemovaccine against Q fever in men, were studied. Extracts prepared under various conditions were analysed for their polysaccharide, protein and phosphorus contents. Forty-five min of extraction at 0 degrees C were sufficient to obtain a soluble antigen reacting in immunodiffusion with hyperimmune rabbit antiserum. The polysaccharide contents decreased with prolonged extraction at 0 degrees C. At higher extraction temperatures (37 and 100 degrees C), the polysaccharide contents increased while that of proteins decreased. TCAE prepared at 100 degrees C gave no positive immunodiffusion reaction.

  7. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, Antonio G.; Crepeau, Marie-Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions...... on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction...... to have short side chains compared with orange, lime and lemon. Orange and grapefruit pectin samples were both particularly rich in rhamnogalacturonan I backbones. Conclusions Structural, and hence macromolecular, variations within the different citrus pectin samples were mainly related...

  8. Lactic acid Production with in situ Extraction in Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Ghafouri Taleghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Lactic acid is widely used in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The major problems associated with lactic acid production are substrate and end-product inhibition, and by-product formation. Membrane technologyrepresents one of the most effective processes for lactic acid production. The aim of this work is to increase cell density and lactic acid productivity due to reduced inhibition effect of substrate and product in membrane bioreactor.Material and Methods: In this work, lactic acid was produced from lactose in membrane bioreactor. A laboratory scale membrane bioreactor was designed and fabricated. Five types of commercial membranes were tested at the same operating conditions (transmembrane pressure: 500 KPa and temperature: 25°C. The effects of initial lactose concentration and dilution rate on biomass growth, lactic acid production and substrate utilization were evaluated.Results and Conclusion: The high lactose retention of 79% v v-1 and low lactic acid retention of 22% v v-1 were obtained with NF1 membrane; therefore, this membrane was selected for membrane bioreactor. The maximal productivity of 17.1 g l-1 h-1 was obtainedwith the lactic acid concentration of 71.5 g l-1 at the dilution rate of 0.24 h−1. The maximum concentration of lactic acid was obtained at the dilution rate of 0.04 h−1. The inhibiting effect of lactic acid was not observed at high initial lactose concentration. The critical lactose concentration at which the cell growth severely hampered was 150 g l-1. This study proved that membrane bioreactor had great advantages such as elimination of substrate and product inhibition, high concentration of process substrate, high cell density,and high lactic acid productivity.Conflict of interest: There is no conflict of interest.

  9. Extraction of gold, palladium, and platinum from acidic media with cyclic sulfoxide derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songping Wu; Guobang Gu

    2007-01-01

    The extraction of gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ), and platinum (Ⅳ) from the acidic media with the cyclic sulfoxide derivative of a-dodecyl-tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide (dtmso) was investigated. Gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ), and platinum (Ⅳ) could be separated from the acidic media with suitable sulfoxide concentration and acidity. The extraction reaction of gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ) or platinum (Ⅳ) is exothermic when dtmso is used as an extracting reagent. The coordination number was studied by the slope method. The results indicate that, in high acidity, the dtmso coordination number for extracting gold (Ⅲ) or palladium (Ⅱ) is 3, and that for platinum (Ⅳ) is 2. UV and FT-IR spectra were used to analyze the structure of the complex. Gold (Ⅲ) is coordinated with the oxygen atom in S=O group in dtmso, and palladium (Ⅱ) or platinum (Ⅳ) is coordinated with the sulfur atom in S=O group in dtmso.

  10. EXTRACTION AND SORPTION BENZOIC ACID FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF POLYMERS BASED ON N-VINYLAMIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Savvina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of aromatic acids (benzoic acid, salicylic as preservatives necessitates their qualitative and quantitative determination in food. Effective and common way to separation and concentration of aromatic acids liquid extraction. Biphasic system of water-soluble polymers based on (poly-N-vinyl pyrrolidone, and poly-N-vinylcaprolactam satisfy the requirements of the extraction system. When sorption concentration improved definition of the metrological characteristics, comply with the requirements for sensitivity and selectivity definition appears possible, use of inexpensive and readily available analytical equipment. When studying the adsorption of benzoic acid used as a sorbent crosslinked polymer based on N-vinyl pyrrolidone, obtained by radical polymerisation of a functional monomer and crosslinker. In the extraction of benzoic acid to maximize the allocation of water and the organic phase of the polymer used salt solutions with concentrations close to saturation. Regardless of the nature of the anion salt is used as salting-out agent, aromatic acids sorption increases with the size of the cations. In the experiment the maximum recovery rate (80% benzoic acid obtained in the PVP (0.2 weight%. Ammonium sulphate. The dependence stepepni benzoic acid extraction from time sorption sorbent mass and the pH of the aqueous phase. To establish equilibrium in the system, for 20 minutes. The dependence of the degree of extraction of the acid pH indicates that the acid is extracted into the molecular form. The maximum adsorption is reached at pH 3,5, with its efficiency decreases symbatically reduce the amount of undissociated acid molecules in solution.

  11. Capillary microreactors for lactic acid extraction: experimental and modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Susanti; Winkelman, Jozef; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero; Yue, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important biobased chemical and, among others, is used for the production of poly-lactic acid. Down-stream processing using state of the art technology is energy intensive and leads to the formation of large amounts of salts. In this presentation, experimental and modeling studies

  12. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  13. EXTRACTION-CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF GLUCOSE AND FRUCTOSE IN THE PRESENCE OF AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Korenman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of glucose and fructose from aqueous salt solutions containing aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, hydrophilic solvents (aliphatic alcohols, alkyl acetates, ketones have been studied. The quantitative characteric of the process (the distribution coefficients, the degree of extraction, separation factors are calculeted. The dependence of distribution ratios of monosaccharides from the amino acid content in the solution has been established. A mobile phase for analysis of the concentrate by ascending thin layer chromatography have been developed.

  14. Methods for extraction and determination of phenolic acids in medicinal plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Konieczynski, Pawel

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic acids constitute a group of potentially immunostimulating compounds. They occur in all medicinal plants and are widely used in phytotherapy and foods of plant origin. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted much interest owing to their biological functions. This paper reviews the extraction and determination methods of phenolic acids in medicinal plants over the last 10 years. Although Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) are commonly used for the extraction of phenolic acids from plant materials, alternative techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) can also be used. After extraction, phenolic acids are determined usually by liquid chromatography (LC) owing to the recent developments in this technique, especially when it is coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Also detection systems are discussed, including UV-Vis, diode array, electrochemical and fluorimetric. Other popular techniques for the analysis of this group of secondary metabolites are gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  15. Effects of phytic acid on peanut allergens and allergenic properties of extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Champagne, Elaine T

    2007-10-31

    Phytic acid would form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. Our objective was to determine if phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with major peanut allergens, and if such reaction results in a peanut extract with a lower level of soluble allergens and allergenic property. Extracts from raw and roasted peanuts were treated with and without phytic acid at various pH values and then analyzed by SDS-PAGE and a competitive inhibition ELISA (ciELISA). The ciELISA measured IgE binding using a pooled serum from peanut-allergic individuals. Results showed that phytic acid formed complexes with the major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2), which were insoluble in acidic and neutral conditions. Succinylation of the allergens inhibited complex formation, indicating that lysine residues were involved. A 6-fold reduction in IgE binding or allergenic potency of the extract was observed after treatment with phytic acid. It was concluded that phytic acid formed insoluble complexes with the major peanut allergens, and resulted in a peanut extract with reduced allergenic potency. Application of phytic acid to a peanut butter slurry presented a similar result, indicating that phytic acid may find use in the development of hypoallergenic peanut-based products.

  16. Nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction hybrid system for separation of fumaric acid from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Krystyna; Staszak, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Budych, Marta Joanna; Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena; Adamczak, Michalina; Wiśniewski, Maciej; Staniewski, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    A novel approach based on a hybrid system allowing nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction, was proposed to remove fumaric acid from fermentation broth left after bioconversion of glycerol. The fumaric salts can be concentrated in the nanofiltration process to a high yield (80-95% depending on pressure), fumaric acid can be selectively separated from other fermentation components, as well as sodium fumarate can be conversed into the acid form in bipolar electrodialysis process (stack consists of bipolar and anion-exchange membranes). Reactive extraction with quaternary ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or alkylphosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) solutions (yield between 60% and 98%) was applied as the final step for fumaric acid recovery from aqueous streams after the membrane techniques. The hybrid system permitting nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction was found effective for recovery of fumaric acid from the fermentation broth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intensification of enzymatic conversion of glucose to lactic acid by reactive extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2003-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting this out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation-based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent)

  18. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the h

  19. Reactive extraction of lactic acid using alamine 336 in MIBK : equilibria and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting it out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent) sy

  20. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the umami taste amino acids recovery from several cultivated mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poojary, Mahesha Manjunatha; Orlien, Vibeke; Passamonti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, enzyme-assisted extraction was performed to extract umami taste and total free amino acids (FAAs) from the six different mushrooms including shiitake (Lentinus edodes), oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), tea tree (Agrocybe aegerita) and, white, brown and portobello champignons (Agaricus...

  1. Reactive extraction of lactic acid using alamine 336 in MIBK : equilibria and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting it out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent) sy

  2. Equilibria and kinetics for reactive extraction of lactic acid using Alamine 336 in decanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting this from aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation-based industries. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent) system used. The equilibrium compl

  3. Intensification of enzymatic conversion of glucose to lactic acid by reactive extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert

    2003-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting this out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation-based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent)

  4. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Pijuan, Mercedes; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    The new sample preparation concept “Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME)” was evaluated for extraction of the acidic drugs ketoprofen, fenoprofen, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil from human plasma samples. Plasma samples (250 μL) were loaded into individual...

  5. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  6. Application of dissolvable layered double hydroxides as sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction and extraction by co-precipitation for the determination of aromatic acid anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sheng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2013-08-06

    Three types of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides were synthesized and employed as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents to extract several aromatic acids (protocatechuic acid, mandelic acid, phthalic acid, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid) from aqueous samples. An interesting feature of these sorbents is that they dissolve when the pH of the solution is lower than 4. Thus, the analyte elution step, as needed in conventional sorbent-based extraction, was obviated by dissolving the sorbent in acid after extraction and separation from the sample solution. The extract was then directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection system for analysis. In the key adsorption process, both dispersive SPE and co-precipitation extraction with the sorbents were conducted and experimental parameters such as pH, temperature, and extraction time were optimized. The results showed that both extraction methods provided low limits of detection (0.03-1.47 μg/L) and good linearity (r(2) > 0.9903). The optimized extraction conditions were applied to human urine and sports drink samples. This new and interesting extraction approach was demonstrated to be a fast and efficient procedure for the extraction of organic anions from aqueous samples.

  7. Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Solid Phase Extraction for Urinary Organic Acids: A Comparative Study from a Resource Constraint Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Chandrawati; Varughese, Bijo; Ramji, Siddarth; Kapoor, Seema

    2016-10-01

    Pre analytical process of extraction for accurate detection of organic acids is a crucial step in diagnosis of organic acidemias by GCMS analysis. This process is accomplished either by solid phase extraction (SPE) or by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Both extraction procedures are used in different metabolic laboratories all over the world. In this study we compared these two extraction procedures in respect of precision, accuracy, percent recovery of metabolites, number of metabolites isolated, time and cost in a resource constraint setup. We observed that the mean recovery from SPE was 84.1 % and by LLE it was 77.4 % (p value <0.05). Moreover, the average number of metabolites isolated by SPE and LLE was 161.8 ± 18.6 and 140.1 ± 20.4 respectively. The processing cost of LLE was economical. In a cost constraint setting using LLE may be the practical option if used for organic acid analysis.

  8. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives Obtained from a Commercial Crataegus Extract and from Authentic Crataegus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczkowiak, Ulrich; Petereit, Frank; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Eleven hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from a 70% methanolic Crataegus extract (Crataegi folium cum flore) and partly verified and quantified for individual Crataegus species (C. laevigata, C. monogyna, C. nigra, C. pentagyna) by HPLC: 3-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (1), 5-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-quinic acid (2), 4-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3), 3-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 4-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (8), (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (9), (-)-4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (10), and (-)-4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-L-threonic acid (11). Further, (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-D-malic acid (12) was isolated from C. submollis and also identified for C. pentagyna and C. nigra by co-chromatography. The isolates 10 and 11 were not found in the authentic fresh specimen, indicating that they may be formed during extraction by acyl migration from the 2-O-acylderivatives. Also, 9 and 11 are described here for the first time. All structures were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data ((1)H-, (13)C-NMR, MS, optical rotation).

  9. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives Obtained from a Commercial Crataegus Extract and from Authentic Crataegus spp.§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczkowiak, Ulrich; Petereit, Frank; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Eleven hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from a 70% methanolic Crataegus extract (Crataegi folium cum flore) and partly verified and quantified for individual Crataegus species (C. laevigata, C. monogyna, C. nigra, C. pentagyna) by HPLC: 3-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (1), 5-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-quinic acid (2), 4-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3), 3-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 4-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 4,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (8), (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (9), (-)-4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (10), and (-)-4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-L-threonic acid (11). Further, (-)-2-O-(E)-caffeoyl-D-malic acid (12) was isolated from C. submollis and also identified for C. pentagyna and C. nigra by co-chromatography. The isolates 10 and 11 were not found in the authentic fresh specimen, indicating that they may be formed during extraction by acyl migration from the 2-O-acylderivatives. Also, 9 and 11 are described here for the first time. All structures were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data (1H-, 13C-NMR, MS, optical rotation). PMID:26171328

  10. Enantioselective extraction of terbutaline enantiomers by lipophilic tartaric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐课文; 周春山

    2003-01-01

    Distribution behavior of terbutaline enantiomers was examined in the aqueous and organic solvent of a two-phase system containing L-dibenzoyltartaric acid and lipophilic phase transfer reagent of Na-tetraphenylborate. The influences of pH, organic solvents, concentrations of Na-tetraphenylborate and L-dibenzoyltartaric acid on the partition coefficients and enantioselectivity of terbutaline enantiomers, were investigated. The results show that tetraphenylborate lipophilic anion and terbutaline enantiomers form two lipophilic salt complexes , which facilitates the solubility of the enantiomers in the organic phase. L-dibenzoyltartaric acid forms more stable complexes with enantiomer Ⅱ than with enantiomer I . Enantioselectivity and partition coefficient increase with the addition of the length of alkyl chain of alcohols. pH and concentrations of lipophilic anion and L-dibenzoyltartaric acid influence them obviously and differently.

  11. Relationship between heavy metals and minerals extracted from soil clay by standard and novel acid extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Vander Freitas; Batista, Araína Hulmann; Gilkes, Robert J; Rate, Andrew W

    2016-12-01

    Strong acid digestions are commonly used to determine heavy metal (HM) contents in soils. In order to understand more fully the acid digestion processes, a logical step is to determine the extent of dissolution of mineral phases. The aims of this study were to compare the efficiency of extraction of HM by different acid digestions and to monitor the associated dissolution of the clay fraction. The context of the study was to develop a milder chemical extraction method (microwave-assisted 1 mol L(-1) HNO3 closed system (NACS)), which recovers more reactive HM and with little dissolution of minerals. The different acid digestion methods dissolved different amounts of minerals from the clay fraction. Both aqua regia (AR) and EPA 3051 dissolved all of the Fe and Al oxides, and the dissolution of kaolin was limited to thinner particles (c dimension), smaller particles in a and b dimensions and grains with lower crystallinity. The lower recovery of HM for AR compared with EPA 3051 was related to the large amount of short-range order phases formed during the AR extraction as these phases have the capacity to re-adsorb HM. The new method (NACS) has the potential to replace other methods of determining bioavailable forms of HM, such as AR and EPA 3051. The contents of Pb, As, Co, Zn, and Cu determined by EPA 3051 and EPA 3052 were quite close.

  12. Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2013-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. β-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes.

  13. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap Kumar Dubey; Nitika Goel

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quant...

  15. Extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zetang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2003-04-05

    A novel extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose, using immobilized cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous bed bioreactor, was developed by using 10% (v/v) Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol as the extractant contained in a hollow-fiber membrane extractor for selective removal of butyric acid from the fermentation broth. The extractant was simultaneously regenerated by stripping with NaOH in a second membrane extractor. The fermentation pH was self-regulated by a balance between acid production and removal by extraction, and was kept at approximately pH 5.5 throughout the study. Compared with conventional fermentation, extractive fermentation resulted in a much higher product concentration (>300 g/L) and product purity (91%). It also resulted in higher reactor productivity (7.37 g/L. h) and butyric acid yield (0.45 g/g). Without on-line extraction to remove the acid products, at the optimal pH of 6.0, the final butyric acid concentration was only approximately 43.4 g/L, butyric acid yield was 0.423 g/g, and reactor productivity was 6.77 g/L. h. These values were much lower at pH 5.5: 20.4 g/L, 0.38 g/g, and 5.11 g/L. h, respectively. The improved performance for extractive fermentation can be attributed to the reduced product inhibition by selective removal of butyric acid from the fermentation broth. The solvent was found to be toxic to free cells in suspension, but not harmful to cells immobilized in the fibrous bed. The process was stable and provided consistent long-term performance for the entire 2-week period of study.

