WorldWideScience

Sample records for extract ursolic acid

  1. [Optimization of SFE-CO2 Extraction for Ursolic Acid from Punica granatum Peel by Plackett-Burman and Central Composite Design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-yi; Jin, Mei-hua; Wang, Yu-hai; Zhang, Li-hua; Bi, Hai-dan; Li, Zhuo-wa

    2015-03-01

    The optimum extraction of ursolic acid from Punica granatum peel by SFE-CO2 was investigated. Based on the design of Plackett-Burman(PB), significant factors influencing the yield of ursolic acid in the operation process were filtered, with the extraction rate of ursolic acid as the index. The results obtained by steepest ascent method approximated the maximum area of ursolic acid yield. Then the Central Composite Design(CCD) design was used to carry on the response surface optimization of significant factors, getting a two order mathematical model affecting the ursolic acid yield, as well as the optimum process conditions. The best technological conditions of the extraction of ursolic acid from Punica granatum peel by SFE-CO2 were that the extraction temperature was 46. 29 °C, extraction time was 91. 6 min and the extraction pressure was 34. 49 MPa. Under the optimal conditions, verification test of ursolic acid yield was 12. 508 mg/g, approximating to the predicted value of 12. 645 mg/g. The PB test and CCD test design are combined to optimize the extraction process of ursolic acid from Punica granatum peel by SFE-CO2. The screening results are statistically significant and the process operation is feasible.

  2. Determination of ursolic acid and ursolic acid lactone in the leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis by HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, Anupam; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar [Analytical Chemistry Division, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow (India)

    2012-03-15

    A simple isocratic HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of two bioactive triterpenes, ursolic acid and ursolic acid lactone in E. tereticornis leaves. Samples were analyzed on RP-18 (4.6 x 250 mm, 5 {sup m}u{sup m}) column with methanol and water acidified to pH 3.5 with TFA (88:12) at 210 nm. The method was validated and applied for the simultaneous quantification of the individual triterpenes in E. tereticornis extract. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 0.05-0.3 mg mL{sup -1} (r = 0.999 and 0.998, respectively). The limits of detection and quantification were 0.190 and 0.644 {mu}g for ursolic acid, and 0.176 and 0.587 {mu}g for ursolic acid lactone, while the percentage recoveries were 97.32 and 96.23% for ursolic acid and ursolic acid lactone, respectively. This is the first report on the HPLC method of ursolic acid lactone with high precision and accuracy. (author)

  3. Determination of ursolic acid and ursolic acid lactone in the leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurya, Anupam; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A simple isocratic HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of two bioactive triterpenes, ursolic acid and ursolic acid lactone in E. tereticornis leaves. Samples were analyzed on RP-18 (4.6 x 250 mm, 5 m u m ) column with methanol and water acidified to pH 3.5 with TFA (88:12) at 210 nm. The method was validated and applied for the simultaneous quantification of the individual triterpenes in E. tereticornis extract. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 0.05-0.3 mg mL -1 (r = 0.999 and 0.998, respectively). The limits of detection and quantification were 0.190 and 0.644 μg for ursolic acid, and 0.176 and 0.587 μg for ursolic acid lactone, while the percentage recoveries were 97.32 and 96.23% for ursolic acid and ursolic acid lactone, respectively. This is the first report on the HPLC method of ursolic acid lactone with high precision and accuracy. (author)

  4. Simultaneous Analysis of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid in Guava Leaves Using QuEChERS-Based Extraction Followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chang; Liao, Yiyi; Fang, Chunyan; Tsunoda, Makoto; Zhang, Yingxia; Song, Yanting; Deng, Shiming

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method of QuEChERS-based extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) in guava leaves. The QuEChERS-based extraction parameters, including the amount of added salt, vortex-assisted extraction time, and absorbent amount, and the chromatographic conditions were investigated for the analysis of UA and OA in guava leaves. Under the optimized conditions, the m...

  5. Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids in Hedyotis diffusa Using Hyphenated Ultrasound-Assisted Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chi Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA were extracted from Hedyotis diffusa using a hyphenated procedure of ultrasound-assisted and supercritical carbon dioxide (HSC–CO2 extraction at different temperatures, pressures, cosolvent percentages, and SC–CO2 flow rates. The results indicated that these parameters significantly affected the extraction yield. The maximal yields of OA (0.917 mg/g of dry plant and UA (3.540 mg/g of dry plant were obtained at a dynamic extraction time of 110 min, a static extraction time of 15 min, 28.2 MPa, and 56°C with a 12.5% (v/v cosolvent (ethanol/water = 82/18, v/v and SC–CO2 flowing at 2.3 mL/min (STP. The extracted yields were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the OA and UA. The present findings revealed that H. diffusa is a potential source of OA and UA. In addition, using the hyphenated procedure for extraction is a promising and alternative process for recovering OA and UA from H. diffusa at high concentrations.

  6. Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids in Hedyotis diffusa Using Hyphenated Ultrasound-Assisted Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Show-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) were extracted from Hedyotis diffusa using a hyphenated procedure of ultrasound-assisted and supercritical carbon dioxide (HSC–CO2) extraction at different temperatures, pressures, cosolvent percentages, and SC–CO2 flow rates. The results indicated that these parameters significantly affected the extraction yield. The maximal yields of OA (0.917 mg/g of dry plant) and UA (3.540 mg/g of dry plant) were obtained at a dynamic extraction time of 110 min, a static extraction time of 15 min, 28.2 MPa, and 56°C with a 12.5% (v/v) cosolvent (ethanol/water = 82/18, v/v) and SC–CO2 flowing at 2.3 mL/min (STP). The extracted yields were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the OA and UA. The present findings revealed that H. diffusa is a potential source of OA and UA. In addition, using the hyphenated procedure for extraction is a promising and alternative process for recovering OA and UA from H. diffusa at high concentrations. PMID:26089939

  7. Rapid and novel discrimination and quantification of oleanolic and ursolic acids in complex plant extracts using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-Comparison with HPLC methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G.; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Troganis, Anastassios; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.

    2009-01-01

    A novel strategy for NMR analysis of mixtures of oleanolic and ursolic acids that occur in natural products is described. These important phytochemicals have similar structure and their discrimination and quantification is rather difficult. We report herein the combined use of proton-carbon heteronuclear single-quantum coherence ( 1 H- 13 C HSQC) and proton-carbon heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation ( 1 H- 13 C HMBC) NMR spectroscopy, in the identification and quantitation of oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)in plant extracts of the Lamiaceae and Oleaceae family. The combination of 1 H- 13 C HSQC and 1 H- 13 C HMBC techniques allows the connection of the proton and carbon-13 spins across the molecular backbone resulting in the identification and, thus, discrimination of oleanolic and ursolic acid without resorting to physicochemical separation of the components. The quantitative results provided by 2D 1 H- 13 C HSQC NMR data were obtained within a short period of time (∼14 min) and are in excellent agreement with those obtained by HPLC, which support the efficiency of the suggested methodology

  8. Simultaneous Analysis of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid in Guava Leaves Using QuEChERS-Based Extraction Followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Liao, Yiyi; Fang, Chunyan; Zhang, Yingxia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method of QuEChERS-based extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) in guava leaves. The QuEChERS-based extraction parameters, including the amount of added salt, vortex-assisted extraction time, and absorbent amount, and the chromatographic conditions were investigated for the analysis of UA and OA in guava leaves. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed good linearity over a range of 1–320 μg mL−1, with correlation coefficients above 0.999. The limits of detection of UA and OA were 0.18 and 0.36 μg mL−1, respectively. The intraday and interday precision were below 1.95 and 2.55%, respectively. The accuracies of the UA and OA determinations ranged from 97.4 to 111.4%. The contents of UA and OA in the guava leaf samples were 2.50 and 0.73 mg g−1, respectively. These results demonstrate that the developed method is applicable to the simultaneous determination of UA and OA in guava leaves. PMID:28781908

  9. Role of Glycol Chitosan-incorporated Ursolic Acid Nanoparticles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ursolic acid (UA)-incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles on inhibition of human osteosarcoma. Methods: U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells were transfected with ursolic acid (UA) incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was used ...

  10. Production process for ursolic acid%乌索酸的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李开泉; 陈武; 李翔一

    2006-01-01

    Production of ursolic acid, the anti-hepatitis effective composition from natural plant,Sambucus chinensis Lindl.was carried out and the scale-up preparation technology was studied.Extraction of the herb Sambucus chinensis Lindl.was extracted in reflux with 7 volume times of refluxing ethanol at 80℃ for 1 h for two times.The extract was purified with a selt-made specific impurity remover "YCXY-1" to yield ursolic acid of high purity.A new "Extraction/Gelation" technology for the production of ursolic acid was developed. The specific impurity remover "YCXY-1" showed high effectiveness in purification. The purity of the mass-produced ursolic acid was up to 99.8%. The chemical structure of the product was confirmed by the physicochemical constants and spectroscopic identification. The production of high-purity ursolic acid was optimized with natural plant as raw material and with only ethanol as extracting solvent. The difficulties such as isolation and impurity removal were addressed effectively. The novel technology is reasonable, convenient, practical, low-cost, high-yield, suitable for mass production.

  11. Anxiolytic-like effects of ursolic acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, André R S; Rosa, Julia M; Cunha, Mauricio P; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2015-07-05

    Ursolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that possesses several biological and neuropharmacological effects including antidepressant-like activity. Anxiety disorders represent common and disability psychiatric conditions that are often associated with depressive symptoms. This work investigated the anxiolytic-like effects of ursolic acid administration in different behavioral paradigms that evaluate anxiety in mice: open field test, elevated plus maze test, light/dark box test and marble burying test. To this end, mice were administered with ursolic acid (0.1, 1 and 10mg/kg, p.o.) or diazepam (2mg/kg, p.o.), positive control, and submitted to the behavioral tests. The results show that ursolic acid (10mg/kg) elicited an anxiolytic-like effect observed by the increased total time in the center and decreased number of rearings responses in the open field test and an increased percentage of entries and total time spent in the open arms of elevated plus maze, similarly to diazepam. No significant effects of ursolic acid were shown in the light/dark box and marble burying test. These data indicate that ursolic acid exhibits anxiolytic-like effects in the open field and elevated plus maze test, but not in the light/dark box and marble burying test, showing the relevance of testing several behavioral paradigms in the evaluation of anxiolytic-like actions. Of note, the results extend the understanding on the effects of ursolic acid in the central nervous system and suggest that it may be a novel approach for the management of anxiety-related disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Ursolic acid isolated from guava leaves inhibits inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2015-06-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaves have been frequently used for the treatment of rheumatism, fever, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study was to identify major anti-inflammatory compounds from guava leaf extract. The methanol extract and its hexane-, dichloromethane-, ethylacetate-, n-butanol- and water-soluble phases derived from guava leaves were evaluated to determine their inhibitory activity on nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The methanol extract decreased NO production in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity at a concentration range of 0-100 μg/mL. The n-butanol soluble phase was the most potent among the five soluble phases. Four compounds were isolated by reversed-phase HPLC from the n-butanol soluble phase and identified to be avicularin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and ursolic acid by their NMR spectra. Among these compounds, ursolic acid inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxity at a concentration range of 1-10 µM, but the other three compounds had no effect. Ursolic acid also inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 production. A western blot analysis showed that ursolic acid decreased the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase protein levels. In addition, ursolic acid suppressed the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, as measured by flow cytometry. Taken together, these results identified ursolic acid as a major anti-inflammatory compound in guava leaves.

  13. Antihistaminic and antieicosanoid effects of oleanolic and ursolic acid fraction from Helichrysum picardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Rosa, C; García Gimenez, M D; Saenz Rodriguez, M T; De la Puerta Vazquez, R

    2007-06-01

    Helichrysum picardii Boiss. & Reuter is a Mediterranean vegetal species from the Asteraceae family. From the methanolic extract of the aerial flowering parts of this plant, a fraction of two pentacyclic triterpenes has been isolated. Gas chromatography revealed that the triterpene isomers ursolic and oleanolic acids comprised 69% and 29% respectively of the composition of this fraction. The triterpene isomeric fraction was tested in two phagocyte cell systems. It inhibited compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells in an approximately percentage of 45% at 100 microM and myeloperoxidase secretion from A23187-ionophore-stimulated rat peritoneal leukocytes in a significant manner at doses of 50 and 100 miroM. Furthermore, the triterpene isomers very significantly and dose-dependently inhibited generation of the cyclo-oxygenase metabolite prostaglandin E2 (41% inhibition at 50 miroM) and the 5-lipoxygenase metabolite leukotriene B4 (79% inhibition at 50 microM) from activated rat leukocytes. This anti-eicosanoid activity of the triterpene fraction was more potent than that produced by the pure triterpene oleanolic acid used for comparision, indicating a stronger action of the ursolic acid, the major compound of the isolated triterpene fraction. From these data, it can be suggested that the triterpene isomers oleanolic and ursolic acids present in the medicinal plant Helichrysum picardii contribute to the anti-inflammatory profile of this vegetal species.

  14. Preparative method to obtain ursolic acid from Clinopodium revolutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Azael Ludeña Huaman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to obtain ursolic acid (UA in an easy, fast, and economical way was proposed, having as raw material the medicinal plant Clinopodium revolutum from Peru. This plant is known and marketed as flor de arena or té indio. The selective recrystallization technique used was efficient due to UA crystals were obtained without the need for chromatographic purification methods neither the use of toxic solvents. The purity determined by HPLC is greater than 95%. Thus, the flor de arena becomes an important biosource of this compound.

  15. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  16. Ursolic acid inhibits superoxide production in activated neutrophils and attenuates trauma-hemorrhage shock-induced organ injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsong-Long Hwang

    Full Text Available Neutrophil activation is associated with the development of organ injury after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In the present study, ursolic acid inhibited the superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils. Administration of ursolic acid attenuated trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced hepatic and lung injuries in rats. In addition, administration of ursolic acid attenuated the hepatic malondialdehyde levels and reduced the plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In conclusion, ursolic acid, a bioactive natural compound, inhibits superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils and ameliorates trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced organ injury in rats.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica A. Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Triterpenoids are the most representative group of phytochemicals, as they comprise more than 20,000 recognized molecules. These compounds are biosynthesized in plants via squalene cyclization, a C30 hydrocarbon that is considered to be the precursor of all steroids. Due to their low hydrophilicity, triterpenes were considered to be inactive for a long period of time; however, evidence regarding their wide range of pharmacological activities is emerging, and elegant studies have highlighted these activities. Several triterpenic skeletons have been described, including some that have presented with pentacyclic features, such as oleanolic and ursolic acids. These compounds have displayed incontestable biological activity, such as antibacterial, antiviral, and antiprotozoal effects, which were not included in a single review until now. Thus, the present review investigates the potential use of these triterpenes against human pathogens, including their mechanisms of action, via in vivo studies, and the future perspectives about the use of compounds for human or even animal health are also discussed.

  18. Application of positive mode atmospheric chemical ionisation to distinguish epimeric oleanolic and ursolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Chloe; Brettell, Rhea C; Bowen, Richard D; Gallagher, Richard T; Martin, William H C

    2015-01-01

    A new and more reliable method is reported for distinguishing the equatorial and axial epimers of oleanolic and ursolic acids and related triterpenoids based primarily on the relative abundance of the [M+H](+) and [M+-H(2)O](+) signals in their positive mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectra. The rate of elimination of water, which is the principal primary fragmentation of protonated oleanolic and ursolic acids, depends systematically on the stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group in the 3 position. For the b-epimer, in which the 3-hydroxyl substituent is in an equatorial position,[M+-H(2)O](+) is the base peak. In contrast, for the α-epimer, where the 3-hydroxyl group is axial, [M + H](+) is the base peak. This trend, which is general for a range of derivatives of oleanolic and ursolic acids, including the corresponding methyl esters, allows epimeric triterpenoids in these series to be securely differentiated. Confirmatory information is available from the collision-induced dissociation of the [M+-H(2)O](+) primary fragment ions, which follow different pathways for the species derived from axial and equatorial epimers of oleanolic and ursolic acids. These two pieces of independent spectral information permit the stereochemistry of epimeric oleanolic and ursolic acids (and selected derivatives) to be assigned with confidence without relying either on chromatographic retention times or referring to the spectra or other properties of authentic samples of these triterpenoids.

  19. Therapeutic effect of ursolic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica A. Jesus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important neglected tropical disease, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated and present diverse side effects in patients, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the therapeutic potential and toxicity of ursolic acid (UA, isolated from the leaves of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae, were evaluated in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of UA, hamsters infected with L. (L. infantum were treated daily during 15 days with 1.0 or 2.0 mg UA/kg body weight, or with 5.0 mg amphotericin B/kg body weight by intraperitoneal route. Fifteen days after the last dose, the parasitism of the spleen and liver was stimated and the main histopathological alterations were recorded. The proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells was evaluated and IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 gene expressions were analyzed in spleen fragments. The toxicity of UA and amphotericin B were evaluated in healthy golden hamsters by histological analysis and biochemical parameters. Animals treated with UA had less parasites in the spleen and liver when compared with the infected control group, and they also showed preservation of white and red pulps, which correlate with a high rate of proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells, IFN-γ mRNA and iNOS production. Moreover, animals treated with UA did not present alterations in the levels of AST, ALT, creatinine and urea. Taken together, these findings indicate that UA is an interesting natural compound that should be considered for the development of prototype drugs against visceral leishmaniasis.

  20. Ursolic acid mediates photosensitization by initiating mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Exing; Kumar, Neeru; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2013-02-01

    The signaling pathways PI3K/Akt and MAPK play key roles in transcription, translation and carcinogenesis, and may be activated by light exposure. These pathways may be modulated or inhibited by naturally-occurring compounds, such as the triterpenoid, ursolic acid (UA). Previously, the transcription factors p53 and NF-kB, which transactivate mitochondrial apoptosis-related genes, were shown to be differentially modulated by UA. Our current work indicates that UA causes these effects via the mTOR and insulin-mediated pathways. UA-modulated apoptosis, following exposure to UV radiation, is observed to correspond to differential levels of oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and skin melanoma (SM) cells. Flow cytometry analysis, DHE (dihydroethidium) staining and membrane permeability assay showed that UA pretreatment potentiated cell cycle arrest and radiation-induced apoptosis selectively on SM cells while DNA photo-oxidative damage (i.e. strand breakage) was reduced, presumably by some antioxidant activity of UA in RPE cells. The UA-mediated NF-κB activation in SM cells was reduced by rapamycin pretreatment, which indicates that these agents exert inter-antagonistic effects in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In contrast, the antagonistic effect of UA on the PI3K/Akt pathway was reversed by insulin leading to greater NF-κB and p53 activation in RPE cells. MitoTracker, a mitochondrial functional assay, indicated that mitochondria in RPE cells experienced reduced oxidative stress while those in SM cells exhibited increased oxidative stress upon UA pretreatment. When rapamycin administration was followed by UA, mitochondrial oxidative stress was increased in RPE cells but decreased in SM cells. These results indicate that UA modulates p53 and NF-κB, initiating a mitogenic response to radiation that triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

  1. Variation of Ursolic Acid Content in Eight Ocimum Species from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene M. Morais

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocimum species, UA was detected in different yields, with O. tenuiflorum showing the highest content (2.02%. This yield is very significant when compared with other sources of UA.

  2. Isobolographic analysis of the antinociceptive interaction between ursolic acid and diclofenac or tramadol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Cortés, Alejandra; Pellicer, Francisco; Díaz-Reval, Irene; González-Trujano, María Eva

    2014-02-01

    It is considered that natural products used in folk medicine can potentiate the effect of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological interaction between ursolic acid, a triterpene isolated from herbal medicines to treat pain, and the analgesics diclofenac or tramadol. Individual dose-response curves of the antinociceptive effect of these compounds were built to calculate the ED50, as well as the pharmacological interaction, by using isobolographic analysis. All treatments decreased significantly and in a dose-dependent manner the writhing behavior with ED50 values of 103.50 ± 19.66, 20.54 ± 6.05, and 9.60 ± 1.69 mg/kg, for ursolic acid, diclofenac, and tramadol, respectively. An isobolographic analysis allowed the characterization of the pharmacological interaction produced by a fixed ratio combination of 1 : 1 and 1 : 3 of equi-effective doses of these compounds. Theoretical antinociceptive ED50 values of ursolic acid-diclofenac were 62.12 ± 10.28 and 41.43 ± 6.69 mg/kg, respectively, not statistically different from those obtained experimentally (44.52 ± 5.25 and 44.89 ± 49.05 mg/kg, respectively), reporting an additive interaction. Theoretical antinociceptive ED50 values of ursolic acid-tramadol (56.56 ± 9.87 and 33.08 ± 5.07 mg/kg, respectively) were significantly lower than those observed experimentally (138.36 ± 49.05 and 67.34 ± 18.98 mg/kg, respectively) reporting antagonism in this interaction. Antinociceptive response obtained from isobolograms in the writhing test was corroborated by using formalin test in mice. Adverse effects such as gastric damage in the ursolic acid-diclofenac combination did not increase in an additive form similarly as with antinociception. Conversely, sedative response was significantly increased in the ursolic acid-tramadol combination. As observed in the formalin test, the antagonism on the antinociceptive response between ursolic acid

  3. Ursolic Acid-enriched herba cynomorii extract induces mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione redox cycling through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation: protection against menadione cytotoxicity in h9c2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jihang; Wong, Hoi Shan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2014-01-27

    Herba Cynomorii (Cynomorium songaricum Rupr., Cynomoriaceae) is one of the most commonly used 'Yang-invigorating' tonic herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). An earlier study in our laboratory has demonstrated that HCY2, an ursolic acid-enriched fraction derived from Herba Cynomorii, increased mitochondrial ATP generation capacity (ATP-GC) and induced mitochondrial uncoupling as well as a cellular glutathione response, thereby protecting against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that pre-incubation of H9c2 cells with HCY2 increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in these cells, which is likely an event secondary to the stimulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The suppression of mitochondrial ROS by the antioxidant dimethylthiourea abrogated the HCY2-induced enhancement of mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione reductase (GR)-mediated glutathione redox cycling, and also protected against menadione-induced cytotoxicity. Studies using specific inhibitors of uncoupling protein and GR suggested that the HCY2-induced mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione redox cycling play a determining role in the cytoprotection against menadione-induced oxidant injury in H9c2 cells. Experimental evidence obtained thus far supports the causal role of HCY2-induced mitochondrial ROS production in eliciting mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione antioxidant responses, which offer cytoprotection against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells.

  4. Effect of Ursolic Acid on Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Sensitivity, and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Alejandra M; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Acuña Ortega, Natalhie

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of ursolic acid on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 24 patients (30-60 years) with a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome without treatment. They were randomly assigned to two groups of 12 patients, each to receive orally 150 mg of ursolic acid or homologated placebo once a day for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, the components of metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), and inflammation profile (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) were evaluated. After ursolic acid administration, the remission of metabolic syndrome occurred in 50% of patients (P = .005) with significant differences in body weight (75.7 ± 11.5 vs. 71 ± 11 kg, P = .002), body mass index (BMI) (29.9 + 3.6 vs. 24.9 ± 1.2 kg/m 2 , P = .049), waist circumference (93 ± 8.9 vs. 83 + 8.6 cm, P = .008), fasting glucose (6.0 ± 0.5 vs. 4.7 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = .002), and insulin sensitivity (3.1 ± 1.1 vs. 4.2 ± 1.2, P = .003). Ursolic acid administration leads to transient remission of metabolic syndrome, reducing body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fasting glucose, as well as increasing insulin sensitivity.

  5. Ursolic acid inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghan He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ursolic acid (UA is a triterpenoid compound with multiple biological functions. This compound has recently been reported to possess an anti-obesity effect; however, the mechanisms are less understood. OBJECTIVE: As adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of UA on adipogenesis and mechanisms of action in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence or absence of UA for 6 days. The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular targets that regulate or are involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. The results demonstrated that ursolic acid at concentrations ranging from 2.5 µM to 10 µM dose-dependently attenuated adipogenesis, accompanied by reduced protein expression of CCAAT element binding protein β (C/EBPβ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, respectively. Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, but decreased protein expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4. Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and protein expression of (silent mating type information regulation 2, homolog 1 (Sirt1. Further studies demonstrated that the anti-adipogenic effect of UA was reversed by the AMPK siRNA, but not by the Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1, the upstream kinase of AMPK, was upregulated by UA. When LKB1 was silenced with siRNA or the inhibitor radicicol, the effect of UA on AMPK activation was diminished. CONCLUSIONS: Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK

  6. Poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanoparticles enhance ursolic acid in vivo efficacy against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriata, Juliana Palma; Eloy, Josimar O; Riul, Thalita Bachelli; Campos, Patricia Mazureki; Baruffi, Marcelo Dias; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2017-08-01

    Despite affecting millions of people worldwide, Chagas disease is still neglected by the academia and industry and the therapeutic option available, benznidazole, presents limited efficacy and side effects. Within this context, ursolic acid may serve as an option for treatment, however has low bioavailability, which can be enhanced through the encapsulation in polymeric nanoparticles. Therefore, herein we developed ursolic acid-loaded nanoparticles with poly-ε-caprolactone by the nanoprecipitation method and characterized them for particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity, encapsulation efficiency, morphology by scanning electron microscopy and thermal behavior by differential scanning calorimetry. Results indicated that an appropriate ratio of organic phase/aqueous phase and polymer/drug is necessary to produce smaller particles, with low polydispersity, negative zeta potential and high drug encapsulation efficiency. In vitro studies indicated the safety of the formulation against fibroblast culture and its efficacy in killing T. cruzi. Very importantly, the in vivo study revealed that the ursolic acid-loaded nanoparticle is as potent as the benznidazole group to control parasitemia, which could be attributed to improved bioavailability of the encapsulated drug. Finally, the toxicity evaluation showed that while benznidazole group caused liver toxicity, the nanoparticles were safe, indicating that this formulation is promising for future evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ursolic acid improves domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong-mei [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Jiangsu Province (China); Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Lu, Jun, E-mail: lu-jun75@163.com [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Yan-qiu [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Jiangsu Province (China); Zheng, Yuan-lin, E-mail: ylzheng@xznu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Hu, Bin [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Cheng, Wei [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Zi-feng; Li, Meng-qiu [Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2013-09-01

    Our previous findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is the mechanism underlying cognitive deficits induced by domoic acid (DA). Ursolic acid (UA), a natural triterpenoid compound, possesses many important biological functions. Evidence shows that UA can activate PI3K/Akt signaling and suppress Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) activity. FoxO1 is an important regulator of mitochondrial function. Here we investigate whether FoxO1 is involved in the oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in DA-treated mice and whether UA inhibits DA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through regulating the PI3K/Akt and FoxO1 signaling pathways. Our results showed that FoxO1 knockdown reversed the mitochondrial abnormalities and cognitive deficits induced by DA in mice through decreasing HO-1 expression. Mechanistically, FoxO1 activation was associated with oxidative stress-induced JNK activation and decrease of Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through promoting Akt phosphorylation and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in the hippocampus of DA-treated mice. LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling, significantly decreased Akt phosphorylation in the hippocampus of DA/UA mice, which weakened UA actions. These results suggest that UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for the prevention and therapy of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic brain disorders. - Highlights: • Ursolic acid (UA) is a naturally triterpenoid compound. • UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits. • Mechanistically, UA activates PI3K/Akt signaling and suppresses FoxO1 activity. • UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for anti-excitotoxic brain disorders.

  8. Ursolic acid improves domoic acid-induced cognitive deficits in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dong-mei; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Yan-qiu; Zheng, Yuan-lin; Hu, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Zi-feng; Li, Meng-qiu

    2013-01-01

    Our previous findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is the mechanism underlying cognitive deficits induced by domoic acid (DA). Ursolic acid (UA), a natural triterpenoid compound, possesses many important biological functions. Evidence shows that UA can activate PI3K/Akt signaling and suppress Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) activity. FoxO1 is an important regulator of mitochondrial function. Here we investigate whether FoxO1 is involved in the oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in DA-treated mice and whether UA inhibits DA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through regulating the PI3K/Akt and FoxO1 signaling pathways. Our results showed that FoxO1 knockdown reversed the mitochondrial abnormalities and cognitive deficits induced by DA in mice through decreasing HO-1 expression. Mechanistically, FoxO1 activation was associated with oxidative stress-induced JNK activation and decrease of Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits through promoting Akt phosphorylation and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in the hippocampus of DA-treated mice. LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling, significantly decreased Akt phosphorylation in the hippocampus of DA/UA mice, which weakened UA actions. These results suggest that UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for the prevention and therapy of cognitive deficits in excitotoxic brain disorders. - Highlights: • Ursolic acid (UA) is a naturally triterpenoid compound. • UA attenuated the mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficits. • Mechanistically, UA activates PI3K/Akt signaling and suppresses FoxO1 activity. • UA could be recommended as a possible candidate for anti-excitotoxic brain disorders

  9. Ursolic and oleanolic acids as antimicrobial and immunomodulatory compounds for tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; López-García, Sonia; Castro-Mussot, María Eugenia; Meckes-Fischer, Mariana; Mata-Espinosa, Dulce; Marquina, Brenda; Torres, Javier; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio

    2013-10-07

    New alternatives for the treatment of Tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed and medicinal plants represent a potential option. Chamaedora tepejilote and Lantana hispida are medicinal plants from Mexico and their hexanic extracts have shown antimycobacterial activity. Bioguided investigation of these extracts showed that the active compounds were ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA). The activity of UA and OA against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, four monoresistant strains, and two drug-resistant clinical isolates were determined by MABA test. The intracellular activity of UA and OA against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and a MDR clinical isolate were evaluated in a macrophage cell line. Finally, the antitubercular activity of UA and OA was tested in BALB/c mice infected with M. tuberculosis H37Rv or a MDR strain, by determining pulmonary bacilli loads, tissue damage by automated histomorphometry, and expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and iNOS by quantitative RT-PCR. The in vitro assay showed that the UA/OA mixture has synergistic activity. The intracellular activity of these compounds against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and a MDR clinical isolate in a macrophage cell line showed that both compounds, alone and in combination, were active against intracellular mycobacteria even at low doses. Moreover, when both compounds were used to treat BALB/c mice with TB induced by H37Rv or MDR bacilli, a significant reduction of bacterial loads and pneumonia were observed compared to the control. Interestingly, animals treated with UA and OA showed a higher expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α in their lungs, than control animals. UA and OA showed antimicrobial activity plus an immune-stimulatory effect that permitted the control of experimental pulmonary TB.

  10. Determination of betulinic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Achyranthes aspera L. using RP-UFLC-DAD analysis and evaluation of various parameters for their optimum yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sandeep R; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Harsha V; Joshi, Rajesh K; Kholkute, Sanjiva D

    2016-03-01

    Achyranthes aspera L. is a well known herb commonly used in traditional system of Indian medicine to treat various disorders, such as cough, dysentery, gonorrhea, piles, kidney stone, pneumonia, renal dropsy, skin eruptions, snake bite, etc. Here, we used RP-UFLC-DAD method for determining triterpenoids betulinic acid (BA), oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) from A. aspera. Optimum yield of these compounds were studied and evaluated using parameters viz., method of extraction, time of extraction, age of plant and plant parts (leaves, stem and roots). Linear relationships in RP-UFLC-DAD analysis were obtained in the range 0.05-100 µg/mL with 0.035, 0.042 and 0.033 µg/mL LOD for BA, OA and UA, respectively. Of the variables tested, extraction method and parts used significantly affected content yield. Continuous shaking extraction (CSE) at ambient temperature gave better extraction efficiency than exposure to ultra sonic extraction (USE) or microwave assisted extraction (MAE) methods. The highest content of BA, OA and UA were determined individually in leaf, stem and root extracts with CSE. Collective yield of these triterpenoids were higher in leaf part exposed to 15 min USE method. To best of our knowledge, the study newly reports UA from A. aspera and the same was confirmed using ATR-FT-IR studies. This study explains the distribution pattern of these major triterpenoids and optimum extraction parameters in detail.

  11. Exploration of the preventive effect of ursolic acid on retinopathy in diabetic mice and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Zhong Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the preventive effect of ursolic acid on retinopathy in diabetic mice through adjusting insulin sensitivity, glucose transport, angiogenesis and inflammation. Methods:Male C57BL/6 mice were selected as experimental animals and randomly divided into control group (N group), model group (D group) and intervention group (D+UA group), D group and D+UA group established diabetes models through intraperitoneal injection of STZ, D+UA group received intragastric administration of ursolic acid, and then insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism in retina as well as the expression levels of GLUTs, HIF-1α/VEGF/VEGFR2 pathway and IKKβ/IKBα/NF-κB pathway in retina tissue of three groups were detected. Results:AUC of D group was significantly lower than that of N group, and HOMA-IR, sugar content in retina tissue as well as GLUT-1, GLUT-3, HIF-1α, VEGF, VEGFR2, IKKβ, IKBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin levels were significantly higher than those of N group;AUC of D+UA group was significantly higher than that of D group, and HOMA-IR, sugar content in retina tissue as well as GLUT-1, GLUT-3, HIF-1α, VEGF, VEGFR2, IKK毬, IKBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin levels were significantly lower than those of D group. Conclusion:Ursolic acid can increase insulin sensitivity, reduce sugar content in retina tissue and inhibit angiogenesis and inflammation degree in retina tissue, and has preventive effect on retinopathy in diabetic mice.

  12. Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid: Pentacyclic Terpenoids with Promising Anti-Inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Dharambir; Sharma, Ajay; Tuli, Hardeep S; Punia, Sandeep; Sharma, Anil K

    2016-01-01

    Plant derived products are not only served as dietary components but also used to treat and prevent the inflammatory associated diseases like cancer. Among the natural products pentacyclic terpenoids including ursolic acid and oleanolic acid are considered as the promising anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents. The current review extensively discusses the anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential of these pentacyclic moieties along with their proposed mechanisms of action. Furthermore, the relevant patents have also been listed to present the health benefits of these promising therapeutic agents to pin down the inflammatory diseases. Expert opinion: Pentacyclic terpenoids are known to negatively down-regulate a variety of extracellular and intracellular molecular targets associated with disease progression. The major anti-inflammatory effects of these molecules have been found to be mediated via inactivation of NFkB, STAT3/6, Akt/mTOR pathways. A number of patents on UA & OA based moieties have been reported between 2010 and 2016. Still there have been only a few compounds which meet the need of sufficient hydro solubility and bioavailability along with higher anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, it is essential to develop novel derivatives of terpenpoids which may not only overcome the solubility issues but also may improve their therapeutic effects. In addition, scientific community may utilize nanotechnology based drug delivery systems so as to increase the bio-availability, selectivity and dosages related problems.

  13. Synthesis and antiplasmodial activity of betulinic acid and ursolic acid analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocente, Adrine M; Silva, Gloria N S; Cruz, Laura Nogueira; Moraes, Miriam S; Nakabashi, Myna; Sonnet, Pascal; Gosmann, Grace; Garcia, Célia R S; Gnoatto, Simone C B

    2012-10-12

    More than 40% of the World population is at risk of contracting malaria, which affects primarily poor populations in tropical and subtropical areas. Antimalarial pharmacotherapy has utilised plant-derived products such as quinine and artemisinin as well as their derivatives. However, worldwide use of these antimalarials has caused the spread of resistant parasites, resulting in increased malaria morbidity and mortality. Considering that the literature has demonstrated the antimalarial potential of triterpenes, specially betulinic acid (1) and ursolic acid (2), this study investigated the antimalarial activity against P. falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain of some new derivatives of 1 and 2 with modifications at C-3 and C-28. The antiplasmodial study employed flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetric analyses using YOYO-1, dihydroethidium and Fluo4/AM for staining. Among the six analogues obtained, compounds 1c and 2c showed excellent activity (IC₅₀ = 220 and 175 nM, respectively) while 1a and b demonstrated good activity (IC₅₀ = 4 and 5 μM, respectively). After cytotoxicity evaluation against HEK293T cells, 1a was not toxic, while 1c and 2c showed IC₅₀ of 4 μM and a selectivity index (SI) value of 18 and 23, respectively. Moreover, compound 2c, which presents the best antiplasmodial activity, is involved in the calcium-regulated pathway(s).

  14. Synthesis and Antiplasmodial Activity of Betulinic Acid and Ursolic Acid Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone C. B. Gnoatto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 40% of the World population is at risk of contracting malaria, which affects primarily poor populations in tropical and subtropical areas. Antimalarial pharmacotherapy has utilised plant-derived products such as quinine and artemisinin as well as their derivatives. However, worldwide use of these antimalarials has caused the spread of resistant parasites, resulting in increased malaria morbidity and mortality. Considering that the literature has demonstrated the antimalarial potential of triterpenes, specially betulinic acid (1 and ursolic acid (2, this study investigated the antimalarial activity against P. falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain of some new derivatives of 1 and 2 with modifications at C-3 and C-28. The antiplasmodial study employed flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetric analyses using YOYO-1, dihydroethidium and Fluo4/AM for staining. Among the six analogues obtained, compounds 1c and 2c showed excellent activity (IC50 = 220 and 175 nM, respectively while 1a and b demonstrated good activity (IC50 = 4 and 5 μM, respectively. After cytotoxicity evaluation against HEK293T cells, 1a was not toxic, while 1c and 2c showed IC50 of 4 μM and a selectivity index (SI value of 18 and 23, respectively. Moreover, compound 2c, which presents the best antiplasmodial activity, is involved in the calcium-regulated pathway(s.

  15. Mechanism of Ursolic Acid-Mediated Inhibition of Proliferation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performed to measure the endogenous mRNA levels of ERK1, C-Jun, C-Myc, and Cyclin D1, and. Western blotting was used to determine the expressions of ERK1, C-Jun, C-Myc, and Cyclin ... Cells were harvested, and the total RNA was extracted according to BIOZOL reagent instruction manual. Total RNA was used for.

  16. Ursolic acid attenuates oxidative stress-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma induction by diethylnitrosamine in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Renganathan; Priya, D Kalpana Deepa; Gunassekaran, G R; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary cancer of the liver in Asian countries. For more than a decade natural dietary agents including fruits, vegetables and spices have drawn a great deal of attention in the prevention of diseases, preferably cancer. Ursolic acid is a natural triterpenoid widely found in food, medicinal herbs, apple peel and other products it has been extensively studied for its anticancer and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ursolic acid in diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced and phenobarbital promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. Antioxidant status was assessed by alterations in level of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls. Damage to plasma membranes was assessed by levels of membrane and tissue ATPases. Liver tissue was homogenized and utilized for estimation of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls and glycoproteins. Anticoagulated blood was utilized for erythrocyte membrane isolation. Oral administration of UA 20 mg/kg bodyweight for 6 weeks decreased the levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls at a significance of pmembrane and tissue ATPases returned to normal after UA administration. Levels of glycoproteins were also restored after treatment. Histopathological observations were recorded. The findings from the above study suggest the effectiveness of UA in reducing the oxidative stress mediated changes in liver of rats. Since UA has been found to be a potent antioxidant, it can be suggested as an excellent chemopreventive agent in overcoming diseases like cancer which are mediated by free radicals.

  17. An Ursolic Acid Derived Small Molecule Triggers Cancer Cell Death through Hyperstimulation of Macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Li, Bin; Su, Xiaohui; Chen, Ge; Li, Yaqin; Yu, Linqian; Li, Li; Wei, Wanguo

    2017-08-10

    Macropinocytosis is a transient endocytosis that internalizes extracellular fluid and particles into vacuoles. Recent studies suggest that hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis can induce a novel nonapoptotic cell death, methuosis. In this report, we describe the identification of an ursolic acid derived small molecule (compound 17), which induces cancer cell death through hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis. 17 causes the accumulation of vacuoles derived from macropinosomes based on transmission electron microscopy, time-lapse microscopy, and labeling with extracellular fluid phase tracers. The vacuoles induced by 17 separate from other cytoplasmic compartments but acquire some characteristics of late endosomes and lysosomes. Inhibiting hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis with the specific inhibitor amiloride blocks cell death, implicating that 17 leads to cell death via macropinocytosis, which is coincident with methuosis. Our results uncovered a novel cell death pathway involved in the activity of 17, which may provide a basis for further development of natural-product-derived scaffolds for drugs that trigger cancer cell death by methuosis.

  18. Purity-activity relationships of natural products: the case of anti-TB active ursolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaki, Birgit U; Franzblau, Scott G; Chadwick, Lucas R; Lankin, David C; Zhang, Fangqiu; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F

    2008-10-01

    The present study explores the variability of biological responses from the perspective of sample purity and introduces the concept of purity-activity relationships (PARs) in natural product research. The abundant plant triterpene ursolic acid (1) was selected as an exemplary natural product due to the overwhelming number yet inconsistent nature of its approximate 120 reported biological activities, which include anti-TB potential. Nine different samples of ursolic acid with purity certifications were obtained, and their purity was independently assessed by means of quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR). Biological evaluation consisted of determining MICs against two strains of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and IC50 values in Vero cells. Ab initio structure elucidation provided unequivocal structural confirmation and included an extensive 1H NMR spin system analysis, determination of nearly all J couplings and the complete NOE pattern, and led to the revision of earlier reports. As a net result, a sigmoid PAR profile of 1 was obtained, demonstrating the inverse correlation of purity and anti-TB bioactivity. The results imply that synergistic effects of 1 and its varying impurities are the likely cause of previously reported antimycobacterial potential. Generating PARs is a powerful extension of the routinely performed quantitative correlation of structure and activity ([Q]SAR). Advanced by the use of primary analytical methods such as qHNMR, PARs enable the elucidation of cases like 1 when increasing purity voids biological activity. This underlines the potential of PARs as a tool in drug discovery and synergy research and accentuates the need to routinely combine biological testing with purity assessment.

  19. Simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin in Swertia mussotii Franch by capillary zone electrophoresis with running buffer modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruibin; Wang, Litao; Yang, Yan; Ni, Jingman; Zhao, Liang; Dong, Shuqing; Guo, Mei

    2015-03-01

    The method of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with direct UV detection was developed for the determination of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin. and then for the first time successfully applied to the analysis of four analytes in Swertia mussotii Franch and its preparations. Various factors affecting the CZE procedure were investigated and optimized, and the optimal conditions were: 50 × 10(-3) mol/L borate-phosphate buffer (pH 9.5) with 5.0 × 10(-3) mol/L β-cyclodextrin, 15 kV separation voltage, 20 °C column temperature, 250 nm detection wavelength and 5 s electrokinetic injection time (voltage 20 psi). Under the conditions, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin could be determined within the test ranges with a good correlation coefficient (r(2) > 0.9991). The limits of detection for conditions, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin were 0.3415, 0.2003, 0.0062 and 0.2538 µg/mL, respectively, and the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were no more than 4.72%. This procedure provided a convenient, sensitive and accurate method for simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin in S. mussotii Franch. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Ursolic acid liposomes with chitosan modification: Promising antitumor drug delivery and efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meili; Zhao, Tingting; Liu, Yanping; Wang, Qianqian; Xing, Shanshan; Li, Lei; Wang, Longgang [Applying Chemistry Key Lab of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, No.438 Hebei Street, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, Lanxiang [The First Hospital of Qinhuangdao, No. 258 Cultural Road, Qinhuangdao 066000 (China); Gao, Dawei, E-mail: dwgao@ysu.edu.cn [Applying Chemistry Key Lab of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, No.438 Hebei Street, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-02-01

    There are tremendous challenges on antitumor and its therapeutic drugs, and preparation of highly efficient nano-vehicles represents one of the novel topics in antitumor pharmaceutical field. Herein, the novel chitosan-coated ursolic acid (UA) liposome (CS-UA-L) was efficiently prepared with highly tumor targeting, drug controlled release and low side-effect. The CS-UA-L was uniformly spherical particles with diameter of ~ 130 nm, and the size was more easily trapped into the tumor tissues. Chitosan modification can make liposomes carrying positive charges, which were inclined to combine with the negative charges on the surface of tumor cells, and then the CS-UA-L could release UA rapidly at pH 5.0 comparing with pH 7.4. Meanwhile, the CS-UA-L exhibited obvious anti-proliferative effect (76.46%) on HeLa cells and significantly antitumor activity (61.26%) in mice bearing U14 cervical cancer. The tumor tissues of CS-UA-L treated mice had enhanced cell apoptosis, extensive necrosis and low cell proliferation activity. These results demonstrated that the multifunctional CS-UA-L allowed a precision treatment for localized tumor, and reducing the total drug dose and side-effect, which hold a great promise in new safe and effective tumor therapy. - Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram representing the principle of synthesis of CS-UA-L and pH-triggered sequential UA release after treatment on tumor bearing mouse. - Highlights: • The novel chitosan-coated ursolic acid liposomes (CS-UA-L) were successfully prepared. • CS-UA-L possessed sensitive pH-response, which could release UA rapidly at pH 5.0 comparing with pH 7.4. • CS-UA-L exhibited obvious anti-proliferative effect (76.46%) on HeLa cells than UA and UA-L. • CS-UA-L suppressed tumor growth more efficiently than those with UA and UA-L in mice bearing U14 cervical cancer. • The CS-UA-L allow for precision treatment of the tumor and potential to reduce the total drug dose and side-effect.