  16. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  17. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  18. SLUG FLOW CAPILLARY MICROREACTORS FOR LACTIC ACID EXTRACTION: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MASS TRANSFER MODELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Susanti; Winkelman, Jozef; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero; Yue, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and has been widely used for manufacturing biodegradable polymer. Current method of lactic acid isolation from fermentation broths is energy intensive and leads to the formation of large amounts of salts. Reactive liquid-liquid extraction has been repor

  19. SLUG FLOW CAPILLARY MICROREACTORS FOR LACTIC ACID EXTRACTION: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MASS TRANSFER MODELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Susanti; Winkelman, Jozef; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero; Yue, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and has been widely used for manufacturing biodegradable polymer. Current method of lactic acid isolation from fermentation broths is energy intensive and leads to the formation of large amounts of salts. Reactive liquid-liquid extraction has been repor

  20. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) concentration quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913 µg/g) w...

  1. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-07-01

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  2. Equilibrium Studies on Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Amino Acid Extraction Using a Cinchona Alkaloid Extractant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, Boelo; Winkelman, Jozef G. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2008-01-01

    The enantioselective extraction of aqueous 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-R,S-leucine (A(R,S)) by a cinchona alkaloid extractant (C) in 1,2-dichloroethane was studied at room temperature (294 K) in a batch system for a range of intake concentrations (10(-4)-10(-3) mol/L) and pH values (3.8-6.6). The experimenta

  3. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Adonis wolgensis L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjerani, Maryam; Tavakoli, Rahmatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of hydro-methanolic extract of Adonis wolgensis L. (A. wolgensis L.) growing wild in north of Iran. Oils of A. wolgensis L. was obtained by means of Soxhlet apparatus from leaves and stems. Methyl esters were derived from the oily mixtures by trans-esterification process and were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS systems. Phenolic compounds extraction was done with aqueous methanol (90%). This extract was investigated for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power methods and was also tested against a panel of microorganisms. Linolenic acid (45.83%) and oleic acid (47.54%) were the most abundant fatty acids in leaves and stems, respectively. Hydro-methanolic extract with the high amount of total phenolics (9.20 ±0.011 mg GAE per dry matter) was the potent antioxidant in the assays. RESULTS obtained from measurements of MIC for extract, indicated that E. coli, S. aureus, and S. enteritidis were the most sensitive microorganisms tested, but no activity was observed against Gram-positive microorganism (B. subtilis). The results obtained from the present study indicated that the oil of A. wolgensis leaves and stems contained a high source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These results also showed that hydro-methanolic extract of this plant contained significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  4. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Adonis wolgensis L. extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mohadjerani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze the fatty acid content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of hydro-methanolic extract of Adonis wolgensis L. (A. wolgensis L. growing wild in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: Oils of A. wolgensis L. was obtained by means of Soxhlet apparatus from leaves and stems. Methyl esters were derived from the oily mixtures by trans-esterification process and were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS systems. Phenolic compounds extraction was done with aqueous methanol (90%. This extract was investigated for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power methods and was also tested against a panel of microorganisms. Results: Linolenic acid (45.83% and oleic acid (47.54% were the most abundant fatty acids in leaves and stems, respectively. Hydro-methanolic extract with the high amount of total phenolics (9.20 ±0.011 mg GAE per dry matter was the potent antioxidant in the assays. Results obtained from measurements of MIC for extract, indicated that E. coli, S. aureus, and S. enteritidis were the most sensitive microorganisms tested, but no activity was observed against Gram-positive microorganism (B. subtilis. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicated that the oil of A. wolgensis leaves and stems contained a high source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. These results also showed that hydro-methanolic extract of this plant contained significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities.  

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles-based extraction and verification of nucleic acids from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Li, Chuanyan; Wang, Fang; Ma, Ningning; Li, Xiaolong; Li, Zhiyang; Deng, Yan; Wang, Zhifei; Xi, Zhijiang; Tang, Yongjun; Hel, Nongyue

    2013-04-01

    In many molecule biology and genetic technology studies, the amount of available DNA can be one of the important criteria for selecting the samples from different sources. Compared with those genomic DNA methods using organic solvents or other traditional commercial kits, the method based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and adsorption technology has many remarkable advantages like being time-saving and cost effective without the laborious centrifugation or precipitation steps, and more importantly it has the great potential and especially suitable for automated DNA extraction and up-scaling. In this paper, the extraction efficiency of genomic nucleic acids based on magnetic nanoparticles from four different sources including bacteria, yeast, human blood and virus samples are compared and verified. After measurement and verification of the extracted genomic nucleic acids, it was shown that all these genomic nucleic acids extracted using the MNPs method can be of high yield and be available for next molecule biological steps.

  6. Effect of chlorogenic acid on antioxidant activity of Flos Lonicerae extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae is a medically useful traditional Chinese medicine herb. However, little is known about the antioxidant properties ofFlos Lonicerae extracts. Here the antioxidant capacity of water, methanolic and ethanolic extracts prepared from Flos Lonicerae to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ is examined. Chlorogenic acid, a major component of Flos Lonicerae, is identified and further purified from 70% ethanolic extract with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its antioxidant capacity is characterized. The total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid contents in Flos Lonicerae are determined. The present results demonstrate that the Flos Lonicerae extracts exhibit antioxidant activity and chlorogenic acid is a major contributor to this activity.

  7. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions.

  8. REMOVAL OF ACID-SOLUBLE LIGNIN FROM BIOMASS EXTRACTS USING AMBERLITE XAD-4 RESIN

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas James Schwartz; Martin Lawoko

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the removal of acid-soluble lignin from acid hydrolyzed hemicelluloses extracted from a mixture of northern hardwood chips, by using Amberlite XAD-4 resin, which was shown to remove 100% of furan derivatives and 90% of acid-soluble lignin. Subsequent fermentation of the resin treated hydrolyzates gave ethanol yields as high as 97% of theoretical and showed a marked increase in fermentation rate. Regeneration of resin performed with 75% acetone was 85% efficie...

  9. Extraction of gold from hydrochloric acid solutions by Alamine 336 and Alkylaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Dolgova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of gold with 336 Alamin and Alkylaniline from hydrochloric acid solutions was studied. Shown that Alamin extracts gold quantitatively in the field of acidity of the aqueuous phase pH=3,0 – СHCl=3,5 M when used as diluents of kerosene and higher carboxylic acids in admixture with paraffin. The time of quantitative extraction of gold: with Alamin – 3 minutes, with Alkylaniline – 5 minutes, regardless of the choice of diluent. The composition of the extracted complex and scheme of  gold extraction process with Alamin was proposed. Extraction of gold with 5%- Alamin-HCA-paraffin can be used for development of a combined extraction -  X-ray fluorescence technique for determination of gold because the resulting solids extracts meet the requirements imposed on emitters samples in X-ray fluorescence analysis. Calibration characteritstic is linear in the range of gold content in the samples emitters 0,006-0,17 wt%.

  10. Inhibition effects on fermentation of hardwood extracted hemicelluloses by acetic acid and sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Sara; van Heiningen, Adriaan; van Walsum, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Extraction of hemicellulose from hardwood chips prior to pulping is a possible method for producing ethanol and acetic acid in an integrated forest bio-refinery, adding value to wood components normally relegated to boiler fuel. Hemicellulose was extracted from hardwood chips using green liquor, a pulping liquor intermediate consisting of aqueous NaOH, Na(2)CO(3), and Na(2)S, at 160 degrees C, held for 110 min in a 20 L rocking digester. The extracted liquor contained 3.7% solids and had a pH of 5.6. The organic content of the extracts was mainly xylo-oligosaccharides and acetic acid. Because it was dilute, the hemicellulose extract was concentrated by evaporation in a thin film evaporator. Concentrates from the evaporator reached levels of up to 10% solids. Inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium were also concentrated by this method, presenting a challenge for the fermentation organisms. Fermentation experiments were conducted with Escherichia coli K011. The un-concentrated extract supported approximately 70% conversion of the initial sugars in 14 h. An extract evaporated down to 6% solids was also fermentable while a 10% solids extract was not initially fermentable. Strain conditioning was later found to enable fermentation at this level of concentration. Alternative processing schemes or inhibitor removal prior to fermentation are necessary to produce ethanol economically.

  11. Characterization and functional properties of mango peel pectin extracted by ultrasound assisted citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaomiao; Huang, Bohui; Fan, Chuanhui; Zhao, Kaili; Hu, Hao; Xu, Xiaoyun; Pan, Siyi; Liu, Fengxia

    2016-10-01

    Pectin was extracted from 'Tainong No. 1' mango peels, using a chelating agent-citric acid as extraction medium by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE) at temperatures of 20 and 80°C. Chemical structures, rheological and emulsifying properties of mango peel pectins (MPPs) were comparatively studied with laboratory grade citrus pectin (CP). All MPPs exhibited higher protein content (4.74%-5.94%), degree of methoxylation (85.43-88.38%), average molecular weight (Mw, 378.4-2858kDa) than the CP, but lower galacuronic acid content (GalA, 52.21-53.35%). CE or UAE at 80°C resulted in significantly higher pectin yield than those at 20°C, while the extraction time for UAE-80°C (15min) was significantly shorter compared to CE-80°C (2h) with comparable pectin yield. Moreover, MPPs extracted at 80°C were observed with higher GalA and protein content, higher Mw, resulting in higher viscosity, better emulsifying capacity and stability, as compared to those extracted at 20°C and the CP. Therefore, these results suggested that MPPs from 'Tainong No. 1' may become a highly promising pectin with good thickening and emulsifying properties, using ultrasound-assisted citric acid as an efficient and eco-friendly extraction method.

  12. Antiobesity Effects of Hydroethanolic Extract of Jacaranda decurrens Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Avila Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that reduces life expectancy; therefore, the search for new alternative and effective treatments is ongoing. The aim of the present investigation was to identify the chemical compounds in the hydroethanolic extract of leaves of Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata and to evaluate their toxicity and antiobesity effects. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to identify the chemical constituents, and acute toxicity was evaluated in rats treated with doses of 2 and 5 g·kg−1 body mass. The antiobesity effect was determined in rats with hypercaloric diet-induced obesity. Our results revealed the presence of compounds, such as jacaric, ursolic, and oleic acids, as well as luteolin, quercetin, and kaempferol, in the extract. The acute toxicity tests revealed that rats treated with elevated doses of the extract showed no signs of toxicity. The extract induced reduction in total body mass and the white adipose tissue depots. The obese rats treated with the extract showed an increased fluid intake and feces excretion while their serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased compared to those in the controls, without any hematological changes. Taken together, the results showed that the constituents of J. decurrens extracts included phenolic compounds and exhibited antiobesity effects with no toxicity.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Caffeic Acid from Methanol Seed Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Tmax). Mean resident time (MRT) and half-life (t1/2) were 4.092 ± 0.94 h and 0.14 ± 0.01 h, respectively. ... aspect of natural products has grasped the attention of ..... The fast decline in .... Laranjinha J, Cadenas E. Redox cycles of caffeic acid,.

  14. Application of anion-exchange imidazolium silica for the multiphase dispersive extraction of phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the application of a multiphase dispersive extraction method to the extraction, separation, and determination of the phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. using silica-confined ionic liquids as sorbents. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid extraction and separation was first identified based on the adsorption behavior of the phenolic acids on different silica-confined ionic liquids. The sample was then mixed with the optimized sorbent and solvent to achieve multiphase dispersive extraction. The sample/sorbent ratio was optimized using theoretical calculations from the adsorption isotherm and experiments. After transferring the supernatant to an empty cartridge, an SPE process was used to separate the three phenolic acids from the other interference. Through systematic optimization, the optimal conditions produced high recovery rates of protocatechuic acid (91.20%), caffeic acid (94.03%), and ferulic acid (91.33%). Overall, the proposed method is expected to have wide applicability. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Nucleic Acid Extraction from Synthetic Mars Analog Soils for in situ Life Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarro, Angel; Ruvkun, Gary; Zuber, Maria T.; Carr, Christopher E.

    2017-08-01

    Biological informational polymers such as nucleic acids have the potential to provide unambiguous evidence of life beyond Earth. To this end, we are developing an automated in situ life-detection instrument that integrates nucleic acid extraction and nanopore sequencing: the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Genomes (SETG) instrument. Our goal is to isolate and determine the sequence of nucleic acids from extant or preserved life on Mars, if, for example, there is common ancestry to life on Mars and Earth. As is true of metagenomic analysis of terrestrial environmental samples, the SETG instrument must isolate nucleic acids from crude samples and then determine the DNA sequence of the unknown nucleic acids. Our initial DNA extraction experiments resulted in low to undetectable amounts of DNA due to soil chemistry-dependent soil-DNA interactions, namely adsorption to mineral surfaces, binding to divalent/trivalent cations, destruction by iron redox cycling, and acidic conditions. Subsequently, we developed soil-specific extraction protocols that increase DNA yields through a combination of desalting, utilization of competitive binders, and promotion of anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that a combination of desalting and utilizing competitive binders may establish a "universal" nucleic acid extraction protocol suitable for analyzing samples from diverse soils on Mars.

  16. Investigation of extraction fraction in confined impinging jet reactors for tri-butyl-phosphate extracting butyric acid process☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengming Gao; Manting Zhao; Yun Yu; Zhipeng Li; Jing Han

    2016-01-01

    The extraction fraction E and overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa of TBP extracting butyric acid pro-cess in confined impinging jet reactors (CIJR) with two jets were investigated. The main variables tested were the concentration of tri-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and butyric acid, the impinging velocity V, the impinging velocity ratio of two phases Vorg/Vaq, the nozzle inner diameter di and the distance L between the jet axes and the top wall of the impinging chamber. The results showed that E and kLa increase with an increase of the impinging ve-locity V, the concentration of TBP Corg, and the impinging velocity ratio Vorg/Vaq. However, E and kLa decrease with an increase of the inner diameter di from 1 to 2 mm, the concentration of butyric acid Caq from 0.5%(v/v) to 2%(v/v). The factor L ranging from 3 to 11 mm has a negligible effect on E and kLa. A correlation on these variables and kLa was proposed based on the experimental data. These results indicated good mass transfer performance of CIJR in the extraction operation.

  17. Sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted acid extraction (UMAE) of pectin from pomelo peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Shan Qin; Ngoh, Gek Cheng; Yusoff, Rozita; Teoh, Wen Hui

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to optimize sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) on pomelo peel using citric acid. The effects of pH, sonication time, microwave power and irradiation time on the yield and the degree of esterification (DE) of pectin were investigated. Under optimized conditions of pH 1.80, 27.52min sonication followed by 6.40min microwave irradiation at 643.44W, the yield and the DE value of pectin obtained was respectively at 38.00% and 56.88%. Based upon optimized UMAE condition, the pectin from microwave-ultrasound assisted extraction (MUAE), ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were studied. The yield of pectin adopting the UMAE was higher than all other techniques in the order of UMAE>MUAE>MAE>UAE. The pectin's galacturonic acid content obtained from combined extraction technique is higher than that obtained from sole extraction technique and the pectin gel produced from various techniques exhibited a pseudoplastic behaviour. The morphological structures of pectin extracted from MUAE and MAE closely resemble each other. The extracted pectin from UMAE with smaller and more regular surface differs greatly from that of UAE. This has substantiated the highest pectin yield of 36.33% from UMAE and further signified their compatibility and potentiality in pectin extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Extraction and Characterization of Humic Acids and Humin Fractions from a Black Soil of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Bao-Shan; LIU Ju-Dong; LIU Xiao-Bing; HAN Xiao-Zeng

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three progressive extractions were performed to study individual humic acids (Has) and humin fractions from a typical black soil (Mollisol) in Heilongjiang Province, China using elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques. After 23 HA extractions the residue was separated into high and low organic carbon humin fractions. HA yield was the highest for the first extraction and then gradually decreased with further extractions. Organic carbon (OC) of the humin fractions accounted for 58% of total OC even after 23 successive HA extractions. In addition, the atomic C/H ratio decreased during the course of extraction while C/O increased; the E4/E6 ratio from the UV analysis decreased with further extraction while E2/Ea increased; the band assigned to aliphatic carbon (2 930 cm-1) in the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) spectra gradually increased with progressive extraction; the calculated ratio of the sum of aromatic carbon peak heights to that of aliphatic carbon peak heights from DRIFTS spectra declined with extractions; and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data suggested that HA aliphatic carbons increased with extractions while aromatic carbons decreased. Thus, hydrophobicity and aliphaticity of Has increased with extractions while polarity and aromaticity decreased. These data showed substantial chemical, structural, and molecular differences among the 23 Has and two humin fractions. Therefore, these results may help explain why soil and sediment humin fractions have high sorption capacity for organic contaminants.

  19. Extraction of gold by tributylphosphate and dioctylsulfide from hydrocloric acid solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Dolgova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Тributylphosphate (TBF and dioctylsulfide (DOS in liquid organic diluents are well known extractants used in analytical chemistry of gold. The study of the extraction of gold by these reagents in higher carboxylic acids (HCA and paraffin as well as a comparison of their extraction capacities by replacing the solvent are of great interest. Extractant for development of X-ray fluorescence analysis technique for gold in various objects was selected by studying the extraction of gold by tributylphosphate and dioctylsulfidein low melting diluents. It was shown that, when using kerosene for dilution, tributylphosphate quantitatively extracted gold СHCl=0.5-3.5 M. Extractant containing 5-20 % TBF-paraffin-HCAdid not provide quantitative extraction of gold. Recovery of gold for 5 % DOS-HCA-paraffinat СHCl =0.5-3.0 M reached 98-99%. Using the method of equilibrium shift,composition of the extracted gold complex with DOS was proposed: AuCl3 - R2S. This extractant can be used for development of X-ray fluorescence method for determination of gold.Calibration curve forX-ray fluorescence determination of gold in extracts is linear in the range of mass concentrations4.0 x 10-3-1.7 x 10-1 % (w/w. Detection limit of the method is 5.0 x 10-4 % (w/w.

  20. Membrane-mediated extractive fermentation for lactic acid production from cellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Rongfu; Lee, Y.Y. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Lactic acid production from cellulosic biomass by cellulose and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was studied in a fermenter-extractor employing a microporous hollow fiber membrane (NIHF). This bioreactor system was operated under a fed-batch mode with continuous removal of lactic acid by an in situ extraction. A tertiary amine (Alamine 336) was used as an extractant for lactic acid. The extraction capacity of Alamine 336 is greatly enhanced by addition of alcohol. Long-chain alcohols serve well for this purpose since they are less toxic to micro-organism. Addition of kerosene, a diluent, was necessary to reduce the solvent viscosity. A solvent mixture of 20% Alamine 336,40% oleyl alcohol, and 40% kerosene was found to be most effective in the extraction of lactic acid. Progressive change of pH from an initial value of 5.0 down to 4.3 has significantly improved the overall performance of the simultaneous saccharification and extractive fermentation over that of constant pH operation. The change of pH was applied to promote cell growth in the early phase, and extraction in the latter phase. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  2. Rare earth extraction from wet process phosphoric acid by emulsion liquid membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利昌; 陈前林; 康超; 马昕; 杨尊良

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of rare earths (RE) during the wet processing of phosphoric acid is very important, the method of emul-sion liquid membrane (ELM) with di(2-ethylhexly) phosphate (D2EHPA) as carrier has the high selectivity while cannot provide a satisfactory extraction rate. Here novel method of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) using Aniline as carrier to extract RE from the feed solution was proposed. The method could increase the extraction rate of RE in the real sample to 93%. The effects of dif-ferent parameters such as type and concentration of carrier and surfactant, hydrochloric acid concentration, organic to internal phase volume ratio, membrane to external phase volume ratio on extraction of RE3+ were investigated. Quantitative extraction (>93%) of RE3+ was observed with 6 vol.% Aniline and 4 vol.% T154 liquid membrane at external to internal phase volume ratio of 10 for the feed solution. The proposed method of ELM using Aniline as carrier can be expected to provide a practical, efficient, and economical method for extracting RE from phosphate leach solution with high acidity in the industry of wet process phospho-ric acid.

  3. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu, E-mail: suixiaoyu@outlook.com; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  4. Direct lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract using Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwa-Young; Ryu, Hee-Kyoung; Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, Hongweon; Kim, Seon-Won; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2012-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber was performed with strains of Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis prior to fermentation. Some strains of L. paracasei, notably KCTC13090 and KCTC13169, could ferment hot-water extract of Jerusalem artichoke tuber more efficiently compared with other Lactobacillus spp. such as L. casei type strain KCTC3109. The L. paracasei strains could utilize almost completely the fructo-oligosaccharides present in Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin-fermenting L. paracasei strains produced c.a. six times more lactic acid compared with L. casei KCTC3109. Direct lactic fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract at 111.6g/L of sugar content with a supplement of 5 g/L of yeast extract by L. paracasei KCTC13169 in a 5L jar fermentor produced 92.5 ce:hsp sp="0.25"/>g/L of lactic acid with 16.8 g/L fructose equivalent remained unutilized in 72 h. The conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to lactic acid was 98% of the theoretical yield.

  5. Pressurized liquid extraction and HPLC quantification of folic acid in fortified wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Michel Mozeika; Marchioni, Eric; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis; Zhao, Minjie; Zimmermann, Pierre; El-Khoury, Etienne; Bergaentzle, Martine

    2012-08-01

    A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method using phosphate buffer as solvent was applied for folic acid (FA) extraction from fortified wheat flours and was compared to a standard solid-liquid extraction (SLE) method. Extracted FA was quantified by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) hyphenated with a phenyl column and an absorption photometric detector (λ = 280 nm). Detection and quantification limits were 0.12 and 0.4 ng, respectively, corresponding to 0.06 and 0.2 μg g(-1) of analyzed wheat flour. Equivalent FA contents were found by both extraction methods, but a single PLE allowed a total recovery of FA content, whereas at least three successive SLEs were needed to achieve a total recovery of FA. The obtained results indicated that PLE is a rapid and efficient technique for FA extraction from fortified wheat flour.

  6. Ultrasound assisted citric acid mediated pectin extraction from industrial waste of Musa balbisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, J Prakash; Priya, B; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ponmurugan, K; Moorthy, I Ganesh; Sivarajasekar, N

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of the present work are to extract pectin from industrial waste of Musa balbisiana by ultrasound assisted citric acid mediated extraction method and optimization was done through central composite statistical experimental design under response surface methodology. The outcomes of this study exhibited that, process variables (ultrasound power, pH and extraction time) had considerable influence on the pectin extraction. Second order mathematical equation was constructed to predict the data through regression analysis. The optimal extraction process condition was ultrasound power of 323w, pH of 3.2, extraction time of 27min and SL (solid-liquid) ratio of 1:15g/ml. The mean experimental yield of pectin (8.99±0.018%) was fine accord among predicted yield of pectin (9.02%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantification of total fatty acids in microalgae: comparison of extraction and transesterification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavonius, Lillie R; Carlsson, Nils-Gunnar; Undeland, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Determination of microalgaes' fatty acid content is often done with chloroform and methanol according to the Bligh and Dyer extraction, though faster methods exist. A number of comparisons between the Bligh and Dyer and faster methods have resulted in contradicting data, possibly due to differences in algae used and the different versions of the Bligh and Dyer method applied. Here, various forms of direct-transesterification (D-TE) and two-step transesterification (2-TE), including three versions developed in our lab, are compared with the original Bligh and Dyer (Can J Biochem Physiol 37: 911-917, 1959) extraction and two modifications thereof (Lee et al. J AOAC Int 79:487-492, 1996, and our own acidified version) on microalgae with different cell walls: Isochrysis galbana, Nannochloropsis oculata, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. In total, fatty acid extracts from 11 methods were separated and quantified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Results show that, for N. oculata and P. tricornutum, methods based on chloroform-methanol underestimated the fatty acid content compared with the 2-TE and D-TE methods, which gave similar results. Moreover, D-TE methods are faster than chloroform-methanol methods and use chemicals that are less toxic. Of the D-TE methods, the ones using hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid recovered the most fatty acids, while boron trifluoride recovered slightly less. The main qualitative difference between the fatty acids recovered was that the chloroform-methanol methods recovered less saturated fatty acids in P. tricornutum.

  8. [Optimization of extraction technology for salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid in Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma with orthogonal test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Wang, Xue-jing; Zhao, Yi-wu; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    The extracting technology of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma was optimized. With extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid as indexes, orthogonal test was used to evaluate effect of 4 factors on extracting technology, including concentration of solvent, the dosage of solvent, duration of extraction, and frequency of extraction. The results showed that, the best extracting technology was to extract in 70% alcohol with 8 times the weight of herbal medicine for 2 times, with 3 hours once. High extraction rate of salidroside, tyrosol, crenulatin and gallic acid were obtained with the present technology. The extracting technology was stable and feasible with high extraction rate of four compounds from Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma, it was suitable for industrial production.

  9. Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Streptococcus mutans UA159

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Nang Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we revealed that OA and UA significantly inhibited the expression of most genes related to peptidoglycan biosynthesis in S. mutans UA159. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to introduce the antimicrobial mechanism of OA and UA against S. mutans.

  10. Influence of rosmarinic acid and Salvia officinalis extracts on melanogenesis of B16F10 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina B. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a photoprotective skin pigment, and pathologies characterized by hypo or hyperpigmentation are common. New compounds that regulate melanogenesis are, therefore, opportune, and many natural products with this property, as polyphenols, have been described. Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is a widely used food spice that contains high amounts of phenol derivates, including rosmarinic acid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of rosmarinic acid in the melanogenic activity of sage extracts. Fluid and aqueous extracts of sage and purified rosmarinic acid were assayed for B16F10 cytotoxicity and, then, evaluated on melanin production and tyrosinase activity. While sage extracts showed a concentration-dependent ability to significantly increase melanin production without necessarily changing the enzymatic activity, rosmarinic acid showed a dual behavior on melanogenesis, increasing melanin biosynthesis and tyrosinase activity at low concentrations and decreasing it at higher levels. Rosmarinic acid may collaborate with sage extracts activity on melanogenesis, although other compounds may be involved. This is the first time that a dual action of rosmarinic acid on melanogenesis is reported, which may be useful in further studies for therapeutic formulations to treat skin pigmentation disorders.

  11. Influence of rosmarinic acid and Salvia officinalis extracts on melanogenesis of B16F10 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina B. Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a photoprotective skin pigment, and pathologies characterized by hypo or hyperpigmentation are common. New compounds that regulate melanogenesis are, therefore, opportune, and many natural products with this property, as polyphenols, have been described. Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is a widely used food spice that contains high amounts of phenol derivates, including rosmarinic acid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of rosmarinic acid in the melanogenic activity of sage extracts. Fluid and aqueous extracts of sage and purified rosmarinic acid were assayed for B16F10 cytotoxicity and, then, evaluated on melanin production and tyrosinase activity. While sage extracts showed a concentration-dependent ability to significantly increase melanin production without necessarily changing the enzymatic activity, rosmarinic acid showed a dual behavior on melanogenesis, increasing melanin biosynthesis and tyrosinase activity at low concentrations and decreasing it at higher levels. Rosmarinic acid may collaborate with sage extracts activity on melanogenesis, although other compounds may be involved. This is the first time that a dual action of rosmarinic acid on melanogenesis is reported, which may be useful in further studies for therapeutic formulations to treat skin pigmentation disorders.

  12. [Anti-inflammatory effect of Urtica dioica folia extract in comparison to caffeic malic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obertreis, B; Giller, K; Teucher, T; Behnke, B; Schmitz, H

    1996-01-01

    Urtica dioica extract is a traditionary used adjuvant therapeutic in rheumatoid arthritis. The antiphlogistic effects of the urtica dioica folia extract IDS 23 (Extractum Urticae dioicae foliorum) and the main phenolic ingredient caffeic malic acid were tested concerning the inhibitory potential on biosynthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites in vitro. The caffeic malic acid was isolated from Urtica folia extract using gel exclusion- and high performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Concerning the 5-lipoxygenase products IDS 23 showed a partial inhibitory effect. The isolated phenolic acid inhibited the synthesis of the leukotriene B4 in a concentration dependent manner. The concentration for halfmaximal inhibition (IC50) was 83 microns/ml in the used assay. IDS 23 showed a strong concentration dependent inhibition of the synthesis of cyclooxygenase derived reactions. The IC50 were 92 micrograms/ml for IDS 23 and 38 micrograms/ml for the caffeic malic acid. Calculating the content in IDS 23 the caffeic malic acid is a possible but not the only active ingredient of the plant extract in the tested assay systems. It is demonstrated that the phenolic component showed a different enzymatic target compared with IDS 23. The antiphlogistic effects observed in vitro may give an explanation for the pharmacological and clinical effects of IDS 23 in therapie of rheumatoid diseases.

  13. Study on the Extraction of L-Phenylalanine with Organo-phosphoric Acid in Two and Three-phase System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Li(张莉); FU,Xun(傅洵); HU,Zheng-Shui(胡正水); LI,Qiu-Hong(李秋红); XU,Ting(徐婷)

    2002-01-01

    The extraction behaviors of L-phenylalanine by di-( 2,4,4trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid, di-(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)monothiophosphinic acid and di-(2-ethylhwxyl) phosphoric acid were studied in both two-phase and three-phase systems respectively. The equilibrium constants for these extraction reactions were calculated .

  14. REMOVAL OF ACID-SOLUBLE LIGNIN FROM BIOMASS EXTRACTS USING AMBERLITE XAD-4 RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas James Schwartz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for the removal of acid-soluble lignin from acid hydrolyzed hemicelluloses extracted from a mixture of northern hardwood chips, by using Amberlite XAD-4 resin, which was shown to remove 100% of furan derivatives and 90% of acid-soluble lignin. Subsequent fermentation of the resin treated hydrolyzates gave ethanol yields as high as 97% of theoretical and showed a marked increase in fermentation rate. Regeneration of resin performed with 75% acetone was 85% efficient with respect to acid soluble lignin.

  15. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils. [USA - Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A M University, Normal, AL (USA). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza {ital Lespedeza striata} (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza {ital Lespedeza cuneata} (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by Bragg' soybean {ital Glycine max} (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl {gt} DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. EXTRACTION OF AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS BY POLY-N-VINYLPYRROLIDONE-3500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ia. Mokshina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan from aqueous salt solutions by water soluble polymer - poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone having a molecular weight of 3,500 has been studied. Under identical conditions set quantitative characteristics extraction has been established, general scheme of analysis has been developed. Effect the volume ratio of aqueous and organic phases to the recovery of phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine has been studied. The dependence of solution viscosity of the polymer and the speed of lamination systems the molecular weight and concentration of the extractant has been set. It was established that the most studied aromatic amino fully extracted solution of PVP-3500 at a concentration of 0,12 g/cm3, while the ratio of the equilibrium amounts of aqueous and organic phases 10:4. Optimized conditions for the almost complete extraction of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan from aqueous salt solutions. The technique of extraction-spectrophotometer determination of aromatic amino acids in aqueous solution. Based highs proposed scheme of interaction with PVP-3500 extractable substances. We have developed a technique characterized by express (analysis time 30 - 40 min, accuracy (relative error within 7%, ecology (and lack of toxic extragants "green extraction". Learned extraction systems applicable to practically complete extraction of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan from aqueous solutions.

  17. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  18. Extraction of Amino-J Acid from Waste-water by Emulsion Liquid Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘碌亭

    2006-01-01

    The emulsion liquid membrane technique was used to extract amino-J acid from industrial dye waste-water. The effects of stirring speed, ratio of the emulsion to water (Rew), ratio of the oil to internal phase (Roi) and membrane phase components on the extraction rate were investigated and optimized. The results showed that the extraction rate of amino-J acid approached 97% when the stirring speed was 300 r/min, Rew 1:6, Roi 1:1, trioctylamine (TOA) 3 mL/100 mL kerosene, and methyl-didecyle-alcohol-acrylate (LMA-2) 3 g/100 mL kerosene, respectively. The extraction rate had not changed with the oil phase reused for times.

  19. Potential for in situ chemical oxidation of acid extractable organics in oil sands process affected groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, V; Ross, M S; Martin, J W; Barker, J F

    2013-11-01

    The process of bitumen extraction from oil sands in Alberta, Canada leads to an accumulation of toxic acid-extractable organics (AEOs) in oil sands process water (OSPW). Infiltration of OSPW from tailings ponds and from their retaining sand dykes and subsequent transport towards surface water has occurred. Given the apparent lack of significant natural attenuation of AEOs in groundwater, remediation may be required. This laboratory study evaluates the potential use of unactivated persulfate and permanganate as in situ oxidation agents for remediation of AEOs in groundwater. Naphthenic acids (NAs; CnH2n+zO2), which are a component of the acutely toxic AEOs, were degraded by both oxidants in OSPW samples. Permanganate oxidation yielded some residual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) whereas persulfate mineralized the AEO compounds with less residual DOC. Acid-extractable organics from oxidized OSPW had essentially no Microtox toxicity.