  1. Ursolic acid reduces the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease imbalance in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yanzhe Wang, Zhiyi He, Shumin Deng Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Background: Activators of PPARs, particularly PPARγ, may be effective neuroprotective drugs against inflammatory responses in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Ursolic acid (UA may act as a PPARγ agonist and serve as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we used a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model to examine how UA acts as a neuroprotective agent to modulate the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance. Methods: The middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model (occlusion for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 48 hours was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats. UA was administered intragastrically 0.5, 24, and 47 hours after reperfusion. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (a PPARγ antagonist was intraperitoneally administered 1, 24.5, and 47.5 hours after reperfusion. Forty-eight hours after reperfusion, neurological deficits and infarct volume were estimated. The PPARγ level and the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The activation of MAPK signaling pathways was also assessed. Results: UA-treated (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg rats showed significant improvement in neurological deficit score, infarct volume, and the number of intact neurons compared with control rats (P<0.01. Both the PPARγ protein level and the percentage of PPARγ-positive cells were increased in the UA-treated groups (P<0.01. Compared with the control group, the UA-treated groups exhibited reduced protein levels of MMP2, MMP9, and activated MAPKs (P<0.01 but an increased level of TIMP1 (P<0.01. UA exerted its protective effects in a dose-dependent manner. Co-treatment with UA and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether completely abolished the UA-induced changes in PPARγ expression; however UA continued to exert a

  2. Ezrin dephosphorylation/downregulation contributes to ursolic acid-mediated cell death in human leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G; Zhou, T; Liu, L; Chen, J; Zhao, Z; Peng, Y; Li, P; Gao, N

    2013-01-01

    Ezrin links the actin filaments with the cell membrane and has a functional role in the apoptotic process. It appears clear that ezrin is directly associated with Fas, leading to activation of caspase cascade and cell death. However, the exact role of ezrin in ursolic acid (UA)-induced apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, we show for the first time that UA induces apoptosis in both transformed and primary leukemia cells through dephosphorylation/downregulation of ezrin, association and polarized colocalization of Fas and ezrin, as well as formation of death-inducing signaling complex. These events are dependent on Rho-ROCK1 signaling pathway. Knockdown of ezrin enhanced cell death mediated by UA, whereas overexpression of ezrin attenuated UA-induced apoptosis. Our in vivo study also showed that UA-mediated inhibition of tumor growth of mouse leukemia xenograft model is in association with the dephosphorylation/downregulation of ezrin. Such findings suggest that the cytoskeletal protein ezrin may represent an attractive target for UA-mediated lethality in human leukemia cells

  3. Enhancement of Radiation Effects by Ursolic Acid in BGC-823 Human Adenocarcinoma Gastric Cancer Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Recent research has suggested that certain plant-derived polyphenols, i.e., ursolic acid (UA, which are reported to have antitumor activities, might be used to sensitize tumor cells to radiation therapy by inhibiting pathways leading to radiation therapy resistance. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects and possible mechanism of radiosensitization by UA in BGC-823 cell line from human adenocarcinoma gastric cancer in vitro. UA caused cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, and we used a sub-cytotoxicity concentration of UA to test radioenhancement efficacy with UA in gastric cancer. Radiosensitivity was determined by clonogenic survival assay. Surviving fraction of the combined group with irradiation and sub-cytotoxicity UA significantly decreased compared with the irradiation group. The improved radiosensitization efficacy was associated with enhanced G2/M arrest, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS, down-regulated Ki-67 level and improved apoptosis. In conclusion, as UA demonstrated potent antiproliferation effect and synergistic effect, it could be used as a potential drug sensitizer for the application of radiotherapy.

  4. An evaluation of anti-tumor effect and toxicity of PEGylated ursolic acid liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Tingting; Liu, Yanping; Xing, Shanshan; Li, Lei; Gao, Dawei, E-mail: dwgao@ysu.edu.cn [Yanshan University, Applying Chemistry Key Lab of Hebei Province, Department of Bioengineer (China)

    2016-02-15

    Therapy of solid tumors mediated by nano-drug delivery has attracted considerable interest. In our previous study, ursolic acid (UA) was successfully encapsulated into PEGylated liposomes. The study aimed to evaluate the tumor inhibition effect and cytotoxicity of the PEGylated UA liposomes by U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice. The liposomes were spherical particles with mean particle diameters of 127.2 nm. The tumor inhibition rate of PEGylated UA liposomes was 53.60 % on U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice, which was greater than those of the UA solution (18.25 %) and traditional UA liposome groups (40.75 %). The tumor cells apoptosis rate of PEGylated UA liposomes was 25.81 %, which was significantly higher than that of the traditional UA liposomes (13.37 %). Moreover, the kidney and liver did not emerge the pathological changes in UA therapeutic mice by histopathological analysis, while there were significant differences on tumor tissues among three UA formulation groups. The PEGylated UA liposomes exhibited higher anti-tumor activity and lower cytotoxicity, and the main reason was that the coating PEG layer improved UA liposome properties, such as enhancing the stability of liposomes, promoting the effect of slow release, and prolonging the time of blood circulation. This may shed light on the development of PEGylated nano-vehicles.

  5. Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. as an Alternative Source of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA have been proven to possess many biological activities, and much attention is focused on the search for plants which are rich in OA and UA. In this report, the OA and UA accumulation characteristics were investigated in 47 cultivars of Chinese herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. and were followed in three cultivars over different developmental stages as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. OA and UA levels in leaves and stems demonstrated an overall upward trend from May 1 to September 15 except for UA in the leaves of “Hong Feng”. The maximum values of OA and UA in leaves of “Yangfei Chu Yu”, “Fen Zhu Pan” and “Hong Feng” were 852.98, 575.60, 290.48 μg/g FW and 924.94, 827.36, 432.67 μg/g FW, respectively. The maximum values of OA and UA in stems of “Yangfei Chu Yu”, “Fen Zhu Pan” and “Hong Feng” were 359.28, 90.49, 43.90 μg/g FW and 326.86, 82.25, 56.63 μg/g FW, respectively. OA and UA contents in leaves of 47 different herbaceous peony cultivars ranged from 66.73–618.12 and 36.23–665.14 μg/g FW, respectively, with average values of 171.62 and 227.57 μg/g FW, respectively. The results suggested that the aboveground parts of herbaceous peony may be used as an alternative source of OA and UA for medicinal purposes in addition to its ornamental purposes.

  6. Ursolic acid reduces the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease imbalance in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhe; He, Zhiyi; Deng, Shumin

    2016-01-01

    Activators of PPARs, particularly PPARγ, may be effective neuroprotective drugs against inflammatory responses in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Ursolic acid (UA) may act as a PPARγ agonist and serve as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we used a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model to examine how UA acts as a neuroprotective agent to modulate the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance. The middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model (occlusion for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 48 hours) was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats. UA was administered intragastrically 0.5, 24, and 47 hours after reperfusion. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (a PPARγ antagonist) was intraperitoneally administered 1, 24.5, and 47.5 hours after reperfusion. Forty-eight hours after reperfusion, neurological deficits and infarct volume were estimated. The PPARγ level and the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The activation of MAPK signaling pathways was also assessed. UA-treated (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) rats showed significant improvement in neurological deficit score, infarct volume, and the number of intact neurons compared with control rats (Pprotective effects in a dose-dependent manner. Co-treatment with UA and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether completely abolished the UA-induced changes in PPARγ expression; however UA continued to exert a significant but partial neuroprotective effect. UA can act as a PPARγ agonist to improve the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance, possibly by inhibiting the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway, thereby attenuating cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Therefore, UA may serve as a novel neuroprotective therapeutic agent.

  7. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on composite resins containing ursolic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyeon; Song, Minju; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Park, Sung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid (UA)-containing composites on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm. Materials and Methods Composite resins with five different concentrations (0.04, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt%) of UA (U6753, Sigma Aldrich) were prepared, and their flexural strengths were measured according to ISO 4049. To evaluate the effect of carbohydrate source on biofilm formation, either glucose or sucrose was used as a nutrient source, and to investigate the effect of saliva treatment, the specimen were treated with either unstimulated whole saliva or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). For biofilm assay, composite disks were transferred to S. mutans suspension and incubated for 24 hr. Afterwards, the specimens were rinsed with PBS and sonicated. The colony forming units (CFU) of the disrupted biofilm cultures were enumerated. For growth inhibition test, the composites were placed on a polystyrene well cluster, and S. mutans suspension was inoculated. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was recorded by Infinite F200 pro apparatus (TECAN). One-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction were used for the data analyses. Results The flexural strength values did not show significant difference at any concentration (p > 0.01). In biofilm assay, the CFU score decreased as the concentration of UA increased. The influence of saliva pretreatment was conflicting. The sucrose groups exhibited higher CFU score than glucose group (p composite showed inhibitory effect on S. mutans biofilm formation and growth. PMID:23741708

  8. Simultaneous HPTLC analysis of ursolic acid, betulinic acid, stigmasterol and lupeol for the identification of four medicinal plants commonly available in the Indian market as Shankhpushpi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethiya, Neeraj Kumar; Mishra, Shrihari

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new, simple, sensitive, selective and precise high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint and quantitative estimation method for the analysis of ursolic acid, betulinic acid, stigmasterol and lupeol in Shankhpushpi botanicals. Linear ascending development was carried out in a twin trough glass chamber saturated with petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-toluene (7:2:1, v/v/v). The plate was dried, sprayed with anisaldehyde reagent and analyzed by CAMAG TLC scanner III at 580 nm. The system was found to give compact spots for ursolic acid (0.21), betulinic acid (0.29), stigmasterol (0.33) and lupeol (0.50). The relationship between the concentration of standard solutions and the peak response is linear within the concentration range of 100-600 ng/spot for ursolic acid, betulinic acid, stigmasterol and lupeol. The concentration of 134.2 and 146.1 mg of ursolic acid per gram of Clitorea ternatea (CT) and Canscora decussata (CD); 110.6 mg of betulinic acid per gram of EA; 92.75, 154.95, 31.947 and 39.21 mg of stigmasterol per gram of Evolvulus alsinoides (EA), Convolvulus pluricaulis (CP), CT and CD; 30.12 mg of lupeol per gram of CT were found. The proposed HPTLC method may use for routine quality testing and identification of Shankhpushpi botanicals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effects of curcumin and ursolic acid on the mitochondrial coupling efficiency and hydrogen peroxide emission of intact skeletal myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, Daniel J; Harley, Jackson S; Hancock, Chad R

    2017-10-21

    Curcumin may improve blood glucose management, but the mechanism is not fully established. We demonstrated that curcumin (40 μM) reduced the mitochondrial coupling efficiency (percentage of oxygen consumption coupled to ATP synthesis) of intact skeletal muscle cells. A 30-minute pretreatment with curcumin reduced mitochondrial coupling efficiency by 17.0 ± 0.4% relative to vehicle (p Curcumin pretreatment also decreased the rate of hydrogen peroxide emission by 43 ± 13% compared to vehicle (p curcumin revealed a 40 ± 4% increase in the rate of oxygen consumption upon curcumin administration (p curcumin-pretreated cells after permeabilization of cell membranes (p > 0.7). The interaction between curcumin and ursolic acid, another natural compound that may improve blood glucose management, was also examined. Pretreatment with ursolic acid (0.12 μM) increased the mitochondrial coupling efficiency of intact cells by 4.1 ± 1.1% relative to vehicle (p curcumin when the two compounds were used in combination. The observed changes to mitochondrial coupling efficiency and hydrogen peroxide emission were consistent with the established effects of curcumin on blood glucose control. Our findings also show that changes to mitochondrial coupling efficiency after curcumin pretreatment may go undetected unless cells are assessed in the intact condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Yields and content of ursolic acid in pearl grass (Hedyotis corymbosa) when utilizing cow manure fertilizer in different shades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanti, L. D.; Yunus, A.; Pujiasmanto, B.; Widyastuti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to examine the intensity of shade and proper dosage of fertilizer to maximize the content of ursolic acid and pearl grass yield. The field-run study was carried out at the Medicinal Plant Garden of the Research and Development of Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicines (B2P2TOOT) and the laboratory research was conducted at the B2P2TOOT Phytochemistry Laboratory. The experiment design was Randomized Complete Block Design with Split Plot pattern with the intensity (three levels) as main plot and fertilizer dosage (four levels) as sub plot. The data obtained were analyzed using the variance analysis, if there were significant differences tested further by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) with 95% confidence level. The results showed that shade treatment gave significant effects on plant height, number of branches, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. The treatment of a fertilizer dosage 15 tons/ha gave the best results on fresh weight and dry weight. The combination of N0K0 treatment (without shade, without cow manure) resulted in the highest quality of ursolic acid as it featured a light blue color when detected under UV366 light.

  11. Ursolic acid increases glucose uptake through the PI3K signaling pathway in adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghan He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ursolic acid (UA, a triterpenoid compound, is reported to have a glucose-lowering effect. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Adipose tissue is one of peripheral tissues that collectively control the circulating glucose levels. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to determine the effect and further the mechanism of action of UA in adipocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate and treated with different concentrations of UA. NBD-fluorescent glucose was used as the tracer to measure glucose uptake and Western blotting used to determine the expression and activity of proteins involved in glucose transport. It was found that 2.5, 5 and 10 µM of UA promoted glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner (17%, 29% and 35%, respectively. 10 µM UA-induced glucose uptake with insulin stimulation was completely blocked by the phosphatidylinositol (PI 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor wortmannin (1 µM, but not by SB203580 (10 µM, the inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, or compound C (2.5 µM, the inhibitor of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK inhibitor. Furthermore, the downstream protein activities of the PI3K pathway, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK and phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threoninekinase (AKT were increased by 10 µM of UA in the presence of insulin. Interestingly, the activity of AS160 and protein kinase C (PKC and the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 were stimulated by 10 µM of UA under either the basal or insulin-stimulated status. Moreover, the translocation of GLUT4 from cytoplasm to cell membrane was increased by UA but decreased when the PI3K inhibitor was applied. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that UA stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the PI3K pathway, providing important information regarding the mechanism of action of UA for its anti-diabetic effect.

  12. [Effects of triterpenoid from Psidium guajava leaves ursolic acid on proliferation, differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte and insulin resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juan-Na; Kuang, Qiao-Ting; Ye, Kai-He; Ye, Chun-Ling; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the influences of triterpenoid from Psidium guajava Leaves (ursolic acid) on the proliferation, differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte, and its possible mechanism treat for insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 preadipocyte was cultured in vitro. After adding ursolic acid to the culture medium for 48h, the cell viability was tested by MTT assay. Induced for 6 days, the lipid accumulation of adipocyte was measured by Oil Red O staining. The insulin resistant cell model was established with Dexamethasone. Cellular glucose uptake was determined with GOD-POD assays and FFA concentration was determined at the time of 48h. Secreted adiponectin were measured by ELISA. The protein levels of PPARgamma and PTP1B in insulin resistant adipocyte were measured by Western Blotting. Compared with medium control group, 30, 100 micromol/L ursolic acid could increase its proliferation and differentiation significantly (P 0.05). Ursolic acid can improve the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte, enhance cellular glucose uptake, inhibit the production of FFA, promote the secretion of adiponectin insulin resistant adipocyte, its mechanism may be related to upregulating the expression of PPARgamma protein.

  13. A phase I pharmacokinetic study of ursolic acid nanoliposomes in healthy volunteers and patients with advanced solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zhongling Zhu,1,4 Zhengzi Qian,2,4 Zhao Yan,1,4 Cuicui Zhao,2,4 Huaqing Wang,2,4 Guoguang Ying3,41Department of Clinical Pharmacology, 2Department of Lymphoma, 3Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 4Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Ursolic acid is a promising anticancer agent. The current study aims to evaluate the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics (PK as well as the safety of ursolic acid nanoliposomes (UANL in healthy volunteers and in patients with advanced solid tumors.Methods: Twenty-four healthy volunteers in the single-dose PK study were divided into three different groups, which received 37, 74, and 98 mg/m2 of UANL. Eight patients in the multiple-dose PK study were administered with 74 mg/m2 of UANL daily for 14 days. The UA plasma concentrations were determined using ultra-performance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry.Results: The plasma concentration profiles of all subjects were characterized by a biexponential decline after infusion. The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax increased linearly as a function of the dose (r = 0.999. The mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC from 0 to 16 hours also increased proportionally with dose escalation (r = 0.998. However, the clearance was constant over the specific dose interval. In the multiple-dose PK study, the trough and average concentrations remained low. The mean AUC, half-life, Cmax, time to Cmax, and the volume of distribution on the first day were similar to those on the last day. All subjects tolerated the treatments well. Most UANL-associated adverse events varied from mild to moderate.Conclusions: UANL exhibits relatively linear PK behavior with dose levels from 37 mg/m2 to 98 mg/m2. No drug accumulation was observed with repeated doses of UANL. The intravenous infusion of UANL was well

  14. Ursolic acid isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla activates human dendritic cells via TLR2 and/or TLR4 and induces the production of IFN-gamma by CD4+ naïve T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Young; Pham, Thanh Nhan Nguyen; Umeyama, Akemi; Shoji, Noboru; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Lee, Je-Jung; Takei, Masao

    2010-09-25

    Ursolic acid is triterpene isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla and is a pharmacologically active substance. The induction of dendritic cell maturation is critical for the induction of Ag-specific T-lymphocyte response and may be essential for the development of human vaccine relying on T cell immunity. In this study, we investigated that the effect of Ursolic acid on the phenotypic and functional maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro. Dendritic cells harvested on day 8 were examined using functional assay. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86, HLA-DR and CCR7 on Ursolic acid-primed dendritic cells was slightly enhanced. Ursolic acid dose-dependently enhanced the T cell stimulatory capacity in an allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction, as measured by T cell proliferation. The production of IL-12p70 induced by Ursolic acid-primed dendritic cells was inhibited by the anti-Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) mAb and anti-TLR4 mAb. Moreover, Ursolic acid-primed dendritic cells expressed levels of mRNA coding for both TLR2 and TLR4. The majority of cells produced considerable interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but also small amounts of interleukin (IL-4)-4. Ursolic acid-primed dendritic cells have an intermediate migratory capacity towards CCL19 and CCL21. These results suggest that Ursolic acid modulates human dendritic cells function in a fashion that favors Th1 polarization via the activation of IL-12p70 dependent on TLR2 and/or TLR4, and may be used on dendritic cells-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ursolic acid-mediated changes in glycolytic pathway promote cytotoxic autophagy and apoptosis in phenotypically different breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinska, Anna; Adamczyk-Grochala, Jagoda; Kwasniewicz, Ewa; Deregowska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenotids with multiple biological activities are considered as promising candidates for cancer therapy and prevention. However, their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of low dose treatment (5-20 µM) of ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA) on breast cancer cells of different receptor status, namely MCF-7 (ER + , PR +/- , HER2 - ), MDA-MB-231 (ER - , PR - , HER2 - ) and SK-BR-3 (ER - , PR - , HER2 + ). UA-mediated response was more potent than BA-mediated response. Triterpenotids (5-10 µM) caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, an increase in p21 levels and SA-beta-galactosidase staining that was accompanied by oxidative stress and DNA damage. UA (20 µM) also diminished AKT signaling that affected glycolysis as judged by decreased levels of HK2, PKM2, ATP and lactate. UA-induced energy stress activated AMPK that resulted in cytotoxic autophagy and apoptosis. UA-mediated elevation in nitric oxide levels and ATM activation may also account for AMPK activation-mediated cytotoxic response. Moreover, UA-promoted apoptosis was associated with decreased pERK1/2 signals and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, we have shown for the first time that UA at low micromolar range may promote its anticancer action by targeting glycolysis in phenotypically distinct breast cancer cells.

  16. Mounting evidence validates Ursolic Acid directly activates SIRT1: A powerful STAC which mimic endogenous activator of SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Nuredin; Mirzaie, Sako; Hemmati, Roohullah; Moslemee-Jalalvand, Elham; Noori, Ali Reza; Kazemi, Jahanfard

    2018-05-16

    Ursolic Acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound, plays a vital role in aging process. However, the role of UA in the regulation of aging and longevity is still controversial as we have previously demonstrated that UA increases SIRT1 protein level in aged-mice. Here, we reveal that UA directly activates SIRT1 in silico, in vitro and in vivo. We have identified that UA binds to outer surface of SIRT1 and leads to tight binding of substrates to enzyme in comparison with Resveratrol (RSV) and control. Furthermore, our results indicate that UA drives the structure of SIRT1 toward a closed state (an active form of enzyme). Interestingly, our experimental findings are in agreement with the molecular dynamic results. Based on our data, UA increases the affinity of enzyme for both substrates with decreasing Km value, while enhances the Vmax of enzyme. Additionally, we have determined that UA heightened SIRT1 catalytic efficiency by 2 folds compared with RSV. Thereby, to identify the endogenous activator of SIRT1, UA was administrated to aged-mice and then the tissues were isolated. According to our results, it can be concluded that UA increases SIRT1 activity and mimics Lamin A and AROS behavior in the living cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Down-Regulation of AKT Signalling by Ursolic Acid Induces Intrinsic Apoptosis and Sensitization to Doxorubicin in Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Villar

    Full Text Available Several important biological activities have been attributed to the pentacyclic triterpene ursolic acid (UA, being its antitumoral effect extensively studied in human adenocarcinomas. In this work, we focused on the efficacy and molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumoral effects of UA, as single agent or combined with doxorubicin (DXR, in human soft tissue sarcoma cells. UA (5-50 μM strongly inhibited (up to 80% the viability of STS cells at 24 h and its proliferation in soft agar, with higher concentrations increasing apoptotic death up to 30%. UA treatment (6-9 h strongly blocked the survival AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signalling pathway, which led to a concomitant reduction of the anti-apoptotic proteins c-Myc and p21, altogether resulting in the activation of intrinsic apoptosis. Interestingly, UA at low concentrations (10-15 μM enhanced the antitumoral effects of DXR by up to 2-fold, while in parallel inhibiting DXR-induced AKT activation and p21 expression, two proteins implicated in antitumoral drug resistance and cell survival. In conclusion, UA is able to induce intrinsic apoptosis in human STS cells and also to sensitize these cells to DXR by blocking the AKT signalling pathway. Therefore, UA may have beneficial effects, if used as nutraceutical adjuvant during standard chemotherapy treatment of STS.

  18. Ursolic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside improve lipid profiles and increase liver glycogen content through glycogen synthase kinase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marisa F; Camsari, Cagri; Sá, Carla M; Lima, Cristovao F; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, two phytochemicals - ursolic acid (UA) and luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) - were assessed in vivo in healthy rats regarding effects on plasma glucose and lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL), as well as liver glycogen content, in view of their importance in the aetiology of diabetes and associated complications. Both UA and L7G significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration. UA also significantly increased liver glycogen levels accompanied by phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). The increase in glycogen deposition induced by UA (mediated by GSK3) could have contributed to the lower plasma glucose levels observed. Both compounds significantly lowered total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels, and, in addition, UA increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels. Our results show that UA particularly may be useful in preventable strategies for people at risk of developing diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications by improving plasma glucose levels and lipid profile, as well as by promoting liver glycogen deposition.

  19. In vitro, in silico and in vivo studies of ursolic acid as an anti-filarial agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Kalani

    Full Text Available As part of our drug discovery program for anti-filarial agents from Indian medicinal plants, leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of an anti-filarial agent, ursolic acid (UA as a major constituent. Antifilarial activity of UA against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using in vitro and in vivo assays, and in silico docking search on glutathione-s-transferase (GST parasitic enzyme were carried out. The UA was lethal to microfilariae (mf; LC100: 50; IC50: 8.84 µM and female adult worms (LC100: 100; IC50: 35.36 µM as observed by motility assay; it exerted 86% inhibition in MTT reduction potential of the adult parasites. The selectivity index (SI of UA for the parasites was found safe. This was supported by the molecular docking studies, which showed adequate docking (LibDock scores for UA (-8.6 with respect to the standard antifilarial drugs, ivermectin (IVM -8.4 and diethylcarbamazine (DEC-C -4.6 on glutathione-s-transferase enzyme. Further, in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that UA possesses drug-like properties. Furthermore, UA was evaluated in vivo in B. malayi-M. coucha model (natural infection, which showed 54% macrofilaricidal activity, 56% female worm sterility and almost unchanged microfilaraemia maintained throughout observation period with no adverse effect on the host. Thus, in conclusion in vitro, in silico and in vivo results indicate that UA is a promising, inexpensive, widely available natural lead, which can be designed and developed into a macrofilaricidal drug. To the best of our knowledge this is the first ever report on the anti-filarial potential of UA from E. tereticornis, which is in full agreement with the Thomson Reuter's 'Metadrug' tool screening predictions.

  20. Combined Use of Zoledronic Acid Augments Ursolic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells through Enhanced Oxidative Stress and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chieh Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid (UA, a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpene acid found in many medicinal herbs and edible plants, triggers apoptosis in several tumor cell lines but not in human bone cancer cells. Most recently, we have demonstrated that UA exposure reduces the viability of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells through enhanced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Interestingly, an inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, zoledronic acid (ZOL, also a third-generation nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, is effective in the treatment of bone metastases in patients with various solid tumors. In this present study, we found that UA combined with ZOL to significantly suppress cell viability, colony formation, and induce apoptosis in two lines of human osteosarcoma cells. The pre-treatment of the antioxidant had reversed the oxidative stress and cell viability inhibition in the combined treatment, indicating that oxidative stress is important in the combined anti-tumor effects. Moreover, we demonstrated that ZOL combined with UA significantly induced autophagy and co-administration of autophagy inhibitor reduces the growth inhibitory effect of combined treatment. Collectively, these data shed light on the pathways involved in the combined effects of ZOL and UA that might serve as a potential therapy against osteosarcoma.

  1. Ursolic Acid-Regulated Energy Metabolism—Reliever or Propeller of Ultraviolet-Induced Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hao Lee

    2014-08-01

    sensitizer, ursolic acid (UA, which results in the metabolic adaptation of normal cells against UV-induced ROS, and the metabolic switch of tumor cells subject to UV-induced damage. The multifaceted natural compound, UA, specifically inhibits photo-oxidative DNA damage in retinal pigment epithelial cells while enhancing that in skin melanoma. Considering the UA-mediated differential effects on cell bioenergetics, this article reviews the disparities in glucose metabolism between tumor and normal cells, along with (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α-dependent mitochondrial metabolism and redox (reduction-oxidation control to demonstrate UA-induced synthetic lethality in tumor cells.

  2. Antileishmanial Activity of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Miconia langsdorffii, Isolated Compounds, and Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson R. Cunha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. was evaluated against the promastigote forms of L. amazonensis, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans. The bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to identification of the triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid as the major compounds in the fraction that displayed the highest activity. Several ursolic acid semi-synthetic derivatives were prepared, to find out whether more active compounds could be obtained. Among these ursolic acid-derived substances, the C-28 methyl ester derivative exhibited the best antileishmanial activity.

  3. The Apoptotic Effect of Ursolic Acid on SK-Hep-1 Cells is Regulated by the PI3K/Akt, p38 and JNK MAPK Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ling Chuang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid (UA is a pentacyclic triterpene acid that is present in a wide variety of medicinal herbs and edible plants. This study investigated the effect of UA on apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells. After treatment of SK-Hep-1 cells with different concentrations of UA, we observed that cell viability was reduced in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 and G2/M phases, with cells treated with 60 μM showing the highest percentages of cells in those phases. UA-induced chromatin condensation of nuclei was observed by using DAPI staining. The western blot results revealed that exposure to UA was associated with decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and TCTP and increased expression of apoptosis-related proteins TNF-α, Fas, FADD, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and PARP. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that treatment with UA resulted in increased expression of caspase-3. Moreover, exposure to UA resulted in the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. These findings suggest that UA inhibits the proliferation of SK-Hep-1 cells and induces apoptosis.

  4. Resistance to ursolic acid-induced apoptosis through involvement of melanogenesis and COX-2/PGE2 pathways in human M4Beu melanoma cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Lama; Pinon, Aline; Limami, Youness; Seeman, Josiane; Fidanzi-Dugas, Chloe; Martin, Frederique; Badran, Bassam; Simon, Alain; Liagre, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer with a continuously growing incidence worldwide and is usually resistant to chemotherapy agents, which is due in part to a strong resistance to apoptosis. Previously, we had showed that B16-F0 murine melanoma cells undergoing apoptosis are able to delay their own death induced by ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid compound. We had demonstrated that tyrosinase and TRP-1 up-regulation in apoptotic cells and the subsequent production of melanin were implicated in an apoptosis resistance mechanism. Several resistance mechanisms to apoptosis have been characterized in melanoma such as hyperactivation of DNA repair mechanisms, drug efflux systems, and reinforcement of survival signals (PI3K/Akt, NF-κB and Raf/MAPK pathways). Otherwise, other mechanisms of apoptosis resistance involving different proteins, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), have been described in many cancer types. By using a strategy of specific inhibition of each ways, we suggested that there was an interaction between melanogenesis and COX-2/PGE 2 pathway. This was characterized by analyzing the COX-2 expression and activity, the expression of tyrosinase and melanin production. Furthermore, we showed that anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects of UA were mediated through modulation of multiple signaling pathways including Akt and ERK-1/2 proteins. Our study not only uncovers underlying molecular mechanisms of UA action in human melanoma cancer cells but also suggest its great potential as an adjuvant in treatment and cancer prevention.

  5. Resistance to ursolic acid-induced apoptosis through involvement of melanogenesis and COX-2/PGE{sub 2} pathways in human M4Beu melanoma cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Lama; Pinon, Aline [Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA1069, Limoges (France); Limami, Youness [Laboratoire National de Référence (LNR), Université Mohammed VI des Sciences de la Santé, Casablanca (Morocco); Seeman, Josiane; Fidanzi-Dugas, Chloe; Martin, Frederique [Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA1069, Limoges (France); Badran, Bassam [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Molecular Immunology, Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut (Lebanon); Simon, Alain [Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA1069, Limoges (France); Liagre, Bertrand, E-mail: bertrand.liagre@unilim.fr [Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA1069, Limoges (France)

    2016-07-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer with a continuously growing incidence worldwide and is usually resistant to chemotherapy agents, which is due in part to a strong resistance to apoptosis. Previously, we had showed that B16-F0 murine melanoma cells undergoing apoptosis are able to delay their own death induced by ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid compound. We had demonstrated that tyrosinase and TRP-1 up-regulation in apoptotic cells and the subsequent production of melanin were implicated in an apoptosis resistance mechanism. Several resistance mechanisms to apoptosis have been characterized in melanoma such as hyperactivation of DNA repair mechanisms, drug efflux systems, and reinforcement of survival signals (PI3K/Akt, NF-κB and Raf/MAPK pathways). Otherwise, other mechanisms of apoptosis resistance involving different proteins, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), have been described in many cancer types. By using a strategy of specific inhibition of each ways, we suggested that there was an interaction between melanogenesis and COX-2/PGE{sub 2} pathway. This was characterized by analyzing the COX-2 expression and activity, the expression of tyrosinase and melanin production. Furthermore, we showed that anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects of UA were mediated through modulation of multiple signaling pathways including Akt and ERK-1/2 proteins. Our study not only uncovers underlying molecular mechanisms of UA action in human melanoma cancer cells but also suggest its great potential as an adjuvant in treatment and cancer prevention.

  6. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimisation of Simultaneous UHPLC-PDA Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids and Standardisation of Ericaceae Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Owczarek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A fast and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UHPLC-PDA method for simultaneous quantification of oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA in plant materials was developed. A central composite design combined with a response surface methodology was utilized to establish optimal separation conditions. The final separation was accomplished on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (1.8 μm, 100 mm × 3 mm I.D., Agilent, Santa Clara, CA, USA using a mixture 90:10 (v/v of methanol and 1% (w/v aqueous orthophosporic acid as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.44 mL/min and temperature of 18 °C. The analysis was completed in 6.2 min with satisfactory resolution of 1.5 between the target analytes. The developed method proved to be precise (relative standard deviations below 3.2%, accurate (recoveries in the range of 95.27%–98.60%, and sensitive (limits of detection (LODs in the range of 0.047–0.051 mg/mL. The method was then successfully applied to evaluate OA and UA content in real samples of selected Ericaceae plant materials (leaves of Arctostaphylos uva ursi, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis idaea, Gaultheria procumbens. The content of OA and UA in investigated samples varied in the range of 0.74–4.47 mg/g dry weight (dw and 1.30–18.61 mg/g dw, respectively.

  7. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The recovery of uranium from phosphoric liquor by two extraction process is studied. First, uranium is reduced to tetravalent condition and is extracted by dioctypyrophosphoric acid. The re-extraction is made by concentrated phosphoric acid with an oxidizing agent. The re-extract is submitted to the second process and uranium is extracted by di-ethylhexilphosphoric acid and trioctylphosphine oxide. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Therapeutic role of ursolic acid on ameliorating hepatic steatosis and improving metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songtao; Liao, Xilu; Meng, Fanyu; Wang, Yemei; Sun, Zongxiang; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Meng, Man; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases around the world, and is closely associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Ursolic acid (UA), an ubiquitous triterpenoid with multifold biological roles, is distributed in various plants. This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of UA against hepatic steatosis in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rat model. Obese NAFLD model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by 8-week HFD feeding. Therapeutic role of UA was evaluated using 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% UA-supplemented diet for another 6 weeks. The results from both morphologic and histological detections indicated that UA significantly reversed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury. Besides, hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α was markedly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels by UA. Knocking down PPAR-α significantly inhibited the anti-steatosis role of UA in vitro. HFD-induced adverse changes in the key genes, which participated in hepatic lipid metabolism, were also alleviated by UA treatment. Furthermore, UA significantly ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. These results demonstrated that UA effectively ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through a PPAR-α involved pathway, via improving key enzymes in the controlling of lipids metabolism. The metabolic disorders were accordingly improved with the decrease of hepatic steatosis. Thereby, UA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of NAFLD.

  9. Therapeutic role of ursolic acid on ameliorating hepatic steatosis and improving metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most prevalent liver diseases around the world, and is closely associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Ursolic acid (UA, an ubiquitous triterpenoid with multifold biological roles, is distributed in various plants. This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of UA against hepatic steatosis in a high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD rat model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese NAFLD model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by 8-week HFD feeding. Therapeutic role of UA was evaluated using 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% UA-supplemented diet for another 6 weeks. The results from both morphologic and histological detections indicated that UA significantly reversed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury. Besides, hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-α was markedly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels by UA. Knocking down PPAR-α significantly inhibited the anti-steatosis role of UA in vitro. HFD-induced adverse changes in the key genes, which participated in hepatic lipid metabolism, were also alleviated by UA treatment. Furthermore, UA significantly ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrated that UA effectively ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through a PPAR-α involved pathway, via improving key enzymes in the controlling of lipids metabolism. The metabolic disorders were accordingly improved with the decrease of hepatic steatosis. Thereby, UA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of NAFLD.

  10. Effects of Ursolic Acid Derivatives on Caco-2 Cells and Their Alleviating Role in Streptozocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect and mechanism of a series of ursolic acid (UA derivatives on glucose uptake were investigated in a Caco-2 cells model. Their effect on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress were also demonstrated in streptozocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylamino]-2-deoxy-glucose (2-NBDG was used as a fluorescein in Caco-2 cells model to screen UA derivatives by glucose uptake and expression of glucose transporter protein (SGLT-1, GLUT-2. Moreover, STZ-induced diabetic rats were administered with these derivatives for 4 weeks of treatment. The fasting blood glucose (FBG, insulin levels, biochemical parameters, lipid levels, and oxidative stress markers were finally evaluated. The results of this study indicated that compounds 10 and 11 significantly inhibited 2-NBDG uptake under both Na+-dependent and Na+-independent conditions by decreasing SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 expression in the Caco-2 cells model. Further in vivo studies revealed that compound 10 significantly reduced hyperglycemia by increasing levels of serum insulin, total protein, and albumin, while the fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake were restored much closer to those of normal rats. Compounds 10 and 11 showed hypolipidemic activity by decreasing the total amounts of cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TG. Furthermore, compound 10 showed antioxidant potential which was confirmed by elevation of glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD and reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. It was concluded that compound 10 caused an apparent inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells and hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia and augmented oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Thus, compound 10 could be developed as a potentially complementary therapeutic or prophylactic agent for diabetics mellitus and its complications.

  11. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, A.

    1983-05-01

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  12. Uranium extraction in phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    Uranium is recovered from the phosphoric liquor produced from the concentrate obtained from phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil). The proposed process consists of two extraction cycles. In the first one, uranium is reduced to its tetravalent state and then extracted by dioctylpyrophosphoric acid, diluted in Kerosene. Re-extraction is carried out with concentrated phosphoric acid containing an oxidising agent to convert uranium to its hexavalent state. This extract (from the first cycle) is submitted to the second cycle where uranium is extracted with DEPA-TOPO (di-2-hexylphosphoric acid/tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) in Kerosene. The extract is then washed and uranium is backextracted and precipitated as commercial concentrate. The organic phase is recovered. Results from discontinuous tests were satisfactory, enabling to establish operational conditions for the performance of a continuous test in a micro-pilot plant. (Author) [pt

  13. Ursolic Acid—A Pentacyclic Triterpenoid with a Wide Spectrum of Pharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Woźniak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid (UA is a natural terpene compound exhibiting many pharmaceutical properties. In this review the current state of knowledge about the health-promoting properties of this widespread, biologically active compound, as well as information about its occurrence and biosynthesis are presented. Particular attention has been paid to the application of ursolic acid as an anti-cancer agent; it is worth noticing that clinical tests suggesting the possibility of practical use of UA have already been conducted. Amongst other pharmacological properties of UA one can mention protective effect on lungs, kidneys, liver and brain, anti-inflammatory properties, anabolic effects on skeletal muscles and the ability to suppress bone density loss leading to osteoporosis. Ursolic acid also exhibits anti-microbial features against numerous strains of bacteria, HIV and HCV viruses and Plasmodium protozoa causing malaria.

  14. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutano, L.

    1964-06-01

    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [fr

  15. A smart pH-responsive nano-carrier as a drug delivery system for the targeted delivery of ursolic acid: suppresses cancer growth and metastasis by modulating P53/MMP-9/PTEN/CD44 mediated multiple signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Chi, Ting; Li, Tao; Zheng, Guirong; Fan, Lulu; Liu, Yajun; Chen, Xiufen; Chen, Sijia; Jia, Lee; Shao, Jingwei

    2017-07-13

    Ursolic acid (UA) has been recently used as a promising anti-tumor and cancer metastatic chemo-preventive agent due to its low toxicity and liver-protecting property. However, the low bioavailability and nonspecific tumor targeting restrict its further clinical application. To address the problem, a silica-based mesoporous nanosphere (MSN) controlled-release drug delivery system (denoted UA@M-CS-FA) was designed and successfully synthesized, and was functionalized with folic acid (FA) and pH-sensitive chitosan (CS) for the targeted delivery of UA to folate receptor (FR) positive tumor cells. UA@M-CS-FA were spherical with mean diameter below 150 nm, and showed about -20 mV potential. Meanwhile, UA@M-CS-FA exhibited a pH-sensitive release manner and high cellular uptake in FR over-expressing HeLa cancer cells. Also, in vitro cellular assays suggested that UA@M-CS-FA inhibited cancer cell growth, invasion and migration. Mechanistically, UA@M-CS-FA induced cancer cell apoptosis and inhibited migration via cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 stage, regulating the PARP/Bcl-2/MMP-9/CD44/PTEN/P53. Importantly, in vivo experiments further confirmed that UA@M-CS-FA significantly suppressed the tumor progression and lung metastasis in tumor-bearing nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that UA@M-CS-FA treatment regulated CD44, a biomarker of cancer metastasis. Overall, our data demonstrated that a CS and FA modified MSN controlled-release drug delivery system could help broaden the usage of UA and reflect the great application potential of the UA as an anticancer or cancer metastatic chemopreventive agent.

  16. Counter current extraction of phosphoric acid: Food grade acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; AlIbrahim, M.

    2009-01-01

    Extraction, scrubbing and stripping of phosphoric acid from the Syrian wet-phosphoric acid was carried out using Micro-pilot plant of mixer settler type of 8 l/h capacity. Tributyl phosphate (TBP)/di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) in kerosene was used as extractant. Extraction and stripping equilibrium curves were evaluated. The number of extraction and stripping stages to achieve the convenient and feasible yield was determined. Detailed flow sheet was suggested for the proposed continuous process. Data obtained include useful information for the design of phosphoric acid extraction plant. The produced phosphoric acid was characterized using different analytical techniques. (author)

  17. Metal extraction by amides of carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorovarov, D.I.; Chumakova, G.M.; Rusin, L.I.; Ul'anov, V.S.; Sviridova, R.A.; Sviridov, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction ability of various amides was studied. Data on extraction of rare earths, vanadium, molybdenum, rhenium, uranium, niobium, tantalum by N,N-dibutyl-amides of acetic, nonanic acids and fatly synthetic acids of C 7 -C 9 fractions are presented. Effect of salting-out agents, inorganic acid concentrations on extraction process was studied. Potential ability of using amides of carboxylic acids for extractional concentration of rare earths as well as for recovery and separation of iron, rhenium, vanadium, molybdenum, uranium, niobium, and tantalum was shown

  18. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  19. Extraction of cesium from acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katykhin, G.S.; Simonov, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The extraction of cesium from acidic solutions is studied. Halogen-substituted carboxylic acids were chosen for the aqueous phase and nitrobenzene the diluent. The distribution coefficients are determined by the use of radioactive tracers 134 Cs and 137 Cs. It is believed that large singly charged anions of strong acids are necessary for the extraction of cesium. Metal halide acids are selected for supplying the anions

  20. Extraction of sulfuric acid with TOPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuyun, Xue; Yonghui, Yang; Yanzhao, Yang; Sixiu, Sun; Borong, Bao

    1998-01-01

    A study on solvent extraction of sulfuric acid by tri-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in n-heptane has been made. Extraction coefficients of H 2 SO 4 as a function of H 2 SO 4 concentration in aqueous phase, and extractant concentrations in organic phase have been studied. The composition of extracted species, equilibrium constants of extraction reaction have been evaluated. These results are important for interpreting extraction equilibrium data of uranium(VI) or other metal ions with TOPO in sulfuric acid media. (author)

  1. Unsymmetrical phosphate as extractant for the extraction of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaikwad, R.H.; Jayaram, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) was first used as an extractant in 1944, during Manhattan project for the separation of actinides and further explored by Warf in 1949 for the extraction of Ce(IV) from aqueous nitric acid. TBP was further used as an extractant in the Plutonium Uranium Recovery by Extraction (PUREX) process. To meet the stringent requirements of the nuclear industry TBP has been extensively investigated. In spite of its wide applicability, TBP suffers from various disadvantages such as high aqueous solubility, third phase formation, chemical and radiation degradation leading to the formation of undesired products. It also suffers from incomplete decontamination of the actinides from fission products. Various attempts have been made to overcome the problems associated with TBP by way of using higher homologues of TBP such as Tri-iso amyl phosphate (TiAP), Tri-secondary butyl phosphate (TsBP), Tri amyl phosphate (TAP). It was found that in some cases the results were considerably better than those obtained with TBP for uranium/thorium extraction. The extraction of nitric acid by TBP and its higher homologues which are symmetrical are well documented. However, no solvent has emerged clearly superior than TBP. Here in we report the extraction of nitric acid with neutral unsymmetrical phosphates and study them as extractants for the extraction of nitric acid. Dibutyl secbutyl phosphate, dibutyl pentyl phosphate and dibutyl heptyl phosphate were synthesised for this purpose and the extraction of nitric acid was studied in n-dodecane. The results indicate that the substitution of one of the alkyl groups of the symmetrical phosphate adjacent to the phosphoryl (P=O) group of the phosphate does not have any pronounced effect on the extraction capacity of nitric acid. (author)

  2. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines; Extraction de quelques acides par des amines aliphatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutano, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [French] Les acides chlorhydrique, nitrique, sulfurique, perchlorique, phosphorique, acetique et formique, en solution aqueuse - 0,05 a 10 M - sont extraits par l'amberlite LA2 et la trilaurylamine en solution, a 5 pour cent en volume, dans le kerosene et le xylene respectivement. L'extraction comprend: une neutralisation de l'amine par l'acide avec formation d'un sel d'amine; une 'extraction moleculaire', c'est-a-dire une extraction d'acide en exces par rapport a la stoechiometrie du sel d'amine. Suivant le comportement des acides au cours de l'extraction nous distinguons trois groupes: acides entierement dissocies, acides carboxyliques, acide phosphorique. Cette classification est egalement valable pour l'extraction de l'eau qui est simultanee a celle de l'acide. Un mecanisme d'extraction pour l'acide formique est propose et nous calculons la constante de formation de son sel d'amine. (auteur)

  3. Reactive extraction of lactic acid using alamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting it out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent)

  4. Extraction of scandium by aromatic carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenev, V.F.; Fadeeva, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    Extraction of complex compounds af scandium with salicylic, phenyl- and diphenylacetic acids with chloroform solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate as a donor-active additive in relation to the pH and reagent concentration has been studied. Extraction of salicylates of some elements (Ta, Nb, Zr, Hf, Mo) by solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate in chloroform has been investigated, and the possibility of their extraction separation from scandium is shown

  5. Extraction of scandium by aromatic carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenev, V F; Fadeeva, V I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1977-04-01

    Extraction of complex compounds af scandium with salicylic, phenyl- and diphenylacetic acids with chloroform solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate as a donor-active additive in relation to the pH and reagent concentration has been studied. Extraction of salicylates of some elements (Ta, Nb, Zr, Hf, Mo) by solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate in chloroform has been investigated, and the possibility of their extraction separation from scandium is shown.