  20. A novel microalgal lipid extraction method using biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) as an extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Can; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2017-02-01

    Although microalgae are considered promising renewable sources of biodiesel, the high cost of the downstream process is a significant obstacle in large-scale biodiesel production. In this study, a novel approach for microalgal biodiesel production was developed by using the biodiesel as an extractant. First, wet microalgae with 70% water content were incubated with a mixture of biodiesel/methanol and penetration of the mixture through the cell membrane and swelling of the lipids contained in microalgae was confirmed. Significant increases of lipid droplets were observed by confocal microscopy. Second, the swelled lipid droplets in microalgae were squeezed out using mechanical stress across the cell membrane and washed with methanol. The lipid extraction efficiency reached 68%. This process does not require drying of microalgae or solvent recovery, which the most energy-intensive step in solvent-based biodiesel production.

  1. Comparison of acid ethanol extraction and acid gel filtration prior to IGF-I and IGF-II radioimmunoassays; Improvement of determinations in acid ethanol extracts by the use of truncated IGF-I as radioligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, P.; Eriksson, U.; Wivall, I.-L.; Hall, K. (Department of Endocrinology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Sara, V. (Department of Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins interfere in the IGF-I and -II radioimmunoassays. In an attempt to overcome this problem, we have compared the use of truncated IGF-I, with reduced IGFBP affinity, and IGF-I as radioligands for IGF-I RIA measurements in serum separated by acid gel filtration or acid ethanol extraction followed by cryo-precipitation. With truncated IGF-I as radioligand the IGF-I measurements in acid gel filtrates and acid ethanol extracts were significantly correlated in healthy subjects (N=42, r=0.91, p<0.001) and in patients with acromegaly (N=10, r=0.85, p<0.01), GH deficiency (N=10, r=0.88, p<0.001) or Type I diabetes mellitus (N=10, r=0.90, p<0.001). In contrast, the IGF-I concentrations in acid ethanol extracts determined with IGF-I as radioligand did not correlate with those in acid gel filtrates using truncated IGF-I radioligand in patients with acromegaly (r=0.61, NS) or GH deficiency (r=0.46, NS). In the latter group the mean IGF-I concentrations measured in acid ethanol extracts were erroneously elevated by 112%. Low-affinity antibodies used for IGF-II RIA determinations failed to give reliable results in acid ethanol extracts from patients with Type I diabetes mellitus or GH deficiency. In conclusion, erroneously high IGF-I concentrations owing to binding of the radioligand to IGFBPs not completely removed by acid ethanol extraction can be avoided by the use of truncated IGF-I as radioligand. (author).

  2. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Pijuán, Mercedes; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-04-01

    The new sample preparation concept "Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME)" was evaluated for extraction of the acidic drugs ketoprofen, fenoprofen, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil from human plasma samples. Plasma samples (250 μL) were loaded into individual wells in a 96-well donor plate and diluted with HCl to protonate the acidic drugs. The acidic drugs were extracted as protonated species from the individual plasma samples, through corresponding artificial liquid membranes each comprising 2 μL of dihexyl ether, and into corresponding acceptor solutions each comprising 50 μL of 25 mM ammonia solution (pH 10). The liquid membranes and the acceptor solutions were located in a 96-well filter plate, which was sandwiched with the 96-well donor plate during extraction. Parallel extraction of several samples was performed for 15 to 60 min, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection of the individual acceptor solutions. Important PALME parameters including the chemical composition of the liquid membrane, extraction time, and sample pH were optimized, and the extraction performance was evaluated. Except for flurbiprofen, exhaustive extraction was accomplished from plasma. Linearity was obtained for all six drugs in the range 0.025-10 μg/mL, with r (2) values ranging between 0.998 and 1.000. Precision data were in the range 3-22% RSD, and accuracy data were within 72-130% with spiked plasma samples. Based on the current experiences, PALME showed substantial potential for future high-throughput bioanalysis of non-polar acidic drugs.

  3. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid recovery from Larrea tridentata by microwave-assisted extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Sílvia; Mussatto, Solange I.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Garza-Rodriguez, I.; Teixeira, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a powerful antioxidant with biological activities of great interest in several health areas, including antiviral, cancer chemopreventive, and antitumorgenic. Little information is available on extraction methods of NDGA from Larrea tridentata. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop a rapid and effective microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for NDGA recovery from Larrea tridentata leaves, and to compare the results ob...

  4. Regularities of extracting humic acids from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakina, L. G.; Drichko, V. F.; Orlova, N. E.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of extracting humic acids from different soil types (soddy-podzolic soil, gray forest soil, and all chernozem subtypes) with sodium pyrophosphate solutions at different pH values (from 5 to 13) have been studied. It is found that, regardless of soil type, the process occurs in two stages through the dissociation of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyls, each of which can be described by a logistic function. Parameters of the logistic equations approximating the extraction of humic acids from soils at different pH values are independent of the content and composition of humus in soils. Changes in the optical density of humic acids extracted from soils using sodium pyrophosphate solutions with different pH values are described in the first approximation by the Gaussian function. The optically densest humic acids are extracted using sodium pyrophosphate solutions at pH 10. Therefore, it is proposed to use an extract with pH 10 for the characterization of organic matter with the maximum possible degree of humification in the given soil.

  5. Microwave-assisted organic acid extraction of lignin from bamboo: structure and antioxidant activity investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Fei; Sun, Shao-Ni; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2012-10-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction in organic acid aqueous solution (formic acid/acetic acid/water, 3/5/2, v/v/v) was applied to isolate lignin from bamboo. Additionally, the structural features of the extracted lignins were thoroughly investigated in terms of C₉ formula, molecular weight distribution, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and HSQC spectroscopy. It was found that with an increase in the severity of microwave-assisted extraction, there was an increase of phenolic hydroxyl content in the lignin. In addition, an increase of the severity resulted in a decrease of the bound carbohydrate content as well as molecular weight of the lignin. Antioxidant activity investigation indicated that the radical scavenging index of the extracted lignins (0.35-1.15) was higher than that of BHT (0.29) but lower than that of BHA (3.85). The results suggested that microwave-assisted organic acid extraction provides a promising way to prepare lignin from bamboo with good antioxidant activity for potential application in the food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biotransformation and improved enzymatic extraction of chlorogenic acid from coffee pulp by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mancera, María Teresa; Baqueiro-Peña, Itzamná; Figueroa-Montero, Arturo; Rodríguez-Serrano, Gabriela; González-Zamora, Eduardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The highest enzymatic extraction of covalent linked chlorogenic (36.1%) and caffeic (CA) (33%) acids from coffee pulp (CP) was achieved by solid-state fermentation with a mixture of three enzymatic extracts produced by Aspergillus tamarii, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Trametes sp. Enzyme extracts were produced in a practical inexpensive way. Synergistic effects on the extraction yield were observed when more than one enzyme extract was used. In addition, biotransformation of chlorogenic acid (ChA) by Aspergillus niger C23308 was studied. Equimolar transformation of ChA into CA and quinic acids (QA) was observed during the first 36 h in submerged culture. Subsequently, after 36 h, equimolar transformation of CA into protocatechuic acid was observed; this pathway is being reported for the first time for A. niger. QA was used as a carbon source by A. niger C23308. This study presents the potential of using CP to produce enzymes and compounds such as ChA with biological activities.

  7. Recovery of acids from anaerobic acidification broth by liquid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaya, Emrah; Kaptan, Serkan; Ozkan, Leyla; Uludag-Demirer, Sibel; Demirer, Göksel N

    2009-11-01

    In this study, anaerobic acidification of sugar beet processing wastes and subsequent liquid-liquid extraction of produced fermentation metabolites were investigated. The aim of extraction experiments was to asses the influence of pH and extractant (trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene) concentrations on the recovery of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from fermentation broth. The effect of TOPO in kerosene concentration was as crucial as the effect of pH on the recovery of VFAs via extraction. Consequently, pH 2.5 was determined as optimum. At this pH, percent recoveries of VFAs were changed from 43% to 98%, depending on the type of the acid extracted (acetic, butyric, propionic and valeric acids) and the concentration of TOPO in kerosene (5-20%). As the concentration of TOPO in kerosene was increased, efficiency of extraction was increased. As a result, highest VFA recoveries (61-98%) were observed at 20% TOPO in kerosene with distribution ratio values ranging between 1.54 and 40.79. At pH 2.5, the increase in TOPO concentration directly increased the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies, as it does for total VFA recovery. Up to 72% COD removals were achieved, at 20% TOPO in kerosene at pH 2.5, while the removal efficiencies remained between 19% and 22% at pH 5.5.

  8. Separation and concentration of lanthanoids using microcapsules containing acidic organophosphorus compounds as an extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamio, Eiji; Kondo, Kazuo [Doshisha Univ., Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    In this study, we measured the extraction equilibria of lanthanoids with microcapsules containing acidic organophosphorus compound as an extractant and discuss their mutual separation by using a column packed with the microcapsules. The extraction equilibria of lanthanoids into the microcapsules containing 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHPNA) were elucidated and the extraction equilibrium constants were calculated by slope-analysis method. It was suggested that the lanthanoid ions are extracted in the microcapsules in a high loading state. Furthermore, the adsorption behavior of lanthanoids into the column packed with the microcapsules containing EHPNA was observed. It was found that adsorption and elution of lanthanoids are briefly achieved by selecting pH of the feed aqueous solution. However, it was impossible to separate them only in adsorption or elution operation. So, the mutual separation of lanthanoids was investigated using the adsorption column connected to the development column containing microcapsules. By selecting pH of the eluent, each metal was separated mutually in more than 95% of purity. The metal ions in the eluent from the development column could be concentrated by treating it with a column packed with the microcapsules containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA). Considering these information, it will be possible to design a continuous extracting, separating and concentrating reactor of lanthanoids using a column packed with the microcapsules. (author)

  9. Formic acid aided hot water extraction of hemicellulose from European silver birch (Betula pendula) sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Werner Marcelo; Ahola, Juha; Mikola, Marja; Tanskanen, Juha

    2017-05-01

    Hemicellulose has been extracted from birch (Betula pendula) sawdust by formic acid aided hot water extraction. The maximum amount of hemicellulose extracted was about 70mol% of the total hemicellulose content at 170°C, measured as the combined yield of xylose and furfural. Lower temperatures (130 and 140°C) favored hemicellulose hydrolysis rather than cellulose hydrolysis, even though the total hemicellulose yield was less than at 170°C. It was found that formic acid greatly increased the hydrolysis of hemicellulose to xylose and furfural at the experimental temperatures. The amount of lignin in the extract remained below the detection limit of the analysis (3g/L) in all cases. Formic acid aided hot water extraction is a promising technique for extracting hemicellulose from woody biomass, while leaving a solid residue with low hemicellulose content, which can be delignified to culminate in the three main isolated lignocellulosic fractions: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of pectin extraction from banana peels with citric acid by using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Cavalcante, Fabio Lima; Pereira, Paulo Henrique F; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Mazzetto, Selma E; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-05-01

    A central composite design was used to determine effects of pH (2.0-4.5), extraction temperature (70-90 °C) and time (120-240 min) on the yield, degree of methoxylation (DM) and galacturonic acid content (GA) of pectins extracted from banana peels with citric acid. Changes in composition during the main steps of pectin extraction were followed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR was also used to determine DM and GA of pectins. Harsh temperature and pH conditions enhanced the extraction yield, but decreased DM. GA presented a maximum value at 83 °C, 190 min, and pH 2.7. The yield of galacturonic acid (YGA), which took into account both the extraction yield and the pectin purity, was improved by higher temperature and lower pH values. The optimum extraction conditions, defined as those resulting in a maximum YGA while keeping DM at a minimum of 51%, were: 87 °C, 160 min, pH 2.0.

  11. Bee Wax Propolis Extract as Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors for 304SS in Sulfuric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Femiana Gapsari; Rudy Soenoko; Agus Suprapto; Wahyono Suprapto

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition properties of bee wax propolis (BWP) extract on the 304SS in 0.5 M sulfuric acid were conducted using potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, and XRD. Quercetin (2-(3.4-dihydroxy phenyl)-3.5.7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one) was identified as the main compound in the BWP extract based on FTIR and HPLC analysis. The results showed that the inhibitor could retard the corrosion rate of 304SS in 0.5 M sulfuric acid which reached 97.29% and 91.42% at 2000 ppm based on potentiodynamic polari...

  12. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of oils from two cultivars of Cantaloupe extracted by supercritical fluid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, M.; Mariod, A.; Bagalkotkar, G.; Ling, H. S

    2010-07-01

    The effect of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) fractionation of three oil fractions (1st, 2nd, 3rd fraction) on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of oils from two cultivars of cantaloupe were investigated. Rock melon oil (RMO) and Golden Langkawi oil (GLO) were extracted using SFE and the major fatty acids for both cultivars were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. The SFA decreased from 15.78 to 14.14% in RMO 1st fraction, and MUFA decreased from 18.30 to 16.56% in RMO 2nd fraction, while PUFA increased from 65.9 to 69.30% in RMO 3rd fraction. On the other hand SFA decreased from 16.35 to 13.91% in GLO 1{sup s}t fraction, and MUFA decreased from 17.50 to 15.57% in GLO 2nd fraction, while PUFA increased from 66.15 to 70.52% in GLO 3rd fraction. The different fractions of the two oils showed high antioxidant activity in reducing the oxidation of {beta}-carotene in beta-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and the quenching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). (Author) 41 refs.

  13. Comparison of different extraction methods for giberelic acid obtention from corn (Zea mays L. germinated seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Rivera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is the second most cultivated cereal in the world and is use as raw material for different kind of industries. To date no reports about obtaining giberellic acid (GA3 from corn have been found. In the present study two methods for extracting solid samples were evaluated: lixiviation and dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE, for obtaining giberellic acid from corn germinated seeds. In lixiviation, the physical method (agitation and sonication, solvent, and time were the parameters analyzed; while in DSASE the variables were: solvent, flow, and time. The most efficient technique was DSASE employing acetonitrile-formic acid 5% (80:20, v:v as solvent at a flow of 0.4 mL/min for 25,0 min, obtaining a concentration 30.012 mg/kg giberellic acid. The identification and quantification were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with diode array detector (DAD. These results showed that dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE is a novel and powerful alternative technique for obtaining giberellic acid, because of its high efficiency; low solvent consumption and simplicity in obtaining the extract.

  14. Extraction of uranium from tailings by sulfuric acid leaching with oxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Li, Mi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Huang, Chunmei; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2017-06-01

    Recovery of uranium have been performed by leaching uranium-containing tailings in sulfuric acid system with the assistance of HF, HClO4, H2O2 and MnO2. The effect of reagent dosage, sulfuric acid concentration, Liquid/solid ratio, reaction temperature and particle size on the leaching of uranium were investigated. The results show that addiction of HF, HClO4, H2O2 and MnO2 significantly increased the extraction of uranium under 1M sulphuric acid condition and under the optimum reaction conditions a dissolution fraction of 85% by HClO4, 90% by HF, 95% by H2O2 can be reached respectively. The variation of technological mineralogy properites of tailings during leaching process show that the assistants can break gangue effectively. These observations suggest that optimum oxidants could potentially influence the extraction of uranium from tailings even under dilute acid condition.

  15. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN CARNAÚBA SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WELLINSON GADÊLHA GUIMARÃES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the composition of fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds of carnaúba ( Copernicia prunifera (Miller H. E. Moore, an important palm species native to Northeastern Brazil. After extracting the crude oil, the physico - chemical characteristics (density, refraction index, pH, acidity and saponi- fication index were registered and the chemical composition of the fatty acids was determined by gas chroma- tography (GC - FID. The predominance of saturated fatty acids does not make carnaúba seed oil a promising alternative for the food industry, and the small yield obtained (approx. 5% may constitute a limiting factor for commercial exploitation, but carnauba seed oil could potentially be used in the production of biofuels, cosmet- ics and detergents.

  16. A novel procedure for total nucleic acid extraction from small numbers of Eimeria species oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Galip; Dale, Colin; Maudlin, Ian; Morgan, Kenton

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed in an attempt to extract genomic DNA from a small number of Eimerian oocysts. Sonication, ammonia, ethanol and lysozyme were all found to be unsuitable for the digestion of Eimeria oocysts. The chemicals and enzyme given were not capable of either disruption or digestion of oocysts for nucleic acid extraction. They had the capability of penetrating the oocyst wall but could not break-up the oocyst wall. It is impossible to obtain nucleic acid from Eimeria oocysts if the wall is not broken-up. In this study oocyst disruption was achieved using a simple but highly effective treatment regime involving sodium hypochlorite treatment, osmotic shock and proteinase K digestion. Following the disruption of the oocyst walls, a commercially available nucleic acid purification kit (Wizard DNA Purification Kit, Promega) can be used to prepare high quality nucleic acid.

  17. One-stop genomic DNA extraction by salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongwu; Kadam, Ulhas S; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-11-15

    Salicylic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared via a modified one-step synthesis and used for a one-stop extraction of genomic DNA from mammalian cells. The synthesized magnetic particles were used for magnetic separation of cells from the media by nonspecific binding of the particles as well as extraction of genomic DNA from the lysate. The quantity and quality were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. The entire process of extraction and isolation can be completed within 30 min. Compared with traditional methods based on centrifugation and filtration, the established method is fast, simple, reliable, and environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. New Environment-Friendly Approach for Bastnasite Metallurgic Treatment (I): Extraction of Tetravalent Cerium from Sulphuric Acid Medium with Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhaowu; Zhao Na; Long Zhiqi; Li Dedong; Cui Dali; Zhang Guocheng

    2005-01-01

    The extraction of cerium(IV) from sulphuric acid medium with Di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid(DEHPA) was studied. The influence of sulphate ion, acidity, extractant concentration as well as the presence of fluoride ion on the extraction of Ce(IV) was investigated, and the extraction mechanism was also discussed. The results show that sulphate ion can inhibit the extraction of Ce(IV) significantly due to its complexation with Ce(IV). Fluoride ion can enhance Ce(IV) extraction dramatically by the formation of CeF22+ and less amount of CeF3+ which can almost be extracted completely. Nevertheless, in the case as F/Ce(mole ratio) in the initial aqueous phase is approximately more than 1.5, the precipitate will be formed and the extraction can not be progressed smoothly.

  19. Quinic acid is a biologically active component of the Uncaria tomentosa extract C-Med 100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, Christina; Lindgren, Hanna; Pero, Ronald W; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that the C-Med 100 extract of the plant Uncaria tomentosa induces prolonged lymphocyte half life and hence increased spleen cell number in mice receiving the extract in their drinking water. Further, the extract induces cell proliferation arrest and inhibits activation of the transcriptional regulator nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in vitro. We now report that mice exposed to quinic acid (QA), a component of this extract, had significantly increased number of spleen cells, thus recapitulating the in vivo biological effect of C-Med 100 exposure. Commercially supplied QA (H(+) form) did not, however, inhibit cell proliferation in vitro, while the ammonia-treated QA (QAA) was a potent inhibitor. Both QA and QAA inhibited NF-kappaB activity in exposed cells at similar concentrations. Thus, our present data identify QA as a candidate component for both in vivo and in vitro biological effects of the C-Med 100 extract.

  20. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesis of Lactobacillus in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Ngan, Tran Thi Kim; Nu, Nguyen Thi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    This research focused on the synthesis of GABA by Lactobacillus bacteria in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract without adding glutamate. Two strains of Lactobacillus were investigated into capacity of GABA synthesis. Result indicates that, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 exhibited the higher capacity of GABA synthesis in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract than that of Lactobacillus plantarum VTCC - B - 890. Total dissolved solid (TDS), free amino acids (AA) and reducing sugar (RS) contents in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract with two strains also significantly decreased. At pH 5 and 9 %w/w of TDS content in defatted rice bran extract, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 accumulated 2,952 ppm of GABA in 24 hours of fermentation. The result implies that fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 can be applied for GABA production from defatted rice bran extract.

  1. Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Mild Steel in Acid Medium Using Musa Acuminata Fruit Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gunavathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition effect of unripe fruit peel extract of Musa acuminata (Cultivar variety – Nendran (MNP on corrosion of mild steel in 1 N HCl has been investigated by weight loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS with various concentrations of the extract. The effect of temperature on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in the temperature range of 30°C – 80°C was carried out. The results indicate that MNP extract act as an effective inhibitor in the acid environment and is of mixed type inhibitor having efficiency as high as 96% at 2% inhibitor concentration. The inhibition efficiency of MNP extract increases with the increase of concentration but decreases with the increase in temperature. The inhibitor achieves its inhibition by physical adsorption of nutrients of the peel extract on the surface of the mild steel. The experimental data revealed that the adsorption occurred according to the Langmuir and Temkin adsorption isotherm.

  2. Extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid using the selective inclusion complex method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Parisa; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Lycopene, a precursor of β-carotene with well-known antioxidant activity and powerful health properties, can be found in many natural products such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), watermelon, red pepper, and papaya. Many separation methods have been reported for extracting lycopene from its sources. The inclusion complex is an effective method for extraction and purification of organic chemicals. This procedure has 2 main components: host and guest molecules. In this study, lycopene (guest) was extracted from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid, the inclusive agent (host). The molecular structure of the extracted lycopene was then confirmed by (1) HNMR and its purity was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods, in comparison with a standard product. The results indicated that the proposed separation method was very promising and could be used for the extraction and purification of lycopene from tomato paste.

  3. Kinetic study on reactive extraction for chiral separation of phenylsuccinic acid enantiomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of the extraction of phenylsuccinic acid(PSA) enantiomers by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin(HP-β-CD) in a modified Lewis cell was studied,in which HP-β-CD dissolved in 0.1 mol L-1 NaH2PO4/H3PO4 buffer solution(pH = 2.5) was selected as the chiral extractant.PSA enantiomers were extracted from organic phase to aqueous phase in the extraction module.The theory of extraction accompanied by a chemical reaction has been used to obtain the intrinsic kinetics of this extraction module.The different parameters affecting the extraction rate such as agitation speed,interfacial area,initial concentration of PSA enantiomers in organic phase as well as HP-β-CD concentration in aqueous phase were separately studied.The experimental results demonstrate that the extraction reactions are fast.The reactions were found to be first order with respect to PSA and second order with respect to HP-β-CD with forward rate constants of 3.4 × 10-2 m6 mol-2 s-1 for R-PSA and 9.96 × 10?3 m6 mol-2 s-1 for S-PSA.These data will be useful in the design of extraction processes.

  4. Sequential Extraction of Aluminum and Iron from Acidic Soils by Chemical Selective Dissolution Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEJIZHENG; A.VIOLANTE; 等

    1998-01-01

    Potassium chloride, Na-pyrophosphate,CuCl2,NH4-oxalate,dithionit-citrate-bicarbonate(DCB) and Na-citrate solutions were employed to etract aluminum(Al) and iron(Fe) sequentially and separately from 15 acidic soils located at the Mangshan Mountains,Hunan Province,China,Many evidences showed that separate pyrophosphate extracted mainly KCl-extractable Al,organo-Al complexes and some inorganic Al compounds,whereas separate CuCl2 extracted KCl-extractable Al and some organo-Al complexes,CuCl2 extracted much less amounts of Al than pyrophosphate did from the soils .Separate oxalate did not extract all KCl-pyrophosphate-CuCl2-oxalate seuentially extractable Al and Fe ,Also,separate DCB did not extract all KCl-pyrophosphate-CuCl2-oxalate-DCB sequentially extractable Al. The forms of Al extacted by oxalate and DCB from the soils were majorly noncrystalline.The interlayered materials of 1.4-nm intergrade minerals of the soils were attributed mainly to hydroxy Al polymers.

  5. Microwave Acid Extraction to Analyze K and Mg Reserves in the Clay Fraction of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Extraction of K and Mg with boiling 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an open system for predicting K and Mg uptake by plants is a method of low reproducibility. The aim of this study was to compare the extraction capacity of different acid methods relative to hydrofluoric acid extraction for K and Mg. A further objective was to develop a chemical extraction method using a closed system (microwave for nonexchangeable and structural forms of these nutrients in order to replace the traditional method of extraction with boiling HNO3 on a hot plate (open system. The EPA 3051A method can be used to estimate the total content of K in the clay fraction of soils developed from carbonate and phyllite/mica schist rocks. In the clay fraction of soils developed from basalt, recoveries of K by the EPA 3051A (pseudo-total method were higher than for the EPA 3052 (total hydrofluoric extraction method. The relative abundance of K and Mg for soils in carbonate rocks, phyllite/mica schist, granite/gneiss, and basalt determined by aqua regia digestion is unreliable. The method using 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an closed system (microwave showed potential for replacing the classical method of extraction of nonexchangeable forms of K (boiling 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an open system - hot plate and reduced the loss of Si by volatilization.

  6. Fatty Acid Characteristics of Isochrysis galbana Lipids Extracted Using a Microwave-Assisted Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipids were extracted from Isochrysis galbana using a microwave-assisted method accompanied by various types of organic solvents. The effects of organic solvent type and microwave input energy on the fatty acid characteristics of the extracted lipids and their biodiesel product were investigated. Variations in the characteristics of the lipids extracted using a combination of n-hexane and iso-propanol solvents in both emulsion and direct mixtures were also compared. The experimental results showed that greater quantities of Isochrysis galbana lipids, and fatty acid methyl esters transesterified from those lipids, were extracted when using microwave irradiation with an organic solvent mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol in a 2:1 volumetric ratio than when using either n-hexane or isopropanol as the sole solvent. A greater quantity of Isochrysis galbana lipids was extracted when an emulsion of isopropanol solvent evenly dispersed in the continuous phase of n-hexane solvent was used than when a direct mixture of the two solvents was used. In addition, the quantity of lipids extracted from the dried Isochrysis galbana powder with the assistance of microwave irradiation was 9.08 wt% greater than when using traditional Soxhlet extraction without microwave irradiation.

  7. Helleborus purpurascens-Amino Acid and Peptide Analysis Linked to the Chemical and Antiproliferative Properties of the Extracted Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Segneanu, Adina-Elena; Grozescu, Ioan; Cziple, Florentina; Berki, Daniel; Damian, Daniel; Niculite, Cristina Mariana; Florea, Alexandru; Leabu, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    .... In this work, an alcoholic extract of Helleborus purpurascens (family Ranunculaceae) was investigated for the identification of amino acids and peptides with putative antiproliferative effects...

  8. A study of the trypanocidal activity of triterpene acids isolated from Miconia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Crevelin, Eduardo J; Arantes, Glenda M; Crotti, Antonio E Miller; Andrade e Silva, Márcio L; Furtado, Niege A J Cardoso; Albuquerque, Sérgio; Ferreira, Daniele Da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Triterpene acids, including ursolic acid (1), urjinolic acid (4) and oleanoic acid (5) along with a mixture of 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid (2) and maslic acid (3) were isolated from methylene chloride extracts of the Miconia sellowiana and M. ligustroides species and their activities against the trypomastigote blood forms of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated. The potassium salt derivative of ursolic acid (1a) was also tested. The in vitro assays showed that compounds 1, 5 and 1a were the most active (IC(50) 17.1 microm, 12.8 microm and 8.9 microm, respectively). In contrast, a mixture of 2 plus 3, that exhibit a hydroxyl at C-2 and C-3, is much less potent than a mixture of 1 and 5 (IC(50) 48.5 microm and 11.8 microm, respectively). In the same manner, compound 4, that differs from 5 by two additional hydroxyl groups (at C-2 and C-23) displayed weak trypanocidal activity (IC(50) 76.3 microm) when compared with the other triterpenes. These results suggest that the free hydroxyl at C-3 and the polarity of C-28 are the most influential structural features for determining the in vitro trypanocidal activity of triterpenes. In vivo assays were also undertaken for the most active compounds 1, 1a and the mixture of 1 plus 5. The most significant reduction in parasite number in the parasitemic peak were obtained for compound 1 and its salt derivative 1a (75.7% and 70.4%, respectively). Moreover, the survival time was increased for all the treated animals.

  9. HPTLC-densitometry determination of triterpenic acids in Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis and Syzygium aromaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Renata; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz; Sokołowska-Krzaczek, Anna; Pietrzak, Wioleta; Szczodra, Aleksandra; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    Spices play an important role in the chemoprevention and they can be a rich source of biologically active compounds such as triterpenes in the human diet. A method based on high performance thin-layer chromatography combined with densitometry for determination of ursolic and oleanolic acids in some common spices was elaborated. The prechromatographic derivatization with 1% of iodine solution was used to enable simultaneous analysis of these triterpenes. The extracts were separated on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with use of mobile phase consisting of toluene-petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-acetonitrile 5: 5: 1: 0.3 (v/v/v/v). After drying, the plates were sprayed with 10% (v/v) ethanol solution of sulfuric acid (VI) and heated to 120 degrees C for 3 min. Quantification was performed in fluorescence/reflectance mode at a wavelength of 400 nm using a computer-controlled densitometer Desaga CD 60.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Molecular Imprinting Polymer Microspheres of Cinnamic Acid: Extraction of Cinnamic Acid from Spiked Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Leong Joke Chow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular imprinting technique is used to create the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs with higher binding capacity towards the template. In this research precipitation polymerization method with noncovalent approach was used to synthesize imprinted polymer microspheres. The polymerization reaction was conducted in a flask containing acetonitrile as a porogen, cinnamic acid as a template (T, acrylic acid (AA as a monomer, divinylbenzene (DVB as a cross-linker, and azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The polymer particles were characterized by using SEM and FTIR. The rebinding efficiency was conducted by batch binding assay and the results were monitored by using HPLC. The batch binding results suggested MIP1 (T : AA : DVB, 1 : 6 : 20 molar ratio is most suitable composition for the rebinding of cinnamic acid. The highly selective polymer (MIP1 was used for the extraction of cinnamic acid from human plasma. The extraction efficiency of imprinted polymer of cinnamic acid from spiked plasma was above 75%.

  11. The Effect of Various Acids on Properties of Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) Extracted from Rice Husk (RH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Hanani, A. S.; Zuliahani, A.; Nawawi, W. I.; Razif, N.; Rozyanty, A. R.

    2017-05-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was successfully extracted from rice husk (RH) via acid hydrolysis process using nitric acid (HNO3) in comparison with sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). MCC-RH extracted using HNO3 produced the highest percentage yield at 83.5% as compared to H2SO4 and HCl at 80.6% and 81.8% respectively. Analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy affirmed the successive elimination of non-cellulosic material from RH cellulose resulting highly purified MCC-RH. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis showed MCC-RH treated with HCl gives the highest crystallinity index value of 54.2% while HNO3 and H2SO4 produced comparable results of 52.4% and 49.7% respectively. The results indicate successive extraction of MCC-RH using HNO3 that has great potential to replace strong acid such as H2SO4 and HCl in acid hydrolysis.

  12. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saúl García-Pérez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P, temperature (T, and co-solvent (CoS, four treatments (T were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min, followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min. Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0, followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c, α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3 and stearic acid (C18:0 differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica.

  13. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, J Saúl; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; Arévalo-Gallegos, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2016-09-12

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (CoS), four treatments (T) were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min), followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min). Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c), α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) and stearic acid (C18:0) differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica.

  14. Comparison of solvent mixtures for pressurized solvent extraction of soil fatty acid biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannotte, Richard; Hamel, Chantal; Jabaji, Suha; Whalen, Joann K

    2008-10-19

    The extraction and transesterification of soil lipids into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) is a useful technique for studying soil microbial communities. The objective of this study was to find the best solvent mixture to extract soil lipids with a pressurized solvent extractor system. Four solvent mixtures were selected for testing: chloroform:methanol:phosphate buffer (1:2:0.8, v/v/v), chloroform:methanol (1:2, v/v), hexane:2-propanol (3:2, v/v) and acetone. Soils were from agricultural fields and had a wide range of clay, organic matter and microbial biomass contents. Total lipid fatty acid methyl esters (TL-FAMEs) were the extractable soil lipids identified and quantified with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection. Concentrations of TL-FAMEs ranged from 57.3 to 542.2 nmole g(-1) soil (dry weight basis). The highest concentrations of TL-FAMEs were extracted with chloroform:methanol:buffer or chloroform:methanol mixtures than with the hexane:2-propanol or acetone solvents. The concentrations of TL-FAMEs in chemical groups, including saturated, branched, mono- and poly-unsaturated and hydroxy fatty acids were assessed, and biological groups (soil bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi, saprophytic fungi and higher plants) was distinguished. The extraction efficiency for the chemical and biological groups followed the general trend of: chloroform:methanol:buffer> or =chloroform:methanol>hexane:2-propanol=acetone. Discriminant analysis revealed differences in TL-FAME profiles based on the solvent mixture and the soil type. Although solvent mixtures containing chloroform and methanol were the most efficient for extracting lipids from the agricultural soils in this study, soil properties and the lipid groups to be studied should be considered when selecting a solvent mixture. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of soil lipid extraction with hexane:2-propanol or acetone in a pressurized solvent extraction system.

  15. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present.