  6. Nucleic acid protocols: Extraction and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed El-Ashram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield and quality are fundamental features for any researchers during nucleic acid extraction. Here, we describe a simplified, semi-unified, effective, and toxic material free protocol for extracting DNA and RNA from different prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources exploiting the physical and chemical properties of nucleic acids. Furthermore, this protocol showed that DNA and RNA are under triple protection (i.e. EDTA, SDS and NaCl during lysis step, and this environment is improper for RNase to have DNA liberated of RNA and even for DNase to degrade the DNA. Therefore, the complete removal of RNA under RNase influence is achieved when RNase is added after DNA extraction, which gives optimal quality with any protocols. Similarly, DNA contamination in an isolated RNA is degraded by DNase to obtain high-quality RNA. Our protocol is the protocol of choice in terms of simplicity, recovery time, environmental safety, amount, purity, PCR and RT-PCR applicability.

  7. Isolation of immunomodulatory triterpene acids from a standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaby, Lasse; Jäger, Anna Katharina; Moesby, Lise; Hansen, Erik Wind; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2011-02-01

    A previously published systematic review and a metaanalysis have concluded that the consumption of standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.) can reduce pain in osteoarthritis patients. Synovial inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and mainly to involve infiltration of the synovial membrane by macrophages. Therefore, the immunomodulatory effect of standardized rose hip powder of Rosa canina L. was investigated and active principles isolated using the Mono Mac 6 cell line as a model for human macrophages. Treatment of Mono Mac 6 cells with the residue of a crude dichloromethane extract of rose hip powder significantly and concentration dependently inhibited the lipopolysaccharide induced interleukin-6 release. Through bioassay-guided fractionation the immunomodulatory effect of the dichloromethane extract was correlated to a mixture of three triterpene acids; oleanolic acid, betulinic acid and ursolic acid (IC(50) 21 ± 6 µm). Further studies revealed that only oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, but not betulinic acid, could inhibit the lipopolysaccharide induced interleukin-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells when tested separately. Combination of either oleanolic acid or ursolic acid with betulinic acid enhanced the immunomodulatory effect of the two triterpene acids. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  9. Bioassay-guided supercritical fluid extraction of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting substances in Plantago major L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenholm, A; Göransson, U; Bohlin, L

    2013-02-01

    Selective extraction of plant materials is advantageous for obtaining extracts enriched with desired constituents, thereby reducing the need for subsequent chromatography purification. Such compounds include three cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory substances in Plantago major L. targeted in this investigation: α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) (18:3 ω-3) and the triterpenic acids ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. To investigate the scope for tuning the selectivity of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using bioassay guidance, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane as solvent as a reference technique, to optimise yields of these substances. Extraction parameters were varied to optimise extracts' COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratios. The crude extracts were purified initially using a solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up procedure and the target compounds were identified with GC-MS, LC-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS² using GC-FID for quantification. α-LNA was preferentially extracted in dynamic mode using unmodified carbon dioxide at 40°C and 172 bar, at a 0.04% (w/w) yield with a COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratio of 1.5. Ursolic and oleanolic acids were dynamically extracted at 0.25% and 0.06% yields, respectively, with no traces of (α-LNA) and a COX-2/COX-1-inhibitory effect ratio of 1.1 using 10% (v/v) ethanol as polar modifier at 75°C and 483 bar. The Soxhlet extracts had ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and αLNA yields up to 1.36%, 0.34% and 0.15%, respectively, with a COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratio of 1.2. The target substances can be extracted selectively by bioassay guided optimisation of SFE conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of standardized dichloromethane extract of Salvia connivens on macrophages stimulated by LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Chávez, Marco Martín; Ramos-Velázquez, Cinthia Saraí; Serrano-Vega, Roberto; Pérez-González, Cuauhtemoc; Sánchez-Mendoza, Ernesto; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud

    2017-12-01

    A previous study demonstrated that the chloroform extract of Salvia connivens Epling (Lamiaceae) has anti-inflammatory activity. Identification of the active components in the dicholorometane extract (DESC), and, standardization of the extract based in ursolic acid. DESC was prepared by percolation with dichlromethane and after washed with hot hexane, its composition was determined by CG-MS and NMR, and standardized by HPLC. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested on acute TPA-induced mouse ear oedema at doses of 2.0 mg/ear. The cell viability of macrophages was evaluated by MTT method, and pro- and anti-inflammatory interleukin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. Ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, dihydroursolic acid and eupatorin were identified in DESC, which was standardized based on the ursolic acid concentration (126 mg/g). The anti-inflammatory activities of DESC, the acid mixture, and eupatorin (2 mg/ear) were 60.55, 57.20 and 56.40% inhibition, respectively, on TPA-induced ear oedema. The IC 50 of DESC on macrophages was 149.4 μg/mL. DESC (25 μg/mL) significantly reduced TNF-α (2.0-fold), IL-1β (2.2-fold) and IL-6 (2.0-fold) in macrophages stimulated with LPS and increased the production of IL-10 (1.9-fold). Inflammation is a basic response to injuries, and macrophages are involved in triggering inflammation. Macrophage cells exhibit a response to LPS, inducing inflammatory mediators, and DESC inhibits the biosynthesis of the pro-inflammatory and promote anti-inflammatory cytokines. DESC has an anti-inflammatory effect; reduced the levels of IL-1β, Il-6 and TNF-α; and increases IL-10 in macrophages stimulated with LPS. Ursolic acid is a good phytochemical marker.

  11. Method of purifying phosphoric acid after solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloheris, A.P.; Lefever, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of purifying phosphoric acid after solvent extraction is described. The phosphoric acid is contacted with a sorbent which sorbs or takes up the residual amount of organic carrier and the phosphoric acid separated from the organic carrier-laden sorbent. The method is especially suitable for removing residual organic carrier from phosphoric acid after solvent extraction uranium recovery. (author)

  12. Extraction of Tetravalent Uranium by Certain Acidic Organophosphorus Extractants from Phosphate Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, J.A.; Zeid, M.M.; Aly, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    The extraction of U(IV) by octylphenyl acid phosphate (OPAP) or di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in kerosene from phosphoric acid was carried out. The effect of extractant, phosphoric acid, uranium, Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentration on the extraction process was separately investigated. The effect of different reagents and temperature on the stripping of U(IV) was also investigated. The results obtained for the extraction of U(IV) by HDEHP showed that the extraction with the increase in HDEHP and Fe(III) concentration while it decreases with the increase in phosphoric acid, uranium and Fe(II) concentration. In case of extraction with OPAP, the extraction of U(IV) was found to decrease with the phosphoric acid, Fe(II) and initial uranium concentration while the increase in OPAP concentration slightly affected the extraction. The use of high phosphoric acid concentration as stripper at low temperature was found to give the best stripping results

  13. Extractants for uranium recovery from wet phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Benjelloun, N.; Lours, S.

    1982-01-01

    Synergistic mixtures containing phosphine oxide plus one of the acidic extractants: dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, dialkylthiophosphoric acid and dialkylphosphoric acid have been compared with respect to U(VI) and Fe(III) extraction from wet phosphoric acid. Distribution curves slope analysis showed that U(VI) extraction mechanisms are totally different. It has been found that U(VI) is extracted as: UO 2 (H 2 PO 4 )(DEHDTP)(TOPO) ; UO 2 (H 2 PO 4 )(DBTP)(POX) 2 and UO 2 (DEHP)(HDEHP) 2 TOPO in dodecane solutions containing di 2 ethylhexyldithiophosphoric acid (HDEHDTP) or dibutylthiophosphoric acid (HDBTP) or di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (HDEHP) plus a phosphine oxide (TOPO or dihexylmethoxyoctylphosphine oxide (POX 11)). The synergistic mixtures containing HDEHDTP gave the highest U(VI) distribution coefficients. Back extraction with oxalic solutions can be achieved only with the synergistic mixtures containing the acidic thiophosphoric donors

  14. Rapid Determination of Two Triterpenoid Acids in Chaenomelis Fructus Using Supercritical Fluid Extraction On-line Coupled with Supercritical Fluid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Ji, Feng; Li, Yueqi; He, Tian; Han, Ya; Wang, Daidong; Lin, Zongtao; Chen, Shizhong

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an on-line supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) method was developed for the rapid determination of oleanoic acid and ursolic acid in Chaenomelis Fructus. After optimization of the conditions, the two triterpenoid acids was obtained by SFE using 20% methanol as a modifier at 35°C in 8 min. They were resolved on a Shim-pack UC-X Diol column (4.6 × 150 mm, 3 μm) in 14 min (0 - 10 min, 5 - 10%; 10 - 14 min, 10% methanol in CO 2 ) with a backpressure of 15 MPa at 40°C. The on-line SFE-SFC method could be completed within 40 min (10.79 mg/g dry plant, R s = 2.36), while the ultrasound-assisted extraction and HPLC method required at least 90 min (3.55 mg/g dry plant, R s = 1.92). This on-line SFE-SFC method is powerful to simplify the pre-processing and quantitative analysis of natural products.

  15. Extraction of copper zinc and iron from hydrochloric acid solutions by means of different extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhivkova, Svetlana [Institute of Chemical Engineering - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    The extraction of copper, zinc and iron from hydrochloric acid solutions has been studied. The experiments have been carried out using various solvents, involving different extraction mechanisms – solvating, anion-exchange, cation-exchange, bifunctional . Mixtures of these extractants have been also used. The extraction properties of these extractant mixtures toward copper, zinc and iron, the effect of used modifiers and diluents have been also investigated. Key words: Copper, Zinc, Iron, Extraction, Extractant, Modifier, Diluent.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Caffeic Acid from Methanol Seed Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A dose of the extract (500 mg, equivalent to 37.135 mg caffeic acid) was administered orally to 6 male .... emission. Validation studies. Linearity. The rat plasma samples were spiked by caffeic acid solutions ..... Atomic structure of.

  17. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  18. Response Surface Optimized Extraction of Total Triterpene Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize extraction of total triterpene acids from loquat leaf and evaluate their in vitro antioxidant activities. Methods: The independent variables were ethanol concentration, extraction time, and solvent ratio, while the dependent variable was content of total triterpene acids. Composite design and response ...

  19. Extraction of Glycyrrhizic Acid and Glabridin from Licorice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Row

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The extraction and separation conditions of glycyrrhizic acid and glabridin from licorice were investigated. By changing the different extraction solvents, procedures, times and temperature, the optimum extraction condition was established: the used of ethanol/water (30:70, v/v as an extraction solvent, and 60 min dipping time under 50°C. The extracts of licorice were separated and determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a methanol/water (70:30, v/v, containing 1% acetic acid as the mobile phase. Under the optimum extraction condition, 2.39 mg/g of glycyrrhizic acid and 0.92 mg/g of glabridin were extracted from Chinese licorice and the recoveries were 89.7% and 72.5% respectively.

  20. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  1. Enzymatic Extraction of Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Coffee Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Favela-Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids are classified as hydroxycinnamic acids, presenting anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this work, enzymatic extraction has been studied in order to extract high value-added products like hydroxycinnamic acids from coffee pulp. A commercial pectinase and enzyme extract produced by Rhizomucor pusillus strain 23aIV in solid-state fermentation using olive oil or coffee pulp (CP as an inducer of the feruloyl esterase activity were evaluated separately and mixed. The total content (covalently linked and free of ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids was 5276 mg per kg of coffee pulp. Distribution was as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 58.7, caffeic acid 37.6, ferulic acid 2.1 and p-coumaric acid 1.5. Most of the hydroxycinnamic acids were covalently bound to the cell wall (in %: p-coumaric acid 97.2, caffeic acid 94.4, chlorogenic acid 76.9 and ferulic acid 73.4. The content of covalently linked hydroxycinnamic acid was used to calculate the enzyme extraction yield. The maximum carbon dioxide rate for the solid-state fermentation using olive oil as an inducer was higher and it was reached in a short cultivation time. Nevertheless, the feruloyl esterase (FAE activity (units per mg of protein obtained in the fermentation using CP as an inducer was 31.8 % higher in comparison with that obtained in the fermentation using olive oil as the inducer. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating the composition of both esterified and free ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids in coffee pulp. The highest yield of extraction of hydroxycinnamic acids was obtained by mixing the produced enzyme extract using coffee pulp as an inducer and a commercial pectinase. Extraction yields were as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 54.4, ferulic acid 19.8, p-coumaric acid 7.2 and caffeic acid 2.3. An important increase in the added value of coffee pulp was mainly

  2. Lanthanide extraction with 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.

    1977-12-01

    This research is concerned with the solvent extraction into chloroform of the lanthanides, using 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid (DMHHA). This acid is the first α-hydroxy aliphatic acid to be studied as an extracting agent for the lanthanides. The chloroform-water DMHHA partition constant was determined to be 1.0 (at 0.1 M ionic strength and 25 0 C). The acid dimerizes in chloroform with a constant of 56. The light lanthanides can be extracted into chloroform by forming complexes with the DMHHA anions. The extracted metal species is highly aggregated. This extraction has a solubility limit which increases with the addition of unionized acid. The resultant extract is also highly aggregated. At unionized acid-to-metal ratios greater than one, extractions first occur followed by the slow precipitation of the lanthanide. At the tracer level, neodymium is extracted primarily as NdA 3 (HA) 5 and (NdA 3 ) 2 (HA)/sub q/. Very small amounts of (NdA 3 ) 2 and other metal aggregates are also present. The heavy lanthanides do not extract from solutions of DMHHA and its potassium salt, but form aqueous emulsions and precipitates. In the presence of the organic soluble tetrabutylammonium ion the heavy lanthanides can be extracted, presumably as ion pairs. The stability constants of the light lanthanides and DMHHA were determined. The separation factors obtained from DMHHA extractions of the light lanthanides were also investigated and found to be comparable to those obtained employing normal aliphatic carboxylic acid

  3. Indium extraction by an acidic extractant associated or not with synergetic agents: importance of inorganic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz-Grandmont, G.; Taheri, M.; Brunette, J.P.; Leroy, M.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Thermodynamic data are presented for indium extraction from low acidity media (pH value between 1 and 4) and at low concentration by a chelating extractant alone or associated to a solvatant or a lipophylic ammonium salt. Modifications in the nature and/or concentration of inorganic anions can transform the extraction process and allow to change metal distribution between phases [fr

  4. leaves extract on mild steel in acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The volume of the cathodic hydrogen gas evolved was also plotted as a .... prevent the escape of hydrogen gas. The volume .... Clivia nobilis leaves extract on the flow of current ... behaviour of ethanol extract of Piper guinensis as a green ...

  5. Process for extracting uranium from phosphoric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of a method for extracting uranium from phosphoric acid solutions whereby the previously oxided acid is treated with an organic solvent constituted by a mixture of dialkylphosphoric acid and trialkylphosphine oxide in solution in a non-reactive inert solvent so as to obtain de-uraniated phosphoric acid and an organic extract constituted by the solvent containing most of the uranium. The uranium is then separated from the extract as uranyl ammonium tricarbonate by reaction with ammonia and ammonium carbonate and the extract de-uraniated at the extraction stage is recycled. The extract is treated in a re-extraction apparatus comprising not less than two stages. The extract to be treated is injected at the top of the first stage. At the bottom of the first stage, ammonia is introduced counter current as gas or as an aqueous solution whilst controlling the pH of the first stage so as to keep it to 8.0 or 8.5 and at the bottom of the last stage an ammonium carbonate aqueous solution is injected in a quantity representing 50 to 80% of the stoichiometric quantity required to neutralize the dialkylphosphoric acid contained in the solvent and transform the uranium into uranyl ammonium tricarbonate [fr

  6. The extraction of rhodium from aqueous nitric acid by dinonylnaphthalene sulphonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, N.M.; Miles, J.H.; Thornback, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The extraction of rhodium from aqueous nitric acid using dinonylnaphthalene sulphonic acid has been investigated. The extraction occurs readily from 0.1 M to 1.0 M nitric acid and, since the rhodium is extracted as {Rh(H 2 O) 6 } 3+ into the inverted micelles of the organic solution, equilibration times are less than 5 minutes. Extraction is enhanced by addition of nitrite ion to form {Rh(H 2 O) 5 NO 2 } 2+ as the extracted species. (author)

  7. Protocol optimization for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arachis hypogaea L.) is particularly problematic due to the presence of phenolic compounds and polysaccharides. Inconsistencies in extraction results can be attributed to the age and growth stages of the plant material analyzed. Mature leaves ...

  8. Extraction of europium (3) ions with stearic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, F.I.; Gladyshchev, V.P.; Nurtaeva, A.K.; Andreeva, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    Extraction of europium (3) in nitric acid solutions with the melts of stearic acid and its mixtures with paraffin at (80+-1) deg C is studied. The constant of stearic acid dimerization in paraffin K 2 =9.6+-0.6 and the constant of stearic acid distribution in the paraffin-water system Ksub(D,HA)=(1.06+-0.07)x10sub(3) are determined. The diagram of europium ion extraction at initial concentrations of metal in the aqueous phase of 10 -4 -10 -3 mol/l is suggested. The compound extracted has the EuA 3 composition with extraction constant of lg Ksub(ex)=-7.58 [ru

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Caffeic Acid from Methanol Seed Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To describe caffeic acid-based pharmacokinetics of methanol extract of seed of Syzygium cumini L. in rats. Methods: A dose of the extract (500 mg, equivalent to 37.135 mg caffeic acid) was administered orally to 6 male Wister rats, weighing 200 ± 10 g. Blood samples (0.5 mL), collected from the tail vein at 0, 15, ...

  10. Extraction of fission product rhodium from nitric acid solutions. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorski, B.; Beer, M.; Russ, L.

    1988-01-01

    The extraction of noble metals from nitric acid solutions represents one problem of separating valueable substances from nuclear wastes in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Results of distribution experiments demonstrate the possibility of solvent extraction of rhodium using tertiary amines in presence of nitrite. Even short mixing times realize high distribution coefficients allowing quantitative separation from aqueous solutions. (author)

  11. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  12. POLY(AMINOMETHYLENEPHOSPHONIC ACID FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METAL IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M’hamed Kaid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diaminododecyltetramethylenetetraphosphonic acid (DADTMTPA has been investigated in liquid - liquid extraction of Zn (II and Cu (II in acetate media. The extraction of both cations was carried out in different media with the addition of CH3COONa, CH3COOH, HCl and H2SO4 at different pH values. The maximum extraction yield for copper is 70% after addition of 10 mg of sodium acetate and for zinc is 30% after addition of acetic acid at pHi = 5.5, in one step.

  13. Properties of precipitates formed during ammonization of extractional phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharova, B.S.; Komissarova, L.N.; Naumov, S.V.; Traskin, V.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Dimensions of precipitated rare-earth phosphate particles -(0.1 μm)- are near the boundary of colloidal system sedimentation stability range at neutralization of extraction phosphoric acid. Thus, formation of multiple aggregates of colloidal particles results in immediate sedimentation of the precipitate. Processes occurring within the system may be described using second order reaction equation. Average efficient size of precipitates grows at reduction of reaction mixture pH. About 30% of rare-earth elements and yttrium in the extraction phosphoric acid is extracted from it; concentration of rare-earth elements, yttrium and scandium in precipitate is maximum 2 mass. %

  14. Extraction studies on rare earths using dinonyl phenyl phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anitha, M.; Singh, D.K.; Kotekar, M.K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Singh, H.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earths are widely used in phosphor materials, magnetic substances, alloys, catalyst, lasers, superconductors, solid oxide fuel cells and in nuclear applications. The high value of these elements depends on their effective separation into high purity compounds. The separation into individual rare earths is very difficult to achieve, due to the very low separation factors between two adjacent rare earths arising due to similar chemical properties. Taking the advantage of variation in basicity, the separation is generally accomplished by solvent extraction or ion exchange. There are several references on the separation of rare earth in different media employing various types of extractants such as 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethyhexylphosphonic acid (EHEHPA) and di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) which have been widely used for the separation and purification of rare earths. Dinonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) is an organo phosphorus extractant (pKa = 2.54) and is an aromatic analogue of D2EHPA, which extracts metal ion by cation exchange mechanism. DNPPA was explored to recover rare earths from phosphate media such as wet process phosphoric acid and merchant grade acid. However, there is no information available in literature on DNPPA for RE extraction from chloride medium. Therefore, an attempt has been made in the present study to investigate the feasibility of using DNPPA for extraction of La(III), Dy(III) and Y(III) from chloride medium

  15. Chemical constituents of the leaves and anti-inflammatory activity evaluation of extracts of roots and leaves of Guettarda pohliana Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos das folhas e avaliacao da atividade anti-inflamatoria de extratos das raizes e folhas de Guettarda pohliana Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, Glaucio; Oliveira, Paulo Roberto Neves de; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da; Schuquel, Ivania Teresinha Albrecht; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira, E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Kato, Lucilia; Oliveira, Cecilia Maria Alves de [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Samambaia, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Departamento de Farmacologia e Terapeutica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringa, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This phytochemical investigation of Guettarda pohliana leaves led to the isolation of the triterpenes pomolic acid, rotundic acid, 3b,6a,19a,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, clethric acid, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, the monoterpenoids loliolide and secoxyloganin, besides daucosterol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of NMR data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanolic extracts from leaves and roots, as well as of their fractions, was evaluated. (author)

  16. Subcritical water extraction of amino acids from Mars analog soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, Aaron C; Fisher, Anita M; Fors-Francis, Kisa; Sherrit, Stewart

    2018-01-18

    For decades, the Martian regolith has stymied robotic mission efforts to catalog the organic molecules present. Perchlorate salts, found widely throughout Mars, are the main culprit as they breakdown and react with organics liberated from the regolith during pyrolysis, the primary extraction technique attempted to date on Mars. This work further develops subcritical water extraction (SCWE) as a technique for extraction of amino acids on future missions. The effect of SCWE temperature (185, 200, and 215°C) and duration of extraction (10-120 min) on the total amount and distribution of amino acids recovered was explored for three Mars analog soils (JSC Mars-1A simulant, an Atacama desert soil, and an Antarctic Dry Valleys soil) and bovine serum albumin (as a control solution of known amino acid content). Total amounts of amino acids extracted increased with both time and temperature; however, the distribution shifted notably due to the destruction of the amino acids with charged or polar side chains at the higher temperatures. The pure bovine serum albumin solution and JSC Mars 1A also showed lower yields than the Atacama and Antarctic extractions suggesting that SCWE may be less effective at hydrolyzing large or aggregated proteins. Changing solvent from water to a dilute (10 mM) HCl solution allowed total extraction efficiencies comparable to the higher temperature/time combinations while using the lowest temperature/time (185°C/20 min). The dilute HCl extractions also did not lead to the shift in amino acid distribution observed at the higher temperatures. Additionally, adding sodium perchlorate salt to the extraction did not interfere with recoveries. Native magnetite in the JSC Mars-1A may have been responsible for destruction of glycine, as evidenced by its uncharacteristic decrease as the temperature/time of extraction increased. This work shows that SCWE can extract high yields of native amino acids out of Mars analog soils with minimal disruption of the

  17. Extraction characteristics of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in mixtures of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid and carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.H.

    1983-03-01

    Dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) has been shown to be an effective liquid cation exchanger for the extraction of metal ions. This extractant has proven to be successful in the extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in the pH range of 2.0 to 3.0, although it shows little selectivity for individual ions because of its strong acid character. In an effort to improve the selectivity of HDNNS between trivalent lanthanides and actinides, carboxylic acids were added to the organic phase and the effects on the extraction characteristics of HDNNS were investigated. Three carboxylic acids - nonanoic, cyclohexanecarboxylic, and cyclohexanebutyric - were studied with the following metals: Am(III), Cm(III), Ce(III), Eu(III), and Tm(III). The distributions of the metal ions were studied holding the HDNNS concentration constant while varying the carboxylic acid concentrations over a range of 1.0 x 10 -5 M to 1.0 M. Results indicated that the greatest enhancement of the extraction occurred at a carboxylic acid concentration of 1.0 x 10 -2 M with negative effects occurring at 0.5 M and 1.0 M. The effects on the extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides were interpreted in terms of the structural differences of the carboxylic acids, the effect of the carboxylic acids on the HDNNS extraction mechanism, and the ionic properties of the metals studied

  18. Selective Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Lead Ions Using Newly Synthesized Extractant 2-(Dibutylcarbamoylbenzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Soltani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new carboxylic acid extractant, named 2-(dibutylcarbamoylbenzoic acid, is prepared and its potential for selective solvent extraction and recovery of lead ions from industrial samples was investigated. The slope analysis indicated that the lead ions are extracted by formation of 1:2 metal to ligand complexes. The effect of the parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including kind of the organic diluent, extractant concentration, type of the salt used for ionic strength adjustment, contact time and temperature was evaluated and discussed. Under optimized conditions (aqueous phase: 5 ml, initial lead concentration 1 × 10-4 M, pH 4, sodium chloride 0.1 M; organic phase: 5 ml dichloromethane, ligand concentration 0.05 M, a quantitative (75.2 ± 0.8% and highly selective extraction of lead ions in the presence of zinc, nickel, cobalt and cadmium ions (each 1 × 10-4 M was achieved, after 20 min. magnetically stirring of the phases, at      25 °C. The extracted lead ions were stripped from the organic phase by diluted nitric acid (0.1 M solution. The proposed method was successfully applied for separation of lead from industrial samples. The study of the effect of temperature allowed evaluating the thermodynamic parameters of the extraction process of lead ions by the studied extractant into dichloromethane.

  19. Extraction, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of sesame extract (Sesamum Indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaustion of the oil contained in the seeds. The sequential extraction used ethyl ether, ethanol and water as solvents. The Soxhlet extraction was the most effective (58.93%, while the SFE technique obtained 26.47% as the best result. The antioxidant activity (AA was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with good oxidation inhibition percentages (29.32-83.49% for all the extracts. The main fatty acids (FA in sesame oil were oleic and linoleic acids.

  20. Solvent extraction of uranium from high acid leach solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadevi, G.; Sreenivas, T.; Navale, A.S.; Padmanabhan, N.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    A significant part of the total uranium reserves all over the world is contributed by refractory uranium minerals. The refractory oxides are highly stable and inert to attack by most of the commonly used acids under normal conditions of acid strength, pressure and temperature. Quantitative dissolution of uranium from such ores containing refractory uranium minerals requires drastic operating conditions during chemical leaching like high acid strength, elevated pressures and temperatures. The leach liquors produced under these conditions normally have high free acidity, which affects the downstream operations like ion exchange and solvent extraction

  1. Synthesis of High Purity Nonsymmetric Dialkylphosphinic Acid Extractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junlian; Xie, Meiying; Liu, Xinyu; Xu, Shengming

    2017-10-19

    We present the synthesis of (2,3-dimethylbutyl)(2,4,4'-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid as an example to demonstrate a method for the synthesis of high purity nonsymmetric dialkylphosphinic acid extractants. Low toxic sodium hypophosphite was chosen as the phosphorus source to react with olefin A (2,3-dimethyl-1-butene) to generate a monoalkylphosphinic acid intermediate. Amantadine was adopted to remove the dialkylphosphinic acid byproduct, as only the monoalkylphosphinic acid can react with amantadine to form an amantadine∙mono-alkylphosphinic acid salt, while the dialkylphosphinic acid cannot react with amantadine due to its large steric hindrance. The purified monoalkylphosphinic acid was then reacted with olefin B (diisobutylene) to yield nonsymmetric dialkylphosphinic acid (NSDAPA). The unreacted monoalkylphosphinic acid can be easily removed by a simple base-acid post-treatment and other organic impurities can be separated out through the precipitation of the cobalt salt. The structure of the (2,3-dimethylbutyl)(2,4,4'-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was confirmed by 31 P NMR, 1 H NMR, ESI-MS, and FT-IR. The purity was determined by a potentiometric titration method, and the results indicate that the purity can exceed 96%.

  2. Extractants for uranium recovery from wet phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Benjelloun, N.; Lours, S.

    1981-08-01

    It must be pointed out that despite their lower affinity for uranyl, the dialkyldithiophosphates show higher extraction coefficients than dialkylphosphates. In addition, it is possible to back extract uranium with oxalate solutions at pH levels where the solvents remain in their acidic form. This last possibility seems to be correlated with the presence of a H 2 PO 4 - ion in the U(VI) organic complexes

  3. Uranium extraction from sulfuric acid solution using anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheta, M. E.; Abdel Aal, M. M.; Kandil, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium is currently recovered from sulfuric acid leach liquor using anion exchange resin as Amberlite IRA 402 (CT). This technology is based on fact that, uranium exists as anionic complexes. This takes place by controlling the pH of the solution, agitation time, temperature and resin to solution ratio (R/S). In this work, batch stirrer tank used for uranium extraction from sulfate medium and after extraction, elution process was done using 1M NaCl solution. After extraction and elution process, the resin was separated from the system and uranium was determined in the solution. (Author)

  4. Recovery of acid-degraded tributyl phosphate by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.C.; Holladay, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    During nuclear fuel reprocessing the organic solvent becomes loaded with various acidic degradation products, which can be effectively removed through solvent extraction. Studies have been made with a small bench-scale solvent extraction system to optimize such parameters as pH of aqueous phase, phase ratio, residence time, flow rates, and temperature. The necessary decontamination factors have been obtained for various degradation products during continuous solvent extraction in one stage, with the aqueous phase being recycled. The aqueous phase contains compounds that can be degraded to gases to minimize waste disposal problems

  5. Extraction of Glycyrrhizic Acid from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Using Ultrasound and Its Process Extraction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangqing Liao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the intensification of extraction process of glycyrrhizic acid (GA from Glycyrrhiza uralensis using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method. Various process parameters such as ultrasonic power, ultrasonic frequency, extraction temperature, and extraction time which affect the extraction yield were optimized. The results showed that all process parameters had exhibited significant influences on the GA extraction. The highest GA yield of 217.7 mg/g was obtained at optimized parameters of 125 W, 55 kHz, 25 °C, and 10 min. Furthermore, the extraction kinetics model of this process was also investigated based on Fick’s first law available in the literature. Kinetic parameters such as equilibrium concentration (Ce and integrated influence coefficient (λ for different ultrasonic powers, ultrasonic frequencies, and extraction temperatures were predicted. Model validations were done successfully with the average of relative deviation between 0.96% and 4.36% by plotting experimental and predicted values of concentration of GA in extract. This indicated that the developed extraction model could reflect the effectiveness of the extraction of GA from Glycyrrhiza uralensis and therefore serve as the guide for comprehending other UAE process.

  6. Phytochemical profile of Orthosiphon aristatus extracts after storage: Rosmarinic acid and other caffeic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Lee Suan; Lau, Cher Haan; Chew, Chee Yung; Ismail, Nurul Izzati Mohd; Soontorngun, Nitnipa

    2018-01-15

    Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. is a medicinal herb which is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes and kidney diseases in South East Asia. Previous studies reported higher concentration of antioxidative phytochemicals, especially rosmarinic acid (ester of caffeic acid) and other caffeic acid derivatives in this plant extract than the other herbs such as rosemary and sage which are usually used as raw materials to produce rosmarinic acid supplement in the market. The phytochemical profile of O. aristatus was investigated at different storage durations for quality comparison. The phytochemicals were extracted from the leaves and stems of O. aristatus using a reflux reactor. The extracts were examined for total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as their antioxidant capacities, in terms of radical scavenging, metal chelating and reducing power. The phytochemical profiles were also analyzed by unsupervised principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, in relation to the factor of storage at 4 °C for 5 weeks. The leaf extract was likely to have more phytochemicals than stem extract, particularly caffeic acid derivatives including glycosylated and alkylated caffeic acids. This explains higher ratio of total phenolic content to total flavonoid content with higher antioxidant capacities for the leaf extracts. Rosmarinic acid dimer and salvianolic acid B appeared to be the major constituents, possibly contributing to the previously reported pharmacological properties. However, the phytochemical profiles were found changing, even though the extracts were stored in the refrigerator (4 °C). The change was significantly observed at the fifth week based on the statistical pattern recognition technique. O. aristatus could be a promising source of rosmarinic acid and its dimer, as well as salvianolic acid B with remarkably antioxidant properties. The phytochemical profile was at least stable for a month stored at 4 °C. It is likely to be

  7. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of amino acids from grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Ceferino; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ana; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2015-01-01

    Recent cultivar techniques on vineyards can have a marked influence on the final nitrogen content of grapes, specifically individual amino acid contents. Furthermore, individual amino acid contents in grapes are related to the final aromatic composition of wines. A new ultrasound-assisted method for the extraction of amino acids from grapes has been developed. Several extraction variables, including solvent (water/ethanol mixtures), solvent pH (2-7), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasonic power (20-70%) and ultrasonic frequency (0.2-1.0s(-)(1)), were optimized to guarantee full recovery of the amino acids from grapes. An experimental design was employed to optimize the extraction parameters. The surface response methodology was used to evaluate the effects of the extraction variables. The analytical properties of the new method were established, including limit of detection (average value 1.4mmolkg(-)(1)), limit of quantification (average value 2.6mmolkg(-)(1)), repeatability (average RSD=12.9%) and reproducibility (average RSD=15.7%). Finally, the new method was applied to three cultivars of white grape throughout the ripening period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vanadium Extraction from Shale via Sulfuric Acid Baking and Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qihua; Zhang, Yimin; Liu, Tao; Huang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Fluorides are widely used to improve vanadium extraction from shale in China. Sulfuric acid baking-leaching (SABL) was investigated as a means of recovering vanadium which does not require the use of fluorides and avoids the productions of harmful fluoride-containing wastewater. Various effective factors were systematically studied and the experimental results showed that 90.1% vanadium could be leached from the shale. On the basis of phase transformations and structural changes after baking the shale, a mechanism of vanadium extraction from shale via SABL was proposed. The mechanism can be described as: (1) sulfuric acid diffusion into particles; (2) the formation of concentrated sulfuric acid media in the particles after water evaporation; (3) hydroxyl groups in the muscovite were removed and transient state [SO4 2-] was generated; and (4) the metals in the muscovite were sulfated by active [SO4 2-] and the vanadium was released. Thermodynamics modeling confirmed this mechanism.

  9. Cyclohexanone microfluidic extraction of radioactive perrhenate from acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmázio, Ilza [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oehlke, Elisabeth, E-mail: E.Oehlke@tudelft.nl [Section Radiation and Isotopes for Health, Department of Radiation Science and Technology, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have investigated the application of microfluidic devices in extraction processes. A potential use of microfluidic devices is in radionuclide generators based on solvent extraction, as the {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator. The aim of this work is to present the initial results of microfluidic solvent extraction of radioactive perrhenate. Aqueous solutions of ammonium perrhenate at 0.1 mg/mL (in water, HCl or sodium tungstate) were used as feed solution and cyclohexanone as extractant. As a first step, the fluid behaviour inside the glass microchannel was evaluated to reach laminar flow. The second step was the determination of extraction efficiency using thermal neutron activated perrhenate to produce feed solutions. The extraction conditions permitted liquid-liquid contact times as short as 0.5 s. Increasing of the contact time, resulted in a higher extraction efficiency of perrhenate, e.g. 14 % for 0.5 s and 32 % for 1.1 s using a 0.1 mol/L HCl feed solution. The extraction of perrhenate improved also when applying a feed solution with higher acidity, e.g. 52% for 1 mol/L HCl with contact time of 1.1 s. The influence of adding sodium tungstate to the feed solution was also examined. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results related to perrhenate solvent extraction using a microfluidic device. The usefulness of microfluidic devices to screen extraction conditions was demonstrated making it possible to evaluate the effect of electrolytes on the perrhenate extraction process in a short time-frame. (author)

  10. Cyclohexanone microfluidic extraction of radioactive perrhenate from acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmázio, Ilza; Oehlke, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the application of microfluidic devices in extraction processes. A potential use of microfluidic devices is in radionuclide generators based on solvent extraction, as the 188 W/ 188 Re generator. The aim of this work is to present the initial results of microfluidic solvent extraction of radioactive perrhenate. Aqueous solutions of ammonium perrhenate at 0.1 mg/mL (in water, HCl or sodium tungstate) were used as feed solution and cyclohexanone as extractant. As a first step, the fluid behaviour inside the glass microchannel was evaluated to reach laminar flow. The second step was the determination of extraction efficiency using thermal neutron activated perrhenate to produce feed solutions. The extraction conditions permitted liquid-liquid contact times as short as 0.5 s. Increasing of the contact time, resulted in a higher extraction efficiency of perrhenate, e.g. 14 % for 0.5 s and 32 % for 1.1 s using a 0.1 mol/L HCl feed solution. The extraction of perrhenate improved also when applying a feed solution with higher acidity, e.g. 52% for 1 mol/L HCl with contact time of 1.1 s. The influence of adding sodium tungstate to the feed solution was also examined. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results related to perrhenate solvent extraction using a microfluidic device. The usefulness of microfluidic devices to screen extraction conditions was demonstrated making it possible to evaluate the effect of electrolytes on the perrhenate extraction process in a short time-frame. (author)

  11. Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieciak, S.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: open air extraction at room temperature and Soxhlet exhaustive extraction. The additional yield is about 5% for a 2.5% acetic acid content in case of open air extraction and turns out to be 9% for 7.5% acetic acid content in the Soxhlet procedure. An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil. The improved yield may be attributed to the action of acetic acid on the decomposition of intercellular structures and binding of some polar lipids. The phospholipids content of oil extracted with 7.5% acidic hexane is found to be 25 times more than with pure hexane.

    El uso de hexano ácido como disolvente aumenta el rendimiento de aceite extraído de orujo de aceituna. Se han estudiado dos procedimientos de extracción: extracción al aire libre a temperatura ambiente y extracción exhaustiva en Soxhlet. En el caso de extracción al aire libre el rendimiento adicional es alrededor del 5% para un contenido del 2'5% en ácido acético y llega a ser en el procedimiento en Soxhlet del 9% para un contenido en ácido acético del 7'5%. Un análisis del aceite extraído mostró un ligero aumento de la acidez del aceite. La mejora del rendimiento puede ser atribuida a la acción del ácido acético sobre la descomposición de estructuras intercelulares y uniones de lípidos polares. Se ha encontrado que el contenido en fosfolípidos del aceite extraído con el 7*5% de hexano ácido es 25 veces mayor que con hexano puro.

  12. Di-4-octylphenylphosphoric acid as extractant : extraction of vanadium (IV) and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajankush, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of vanadium and beryllium has been studied using di-4-octylphenyl phosphoric acid (DOPPA) as metal extractant. The factors which affect the extraction have been studied in detail. An attempt has been made to clarify the mechanism of extraction and compare the results with those reported for di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA). In the case of vanadium it was found that vanadium (IV) is more suitable for extraction. Synergistic extractionwas observed in the presence of neutral organophosphorous compounds like tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), dibutyl butyl phosphate (DBBP) and tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO). The possibility of separating vanadium and uranium when they are present together in leach solutions has also been studied. The extraction of beryllium was found to be a slow process. The factors controlling the rate as well as the extent of extraction have been investigated. However, the results showed that in both respects DOPPA is better than DEHPA which was earlier studied by other authors. The separation of aluminium from beryllium has also been studied. (author)

  13. Possible prebiotics and gallic acid separations from jackfruit seed extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of jackfruit seeds can be extracted for possible prebiotics and phenolics (gallic acid and purified by crystallization and solid phase extraction (SPE, respectively. The studied parameters for crystallization were mixing speed, crystallizing temperature and cooling rate while the studied parameters for SPE were feed concentration, feed flow rate and length to diameter ratio (L/D of the extraction column. The optimal condition for the crystallization provided the crystal yield of 0.028 g crystal /g dry extract at 100 rpm mixing speed, 58°C crystallizing temperature and 1°C /min cooling rate. Molecular weight analysis of the crystals indicated that the crystals can be fructo-oligosaccharide or raffinose. The optimal condition for SPE obtaining gallic acid 92 percent yield was at 4% w/v feed concentration with 3 mL/min flow rate and L/D of 15.3. Finally a high temperature can degrade both possible prebiotic and gallic acid.

  14. Extraction of americium from acid aqueous solutions by diethyl-2-hexyl-pyro-phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Bernard

    1971-02-01

    After having outlined the interesting properties of americium and the difficulties of its recovery, the author reports the study of the mechanism of extraction of americium from acid aqueous solutions by using the diethyl-2hexyl-pyro-phosphoric acid. Several aspects are thus discussed: influence of concentration of H 2 DEHPP, influence of the acidity of the aqueous phase, saturation of extracting agent, influence of the diluting agent, complexing of americium, influence of other cations. In a second part, the author reports the application to the recovery of americium from effluents, and discusses the obtained results

  15. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  16. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Elkacmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country’s climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  17. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, Antonio G.; Crepeau, Marie-Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction......) and on a laboratory scale (grams; mild oxalic acid extraction). Pectin composition (acidic and neutral sugars) and physicochemical properties (molar mass and intrinsic viscosity) were determined. Key Results Oxalic acid extraction allowed the recovery of pectin samples of high molecular weight. Mild oxalic acid......-extracted pectins were rich in long homogalacturonan stretches and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches with conserved side chains. Nitric acid-extracted pectins exhibited lower molecular weights and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches encompassing few and/or short side chains. Grapefruit pectin was found...

  18. Extraction of bitter acids from hops and hop products using pressurized solvent extraction (PSE)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čulík, J.; Jurková, M.; Horák, T.; Čejka, P.; Kellner, V.; Dvořák, J.; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2009), s. 220-225 ISSN 0046-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536; GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : hops * bitter acids * pressurized solvent extraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  19. Metabolite Profiling of Eastern Teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens L. Lipophilic Leaf Extracts with Hyaluronidase and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Michel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical profile and anti-inflammatory activity of Gaultheria procumbens dry lipophilic leaf extracts were evaluated. Forty compounds were identified by GC-MS, representing 86.36% and 81.97% of the petroleum ether (PE and chloroform (CHE extracts, respectively, with ursolic acid (28.82%, oleanolic acid (10.11%, methyl benzoate (10.03%, and methyl salicylate (6.88% dominating in CHE, and methyl benzoate (21.59%, docosane (18.86%, and octacosane (11.72% prevailing in PE. Three components of CHE were fully identified after flash chromatography isolation and spectroscopic studies as (6S,9R-vomifoliol (4.35%, 8-demethyl-latifolin (1.13%, and 8-demethylsideroxylin (2.25%. Hyaluronidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was tested for CHE (IC50 = 282.15 ± 10.38 μg/mL and 899.97 ± 31.17 μg/mL, respectively, PE (IC50 = 401.82 ± 16.12 μg/mL and 738.49 ± 15.92 μg/mL, and nine of the main constituents versus heparin (IC50 = 366.24 ± 14.72 μg/mL and indomethacin (IC50 = 92.60 ± 3.71 μg/mL as positive controls. With the best activity/concentration relationships, ursolic and oleanolic acids were recommended as analytical markers for the extracts and plant material. Seasonal variation of both markers following foliar development was investigated by UHPLC-PDA. The highest levels of ursolic (5.36–5.87 mg/g DW of the leaves and oleanolic (1.14–1.26 mg/g DW acids were observed between August and October, indicating the optimal season for harvesting.

  20. Role of Glycol Chitosan-incorporated Ursolic Acid Nanoparticles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway due to decrease in membrane potential and release of cytochrome C, as ... triggering of apoptosis as determined by DNA fragmentation ... used to transfer proteins onto a PVDF membrane which was ...

  1. Ursolic Acid Florotriazole Treatment Causes Inhibition of Squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    observed malignant tumor of mucosa lining of the oral cavity. In Korea squamous cell carcinoma accounts for more than 90 % of the detected malignant tumors of the oral cavity [1]. Despite advancement in the fields of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery, the prognosis of oral squamous cell cancer patients remains ...