  16. Elemental and spectroscopic characterization of fractions of an acidic extract of oil sands process water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D; Scarlett, A G; West, C E; Frank, R A; Gieleciak, R; Hager, D; Pureveen, J; Tegelaar, E; Rowland, S J

    2013-11-01

    'Naphthenic acids' (NAs) in petroleum produced water and oil sands process water (OSPW), have been implicated in toxicological effects. However, many are not well characterized. A method for fractionation of NAs of an OSPW was used herein and a multi-method characterization of the fractions conducted. The unfractionated OSPW acidic extract was characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and an esterified extract by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV) absorption spectroscopy and by comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography-MS (GCxGC-MS). Methyl esters were fractionated by argentation solid phase extraction (Ag(+) SPE) and fractions eluting with: hexane; diethyl ether: hexane and diethyl ether, examined. Each was weighed, examined by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV, GC-MS and GCxGC-MS (both nominal and high resolution MS). The ether fraction, containing sulfur, was also examined by GCxGC-sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GCxGC-SCD). The major ions detected by ESI-MS in the OSPW extract were assigned to alicyclic and aromatic 'O2' acids; sulfur was also present. Components recovered by Ag(+) SPE were also methyl esters of alicyclic and aromatic acids; these contained little sulfur or nitrogen. FTIR spectra showed that hydroxy acids and sulfoxides were absent or minor. UV spectra, along with the C/H ratio, further confirmed the aromaticity of the hexane:ether eluate. The more minor ether eluate contained further aromatics and 1.5% sulfur. FTIR spectra indicated free carboxylic acids, in addition to esters. Four major sulfur compounds were detected by GCxGC-SCD. GCxGC-high resolution MS indicated these were methyl esters of C18 S-containing, diaromatics with ≥C3 carboxylic acid side chains. Copyright © 2013 Crown Copyright and Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the Amino-Acid Content in Pharmacopuncture Extracts Taken from a Scorpion's Body and from Its Tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jin-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the amino-acid compositions of pharmacopuncture extracts taken from the body and from the tail of Buthus martensii Karsch, which are frequently prescribed in Oriental medicine. Methods: Amino acids in hot water and 70% ethanol extracts taken from the scorpion’s whole body and from its tail were screened by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The experiments were performed with linearity, precision and accuracy. Results: The results of the amino-acid-composition analysis showed that the Buthus martensii Karsch extracts contained various amino acids such as aspartic acid, histidine, alanine, tyrosine, and cystine. The amino-acid analysis showed that the hot water extract was more beneficial than the ethanol extract, except for histidine. The amino acids from the tail and the body of the scorpion were compared, and the concentration of aspartic acid in the extract from the scorpion’s tail was two times that found in the extract from its body. The results of validation experiments were all satisfactory. Conclusion: Studies on the ingredients in extracts from a scorpion other than buthotoxin may demonstrate that the antiepileptic efficacy, anticancer activity, antithrombotic action and analgesic effect are enhanced. Using only the tail of the scorpion when pharmacopuncture is dispensed may be beneficial because the extracts from the tail of the scorpion have higher potency than those from the whole body.

  18. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Acidic Medium by Aqueous Extract of Tridax procumbens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ilayaraja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency (IE of an aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens L. in controlling corrosion of mild steel has been investigated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor at different time interval at room temperature. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with different time interval and different acid concentration. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behavior of Tridax procumbens L. is greater in sulphuric acid than hydrochloric acid medium. So Tridax procumbens L. can be used as a good inhibitor for preventing mild steel material.

  19. Enrichment and separation of chlorogenic acid from the extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng by macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyan; Dong, Beitao; Yuan, Xiaofan; Kuang, Qirong; Zhao, Qingsheng; Yang, Mei; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A simple and efficient chromatographic method for separation of chlorogenic acid from Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng extract was developed. The adsorption properties of nine macroporous resins were evaluated. NKA-II resin showed much better adsorption/desorption properties. The adsorption of chlorogenic acid on NKA-II resin at 25°C was well fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out on columns packed with NKA-II resin to optimize the separation process. The content of chlorogenic acid in the product increased to 22.17%, with a recovery yield of 82.41%.

  20. EXTRACTION OF CITRIC ACID FROM FERMENTATION BROTH USING ION—EXCHANGE METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuZuozhen; WangXiangyang; 等

    1998-01-01

    A number of ion-exchange resins were tested on their capacity to adsorb citric acid,among them resin 335,d315, Amberlite IRA-35 and IRA-68 exhibited higher adsorption capacity.We chose resin 335 and D315 to be used for extraction of citric acid from fermentation broth,followed by elution with 10% ammonia liquor,decoloration with K-15 carbon and removal of ammonia with resin 732,converting citrate of free citric acid with a concentration of 10% and an amount of readily carbonizable substance meeting the GB 8269-87 standard.

  1. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  2. Absorption spectral analysis of proteins and free amino acids in Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting body extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyshyn, S.; Gorshynska, I.; Guminetsky, S. G.

    2002-02-01

    The paper deals with the results of spectrophotometric studies of the extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies, grown in natural conditions in different habitats of Chernivtsy region, in the spectral interval of 215 - 340 nm. It is shown that the samples reveal considerable difference both in free amino acid content and reserved protein content of albumins, globulins, prolamins, glutelins.

  3. Solvent-extractable lipids in an acid andic forest soil; variations with dept and season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naafs, Derck Ferdinand Werner; Bergen, P.F. van; Boogert, S.J.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    2004-01-01

    Total lipid extracts from an acid andic soil profile located on Madeira Island (Portugal) were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The profile was covered mainly by grass. Bulk soil characteristics determined included soil pH (H2O) ranging from 4.5 to 4.0 and TOC

  4. Nucleic acid and protein extraction from electropermeabilized E. coli cells on a microfluidic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matos, T.; Senkbeil, Silja; Mendonça, A.

    2013-01-01

    technique has been developed which is based on exposing E. coli cells to low voltages to allow extraction of nucleic acids and proteins. The flow-through electropermeability chip used consists of a microfluidic channel with integrated gold electrodes that promote cell envelope channel formation at low...

  5. Lactic Acid Extraction and Mass Transfer Characteristics in Slug Flow Capillary Microreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti,; Winkelman, Jozef G.M.; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero J.; Yue, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Capillary microreactors operated under the slug flow regime were investigated for the separation of lactic acid from the aqueous phase using liquid–liquid reactive extraction. The experiments were performed at a 1:1 flow ratio of the aqueous to organic phases in a setup consisting of an inlet Y-type

  6. TWOPOT: a computer model of the two-pot extractive distillation concept for nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.; Holland, W.D.; Counce, R.M.; Beckwith, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    A mathematical model, TWOPOT, of the ''two-pot'' extractive distillation concept for nitric acid concentration has been developed. Prediction from a computer simulation using this model shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. This model is recommended for use in the design of large-scale, similar-purpose equipment. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Umami taste amino acids produced by hydrolyzing extracted protein from tomato seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for extracting protein to prepare umami taste amino acids from defatted tomato seed meal (DTSM) which is a by-product of tomato processing. Papain was used as an enzyme for the hydrolysis of DTSM. The particle size distribution of DTSM, protein concentration and fr...

  8. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand

    2016-03-01

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913μg/g) was significantly higher than the whole (664-715μg/g) and refined wheat (109-112μg/g) flour samples by both extraction methods as analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The recovery of phenolic acids from the spiked wheat bran sample was higher than from either the whole or refined wheat flour samples by both extraction procedures. The recovery of TPA (74-89%) from whole and refined wheat flours by MAE was significantly lower than that of UAE (90-98%). This difference was attributed to the gelatinization of starch present in the wheat flours caused by MAE. Gelatinization reduces the extractability of phenolic acids from wheat flour samples. Furthermore, both spectrometric assays (total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacities) showed similar trend as compared to LC-MS analyses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  10. BRIONONIC ACID FROM THE HEXANE EXTRACT OF Sandoricum koetjape MERR STEM BARK (meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiran Tukiran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An oleane-type triterpenoid, briononic acid was isolated from hexane extract of the stem bark of Sandoricum koetjape Merr. (Meliaceae. This structure had been established based on spectroscopic data (UV, IR, and NMR and by comparison with spectroscopic data of related compound that had been reported.   Keywords: Meliaceae, Oleane, Sandoricum koetjape Merr., Triterpenoid

  11. Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

  12. The influence of tributyl phosphate on molybdenum extraction with solutions of dibutyl phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletskiy, N. D.; Zilberman, B. Ya.; Fedorov, Yu. S.; Khonina, I. V.; Kukharev, D. N.

    2006-01-01

    Comparative investigations were carried out to study the influence of TBP on Mo extraction by HDBP solutions in xylene and TBP in xylene. The dependences of DMo on HNO3 concentration for both HDBP and D2EHPA have minima at about 3 mol/L HNO3. This shows similar extraction properties of HDBP and D2EHPA. The presence of TBP in the solvent results in the reduction of Mo extraction and in an increase in the formal slopes of the falling and rising parts of the logDMo — log[HNO3] curve from -0.5 and +2 up to -2 and +4. Solvent loading curves with Mo show that in the absence of TBP a molybdenum solvate with two molecules of HDBP is formed at low acidity. Anomalous increase in the maximum solvent loading in the presence of TBP is caused by the ability of TBP to extract Mo from oversaturated low acidity solutions following the acidic mechanism. A molybdenum solvate with two HDBP molecules and one HNO3 molecule is possibly formed at high acidity. A flowsheet for Mo recovery from HLW with HDBP-TBP solvent was tested in centrifugal contactors.

  13. RNA preservation agents and nucleic acid extraction method bias perceived bacterial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann McCarthy

    Full Text Available Bias is a pervasive problem when characterizing microbial communities. An important source is the difference in lysis efficiencies of different populations, which vary depending on the extraction protocol used. To avoid such biases impacting comparisons between gene and transcript abundances in the environment, the use of one protocol that simultaneously extracts both types of nucleic acids from microbial community samples has gained popularity. However, knowledge regarding tradeoffs to combined nucleic acid extraction protocols is limited, particularly regarding yield and biases in the observed community composition. Here, we evaluated a commercially available protocol for simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA, which we adapted for freshwater microbial community samples that were collected on filters. DNA and RNA yields were comparable to other commonly used, but independent DNA and RNA extraction protocols. RNA protection agents benefited RNA quality, but decreased DNA yields significantly. Choice of extraction protocol influenced the perceived bacterial community composition, with strong method-dependent biases observed for specific phyla such as the Verrucomicrobia. The combined DNA/RNA extraction protocol detected significantly higher levels of Verrucomicrobia than the other protocols, and those higher numbers were confirmed by microscopic analysis. Use of RNA protection agents as well as independent sequencing runs caused a significant shift in community composition as well, albeit smaller than the shift caused by using different extraction protocols. Despite methodological biases, sample origin was the strongest determinant of community composition. However, when the abundance of specific phylogenetic groups is of interest, researchers need to be aware of the biases their methods introduce. This is particularly relevant if different methods are used for DNA and RNA extraction, in addition to using RNA protection agents only for RNA

  14. Simultaneous determination of six triterpenic acids in some Chinese medicinal herbs using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongliang; Li, Guoliang; Liu, Shucheng; Liu, Di; Chen, Guang; Hu, Na; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2015-03-25

    A novel analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of six triterpenic acids using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) follow by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Six triterpenic acids (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, maslinic acid, betulonic acid and corosolic acid) were extracted by UA-DLLME using chloroform and acetone as the extraction and disperser solvents, respectively. After the extraction and nitrogen flushing, the extracts were rapidly derivatized with 2-(12,13-dihydro-7H-dibenzo[a,g]carbazol-7-yl)ethyl4-methylbenzenesulfonate. The main experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency and derivatization yield were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken design (BBD). The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.95-1.36 ng mL(-1) and 3.17-4.55 ng mL(-1), respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the method has been successfully applied for the analysis of triterpenic acids in six different traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.

  15. Bee Wax Propolis Extract as Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors for 304SS in Sulfuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femiana Gapsari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition properties of bee wax propolis (BWP extract on the 304SS in 0.5 M sulfuric acid were conducted using potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, and XRD. Quercetin (2-(3.4-dihydroxy phenyl-3.5.7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one was identified as the main compound in the BWP extract based on FTIR and HPLC analysis. The results showed that the inhibitor could retard the corrosion rate of 304SS in 0.5 M sulfuric acid which reached 97.29% and 91.42% at 2000 ppm based on potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurement, respectively. The inhibition efficiency decreased with increasing temperature. The inhibition mechanism of BWP extract on the 304SS was physisorption and obeyed Temkin adsorption isotherm equation. The thin protective layer on the 304SS surface was confirmed by XRD.

  16. Extracts of Edible Plants Inhibit Pancreatic Lipase, Cholesterol Esterase and Cholesterol Micellization, and Bind Bile Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julnaryn Intrawangso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of edible plants with more effective ability to inhibit fat digestion and absorption has recently been explored for possible treatment of hyperlipidaemia. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of nine edible plants on the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and pancreatic cholesterol esterase activities, as well as the inhibition of cholesterol micelle formation, and bile acid binding. Our findings have shown strong pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of cholesterol micellization by mulberry leaf extract. Safflower extract was the most potent inhibitor of pancreatic cholesterol esterase. In addition, cat’s whiskers and safflower extracts had a potent bile acid binding activity. It is suggested that a daily intake of these edible plants may delay postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia and hypercholesterolaemia, and therefore may be applied for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  17. EXTRACTION AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ASCORBIC ACID FROM BANANA PEEL MUSA ACUMINATA ‘KEPOK’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Anwar Mohamad Said

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extraction of an antioxidant compound, which is ascorbic acid or vitamin C, from a banana peel using an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method. The type of banana used was Musa acuminata also known as “PisangKepok” in Malaysia. The investigation includes the effect of solvent/solid ratio (4.5, 5 g and 10  ml/g, sonication time (15, 30 and 45 mins and temperature variation (30 , 45  and 60oC on the extraction of ascorbic acid compounds from the banana peel to determine the best or optimum condition of the operation. Out of all extract samples analyzed by redox titration method using iodine solution, it was found that the highest yield was 0.04939 ± 0.00080 mg that resulted from an extraction at 30oC for 15 mins with 5 ml/g solvent-to-solute ratio.KEYWORDS:  Musa acuminata; ultrasound-assisted extraction; vitamin C; redox titration

  18. Liquid-liquid extraction of palladium(II) from nitric acid by bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulphoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, J.P. (Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay 400085 (India)); Singh, R.K.; Sawant, S.R.; Varadarajan, N. (Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay 400085 (India))

    1993-04-15

    The extraction of palladium(II) nitrate by bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulphoxide (BESO) was evaluated over a wide range of acidity, and BESO was shown to have a strong extraction ability toward this thiophilic 'soft' metal. Essentially quantitative extraction of trace and macro amounts of palladium is easily accomplished from about 8 M HNO 8 M HNO[sub 3] down to pH 2 solutions by 0.2 M BESO into toluene. Optimum conditions such as aqueous phase acidity, solvent, period of equilibration, aqueous to organic phase ratios, reagent concentration and strippant were established for the selective and reversible extraction and separation of palladium. Slope analyses applied to Pd(II) distribution experiments from nitrate solutions showed a predominant formation of the solvated organic phase complex Pd(NO[sub 3])[sub 2].2BESO. Recovery of the extractant from loaded palladium is easily accomplished by using sodium thiosulphate or a mixture of 2 M sodium carbonate+0.5 M ammonia solution. The extracted complex was characterized by elemental analysis and IR and UV-visible spectrometry, and its composition was confirmed to be Pd(NO[sub 3])[sub 2].2BESO

  19. Inhibitive action of some plant extracts on the corrosion of steel in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)]. E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Sidahmed, I.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); El-Zayady, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Saadawy, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    The effect of extracts of Chamomile (Chamaemelum mixtum L.), Halfabar (Cymbopogon proximus), Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), and Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants on the corrosion of steel in aqueous 1 M sulphuric acid were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process of steel occurs under activation control. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the plant extracts behave as mixed-type inhibitors. The corrosion rates of steel and the inhibition efficiencies of the extracts were calculated. The results obtained show that the extract solution of the plant could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in sulphuric acid media. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the plant extract up to a critical concentration. The inhibitive actions of plant extracts are discussed on the basis of adsorption of stable complex at the steel surface. Theoretical fitting of different isotherms, Langmuir, Flory-Huggins, and the kinetic-thermodynamic model, were tested to clarify the nature of adsorption.

  20. [Effects of extracts of Dragon's blood on fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix hyaluronic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Hui, Rui; Hu, Yongwu; Han, Yan; Guo, Shuzhong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Dragon' s blood extract on proliferation and secret extracellular matrix function of fibroblasts in vitro. Dragon' s blood was extracted by chloroform, acetoacetic ester, alcohol. Human fibroblast were cultured in vitro in media containing gradient dilutions of Dragon' s blood extracts (0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20 mg/ml) , which was followed by cell proliferation assessed with MTT assay on 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 h. Under the optimal concentration, the cell growth curves were drawn and the flow cytometry (FCM) was used to determine the changes of cell cycle. On 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 h, the concentration of hyaluronic acid in the supernatant of fibroblast culture was measured by radioimmunoassay. 0.2-2 mg/ml Dragon' s blood extracts enhanced the proliferation of fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. 2 mg/ml was the optimal dilution of Dragon's blood extract, and it increased the ratio of S cells in cell cycle [(25.80 ± 3.10)%] than control group [(7.50 ± 0.70)%, P Dragon's blood group, concentration of Hyaluronic acid secreted by fibroblasts gradually increased, but were less than control (P Dragon's blood acetoacetic ester extract improved the proliferation of cultured human fibroblasts in vitro, might be beneficial to promote wound healing.

  1. Dispersion-free solvent extraction of Cr(VI) from acidic solutions using hollow fiber contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Francisco J; Alonso, Manuel; Lopez, Félix A; Lopez-Delgado, Aurora; Padilla, Isabel

    2009-10-15

    The use of dispersión-free solvent extraction, through microporous hydrophobic membrane has been investigated. The hollow fiber contactor, with surface area of 1.4 m2 was used to extract Cr(VI) (0.005-0.12 g/L from aqueous sulphuric acidic media (pH 2.5-4.2 +/- 0.05). Several parameters such as extractant concentration, feed acidity and metal concentration in the initial aqueous solution were investigated. Results revealed that 15% v/v Cyanex 923 in Exxsol D-100 as organic phase and feed in the 2.5 pH range, gave optimum extraction (exceeding 95%) of Cr(VI) and it was possible to strip using 10 g/L hydrazine sulfate (also with recoveries exceeding 95%). In this step, Cr(VI) is immediately reduced to the less hazardous Cr(III) state. Results also showed that under the various experimental conditions, chromium(VI) extraction was rate-controlled by the interfacial reaction on the membrane surface. Typical overall mass transfer coefficients values are 4.2 x 10(-5) and 3.6 x 10(-6) cm/s for extraction and stripping operations, respectively.

  2. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  3. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Ilievska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  4. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. PMID:27258290

  5. Altered nucleic acid partitioning during phenol extraction or silica adsorption by guanidinium and potassium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Lv, Jun; Ling, Liefeng; Wang, Peng; Song, Ping; Su, Ruirui; Zhu, Guoping

    2011-12-15

    Nucleic acids were found to partition into the phenol phase during phenol extraction in the presence of guanidinium at certain concentrations under acidic conditions. The guanidinium-concentration-dependent nucleic acid partitioning patterns were analogous to those of the nucleic acid adsorption/partitioning onto silica mediated by guanidinium, which implied that phenol and silica interact with nucleic acids through similar mechanisms. A competition effect was observed in which the nucleic acids that had partitioned into the phenol phase or onto the silica solid phase could be recovered to the aqueous phases by potassium in a molecular weight-salt concentration-dependent manner (the higher molecular weight nucleic acids needed higher concentrations of potassium to be recovered, and vice versa). Methods were developed based on these findings to isolate total RNA from Escherichia coli. By controlling the concentrations of guanidinium and potassium salts used before phenol extraction or silica adsorption, we can selectively recover total RNA but not the high molecular weight genomic DNA in the aqueous phases. Genomic DNA-free total RNA obtained by our methods is suitable for RT-PCR or other purposes. The methods can also be adapted to isolate small RNAs or RNA in certain molecular weight ranges by changing the salt concentrations used.

  6. THE STUDY OF HENNA LEAVES EXTRACT AS GREEN CORROSION INHIBITOR FOR MILD STEEL IN ACETIC ACID.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Chaudhari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitive action of henna leaves extract on mild steel in acetic acid solution have been investigated by weight-loss, A C impedence and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The study indicates that as acid concentration increases corrosion rate increases. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with increase in concentration of extract. The result obtained revealed that henna leaves extract act as efficient inhibitor. The adsorption of the henna leaves extract obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic process accompanied by an increase in entropy. Cathodic and anodic polarization curves show that henna leaves extract is a mixed-type inhibitor. Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}   ABSTRACT:    The inhibitive action of henna leaves extract on mild steel in acetic acid solution have been investigated by weight-loss, A C impedence and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The study indicates that as acid concentration increases corrosion rate increases. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with increase in concentration of extract. The result obtained revealed that henna leaves extract act as efficient inhibitor. The adsorption of the henna leaves

  7. Extractive distillation of nitric acid using the two-pot concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Counce, R.M.; Groenier, W.S.; Holland, W.D.; Jubin, R.T.; North, E.D.; Thompson, L.E. Jr.; Hebble, T.L.

    1982-12-01

    Experiments have confirmed the validity of a novel design for a nitric acid concentration system for use in shielded nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Current plans for producing the scrub solution for the IODOX process require the concentration and recycle of low strength (< 68.5 wt %) nitric acid sources. The described system utilizes extractive distillation with Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ as the solvent and features two pots: an extractive distillation pot in which a concentrated acid product is obtained by contacting the acid feed with the solvent and a solvent recovery pot in which the solvent is dehydrated and recovered for recycle. In these experiments, a concentrated product of 89 wt % nitric acid was produced from azeotropic feed. The available vapor-liquid equilibria data for the Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/-HNO/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O system has been empirically correlated, and a design methodology has been developed for the two-pot extractive distillation process.

  8. Antimicrobial Property of 2-Hydroxypropane-1,2,3-Tricarboxylic Acid Isolated from Citrus microcarpa Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seong Wei Lee; Musa Najiah

    2009-01-01

    This article described antimicrobial property and structure analysis of 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid isolated from the crude extract of Citrus microcarpa. Presently, there was no report on compound from C. microcarpa that possessed antimicrobial property against fish pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, in this study, the bioactive principle in C. microcarpa extract was isolated using thin layer chromatography. It's structure was elucidated based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data, such as proton NMR (1HNMR), correlation spectroscopy, carbon 13 NMR, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation data. This study showed that the bioactive compound isolated from C. microcarpa was 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid monohydrate. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of crude C. microcarpa extract and its bioactive component, 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid as well as commercially available synthetic 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, were determined against 18 isolates of Edwardsiella tarda and 7 bacterial reference strains, namely, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Citrobacterfreundii (ATCC 8090), Aeromonas hydrophila (ATCC 49140), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 35032), Streptococcus agalatiae (ATCC 13813), E. tarda (ATCC 15947), and Yersinia enterocolitica (ATCC 23715), using two-fold microdilution method. The MIC values for both the natural 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid and the synthetic one were ranging from 15.6 to 62.5 mg mL-1, whereas that of the crude extract was ranging from 7.8 to 31.3 mg mL-1. These findings showed that both the crude extract and its bioactive component might have potential as antimicrobial agent for aquaculture use.

  9. [Traditional and microwave acid extraction of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash and their redistribution of fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qun-hui

    2008-02-01

    HCl was used as extractant to leach Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash under traditional and microwave acid extraction conditions. The redistributions of heavy metals were determined using the sequential extraction procedure before and after extraction. The extraction efficiencies and speciation transformation of heavy metals were investigated. The result indicated that acid extraction can extract heavy metals effectively and extraction efficiencies of heavy metals following the sequence of Zn approximately Pb > Cd > Mn > Cu > Cr > Ni. The microwave energy can improve the extraction efficiencies evidently. By the treatment with 1 mol/L HCl, 80.17% of Cd, 15.05% of Cr, 58.25% of Cu, 62.42% of Mn, 8.88% of Ni, 89.25% of Pb and 93.03% of Zn were extracted under the condition of L/S at 25 mL/g fly ash, radiation time at 7 min. The results of sequential extraction procedure reveal that fractions of exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide decreased significantly after acid extraction and the remaining heavy metals mostly bound to residual form. Acid extraction process can increase the environmental safety of fly ash.

  10. Solvent extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous chloride medium using carbamoyl-carboxylic acid extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reyhaneh Safarbali; Mohammad Reza Yaftian; Abbasali Zamani

    2016-01-01

    N,N-dibutyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) and N,N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) were synthesized and characterized by con-ventional spectroscopic methods. These molecules were examined as extractants for extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III), as representative ions of light, middle and heavy rare earths, from aqueous chloride solutions. The analysis of the extraction equilibria revealed that the extracted species of lanthanum and europium ions by both of the extractants had a 1:3 metal to ligand ratio. It was suggested that erbium ions were extracted into the organic phase via the formation of Er(LI or I)2Cl complexes. The effect of the organic diluents on the extraction-separation efficiency of the studied rare earths by HLI and HLI was investigated by comparing the results obtained in dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride. Regardless to the diluent used, the order of selectivity presented by the investigated extractants was Er(III)>Eu(III)>La(III). It is noteworthy that, a significant enhancement in separation of the studied rare earths by the extractants was achieved in their competitive extraction experiments with respect to that obtained in single component extraction experiments. Applicability of the extractants for the removal of rare earth ions from spent Ni-MH batteries was tested by removal of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from simulated leach solution of such batteries.

  11. Gallic acid is the major component of grape seed extract that inhibits amyloid fibril formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanqin; Pukala, Tara L; Musgrave, Ian F; Williams, Danielle M; Dehle, Francis C; Carver, John A

    2013-12-01

    Many protein misfolding diseases, for example, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, are characterised by the accumulation of protein aggregates in an amyloid fibrillar form. Natural products which inhibit fibril formation are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In this study we have shown, using in vitro thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy, that grape seed extract inhibits fibril formation of kappa-casein (κ-CN), a milk protein which forms amyloid fibrils spontaneously under physiological conditions. Among the components of grape seed extract, gallic acid was the most active component at inhibiting κ-CN fibril formation, by stabilizing κ-CN to prevent its aggregation. Concomitantly, gallic acid significantly reduced the toxicity of κ-CN to pheochromocytoma12 cells. Furthermore, gallic acid effectively inhibited fibril formation by the amyloid-beta peptide, the putative causative agent in Alzheimer's disease. It is concluded that the gallate moiety has the fibril-inhibitory activity.

  12. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching...... for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains ... was tested. Five of the acids showed the ability to extract Ph from the soil fines in excess of the effect caused solely by pH changes. Addition of the acids, however, severely impeded EDR, hence promotion of EDR by combination with heterotrophic leaching was rejected. In contrast, enhancement of EDR...

  13. Selective extraction and determination of chlorogenic acid in fruit juices using hydrophilic magnetic imprinted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yi; Gao, Ruixia; Liu, Dechun; He, Gaiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Guo, Zengjun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the novel hydrophilic magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were developed for selective separation and determination of chlorogenic acid in aqueous fruit juices. The polymers were prepared by using amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as carriers, branched polyethyleneimine as functional monomer, and chlorogenic acid as template molecule. Branched polyethyleneimine with abundant active amino groups could react with template sufficiently, and its unique dendritic structure may amplify the number of the imprinted cavities. Meanwhile, it would improve the hydrophilicity of imprinted materials for attaining high extraction efficiency. The resulted polymers exhibit fast kinetics, high adsorption capacity, and favorable selectivity. In addition, the obtained nanoparticles were used as solid-phase extraction sorbents for selective isolation and determination of chlorogenic acid in peach, apple, and grape juices (0.92, 4.21, and 0.75 μg mL(-1), respectively).

  14. Constituintes químicos e avaliação do potencial antiinflamatório e antioxidante de extratos das folhas de Chomelia obtusa Cham. & Schltdl. (Rubiaceae Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities evaluation of the leaves extracts of Chomelia obtusa Cham. & Schltdl. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michely Pereira de Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Chomelia obtusa leaves led to the isolation of four triterpenes (3-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glycopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glycopyranosyl cincholic acid, and a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids, two flavonoids (3-O-β-D-glycopyranosyl quercetin, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-galactopyranoside] quercetin, besides bornesitol and a mixture of 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoyl quinic acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were evaluated. This is the first report on the chemical and biological investigation of the Chomelia genus.

  15. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities evaluation of the leaves extracts of Chomelia obtusa Cham. and Schltdl. (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos e avaliacao do potencial antiinflamatorio e antioxidante de extratos das folhas de Chomelia obtusa Cham. e Schltdl. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Michely Pereira de; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Costa, Willian Ferreira da; Vidotti, Gentil Jose; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mhsarragiotto@uem.br; Souza, Maria Conceicao de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Chomelia obtusa leaves led to the isolation of four triterpenes (3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl-28-O-{beta}-D-glycopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl-28-O-{beta}-D-glycopyranosyl cincholic acid, and a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids), two flavonoids (3-O-{beta}-D-glycopyranosyl quercetin, 3-O-[{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}6)-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside] quercetin), besides bornesitol and a mixture of 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoyl quinic acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were evaluated. This is the first report on the chemical and biological investigation of the Chomelia genus. (author)

  16. Recent Progress in the Development of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Soluble Metal Ion Extractants: Aggregation, Extraction, and Solubility Properties of Silicon-Substituted Alkylenediphosphonic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Mark L.; McAlister, Daniel R.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Zalupski, Peter R.; Dzilawa, Julie A.; Barrans, Richard E.; Hess, J.N.; Rubas, Audris V.; Chiarizia, Renato; Lubbers, Christopher M.; Scurto, Aaron M.; Brennecke, Joan F.; Herlinger, Albert W.

    2003-09-11

    Partially esterified alkylenediphosphonic acids (DPAs) have been shown to be effective reagents for the extraction of actinide ions from acidic aqueous solution into conventional organic solvents. Efforts to employ these compounds in supercritical fluid extraction have been hampered by their modest solubility in unmodified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). In an effort to design DPAs that are soluble in SC-CO2, a variety of silicon-substituted alkylenediphosphonic acids have been prepared and characterized, and their behavior compared with that of conventional alkyl-substituted reagents. Silicon substitution is shown to enhance the CO2-philicity of the reagents, while other structural features, in particular, the number of methylene groups bridging the phosphorus atoms of the extractant, are shown to exert a significant influence on their aggregation and extraction properties. The identification of DPAs combining desirable extraction properties with adequate solubility in SC-CO2 is shown to be facilitated by the application of molecular connectivity indices.

  17. Relevance of a perchloric acid extraction scheme to determine mineral and organic phosphorus in swine slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumer, Marie-Line; Béline, Fabrice; Spérandio, Mathieu; Morel, Christian

    2008-03-01

    To increase the phosphorus recycling potential from swine slurry, mineral phosphorus products which could be used as fertilizers should be obtained and new processes need to be investigated. A routine method is needed to better evaluate the dissolved and solid mineral phosphorus in swine slurry. Cold perchloric acid extraction method previously developed for wastewater or sludge analysis was adapted. Ionic chromatography was used to measure orthophosphate in extracts. Only one extraction step was needed to distinguish between mineral and organic phosphorus in slurry. Reproducibility of the method was high (less than 5% of variation on the measured fractions). Selectivity was assessed by adding several organic and mineral phosphorus sources in the slurry. Cold perchloric extraction followed by ionic chromatography was very selective in quantifying both the mineral and organic forms of phosphorus in swine slurry.

  18. Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Antihypertensive Properties of Echinacea purpurea Flower Extract and Caffeic Acid Derivatives Using In Vitro Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shiow-Ying; Sung, Jih-Min; Huang, Po-Wei; Lin, Sheng-Dun

    2017-02-01

    The extraction yield, total phenols, caffeic acid derivatives (CAD), and antioxidant properties of 50% ethanolic Echinacea purpurea flower extract were determined. The in vitro inhibitory effects of 50% ethanolic extract and CAD on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) linked with type 2 diabetes were also investigated. The extraction yield, total phenols, and total CAD of the extract were 27.04%, 195.69 mg CAE/g and 78.42 mg/g, respectively. Cichoric acid (56.03 mg/g) was the predominant CAD compound in the extract. The extract exhibited good antioxidant properties. The extract and CAD inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the tested samples, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid (IC50 of 1.71-1.81 mg/mL) had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity, cichoric acid (IC50 of 0.28 mg/mL) showed higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Both chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid (IC50 of 0.11-0.14 mg/mL) demonstrated higher ACE-inhibitory activity. The in vitro results suggest that E. purpurea extract and CAD have good potential for managing hyperglycemia and hypertension. Overall, the data suggest it is a choice for developing antihyperglycemia and antihypertension compounds from field-grown E. purpurea.

  19. Extracts from Tribulus species may modulate platelet adhesion by interfering with arachidonic acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The present work was designed to study the effects of crude extracts from Tribulus pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on selected biological functions of human blood platelets in vitro. Platelet suspensions were pre-incubated with extracts from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus, at the final concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 50 µg/ml. Then, for platelet activation thrombin, was used. The effects of crude extracts from T. pterocarpus, T. pentandrus and T. parvispinus on adhesion of blood platelets to collagen were determined by method according to Tuszynski and Murphy. Arachidonic acid metabolism was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In these studies we also compared the action of tested crude plant extracts with the effects of the polyphenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus, which has antiplatelet and antioxidative properties. The performed assays demonstrated that the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus and the phenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus might influence the platelet functions in vitro. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of this tested extract and its phenolic fraction on adhesion of resting platelets and thrombin - stimulated platelets to collagen was found. We also observed that the crude extract from T. pterocarpus, like the polyphenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus reduced TBARS production in blood platelets. In the comparative studies, the tested crude extract from T. pterocarpus was not found to be more effective antiplatelet factor, than the polyphenolic fraction from this plant. The results obtained suggest that T. pterocarpus may be a promising source of natural compounds, valuable in the prevention of the enhanced activity of blood platelets in numerous cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Procedure for obtaining an extract rich in triterpenic acids from solutions from the process of preparation of table olives

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    [EN] Procedure for obtaining an extract having a high proportion of triterpenic acids, preferably of oleanolic and maslinic acids, from the solutions obtained in the process of preparation of table olives. Furthermore the invention refers to the extract obtained through said procedure and to application thereof in the food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical industries.