  2. Enhancement in extraction rates by addition of organic acids to aqueous phase in solvent extraction of rare earth metals in presence of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Hideto; Azis, A.; Fujita, Mamoru; Teramoto, Masaaki.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the selectivity of rare earth metals by solvent extraction is increased by the addition of a chelating agent such as diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the aqueous phase. One of the disadvantages of this method is the decrease in extraction rates due to complexation in the aqueous phase. In this paper, further addition of organic acids to the aqueous phase was examined for the purpose of enhancing the extraction rates in solvent extraction with DTPA. The addition of several kind of organic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid, lactic acid and citric acid was investigated for a Er/Y separation system. A remarkable enhancement in extraction rates was observed with a slight decrease in the selectivity by the addition of citric acid or lactic acid. Extraction rates in the presence of both DTPA and citric acid increased with the increase in citric acid concentration and with the increase in proton concentration. A 150 times enhancement in extraction rates was found in the low proton concentration condition. In order to analyze the extraction rates and selectivities obtained, mass transfer equations were presented by considering both the dissociation reaction of rare earth metal-DTPA complexes and the complex formation between rare earth metal and organic acid in the aqueous phase. The experimental data were analyzed by these equations. (author)

  3. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  4. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660±0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46±0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 x 10 6 ±3.56 x 10 4 at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610±0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412±0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72±1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured

  5. Solvent extraction of rare earth nitrates by Versatic Acid 911

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazuoka, K; Tanabe, T; Kondo, Y [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1975-07-01

    The extraction equilibria of cerous, terbium and yttrium nitrates into Versatic Acid 911 were studied. The organic phase was diluted with benzene, and the ionic strength of the aqueous solutions was maintained at unity by adding NaNO/sub 3/. Radioactive isotopes of these elements were used as the tracer. The compositions of the extracted species were CeR/sub 3/.4RH.H/sub 2/O, TbR/sub 3/.4RH.H/sub 2/O and YR/sub 3/.4RH.H/sub 2/o, and the apparent equilibrium constants of extraction were 9.14x10/sup -15/, 3.90x10/sup -14/ and 1.70x10/sup -14/, respectively.

  6. Extraction and characterisation of aqueous organic acids from natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.; Moody, P.M.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Humic and fulvic acids were extracted from large volumes of groundwater associated with the Broubster and Needle's Eye natural analogue sites, and the BGS research site at Drigg in Cumbria. Extractions were performed by both batchwise extraction and radial flow chromatography using DEAE-cellulose. Retained humic substances were eluted using NaOH and separated into humic and fulvic components by acidification to pH 1. After separation the humic component was purified by repetitive precipitation and dissolution whilst the fulvic component was purified by absorption chromatography. The resulting humic substances were shown to be of high purity with respect to metallic elements, with less than 1% of available sites being occupied. During elution the association of trace elements with humic substances was monitored and a high degree of association between humic substances, U and the Rare Earth Elements was noted. (author)

  7. Extraction of rare earths and hydrochloric acid by trialkylphosphine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlichenko, A.I.; Karmannikov, V.P.; Klimenko, M.A.; Fedulova, T.V.

    1983-01-01

    Extraction of rare earth chlorides and hydrochloric acid by trialkylphosphine oxide with different radicals (POR) (RR' 2 PO-POR, where RR'=alkyl of a normal structure, containing 7 to 9 carbon atoms, R=isoamyl) has been studied. Distribution of lanthanum-, neodymium-, lutetium- and yttrium chlorides during extraction with 1.28 mol/l POR solution in white spirit is investigated in the salt concentration range in the equilibrium aqueous phase from 0 to 2.8 mol/l. Lanthanide distribution coefficients increase with an increase in the order number of elements, with the separation coefficients of two extreme members of the series (Lu and La) for chlorides and nitrates constituting 100 and 80, respectively microquantities of Ln against the background of macroquantities of La is 2.6 mol/l. According to the results of measurements of viscosity, electric conductivity and water content in the extracts a conclusion is made on the state of salt in the organic phase. In the systems POR-LnCl 3 -HCl-H 2 O the hydrochloric acid extraction increases with an increase in the rare earth chloride concentration and order number of the element

  8. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

    2007-08-01

    There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema.

  9. Selective extraction of metals from acidic uranium(VI) solutions using neo-tridecano-hydroxamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardoncelli, F.; Grossi, G.

    1975-01-01

    According to this invention neo-alkyl-hydroxamic acids are employed as ion-exchanging agents in processes for liquid-liquid extraction with the aim of separating, purifying dissolved metals and of converting a metal salt solution into a solution of a salt of the same metal but with different anion. In particular it is an objective of this invention to provide a method whereby a molecular pure uranium solution is obtained by selective extraction from a uranium solution delivered by irradiated fuel reprocessing plants and containing plutonium, fission products and other unwanted metals, in which method neo-tridecane-hydroxamic acid is employed as ion exchanger. (Official Gazette)

  10. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.280 Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from...

  11. Intensification of conversion of glucose to lactic acid : equilibria and kinetics for back extraction of lactic acid using trimethylamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2004-01-01

    Alamine 336 is an effective extractant for the recovery of lactic acid from aqueous solutions. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back extract lactic acid with a water soluble, volatile tertiary amine such as trimethyl amine. Equilibrium data are presented

  12. Intensification of conversion of glucose to lactic acid: equilibria and kinetics for back extraction of lactic acid using trimethylamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2004-01-01

    Alamine 336 is an effective extractant for the recovery of lactic acid from aqueous solutions. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back extract lactic acid with a water soluble, volatile tertiary amine such as trimethyl amine. Equilibrium data are presented

  13. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  14. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  15. Selective extraction of hydrocarbons, phosphonates and phosphonic acids from soils by successive supercritical fluid and pressurized liquid extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudot, X; Tambuté, A; Caude, M

    2000-01-14

    Hydrocarbons, dialkyl alkylphosphonates and alkyl alkylphosphonic acids are selectively extracted from spiked soils by successive implementation of supercritical carbon dioxide, supercritical methanol-modified carbon dioxide and pressurized water. More than 95% of hydrocarbons are extracted during the first step (pure supercritical carbon dioxide extraction) whereas no organophosphorus compound is evidenced in this first extract. A quantitative extraction of phosphonates is achieved during the second step (methanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide extraction). Polar phosphonic acids are extracted during a third step (pressurized water extraction) and analyzed by gas chromatography under methylated derivatives (diazomethane derivatization). Global recoveries for these compounds are close to 80%, a loss of about 20% occurring during the derivatization process (co-evaporation with solvent). The developed selective extraction method was successfully applied to a soil sample during an international collaborative exercise.

  16. CARMINIC ACID EXTRACTION FROM USING COCHINEAL CLEANER TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Erazo, Erazo; Cárdenas Ruiz, R.; Woolcott Hurtado, J.; y Caso Huamaní, J. C.; J., M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new process for the extraction of carminic acid (ACAR) from cochineal using mass- separating agent R300 (MSA R300) and an organic solvent with affinity only with the ACAR. En este trabajo se presenta un nuevo procedimiento para la extracción de ácido carmínico (ACAR) a partir de la cochinilla utilizando un agente de separación másico R300 (MSA R300) y un solvente orgánico con afinidad sólo con el ACAR.

  17. Separation of uranium from molybdenum by alkyl phosphoric acid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhongshi, Li

    1986-08-01

    The regularities of separation of uranium from molybdenum by alkyl phosphoric acid extraction are described. Two parameters, i.e., density ratio of uranium to molybdenum in organic phase at first stage and density of uranium in raffinate at last stage are presented. The relationship between these parameters and purity of molybdenum and uranium products is given. The method of adjusting and controlling these parameters in experiments and production is worked out. The technical key problem in comprehensive utilization of sedimentary type uranium ore containing molybdenum with close concentration of these to elements has been solved.

  18. Acid extraction by supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Cianetti, C.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The extraction of HNO 3 (nitric acid) from aqueous solutions by permeation through a number of supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers dissolved in diethylbenzene has been studied. The results have shown that the best permeations are obtained with long chain aliphatic amines (TLA, Primene JM-T) followed by TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide) and then by other monofunctional and bifunctional organophosphorous basic carriers. The influence of an aliphatic diluent on the permeability of HNO 3 through a supported liquid membrane containing TLA as carrier was also investigated. In this case the permeability to HNO 3 decreases as a result of the lower diffusion coefficient of the acid-carrier complex in the more vicous aliphatic solvent. 4 figures

  19. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  20. Application of monocarboxylic acids for the extraction of metal ions-literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozka, Z.; Rozycki, C.

    1980-01-01

    In the paper there is presented a literature review concerning the application of monocarboxylic acids for extraction of metal ions. The following problems are discussed: characteristic of monocarboxylic acids and their mixtures, the equilibria between the acid solution in organic solvent and aqueous phase, the mechanism of acid partition, complexes of carboxylic acids and metal ions in aqueous phase, mechanism of extraction by means of carboxylic acids as well as the problems concerning the extraction of individual metal ions. Data about the extraction of metal ions are presented in table. The 138 references are given. (author)

  1. Aluminium, extractable from soil samples by the acid ammonium acetate soil-testing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Mäkitie

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available The extractant, 0.5 M acetic acid –0.5 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.65, which is used in soil-testing, extracts relatively high amounts of aluminium from acid soils. The mean values of acetate-extractable aluminium at pH 4.65, 1.75 meq Al/100 g of soil, and of exchangeable aluminium (M KCI extraction, 0.41 meq Al were obtained from a material of 30 samples of acid soils (Table 2. Several other acetic acid ammonium acetate extractants, from M acetic acid to M ammonium acetate solution were also used for studying the extractability of soil aluminium. The soil-testing extractant can be used for the estimation of the soluble amounts of aluminium in acid soils, however, further studies are needed for a better interpretation of the ammonium acetate extractable (at pH 4.65 aluminium in our soils.

  2. Arabinose and ferulic acid rich pectic polysaccharides extracted from sugar beet pulp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Arabinose and ferulic acid rich polysaccharides were extracted from sugar beet pulp using two extraction methods: a sequential extraction with H2O (2 times), NaOH/EDTA (2 times), and 4 M NaOH (2 times; method A) and a sequential extraction in which the NaOH/EDTA extraction was replaced by an

  3. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  4. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  5. Study on the extraction, purification and quantification of jasmonic acid, abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng Juan; Jin, You Ju; Xu, Xing You; Lu, Rong Chun; Chen, Hua Jun

    2008-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are important plant hormones. Plant hormones are difficult to analyse because they occur in small concentrations and other substances in the plant interfere with their detection. To develop a new, inexpensive procedure for the rapid extraction and purification of IAA, ABA and JA from various plant species. Samples were prepared by extraction of plant tissues with methanol and ethyl acetate. Then the extracts were further purified and enriched with C(18) cartridges. The final extracts were derivatised with diazomethane and then measured by GC-MS. The results of the new methodology were compared with those of the Creelman and Mullet procedure. Sequential elution of the assimilates from the C(18 )cartridges revealed that IAA and ABA eluted in 40% methanol, while JA subsequently eluted in 60% methanol. The new plant hormone extraction and purification procedure produced results that were comparable to those obtained with the Creelman and Mullet's procedure. This new procedure requires only 0.5 g leaf samples to quantify these compounds with high reliability and can simultaneously determine the concentrations of the three plant hormones. A simple, inexpensive method was developed for determining endogenous IAA, ABA and JA concentrations in plant tissue.

  6. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140 0 C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO 3 ) 2 / - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140 0 C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work

  7. Effect of botanical extracts containing carnosic acid or rosmarinic acid on learning and memory in SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Susan A; Niehoff, Michael L; Ceddia, Michael A; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Lewis, Brandon J; Feng, Shulin; Welleford, Andrew; Butterfield, D Allan; Morley, John E

    2016-10-15

    Oxidative damage is one of the hallmarks of the aging process. The current study evaluated effects of two proprietary antioxidant-based ingredients, rosemary extract and spearmint extract containing carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, respectively, on learning and memory in the SAMP8 mouse model of accelerated aging. The two rosemary extracts contained carnosic acid (60% or 10% carnosic acid) and one spearmint extract contained 5% rosmarinic acid. Three doses of actives in each extract were tested: 32, 16, 1.6 or 0mg/kg. After 90days of treatment mice were tested in T-maze foot shock avoidance, object recognition and lever press. Rosemary extract containing 60% carnosic acid improved acquisition and retention in T-maze foot shock, object recognition and lever press. Rosemary extract with 10% carnosic acid improved retention in T-maze foot shock avoidance and lever press. Spearmint with 5% rosmarinic acid improved acquisition and retention in T-maze foot shock avoidance and object recognition. 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) was reduced in the brain cortex after treatment with all three extracts (Prosemary with 10% carnosic acid (Prosemary have beneficial effects on learning and memory and brain tissue markers of oxidation that occur with age in SAMP8 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Activity of the main fatty acid components of the hexane leaf extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of hexane leaf extract of Ricinus communis was determined by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to contain four fatty acids: linolenic acid (47.76%), linoleic acid (15.28%), palmitic acid (13.01%), and stearic acid (1.73%). The insectistatic and insecticidal activities of the two major ...

  9. Synthesis of new polyphosphonic acids, uranium extracting agents in a phosphoric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pensec, T.

    1981-04-01

    Synthesis of organic phosphorus compounds for liquid-liquid extraction of traces of uranium in concentrated phosphoric acid is studied in view of industrial applications. Diphosphonic acids and monoesters and also triphosphonic acids and related compounds are synthetized. Extraction tests show a better efficiency than OPPA [fr

  10. Effect of acid treatment on thermal extraction yield in ashless coal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunqi Li; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Yoshida; Ikuo Saito; Hideki Aoki; Kiyoshi Mashimo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan). Institute for Energy Utilization

    2004-04-01

    Coals of different ranks were acid-treated in aqueous methoxyethoxy acetic acid (MEAA), acetic acid (AA), and HCl. The acid-treated coals were extracted with polar N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and nonpolar 1-methylnaphthalene (1MN) solvents at temperatures from 200 to 360{sup o}C for 10 60 min. The thermal extraction yields with NMP for some acid-treated low-rank coals increased greatly; for example, the extraction yield for Wyodak coal (%C; 75.0%) increased from 58.4% for the raw coal to 82.9% for coal treated in 1.0 M MEAA. Conversely, the extraction yields changed minimally for all the acid-treated coals extracted in 1-MN. The type and concentration of acid affected the extraction yield when NMP was used as the extraction solvent. With increasing MEAA concentration from 0.01 to 0.1 M, the extraction yield for Wyodak coal increased from 66.3 to 81.4%, and subsequently did not change clearly with concentration. Similar changes in the extraction yield with acid concentration were also observed with AA and HCl. The de-ashing ratio for coals acid-treated in MEAA, AA, and HCl also increased greatly with concentration from 0.01 to 0.1 M, which corresponded to the change in the thermal extraction yield in NMP. For the acid-treated coals, high extraction yields were obtained at lower extraction temperatures and shorter extraction times than for the raw coal. The mechanisms for the acid treatment and thermal extraction are discussed. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Hydrothermal Extraction of Microalgae Fatty Acid Influences Hydrochar Phytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ennis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC of microalgae biomass for the production of triacylglycerides is a potentially valuable enabling technology for a waste water treatment-based integrated biorefinery. Here, HTC was used to treat Phaeodactylum tricornutum lipid-rich biomass producing a solid hydrochar from the surface of which adsorbed lipids were removed by hexane extraction following filtration of the solid hydrochar from the process liquid product. Approximately 7% of the input biomass was recovered and transesterified for qualitative and quantitative GC-MS analysis for fatty acid methyl esters. Transesterifiable lipids accounted for 94% of the material recovered by solvent extraction. Of the transesterified fatty acids (FA analyzed, the majority was monounsaturated (40.4% and saturated (37% C-16 FA. Other FA detected included saturated and monounsaturated C-18 (7.7 and 1.9% and saturated C-14 (5.3% and C-25 (1.5%. Thermal analysis (TGA/DSC of the hydrochar in air showed calorific values of 10.6 MJ kg−1 (delipidated hydrochar and 3.1 MJ kg−1 (non-delipidated hydrochar with the latter exhibiting the presence of volatalizable components. Germination trials were conducted to assess the potential phytotoxic effects of these hydrochars. Delipidated hydrochar showed a germination index of 73% suggesting the presence of some phytotoxicity. Non-delipidated hydrochar showed high germination index results of 102% (unground and 126% (ground. Taken together with the observation of reduced root hair proliferation in these two test conditions, this suggests the operation of a second phytotoxic effect that is removed by delipidation.

  12. Estimation of solubility of organo-phosphorus extractants by P determination using molybdovanadophosphoric acid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.S.; Kotekar, M.K.; Singh, H.

    2005-01-01

    Solvent extraction processes have been found to be suitable for uranium recovery from phosphoric acid. Various extractants like di-2-ethyl hexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA), di-nonylphenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) and synergistic agents like tri-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) have been used in liquid-liquid extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid. Contents of these organo-phosphorus compounds in aqueous raffinates need estimation for process requirements. Solubility of Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) extractants have been determined in different media of water, oxalic acid (0.6M) and sulphuric acid (3.75M) solutions. These compounds were estimated by determining their phosphorus (P) contents employing molybdovanadophosphoric acid method, after digesting and solubalizing them in nitric and perchloric acid. (author)

  13. Extraction of rare earth elements from a contaminated cropland soil using nitric acid, citric acid, and EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hailong; Shuai, Weitao; Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Yangsheng

    2017-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) contamination to the surrounding soil has increased the concerns of health risk to the local residents. Soil washing was first attempted in our study to remediate REEs-contaminated cropland soil using nitric acid, citric acid, and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) for soil decontamination and possible recovery of REEs. The extraction time, washing agent concentration, and pH value of the washing solution were optimized. The sequential extraction analysis proposed by Tessier was adopted to study the speciation changes of the REEs before and after soil washing. The extract containing citric acid was dried to obtain solid for the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The results revealed that the optimal extraction time was 72 h, and the REEs extraction efficiency increased as the agent concentration increased from 0.01 to 0.1 mol/L. EDTA was efficient to extract REEs over a wide range of pH values, while citric acid was around pH 6.0. Under optimized conditions, the average extraction efficiencies of the major REEs in the contaminated soil were 70.96%, 64.38%, and 62.12% by EDTA, nitric acid, and citric acid, respectively. The sequential extraction analyses revealed that most soil-bounded REEs were mobilized or extracted except for those in the residual fraction. Under a comprehensive consideration of the extraction efficiency and the environmental impact, citric acid was recommended as the most suitable agent for extraction of the REEs from the contaminated cropland soils. The XRF analysis revealed that Mn, Al, Si, Pb, Fe, and REEs were the major elements in the extract indicating a possibile recovery of the REEs.

  14. Performances of different protocols for exocellular polysaccharides extraction from milk acid gels: Application to yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An Thi-Binh; Nigen, Michaël; Jimenez, Luciana; Ait-Abderrahim, Hassina; Marchesseau, Sylvie; Picart-Palmade, Laetitia

    2018-01-15

    Dextran or xanthan were used as model exocellular polysaccharides (EPS) to compare the extraction efficiency of EPS from skim milk acid gels using three different protocols. Extraction yields, residual protein concentrations and the macromolecular properties of extracted EPS were determined. For both model EPS, the highest extraction yield (∼80%) was obtained when samples were heated in acidic conditions at the first step of extraction (Protocol 1). Protocols that contained steps of acid/ethanol precipitation without heating (Protocols 2 and 3) show lower extraction yields (∼55%) but allow a better preservation of the EPS macromolecular properties. Changing the pH of acid gels up to 7 before extraction (Protocol 3) improved the extraction yield of anionic EPS without effect on the macromolecular properties of EPS. Protocol 1 was then applied for the quantification of EPS produced during the yogurt fermentation, while Protocol 3 was dedicated to their macromolecular characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, Loree Joanne [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); King, C. Judson [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO2 and H2S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The

  16. Antitrypanosomal compounds from the essential oil and extracts of Keetia leucantha leaves with inhibitor activity on Trypanosoma brucei glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bero, J; Beaufay, C; Hannaert, V; Hérent, M-F; Michels, P A; Quetin-Leclercq, J

    2013-02-15

    Keetia leucantha is a West African tree used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases among which parasitic infections. The dichloromethane extract of leaves was previously shown to possess growth-inhibitory activities on Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania mexicana mexicana with low or no cytotoxicity (>100 μg/ml on human normal fibroblasts) (Bero et al. 2009, 2011). In continuation of our investigations on the antitrypanosomal compounds from this dichloromethane extract, we analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS the essential oil of its leaves obtained by hydrodistillation and the major triterpenic acids in this extract by LC-MS. Twenty-seven compounds were identified in the oil whose percentages were calculated using the normalization method. The essential oil, seven of its constituents and the three triterpenic acids were evaluated for their antitrypanosomal activity on Trypanosoma brucei brucei bloodstream forms (Tbb BSF) and procyclic forms (Tbb PF) to identify an activity on the glycolytic process of trypanosomes. The oil showed an IC(50) of 20.9 μg/ml on Tbb BSF and no activity was observed on Tbb PF. The best antitrypanosomal activity was observed for ursolic acid with IC(50) of 2.5 and 6.5 μg/ml respectively on Tbb BSF and Tbb PF. The inhibitory activity on a glycolytic enzyme of T. brucei, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), was also evaluated for betulinic acid, olenaolic acid, ursolic acid, phytol, α-ionone and β-ionone. The three triterpenic acids and β-ionone showed inhibitory activities on GAPDH with oleanolic acid being the most active with an inhibition of 72.63% at 20 μg/ml. This paper reports for the first time the composition and antitrypanosomal activity of the essential oil of Keetia leucantha. Several of its constituents and three triterpenic acids present in the dichloromethane leaves extract showed a higher antitrypanosomal activity on bloodstream forms of Tbb as compared to procyclic forms

  17. Empirical modeling of solvent extraction of uranium from sulphuric acid medium using PC-88A and TOPO as extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.; Roy, S.B.; Pathak, P.N.; Manchanda, V.K.; Singh, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction behavior of uranium (VI) from sulphuric acid medium using PC-88A (H 2 A 2 , dimer form) and a mixture of PC-88A + TOPO in n-dodecane has been investigated. The extraction data have been used to develop a mathematical model correlating percentage extraction (%E) with PC-88A and TOPO concentration. It can be used to predict the steady-state concentrations of metal ion under the conditions of the present work. (author)

  18. Studies on the solvent extraction behaviour of Pu(IV) from nitric acid, nitric-perchloric acid and hydrochloric acids, by di,2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phal, D.G.; Kannan, S.K.; Ramakrishna, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Extraction of plutonium (IV) from aqueous nitric acid, nitric-perchloric acid and hydrochloric acids by di,2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, the dimeric form of which is represented as H 2 Y 2 , in different diluents (dodecane, toluene and chloroform) was investigated. The composition of the extracted Pu(IV) species were found to be Pu(NO 3 ) 2 (HY) 2 , Pu(NO 3 )(ClO 4 )(HY 2 ) 2 , PuClY(HY 2 ) 2 and PuCl 2 (HY 2 ) 2 from nitric, nitric-perchloric and hydrochloric acids respectively, the last one being pre-dominant at high aqueous acidities (i.e. 5M HCl). Synergic enhancement in the extraction of Pu(IV) from different aqueous media, by the addition of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) to HDEHP was also investigated and was attributed to the formation and extraction of the species PuX(TTA)(HY 2 ) 2 , and Pu(TTA) 2 (HY 2 ) 2 where X=Cl - or NO 3 - . The addition of the neutral extractant TOPO to H 2 Y 2 also resulted in synergism. The possible equilibria in these systems were inferred and the corresponding equilibrium constants determined. (author). 24 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Extraction of uranium from aqueous solution by phosphonic acid-imbedded polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katragadda, S.; Gesser, H.D.; Chow, A.

    1997-01-01

    Phenylphosphonic acid was imbedded into the matrix of the polyurethane foam during the fabrication process of the polymer. The extraction of uranium by phosphonic acid-imbedded polyurethane foam and blank polyurethane (i.e., foam without phosphonic acid functional groups) was investigated. Phosphonic acid-imbedded foam showed superior extractability of uranium from solutions with pH = 7.0 ± 1.5 over a wide range of temperatures. (author)

  20. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, António G.; Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne; Sørensen, Susanne O.; Ralet, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Pectin is a complex macromolecule, the fine structure of which is influenced by many factors. It is used as a gelling, thickening and emulsifying agent in a wide range of applications, from food to pharmaceutical products. Current industrial pectin extraction processes are based on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction) and on a laboratory scale (grams; mild oxalic acid extraction). Pectin composition (acidic and neutral sugars) and physicochemical properties (molar mass and intrinsic viscosity) were determined. Key Results Oxalic acid extraction allowed the recovery of pectin samples of high molecular weight. Mild oxalic acid-extracted pectins were rich in long homogalacturonan stretches and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches with conserved side chains. Nitric acid-extracted pectins exhibited lower molecular weights and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches encompassing few and/or short side chains. Grapefruit pectin was found to have short side chains compared with orange, lime and lemon. Orange and grapefruit pectin samples were both particularly rich in rhamnogalacturonan I backbones. Conclusions Structural, and hence macromolecular, variations within the different citrus pectin samples were mainly related to their rhamnogalacturonan I contents and integrity, and, to a lesser extent, to the length of their homogalacturonan domains. PMID:25081519

  1. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  2. SEPARATION OF p-AMINOBENZOIC ACID BY REACTIVE EXTRACTION. 1. MECHANISM AND INFLUENCING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN CASCAVAL

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study on the reactive extraction of p-aminobenzoic acid with Amberlite LA-2 and D2EHPA in two solvents with different polarity (n-heptane and dichloromethane indicated that the extractant type and solvent polarity control the extraction mechanism. Thus, the reactive extraction with Amberlite LA-2 occurs by means of the interfacial formation of an aminic adduct with three extractant molecules in low-polar solvent, or of an salt with one extractant molecule in higher polar solvent. Similarly, the extraction with D2EHPA is based on the formation of an acidic adduct with two extractant molecules in n-heptane, or of a salt with one extractant molecule in dichloromethane. The most efficient extraction has been reached for the combination Amberlite LA-2-dichloromethane.

  3. The role of acid anion on the inhibition of the acidic corrosion of steel by lupine extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)], E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A.; Saadawy, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2009-05-15

    The inhibitive effect of lupine (Lupinous albus L.) extract on the corrosion of steel in aqueous solution of 1 M sulphuric and 2 M hydrochloric acids was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the lupine extract acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process is under activation control. The inhibition efficiency of the extract obtained from impedance and polarization measurements was in a good agreement and was found to increase with increasing concentration of the extract. The obtained results showed that, the lupine extract could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in acid media and the extract was more effective in case of hydrochloric acid. Theoretical fitting of the corrosion data to the kinetic-thermodynamic model was tested to show the nature of adsorption.

  4. Extraction of plutonium from phosphate containing nitric acid solutions using DHDECMP as extractant (Preprint no. SSC-03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, V.B.; Pawar, S.M.; Joshi, A.R.; Kasar, U.M.; Sivaramkrishnan, C.K.

    1991-01-01

    Distribution data for the extraction of Pu(IV) by DHDECMP (Di-hexyl, N-N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate) in xylene from aqueous nitric acid and its mixtures with sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid were obtained to explore the feasibility of recovery of Pu(IV) from analytical waste generated in the laboratory. Based on the data obtained, conditions for recovery of plutonium are suggested. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Copigmentation Of Anthocyanin Extract of Purple Sweet Potatoes (Ipomea Batatas L.) Using Ferulic Acid And Tannic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, I.; Wijaya, H.; Hasanah, F.; Heryani, S.

    2018-02-01

    Copigmentation is one of the methods to improve the color stability and intensity of anthocyanin extract. This study aimed to do the copigmentation of the anthocyanin extract of purple sweet potato using ferulic acid and tannic acid. The anthocyanin extraction was conducted with distilled water at pH 7 and pH 2 while the copigmentation was conducted by varying the concentration of ferulic acid and tannic acid. The results showed that best anthocyanin extraction method of the purple sweet potato was using distilled water at pH 2. The yield of freeze dried anthocyanin on the extraction with distilled water at pH 2 was 1710 ppm, while the yield when using distilled water at pH 7 was 888 ppm. Ferulic acid and tannic acid can be used for the copigmentation of anthocyanin extract of purple sweet potato by observing the maximum wavelength shift (bathochromic effect, Δλmax) and increase of color intensity (hyperchromic effect, ΔAmax). The bathochromic effect of ferulic acid began to occur at a concentration of 0.01M, while the hypochromic effect on tannic acid occurred at a concentration of 0.005M and remained up to a concentration of 0.02M. The best copigmentation concentration of ferulic acid was 0.015M, while tannic acid was 0.02M. The use of tannic acid 0.02M is recommended compared to ferulic acid 0.015M because with the same bathocromic effect (Δλmaks = 3,9) results hyperchromic effect (ΔA = 0,258) higher by tannic acid.

  6. The behavior and importance of lactic acid complexation in Talspeak extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, Travis S.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Advanced partitioning of spent nuclear fuel in the UREX +la process relies on the TALSPEAK process for separation of fission-product lanthanides from trivalent actinides. The classic TALSPEAK utilizes an aqueous medium of both lactic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the extraction reagent di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in an aromatic diluent. In this study, the specific role of lactic acid and the complexes involved in the extraction of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides have been investigated using 14 C-labeled lactic acid. Our results show that lactic acid partitions between the phases in a complex fashion. (authors)

  7. Behaviour of solvent extraction of niobium in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Cansheng; Huang Meixin; Zhang Xianzi; Zhang Chonghai

    1988-01-01

    The behaviour of solvent extraction of niobium is discussed. The expractants, includding TBP, HDBP, H 2 MBP, TBP irradiated, HDEHP, TTA and Aliquat-7402, are used. The special influence of molybdenum and zirconium on solvent extraction of niobium and the extraction behaviur of niobium with TBP irradiated are described. The effect of fluorine and uranium in aqueous phase on extraction of niobium is mentioned. It is observed that the interfacial crud has not relevance to D Nb , but niobium-95 can be absorbed on it. The species of extractable niobium, extraction mechanism, and the reason brought niobum into organic phase are discussed. Finally, the idea of increasing decontamination factor for niobium is suggested

  8. Study for the extraction of uranium from commerical phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, A.C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The extraction of uranium is discribed and for which several parameters such as choice of the extracting agent, uranium oxidation, temperature, phase volume ratio, equilibrium time and number of stages are studied. A synergic mixture constituted by 0,5M DZEHPA/0,125M TOPO in kerosene is used as extracting agent. The uranium extraction is performed by using both batch process and continuous as well as discontinuous counter-current and processes in bench scale. An overall yield of 96% is obtained when the extraction experiment is performed at 45 0 C in a 5-stage continuous extraction process. (Author) [pt

  9. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573.500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal feed...

  10. Equilibria and kinetics for reactive extraction of lactic acid using Alamine 336 in decanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting this from aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation-based industries. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid-amine (solvent) system used. The equilibrium

  11. Metal extraction by alkyl substituted diphosphonic acids. Part 1. P,P'-Di(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Rickert, P.G.; Herlinger, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    Two novel extractants, p,p'-di(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid (H 2 DEH[MDP]) and p,p'-dioctyl methanediphosphonic acid (H 2 DO[MDP]) have been synthesized at high purity and yield. H 2 DEH[MDP] was selected for metal extraction studies because of its better physical properties. An investigation of the extraction of alkaline earth cations, Fe(111) and representative tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinide ions from nitric acid solutions into o-xylene solutions of H 2 DEH[MDP] at different concentrations was performed. With a few exceptions, the acid dependencies of the extraction of the above metal species strongly resembles those measured in the uptake of the same metals by the chelating ion exchange resin Diphonix R , which contains gem-diphosphonic acid groups chemically attached to a polymeric matrix. The almost lack of acid dependency observed with Fe(III) and tetra- and hexavalent actinides indicates that these ions are chelated by H 2 DEH[MDP] mostly through the P=O groups of the extractant. With Fe(111) and the actinides, variable slopes of the extractant dependencies were measured, their values being strongly dependent on the acidity of the aqueous phase. H 2 DEH[MDP] possesses an extraordinary affinity for actinides and Fe(111). 26 refs., 7 figs

  12. High-temperature extraction of rhenium from sulfuric acid solutions with trialkylamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyhev, V.P.; Andreeva, N.N.; Kim, E.M.; Kovaleva, S.V.

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to determine the possibility of conducting high-temperature extraction of rhenium from sulfuric acid solutions with trialkylamines (TAA) using higher hydrocarbon-paraffin mixtures as the diluent of the extraction system. Substitution of kerosene by paraffin in the extraction system would permit decreasing the danger of fire and explosions during he extraction process. In extracting rhenium from industrial solutions with a melt of higher paraffins containing TAA and alcohols, the extraction system can be continously heated in heat exchangers through which washing sulfuric acid passes and then goes to the extractor. This permits utilizing the heat and decreases the temperature of the solutions for extraction to the optimum temperatures. Extraction of rhenium with a melt of trioctylamine in paraffin obeys the same mechanisms as high-temperature extraction of ruthenium (IV) by amines in kerosene and aromatic hydrocarbons

  13. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-01-01

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, 90 Sr and 137 Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed

  14. Analytical and preparative separation of organic acids from water by extraction with trioctylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, S.H.; Hoyer, O.; Knobel, K.P.; Hodenberg, S. von

    1977-12-01

    The extraction of pure organic acids and of humic and ligninsulfonic acid from water by a solution of trioctylamine in chloroform was investigated (technical grade amine = ALAMINE). Quantitative separation is achieved by double extraction with 5% ALAMINE at pH 3,5 - 4. The acids may be back-extracted with dilute sodium hydroxide solution. Procedures are described for the analytical extraction of water samples of 200 to 2.000 ml and for the flow-through processing of large water volumes. (orig.) [de

  15. Some features of transplutonium and rare earth elements extraction by HDEHP from lactic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V.M.; Lebedev, V.M.; Lebedeva, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanisms of transplutonium (TPE) and rare earth elements (REE) extraction by HDEHP from lactic acid solutions are analysed in the literature. On the base of the known expressions and experimental data the model for TPE and REE extraction by HDEHP from lactic acid, accounting lactic acid and metal extraction as MeA 3 x3HA, MeLA 2 x2HA and MeLA 2 complexes, is suggested. The expression, permitting to estimate quantitatively the effect of TPE and REE complexing with lactic acid and the extraction of complex forms on the distribution coefficient of the extracted metal, is obtained. Comparison of calculational data with experimental ones show their good coincidence that confirms the rightness of the model accepted for extraction

  16. A contribution to the study of mass transfer: uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, A.

    1985-12-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) contained in phosphoric acid is examined. Synergism and thermodynamical equilibria are studied. Influence of drop size, extractant concentration and temperature on reaction kinetics are determined. The experimental study concerns extraction by HDEHP, TOPO and the mixture of both. Reaction mechanisms are interpreted [fr

  17. Synergistic Extraction of Lactic Acid with Tri-n-Octylamine and Try-n-Butylphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Michiaki.; Yuba, Seiji.; Kondo, Kazuo. (Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan))

    1998-12-01

    Synergistic extraction system of lactic acid is examined to develop to in situ extractive fermentation process. The addition of try-n-butyl phosphate(TBP) to the extraction system of lactic acid(HA) with tri-n-actylamine(TOA) diluted by hexane causes a large synergism. Extraction reaction with the mixed extractant is interpreted quite well based on the formation of mixed complex, HA[center dot]TOA[center dot]2TBP. Though the addition of hexane solution containing TBP and TOA to the culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus results in low lactate production, some lactate is produced. (author)

  18. Synergistic Extraction of Lactic Acid with Tri-n-Octylamine and Try-n-Butylphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Michiaki.; Yuba, Seiji.; Kondo, Kazuo. [Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    Synergistic extraction system of lactic acid is examined to develop to in situ extractive fermentation process. The addition of try-n-butyl phosphate(TBP) to the extraction system of lactic acid(HA) with tri-n-actylamine(TOA) diluted by hexane causes a large synergism. Extraction reaction with the mixed extractant is interpreted quite well based on the formation of mixed complex, HA{center_dot}TOA{center_dot}2TBP. Though the addition of hexane solution containing TBP and TOA to the culture of Lactobacillus rhamnosus results in low lactate production, some lactate is produced. (author)

  19. Some regularities of extraction of rare earth elements by organophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpusov, G.V.; Keimirov, M.A.; Danilov, N.A.; Djumauradov, B.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigation of extraction of rare earth macroquantities from nitrate solutions by D-2-isopropyl-5-methylhexylphosphoric and 2-isopropyl-5-methylhexylphosphoric acids. It is shown that extractant selectivity decreases with increase of aqueous phase acidity. The selectivity is usually higher against the background of macroquantities of weakly extracted component, but some times another dependence is observed. It is noted that substitution of the diluent for more polar one which monomerizes extractants, leads to the loss of selectivity. But in small guantities polar diluents provide the stability of the extraction system for formation of sediments. Both sampls of organophosphoric acids provide for extraction process at low HNO 3 concentrations without rick of sediment formati on of extracted compounds in organic phase

  20. Study on Process Parameters of Extraction of γ-aminobutyric Acid Instant Moringa oleifera Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiaokun, Fu; Suhui, Zhang; Neng, Liu; Jihua, Li; Shaodan, Peng; Changqing, Guo; Wei, Zhou

    2017-12-01

    To preliminary optimize the extraction of γ-aminobutyric acid instant tea powder from Moringa oleifera leaves,taking γ-aminobutyric acid Moringa oleifera leaves as raw material and pure water as extraction solvent and GABA content as the main evaluation index,the effects of extraction temperature, ratio of liquid to material and extraction time on biochemical components and sensory qualities of Moringa oleifera leaves extractor was studied by using one-factor-at-a-time experiment.The results showed shat the optimal extraction conditions for γ-aminobutyric acid instant tea powder were extraction temperature of 60 °C, material-to-water ration of 1:10 and extraction time of 40 min.

  1. Extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid in centrifugal and mixer-settler batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poczynajlo, A.; Giers, M.

    1986-01-01

    Five stage countercurrent batteries were comparatively applied for the extraction of uranium from wet phosphoric acid (Chemical Works, Police) in semitechnical scale. As an extractant phase the 0.16 M equimolar solution of mono- and dinonylphenyolphosphoric acids in kerosene was used. The optimum hydrodynamic and extraction conditions for the batteries were found. Process efficiencies of the apparatus were also determined. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  2. Complexation and extraction of series 4f, 5f and 4d ions by dialkyldithiophosphoric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, Richard.

    1982-04-01

    A study was carried out on the complexing and extracting properties of various dialkyldithiophosphoric acids towards ions of the 4f, 5f and 4d series. Sulphurated donors complex and extract ions of the 4f and 5f series less strongly than their oxygenated homologues. However the affinity of trivalent actinide ions for dialkythiophosphate ions is shown to be greater than that of lanthanides. The conditions of ruthenium extraction from nitric acid are defined [fr

  3. Transamination of cysteine-sulfinic acid by extracts of oat leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Milan, H.; Schuack, J.; Fromageot, P.

    1960-01-01

    An aqueous extract of oat leaves catalyses a transamination between cysteine-sulfinic acid and α-ketoglutaric acid. Under the conditions utilized pyruvic acid is not an acceptor of the amino group. Neither cysteic nor aspartic acid are a substrate for the transaminase of cysteine-sulfinic acid. Reprint of a paper published in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Vol. 36, 1959, p. 73-83 [fr

  4. QUAFRINOIC ACIDS: TWO NEW TRITERPENIODS FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the stem bark of Quassia africana, two new triterpenoids with the ursolic acid skeleton, characterized as 3-oxo-urs-12-en-27a, 28di-oic acid and its dihydro derivative, 3β-urs-12-en-27α, 28di-oic acid have been isolated. The structures were determined using spectroscopic techniques. KEY WORDS: Quassia africana; ...

  5. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium in Acid Media By Citrullus Colocynthis Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Rajkiran; Garg, Urvija; Tak, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of corrosion of aluminium in acid solution by methanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis plant has been studied using mass loss and thermometric measurements. It has been found that the plant extract act as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in all concentrations of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid solution. The inhibition action depends on the concentration of acid and inhibitor. Results for mass loss and thermometric measurement indicate that inhibition efficiency increase wi...

  6. Solvent extraction of titanium (IV) from sulphuric acid media by cyanex 921 and tri-butylphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayl, A.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2009-01-01

    titanium and its compounds found different useful applications in the nuclear and radioactive waste treatment fields. extraction behavior of titanium (IV) from sulfuric acid by commercial tri-octylphosphine oxide (CYANEX 921) and tributylphosphate (TBP)has been investigated. effects of contact time, sulfuric acid concentration in the aqueous phase, the extractants concentration in the organic phase, and the temperature on the extraction of titanium by the two systems were studied. it is found that extraction equilibrium of titanium is reached after 10-15 min and 4 min for CYANEX 921 and TBP, respectively . the extraction of Ti(IV) by 0.15 M CYANEX 921 in kerosene increases with the increase in sulfuric acid concentration to reach a maximum extraction of 91% at 7.0 m acid concentration. for the TBP system, the maximum extraction of titanium was 79% using 1.0 M TBP in kerosene from 4.0 m H 2 SO 4 solution . the effect of temperature was also evaluated. Na 2 CO 3 was used as a good stripping agent compared with other reagents. the interaction of Ti(IV) in sulfate medium and different sulfate species in sulfuric acid are reviewed. within the literature survey together with analysis of the extraction results , it can be concluded that titanium extracted by CYANEX 921 as Ti O (HSO 4 ) 2 .2 CYANEX 921 whereby in case of TBP, the extracted species is TiOSO 4 .2 TBP

  7. Extraction of antimony from nitric acid solutions using tributyl phosphate. II. Tributyl phosphate-antimony(V)-nitric acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakaev, V.S.; Smelov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    The extraction of pentavalent antimony from nitric acid solutions using tributyl phosphate has been investigated. A possible mechanism for the extraction of antimony(V) has been determined and the (pre)concentration constant for the process has been calculated. The composition of the extracted antimony(V) complex has been deduced. A negative effect of temperature on the distribution coefficient for antimony(V) has also been demonstrated

  8. Flower extract as an improvised indicator in acid – base titration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different flowers were collected and the extracts were tested for indicator properties in acidic and basic solutions. The results showed different colour changes in alkaline and colourless in acid solutions. When used in acid-base titration, the end points colours and the average titre values obtained matched with that of ...

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium and thorium from nitric acid medium using organophosphorous compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitchaiah, K.C.; Sujatha, K.; Rao, C.V.S. Brahmmananda; Subramaniam, S.; Sivaraman, N.; Rao, P.R. Vasudeva [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) technique has been widely used for the extraction of metal ions. In the present study, extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium was investigated using supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO{sub 2}) containing various organophosphorous compounds such as trialkyl phosphates e.g. tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP), tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), dialkylalkyl phosphonates, e.g. diamylamyl phosphonate (DAAP) and dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP), dialkyl hydrogen phosphonates, e.g. dioctyl hydrogen phosphonate (DOHP), dioctylphosphineoxide (DOPO), trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO), n-octylphenyl N,N-diisobutyl carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and di-2-ethyl-hexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP). Some of these ligands have been investigated for the first time in the supercritical phase for the extraction of uranium. The extraction efficiency of uranium was studied with TiAP, DAAP and DBBP as a function of nitric acid concentration; the kinetics of the equilibration period (static extraction) and transportation of the metal complex (dynamic extraction) was investigated. The influence of pressure and temperature on the extraction behaviour of uranium with DAAP was studied from 4 N HNO{sub 3}. The extraction efficiency of uranium from 4 N nitric acid medium was found to increase in the order of phosphates < phosphonates < HDEHP < TOPO < CMPO. In the case of phosphates and phosphonates, the maximum extraction of uranium was found to be from 4 N HNO{sub 3} medium. The acidic extractants, HDEHP and DOHP showed relatively higher extraction at lower acidities. The relative extraction of uranium and thorium from their mixture was also examined using Sc-CO{sub 2} containing phosphates, phosphonates and TOPO. The ligand, TsBP provided better fractionation between uranium and thorium compared to trialkyl phosphates, dialkyl alkyl phosphonates and TOPO.

  10. Extraction mechanism of Sc(III) from sulphuric acid solution by primary amine N1923

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Shaoming; Li Deqian; Ni Jiazan

    1987-01-01

    The extraction mechanism of Sc(III) from sulphuric acid solution by primary amine N 1923 (RNH 2 ) has been investigated by means of slope, isomolar continuous variation and saturation methods. The effect of temperature on the extraction of Sc(III) is observed. The extraction equilibrium constant and thermodynamic functions (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) are obtained. The IR and NMR of extracted compound are measured

  11. Separation of transuranium elements from high-level waste by extraction with diisodecyl phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Y.; Kubota, M.; Tani, S.

    1991-01-01

    Separation of transuranic elements (TRU) by extraction with diisodecyl phosphoric acid (DIDPA) has been studied to develop a partitioning process for high-level waste (HLW). In the present study, experiments of counter-current continuous extraction and back-extraction using a miniature mixer-settler were carried out to find the optimum process condition for the separation of Np initially in the pentavalent state and to examine the extraction behaviors of fission and corrosion products. (J.P.N.)

  12. Some studies on the extraction of plutonium from phosphate containing nitric acid solutions using DBDECMP as extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, V.B.; Oak, M.S.; Pawar, S.M.; Sivaramakrishnan, C.K.; Patil, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Extraction studies have been carried out to explore the feasibility of separation of Pu(IV) from phosphate containing analytical wastes generated in the laboratory. Distribution data on the extraction of Pu(IV) from DBDECMP (di-butyl,N,N-diethylcarbamoyl methyl phosphonate) in xylene an aqueous nitric acid and its mixture with sulfuric as well as with sulfuric and phosphoric acids were obtained. Based on the data obtained, the conditions for the recovery of plutonium from such water solutions are suggested. (author) 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  13. Extraction of Collagen from Chicken Feet with Various Acidic Solutions and Soaking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the ability of various acidic solutions on dissolving collagen  chicken feet, with different soaked time.  Each acid 5 percent (v/v, collagen extraction was done by washing chicken feet and then cutted into small pieces and finally grinded.  Every 100 gram treatment was soaked in acetic acid (a1, citric acid (a2, lactic acid (a3 and hydrochloric acid (a4, for 12, 24 and 36 hours.  Precipitated collagen in the filtrate was 5 percent NaOH to reach the neutral pH (pH 7.  Collagen precipitate was separated by filtration usingfilter paper and then  rendement was calculated, HPLC was used to determin amino acid composition, and SDS-PAGE was use determin the type of collagen.  This experiment use factorial completely randomized design (CRD 4 x 3 and three time replication.   Result showed that lactic acid has highest capability to dissolve collagen, while citric acid the lowest.  Combination of acid solution and soaking time had significant (P<0.01 effect on dissolving collagen of chicken feet.  Extracted collagen in all acid solution, hassame amino acid, composition but different in percentage of amino acid molecules.  Collagen type in treatment combination was the same, but for soaking time of 36 hours revealed some peptide band.  Lactic acid had highest capability of collagen extraction in chicken feet than citric acid, acetic acid and hydrochloric acid with soaking time of 12, 24 and 36 hours.  It was estimated that extracted collagen can be grouped to type I consisted of two chain of a1. (Animal Production 9(2: 99-104 (2007   Key Words : Chicken feet, acids, soaking time, collagen

  14. Extraction of domoic acid from seawater and urine using a resin based on 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Villoslada, Fernando Navarro; Chianella, Iva; Bossi, Alessandra; Karim, Kal; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletsky, Sergey A; Doucette, Gregory J; Ramsdell, John S

    2008-03-03

    A new solid-phase extraction (SPE) matrix with high affinity for the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) was designed and tested. A computational modelling study led to the selection of 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid (TFMAA) as a functional monomer capable of imparting affinity towards domoic acid. Polymeric adsorbents containing TFMAA were synthesised and tested in high ionic strength solutions such as urine and seawater. The TFMAA-based polymers demonstrated excellent performance in solid-phase extraction of domoic acid, retaining the toxin while salts and other interfering compounds such as aspartic and glutamic acids were removed by washing and selective elution. It was shown that the TFMAA-based polymer provided the level of purification of domoic acid from urine and seawater acceptable for its quantification by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) without any additional pre-concentration and purification steps.

  15. Antibacterial effects of roselle calyx extracts and protocatechuic acid in ground beef and apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Che-Yi; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2009-03-01

    The antibacterial effects of roselle calyx aqueous and ethanol extracts and protocatechuic acid against food spoilage bacteria Salmonella typhimurium DT104, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus were examined. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of roselle calyx aqueous and ethanol extracts and protocatechuic acid against these bacteria were in the range of 112-144, 72-96, and 24-44 microg/mL, respectively. Protocatechuic acid content in roselle calyx aqueous and ethanol extracts was 2.8 +/- 0.7 and 11.9 +/- 1.2 mg/g, respectively. Antibacterial activity of roselle calyx ethanol extract and protocatechuic acid was not affected by heat treatments from 25 degrees to 75 degrees C and 25 degrees to 100 degrees C, respectively. After 3 days storage at 25 degrees C, the addition of roselle calyx extracts and protocatechuic acid exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects against test bacteria in ground beef and apple juice, in which the roselle calyx ethanol extract showed greater antibacterial effects than the aqueous extract. These data suggest that roselle calyx ethanol extract and protocatechuic acid might be potent agents as food additives to prevent contamination from these bacteria.

  16. Comparison of acid ethanol extraction and acid gel filtration prior to IGF-I and IGF-II radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, P.; Eriksson, U.; Wivall, I.-L.; Hall, K.; Sara, V.

    1991-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins interfere in the IGF-I and -II radioimmunoassays. In an attempt to overcome this problem, we have compared the use of truncated IGF-I, with reduced IGFBP affinity, and IGF-I as radioligands for IGF-I RIA measurements in serum separated by acid gel filtration or acid ethanol extraction followed by cryo-precipitation. With truncated IGF-I as radioligand the IGF-I measurements in acid gel filtrates and acid ethanol extracts were significantly correlated in healthy subjects (N=42, r=0.91, p<0.001) and in patients with acromegaly (N=10, r=0.85, p<0.01), GH deficiency (N=10, r=0.88, p<0.001) or Type I diabetes mellitus (N=10, r=0.90, p<0.001). In contrast, the IGF-I concentrations in acid ethanol extracts determined with IGF-I as radioligand did not correlate with those in acid gel filtrates using truncated IGF-I radioligand in patients with acromegaly (r=0.61, NS) or GH deficiency (r=0.46, NS). In the latter group the mean IGF-I concentrations measured in acid ethanol extracts were erroneously elevated by 112%. Low-affinity antibodies used for IGF-II RIA determinations failed to give reliable results in acid ethanol extracts from patients with Type I diabetes mellitus or GH deficiency. In conclusion, erroneously high IGF-I concentrations owing to binding of the radioligand to IGFBPs not completely removed by acid ethanol extraction can be avoided by the use of truncated IGF-I as radioligand. (author)

  17. Rare Earth Extraction from NdFeB Magnet Using a Closed-Loop Acid Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Jiro; Uemura, Ryohei

    2017-08-14

    There is considerable interest in extraction of rare earth elements from NdFeB magnets to enable recycling of these elements. In practical extraction methods using wet processes, the acid waste solution discharge is a problem that must be resolved to reduce the environmental impact of the process. Here, we present an encouraging demonstration of rare earth element extraction from a NdFeB magnet using a closed-loop hydrochloric acid (HCl)-based process. The extraction method is based on corrosion of the magnet in a pretreatment stage and a subsequent ionic liquid technique for Fe extraction from the HCl solution. The rare earth elements are then precipitated using oxalic acid. Triple extraction has been conducted and the recovery ratio of the rare earth elements from the solution is approximately 50% for each extraction process, as compared to almost 100% recovery when using a one-shot extraction process without the ionic liquid but with sufficient oxalic acid. Despite its reduced extraction efficiency, the proposed method with its small number of procedures at almost room temperature is still highly advantageous in terms of both cost and environmental friendliness. This study represents an initial step towards realization of a closed-loop acid process for recycling of rare earth elements.

  18. Aggregation of dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids and its effect on metal ion extraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarizia, R.; Barrans, R. E., Jr.; Ferraro, J. R. Herlinger, A. W.; McAlister, D. R.

    1999-10-22

    Solvent extraction reagents containing the diphosphonic acid group exhibit an extraordinary affinity for tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides. Their use has been considered for actinide separation and pre-concentration procedures. Solvent extraction data obtained with P,P{prime}-di(2-ethylhexyl) methane-, ethane- and butanediphosphonic acids exhibit features that are difficult to explain without Knowledge of the aggregation state of the extractants. Information about the aggregation of the dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids in aromatic diluents has been obtained using the complementary techniques of vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), infrared spectroscopy and molecular mechanics. The results from these techniques provide an understanding of the aggregation behavior of these extractants that is fully compatible with the solvent extraction data. The most important results and their relevance to solvent extraction are reviewed in this paper.

  19. Extraction and separation of U(VI and Th(IV from hydrobromic acid media using Cyanex-923 extractant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghag Snehal M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of the solvent extraction of uranium(VI and thorium(IV from hydrobromic acid media was performed using the neutral phosphine oxide extractant Cyanex-923 in toluene. These metal ions were found to be quantitatively extracted with Cyanex-923 in toluene in the acidity range 5x10-5-1x10-4 M and 5x10-5-5x10-3 M, respectively, and they are stripped from the organic phase with 7.0 M HClO4 and 2.0- 4.0 M HCl, respectively. The effect of the equilibrium period, diluents, diverse ions and stripping agent on the extraction of U(VI and Th(IV was studied. The stoichiometry of the extracted species of these metal ions was determined based on the slope analysis method. The extraction reactions proceed by solvation and their probable extracted species found in the organic phase were UO2Br2•2Cyanex-923 and ThBr4•2Cyanex-923. Based on these results, a sequential procedure for their separation from each other was developed.

  20. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  1. Methanol extract of grain dust shows complement fixing activity and other characteristics similar to tannic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skea, D; Broder, I

    1986-01-01

    We have found several similarities between tannic acid and grain dust extract prepared with methanol. Both formed a precipitate with IgG, and these interactions were inhibited by albumin. In addition, both preparations fixed complement; this activity was heat stable and was removed by prior adsorption of the preparations with hide powder. Adsorption with polyvinyl polypyrrolidone reduced the complement-fixing activity of tannic acid but not that of the methanol grain dust extract. The similarities between tannic acid and the methanol grain dust extract are consistent with the presence of a tannin or tanninlike material in grain dust. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:3709479

  2. Extraction of tar acids with methanol from low-temperature tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, W; Yokogawa, C; Suga, S

    1948-01-01

    From 20 grams crude middle oil, boiling at 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/, acid content 40%, tar acids were extracted at 20/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/ with MeOH for comparison with EtOH, NMe/sub 3/, and ethylene glycol. When 80% MeOH is used, the oil extracted amounts to 61%, including 9% acids, if the ratio of crude oil and solvent is kept at 1:2. EtOH is inferior to MeOH. The properties of the crude oil and the purified oil extracted with 80% MeOH are described.

  3. Extraction of plutonium and uranium from oxalate bearing solutions using phosphonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, A.G.; Mapara, P.M.; Swarup, Rajendra

    1995-01-01

    A feasibility study on the solvent extraction of plutonium and uranium from solutions containing oxalic and nitric acids using a phosphonic acid extractant (PC88A) was made to explore the possibility of recovering Pu from these solutions. Batch experiments on the extraction of Pu(IV) and U(VI) under different parameters were carried out using PC88A in dodecane. The results indicated that Pu could be extracted quantitatively by PC88A from these solutions. A good separation of Pu from U could be achieved at higher temperatures. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Competitive solvent extraction of alkaline-earth cations into chloroform by lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.I.; Czech, A.; Czech, B.P.; Stewart, L.E.; Bartsch, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Competitive solvent extraction of alkaline-earth cations from aqueous solutions into chloroform by a series of lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids is reported. The influence of polyether chain length and of terminal carboxylic acid group variation upon extraction selectivity and efficiency is assessed. In the competitive extraction of concentrated magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium chloride solutions, one complexing agent exhibits pronounced selectivity for barium with Ba 2+ /S 2+ = 50, Ba 2+ /Ca 2+ = 250, and no detectable Mg 2+ extraction. 20 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  5. Use of a pulsed column with discs and crowns for uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The physico-chemistry of the system phosphoric acid-uranium-dioctylpyrophosphoric acid is studied for the determination of analytical methods and extraction parameters (oxidation state of uranium and iron, phosphorus concentration, extractant concentration). Extraction is then realized on a pilot scale with a liquid-liquid extraction column 4m high and of 50 mm in diameter with a column packing made of discs and crowns. Column efficiency is evaluated by studying uranium transfer as a function of operating conditions. The results obtained are extrapolated to an industrial scale and a comparative economic evaluation is made between a pulsed column and a mixer-settler [fr

  6. Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Fruit Extract as Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    In routine experiments synthetic indicators are the choice of acid base titrations. But there are some limitations like environmental pollution, availability and higher cost which leads to search for natural compounds as an acid base indicator was started. The present work highlights theexploit of the methanolic and aqueous extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica plants as a natural acid base indicator in acid base titrations. Opuntia ficus indica plant was identified and fruits were was...

  7. Influence of nitric acid on the kinetic of complexation of uranyl nitrate extracted by TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushlenkov, M.F.; Zimenkov, V.V.

    1982-02-01

    The effect of nitric acid on the solvatation rate of uranyl nitrate with tributyl phosphate is studied. In the process of mass transfer, it is shown that nitric acid enables the extraction of uranyl nitrate, therefore its concentration in the organic phase exceeds that in equilibrium solution. Subsequently uranyl nitrate ''displaces'' nitric acid. The presence of the acid in aqueous and organic phases affects in a complicated manner the rate of solvatation of uranyl nitrate with tributyl phosphate [fr

  8. Uranium extraction from ores with salicylic acid; I - uranium extraction from input phosphate ore of Abu Zaabal phosphate plant, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Salicylic acid has been tested (for environmental importance) to extract U from input phosphate ore of Abu-Zaabal phosphate plant, Egypt prior to its processing for production of phosphatic fertilizers. Uranyl ion forms with this acid three stable complexes; namely [UO 2 Sal] degree, [U O 2 SaL 2 ] 2- and UO 2 SaL-3] 4- depending on the total uranyl and salicylic acid concentrations and their ratios. Study of relevant extraction factors revealed however that, the extraction process is controlled by the amount of salicylic acid used, alcohol/aqueous ratio, solid/liquid ratio and time of agitation. The obtained results showed that uranium is selectively leached by the application of such a leaching reagent. In order to recover U from the obtained pregnant leach liquor, the latter is adjusted by ammonia to PH 5-6.5, where the crystalline pp t of N H 4 [UO 2 SaL 3 ] 4 H 2 O has formed. This precipitation has been carried out after concentrating the obtained pregnant leach liquor by its recycle for U extraction from new ore batches. The precipitated ammonium uranyl tri salicylate is calcined at 500 degree C for obtaining pure orange yellow trioxide (UO 3 ) powder. On the basis of one ton ore treatment, an economic flowsheet for U recover y from the study ore material has been suggested

  9. Lactic acid Production with in situ Extraction in Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Ghafouri Taleghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Lactic acid is widely used in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The major problems associated with lactic acid production are substrate and end-product inhibition, and by-product formation. Membrane technologyrepresents one of the most effective processes for lactic acid production. The aim of this work is to increase cell density and lactic acid productivity due to reduced inhibition effect of substrate and product in membrane bioreactor.Material and Methods: In this work, lactic acid was produced from lactose in membrane bioreactor. A laboratory scale membrane bioreactor was designed and fabricated. Five types of commercial membranes were tested at the same operating conditions (transmembrane pressure: 500 KPa and temperature: 25°C. The effects of initial lactose concentration and dilution rate on biomass growth, lactic acid production and substrate utilization were evaluated.Results and Conclusion: The high lactose retention of 79% v v-1 and low lactic acid retention of 22% v v-1 were obtained with NF1 membrane; therefore, this membrane was selected for membrane bioreactor. The maximal productivity of 17.1 g l-1 h-1 was obtainedwith the lactic acid concentration of 71.5 g l-1 at the dilution rate of 0.24 h−1. The maximum concentration of lactic acid was obtained at the dilution rate of 0.04 h−1. The inhibiting effect of lactic acid was not observed at high initial lactose concentration. The critical lactose concentration at which the cell growth severely hampered was 150 g l-1. This study proved that membrane bioreactor had great advantages such as elimination of substrate and product inhibition, high concentration of process substrate, high cell density,and high lactic acid productivity.Conflict of interest: There is no conflict of interest.

  10. Uranium(VI) and ruthenium extraction by dialkyldithio-phosphoric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, R.; Musikas, C.

    1980-01-01

    Oxygen donors like dialkylphosphoric acids are good extractants for actinide ions, but little is known about their sulfur homologs. Investigations of U(VI) and Ru extraction from various aqueous media are reported. This includes extraction of U(VI) from nitric, perchloric, and phosphoric acids by solutions of dialkyldithiophosphoric acids in dodecane or benzene. Extraction of U(VI) by synergistic mixtures, of which at least one of the components is a sulfur donor, has been investigated. The extracted species have been identified, and a comparison with the complexes obtained by extraction with the homologous oxygen donors is made. The sulfur-actinide bond is weaker than the oxygen-actinide one, but in some synergistic extractions the dialkyldithiophosphonates are more efficient than the oxygen donors. In addition to size effects, this behavior could be attributed to the weakness of the hydrogen bonds of the SH groups, which allows a greater variety of the ligands to enter the coordination sphere of the metal. Ruthenium, like the d-transition elements, gives strong bonds with the sulfur donors. However, its extraction from nitric acid is slow. We investigated the influence of several parameters on the distribution coefficients and found that the presence of a reagent which destroys nitrous ions is necessary to achieve quantitative extraction. The role of RuNO groups is also discussed

  11. the effect of cucumber ( ) extract on acid induced corneal burn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    The groups were CB group treated with cucumber bark extract only,. CP group treated with .... maintenance of healthy bone, teeth and gums. It actsasanantioxidant . ... burn in the eyes of the guinea pigs included; slight hyperemia, lid edema ...

  12. Response Surface Optimized Extraction of Total Triterpene Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research May 2014; 13 (5): 787-792 ... surface method were used to optimize the extraction process, while antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro using α ... Response surface methodology is increasingly.

  13. Capillary microreactors for lactic acid extraction: experimental and modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Susanti; Winkelman, Jozef; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero; Yue, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important biobased chemical and, among others, is used for the production of poly-lactic acid. Down-stream processing using state of the art technology is energy intensive and leads to the formation of large amounts of salts. In this presentation, experimental and modeling studies

  14. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  15. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-14

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  16. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1994-07-26

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  17. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium in Acid Media By Citrullus Colocynthis Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkiran Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of corrosion of aluminium in acid solution by methanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis plant has been studied using mass loss and thermometric measurements. It has been found that the plant extract act as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in all concentrations of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid solution. The inhibition action depends on the concentration of acid and inhibitor. Results for mass loss and thermometric measurement indicate that inhibition efficiency increase with increasing inhibitor concentration. The inhibition action of the plant extract is discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It has been observed that the adsorption of the extract on aluminium surface is a spontaneous process. The plant extract provides a good protection to aluminium against corrosion.

  18. Nitric Acid and Water Extraction by T2EHDGA in n -Dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Emily L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; Chemistry Department, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA; Holfeltz, Vanessa E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR; Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; Nash, Kenneth L. [Chemistry Department, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA; Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA

    2017-11-10

    Liquid-liquid distribution behavior of nitric acid (HNO3) and water by a diglycolamide ligand, N,N,N',N'-tetra-2-ethylhexyldiglycolamide (T2EHDGA) into n-dodecane diluent was investigated. Spectroscopic FTIR and NMR characterization of the organic extraction solutions indicate T2EHDGA carbonyl coordinates HNO3 and progressively aggregates at high acid conditions. Water extraction increases in the presence of HNO3. The experimentally observed distribution of HNO3 was modeled using the computer program, SXLSQI. The results indicated that the formation of two organic phase species—HNO3·T2EHDGA and (HNO3)2·T2EHDGA—satisfactory describes the acid transport behavior. Temperature dependent solvent extraction studies allowed for determination of thermodynamic extraction constants and ΔH and ΔS parameters for the corresponding extractive processes.

  19. Graphene oxide for solid-phase extraction of bioactive phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiudan; Wang, Xusheng; Sun, Yingxin; Wang, Licheng; Guo, Yong

    2017-05-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the efficient analysis of trace phenolic acids (PAs, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, cinnamic acid) in urine was established. In this work, a graphene oxide (GO) coating was grafted onto pure silica to be investigated as SPE material. The prepared GO surface had a layered and wrinkled structure that was rough and well organized, which could provide more open adsorption sites. Owing to its hydrophilicity and polarity, GO showed higher extraction efficiency toward PAs than reduced GO did, in agreement with the theoretical calculation results performed by Gaussian 09 software. The adsorption mechanism of PAs on GO@Sil was also investigated through static state and kinetic state adsorption experiments, which showed a monolayer surface adsorption. Extraction capacity of the as-prepared material was optimized using the response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, the as-established method provided wide linearity range (2-50 μg L -1 for protocatechuic acid and 1-50 μg L -1 for caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid) and low limits of detection (0.25-1 μg L -1 ). Finally, the established method was applied for the analysis of urine from two healthy volunteers. The results indicate that the prepared material is a practical, cost-effective medium for the extraction and determination of phenolic acids in complex matrices. Graphical Abstract A graphene oxide coating was grafted onto pure silica as the SPE material for the extraction of phenolic acids in urines and the extraction mechanism was also mainly investigated.

  20. EXTRACTION AND SORPTION BENZOIC ACID FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF POLYMERS BASED ON N-VINYLAMIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Savvina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of aromatic acids (benzoic acid, salicylic as preservatives necessitates their qualitative and quantitative determination in food. Effective and common way to separation and concentration of aromatic acids liquid extraction. Biphasic system of water-soluble polymers based on (poly-N-vinyl pyrrolidone, and poly-N-vinylcaprolactam satisfy the requirements of the extraction system. When sorption concentration improved definition of the metrological characteristics, comply with the requirements for sensitivity and selectivity definition appears possible, use of inexpensive and readily available analytical equipment. When studying the adsorption of benzoic acid used as a sorbent crosslinked polymer based on N-vinyl pyrrolidone, obtained by radical polymerisation of a functional monomer and crosslinker. In the extraction of benzoic acid to maximize the allocation of water and the organic phase of the polymer used salt solutions with concentrations close to saturation. Regardless of the nature of the anion salt is used as salting-out agent, aromatic acids sorption increases with the size of the cations. In the experiment the maximum recovery rate (80% benzoic acid obtained in the PVP (0.2 weight%. Ammonium sulphate. The dependence stepepni benzoic acid extraction from time sorption sorbent mass and the pH of the aqueous phase. To establish equilibrium in the system, for 20 minutes. The dependence of the degree of extraction of the acid pH indicates that the acid is extracted into the molecular form. The maximum adsorption is reached at pH 3,5, with its efficiency decreases symbatically reduce the amount of undissociated acid molecules in solution.

  1. Oxidation-extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves an improvement to the reductive stripping process for recovering uranium values from wet-process phosphoric acid solution, where uranium in the solution is oxidized to uranium (VI) oxidation state and then extracted from the solution by contact with a water immiscible organic solvent, by adding sufficient oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, to obtain greater than 90 percent conversion of the uranium to the uranium (VI) oxidation state to the phosphoric acid solution and simultaneously extracting the uranium (VI)

  2. EXTRACTION-CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF GLUCOSE AND FRUCTOSE IN THE PRESENCE OF AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Korenman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of glucose and fructose from aqueous salt solutions containing aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, hydrophilic solvents (aliphatic alcohols, alkyl acetates, ketones have been studied. The quantitative characteric of the process (the distribution coefficients, the degree of extraction, separation factors are calculeted. The dependence of distribution ratios of monosaccharides from the amino acid content in the solution has been established. A mobile phase for analysis of the concentrate by ascending thin layer chromatography have been developed.

  3. Physicochemical Properties of Gelatin Extracted from Buffalo Hide Pretreated with Different Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyani, Sri; Setyabudi, Francis M C Sigit; Pranoto, Yudi; Santoso, Umar

    2017-01-01

    The acid pretreatment of collagen molecules disrupts their crosslinks and assists in the release of acid-soluble proteins, fats, and other components. Generally, to achieve optimum extraction efficiency, strong acids may be used at a lower acid concentration compared to weak acids. This study aimed to determine the yield and physicochemical properties of gelatins extracted from buffalo hides pretreated with different acids. Hides were extracted with hydrochloric, citric, and acetic acids at concentrations of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 M. A completely randomized design and the least significant difference test were used in the experimental design, and all measurements were performed in triplicate. The highest yield (29.17%) was obtained from pretreatment with 0.9 M HCl. The gel strength did not differ significantly ( p >0.05) according to acid type (280.26-259.62 g Bloom), and the highest viscosity was obtained from the 0.6 M citric acid pretreatment. All the gelatins contained α- and β-chain components and several degraded peptides (24-66 kDa). The color and Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of the gelatin extracted using 0.9 M HCl were similar to those of commercial bovine skin gelatin. In general, the physicochemical properties of the gelatin complied with the industry standard set by the Gelatin Manufacturers Institute of America, revealing that buffalo hide could serve as a potential alternative source of gelatin.

  4. Acid lixiviation of phophorite minerals for uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linzama, H.; Rivas, J.

    1988-01-01

    Lixiviation studies of the phosphorite mineral, found in the north of Chile, using sulfuric acid solutions are described. These minerals contain 62.0 ppm of Uranium, 24% of Silice, 18.9% of P 2 O 5 and other metal-oxides. The influence of the acid concentration, the amount of acid used, granulometry, and the lixiviation yield as a function of the H 3 PO 4 and uranium concentrations was evaluated. In addition, the thermodinamic parameters of the lixiviation process were also evaluated. (author) [pt

  5. The extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid using a liquid surfactant membrane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, N.; Davies, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid membrane extraction process is examined for the extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid. Uranium is present in the acid in concentrations up to 100 ppm which in principle makes it ideal for treatment with a membrane process. The membrane system studied is based on extraction using DEHPA-TOPO reagents which are contained within the organic phase of a water in oil emulsion. Formulations of the emulsion membrane system have been studied, the limitations of acid temperature, P 2 O 5 concentration and solid dispersed impurities in the acid have been studied in laboratory batch experiments and in a continuous pilot plant unit capable of treating 5l of concentrated acid per minute. Data from the pilot plant work has been used to develop a flowsheet for a commercial unit based on this process. (author)

  6. A study of solvent extraction of uranium and thorium with a crown either carboxylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Hongshan

    1995-03-01

    The solvent extraction of uranium and thorium with a new type of extractant sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxyacetic acid in chloroform has been studied. The extraction efficiencies for both elements depend strongly on pH. At pH 3.5, UO 2 2+ is not extractable, whereas Th 4+ is extracted with greater than 98% efficiency. The dependence of the distribution ratios of UO 2 2+ and Th 4+ on the concentration of sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxyacetic acid are linear and the slopes are 1 and 2 respectively. The results suggest that uranium and thorium appear to form a 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 extraction complex with ligand. A new method for separating U and Th is established, and U and Th with high purity can be obtained. This method have important application to analytical chemistry and nuclear industry. (8 refs., 3 figs.)

  7. Methods for extraction and determination of phenolic acids in medicinal plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Konieczynski, Pawel

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic acids constitute a group of potentially immunostimulating compounds. They occur in all medicinal plants and are widely used in phytotherapy and foods of plant origin. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted much interest owing to their biological functions. This paper reviews the extraction and determination methods of phenolic acids in medicinal plants over the last 10 years. Although Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) are commonly used for the extraction of phenolic acids from plant materials, alternative techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) can also be used. After extraction, phenolic acids are determined usually by liquid chromatography (LC) owing to the recent developments in this technique, especially when it is coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Also detection systems are discussed, including UV-Vis, diode array, electrochemical and fluorimetric. Other popular techniques for the analysis of this group of secondary metabolites are gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  8. Comparative evaluation of three commercial systems for nucleic acid extraction from urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Sefers, Susan E; Li, Haijing; Kohn, Debra J; Procop, Gary W

    2005-09-01

    A nucleic acid extraction system that can handle small numbers of specimens with a short test turnaround time and short hands-on time is desirable for emergent testing. We performed a comparative validation on three systems: the MagNA Pure compact system (Compact), the NucliSens miniMAG extraction instrument (miniMAG), and the BioRobot EZ1 system (EZ1). A total of 75 urine specimens submitted for polyomavirus BK virus detection were used. The human beta-actin gene was detected on 75 (100%), 75 (100%), and 72 (96%) nucleic acid extracts prepared by the miniMAG, EZ1, and Compact, respectively. The miniMAG produced the highest quantity of nucleic acids and the best precision among the three systems. The agreement rate was 100% for BKV detection on nucleic acid extracts prepared by the three extraction systems. When a full panel of specimens was run, the hands-on time and test turnaround time were 105.7 and 121.1 min for miniMAG, 6.1 and 22.6 min for EZ1, and 7.4 and 33.7 min for Compact, respectively. The EZ1 and Compact systems processed automatic nucleic acid extraction properly, providing a good solution to the need for sporadic but emergent specimen detection. The miniMAG yielded the highest quantity of nucleic acids, suggesting that this system would be the best for specimens containing a low number of microorganisms of interest.

  9. Equilibrium Studies on Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Amino Acid Extraction Using a Cinchona Alkaloid Extractant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, Boelo; Winkelman, Jozef G. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2008-01-01

    The enantioselective extraction of aqueous 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-R,S-leucine (A(R,S)) by a cinchona alkaloid extractant (C) in 1,2-dichloroethane was studied at room temperature (294 K) in a batch system for a range of intake concentrations (10(-4)-10(-3) mol/L) and pH values (3.8-6.6). The

  10. Review article Herbal extracts and organic acids as natural feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-16

    Jul 16, 2013 ... time and improved activity of proteolytic enzymes. ... Modern laboratory techniques enable the isolation and characterization of ..... microbial metabolites such as ammonia and biogenic amines. ..... acid determine their efficacy.

  11. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the umami taste amino acids recovery from several cultivated mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poojary, Mahesha Manjunatha; Orlien, Vibeke; Passamonti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, enzyme-assisted extraction was performed to extract umami taste and total free amino acids (FAAs) from the six different mushrooms including shiitake (Lentinus edodes), oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), tea tree (Agrocybe aegerita) and, white, brown and portobello champignons (Agaricus...

  12. Measurement of the oxidation-extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention relates to processes for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid and more particularly to the oxidation-extraction steps in the DEPA-TOPO process for such recovery. A more efficient use of oxidant is obtained by monitoring the redox potential during the extraction step

  13. Use of technical mixtures of carboxylic acids to the extraction of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smulek, W.

    1983-01-01

    The application of technical mixtures of carboxylic acids, obtained from a Polish oil mill, to the extraction of silver, gold, and europium is described. The distribution ratio is given as a function of HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 concentrations, extractant and metal concentrations, and nature of diluent. (author)

  14. Equilibria and kinetics for reactive extraction of lactic acid using Alamine 336 in decanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting this from aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation-based industries. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent) system used. The equilibrium

  15. Reactive extraction of lactic acid using alamine 336 in MIBK : equilibria and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting it out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid–amine (solvent)

  16. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  17. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the

  18. The investigation of antimony extraction with tributyl phosphate from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakaev, V.S.; Smelov, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data on trivalent antimony extraction with tributyl phosphate from nitric acid solutions containing (3.2-4.3)x10 -6 mol/l of antimony-125 isotope are presented. Possible mechanism of antimony (3) extraction is determined and the concentration constant for this process is calculated. Effect of temperature on the extraction of trivalent antimony is estimated. The values of enthalpy, free enthalpy and entropy are determined

  19. Radical Scavenging Capacity of Methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. Extract: Anthocyanin and Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naciye Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and IC50 values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g FW of fruits.

  20. Solvent extraction of uranium from lean grade acidic sulfate leach liquor with alamine 336 reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadevi, G.; Sreenivas, T.; Navale, A.S.; Padmanabhan, N.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the solvent extraction studies carried out on an acidic low assay uranium bearing leach liquor generated during sulfuric acid leaching of a refractory uranium ore using alamine 336-isodecenol-kerosene reagent combine. The leach liquor has a U 3 O 8 content of about 270 mg/L, free acidity 2.4 N H 2 SO 4 and total dissolved solids concentration of 260 g/L. Process parameteric variation studies indicated strong influence of free acidity of the leach liquor, alamine 336 concentration and aqueous to organic phase ratio on the extraction efficiency of uranium. An extraction efficiency of about 95% was achieved when the free acidity of leach liquor was 1 N H 2 SO 4 or lower, using 2% (v/v) alamine 336 at ambient temperature with an aqueous to organic phase ratio of 1:1. The loading capacity under these conditions was 1.2 g/L of U 3 O 8 . About 98% of the uranium values could be stripped from the loaded organic using 1 N NaCl in 0.2 N H 2 SO 4 . The solvent extraction studies aided in developing a suitable process flowsheet for treating refractory uranium ores which need high acidity during leaching and relatively lower acidity for purification by solvent extraction. (author)

  1. Targeted isolation and identification of bioactive compounds lowering cholesterol in the crude extracts of crabapples using UPLC-DAD-MS-SPE/NMR based on pharmacology-guided PLS-DA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chao; Wang, Dongshan; Li, Xing; Huang, Tao; Huang, Cheng; Hu, Kaifeng

    2018-02-20

    The anti-hyperlipidemic effects of crude crabapple extracts derived from Malus 'Red jade', Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. and Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. were evaluated on high-fat diet induced obese (HF DIO) mice. The results revealed that some of these extracts could lower serum cholesterol levels in HF DIO mice. The same extracts were also parallelly analyzed by LC-MS in both positive and negative ionization modes. Based on the pharmacological results, 22 LC-MS variables were identified to be correlated with the anti-hyperlipidemic effects using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and independent samples t-test. Further, under the guidance of the bioactivity-correlated LC-MS signals, 10 compounds were targetedly isolated and enriched using UPLC-DAD-MS-SPE and identified/elucidated by NMR together with MS/MS as citric acid(1), p-coumaric acid(2), hyperoside(3), myricetin(4), naringenin(5), quercetin(6), kaempferol(7), gentiopicroside(8), ursolic acid(9) and 8-epiloganic acid(10). Among these 10 compounds, 6 compounds, hyperoside(3), myricetin(4), naringenin(5), quercetin(6), kaempferol(7) and ursolic acid(9), were individually studied and reported to indeed have effects on lowering the serum lipid levels. These results demonstrated the efficiency of this strategy for drug discovery. In contrast to traditional routes to discover bioactive compounds in the plant extracts, targeted isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in the crude plant extracts using UPLC-DAD-MS-SPE/NMR based on pharmacology-guided PLS-DA of LC-MS data brings forward a new efficient dereplicated approach to natural products research for drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nucleic Acid Extraction from Synthetic Mars Analog Soils for in situ Life Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarro, Angel; Ruvkun, Gary; Zuber, Maria T; Carr, Christopher E

    2017-08-01

    Biological informational polymers such as nucleic acids have the potential to provide unambiguous evidence of life beyond Earth. To this end, we are developing an automated in situ life-detection instrument that integrates nucleic acid extraction and nanopore sequencing: the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Genomes (SETG) instrument. Our goal is to isolate and determine the sequence of nucleic acids from extant or preserved life on Mars, if, for example, there is common ancestry to life on Mars and Earth. As is true of metagenomic analysis of terrestrial environmental samples, the SETG instrument must isolate nucleic acids from crude samples and then determine the DNA sequence of the unknown nucleic acids. Our initial DNA extraction experiments resulted in low to undetectable amounts of DNA due to soil chemistry-dependent soil-DNA interactions, namely adsorption to mineral surfaces, binding to divalent/trivalent cations, destruction by iron redox cycling, and acidic conditions. Subsequently, we developed soil-specific extraction protocols that increase DNA yields through a combination of desalting, utilization of competitive binders, and promotion of anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that a combination of desalting and utilizing competitive binders may establish a "universal" nucleic acid extraction protocol suitable for analyzing samples from diverse soils on Mars. Key Words: Life-detection instruments-Nucleic acids-Mars-Panspermia. Astrobiology 17, 747-760.

  3. Continuos extraction of uranium and molibdenum by lixiviation with sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cripiani, M.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology for collecting data of uranium and molibdenum extraction by lixiviation with sulfuric acid is showed. Discontinuous tests of lixiviation, time influence, temperature, granulation, acid/ore relation, oxidant/ore relation and solid percentage are studied. (C.G.C.) [pt

  4. SLUG FLOW CAPILLARY MICROREACTORS FOR LACTIC ACID EXTRACTION: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MASS TRANSFER MODELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Susanti; Winkelman, Jozef; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero; Yue, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and has been widely used for manufacturing biodegradable polymer. Current method of lactic acid isolation from fermentation broths is energy intensive and leads to the formation of large amounts of salts. Reactive liquid-liquid extraction has been

  5. Extraction of uranium from phosphoric-hydrobromic acid mixture by N-lauryl tri alkyl methylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirguis, L A [Nuclear materials authority, Cairo, (Egypt); Tadros, N A [Hot laboratories center, atomic energy authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    A uranium recovery process from phosphoric acid produced by the dihydrate method was elaborated. Decomposition of phosphate rock containing 0.02% U is carried out with sulphuric acid. Crude phosphoric acid is filtered off, steam concentrated to 45% P{sub 2} O{sub 5} (6.27 M) and then clarified with activated clay and carbon. The clear phosphoric acid is introduced to uranium extraction after the addition of 0.88 M hydrobromic acid by 0.134 M amberlite LA.2 and 5% decanol, as a modifier, in kerosene. While 10% ammonium sulphate solution is used for stripping. Over 90% uranium recovery is obtained. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  7. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid medium by polymeric composite beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-07-01

    The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based composite beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric acid medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the composite materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the composite bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous acidity, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in acidity (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric acid concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)

  9. Solvent extraction of indium and gallium complexes with bromopyrogallol red by mixed extractants containing chloroform, a polar organic solvent and monocarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyatnitskij, I.V.; Lysenko, O.V.; Kolomiets, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction of indium and gallium complexes with bromopyragallol red (BPR) has been studied using mixed extractants containing chloroform, capronic acid (HL) and 1-pentanol (S) (extractant 1), and chloroform, HL, S and propionic acid (extractant 2). The latter is more selectie and extracts only the indium complex. Optimal conditions have been found for the extraction of In-BRP complex (pH 6.3-6.5; C BPR 1.5x10 -4 M) its composition has been estimated and discussed

  10. Extraction of magnesium from calcined dolomite ore using hydrochloric acid leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royani, Ahmad; Sulistiyono, Eko; Prasetiyo, Agus Budi; Subagja, Rudi

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium is widely used in varieties industrial sector. Dolomite is one source of magnesium besides seawater. The extraction of magnesium from dolomite ores can be done by leaching process. In this work, the dolomite leaching to extract magnesium by hydrochloric acid was investigated. The leaching experiments were performed in a spherical glass batch reactor having a capacity of 1000 ml. The effects of the stirring speed, acid concentration, reaction temperature and liquid-solid ratio for each reaction time of 1; 2; and 3 h on the Mg leaching have been evaluated. 5 ml of solution sample were collected from the leached solutions, then it was filtered prior to analysis by ICP OES. The experimental results show that the magnesium extraction increases along with the increase of acid concentration, liquid-solid ratio and temperature. The optimum conditions for magnesium extraction were achieved at temperature 75 °C, extraction time 3 h, the HCl concentration of 2 M, the liquid-solid ratio 20 ml/g and stirring speed of 400 rpm. At this condition 98, 82 % of magnesium were extracted from dolomite. The conclusion obtained from this leaching process is that the magnesium can be extracted from dolomite by using hydrochloric acid solutions.

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction for purification of wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfollahi, Mohammad Nader; Bakshi, Mahdi

    2006-01-01

    The Wet Process Phosphoric Acid (WPA) is used to produce fertilizers and alimentary supplies for cattle. In each of these applications, the impurities contained in acid must be in standard range. In this paper purification of WPA by solvent extraction is performed and the effect of the mass ratio of solvent to feed on extraction efficiency is studied. The working solvents are Methyl Iso Butyl Ketone (MIBK), Iso Amyl Alcohol (IAA) and the mixture of them. The results show that the IAA is better than other solvents in extraction of WPA. This solvent can extract 82.2% of acid after two extraction stages but MIBK can extract only 73.5% of acid after three extraction stages. For all of these solvents, the Pb and Cd concentrations go down to trace. The experimental results show that the maximum separation of Mg with MIBK is 87.5% which occurs at the mass ratio of solvent to feed eual to 4. In the case of IAA solvent the percent is 91.7% and the ratio is 8

  12. Liquid-liquid extraction of plutonium and americium by cekanoic acid from alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal Chetty, K.; Sagar, V.; Swarup, R.

    2001-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of plutonium and americium from aqueous carbonate medium using a high molecular weight carboxylic acid namely cekanoic acid in different diluents has been carried out. The distribution ratio (D) values for Pu(IV) and Am(III) under various parameters such as concentration of extractant, Na 2 CO 3 and initial pH were obtained. Results indicated that Pu(IV) and Am(III) could be satisfactorily extracted together or individually from aqueous carbonate medium using cekanoic acid in different diluents like carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, n-dodecane or solvesso-100. The D values for Pu(IV) and Am(III) also indicated the possibility of their mutual separation. The back extraction of Pu and Am with different reagents was also studied. (orig.)

  13. Production of lactic acid from hemicellulose extracts by Bacillus coagulans MXL-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Sara L; Bischoff, Kenneth M; van Heiningen, Adriaan R P; van Walsum, G Peter

    2010-08-01

    Bacillus coagulans MXL-9 was found capable of growing on pre-pulping hemicellulose extracts, utilizing all of the principle monosugars found in woody biomass. This organism is a moderate thermophile isolated from compost for its pentose-utilizing capabilities. It was found to have high tolerance for inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium, which are present in pre-pulping hemicellulose extracts. Fermentation of 20 g/l xylose in the presence of 30 g/l acetic acid required a longer lag phase but overall lactic acid yield was not diminished. Similarly, fermentation of xylose in the presence of 20 g/l sodium increased the lag time but did not affect overall product yield, though 30 g/l sodium proved completely inhibitory. Fermentation of hot water-extracted Siberian larch containing 45 g/l total monosaccharides, mainly galactose and arabinose, produced 33 g/l lactic acid in 60 h and completely consumed all sugars. Small amounts of co-products were formed, including acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol. Hemicellulose extract formed during autohydrolysis of mixed hardwoods contained mainly xylose and was converted into lactic acid with a 94% yield. Green liquor-extracted hardwood hemicellulose containing 10 g/l acetic acid and 6 g/l sodium was also completely converted into lactic acid at a 72% yield. The Bacillus coagulans MXL-9 strain was found to be well suited to production of lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass due to its compatibility with conditions favorable to industrial enzymes and its ability to withstand inhibitors while rapidly consuming all pentose and hexose sugars of interest at high product yields.

  14. Synergistic extraction behaviour of americium from simulated acidic waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Veeraraghavan, R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of americium has been investigated with mixtures of 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (PBI) and oxodonors viz. tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) and di-n-butyl octanamide (DBOA) using dodecane as the diluent from 1-6 M HNO 3 media. It is observed that D Am remains unaltered with PBI concentration (in the range 0.06-0.1 M) at 1.47 M TBP in the entire range of HNO 3 concentration. PBI and TBP in combination appears more promising compared to other synergistic systems. The possibility of using this mixture for americium removal from high level liquid waste solution has been explored. Extraction studies indicated that prior removal of uranium by 20% TBP in dodecane is helpful in the quantitative recovery of americium in three contacts. Effect of lanthanides on D Am is found to be marginal. (orig.)

  15. Extraction and the Fatty Acid Profile of Rosa acicularis Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huanan; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Ruchun; Zhang, Lu; Yu, Dianyu; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2017-12-01

    Rosa acicularis seed oil was extracted from Rosa acicularis seeds by the ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic method using cellulase and protease. Based on a single experiment, Plackett-Burman design was applied to ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of wild rose seed oil. The effects of enzyme amount, hydrolysis temperature and initial pH on total extraction rate of wild rose seed oil was studied by using Box-Behnken optimize methodology. Chemical characteristics of a sample of Rosa acicularis seeds and Rosa acicularis seed oil were characterized in this work. The tocopherol content was 200.6±0.3 mg/100 g oil. The Rosa acicularis seed oil was rich in linoleic acid (56.5%) and oleic acid (34.2%). The saturated fatty acids included palmitic acid (4%) and stearic acid (2.9%). The major fatty acids in the sn-2 position of triacylglycerol in Rosa acicularis oil were linoleic acid (60.6%), oleic acid (33.6%) and linolenic acid (3.2%). According to the 1,3-random-2-random hypothesis, the dominant triacylglycerols were LLL (18%), LLnL (1%), LLP (2%), LOL (10%), LLSt (1.2%), PLP (0.2%), LLnP (0.1%), LLnO (0.6%) and LOP (1.1%). This work could be useful for developing applications for Rosa acicularis seed oil.

  16. Contribution to the study of the physico-chemical mechanisms of metallic cation extraction by alkylphosphoric acids. Extraction of zirconium (IV) by di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonnier, J.-L.

    1979-02-01

    Extraction of zirconium, especially at high concentration (0.1M), by dodecane diluted DEHPA (HA) from hydrochloric or nitric aqueous phases of 0.1 to 10 M acidity was studied. The composition, structure and polymerisation of the complexes extracted were determined by chemical analysis, viscosimetry, infrared spectrometry and light scattering. A Zr(OH) 2 A 2 .2HNO 3 , type structure is proposed for these complexes instead of the generally accepted form: Zr(OH) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 .2HA. Similarly in hydrochloric solution: Zr(OH) 2 A 2 .2HCl. Polymerisation in the organic phase results from the juxtaposition of two factors; firstly zirconium saturation (formation of bridges by DEHPA between zirconium atoms) and secondly the nature the equeous phase. In slightly acid hydrochloric solution (pH = 1.3) the aqueous plymers of zirconium are extracted in the organic phase as polynuclear complexes; in nitric solution no polynuclear complexes are observed but the nitric acid molecules extracted set up hydrogen bonds which explain the increased viscosity and gelification of the organic phases [fr

  17. Determination of total triterpenoid acids in different part and extract of Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Huiqin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim To develop a method for determination of total triterpenoid acids in different part and extracts of Ganoderma lucidum. Method The samples of Ganoderma lucidum were extracted with ethanol and successively extracted with CHCl3 and 5% NaHCO3,the NaHCO3 layer was acidified to pH 3 with 2 mol/L HCl,the resulting precipitates were dissolved in CHCl3 and evaporated in vacuo then weighed. The total triterpenoid acids were obtained. Result The total triterpenoid acids of Ganoderma lucidum fruitbody,spore and mycelium were (8.58±0.25 mg/g,(3.48±0.03 mg/g and (1.75 ±0.09 mg/g respectively. The total triterpenoid acids of pileus and stipe were (12.62±0.22 mg/g and (7.66±0.08 mg/g. The range of total triterpenoid acid content among 10 batches of Ganoderma lucidum fruitbody purchased from the market was between 4.34 to 16.39 mg/g. The highest content fro/8/8/88/ m Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body with alcohol - water extracting was (208.70±5.54 mg/g and the lowest content with alkaline solution extracting was (123.07±4.99 mg/g. The composition of total triterpenoid acid from fruitbody,spores and extract of fruitbody analyzed by HPLC were almost the same. This method is reliable for determination of total triterpenoid acid in the fruiting body and its extracts,spore and mycelium from Ganoderma lucidum,which provides an indicator for the quality of Ganoderma lucidum product.

  18. Microalgae wet extraction using N-ethyl butylamine for fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Du

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are considered a promising feedstock for the production of food ingredients, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products and biofuels. The energy intensity of drying and cell breaking of algae and solvent recovery afterwards hindered the route of algae biorefinery. In this work the influences of freeze drying and cell breaking to the extraction efficiency of crude lipid yield and fatty acid yield were investigated. Results showed that drying and cell breaking are not necessary for N-ethyl butylamine extraction, because good yields were obtained without. Crude lipid yield and fatty acid yield using N-ethyl butylamine were comparable with Bligh & Dyer extraction, making N-ethyl butylamine a candidate for further development of an energy efficient lipid extraction technology for non-broken microalgae. Keywords: Microalgae, Lipids, Extraction, Switchable solvent, Secondary amine

  19. Nucleic Acid Extraction from Synthetic Mars Analog Soils for in situ Life Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarro, Angel; Ruvkun, Gary; Zuber, Maria T.; Carr, Christopher E.

    2017-08-01

    Biological informational polymers such as nucleic acids have the potential to provide unambiguous evidence of life beyond Earth. To this end, we are developing an automated in situ life-detection instrument that integrates nucleic acid extraction and nanopore sequencing: the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Genomes (SETG) instrument. Our goal is to isolate and determine the sequence of nucleic acids from extant or preserved life on Mars, if, for example, there is common ancestry to life on Mars and Earth. As is true of metagenomic analysis of terrestrial environmental samples, the SETG instrument must isolate nucleic acids from crude samples and then determine the DNA sequence of the unknown nucleic acids. Our initial DNA extraction experiments resulted in low to undetectable amounts of DNA due to soil chemistry-dependent soil-DNA interactions, namely adsorption to mineral surfaces, binding to divalent/trivalent cations, destruction by iron redox cycling, and acidic conditions. Subsequently, we developed soil-specific extraction protocols that increase DNA yields through a combination of desalting, utilization of competitive binders, and promotion of anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that a combination of desalting and utilizing competitive binders may establish a "universal" nucleic acid extraction protocol suitable for analyzing samples from diverse soils on Mars.

  20. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Pijuan, Mercedes; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    The new sample preparation concept “Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME)” was evaluated for extraction of the acidic drugs ketoprofen, fenoprofen, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil from human plasma samples. Plasma samples (250 μL) were loaded into individual......-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection of the individual acceptor solutions. Important PALME parameters including the chemical composition of the liquid membrane, extraction time, and sample pH were optimized, and the extraction performance was evaluated. Except for flurbiprofen, exhaustive...

  1. The development of quantitative determination method of organic acids in complex poly herbal extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Dyachok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The development of sensible, economical and expressive method of quantitative determination of organic acids in complex poly herbal extraction counted on izovaleric acid with the use of digital technologies. Materials and methods. Model complex poly herbal extraction of sedative action was chosen as a research object. Extraction is composed of these medical plants: Valeriana officinalis L., Crataégus, Melissa officinalis L., Hypericum, Mentha piperita L., Húmulus lúpulus, Viburnum. Based on chemical composition of plant components, we consider that main pharmacologically active compounds, which can be found in complex poly herbal extraction are: polyphenolic substances (flavonoids, which are contained in Crataégus, Viburnum, Hypericum, Mentha piperita L., Húmulus lúpulus; also organic acids, including izovaleric acid, which are contained in Valeriana officinalis L., Mentha piperita L., Melissa officinalis L., Viburnum; the aminoacid are contained in Valeriana officinalis L. For the determination of organic acids content in low concentration we applied instrumental method of analysis, namely conductometry titration which consisted in the dependences of water solution conductivity of complex poly herbal extraction on composition of organic acids. Result. The got analytical dependences, which describes tangent lines to the conductometry curve before and after the point of equivalence, allow to determine the volume of solution expended on titration and carry out procedure of quantitative determination of organic acids in the digital mode. Conclusion. The proposed method enables to determine the point of equivalence and carry out quantitative determination of organic acids counted on izovaleric acid with the use of digital technologies, that allows to computerize the method on the whole.

  2. Reactive extraction and recovery of levulinic acid, formic acid and furfural from aqueous solutions containing sulphuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Thomas; Blahusiak, Marek; Babic, Katarina; Schuur, Boelo

    2017-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced from lignocellulosic materials via hydroxylation followed by an acid-catalyzed conversion of hexoses. Inorganic homogeneous catalysts are mostly used, in particular sulphuric acid, yielding a mixture of LA with sulphuric acid, formic acid (FA) and furfural.

  3. Spiroketalcarminic Acid, a Novel Minor Anthraquinone Pigment in Cochineal Extract Used in Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yusai; Harikai, Naoki; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Cochineal extract prepared from the scale insect Dactylopus coccus (American cochineal) has been used as a natural red dye for food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. The major pigment in cochineal extract is carminic acid (CA), an anthraquinone glucoside, and several minor pigments have been previously reported. Our investigation aimed at establishing the safety of cochineal dye products using ultra performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array-electrospray ionization-time of flight (UPLC-PDA-ESI-TOF)/MS found an unknown minor pigment, spiroketalcarminic acid (1), in three commercial cochineal extract samples; cochineal extract used in food additives, carmine that is an aluminum salt of cochineal extract used as natural dye, and a research reagent of CA. The purification of 1 from cochineal extract involved sequential chromatographic techniques, including preparative reversed-phase HPLC. Two dimensional (2D)-NMR and mass analyses established the structure of 1 to be a novel anthraquinone with an unusual 6,5-spiroketal system instead of the C-glucosyl moiety of CA. The absolute stereochemistry of the spiroketal moiety in 1 was determined by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) correlations and optical rotation. No data corresponding to 1 had previously been reported for extracts of dried cochineal insects and traditional art products dyed with cochineal extract, indicating that 1 is likely produced during the preparation of commercial cochineal extract.

  4. TBP determination in nitric acid solutions from solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Carvalho, E.I. de; Araujo, I. da C.; Cohen, V.H.

    1988-07-01

    Heavy organic phases have been observed on some occasions during TBP extraction process. These products, described as red oils, were considered as the main cause for process failures, specially in evaporators and concentrators. In view of safety aspects it is necessary to control organic concentration in product and waste solutions. The proposed method involves the organic removal by chloroform as a first step, followed by purification onto a silica gel column. The results are given from analysing TBP and its degradation product (DBP) by gas chromatography. (author) [pt

  5. Direct lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract using Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwa-Young; Ryu, Hee-Kyoung; Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, Hongweon; Kim, Seon-Won; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2012-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber was performed with strains of Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis prior to fermentation. Some strains of L. paracasei, notably KCTC13090 and KCTC13169, could ferment hot-water extract of Jerusalem artichoke tuber more efficiently compared with other Lactobacillus spp. such as L. casei type strain KCTC3109. The L. paracasei strains could utilize almost completely the fructo-oligosaccharides present in Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin-fermenting L. paracasei strains produced c.a. six times more lactic acid compared with L. casei KCTC3109. Direct lactic fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract at 111.6g/L of sugar content with a supplement of 5 g/L of yeast extract by L. paracasei KCTC13169 in a 5L jar fermentor produced 92.5 ce:hsp sp="0.25"/>g/L of lactic acid with 16.8 g/L fructose equivalent remained unutilized in 72 h. The conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to lactic acid was 98% of the theoretical yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparative yield and properties of humic acids obtained by sequential alkaline extractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Konstantinov, A. I.; Perminova, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    The preparative yield, composition, and structure of humic acids obtained by sequential alkaline extractions from two soils (a soddy-podzolic soil under forest and a typical chernozem in treatment with permanent black fallow of a long-term experiment since 1964) have been studied. The preparative yield of humic acids from the first extraction is 0.40 and 0.94% for the soddy-podzolic soil (Retisols) and the chernozem, respectively. The preparative yield from the second extraction is lower by several times, and the yield from the third extraction is lower by an order of magnitude. The study of the obtained preparations by elemental analysis, gel-permeation chromatography, and 13C NMR spectroscopy has shown insignificant changes in the elemental, molecular-weight, and structural-group composition of humic acids among the extractions. It has been supposed that this is related to the soil features: typical climatic factors for the formation of soil subtype in the case of soddy-podzolic soil and the land use in the long-term experiment in the case of typical chernozem. It has been concluded that that a single extraction is sufficient for the separation of humic acids and the preparation of a representative sample.

  7. Dialkyldithiophosphoric acids - chemical properties and 5f and 4f elements ions extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattee, D.

    1987-09-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of the properties of the dialkyldithiophosphoric acids and of the extraction of the 4f and 5f ions from weakly acidic nitrate and phosphate media. Following a complete bibliographic study, synthesis and purification of the di-2-ethylhexyl-dithiophosphoric acid (HDEHDTP) is studied. It is identified with chemical methods and spectroscopic methods (I.R., N.M.R., V.P.C.); its by products, the di-2-ethylhexyl (monothio) phosphoric acids (HDEHTP, HDEHP) are also identified and characterized. Stability against hydrolysis and radiolysis is determined. The extractive properties are studied for the 4f and 5f ions. The presence of a sulfur donor atom in HDEHDTP makes it inefficient for the extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides but brings out a certain selectivity for americium. For HDEHTP, the presence of an oxygen donor atom rubs out any selectivity and the extraction constants are greater. Selectivity of HDEHDTP is increased by TBP (tri-n-butylphosphate) in synergistic mixtures. The mechanism of extraction of hexavalent uranium from phosphoric medium is elucidated. A model is developed by NMR for the micellisation of the sodium salts of HDEHDTP, HDEHTP and HDEHP, and extrapolated it to the trivalent rare earth salts of the acids. The structures are verified by light scattering and low angle X-ray diffraction [fr

  8. Rapid microwave-assisted acid extraction of metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Yu; Chung Y. Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    The effects of acid concentration, reaction time, and temperature in a microwave reactor on recovery of CCA-treated wood were evaluated. Extraction of copper, chromium, and arsenic metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood samples with three different acids (i.e., acetic acid, oxalic acid, and phosphoric acid) was investigated using in...

  9. Studies on the extraction of uranium by N-octanoyl-N-phenylhydroxamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Natarajan, R.

    2002-01-01

    N-octanoyl-N-phenylhydroxamic acid (OHA) has been prepared by partial reduction of nitrobenzene with Zn dust/NH 4 Cl, followed by acylation with n-octanoyl chloride. Structure of OHA was confirmed by 1 H NMR, IR spectra and CHNS microanalysis. The extraction of uranium by OHA has been studied as a function of pH, temperature and concentration of OHA. The extraction of uranium was found to increase with increase in pH. Uranium forms a 1 : 2 complex with OHA. IR Spectra and NMR Spectra of the uranium-OHA complex and slope analysis obtained from extraction studies indicated that the extraction of uranium was due to the formation of a chelate. The enthalpy change accompanied by the extraction of uranium by OHA has been obtained by temperature variation method. The extraction process was found to be endothermic at pH 2 and exothermic at pH 6. (orig.)

  10. CORROSION INHIBITIVE PROPERTIES OF EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS LEAVES ON MILD STEEL IN HYDROCHLORIC ACID ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Odusote

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas leaves extract was tested as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution using gravimetric and thermometric techniques. The results reveal that the inhibition efficiency vary with concentration of the leaf extract and the time of immersion. Maximum inhibition efficiency was found to be 95.92% in 2M HCl with 0.5 g/l concentration of the extract in gravimetric method, while 87.04% was obtained in thermometric method. The inhibiting effect was attributed to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenol in the extract. The adsorption processes of the Jatropha curcas leaves extract onto the mild steel is consistent with the assumptions of Langmuir isotherm model and also found to be spontaneous. From the results, a physical adsorption mechanism is proposed for the adsorption of Jatropha curcas leaves extract onto mild steel surface.

  11. Influence of rosmarinic acid and Salvia officinalis extracts on melanogenesis of B16F10 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina B. Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a photoprotective skin pigment, and pathologies characterized by hypo or hyperpigmentation are common. New compounds that regulate melanogenesis are, therefore, opportune, and many natural products with this property, as polyphenols, have been described. Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is a widely used food spice that contains high amounts of phenol derivates, including rosmarinic acid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of rosmarinic acid in the melanogenic activity of sage extracts. Fluid and aqueous extracts of sage and purified rosmarinic acid were assayed for B16F10 cytotoxicity and, then, evaluated on melanin production and tyrosinase activity. While sage extracts showed a concentration-dependent ability to significantly increase melanin production without necessarily changing the enzymatic activity, rosmarinic acid showed a dual behavior on melanogenesis, increasing melanin biosynthesis and tyrosinase activity at low concentrations and decreasing it at higher levels. Rosmarinic acid may collaborate with sage extracts activity on melanogenesis, although other compounds may be involved. This is the first time that a dual action of rosmarinic acid on melanogenesis is reported, which may be useful in further studies for therapeutic formulations to treat skin pigmentation disorders.

  12. Influence of rosmarinic acid and Salvia officinalis extracts on melanogenesis of B16F10 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina B. Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a photoprotective skin pigment, and pathologies characterized by hypo or hyperpigmentation are common. New compounds that regulate melanogenesis are, therefore, opportune, and many natural products with this property, as polyphenols, have been described. Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is a widely used food spice that contains high amounts of phenol derivates, including rosmarinic acid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of rosmarinic acid in the melanogenic activity of sage extracts. Fluid and aqueous extracts of sage and purified rosmarinic acid were assayed for B16F10 cytotoxicity and, then, evaluated on melanin production and tyrosinase activity. While sage extracts showed a concentration-dependent ability to significantly increase melanin production without necessarily changing the enzymatic activity, rosmarinic acid showed a dual behavior on melanogenesis, increasing melanin biosynthesis and tyrosinase activity at low concentrations and decreasing it at higher levels. Rosmarinic acid may collaborate with sage extracts activity on melanogenesis, although other compounds may be involved. This is the first time that a dual action of rosmarinic acid on melanogenesis is reported, which may be useful in further studies for therapeutic formulations to treat skin pigmentation disorders.

  13. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu, E-mail: suixiaoyu@outlook.com; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  14. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  15. Semitechnical studies of uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid by liquid-liquid-extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poczynajlo, A.; Wlodarski, R.; Giers, M.

    1987-01-01

    A semitechnical installation for uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid has been built. The installation is based on technological process comprising 2 extraction cycles, the first with a mixture of mono- and dinonylphenylphosphoric acids (NPPA) and the second with a synergic mixture of di-/2-ethylhexyl/-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). The installation was set going and the studies on the concentration distributions of uranium and other components of phosphoric acid have been performed for all technological circuits. 23 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  16. Improving the two-step remediation process for CCA-treated wood. Part I, Evaluating oxalic acid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Clausen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, three possible improvements to a remediation process for chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) treated wood were evaluated. The process involves two steps: oxalic acid extraction of wood fiber followed by bacterial culture with Bacillus licheniformis CC01. The three potential improvements to the oxalic acid extraction step were (1) reusing oxalic acid for...

  17. Comparison of acid ethanol extraction and acid gel filtration prior to IGF-I and IGF-II radioimmunoassays; Improvement of determinations in acid ethanol extracts by the use of truncated IGF-I as radioligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, P; Eriksson, U; Wivall, I -L; Hall, K [Department of Endocrinology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Sara, V [Department of Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1991-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins interfere in the IGF-I and -II radioimmunoassays. In an attempt to overcome this problem, we have compared the use of truncated IGF-I, with reduced IGFBP affinity, and IGF-I as radioligands for IGF-I RIA measurements in serum separated by acid gel filtration or acid ethanol extraction followed by cryo-precipitation. With truncated IGF-I as radioligand the IGF-I measurements in acid gel filtrates and acid ethanol extracts were significantly correlated in healthy subjects (N=42, r=0.91, p<0.001) and in patients with acromegaly (N=10, r=0.85, p<0.01), GH deficiency (N=10, r=0.88, p<0.001) or Type I diabetes mellitus (N=10, r=0.90, p<0.001). In contrast, the IGF-I concentrations in acid ethanol extracts determined with IGF-I as radioligand did not correlate with those in acid gel filtrates using truncated IGF-I radioligand in patients with acromegaly (r=0.61, NS) or GH deficiency (r=0.46, NS). In the latter group the mean IGF-I concentrations measured in acid ethanol extracts were erroneously elevated by 112%. Low-affinity antibodies used for IGF-II RIA determinations failed to give reliable results in acid ethanol extracts from patients with Type I diabetes mellitus or GH deficiency. In conclusion, erroneously high IGF-I concentrations owing to binding of the radioligand to IGFBPs not completely removed by acid ethanol extraction can be avoided by the use of truncated IGF-I as radioligand. (author).

  18. Antiulcerogenic activity of crude extract, fractions and populnoic acid isolated from Austroplenckia populnea (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Sérgio F; Antoniolli, Daiane; Comunello, Eros; Cardoso, Luis G V; Carvalho, José C T; Bastos, Jairo K

    2006-01-01

    Many plant crude extracts and their isolated compounds are the most attractive sources of new drugs and show promising results for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Austroplenckia populnea is commonly known as "marmelinho-do campo, mangabeira-brava, mangabarana and vime" and it has been used in folk medicine as anti-dysenteric and anti-rheumatic. Powdered bark wood (3.25 kg) was macerated with aqueous ethanol (96%) and the extract was concentrated under reduced pressure to yield 406 g of crude hydralcoholic extract. The hydralcoholic extract was suspended in aqueous methanol and partitioned with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) in sequence, yielding 8.0 g, 9.5 g and 98.17 g of crude extracts, respectively. Chromatography of the hexane extract over a silica gel column led to the isolation of the triterpene populnoic acid. The oral administration of hydralcoholic, hexane, chloroform and EtOAc extracts (200 mg/kg) decreased the ulcer lesion index (ULI) by 83.15%, 46.87%, 32.2%, 68.12%, respectively. Oral administration of populnoic acid (100 mg/kg) diminished the ULI by 55.29%. All the obtained results were significant in comparison with the negative control, with exception of the chloroform extract.

  19. Wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol: Fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parczewska-Plesnar, B.; Brzozowski, R.; Gwardiak, H.; Białecka-Florjańczyk, E.; Bujnowski, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 with ethanol as entrainer was performed at a temperature of 40 o C under a pressure of 21 MPa. For comparison, a similar extraction without the entrainer was carried out. The extraction yield of wheat germ using supercritical CO2 with ethanol was slightly higher (10.7 wt%) than that of extraction without the entrainer (9.9 wt%). Fractions of SFE extracts were collected separately during the experiments and the composition of fatty acids in each fraction was analyzed. The SFE extracted oils were rich (63.4-71.3%) in the most valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their content in all collected fractions was approximately constant. Similar PUFA contents were found in the reference samples of oils extracted by n-hexane (66.2-67.0%), while the commercial cold-pressed oil contained significantly less PUFA (60.2%). These results show a higher nutritional value of the oil obtained by extraction with supercritical CO2 than cold pressed oil which is generally considered to be very valuable. [es

  20. [Comparison of two nucleic acid extraction methods for norovirus in oysters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qiao; Li, Hui; Deng, Xiaoling; Mo, Yanling; Fang, Ling; Ke, Changwen

    2013-04-01

    To explore a convenient and effective method for norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters suitable for long-term viral surveillance. Two methods, namely method A (glycine washing and polyethylene glycol precipitation of the virus followed by silica gel centrifugal column) and method B (protease K digestion followed by application of paramagnetic silicon) were compared for their performance in norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect norovirus in naturally infected oysters and in oysters with induced infection. The two methods yielded comparable positive detection rates for the samples, but the recovery rate of the virus was higher with method B than with method A. Method B is a more convenient and rapid method for norovirus nucleic acid extraction from oysters and suitable for long-term surveillance of norovirus.

  1. Selective extraction of metals from products of mine acidic water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, N.N.; Romanchuk, S.A.; Voronin, N.N.; Demidov, V.D.; Pasynkova, T.A.; Manuilova, O.A.; Ivanova, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made on possibility of processing of foam products prepared during flotation purification of mine acidic waters for the purpose of selective extraction of non-ferrous (Co, Ni) and rare earth elements (REE) and their separation from the basic macrocomponent of waters-iron. Optimal conditions of selective metal extraction from foam flotation products are the following: T=333 K, pH=3.0-3.5, ratio of solid and liquid phase - 1:4-1:7, duration of sulfuric acid leaching - 30 min. Rare earth extraction under such conditions equals 87.6-93.0%. The degree of valuable component concentration equals ∼ 10. Rare earths are separated from iron by extraction methods

  2. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza Lespedeza striata (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by 'Bragg' soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl > DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Streptococcus mutans UA159

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Nang Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we revealed that OA and UA significantly inhibited the expression of most genes related to peptidoglycan biosynthesis in S. mutans UA159. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to introduce the antimicrobial mechanism of OA and UA against S. mutans.

  4. Analysis of Free Amino Acids in Different Extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus Leaves by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Solid-Phase Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Armaghan; Halim, Nor Hidayah Ab; Zakaria, Norhidayah; Ismail, Zhari

    2017-10-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth is a medicinal plant and native in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that OS leaves possess antioxidant, cytotoxic, diuretic, antihypertensive, and uricosuric effects. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids, and flavonoids. To develop and validate an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method combined with solid-phase extraction that involves precolumn derivatization with O -phthaladehyde for simultaneous analysis of free amino acids in OS leaves extracts. OS leaves were extracted with water (OS-W), ethanol (OS-E), methanol (OS-M), 50% ethanol (OS-EW), and 50% methanol (OS-MW). The extracts were treated by C18 cartridge before derivatization, resulting in great improvement of separation by Zorbox Eclipse XDB-C 18 column. The HPLC-DAD method was successfully developed and validated for analyzing the contents of free amino acids in OS extracts. The results showed that l-aspartic acid with 0.93 ± 0.01 nmol/mg was the major free amino acid in OS-W extract. However, in OS-E, OS-M, OS-EW, and OS-MW, l-glutamic acid with 3.53 ± 0.16, 2.17 ± 0.10, 4.01 ± 0.12, and 2.49 ± 0.12 nmol/mg, respectively, was the major free amino acid. Subsequently, l-serine, which was detected in OS-W, OS-E, and OS-M, was the minor free amino acid with 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.12 ± 0.01, and 0.06 ± 0.01 nmol/mg, respectively. However, l-threonine with 0.26 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.08 nmol/mL in OS-EW and OS-MW, respectively, had the lowest concentration compared with other amino acid components. All validation parameters of the developed method indicate that the method is reliable and efficient to simultaneously determine the free amino acids content for routine analysis of OS extracts. The HPLC-DAD method combined with solid phase extraction was successfully developed and validated for simultaneous determination and

  5. Nucleic acid extraction, oligonucleotide probes and PCR methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhongtang Yu; Forster, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    analysis, and hybridization-based methods, such as RNA-targeted hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray, have been employed. The application of these molecular techniques has been changing our perspectives about ruminal and GI microbiota. Except for FISH, all these methods analyse DNA or RNA extracted from samples collected from rumen or GI tracts. Therefore, reliable and efficient DNA/RNA extraction is the pre-requisite of molecular ecological studies of ruminal microbiota

  6. Phase distribution of ecologically controlled chemical elements in production of extraction phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazak, V.G.; Agnelov, A.I.; Zajtsev, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Content of 16 ecologically controlled chemical element (among them Cd, Sr, Th, U, V, Y) in solid and liquid phases of extraction phosphorus acid (EPA) production is determined. These elements are recommended to control by Scientific research institute of human ecology and environment to establish their extraction coefficients to phosphogypsum and EPA and optimal variant of production of ecologically sate phosphorus fertilizers. X-ray fluorescent, atomic-absorption and polarographic methods are used for analysis these elements

  7. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  8. Effect of humic acid on the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry of copper in acetic acid soil extract solutions at mercaptoacetic acid-modified gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Gregoire; Beni, Valerio; Dillon, Patrick H.; Barry, Thomas; Arrigan, Damien W.M

    2004-05-24

    Electrochemical measurements were undertaken for the investigation of the underpotential deposition-stripping process of copper at bare and modified gold electrodes in 0.11 M acetic acid, the first fraction of the European Union's Bureau Communautaire de References (BCR) sequential extraction procedure for fractionating metals within soils and sediments. Gold electrodes modified with mercaptoacetic acid showed higher sensitivity for the detection of copper than bare gold electrodes, both in the absence and in the presence of humic acid in acetic acid solutions, using the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) method. In the presence of 50 mg l{sup -1} of humic acid, the mercaptoacetic acid modified electrode proved to be 1.5 times more sensitive than the bare gold electrode. The mercaptoacetic acid monolayer formed on the gold surface provided efficient protection against the adsorption of humic acid onto the gold electrode surface. Variation of the humic acid concentration in the solution showed little effect on the copper stripping signal at the modified electrode. UPD-SV at the modified electrode was applied to the analysis of soil extract samples. Linear correlation of the electrochemical results with atomic spectroscopic results yielded the straight-line equation y ({mu}g l{sup -1}) = 1.10x - 44 (ppb) (R=0.992, n=6), indicating good agreement between the two methods.

  9. Extraction Equilibrium of Acrylic Acid by Aqueous Two-Phase Systems Using Hydrophilic Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hwa; Lee, Woo Youn; Kim, Ki-Sub; Hong, Yeon Ki

    2014-01-01

    As an effective method for extraction of acrylic acid, aqueous two-phase systems based on morpholinium ionic liquids were used in this study. Effects of the alkyl chain length of cation in morpholinium ionic liquids on phase diagram and extraction efficiencies were investigated. Experimental results show that aqueous two phase systems can be formed by adding appropriate amount of morpholinium ionic liquids to aqueous K 2 HPO 4 solutions. It can be found that the ability of morpholinium ionic liquids for phase separation followed the order [HMMor][Br]>[OMMor][Br]>[BMMor][Br]>[EMMor][Br]. There was little difference between binodal curves of imidazolium ionic liquids and those of morpholinium ionic liquids. 50-90% of the extraction efficiency was observed for acrylic acid by aqueous two phase extraction of acrylic acid with morpholinium ionic liquids. It can be concluded that morpholinium ionic liquids/K 2 HPO 4 were effective for aqueous two phases extraction of acrylic acid comparing to imidazolium ionic liquids/K 2 HPO 4 systems because of their lower cost

  10. Separation of molybdenum(VI) by extraction with n-octylaniline from hydrochloric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, S.S.; Anuse, M.A.; Chavan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    N-Octylaniline in benzene was used for the extractive separation of molybdenum(VI) from hydrochloric acid medium. Molybdenum(VI) was extracted quantitatively from 10 ml aqueous solution 1.5M in hydrochloric acid and 10M in lithium chloride into 10 ml of 10% n-octylaniline in benzene. It was stripped from the organic phase with 5% aqueous ammonia solution and estimated spectrophotometrically with thiocyanate at 465 nm. The interference of various ions has been studied in detail and conditions have been established for the determination of molybdenum(VI) in synthetic mixtures and alloy samples. (author)

  11. SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS AND MYCOSPORINE-LIKE AMINO ACIDS (MAAS) FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous extraction methods have been developed and used in the quantitation of both photopigments and mycosporine amino acids (MAAs) found in Symbiodinium sp. and zooanthellate metazoans. We have development of a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol, which when coupl...

  12. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of oils from two cultivars of Cantaloupe extracted by supercritical fluid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, M.; Mariod, A.; Bagalkotkar, G.; Ling, H. S

    2010-07-01

    The effect of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) fractionation of three oil fractions (1st, 2nd, 3rd fraction) on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of oils from two cultivars of cantaloupe were investigated. Rock melon oil (RMO) and Golden Langkawi oil (GLO) were extracted using SFE and the major fatty acids for both cultivars were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. The SFA decreased from 15.78 to 14.14% in RMO 1st fraction, and MUFA decreased from 18.30 to 16.56% in RMO 2nd fraction, while PUFA increased from 65.9 to 69.30% in RMO 3rd fraction. On the other hand SFA decreased from 16.35 to 13.91% in GLO 1{sup s}t fraction, and MUFA decreased from 17.50 to 15.57% in GLO 2nd fraction, while PUFA increased from 66.15 to 70.52% in GLO 3rd fraction. The different fractions of the two oils showed high antioxidant activity in reducing the oxidation of {beta}-carotene in beta-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and the quenching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). (Author) 41 refs.

  13. The removal of uranium from acidic media using ion exchange and/or extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Murphy, J.; Holmes, K.; West, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    The separation and purification of uranium from either nitric acid or hydrochloric acid media can be accomplished by using either solvent extraction or ion-exchange. Over the past two years at Los Alamos, emerging programs are focused on recapturing the expertise required to do limited, small-quantity processing of enriched uranium. During this period of time, we have been investigating ion-addition, waste stream polishing is associated with this effort in order to achieve more complete removal of uranium prior to recycle of the acid. Extraction chromatography has been demonstrated to further polish the uranium from both nitric and hydrochloric acid media thus allowing for a more complete recovery of the actinide material and creation of less waste during the processing steps

  14. Extractive distillation of nitric acid using the two-pot concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counce, R.M.; Groenier, W.S.; Holland, W.D.; Jubin, R.T.; North, E.D.; Thompson, L.E. Jr.; Hebble, T.L.

    1982-12-01

    Experiments have confirmed the validity of a novel design for a nitric acid concentration system for use in shielded nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Current plans for producing the scrub solution for the IODOX process require the concentration and recycle of low strength ( 3 ) 2 as the solvent and features two pots: an extractive distillation pot in which a concentrated acid product is obtained by contacting the acid feed with the solvent and a solvent recovery pot in which the solvent is dehydrated and recovered for recycle. In these experiments, a concentrated product of 89 wt % nitric acid was produced from azeotropic feed. The available vapor-liquid equilibria data for the Mg(NO 3 ) 2 -HNO 3 -H 2 O system has been empirically correlated, and a design methodology has been developed for the two-pot extractive distillation process

  15. Solvent extraction of hafnium(IV) by dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid from mixed aqueous-organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hala, J.; Piperkovova, H.

    1979-01-01

    The extraction of hafnium(IV) by heptane and toluene solutions of dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HD) from mixed aqueous-organic solutions has been studied. Alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids, cyclic ethers, dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide were used as the organic component of the mixed phase. Methanol, ethanol, formic acid and dioxane increased the extractability of Hf(IV) whereas other solvents showed only an antagonistic effect. The results were discussed from the point of view of the changes in micellar structure of HD, and compared with the uptake of Hf(IV) by resinous cation exchangers. The solubilization by HD of alcohols, carboxylic acids and dimethylsulfoxide was demonstrated by using the corresponding 14 C and 35 S labelled compounds. (author)

  16. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN CARNAÚBA SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WELLINSON GADÊLHA GUIMARÃES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the composition of fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds of carnaúba ( Copernicia prunifera (Miller H. E. Moore, an important palm species native to Northeastern Brazil. After extracting the crude oil, the physico - chemical characteristics (density, refraction index, pH, acidity and saponi- fication index were registered and the chemical composition of the fatty acids was determined by gas chroma- tography (GC - FID. The predominance of saturated fatty acids does not make carnaúba seed oil a promising alternative for the food industry, and the small yield obtained (approx. 5% may constitute a limiting factor for commercial exploitation, but carnauba seed oil could potentially be used in the production of biofuels, cosmet- ics and detergents.

  17. Comparison of different extraction methods for giberelic acid obtention from corn (Zea mays L. germinated seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Rivera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is the second most cultivated cereal in the world and is use as raw material for different kind of industries. To date no reports about obtaining giberellic acid (GA3 from corn have been found. In the present study two methods for extracting solid samples were evaluated: lixiviation and dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE, for obtaining giberellic acid from corn germinated seeds. In lixiviation, the physical method (agitation and sonication, solvent, and time were the parameters analyzed; while in DSASE the variables were: solvent, flow, and time. The most efficient technique was DSASE employing acetonitrile-formic acid 5% (80:20, v:v as solvent at a flow of 0.4 mL/min for 25,0 min, obtaining a concentration 30.012 mg/kg giberellic acid. The identification and quantification were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with diode array detector (DAD. These results showed that dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE is a novel and powerful alternative technique for obtaining giberellic acid, because of its high efficiency; low solvent consumption and simplicity in obtaining the extract.

  18. Study of radium extraction mechanisms from scales by leaching in different acidic and alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Gafar, M.; Al-Kurdi, H.

    2002-07-01

    The present report shows the results of leaching experiments for scales containing naturally occuring radioactive materials using different acidic and alkaline media. The obtained result can be used for defining the method of safe disposal of such waste. Leaching solutions used in this study were distilled water, mineral acids (sulpharic acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid), sodium, potassium hydroxides, ammonium oxalate EDTA, sodium carbonate, potassium acetate, and a mixture of potassium chloride and hydrochloric acid. The results have shown that the extraction ratio of radium-226, the most abundant isotope in scales, is very low and even negligible using all different media. This indicates that all scales produced in Syrian oil fields do not require any chemical preparation before disposal. In addition, the effect of both stirring time of phrases and concentration of leaching media that may affect the radium transfer process from solid phase to aqueous phase have been investigated were no measurable amount being observed in the leachate. (author)

  19. Solvent Extraction of Tungsten(VI) from Moderate Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with LIX 63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, Hoai Thanh; Lee, Man Seung [Mokpo National University, Jeollanamdo (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Hwan [Incheon Technology Service Centre, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The solvent extraction of tungsten(VI) from hydrochloric acid solutions using 5,8-diethyl-7-hydroxydodecan-6-one oxime (LIX 63) was analyzed in solutions having an initial pH range from 2 to 5, by varying the concentration of metal and extractant. In our experimental range, the cationic exchange reaction as well as the solvation reaction occurred simultaneously. The cation exchange reaction was identified by applying a slope analysis method to the extraction data. The existence of cationic tungsten(VI) species was confirmed by ion exchange experiments with Diphonix resin at pH 3. Further study is needed to identify the nature of this tungsten cationic species.

  20. Investigation of antimony extraction from nitric acid solutions by tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakaev, V.S.; Smelov, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of iodide, hydrogen and pertechnetate ions on antimony extraction by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) from aqueous nitric acid solutions under irradiated nuclear fuel processing is investigated at room temperature. The coefficients of antimony distribution are shown to increase at the presence of technetium ions 2-3 times and iodine ions - 100 and more times. Variation of hydrogen ion concentration does not affect antimony extraction. The schemes of the mechanism of antimony extraction at the pressence of iodide and pertechnetate ions are presented. Compositions of the formed compounds are given

  1. Evaluation of automated nucleic acid extraction methods for virus detection in a multicenter comparative trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Hakhverdyan, M.

    2009-01-01

    between the results obtained for the different automated extraction platforms. In particular, the limit of detection was identical for 9/12 and 8/12 best performing robots (using dilutions of BVDV infected-serum and cell culture material, respectively), which was similar to a manual extraction method used......Five European veterinary laboratories participated in an exercise to compare the performance of nucleic acid extraction robots. Identical sets of coded samples were prepared using serial dilutions of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) from serum and cell culture propagated material. Each...

  2. Evaluation of various Crown ethers for the supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Rao, Ankita; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Various crowns have been evaluated for supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium employing HPFOA as counter ion. Uranium extraction efficiency was found to be influenced by cavity size of crown ether and nature of substituents. Complexation tendency of UO 2 2+ increases with increasing cavity size of crown ether. Electron withdrawing substituents decreased the extraction efficiency which could be attributed to decrease in the basicity of four oxygen atoms and hence their bonding ability. Whereas electron donating substituents increased the efficiency due to increases in basicity of oxygen atoms and hence in increase in bonding ability. (author)

  3. Feasibility studies on supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, B.P.; Agarwal, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a promising novel technology for extraction of many materials. Work has been carried out worldwide on SFE of uranium from various matrices. However, there are no references indicating the R and D on uranium extraction from phosphoric acid using this technology. Heavy Water Board is involved in technology development for recovery of uranium from secondary source, hence it was considered prudent to investigate the technology of SFE for this purpose. Various experiments were carried out with both WPA (P 2 O 5 content 28%) and MGPA (P 2 O 5 content 54%) using bench scale facility available with one of the private party. Extraction experiments were carried out using several chelating agents including TBP, D2EHPA, D2EHPA+TBP/TOPO, TTA, TTA+TBP etc. Feasibility studies revealed the hydrodynamics of operation indicating liquid expansion by about three times during flow of super critical (SC) CO 2 . No flooding was observed when the extraction column filled 20% of its volume capacity, no carryover of entrained/extracted liquid with SC CO 2 with MGPA, material balance of inputs and outputs established i.e. 100% recovery of MGPA and chelating agent, No operational problems with raw MGPA (untreated). No significant extraction of impurities from phosphoric acid to SC CO 2 , 40℃ temperature and 160 bar pressure found ideal for extraction experiments since no other materials found extracted at these conditions and no apparent change/deterioration in PA and chelating agents. Experiments established feasibility of SCE with CO 2 , proper recovery of PA and chelating agents, no need for pretreatment/gunk removal from PA; however, extraction of uranium was found inadequate even though ORP of feed acid was boosted by H 2 O 2 addition. Investigations revealed that SCE column created reducing environment in phosphoric acid, which was not favourable for uranium extraction, which resulted in difficulty in extraction of Uranium. HWB has now designed

  4. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesis of Lactobacillus in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Ngan, Tran Thi Kim; Nu, Nguyen Thi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    This research focused on the synthesis of GABA by Lactobacillus bacteria in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract without adding glutamate. Two strains of Lactobacillus were investigated into capacity of GABA synthesis. Result indicates that, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 exhibited the higher capacity of GABA synthesis in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract than that of Lactobacillus plantarum VTCC - B - 890. Total dissolved solid (TDS), free amino acids (AA) and reducing sugar (RS) contents in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract with two strains also significantly decreased. At pH 5 and 9 %w/w of TDS content in defatted rice bran extract, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 accumulated 2,952 ppm of GABA in 24 hours of fermentation. The result implies that fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 can be applied for GABA production from defatted rice bran extract.

  5. Microwave Acid Extraction to Analyze K and Mg Reserves in the Clay Fraction of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Extraction of K and Mg with boiling 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an open system for predicting K and Mg uptake by plants is a method of low reproducibility. The aim of this study was to compare the extraction capacity of different acid methods relative to hydrofluoric acid extraction for K and Mg. A further objective was to develop a chemical extraction method using a closed system (microwave for nonexchangeable and structural forms of these nutrients in order to replace the traditional method of extraction with boiling HNO3 on a hot plate (open system. The EPA 3051A method can be used to estimate the total content of K in the clay fraction of soils developed from carbonate and phyllite/mica schist rocks. In the clay fraction of soils developed from basalt, recoveries of K by the EPA 3051A (pseudo-total method were higher than for the EPA 3052 (total hydrofluoric extraction method. The relative abundance of K and Mg for soils in carbonate rocks, phyllite/mica schist, granite/gneiss, and basalt determined by aqua regia digestion is unreliable. The method using 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an closed system (microwave showed potential for replacing the classical method of extraction of nonexchangeable forms of K (boiling 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an open system - hot plate and reduced the loss of Si by volatilization.

  6. Solvent Extraction of Rare Earths by Di-2 Ethylhexyl Phosphoric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Kranlert, Kannika; Kraikaew, Jarunee; Pongpansook, Surasak; Chayavadhanangkur, Chavalek; Kranlert, Kannika

    2004-10-01

    Solvent extraction has been widely applied for individual rare earth separation because the separation time is rapid and a large quantity of products is obtained. In this work, this technique was utilized to extract mixed rare earths, obtained from monazite digestion process. Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) was used as an extractant. The factors affected the extraction including HNO 3 concentration in mixed rare earth nitrate solution and the amount of D2EHPA were studied. The appropriate concentrations of HNO 3 and D2EHPA were found to be 0.01 and 1.5 M, respectively. From the result of equilibrium curve study, it was observed that heavy rare earths were extracted more efficient than light rare earths. A 6-stage continuous countercurrent solvent extraction was simulated for rare earth extraction. The optimum ratio of solvent to feed solution (S/F) was 2. Because of the high cost of D2EHPA, 1.0 M of D2EHPA was suitable for the rare earth extraction by the continuous countercurrent solvent extraction

  7. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saúl García-Pérez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P, temperature (T, and co-solvent (CoS, four treatments (T were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min, followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min. Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0, followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c, α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3 and stearic acid (C18:0 differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica.

  8. Automated solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids using layered double hydroxide-alumina-polymer disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Milad; Palomino Cabello, Carlos; Saraji, Mohammad; Manuel Estela, Jose; Cerdà, Víctor; Turnes Palomino, Gemma; Maya, Fernando

    2018-01-26

    The application of layered double hydroxide-Al 2 O 3 -polymer mixed-matrix disks for solid-phase extraction is reported for the first time. Al 2 O 3 is embedded in a polymer matrix followed by an in situ metal-exchange process to obtain a layered double hydroxide-Al 2 O 3 -polymer mixed-matrix disk with excellent flow-through properties. The extraction performance of the prepared disks is evaluated as a proof of concept for the automated extraction using sequential injection analysis of organic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid) following an anion-exchange mechanism. After the solid-phase extraction, phenolic acids were quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection using a core-shell silica-C18 stationary phase and isocratic elution (acetonitrile/0.5% acetic acid in pure water, 5:95, v/v). High sensitivity and reproducibility were obtained with limits of detection in the range of 0.12-0.25 μg/L (sample volume, 4 mL), and relative standard deviations between 2.9 and 3.4% (10 μg/L, n = 6). Enrichment factors of 34-39 were obtained. Layered double hydroxide-Al 2 O 3 -polymer mixed-matrix disks had an average lifetime of 50 extractions. Analyte recoveries ranged from 93 to 96% for grape juice and nonalcoholic beer samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Validated Method for the Characterization and Quantification of Extractable and Nonextractable Ellagitannins after Acid Hydrolysis in Pomegranate Fruits, Juices, and Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan Carlos; Aaby, Kjersti; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Heinonen, Marina; Jacobs, Griet; Voorspoels, Stefan; Koivumäki, Tuuli; Kroon, Paul A; Pelvan, Ebru; Saha, Shikha; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2015-07-29

    Pomegranates are one of the main highly valuable sources of ellagitannins. Despite the potential health benefits of these compounds, reliable data on their content in pomegranates and derived extracts and food products is lacking, as it is usually underestimated due to their complexity, diversity, and lack of commercially available standards. This study describes a new method for the analysis of the extractable and nonextractable ellagitannins based on the quantification of the acid hydrolysis products that include ellagic acid, gallic acid, sanguisorbic acid dilactone, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallagic acid dilactone in pomegranate samples. The study also shows the occurrence of ellagitannin C-glycosides in pomegranates. The method was optimized using a pomegranate peel extract. To quantify nonextractable ellagitannins, freeze-dried pomegranate fruit samples were directly hydrolyzed with 4 M HCl in water at 90 °C for 24 h followed by extraction of the pellet with dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol (50:50, v/v). The method was validated and reproducibility was assessed by means of an interlaboratory trial, showing high reproducibility across six laboratories with relative standard deviations below 15%. Their applicability was demonstrated in several pomegranate extracts, different parts of pomegranate fruit (husk, peels, and mesocarp), and commercial juices. A large variability has been found in the ellagitannin content (150-750 mg of hydrolysis products/g) and type (gallagic acid/ellagic acid ratios between 4 and 0.15) of the 11 pomegranate extracts studied.

  10. Optimization of extraction method and HPLC analysis of six caffeoylquinic acids in Pluchea indica leaves from different provenances in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumet Kongkiatpaiboon

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pluchea indica (L. Less., Asteraceae, is a medicinal plant which contains a high amount of phenolic compounds such as caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. The leaves have been traditionally used as a nerve tonic and extensively as herbal tea. This study aimed to develop and validate an HPLC method to quantitatively analyze six caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, viz. 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid in P. indica leaf extract. HPLC was carried out in a Hypersil BDS C18-column eluted with 0.5% acetic acid in water and methanol using gradient elution with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detection at 326 nm. The method validation was performed to assure its linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. Several extraction techniques including maceration, decoction, digestion, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasound extraction, were used to extract active constituents. The ultrasound extraction with 50% ethanol yielded the highest concentration of these caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in the P. indica leaf extract. Our developed HPLC method is simple and reliable for a routine analysis of the six caffeoylquinic acids in P. indica leaves and could potentially be applied to be used in commercial herbal products.

  11. Structural and thermodynamic study of rare earth(III) complexation by poly-hydroxylated carboxylic acids: synthesis of new extractants and outlook for the extraction of these cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aury, S.

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this work is: to improve the knowledge on the binding sites of the poly-hydroxylated carboxylic acids with the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions by comparing them to gluconic acid (previously studied) and to molecules with different configuration and with a variable number of OH functions (threonic acid, glyceric acid, 2-hydroxy-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid). To find the best complexing agent among different acids (aldonic acids, aldaric acids, di-hydroxybenzoic acids) (determination of the set of complexes and their stability constants by potentiometry, NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopy). To synthesize hydrophobic monoamides from one lactone form of saccharic acid, to study their complexing power and their capacity to extract the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions. (author)

  12. Nucleic acid and protein extraction from electropermeabilized E. coli cells on a microfluidic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matos, T.; Senkbeil, Silja; Mendonça, A.

    2013-01-01

    technique has been developed which is based on exposing E. coli cells to low voltages to allow extraction of nucleic acids and proteins. The flow-through electropermeability chip used consists of a microfluidic channel with integrated gold electrodes that promote cell envelope channel formation at low...

  13. BRIONONIC ACID FROM THE HEXANE EXTRACT OF Sandoricum koetjape MERR STEM BARK (meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiran Tukiran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An oleane-type triterpenoid, briononic acid was isolated from hexane extract of the stem bark of Sandoricum koetjape Merr. (Meliaceae. This structure had been established based on spectroscopic data (UV, IR, and NMR and by comparison with spectroscopic data of related compound that had been reported.   Keywords: Meliaceae, Oleane, Sandoricum koetjape Merr., Triterpenoid

  14. Inorganic-Organic hybrid materials for uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mourabit, Sabah

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate rocks are industrially processed in large quantities to produce phosphoric acid and fertilisers. These rocks contain significant concentration of uranium (50 to 300 ppm) which could be interesting for nuclear industry. This work deals with the valorisation of uranium as a by-product from fertiliser industry. The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid material, constituted of an inorganic solid support grafted with an extractant (complexing molecule), which can extract selectively uranium from phosphoric acid medium. The first step of our approach was to identify an inorganic support which is stable under these particular conditions (strong acidity and complexing medium). The chemical and mechanical stability of different meso-porous materials, such as silica, glass and carbon was studied. In a second phase, we focused on the identification and the optimisation of complexing molecules, specific of uranium in phosphoric acid. These ligands were then grafted on the most stable solids. Finally, the efficiency of these hybrid systems was evaluated through different tests of extraction, selectivity and de-extraction. (author) [fr

  15. Effects of extraction period on yield of rice straw compost humic acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humic acids (HA) are widely used in agriculture because of their capability as chelator, organic matter, soil improver and growth promoter. However, their isolation differs in terms of origin or source because of wetting and solubilization factors. This study was conducted to determine extraction period for HA from composted ...

  16. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages of amino acid extracts from Californian palaeoindian skeletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bada, J.L.; Gillespie, R.; Gowlett, J.A.J.; Hedges, R.E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have used accelerator mass spectrometry to determine the radiocarbon ages of the amino acid extracts used in the original racemization studies of skeletal remains found in California. The studies indicate that some of the controversial Californian skeletons, which had been assigned to the Upper Pleistocene, are in fact Holocene. (author)

  17. Needle trap extraction for GC analysis of formic and acetic acids in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Daikuan; Lou, Dawei; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2012-07-01

    Formic and acetic acids are ubiquitous in the environment, food, and most of the natural products. Extraction of the acids from aqueous solution is required for their isotope analysis by the gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. To this objective, we have previously developed a purge-and-trap technique using the dynamic solid-phase microextraction technology, the NeedlEX. The extraction efficiency, however, remains unexamined. Here, we address this question using the flame ionization detector and isotope ratio mass spectrometer while comparing it with that of the CAR/PDMS fiber. The results show that the NeedlEX is applicable at a wide range of concentration through coordination of purge volume given the minimum amount 3.7 ng and 1.8 ng of formic and acetic, respectively, is extracted. The efficiency of NeedlEX was 6-7 times lower than the fiber at 1000 μg/mL depending on the analyte. It is, however, superior to the latter at 10 μg/mL or less owing to its lower detection limit. The extraction efficiency of both acids is equivalent in molar amount. This is, however, disguised by the different response of the flame ionization detector. The isotope ratio mass spectrometor overcomes this problem but is compromised by relatively large errors. These results are particularly useful for isotopic analysis of carboxylic acids. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. TWOPOT: a computer model of the two-pot extractive distillation concept for nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubin, R.T.; Holland, W.D.; Counce, R.M.; Beckwith, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    A mathematical model, TWOPOT, of the ''two-pot'' extractive distillation concept for nitric acid concentration has been developed. Prediction from a computer simulation using this model shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. This model is recommended for use in the design of large-scale, similar-purpose equipment. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Solid phase extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid. Kinetic and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Magied, Ahmed Fawzy [Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry

    2017-07-01

    There is a high interest to develop suitable solid phase extractants for uranium separation from aqueous solutions in order to reduce cost and enhance the efficiency. This paper describes solid phase extraction of uranium(VI) from aqueous phosphoric acid solution using MCM-41 based D2HEPA-TOPO organophosphorous extractants. The mixture of D2HEPA (di-2-ethyl-hexylphosphoric acid) and TOPO (tri-n-octylphosphine oxide) was impregnated into the pores of MCM-41 and the synthesized sorbent was fully characterized. The influences of different factors such as synergistic mixture ratio, phosphoric acid concentration, mixing time and temperature were investigated. The results showed that 90% of uranium(VI) extraction can be achieved within 5 min, using D2HEPA-TOPO rate at MCM-41 (mass ratio 2:1 w/w) from 1 M phosphoric acid containing 64 ppm of uranium at room temperature. High adsorption capacity of uranium(VI) have been achieved at the mentioned conditions. The rate constant for the chemical adsorption of uranium(VI) was 0.988 g mg{sup -1} min{sup -1} calculated by the pseudo-second order rate equation. The obtained thermodynamics parameters showed that uranium(VI) adsorption from H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is an exothermic and spontaneous process.

  20. Lactic Acid Extraction and Mass Transfer Characteristics in Slug Flow Capillary Microreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, S.; Winkelman, J.G.N.; Schuur, Boelo; heeres, h.j.; Yue, J.

    2016-01-01

    Capillary microreactors operated under the slug flow regime were investigated for the separation of lactic acid from the aqueous phase using liquid–liquid reactive extraction. The experiments were performed at a 1:1 flow ratio of the aqueous to organic phases in a setup consisting of an inlet Y-type

  1. Ginger extract as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidrusli, A.; Suryanto; Mahmood, M.

    2018-01-01

    Ginger extract as corrosion inhibitor from natural resources was studied to prevent corrosion of mild steel in acid media. Ginger rhizome was extracted to produce green corrosion inhibitor (G-1) while ginger powder bought at supermarket was also extract to form green corrosion inhibitor (G-2). Effectiveness of inhibitor in preventing corrosion process of mild steel was studied in 1.0 M of hydrochloric acid. The experiment of weight loss method and polarization technique were conducted to measure corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency of mild steel in solution containing 1.0 M of hydrochloric acid with various concentration of inhibitor at room temperature. The results showed that, the rate of corrosion dropped from 8.09 mmpy in solution containing no inhibitor to 0.72 mmpy in solution containing 150g/l inhibitor while inhibition efficiency up to 91% was obtained. The polarization curve in polarization experiments shows that the inhibition efficiency is 86% with high concentration of inhibitor. The adsorption of ginger extract on the surface of mild steel was observed by using optical microscope and the characterization analysis was done by using pH measurement method. When high concentration of green inhibitor in the acid solution is used, the pH at the surface of steel is increasing.

  2. Kinetic study on ferulic acid production from banana stem waste via mechanical extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, Norazwina; Masngut, Nasratun; Khairi Jusup, Muhamad

    2018-04-01

    Banana is the tropical plants associated with lots of medicinal properties. It has been reported to be a potential source of phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid (FA). FA has excellent antioxidant properties higher than vitamin C and E. FA also have a wide range of biological activities, such as antioxidant activities and anti-microbial activities. This paper presents an experimental and kinetic study on ferulic acid (FA) production from banana stem waste (BSW) via mechanical extraction. The objective of this research is to determine the kinetic parameters in the ferulic acid production. The banana stem waste was randomly collected from the local banana plantation in Felda Lepar Hilir, Pahang. The banana stem juice was mechanically extracted by using sugarcane press machine (KR3176) and further analyzed in high performance liquid chromatography. The differential and integral method was applied to determine the kinetic parameter of the extraction process and the data obtained were fitted into the 0th, 1st and 2nd order of extraction process. Based on the results, the kinetic parameter and R2 value from were 0.05 and 0.93, respectively. It was determined that the 0th kinetic order fitted the reaction processes to best represent the mechanical extraction.

  3. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  4. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Ilievska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  5. Unavoidable food supply chain waste: acid-free pectin extraction from mango peel via subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H; Matharu, A S

    2017-09-21

    Mango peel is the major by-product of mango processing, and compromises 7-24% of the total mango weight. In this study, pectin was extracted from mango peel waste by using subcritical water extraction (SWE) in the absence of mineral acid. A highest yield of 18.34% was achieved from the Kesar variety and the pectin was characterised using ATR-IR spectroscopy, TGA and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy to confirm the structure. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was analysed with both titrimetry and 13 C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and a high DE (>70%) was observed for all three varieties (Keitt, Sindhri and Kesar). This is the first report on acid-free subcritical water extraction of pectin from mango peel, which provides a green route for the valorisation of mango peel waste and contributes to a source of biobased materials and chemicals for a sustainable 21 st century.

  6. Extraction of aluminium, gallium and indium by tri-n-octylamine from citric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shova, T.A.; Kaplunova, A.M.; Ershova, N.I.; Varshal, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made on aluminium, gallium and indium distribution in triocylam ine(toa)-citric acid system depending on pH of aqueous solution, concentration of components and foreign electrolytes. The methods of equilibrium shift, compe ting ions and isomolar series were used to find the component ratio in toa: Me: citric acid complexes equal to 3:1:2. The equation describing the extraction of citrate gallium, indium and aluminium complexes by trioctylamine was suggested. Using the difference in extraction behavior of the elements of aluminium, yttri um and lanthanum subgroup the extraction-chromatographic method of their separat ion, applied for the analysis of optical glasses was developed. The method is c haracterized by satisfactory reproduction, simplicity and expre

  7. The extraction of vanadium (IV) from hydrochloric acid solutions by tricaprylmethylammonium chloride and trioctylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takato; Sato, Taichi

    1980-01-01

    The extraction of vanadium (IV) from hydrochloric acid solutions by tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (R 3 RNCl, Aliquat-336) and trioctylamine (R 3 N, TOA) in benzene has been investigated under various conditions. In addition, the extraction behaviour of vanadium into the organic phase has been examined by spectrophotometry and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. From the distribution data, it is concluded that the extractions of vanadium (IV) from hydrochloric acid solutions by Aliquat-336 and TOA are expressed as VOCl 3 - (aq) + R 3 R'NCl(org) reversible R 3 R'NVOCl 3 (org) + Cl - (aq) and VOCl 2 (aq) + R 3 NHCl(org) reversible R 3 NHVOCl 3 (org) The electronic spectral and ESR results suggest that the complexes, R 3 R'NVOCl 3 and R 3 NH.VOCl 3 , formed in the organic phase are not always stable, but easily hydrolized or oxidized. (author)

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of boron by solvent extraction with 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyric acid and malachite green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shigeya; Uchikawa, Sumio

    1984-01-01

    A very simple and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of boron was developed. Boron was found to react with 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyric acid in weak acidic aqueous solution at room temperature to form a complex anion which can be extracted into chlorobenzene with malachite green in a single extraction; boron is determined indirectly by measuring the absorbance of malachite green in the extract at 629 nm. The calibration graph is linear over the range (7.50 x 10 -7 - 2.00 x 10 -5 ) mol dm -3 boron; the apparent molar absorptivity is 6.50 x 10 4 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1 . The method is applied to the determination of micro amounts of boron in natural waters with satisfactory results. (author)

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of boron by solvent extraction with 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyric acid and malachite green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shigeya; Uchikawa, Sumio [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1984-03-01

    A very simple and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of boron was developed. Boron was found to react with 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyric acid in weak acidic aqueous solution at room temperature to form a complex anion which can be extracted into chlorobenzene with malachite green in a single extraction; boron is determined indirectly by measuring the absorbance of malachite green in the extract at 629 nm. The calibration graph is linear over the range (7.50 x 10/sup -7/ - 2.00 x 10/sup -5/) mol dm/sup -3/ boron; the apparent molar absorptivity is 6.50 x 10/sup 4/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/. The method is applied to the determination of micro amounts of boron in natural waters with satisfactory results.

  10. Precipitation stripping of neodymium from carboxylate extractant with aqueous oxalic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Yasuhiro; Asai, Satoru; Murai, Tetuya

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a precipitation stripping method in which neodymium ions are stripped from carboxylate extractant in organic solvent and simultaneously precipitated with aqueous oxalic acid solution. For the single-stage process, a quantitative criterion for precipitating oxalate powders was derived theoretically, and stripping experiments were done under the precipitation conditions. The resultant precipitates were neodymium oxalate, which is completely free from contamination by the carboxylate extractant and the organic solvent. The overall rate of stripping was controlled by the transfer of neodymium carboxylate in the organic solution, indicating that the presence of oxalic acid in the aqueous phase has no effect on the stripping rate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of combining the conventional stripping and precipitation stages in a solvent extraction process for separation and purification of rare earths

  11. Pseudomacrocyclic effect in extraction processes of metal salts by polyethers from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakshin, V.V.; Vilkova, O.M.; Kotlyar, S.A.; Kamalov, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of macrocyclic (ME) and pseudmacrocyclic effects (PME), originating by conduct of the metal salt extraction processes (Cs, Sr, In, Zr, Cd, etc) from nitric acid solutions through linear and cyclic polyethers, containing 5 or 6 atoms of ether oxygen and having close molecular masses (290-360), is carried out. It is shown that ordinary ethers practically do not extract the studied metals from nitric acid solutions. By transfer from linear polyethers to their macrocyclic analogs the ME impact is expressed clearly enough: the separation coefficient value grows by tens and hundred times. At the some time the PME role in the extraction processes of metal nitrates through crown-ethers with alkyl and groups is expressed less clearly

  12. RNA preservation agents and nucleic acid extraction method bias perceived bacterial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann McCarthy

    Full Text Available Bias is a pervasive problem when characterizing microbial communities. An important source is the difference in lysis efficiencies of different populations, which vary depending on the extraction protocol used. To avoid such biases impacting comparisons between gene and transcript abundances in the environment, the use of one protocol that simultaneously extracts both types of nucleic acids from microbial community samples has gained popularity. However, knowledge regarding tradeoffs to combined nucleic acid extraction protocols is limited, particularly regarding yield and biases in the observed community composition. Here, we evaluated a commercially available protocol for simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA, which we adapted for freshwater microbial community samples that were collected on filters. DNA and RNA yields were comparable to other commonly used, but independent DNA and RNA extraction protocols. RNA protection agents benefited RNA quality, but decreased DNA yields significantly. Choice of extraction protocol influenced the perceived bacterial community composition, with strong method-dependent biases observed for specific phyla such as the Verrucomicrobia. The combined DNA/RNA extraction protocol detected significantly higher levels of Verrucomicrobia than the other protocols, and those higher numbers were confirmed by microscopic analysis. Use of RNA protection agents as well as independent sequencing runs caused a significant shift in community composition as well, albeit smaller than the shift caused by using different extraction protocols. Despite methodological biases, sample origin was the strongest determinant of community composition. However, when the abundance of specific phylogenetic groups is of interest, researchers need to be aware of the biases their methods introduce. This is particularly relevant if different methods are used for DNA and RNA extraction, in addition to using RNA protection agents only for RNA

  13. Extraction of metal cations by polyterephthalamide microcapsules containing a poly(acrylic acid) gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguecir, A; Ernst, B; Frère, Y; Danicher, L; Burgard, M

    2002-01-01

    Polyterephthalamide microcapsules containing a poly(acrylic acid) gel as a macromolecular ligand (PAA-CAPS) were prepared using an original two step polymerization process in a water-in-oil inverse emulsion system. A polyamide microcapsule containing acrylic acid, initiator and cross-linking agent, is formed by interfacial polycondensation of terephthaloyl dichloride with hexamethylenediamine. In situ radical polymerization of the microcapsule core acrylic acid is initiated to obtain encapsulated poly(acrylic acid) gel. Reference polyamide microcapsules, i.e. without ligand (CAPS), were also synthesized. The mean diameter of synthesized microcapsules was 210 microm, and the microcapsule wall thickness was evaluated by SEM and TEM observations of microcapsule cross-section cuts. The microcapsule water content was determined by thermogravimetric experiments. The extractabilities of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) into PAA-CAPS were examined. The stripping of the various cations can be promoted in diluted hydrochloric acid solutions.

  14. Investigation of metal ion extraction and aggregate formation combining acidic and neutral organophosphorous reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braatz, A.D.; Nilsson, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, 916 Engineering Tower, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2575 (United States); Ellis, R.; Antonio, M. [Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 200 9700 South Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439-4831 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we investigate how varying mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphate (HDBP) results in enhanced extraction of lanthanum(III), La{sup 3+}, and dysprosium(III), Dy{sup 3+}. Water and metal ion extraction were carefully monitored as a function of TBP:HDBP mole ratio.In addition to these techniques, EXAFS was used to determine the coordination environment of the metal ion in this system. To produce the necessary signal, a concentration of 1.25*10{sup -3} M La{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} was used. Although previous studies of synergistic extraction of metal cations using combinations of neutral and acidic reagents explain the enhanced extraction by increased dehydration of the metal ion and the formation of mixed extractant complexes, our evidence for the increased water extraction coupled with the aggregate formation suggests a reverse micellar aspect to synergism in the system containing TBP and HDBP. It is quite possible that both of these phenomena contribute to our system behavior. The EXAFS data shows that, based on coordination numbers alone, several possible structures may exist. From this study, we cannot provide a definitive answer as to the nature of extraction in this system or the exact complex formed during extraction.

  15. Separation of Molybdenum from Acidic High-Phosphorus Tungsten Solution by Solvent Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongli; Zhao, Zhongwei

    2017-10-01

    A solvent-extraction process for deep separation of molybdenum from an acidic high-phosphate tungsten solution was developed using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as the extractant and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a complexing agent. The common aqueous complexes of tungsten and molybdenum (PMoxW12-xO40 3-, x = 0-12) are depolymerized to {PO4[Mo(O)2(O-O)]4}3- and {PO4[W(O)2(O-O)]4}3- by H2O2. The former can be preferentially extracted by TBP. The extractant concentration, phase contact time, H2O2 dosage, and H2SO4 concentration were optimized. By employing 80% by volume TBP, O:A = 1:1, 1.0 mol/L H2SO4, 1.0 mol/L H3PO4, a contact time of 2 min, and a molar ratio of H2O2/(W + Mo) equal to 1.5, 60.2% molybdenum was extracted in a single stage, while limiting tungsten co-extraction to 3.2%. An extraction isotherm indicated that the raffinate could be reduced to <0.1 g/L Mo in six stages of continuous counter-current extraction.

  16. Dual vapor extraction on acidic sludge tar at a former refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, P.R.; Beall, P.; Townsend, S.

    1996-01-01

    OHM Remediation Services Corp conducted a pilot-scale demonstration for a novel application of dual vapor extraction technology for the pretreatment of the acid tar sludge material. The acid tar sludge comprised of approximately 60% asphaltene hydrocarbon material, 20% clay, and up to 20% sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ). The liquid layer in the bottom of the pits has a low pH ( 2 ) gas which is released with the sludge material is excavated or handled. The objective of the dual vapor extraction was to remove the SO 2 vapors and liquid layer containing sulfuric acid prior to any further treatment. The dual vapor extraction would reduce the amount of alkaline reagent required for neutralization while eliminating the health and safety concerns. Overall, the DVE pilot demonstration successfully showed that both liquids and vapors could be removed from the acid tar sludge material. The liquid present in the lower portions of the pits will have pH values of 1.0 or less and acidities on the order of 5% H 2 SO 4 . The liquid removed from the acid tar sludge material by a DVE system will have slightly higher pH (∼1.5) and lower alkalinities (∼3% H 2 SO 4 ). The SO 2 concentration in the vapors removed by the DVE system will be variable with initial levels approaching 1,200 ppmv SO 2 . The SO 2 concentration in the vapor phase should decrease with time. A caustic scrubber solution will remove any SO 2 from the vapor phase. After DVE treatment, the acid tar sludge material would have a slightly increased pH and a decreased SO 2 concentration

  17. Inhibitive action of some plant extracts on the corrosion of steel in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)]. E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Sidahmed, I.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); El-Zayady, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Saadawy, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    The effect of extracts of Chamomile (Chamaemelum mixtum L.), Halfabar (Cymbopogon proximus), Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), and Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants on the corrosion of steel in aqueous 1 M sulphuric acid were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process of steel occurs under activation control. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the plant extracts behave as mixed-type inhibitors. The corrosion rates of steel and the inhibition efficiencies of the extracts were calculated. The results obtained show that the extract solution of the plant could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in sulphuric acid media. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the plant extract up to a critical concentration. The inhibitive actions of plant extracts are discussed on the basis of adsorption of stable complex at the steel surface. Theoretical fitting of different isotherms, Langmuir, Flory-Huggins, and the kinetic-thermodynamic model, were tested to clarify the nature of adsorption.

  18. EXTRACTION AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ASCORBIC ACID FROM BANANA PEEL MUSA ACUMINATA ‘KEPOK’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Anwar Mohamad Said

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extraction of an antioxidant compound, which is ascorbic acid or vitamin C, from a banana peel using an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method. The type of banana used was Musa acuminata also known as “PisangKepok” in Malaysia. The investigation includes the effect of solvent/solid ratio (4.5, 5 g and 10  ml/g, sonication time (15, 30 and 45 mins and temperature variation (30 , 45  and 60oC on the extraction of ascorbic acid compounds from the banana peel to determine the best or optimum condition of the operation. Out of all extract samples analyzed by redox titration method using iodine solution, it was found that the highest yield was 0.04939 ± 0.00080 mg that resulted from an extraction at 30oC for 15 mins with 5 ml/g solvent-to-solute ratio.KEYWORDS:  Musa acuminata; ultrasound-assisted extraction; vitamin C; redox titration

  19. Study on tea leaves extract as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, A. B.; Suryanto; Haider, F. I.

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitor from extraction of plant has been considered as the most preferable and most chosen technique to prevent corrosion of metal in acidic medium because of the environmental friendly factor. In this study, black tea leaves extraction was tested as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 0.1M of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor. The efficiency and effectiveness of black tea as corrosion inhibitor was tested by using corrosion weight loss measurement experiment was carried out with varies parameters which with different concentration of black tea extract solution. The extraction of black tea solution was done by using aqueous solvent method. The FT-IR result shows that black tea extract containing compounds such as catechin, caffeine and tannins that act as anti-corrosive reagents and responsible to enhance the effectiveness of black tea extract as corrosion inhibitor by forming the hydrophobic thin film through absorption process. As a result of weight loss measurement, it shows that loss in weight of mild steel reduces as the concentration of inhibitor increases. The surface analysis was done on the mild steel samples by using SEM.

  20. Purification of di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) for synergistic extraction of uranium from strong phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Singh, H.; Sharma, J.N.; Ruhela, R.

    2009-01-01

    Di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) obtained from various synthesis methods is always associated with impurities such as mono-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid and nonyl phenol which need to be separated for its effective use in the extraction of uranium from strong phosphoric acid. Two methods of purification namely liquid-solid separation method using neodymium salt and liquid-liquid separation method using methylene glycol have been described. In the liquid solid separation method the purity of DNPPA obtained was about 95% with less than 1.0% monoester, however it heavily suffers in the recovery aspect which is of the order of 50-60%. The methylene glycol treatment method, results in high purity and recovery of the product. Purity obtained was about 95.0% diester and less than 0.5% monoester and recovery was more than 90%. Analysis of DNPPA was done by potentiometric titration method using autotitrator. (author)

  1. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains soil fines in suspension......The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching...... was tested. Five of the acids showed the ability to extract Ph from the soil fines in excess of the effect caused solely by pH changes. Addition of the acids, however, severely impeded EDR, hence promotion of EDR by combination with heterotrophic leaching was rejected. In contrast, enhancement of EDR...

  2. Synergic extraction of some lanthanide and actinide elements by a mixture of bis(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid and dinonylnapthalene - sulfonic acid in aromatic diluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raieh, M.A.; El-Dessouky, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Extraction of lanthanides and actinides were found to be synergetically enhanced by a mixture of bis(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HA) and dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HD) in aromatic diluents covering a wide range of dielectric constants. The main extracted species is found to be MAsub(2)Hsub(m-1)Dsub(m). Experimental results indicate that the extraxtion mechanism is governed by the extraction of HD in the organic phase. (author)

  3. 3,3'-Diaryl-BINOL phosphoric acids as enantioselective extractants of benzylic primary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; de Vries, Johannes G; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-01-01

    We report that 3,3'-diaryl-BINOL phosphoric acids are effective enantioselective extractants in chiral separation methods based on reactive liquid-liquid extraction. These new extractants are capable of separating racemic benzylic primary amine substrates. The effect of the nature of the substituents at the 3,3'-positions of the host were examined as well as the structure of the substrate, together with important parameters such as the organic solvent, the pH of the aqueous phase, and the host stoichiometry. Titration of the substrate with the host was monitored by FTIR, NMR, UV-Vis, and CD spectroscopy, which provided insight into the structure of the host-guest complex involved in extraction. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The role of octanol in the extraction of hydrochloric acid by trilaurylamine dissolved in benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammed, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of hydrochloric acid by trilaurylamine (TLA) dissolved in benzene was studied in the presence and in absence of n-octanol. The extraction of HCl was found to be enhanced by the addition of octanol to the organic phase. In order to explain this effect by means of the law of mass action, the systems TLA-HCl-benzene and n-octanol-HCl-benzene as well as TLA-octanol-benzene were also studied. It was found that TLA reacts with octanol to form a complex TLAROH, while the octanol itself associates in benzene to form dimers and tetramers, although it does not extract HCl alone from the dilute solutions used in the present study. The enhancement of the extraction of HCl by TLA upon the addition of n-octanol could be described by the formation of the species TLA.ROH.HCl and its stability constant was determined. (author)

  5. Recent Progress in the Development of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Soluble Metal Ion Extractants: Aggregation, Extraction, and Solubility Properties of Silicon-Substituted Alkylenediphosphonic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Mark L.; McAlister, Daniel R.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Zalupski, Peter R.; Dzilawa, Julie A.; Barrans, Richard E.; Hess, J.N.; Rubas, Audris V.; Chiarizia, Renato; Lubbers, Christopher M.; Scurto, Aaron M.; Brennecke, Joan F.; Herlinger, Albert W.

    2003-09-11

    Partially esterified alkylenediphosphonic acids (DPAs) have been shown to be effective reagents for the extraction of actinide ions from acidic aqueous solution into conventional organic solvents. Efforts to employ these compounds in supercritical fluid extraction have been hampered by their modest solubility in unmodified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). In an effort to design DPAs that are soluble in SC-CO2, a variety of silicon-substituted alkylenediphosphonic acids have been prepared and characterized, and their behavior compared with that of conventional alkyl-substituted reagents. Silicon substitution is shown to enhance the CO2-philicity of the reagents, while other structural features, in particular, the number of methylene groups bridging the phosphorus atoms of the extractant, are shown to exert a significant influence on their aggregation and extraction properties. The identification of DPAs combining desirable extraction properties with adequate solubility in SC-CO2 is shown to be facilitated by the application of molecular connectivity indices.

  6. Some studies on the extraction of plutonium from phosphate containing nitric acid solutions using DBDECMP as extractant (Preprint No. CT-24)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, V.B.; Pawar, S.M.; Oak, M.S.; Sivaramakrishnan, C.K.

    1988-02-01

    Extraction studies have been carried out to explore the feasibility of separation of Pu(IV) from phosphate containing analytical wastes generated in the laboratory. Distribution data on the extraction of Pu(IV) from dibutyl-N,N diethylcarbamoylmethylenephosphonate (DBDECMP) in xylene from an aqu eous nitric acid and its mixture with sulphuric as well as with sulphuric and phosphoric acids were obtained. Based on the data obtained the conditions for the recovery of plutonium from such waste solutions are suggested. (author)

  7. Facile Separation of 5-O-Galloylquinic Acid from Chinese Green Tea Extract using Mesoporous Zirconium Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yilong; Shang, Yafang; Zhu, Danye; Wang, Caihong; Zhong, Zhifeng; Xu, Ziyang

    2016-05-01

    5-O-Galloylquinic acid from green tea and other plants is attracting increasing attention for its antioxidant and antileishmanial bioactivities. It is always isolated using a silica column, a Sephadex column and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, which are either laborious or instrument dependent. To develop a new method to easily separate 5-O-galloylquinic acid. Mesoporous zirconium phosphate (m-ZrP) was prepared to conveniently separate 5-O-galloylquinic acid from Chinese green tea extract, and the target compound was easily obtained by simple steps of adsorption, washing and desorption. The effects of the green tea extraction conditions, extract concentrations, and m-ZrP adsorption/desorption dynamics on the 5-O-galloylquinic acid separation were evaluated. 5-O-Galloylquinic acid that was separated from a 70% ethanol extract of green tea was of moderate HPLC purity (92%) and recovery (88%), and an increased non-specific binding of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on m-ZrP was observed in the diluted tea extract. The times for maximal adsorption of 5-O-galloylquinic acid in 70% ethanol extract and maximal desorption of 5-O-galloylquinic acid in 0.4% phosphoric acid solution were confirmed as 7 h and 5 h, respectively. A facile method to separate 5-O-galloylquinic acid from Chinese green tea extract using m-ZrP was established. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Extraction of Trivalent La, Nd and Eu from Nitric Acid Solution by Ion quest-801 Loaded on Lewatit CA 9221

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowier, H.G; Metwally, S.S; Abd El-Rehim, S.S; Aly, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    The extraction of La 3+ , Nd 3+ and Eu 3+ from nitric acid medium by Lewatit CA 9221, Containing 2-ethylhexyl mono -2- ethylhexyl phosphonic acid ester, Ion quest-801, was studied. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of contact time, V/M ratio, extractant concentration, nitric acid molarity, lanthanide concentration and temperature. The data obtained are discussed in terms of extraction equilibrium and separation factors between the lanthanides as well as certain sorption models. Possible use of column chromatography containing the developed extractant material was assessed

  9. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus. In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank and fed diets with (0.5% or without (control GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05. Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p0.05 were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0. Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05 different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06 and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96 after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  10. New Trident Molecule with Phosphoric Acid Functionality for Trivalent Rare Earth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Ohto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tripodal extraction reagent with three phosphoric acid groups, together with the corresponding monopodal molecule has been prepared to investigate some metals extraction behavior, in particular, trivalent rare earth elements (REEs. The tripodal reagent exhibited extremely high selectivity for metals with high valency such as Zr(IV, In(III, Lu(III, and Fe(III. Tripodal reagent also exhibited exceptionally high extraction ability compared with the corresponding monopodal one in the extraction of trivalent rare earths. The result for the stoichiometry of tripodal reagent to heavy rare earths showed the inflection point between Er (2:1 for a ligand with ion and Tm (1:1. The extraction reactions were determined for all rare earths with both reagents. The extraction equilibrium constants (Kex, the separation factors (β, half pH values (pH1/2, difference half pH values (ΔpH1/2 for extraction of REEs with both reagents are estimated.

  11. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of major elements in annual tree rings by acid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belacy, N.; Abou EL-Nour, F.; Simpson, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    A method utilizing acid extraction of Na, K, Ca and Mg from the wood of annual growth rings of egyptian trees was executed. The method was applied on a Morus Alba tree located at Nile delta, northern of egypt. The acid extraction method includes the use of dilute nitric acid to extract the elements of the wood. The wood was soaked for one hour with continuous stirring at room temperature. Element contents of both leachant and ash of the extracted wood dissolved in 2N HNO 3 , were then estimated using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The method was optimized and led to an accurate determination of the elements in the wood of the examined tree rings. The results showed a difference in the level of these elements along the annual rings of the examined tree. The data obtained in this work can help in understanding the correlation between the concentration of these elements in the annual growth rings of the egyptian trees and the expected changes in the salinity of water of irrigation before and after the high dam project

  13. Fucoxanthin and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Co-Extraction by a Green Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Delbrut

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available By their autotrophic nature and their molecular richness, microalgae are serious assets in the context of current environmental and societal challenges. Some species produce both omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and xanthophylls, two molecular families widely studied for their bioactivities in the fields of nutrition and cosmetics. Whereas most studies separately deal with the two families, synergies could be exploited with extracts containing both PUFAs and xanthophylls. The purpose of our work was to determine cost effective and eco-friendly parameters for their co-extraction. The effect of several parameters (solvent, solvent/biomass ratio, temperature, duration were studied, using two microalgal species, the non-calcifying Haptophyta Tisochrysis lutea, and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, that presents a silicified frustule. Analyses of PUFAs and fucoxanthin (Fx, the main xanthophyll, allowed to compare kinetics and extraction yields between experimental protocols. Co-extraction yields achieved using 96% ethanol as solvent were 100% for Fx and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in one hour from T. lutea biomass, and respectively 95% and 89% for Fx and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA in eight hours from P. tricornutum. These conditions are compatible with industrial applications.

  14. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Teng

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation.

  15. Simultaneous microwave extraction and synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuck, Christopher J.; Lou-Hing, Daniel; Dean, Rebecca; Sargeant, Lisa A.; Scott, Rod J.; Jenkins, Rhodri W.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial lipids have the potential to substantially reduce the use of liquid fossil fuels, though one obstacle is the energy costs associated with the extraction and subsequent conversion into a biofuel. Here we report a one-step method to produce FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) from Rhodotorula glutinis by combining lipid extraction in a microwave reactor with acid-catalysed transesterification. The microwave did not alter the FAME profile and over 99% of the lipid was esterified when using 25 wt% H 2 SO 4 over 20 min at 120 °C. On using higher loadings of catalyst, similar yields were achieved over 30 s. Equivalent amounts of FAME were recovered in 30 s using this method as with a 4 h Soxhlet extraction, run with the same solvent system. When water was present at less than a 1:1 ratio with methanol, the main product was FAME, above this the major products were FFA (free fatty acids). Under the best conditions, the energy required for the microwave was less than 20% of the energy content of the biodiesel produced. Increasing the temperature did not change the EROI (energy return on investment) substantially; however, longer reaction times used an equivalent amount of energy to the total energy content of the biodiesel. - Highlights: • The extraction and transesterification of yeast lipid were achieved using a microwave reactor. • The lipid was extracted from Rhodotorula glutinis within 30 s under all conditions. • Addition of 25 wt% H 2 SO 4 catalyst converted 95% glycerides to FAME over 5 min. • Water could be tolerated up to 25 wt% without high FFA production. • The temperature of the microwave had less impact on EROI than the length of extraction

  16. Bark Extracts of Ceylon Cinnamon Possess Antilipidemic Activities and Bind Bile Acids In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walimuni Prabhashini Kaushalya Mendis Abeysekera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol (95% and dichloromethane : methanol (1 : 1 bark extracts of authenticated Ceylon cinnamon were investigated for range of antilipidemic activities (ALA: HMG-CoA reductase, lipase, cholesterol esterase, and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities and bile acids binding in vitro. Individual compounds in bark extracts were also evaluated. Bark extracts showed ALA in all the assays studied. The IC50 (μg/mL values ranged within 153.07±8.38–277.13±32.18, 297.57±11.78–301.09±4.05, 30.61±0.79–34.05±0.41, and 231.96±9.22–478.89±9.27, respectively, for HMG-CoA reductase, lipase, cholesterol esterase, and cholesterol micellization inhibitory activities. The bile acids binding (3 mg/mL for taurocholate, glycodeoxycholate, and chenodeoxycholate ranged within 19.74±0.31–20.22±0.31, 21.97±2.21–26.97±1.61, and 16.11±1.42–19.11±1.52%, respectively. The observed ALA were moderate compared to the reference drugs studied. Individual compounds in bark extracts ranged within 2.14±0.28–101.91±3.61 and 0.42±0.03–49.12±1.89 mg/g of extract. Cinnamaldehyde and gallic acid were the highest and the lowest among the tested compounds. The ethanol extract had highest quantity of individual compounds and ALA investigated. Properties observed indicate usefulness of Ceylon cinnamon bark in managing hyperlipidemia and obesity worldwide. Further, this study provides scientific evidence for the traditional claim that Ceylon cinnamon has antilipidemic activities.

  17. Extraction of lanthanides and actinides (III) by DI-2 ethyl dithiophosphoric acid and DI-2 ethyl hexyl monothiophosphoric acid. Structure of the complexes in the organic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattee, D.; Musikas, C.; Faure, A.; Chachaty, C.

    1986-09-01

    To operate a trivalent actinide-lanthanide (III) group chemical separation from low pH nitric solutions we studied the extractive properties of the di-2 ethyl hexyl dithiophosphoric acid (HDEHDTP); this bidentate ligand which possesses a sulfur donor atom is a good extractant of soft acids. We so expect a better selectivity for the actinides (III) extraction. We also have investigated extractive properties of di-2 ethyl hexyl monothiophosphoric acid (HDEHTP) for trivalent actinides and lanthanides; HDEHDTP is a bidentate ligand with one oxygen donor atom and so is a better extractant for hard acids like actinides and lanthanides (III); but its selectivity is weak. The addition of TBP (tri-n butyl phosphate) to HDEHDTP deals to strong synergistic organic complexes with a great selectivity for Am(III). We explicited this phenomenon. When the metal is macroconcentrated the organic complexes aggregate and form inverted micelles

  18. Separation and preconcentration of actinides from acidic media by extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Chiarizia, Renato; Dietz, Mark L.; Diamond, Herbert; Nelson, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic examination of the effect of nitric and hydrochloric acid concentrations and of macro levels of selected elements on the sorption of actinide ions by a novel extraction chromatographic resin comprised of a solution of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide in tri-n-butyl phosphate supported on an inert polymeric substrate is described. Actinide sorption is demonstrated to be most efficient at high (>1 M) nitric acid concentrations, although tetra- and hexavalent actinides are strongly retained even from dilute (e.g., 0.05 M) nitric acid solutions. Macro concentrations of several common anions (e.g., PO 4 3- and SO 4 2- ) or complexing agents (e.g., oxalic acid) are shown not to adversely affect the sorption of trivalent actinides, while reducing the sorption of tetravalents. Such effects, together with oxidation state adjustments, are shown to provide a basis for the sequential elution of individual actinides and for actinide isolation from environmental and biological matrices

  19. Bidentate organophosphorus extractants: purification, properties and applications to removal of actinides from acidic waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; McIsaac, L.D.

    1977-05-01

    At both Hanford and Idaho, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate) continuous counter-current solvent extraction processes are being developed for removal of americium, plutonium, and, in some cases, other actinides from acidic wastes generated at these locations. Bench and, eventually, pilot and plant-scale testing and application of these processes have been substantially enhanced by the discovery of suitable chemical and physical methods of removing deleterious impurities from technical-grade DHDECMP. Flowsheet details, as well as various properties of purified DHDECMP extractants, are enumerated

  20. Evaluation of Plants and Weeds Extract on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Sulphuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Begum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed in order to determine the inhibitive effects of extracts of plants and weeds namely Parthenium hysterophorus, Dathura stromonium, Azadirachta indica, Helianthus annuus leaves extract for mild steel in sulphuric acid by using weight loss and thermometric technique. Results demonstrated that, all the experimental inhibitors show an adsorption on steel surface according to Langmuir’s isotherm. The inhibition efficiency increased with increase in the concentration of all tested inhibitors to attain a maximum value at 1.0%. Free energy values for adsorption process show that the process is spontaneous. The kinetic treatment of the results shows first order kinetics.

  1. Process engineering challenges of uranium extraction from phosphoric acid on industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouriya, Govind; Singh, Dhirendra; Nath, A.K.; Majumdar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy Water Board (HWB) is a constituent unit of the Department of Atomic Energy. One of the diversified activities undertaken by HWB is pursuing exploitation of non-conventional resources for recovery of uranium from wet phosphoric acid being the most prominent one. Amongst the feasible processes for recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid is solvent extraction. Use of in-house solvent produced by HWB, is another key driver. To garner necessary information for developing the industrial scale facilities, the process has been studied in the laboratory scale, mini scale, bench scale at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher. The process was subsequently scaled up to an industrial prototype scale unit and was set up as a Technology Demonstration Plant coupled with a commercial phosphoric acid plant. The plant has successfully processed more than 2 lakh m 3 of wet phosphoric acid and all the parameters including the product, Yellow Cake have been qualified. No adverse effect has been observed in the fertilizer produced. The main characteristics of the process and subsequent process innovations are discussed in this paper. These innovations have been carried out to overcome hurdles faced during commissioning and subsequent operations of the Plant. The innovations include improved pretreatment of the wet phosphoric acid for feeding to the extraction cycle, improved control of the first cycle chemical environment, reducing the strength of the phosphoric acid used for stripping, reducing the number of equipment and machineries, alteration in solvent composition used in the first and second cycle in the solvent extraction units of the plant. (author)

  2. Heavy metal concentration in forage grasses and extractability from some acid mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A and M University, Normal (United States). Department of Plant and Soil Science)

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted on several forage grasses, bermudagrass ([ital Cynodon dactylon]), creeping red fescue ([ital Festuca rubra]), Kentucky 31-tall fescue ([ital Festuca arundinacea]), oat ([ital Avena sativa]), orchardgrass ([ital Dactylis glomerata]), perennial ryegrass ([ital Lolium perenne]), sorghum ([ital Sorghum bicolor]), triticale (X. [ital triticosecale Wittmack]), and winter wheat ([ital Triticum aestivum]) grown on three Alabama acid mine spoils to study heavy metal accumulation, dry matter yield and spoil metal extractability by three chemical extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl). Heavy metals removed by these extractants were correlated with their accumulation by several forage grasses. Among the forages tested, creeping red fescue did not survive the stressful conditions of any of the spoils, while orchard grass and Kentucky 31-tall fescue did not grow in Mulberry spoil. Sorghum followed by bermudagrass generally produced the highest dry matter yield. However, the high yielding bermudagrass was most effective in accumulating high tissue levels of Mn and Zn from all spoils (compared to the other grasses) but did not remove Ni. On the average, higher levels of metals were extracted from spoils in the order of 0.1 M HCl[gt] Mehlich 1[gt] DTPA. However, DTPA extracted all the metals from spoils while Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract detectable levels of Ni. All of the extractants were quite effective in determining plant available Zn from the spoils. For the other metals, the effective determination of plant availability depended on the crop, the extractant, and the metal in concert. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Validation of a One-Step Method for Extracting Fatty Acids from Salmon, Chicken and Beef Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichao; Richardson, Christine E; Hennebelle, Marie; Taha, Ameer Y

    2017-10-01

    Fatty acid extraction methods are time-consuming and expensive because they involve multiple steps and copious amounts of extraction solvents. In an effort to streamline the fatty acid extraction process, this study compared the standard Folch lipid extraction method to a one-step method involving a column that selectively elutes the lipid phase. The methods were tested on raw beef, salmon, and chicken. Compared to the standard Folch method, the one-step extraction process generally yielded statistically insignificant differences in chicken and salmon fatty acid concentrations, percent composition and weight percent. Initial testing showed that beef stearic, oleic and total fatty acid concentrations were significantly lower by 9-11% with the one-step method as compared to the Folch method, but retesting on a different batch of samples showed a significant 4-8% increase in several omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid concentrations with the one-step method relative to the Folch. Overall, the findings reflect the utility of a one-step extraction method for routine and rapid monitoring of fatty acids in chicken and salmon. Inconsistencies in beef concentrations, although minor (within 11%), may be due to matrix effects. A one-step fatty acid extraction method has broad applications for rapidly and routinely monitoring fatty acids in the food supply and formulating controlled dietary interventions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Kinetic modeling of cement slurry synthesized with Henna extract in oil well acidizing treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Aghajafari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidizing treatment in petroleum reservoirs is a short-term and viable strategy to preserve the productivity of a well. There is a major concern for the degradation of cement sheath integrity, leading to poor zonal isolation and environmental issues. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the cement behaves when attacked by hydrochloric acid. In this study, a cement slurry by incorporation of the Henna extract, as an environmentally friendly cement additive, was synthesized as a potential solution to solve this problem. The characteristics of the treated cement slurry were compared with a reference slurry (w/c = 0.44 which is composed of only cement and water. A kinetic study was carried out to evaluate the adsorption behavior of the cement slurries exposed to an acid solution with 0.1 M HCl in a range of 25 to 55 °C conditions. The features of the cement slurries were evaluated by multiple analytical techniques such as XRD, FTIR, TG, and DSC analysis. From the experimental data, it is concluded that the second-order Lagergren kinetic model revealed to be the best in describing kinetic isotherms taken, because the margin between experimental and calculated values was minor for this model. The results of the characterization and HCl interaction kinetic studies underlined the prominent protective role of Henna extract-modified cement slurry in the enhancement of the cement resistance against acid attack and utilization in environmentally favorable oil well acidizing treatments.

  5. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  6. Modelling of nitric and nitrous acid chemistry for solvent extraction purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, H.; McLachlan, F. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Building D5, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); MacDonald-Taylor, J. [National Nuclear Laboratory, 5th Floor, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park, Warrington, WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); Orr, R.; Woodhead, D. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    Nitric acid plays an integral role in the reprocessing of irradiated fuel. It is well known that nitric acid degrades; its often yellow hue signifies the presence of decomposition products. The decomposition of nitric acid is accelerated by temperature and radiolysis; therefore it is an important consideration in the reprocessing of nuclear fuels. Thermal and radiolytic reactions of nitric acid result in the formation of redox active nitrogen species, of which nitrous acid is of particular concern, largely due to its redox reactions with plutonium and neptunium. Such reactions are important to understand as plutonium and neptunium can exist in a number of oxidation states; the oxidation state has a direct effect on the species extractability. The effect of nitrous acid is exacerbated as it catalyzes its own production and its reactions with actinides are typically autocatalytic; thus even micromolar quantities can have a large effect. A full understanding of solvent extraction requires us to understand actinide valence states which in turn require us to understand what nitrogen species are present and their concentrations. As a first step in the overall objective of enhancing process models, the kinetic data for nitric acid decomposition reactions has been investigated in order to produce an initial dynamic model of decomposition under aqueous conditions. The identification of a set of kinetic reactions suitable for modelling has been the primary focus of this work. A model of nitric acid thermal decomposition will help develop a better understanding of nitric acid decomposition chemistry and enable better prediction of the oxidation states of species in solution. It is intended to later extend the model to include radiolytic reactions and then further to incorporate an organic phase in order to have a model which covers all decomposition routes for nitric acid within a nuclear fuel reprocessing scheme. The model will be used as a sub model for process models

  7. Indium recovery from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction with D2EHPA: a statistical approach to the experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes M.C.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work presents the optimization results of obtaining a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with D2EHPA solubilized in isoparaffin and exxsol. The variables studied in the extraction step were D2EHPA concentration, acidity of the aqueous phase and time of contact between phases. Different hydrochloric and sulfuric acid concentrations were studied for the stripping step. The optimum experimental conditions resulted in a solution with 99% indium extraction and less than 4% iron. The construction of a McCabe-Thiele diagram indicated two theoretical countercurrent stages for indium extraction and at least six stages for indium stripping. Finally, the influence of associated metals found in typical sulfate leach liquors from zinc plants was studied. Under the experimental conditions for maximum indium extraction, 96% indium extraction was obtained, iron extraction was about 4% and no Ga, Cu and Zn were co-extracted.

  8. Simple method for preparation of secondary amides of phosphorylacetic acids and their use for actinide extraction and sorption from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artyushin, O.I.; Sharova, E.V.; Odinets, I.L.; Lenevich, S.V.; Mastruykova, T.A.; Morgalyuk, V.P.; Tananaev, I.G.; Pribylova, G.V.; Myasoedova, G.V.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    2004-01-01

    An effective method of synthesis of secondary alkylamides of phosphorylacetic acids (APA), based on amidation of ethyl esters of phosphorylacetic acids with primary aliphatic amines, was developed. Extraction of americium(III) complexes with APA solutions in dichloroethane and uranium(VI) sorption by sorbents with non-covalently fixed APA from nitric acid solutions were studied. In the course of americium(III) extraction there is no correlation between Am III distribution factor and APA structure, whereas during uranium(VI) sorption a dependence of U VI extraction degree on the complexing agent structure is observed [ru

  9. Investigation of the synergic effect of some neutral organophosphoric compounds on the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid solutions by D1-(2-Ethyl Hexyl) phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stas, J.; Khorfan, S.; Koudsi, Y.

    1998-05-01

    The extraction of uranium (VI) from pure phosphoric acid media by D2EHPA/Kerosene has been studied. The mechanism of the extraction was found as follows: The logarithm of the equilibrium constant of the extraction (LogKex) was found (3.06), (3.32), (3.24), (3.3) for the following phosphoric acid concentrations respectively (1), (2), (3), (4) Mol/1, and the enthalpy change DELTA H was found (-100.68 kj/mol). (-76 kj/mol) for (1), (2) mol/1 phosphoric acid concentrations. The synergic effect of TOPO, TBP, and TBPI with DEHPA have been studied during the extraction of uranium from pure phosphoric acid and Syrian commercial phosphoric acid. The synergic effect increases as follows: TBP< TBPI<< TOPO (In pure phosphoric acid), TBPI approx TBP<< TOPO (In Syrian commercial phosphoric acid). The difficulty of extracting uranium (VI) from Syrian commercial phosphoric acid in comparison with pure phosphoric acid is due to the presence of several impurities capable of complexing uranium, and a small amounts of solid and organic matters, all these are factors which reduce the distribution coefficient of uranium. (Author)

  10. Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis L. Effects on Uric Acid Levels on Hyperuricemia Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putranty Widha Nugraheni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid is the end product of purine degradation. When uric acid levels exceed normal limits, it will build up and cause hyperuricemia. Allopurinol is one of the most effective and common medicine for hyperuricemia, but it brings serious side effects, therefore it is needed alternative therapy for hyperuricemia. One plant that may be expected to low uric acid levels is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., that contains many antioxidants polyphenols, especially flavonoids. Flavonoid has strong antioxidant properties, act as free radical and metal scavengers, and also xanthine oxidase (XOD inhibitors. This study investigates the potential of green tea using various doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of body weight in 24 white male rats (Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain that has been received high purine diet in 60 consecutive days. This study used DHBSA methods to measure uric acid levels in blood serum and urine that excreted 8 hours before surgery. Green tea extract that contains polyphenol can inhibit XOD activities, therefore, it leads to decrease uric acid level in blood and increase the excretion through urine by modulating urate gene transporter. A therapy with 600 mg/kg body weight of GTE is the most effective dose to decrease uric acid levels in serum and to increase excretion of exceeding uric acid significantly (p < 0.01, from One Way ANOVA and Tukey analysis.

  11. Extraction of trivalent actinides and lanthanides from nitric acid solutions by ion flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezhov, E.H.; Samatov, A.V.; Troyanovskiy, L.V.

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether the deep extraction of trivalent actinides from liquid active waste is feasible, the authors made a detailed investigation into the ion flotation of europium (as a simulator of americium) and americium from nitric acid solutions by using as an SAS precipitant either lauril phosphoric acid (LPA) to reprocess 0.1-0.7 M HNO 3 or diphosphine dioxides (PO) for 1-5 M HNO 3 . In all instances the extent of metal removal increases with floto-reagent expenditure. When the floto-reagent excess required for full precipitation is reached, the extraction of the metals under study is high, viz., 97-98% from 0.1 M HNO 3 with LPA and ∼75% from 3-3.5 M HNO 3 with PO per one flotation operation

  12. Selection of optimum ionic liquid solvents for flavonoid and phenolic acids extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N. R. A.; Yunus, N. A.; Mustaffa, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    Phytochemicals are important in improving human health with their functions as antioxidants, antimicrobials and anticancer agents. However, the quality of phytochemicals extract relies on the efficiency of extraction process. Ionic liquids (ILs) have become a research phenomenal as extraction solvent due to their unique properties such as unlimited range of ILs, non-volatile, strongly solvating and may become either polarity. In phytochemical extraction, the determination of the best solvent that can extract highest yield of solute (phytochemical) is very important. Therefore, this study is conducted to determine the best IL solvent to extract flavonoids and phenolic acids through a property prediction modeling approach. ILs were selected from the imidazolium-based anion for alkyl chains ranging from ethyl > octyl and cations consisting of Br, Cl, [PF6], BF4], [H2PO4], [SO4], [CF3SO3], [TF2N] and [HSO4]. This work are divided into several stages. In Stage 1, a Microsoft Excel-based database containing available solubility parameter values of phytochemicals and ILs including its prediction models and their parameters has been established. The database also includes available solubility data of phytochemicals in IL, and activity coefficient models, for solid-liquid phase equilibrium (SLE) calculations. In Stage 2, the solubility parameter values of the flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin) and phenolic acids (e.g. gallic acid and caffeic acid) are determined either directly from database or predicted using Stefanis and Marrero-Gani group contribution model for the phytochemicals. A cation-anion contribution model is used for IL. In Stage 3, the amount of phytochemicals extracted can be determined by using SLE relationship involving UNIFAC-IL model. For missing parameters (UNIFAC-IL), they are regressed using available solubility data. Finally, in Stage 4, the solvent candidates are ranked and five ILs, ([OMIM] [TF2N], [HeMIM] [TF2N], [HMIM] [TF2N

  13. Solvent extraction of tricomponent complexes of zirconium and scandium with salicylic acid and collidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, S.K.; Fadeeva, V.I.; Kalistratova, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    Extraction of tricomponent compounds of zirconium and scandium with salicylic acid (Sal) and collidine (Col) has been studied. Addition of Col widens considerably the pH range of maximum extraction of zirconium salicylate and makes it possible to extract quantitatively both zirconium and scandium in the following pH range: scandium at pH 3.8-5.2; zirconium at pH 2-4. Optimum concentrations of salicylic acid and collidine are 0.05 mol/l and 0.375 mol/l, respectively. The composition of the complexes being extracted has been studied by the shift equilibrium method. Chloroform extracts complexes having the ratio Zr:Sal:Col=1:2:1(pH=3); Sc:Sal:Col=1:3:1(pH=4), and 1:2:1(pH=5). The composition of the complexes being formed is assumed to be [Zr(OH) 3 (HSal) 2 ] - [ColH + ] (pH=3); Sc(HSal) 3 xCol (pH=4.0); Sc(OH)(HSal) 2 xCol (pH=5.0). Extraction of collidine-salicylate complexes of Hf, Th, La, and Y under the conditions of optimum extraction of zirconium and scandium has been investigated when concentration of Zr and Sc in the solution is 3.0.10μ- 5 -1.37.10 -4 mol/l, respectively. It has been shown that hafnium is extracted quantitatively (95-100%) at pH 2.3-4.6; thorium at pH 3.0-6.4; 60% of yttrium is extracted at pH 4.0-4.8; 25% of lanthanum is extracted at pH 3.3-4.9. At pH 2.0 it is possible to separate Zr from Sc,Y, and La; at pH 1.4-1.5 from small amounts of Hf and Tn. Separation of zirconium, from small amounts of hafnium, 10-fold amounts of thorium, 100-fold amounts of scandium and lanthanum is also possible

  14. Solvent extraction of tricomponent complexes of zirconium and scandium with salicylic acid and collidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochetkova, S K; Fadeeva, V I; Kalistratova, V P [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1976-01-01

    Extraction of tricomponent compounds of zirconium and scandium with salicylic acid (Sal) and collidine (Col) has been studied. Addition of Col widens considerably the pH range of maximum extraction of zirconium salicylate and makes it possible to extract quantitatively both zirconium and scandium in the following pH range: scandium at pH 3.8-5.2; zirconium at pH 2-4. Optimum concentrations of salicylic acid and collidine are 0.05 mol/l and 0.375 mol/l, respectively. The composition of the complexes being extracted has been studied by the shift equilibrium method. Chloroform extracts complexes having the ratio Zr:Sal:Col=1:2:1(pH=3); Sc:Sal:Col=1:3:1(pH=4), and 1:2:1(pH=5). The composition of the complexes being formed is assumed to be (Zr(OH)/sub 3/(HSal)/sub 2/)/sup -/(ColH/sup +/) (pH=3); Sc(HSal)/sub 3/xCol (pH=4.0); Sc(OH)(HSal)/sub 2/xCol (pH=5.0). Extraction of collidine-salicylate complexes of Hf, Th, La, and Y under the conditions of optimum extraction of zirconium and scandium has been investigated when concentration of Zr and Sc in the solution is 3.0.10..mu..-/sup 5/-1.37.10/sup -4/ mol/l, respectively. It has been shown that hafnium is extracted quantitatively (95-100%) at pH 2.3-4.6; thorium at pH 3.0-6.4; 60% of yttrium is extracted at pH 4.0-4.8; 25% of lanthanum is extracted at pH 3.3-4.9. At pH 2.0 it is possible to separate Zr from Sc,Y, and La; at pH 1.4-1.5 from small amounts of Hf and Tn. Separation of zirconium, from small amounts of hafnium, 10-fold amounts of thorium, 100-fold amounts of scandium and lanthanum is also possible.

  15. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  16. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad; Rafi Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi; Zainab Awaen Al-Ebady; Thulfuqar Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy...

  17. Solvent extraction of uranium, thorium, and rare earths with dialkyldithiophosphoric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiduc, I.; Curtui, M.

    1986-01-01

    The separation conditions for throium (IV) in the presence of trivalent rare earths was investigated. The distribution ratios (D), extraction effectivity values (E%) and separation factor(S) were calculated for binary systems Th-La, Th-Ce, Th-Pr, Th-Sm. Di-(2-ethyl-hexyl)dithiophosphoric acid (HEhdtp) alone or mixtures of HEhdtp and trioctylphosphoshine oxide (TOPO) can be successfully used for separation of Thorium (IV) and rare earths

  18. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Eucalyptus globulus Bark—A Promising Approach for Triterpenoid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Rui M. A.; Oliveira, Eduardo L. G.; Freire, Carmen S. R.; Couto, Ricardo M.; Simões, Pedro C.; Neto, Carlos P.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Silva, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane. The effects of pressure (100–200 bar), co-solvent (ethanol) content (0, 5 and 8% wt), and multistep operation were studied in order to evaluate the applicability of SFE for their selective and efficient production. The individual extraction curves of the main families of compounds were measured, and the extracts analyzed by GC-MS. Results pointed out the influence of pressure and the important role played by the co-solvent. Ethanol can be used with advantage, since its effect is more important than increasing pressure by several tens of bar. At 160 bar and 40 °C, the introduction of 8% (wt) of ethanol greatly improves the yield of triterpenoids more than threefold. PMID:22837719

  19. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs

  20. Solvent extraction of thorium(IV) with dibutyldithiophosphoric acid in various organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtui, M.; Haiduc, I.

    1994-01-01

    The extraction of thorium(IV) from perchlorate solutions with di-n-butyldithiophosphoric acid (HBudtp) in various organic solvents occurs through an ion exchange mechanism. The extracted species in the organic phase is an eight-coordinate complex Th(Budtp) 4 . The higher values of the distribution ratio obtained in HBudtp-benzene-water system than in HBudtp-n-butanol-water system are explained by higher solubility of the complex species in nonpolar solvents. The position of the extraction curves in the pH-range lower than 0.7 reduces the complexation of thorium(IV) with Budtp - in the aqueous phase and also the hydrolysis process. (author) 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  2. Analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in soils II: optimization of chromatography and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, John W; Henderson, W Matthew; Ellington, J Jackson; Jenkins, Thomas M; Evans, John J

    2008-02-15

    With the objective of detecting and quantitating low concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in soils, we compared the analytical suitability of liquid chromatography columns containing three different stationary phases, two different liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) systems, and eight combinations of sample-extract pretreatments, extractions and cleanups on three test soils. For the columns and systems we tested, we achieved the greatest analytical sensitivity for PFCAs using a column with a C(18) stationary phase in a Waters LC/MS/MS. In this system we achieved an instrument detection limit for PFOA of 270 ag/microL, equating to about 14 fg of PFOA on-column. While an elementary acetonitrile/water extraction of soils recovers PFCAs effectively, natural soil organic matter also dissolved in the extracts commonly imparts significant noise that appears as broad, multi-nodal, asymmetric peaks that coelute with several PFCAs. The intensity and elution profile of this noise is highly variable among soils and it challenges detection of low concentrations of PFCAs by decreasing the signal-to-noise contrast. In an effort to decrease this background noise, we investigated several methods of pretreatment, extraction and cleanup, in a variety of combinations, that used alkaline and unbuffered water, acetonitrile, tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, dispersed activated carbon and solid-phase extraction. For the combined objectives of complete recovery and minimization of background noise, we have chosen: (1) alkaline pretreatment; (2) extraction with acetonitrile/water; (3) evaporation to dryness; (4) reconstitution with tetrabutylammonium-hydrogen-sulfate ion-pairing solution; (5) ion-pair extraction to methyl-tert-butyl ether; (6) evaporation to dryness; (7) reconstitution with 60/40 acetonitrile/water (v/v); and (8) analysis by LC/MS/MS. Using this method, we

  3. Immobilization of Tyrosinase from Avocado Crude Extract in Polypyrrole Films for Inhibitive Detection of Benzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Brisolari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition-based biosensors were developed by immobilizing tyrosinase (Tyr, polyphenol oxidase from the crude extract of avocado fruit on electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy films. The biosensors were prepared during the electropolymerization of pyrrole in a solution containing a fixed volume of the crude extract of avocado. The dependence of the biosensor responses on the volume used from the crude extract, values of pH and temperature was studied, and a substrate, catechol, at different concentrations, was amperometrically detected by these biosensors. Benzoic acid, a competitive inhibitor of Try, was added to the catechol solutions at specific concentrations aimed at obtaining the inhibition constant, K’m, which ranged from 1.7 to 4.6 mmol∙L−1 for 0.0 and 60 µmol∙L−1 of benzoic acid, respectively. Studies on the inhibition caused by benzoic acid by using PPy/Try films, and catechol as a substrate, allowed us propose how to develop, under optimized conditions, simple and low-cost biosensors based on the use of avocado fruit.

  4. Selective partitioning of mercury from co-extracted actinides in a simulated acidic ICPP waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    The TRUEX process is being evaluated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) as a means to partition the actinides from acidic sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The mercury content of this waste averages 1 g/l. Because the chemistry of mercury has not been extensively evaluated in the TRUEX process, mercury was singled out as an element of interest. Radioactive mercury, 203 Hg, was spiked into a simulated solution of SBW containing 1 g/l mercury. Successive extraction batch contacts with the mercury spiked waste simulant and successive scrubbing and stripping batch contacts of the mercury loaded TRUEX solvent (0.2 M CMPO-1.4 M TBP in dodecane) show that mercury will extract into and strip from the solvent. The extraction distribution coefficient for mercury, as HgCl 2 from SBW having a nitric acid concentration of 1.4 M and a chloride concentration of 0.035 M was found to be 3. The stripping distribution coefficient was found to be 0.5 with 5 M HNO 3 and 0.077 with 0.25 M Na 2 CO 3 . An experimental flowsheet was designed from the batch contact tests and tested counter-currently using 5.5 cm centrifugal contactors. Results from the counter-current test show that mercury can be removed from the acidic mixed SBW simulant and recovered separately from the actinides

  5. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Seed Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida and Its Antioxidant Activity and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ganjloo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150–300 bar, temperature (40–50 °C and dynamic extraction time (60–120 min on crude extraction yield (CEY were studied through response surface methodology (RSM. The SC-CO2 extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9% as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE. It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO2 extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO2 extraction conditions.

  6. Extraction of zirconium from simulated acidic nitrate waste using liquid membrane in hollow fiber contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, G.; Chinchale, R.; Renjith, A.U.; Dixit, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    The acidic waste raffinate stream of zirconium (Zr) purification plant contains about 2 gpl of Zr in about 2M free nitric acid. TBP, which is the most commonly used solvent in the nuclear industry, is not suitable for the extraction of Zr from this lean solution as its distribution coefficient is less than one. In house synthesized Mixed Alkyl Phosphine Oxide (MAPO) is a potential extractant for Zr from this lean stream. Intensification of this process for recovery of Zr has been attempted through use of efficient contactor, namely, hollow fiber module and efficient process, namely, simultaneous extraction and stripping across liquid membrane containing MAPO. Based on batch equilibrium studies selection of suitable concentration of extractant, composition of diluent, selection and concentration of strippant for the proposed liquid membrane system was made. The selected organic and strippant concentration was used to study suitability of application of Dispersion Liquid Membrane (DLM) in hollow fiber contactor for recovery Zr from solution simulated to Zr plant raffinate. Challenges related to stable operation of the liquid membrane system like stability of the organic phase in the micropores of lumen and stability of the dispersion during the pertraction were addressed through pressure balance across the lumen and choice of adequate dispersion condition respectively. (author)

  7. Extraction Optimization and Characterization of Collagen from Yellow Pike Conger Swimbladder with Acid-Hydro-Exctraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandy Djailani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Swim bladder is one of marine potential byproducts for alternative source of collagen. This study aimedto optimize hydro-extraction and characterized collagen. Extraction optimization of collagen was determinedusing Box-behnken design response surface method with three variables: CH3COOH concentration, soakingtime and extraction time to yield response. Hydro-extraction collagen was characterization based on theamino acid content, SDS-PAGE, FT-IR and DSC. Acording to the result, the concentration had significantlyinfluence yield. Optimum extraction conditions were variable combinations of acetic acid concentration of0.1 M, for 1 h and hydro-extraction time of 1 h to produce the highest yield 63.35%. collagen was classifiedas type I collagen by amino acid content, electrophoresis patterns and fourier transform infrared (FTIRspectra. The glass transition of collagen was 67.23oC, showed high thermal stability that can be applied tothe cosmetics industry and nutraceutical.

  8. Fatty acid composition and physicochemical characteristics of Tartar (Sterculia Stigera) oil as Affected by the extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eljack, M.; Babiker, E. E.; El Tinay, A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid content and physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from Tartar seeds, using two extraction methods, were studied. The results revealed that saturated fatty acid content varied from 0.2% to 33.4%, while unsaturated fatty acid content varied from 0.1% to 24.2%, with no significant difference between the extraction methods. Sterols content varied from 0.3% to 66.0%. Cyclopropenoid fatty acids ranged from 3.4% to 5.3% but were significantly reduced after refining. Glycerides content varied with maximum values of 78.03%, 4.58% and 2.82% for tri-, di-, and mono-glycerides, respectively. Physicochemical investigation of the oil showed that the colour, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, saponification value, relative viscosity, iodine value, and unsaponifiable matter were similar for both methods of extraction with minor exceptions.(Author)

  9. Extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium in TEHDGA-HDEHP impregnated resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saipriya, G.; Kumar, T. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Facilities, Kalpakkam (India). Kalpakkam Reprocessing Plant; Kumaresan, R.; Nayak, P.K.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2016-07-01

    The extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium was studied in the solvent impregnated resins containing extractants such as tetra-bis(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA) or bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or mixture of TEHDGA+HDEHP. The rate of extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from 1 M nitric acid and the effect of various parameters, such as the concentration of nitric acid in aqueous phase and concentration of TEHDGA and HDEHP in resin phase, on the distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) was studied. The distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) in HDEHP-impregnated resin decreased and that in TEHDGA-impregnated resin increased, with increase in the concentration of nitric acid. However, in (TEHDGA+HDEHP) - impregnated resin, synergic extraction was observed at lower nitric acid concentration and antagonism at higher nitric acid concentration. The mechanism of Am(III) and Eu(III) extraction in the combined resin was investigated by slope analysis method. The extraction of various metal ions present in the fast reactor simulated high-level liquid waste was studied. The separation factor of Am(III) over Eu(III) was studied using citrate-buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution.

  10. Isolation and pharmacological characterization of fatty acids from saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Asahi; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary-tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mechanisms of pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, anti-androgenic effects, anti-proliferative effects, and anti-inflammatory effects. Previously, we showed that SPE bound actively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel (1,4-DHP) receptors in the prostate and bladder of rats, whereas its active constituents have not been fully clarified. The present investigation is aimed to identify the main active components contained in hexane and diethyl ether extracts of SPE with the use of column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Based on the binding activity with alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic, and 1,4-DHP receptors, both isolated oleic and lauric acids were deduced to be active components. Authentic samples of oleic and lauric acids also exhibited similar binding activities to these receptors as the fatty acids isolated from SPE, consistent with our findings. In addition, oleic and lauric acids inhibited 5alpha-reductase, possibly leading to therapeutic effects against benign prostatic hyperplasia and related lower urinary-tract symptoms.

  11. Evaluation of Cichoric Acid of Echinacea purpurea Extract under Different Ecological Conditions in Semnan Province Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Rostami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea is an herbaceous perennial plant as members of the Asteraceae family. It is one the important medicinal plant in pharmacy industrial. Active substances of Echinaceae are amplifier of body's immune system and antivirus. Echinacea is not native to Iran. The phytochemical traits of medicinal plants depend on ecological conditions involving growing areas, climate conditions; various grow stages and genetic modifications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of cichoric acid of E. purpurea extract in different ecological conditions in Semnan, Iran. Dormancy in seeds was broken by treating them with strafication in 4 °C for 48 h, was grown in nursery beds for autumn and early winter and transfered to four areas with different ecological conditions in late winter. Chashm, Ahuvan, Semnan and Foladmahale were chosen for this experiment. The spacing of plantlet was about 25 × 45 cm in the field. After 2- 3 months, aerial parts of the plants collected in all areas and extract samples were prepared and characterized using high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The components of a basic HPLC system were shown significant values of the cichoric acid in plants under four habitats. The level of cichoric acid in one condition was more than standards level that reported in another references. In addition, ecological diversities have significant impacts the quantity of cichoric acid in E. purpurea.   

  12. Effect of Ginger Extract and Citric Acid on the Tenderness of Duck Breast Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ginger extract (GE) combined with citric acid on the tenderness of duck breast muscles. Total six marinades were prepared with the combination of citric acid (0 and 0.3 M citric acid) and GE (0, 15, and 30%). Each marinade was sprayed on the surface of duck breasts (15 mL/100 g), and the samples were marinated for 72 h at 4℃. The pH and proteolytic activity of marinades were determined. After 72 h of marination, Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), pH, cooking loss, moisture content, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protein solubility were evaluated. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in moisture content or cooking loss among all samples. However, GE marination resulted in a significant (pcitric acid) and WC (with citric acid) conditions were significantly (pcitric acid may be attributed to various mechanisms such as increased MFI and myofibrillar protein solubility. PMID:26877631

  13. Effects of the Aqueous Extract from Tabebuia roseoalba and Phenolic Acids on Hyperuricemia and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilma Schimith Ferraz-Filha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia species (Bignoniaceae have long been used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antimicrobial, and antitumor. The aim of this study was to investigate if aqueous extract from the leaves (AEL of Tabebuia roseoalba (Ridl. Sandwith, Bignoniaceae, and its constituents could be useful to decrease serum uric acid levels and restrain the gout inflammatory process. HPLC analysis identified caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid in AEL. Antihyperuricemic effects and inhibition of liver XOD (xanthine oxidoreductase by AEL and identified compounds were evaluated in hyperuricemic mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on MSU (monosodium urate crystal-induced paw edema. In addition, AEL antioxidant activity in vitro was evaluated. AEL, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids were able to reduce serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic mice probably through inhibition of liver xanthine oxidase activity and significantly decreased the paw edema induced by MSU crystals. AEL showed significant antioxidant activity in all evaluated assays. The results show that the AEL of Tabebuia roseoalba can be a promising agent for treatment for gout and inflammatory diseases. We suggest that caffeic and chlorogenic acids may be responsible for the activities demonstrated by the species.

  14. Ethanolic extract of Piper betle Linn. leaves reduces nociception via modulation of arachidonic acid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Soumita; Maroo, Niteeka; Saha, Piu; Hazra, Samik; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the peripheral analgesic effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) along with establishing its putative mechanism of action. Male Swiss albino mice after pre-treatment (1 h) with different doses of PBE were injected 0.8% (v/v) acetic acid i.p.; the onset and number of writhes were noted up to 15 min. To evaluate the mechanism of action, the murine peritoneal exudate was incubated with PBE for 1 h, followed by exposure to arachidonic acid (AA) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. PBE in a dose dependent manner significantly reduced acetic acid induced writhing response in mice (P < 0.001). In peritoneal exudates, PBE significantly inhibited AA induced generation of ROS, P < 0.01. The present study indicates that PBE has promising analgesic activity, worthy of future pharmacological consideration.

  15. Solvent extraction separations of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions using an aqueous aminomethanediphosphonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M. P.

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of separating the trivalent lanthanides, represented by EU 3+ , and actinides, represented by Cf 3+ , using HDEHP in toluene and an aqueous phase containing N-piperidinomethane-1,1-diphosphotic acid, PMDPA, has been investigated. This modified aqueous phase offers potential advantages over the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid based TALSPEAK process because of the improved complexation properties of PMDPA in acidic solutions, and the ability to decompose PMDPA before disposal. Extraction experiments were conducted at 25 C in 2 M NaClO 4 between -log [H + ] 1 and 2. The studies enabled us to derive the aqueous phase speciation, the stability constants of the aqueous complexes, and the Cf/Eu separation factors. Despite the presence of an amino group in PMDPA that should favor the retention of the actinides in the aqueous phase, the Cf/Eu separation factors are near unity under the conditions studied

  16. Phytochemistry of cimicifugic acids and associated bases in Cimicifuga racemosa root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödecke, Tanja; Nikolic, Dejan; Lankin, David C; Chen, Shao-Nong; Powell, Sharla L; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B; Farnsworth, Norman R; Pauli, Guido F

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies reported serotonergic activity for cimicifugic acids (CA) isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa. The discovery of strongly basic alkaloids, cimipronidines, from the active extract partition and evaluation of previously employed work-up procedures has led to the hypothesis of strong acid/base association in the extract. Re-isolation of the CAs was desired to permit further detailed studies. Based on the acid/base association hypothesis, a new separation scheme of the active partition was required, which separates acids from associated bases. A new 5-HT(7) bioassay guided work-up procedure was developed that concentrates activity into one partition. The latter was subjected to a new two-step centrifugal partitioning chromatography (CPC) method, which applies pH zone refinement gradient (pHZR CPC) to dissociate the acid/base complexes. The resulting CA fraction was subjected to a second CPC step. Fractions and compounds were monitored by (1)H NMR using a structure-based spin-pattern analysis facilitating dereplication of the known acids. Bioassay results were obtained for the pHZR CPC fractions and for purified CAs. A new CA was characterised. While none of the pure CAs was active, the serotonergic activity was concentrated in a single pHZR CPC fraction, which was subsequently shown to contain low levels of the potent 5-HT(7) ligand, N(omega)-methylserotonin. This study shows that CAs are not responsible for serotonergic activity in black cohosh. New phytochemical methodology (pHZR CPC) and a sensitive dereplication method (LC-MS) led to the identification of N(omega)-methylserotonin as serotonergic active principle. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Recovery of Acetic Acid from An Ethanol Fermentation Broth by Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE) Using Various Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Thi Thu Huong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Um, Byung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using various solvents was studied for recovery of acetic acid from a synthetic ethanol fermentation broth. The microbial fermentation of sugars presented in hydrolyzate gives rise to acetic acid as a byproduct. In order to obtain pure ethanol for use as a biofuel, fermentation broth should be subjected to acetic acid removal step and the recovered acetic acid can be put to industrial use. Herein, batch LLE experiments were carried out at 25°C using a synthetic fermentation broth comprising 20.0 g l -1 acetic acid and 5.0 g l -1 ethanol. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc), tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and tri-n-alkylphosphine oxide (TAPO) were utilized as solvents, and the extraction potential of each solvent was evaluated by varying the organic phase-to-aqueous phase ratios as 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0. The highest acetic acid extraction yield was achieved with TAPO; however, the lowest ethanol-to-acetic acid extraction ratio was obtained using TOPO. In a single-stage batch extraction, 97.0 % and 92.4 % of acetic acid could be extracted using TAPO and TOPO when the ratio of organic-to-aqueous phases is 4:1 respectively. A higher solvent-to-feed ratio resulted in an increase in the ethanol-to-acetic acid ratio, which decreased both acetic acid purity and acetic acid extraction yield.

  18. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen M. Jamil Al-Obaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w. of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ, to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV. The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50 mg/kg orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction.

  19. Evaluation of the inhibitive effect of some plant extracts on the acid corrosion of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzie, Emeka E.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2 M HCl and 1 M H 2 SO 4 by extracts of selected plants was investigated using a gasometric technique at temperatures of 30 and 60 deg. C. The studied plants materials include leaf extracts Occimum viridis (OV), Telferia occidentalis (TO), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) as well as extracts from the seeds of Garcinia kola (GK). The results indicate that all the extracts inhibited the corrosion process in both acid media by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with concentration. Synergistic effects increased the inhibition efficiency in the presence of halide additives. Inhibition mechanisms were deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency as well as from assessment of kinetic and activation parameters that govern the processes. Comparative analysis of the inhibitor adsorption behaviour in 2 M HCl and 1 M H 2 SO 4 as well as the effects of temperature and halide additives suggest that both protonated and molecular species could be responsible for the inhibiting action of the extracts

  20. Evaluation of the inhibitive effect of some plant extracts on the acid corrosion of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguzie, Emeka E. [Electrochemistry and Materials Science Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri (Nigeria)], E-mail: oguziemeka@yahoo.com

    2008-11-15

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2 M HCl and 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by extracts of selected plants was investigated using a gasometric technique at temperatures of 30 and 60 deg. C. The studied plants materials include leaf extracts Occimum viridis (OV), Telferia occidentalis (TO), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) as well as extracts from the seeds of Garcinia kola (GK). The results indicate that all the extracts inhibited the corrosion process in both acid media by virtue of adsorption and inhibition efficiency improved with concentration. Synergistic effects increased the inhibition efficiency in the presence of halide additives. Inhibition mechanisms were deduced from the temperature dependence of the inhibition efficiency as well as from assessment of kinetic and activation parameters that govern the processes. Comparative analysis of the inhibitor adsorption behaviour in 2 M HCl and 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as well as the effects of temperature and halide additives suggest that both protonated and molecular species could be responsible for the inhibiting action of the extracts.

  1. Rirang uranium ore processing: continuous solvent extraction of uranium from Rirang ore acid digestion solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riza, F.; Nuri, H. L.; Waluya, S.; Subijanto, A.; Sarono, B.

    1998-01-01

    Separation of uranium from Rirang ore acid digestion solution by means of continuous solvent extraction using mixer-settlers has been studied and a mixture of 0.3 M D2EHPA and 0.075 M TOPO extracting agent and kerosene diluent is employed to recover and separate uranium from Th, RE, phosphate containing solution. The experiments have been conducted batch-wise and several parameters have been studied including the aqueous to organic phase ratio, A/O, the extraction and the stripping times, and the operation temperature. The optimum conditions for extraction have been found to be A/O = 2 ratio, five minute extraction time per stage at room temperature. The uranium recovery of 99.07% has been achieved at those conditions whilst U can be stripped from the organic phase by 85% H 3 PO 4 solution with an O/A = 1 for 5 minutes stripping time per stage, and in a there stage operation at room temperature yielding a 100% uranium recovery from the stripping process

  2. Effect of diluents on the extraction of actinides and nitric acid by bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozen, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dilutents on extraction by bidentate organophosphorus compounds (diphosphine dioxides, carbamoyl phosphonates, and phosphine oxides) was studied. Figures show the effect of dilutents on the extraction of americium by TOPO and by carbamoylmethylene phosphonate, and the effect of dilutents on the extraction of nitric acid and americium by carbamoylphosphine oxide. Also shown is the effect of dilutents on the extraction of americium by diphenyldioctyl methylenediphosphine dioxide, and the effect of dilutents on the extraction of americium by tetraphenylmethylenediphosphine dioxide. It was concluded that when TBP is added the distribution coefficient of Am increases but the effect of TBP may not be represented by the usual power relationship between the distribution coefficient and the TBP concentration, which would be expected if TBP was found to be very strong but for dilution by DCE it was relatively weak. The observed facts can be explained if it is assumed that TBP reacts with the bridging protons in the complex, which are free for dilution by benzene and are partially occupied when dichlorethane is used

  3. Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory Potential Activity of Physalis peruviana Fruit Extracts on Cervical Cancer (HeLa) and Fibroblast (L929) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier-Giraldo, Helen; Díaz-Barrera, Luis Eduardo; Delgado-Murcia, Lucy Gabriela; Valero-Valdivieso, Manuel Fernando; Cáez-Ramírez, Gabriela

    2017-10-01

    It was purposed to evaluate the biological potential of ethanol and isopropanol crude extracts of ripe Physalis peruviana fruits. Cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of the expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were evaluated on human cervical cancer (HeLa) and murine fibroblast (L929) cells. The composition was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet/visible detection. The presence of ursolic acid and rosmarinic acid was found in both solvents. However, gallic acid, quercetin, and epicatechin were higher in isopropanol extracts ( P < .05). The results indicated a relationship among the total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxic activity that was dependent on the solvent used. Isopropanol extracts presented a half-maximal inhibition concentration value (IC 50 ) of 60.48 ± 3.8 μg/mL for HeLa cells and 66.62 ± 2.67 μg/mL for L929 fibroblasts. The extracts reduced the release of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Extracts showed anticancer and immunomodulatory potential for new complementary pharmaceutical products development.

  4. Structural and thermodynamic study of rare earth(III) complexation by poly-hydroxylated carboxylic acids: synthesis of new extractants and outlook for the extraction of these cations; Etude structurale et thermodynamique de la complexation de lanthanides (III) par des acides carboxyliques polyhydroxyles: synthese de nouveaux extractants et perspectives pour l'extraction de ces cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aury, S

    2002-12-15

    The aim of this work is: to improve the knowledge on the binding sites of the poly-hydroxylated carboxylic acids with the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions by comparing them to gluconic acid (previously studied) and to molecules with different configuration and with a variable number of OH functions (threonic acid, glyceric acid, 2-hydroxy-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid). To find the best complexing agent among different acids (aldonic acids, aldaric acids, di-hydroxybenzoic acids) (determination of the set of complexes and their stability constants by potentiometry, NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopy). To synthesize hydrophobic monoamides from one lactone form of saccharic acid, to study their complexing power and their capacity to extract the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions. (author)

  5. Effect of phenolic extracts on trans fatty acid formation during frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamel, TH

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil (blend of refined and virgin and sunflower oil containing added methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary and olive vegetable water or the synthetic antioxidant BHA in combination with the extracts, were used in a frying process. Eight frying operations were performed at 180 °C with 24 hr intervals between fryings. During the frying period the trans fatty acids (TFA by capillary column gas chromatography (CC-GC were determined. Trans fatty acids of oleic and linoleic were increased with frying time in both the control oil samples. The rosemary additives (extracts alone and in combination with BHA decreased the level of trans fatty acids (mainly elaidic acid, while the addition of olive vegetable water did not have any effect.

    Aceite de oliva (mezcla de virgen y refinado y aceite de girasol con extractos fenólicos de romero seco y aguas de vegetación de aceituna, o con el antioxidante sintético BHA en combinación con los extractos, se usaron en proceso de fritura. Se realizaron 8 operaciones de fritura a 180°C con intervalos de 24 h. Se determinaron los ácidos grasos trans (TFA por cromatografía de gases en columna capilar (CC-GC. Los ácidos grasos trans de oleico y linoleico aumentaron con el tiempo de fritura en las muestras de aceite control. Los extractos de romero, solos y en combinación con BHA, disminuyeron los niveles de ácidos grasos trans (principalmente ácido elaídico mientras que la adicción de aguas de vegetación de aceituna no tuvo ningún efecto.

  6. Wheat germ oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol: Fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parczewska-Plesnar, B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using CO2 with ethanol as entrainer was performed at a temperature of 40 oC under a pressure of 21 MPa. For comparison, a similar extraction without the entrainer was carried out. The extraction yield of wheat germ using supercritical CO2 with ethanol was slightly higher (10.7 wt% than that of extraction without the entrainer (9.9 wt%. Fractions of SFE extracts were collected separately during the experiments and the composition of fatty acids in each fraction was analyzed. The SFE extracted oils were rich (63.4-71.3% in the most valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and their content in all collected fractions was approximately constant. Similar PUFA contents were found in the reference samples of oils extracted by n-hexane (66.2-67.0%, while the commercial cold-pressed oil contained significantly less PUFA (60.2%. These results show a higher nutritional value of the oil obtained by extraction with supercritical CO2 than cold pressed oil which is generally considered to be very valuable.En este trabajo, la extracción con fluidos supercríticos (SFE usando CO2 con etanol como agente de arrastre se realizó a 40 °C bajo una presión de 21 MPa. Se ha llevado a cabo la comparación con una extracción similar sin agente de arrastre. El rendimiento de la extracción de germen de trigo usando CO2 supercrítico con etanol fue ligeramente mayor (10,7% en peso que la de extracción sin agente de arrastre (9,9% en peso. Se recogieron por separado fracciones de extractos SFE durante los experimentos y se analizó la composición de ácidos grasos en cada fracción. Los aceites extraídos mediante SFE eran ricos en los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados más valiosos (63,4-71,3%, (PUFA y su contenido en todas las fracciones recogidas fue aproximadamente constante. Un contenido similar de PUFA fueron encontrados en muestras de referencia de los aceites extraídos con n-hexano (66,2-67,0%, mientras que el

  7. Speciation of mercury in soil and sediment by selective solvent and acid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Y. [Metara Inc., 1225 East Arques Ave, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Kingston, H.M.; Boylan, H.M.; Rahman, G.M.M.; Shah, S.; Richter, R.C.; Link, D.D.; Bhandari, S. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2003-02-01

    In order to characterize the mercury hazard in soil, a sequential extraction scheme has been developed to classify mercury species based on their environmental mobility and/or toxicity for either routine lab analysis or on-site screening purposes. The alkyl mercury species and soluble inorganic species that contribute to the major portion of potential mercury toxicity in the soil are extracted by an acidic ethanol solution (2% HCl+10% ethanol solution) from soil matrices as ''mobile and toxic'' species. A High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection has been developed to further resolve the species information into soluble inorganic species (Hg{sup 2+}), methylmercury(II) (MeHg{sup +}) and ethylmercury(II) (EtHg{sup +}) species. Alternatively, these species can be separated into ''soluble inorganic mercury'' and ''alkyl mercury'' sub-categories by Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE). A custom Sulfydryl Cotton Fiber (SCF) material is used as the solid phase medium. Optimization of the SCF SPE technique is discussed. Combined with a direct mercury analyzer (DMA-80), the SCF SPE technique is a promising candidate for on-site screening purposes. Following the ethanol extraction, the inorganic mercury species remaining in soil are further divided into ''semi-mobile'' and ''non-mobile'' sub-categories by sequential acid extractions. The ''semi-mobile'' mercury species include mainly elemental mercury (Hg) and mercury-metal amalgams. The non-mobile mercury species mainly include mercuric sulfide (HgS) and mercurous chloride (Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). (orig.)

  8. A novel automated device for rapid nucleic acid extraction utilizing a zigzag motion of magnetic silica beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Uehara, Masayuki; Honda, Takayuki; Saito, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel automated device for nucleic acid extraction, which consists of a mechanical control system and a disposable cassette. The cassette is composed of a bottle, a capillary tube, and a chamber. After sample injection in the bottle, the sample is lysed, and nucleic acids are adsorbed on the surface of magnetic silica beads. These magnetic beads are transported and are vibrated through the washing reagents in the capillary tube under the control of the mechanical control system, and thus, the nucleic acid is purified without centrifugation. The purified nucleic acid is automatically extracted in 3 min for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The nucleic acid extraction is dependent on the transport speed and the vibration frequency of the magnetic beads, and optimizing these two parameters provided better PCR efficiency than the conventional manual procedure. There was no difference between the detection limits of our novel device and that of the conventional manual procedure. We have already developed the droplet-PCR machine, which can amplify and detect specific nucleic acids rapidly and automatically. Connecting the droplet-PCR machine to our novel automated extraction device enables PCR analysis within 15 min, and this system can be made available as a point-of-care testing in clinics as well as general hospitals. - Highlights: • Automatic nucleic acid extraction is performed in 3 min. • Zigzag motion of magnetic silica beads yields rapid and efficient extraction. • The present our device provides better performance than the conventional procedure.

  9. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w cholesterol (control or the same diet