  1. Solvent extraction of neodymium(Ⅲ ) from acidic nitrate medium using Cyanex 921 in kerosene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nandita Panda; Niharbala Devi; Sujata Mishra

    2012-01-01

    The extraction of neodymium(Ⅲ ) from acidic nitrate medium was investigated using Cyanex 921 as extractant in kerosene.The metal concentration in the aqueous phase before and after extraction was determined spectrophotometrically by Arsenazo Ⅲ method.The complete equilibration was achieved in 15 min.The effects of shaking time,nitric acid concentration,nitrate concentration,extractant concentration,and temperature on the extraction were studied.The extraction of Nd(Ⅲ) was found to increase very slowly with increase in concentration of HNO3 in the range of 0.001-0.008 mol/L and then decreased when 0.01 mol/L HNO3 was used.The percentage of extraction was increased with increase in nitrate concentration from 0.01-0.45 mol/L and then decreased when nitrate concentration increased to 0.5 mol/L.Quantitative extraction of Nd(Ⅲ) (98%) was obtained from the aqueous phase containing 0.001 mol/L HNO3 and 0.1 mol/L KNO3 using 0.5mol/L Cyanex 921.On the basis of slope analysis,the extracted complex in the organic phase was proposed to be Nd(NO3)3.2Cyanex 921.The extraction of Nd(Ⅲ) was found to increase with increase in concentration of metal ion in the range of 0.001-0.05 mol/L from 0.001mol/L HNO3 and 0.1 mol/L KNO3 with 0.1 mol/L Cyanex 921.The percentage of extraction of neodymium was found to decrease with increase in temperature.From temperature variation studies,the negative value of △H indicated the extraction reaction to be exothermic and the negative value of △S indicated the formation of a stable complex.Almost 100% Nd(Ⅲ) was recovered from the fully loaded organic phase using 0.002 mol/L H2SO4 and 0.01 mol/L HC1.

  2. Micellar LC Separation of Sesquiterpenic Acids and Their Determination in Valeriana officinalis L. Root and Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem U. Kulikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple micellar liquid chromatography (MLC method was developed and validated according to ICH Guidelines for the determination of sesquiterpenic acids (valerenic, hydroxyvalerenic, and acetoxyvalerenic acids in root and rhizome extract from Valeriana officinalis L. and valerian dry hydroalcoholic extract. Samples were analyzed on Nucleosil C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 5 μm using an isocratic mobile phase which consisted of Brij 35 (5% (w/v aqueous solution; pH 2.3±0.1 by phosphoric acid and 1-butanol (6% (v/v; UV detection was at 220 nm. Micellar mobile phase using allows to fully separate valerenic acids within 25 minutes. Linearity for hydroxyvalerenic, acetoxyvalerenic, and valerenic acids was 1.9–27.9, 4.2–63.0, and 6.1–91·3 μg.mL−1, and limit of detection was 0.14, 0.037, and 0.09 μg·mL−1, respectively. Intraday and interday precisions were not less than 2% for all investigated compounds. The proposed method was found to be reproducible and convenient for quantitative analysis of sesquiterpenic acids in valerian root and related preparations.

  3. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available.

  5. Evaluation of the Single Dilute (0.43 M) Nitric Acid Extraction to Determine Geochemically Reactive Elements in Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, Jan E.; Römkens, Paul F.A.M.; Zomeren, van André; Rodrigues, S.M.; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2017-01-01

    Recently a dilute nitric acid extraction (0.43 M) was adopted by ISO (ISO-17586:2016) as standard for extraction of geochemically reactive elements in soil and soil like materials. Here we evaluate the performance of this extraction for a wide range of elements by mechanistic geochemical modeling

  6. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Teng

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation.

  7. Extraction, purification, methylation and GC-MS analysis of short-chain carboxylic acids for metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivendale, Nathan D; Jewett, Erin M; Hegeman, Adrian D; Cohen, Jerry D

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic metabolic flux analysis requires efficient and effective methods for extraction, purification and analysis of a plethora of naturally-occurring compounds. One area of metabolism that would be highly informative to study using metabolic flux analysis is the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which consists of short-chain carboxylic acids. Here, we describe a newly-developed method for extraction, purification, derivatization and analysis of short-chain carboxylic acids involved in the TCA cycle. The method consists of snap-freezing the plant material, followed by maceration and a 12-15h extraction at -80 °C. The extracts are then subject to reduction (to stabilize β-keto acids), purified by strong anion exchange solid phase extraction and methylated with methanolic HCl. This method could also be readily adapted to quantify many other short-chain carboxylic acids.

  8. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Chen, Lei; Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.

  9. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%.

  10. Calcium Sulfate with Stearic Acid as an Encouraging Carrier for Reindeer Bone Protein Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Jalovaara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Various bone proteins and growth factors in specific concentrations are required for bone formation. If the body cannot produce sufficient quantities of these factors, bone trauma can be healed with an implant that includes the required factors in a carrier. This study was designed to evaluate various calcium salt candidates that can be used as carrier with reindeer bone protein extract to induce ectopic bone formation in the muscle pouch model of mouse. The bone protein extract was either impregnated into the disc form of carrier or mixed with carrier powder before implantation. The radiographic analysis indicated increased bone formation in all of the active groups containing the bone protein extract compared to the controls within 21 days follow-up. The highest bone formation was seen in the group with calcium sulfate with stearic acid where new bone and calcified cartilage were clearly visible. The greatest bone formation occurred in the groups that had bone protein extract readily available. This indicates that the bone forming factors in sufficient concentrations are required at the early stage of bone formation. The calcium sulfate with stearic acid was the most suitable and effective carrier for reindeer bone protein extract.

  11. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus. In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank and fed diets with (0.5% or without (control GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05. Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p0.05 were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0. Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05 different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06 and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96 after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  12. Integrated printed circuit board device for cell lysis and nucleic acid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lewis A; Wu, Liang Li; Babikian, Sarkis; Bachman, Mark; Santiago, Juan G

    2012-11-01

    Preparation of raw, untreated biological samples remains a major challenge in microfluidics. We present a novel microfluidic device based on the integration of printed circuit boards and an isotachophoresis assay for sample preparation of nucleic acids from biological samples. The device has integrated resistive heaters and temperature sensors as well as a 70 μm × 300 μm × 3.7 cm microfluidic channel connecting two 15 μL reservoirs. We demonstrated this device by extracting pathogenic nucleic acids from 1 μL dispensed volume of whole blood spiked with Plasmodium falciparum. We dispensed whole blood directly onto an on-chip reservoir, and the system's integrated heaters simultaneously lysed and mixed the sample. We used isotachophoresis to extract the nucleic acids into a secondary buffer via isotachophoresis. We analyzed the convective mixing action with micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) and verified the purity and amount of extracted nucleic acids using off-chip quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We achieved a clinically relevant limit of detection of 500 parasites per microliter. The system has no moving parts, and the process is potentially compatible with a wide range of on-chip hybridization or amplification assays.

  13. Mathematical modeling of cadmium(II) solvent extraction from neutral and acidic chloride media using Cyanex 923 extractant as a metal carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A A; Coll, M T; Fortuny, A; Rathore, N S; Sastre, A M

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes experimental work and the mathematical modeling of solvent extraction of cadmium(II) from neutral and acidic aqueous chloride media with a Cyanex 923 extractant in Exxol D-100. Solvent extraction experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of variations in the composition of the aqueous and organic phases on the efficiency of cadmium(II) extraction. In neutral and acidic chloride conditions, the extraction of cadmium(II) by the organophosphorous extractant Cyanex 923 (L) is based on the solvation mechanism of neutral H(n)CdCl((2+n)) species and the formation of H(n)CdCl((2+n))L(q) complexes in the organic phase, where n=0, 1, 2 and q=1, 2. The mathematical model of cadmium(II) extraction was derived from the mass balances and chemical equilibria involved in the separation system. The model was computed with the Matlab software. The equilibrium parameters for metal extraction, i.e. the stability constants of the aqueous Cd-Cl complexes, the formation constants of the acidic Cd-Cl species and the metal equilibrium extraction constants, were proposed. The optimized constants were appropriate, as there was good agreement when the model was fitted to the experimental data for each of the experiments.

  14. Mathematical modeling of cadmium(II) solvent extraction from neutral and acidic chloride media using Cyanex 923 extractant as a metal carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopold, A.A., E-mail: agnieszka.leopold@upc.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, EPSEVG, Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru (Spain); Coll, M.T.; Fortuny, A.; Rathore, N.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, EPSEVG, Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru (Spain); Sastre, A.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes experimental work and the mathematical modeling of solvent extraction of cadmium(II) from neutral and acidic aqueous chloride media with a Cyanex 923 extractant in Exxol D-100. Solvent extraction experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of variations in the composition of the aqueous and organic phases on the efficiency of cadmium(II) extraction. In neutral and acidic chloride conditions, the extraction of cadmium(II) by the organophosphorous extractant Cyanex 923 (L) is based on the solvation mechanism of neutral H{sub n}CdCl{sub (2+n)} species and the formation of H{sub n}CdCl{sub (2+n)}L{sub q} complexes in the organic phase, where n = 0, 1, 2 and q = 1, 2. The mathematical model of cadmium(II) extraction was derived from the mass balances and chemical equilibria involved in the separation system. The model was computed with the Matlab software. The equilibrium parameters for metal extraction, i.e. the stability constants of the aqueous Cd-Cl complexes, the formation constants of the acidic Cd-Cl species and the metal equilibrium extraction constants, were proposed. The optimized constants were appropriate, as there was good agreement when the model was fitted to the experimental data for each of the experiments.

  15. Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids extracted from crushed magnesium oxide single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, F.; Gupta, A. D.; Kumar, D.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THF) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and 1H-NMR. The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray structure analysis, giving the monoclinic unit cell, space group P21/c with ao = 5.543 A, bo = 8.845 A, co = 5.086 A, and beta = 91.9 degrees, consistent with beta-succinic acid, HOOC(CH2)COOH. The amount of extracted acids is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 mg g-1 MgO. The MgO crystals from which these organic acids were extracted grew from the 2860 degrees C hot melt, saturated with CO/CO2 and H2O, thereby incorporating small amounts of the gaseous components to form a solid solution (ss) with MgO. Upon cooling, the ss becomes supersaturated, causing solute carbon and other solute species to segregate not only to the surface but also internally, to dislocations and subgrain boundaries. The organic acids extracted from the MgO crystals after crushing appear to derive from these segregated solutes that formed C-C, C-H and C-O bonds along dislocations and other defects in the MgO structure, leading to entities that can generically be described as (HxCyOz)n-. The processes underlying the formation of these precursors are fundamental in nature and expected to be operational in any minerals, preferentially those with dense structures, that crystallized in H2O-CO2-laden environments. This opens the possibility that common magmatic and metamorphic rocks when weathering at the surface of a tectonically active planet like Earth may be an important source of abiogenically formed complex organic compounds.

  16. Determination of higher carboxylic acids in snow samples using solid-phase extraction and LC/MS-TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenberger, Matthias; Winterhalter, Richard; Moortgat, Geert K

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a method to determine the concentrations of higher organic acids in snow samples. The target species are the homologous aliphatic alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids from C(5) to C(13), pinonic acid, pinic acid and phthalic acid. A preconcentration procedure utilizing solid phase extraction was developed and optimized using solutions of authentic standards. The influences of different parameters such as flow rate during extraction and the concentration of the eluent on the efficiency of the extraction procedure were investigated. The compounds of interest were separated by HPLC and detected by a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (qTOF-MS). The recovery rate (extraction efficiency) of the extraction procedure was found to vary between 41% for tridecanedioic acid and 102% for adipic acid. The limits of detection were determined for all compounds and were between 0.9 nmol/L (dodecanedioic acid) and 29.5 nmol/L (pinonic acid). An exception is pinic acid, for which a considerably higher detection limit of 103.9 nmol/L was calculated. Snow samples were collected in December 2006 and January 2007 at the Fee glacier (Switzerland) from locations at heights from 3056 to 3580 m asl and from different depths within the snow layer. In total, the analysis of 61 single snow samples was performed, and the following compounds could be quantified: homologous aliphatic alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids with 5-12 carbon atoms and phthalic acid. Tridecanedioic acid, pinonic and pinic acid were identified in the samples but were not quantified due to their low concentrations. The three most abundant acids found in the molten snow samples were glutaric acid (C(5)-di; 3.90 nmol/L), adipic acid (C(6)-di; 3.35 nmol/L) and phthalic acid (Ph; 3.04 nmol/L).

  17. Extraction and quantification of gymnemic acids through gymnemagenin from callus cultures of Gymnema sylvestre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanetkar, P V; Singhal, R S; Laddha, K S; Kamat, M Y

    2006-01-01

    The phyto-constituents of Gymnema sylvestre are used in the treatment of diabetes and obesity. The present work reports on the extraction of gymnemic acid through gymnemagenin from callus cultures of G. sylvestre. Components were separated on pre-coated silica gel 60 GF254 plates with chloroform:methanol (8:2) and scanned using a densitometric scanner at 205 nm in the near-UV region. Linearity of determination of gymnemagenin was observed in the range 2-10 microg. The average percentage recovery of gymnemagenin from leaf callus extracts was 98.9+/-0.3.

  18. Bidentate organophosphorus extractants: purification, properties and applications to removal of actinides from acidic waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.; McIsaac, L.D.

    1977-05-01

    At both Hanford and Idaho, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate) continuous counter-current solvent extraction processes are being developed for removal of americium, plutonium, and, in some cases, other actinides from acidic wastes generated at these locations. Bench and, eventually, pilot and plant-scale testing and application of these processes have been substantially enhanced by the discovery of suitable chemical and physical methods of removing deleterious impurities from technical-grade DHDECMP. Flowsheet details, as well as various properties of purified DHDECMP extractants, are enumerated.

  19. Effects of organic phase, fermentation media, and operating conditions on lactic Acid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Monwar; Maisuria, J L

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid has extensive uses in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical industry. Lately, its use in producing biodegradable polymeric materials (polylactate) makes the production of lactic acid from fermentation broths very important. The major part of the production cost accounts for the cost of separation from very dilute reaction media where productivity is low as a result of the inhibitory nature of lactic acid. The current method of extraction/separation is both expensive and unsustainable. Therefore, there is great scope for development of alternative technology that will offer efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits. One of the promising technologies for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is reactive liquid-liquid extraction. In this paper the extraction and recovery of lactic acid based on reactive processes is examined and the performance of a hydrophobic microporous hollow-fiber membrane module (HFMM) is evaluated. First, equilibrium experiments were conducted using organic solutions consisting of Aliquat 336/trioctylamine (as a carrier) and tri-butyl phosphate (TBP)/sunflower oil (as a solvent) The values of the distribution coefficient were obtained as a function of feed pH, composition of the organic phase (ratio of carrier to solvent), and temperature (range 8-40 degrees C). The optimum extraction was obtained with the organic phase consisting of a mixture of 15 wt % tri-octylamine (TOA) and 15% Aliquat 336 and 70% solvent. The organic phase with TBP performed best but is less suitable because of its damaging properties (toxicity and environmental impact) and cost. Sunflower oil, which performed moderately, can be regarded as a better option as it has many desirable characteristics (nontoxic, environment- and operator-friendly) and it costs much less. The percentage extraction was approximately 33% at pH 6 and at room temperature (can be enhanced by operating at higher temperatures) at a feed flow rate of 15-20 L

  20. Chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract are highly bioavailable in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Adriana; Monteiro, Mariana; Donangelo, Carmen M; Lafay, Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are cinnamic acid derivatives with biological effects mostly related to their antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. Caffeoylquinic acids (CQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) are the main CGA found in nature. Because green coffee is a major source of CGA, it has been used for production of nutraceuticals. However, data on the bioavailability of CGA from green coffee in humans are inexistent. The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile and apparent bioavailability of CGA in plasma and urine of 10 healthy adults for 8 h after the consumption of a decaffeinated green coffee extract containing 170 mg of CGA. Three CQA, 3 diCQA, and caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, and p-coumaric acids were identified in plasma by HPLC-Diode Array Detector-MS after treatment. Over 30% (33.1 +/- 23.1%) of the ingested cinnamic acid moieties were recovered in plasma, including metabolites, with peak levels from 0.5 to 8 h after treatment. CGA and metabolites identified in urine after treatment were 4-CQA, 5-CQA, and sinapic, p-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, vanillic, dihydrocaffeic, caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, and p-coumaric acids, totaling 5.5 +/- 10.6% urinary recovery of the ingested cinnamic and quinic acid moiteties. This study shows that the major CGA compounds present in green coffee are highly absorbed and metabolized in humans.

  1. Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A β-Induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (Aβ) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with Aβ and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against Aβ-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction.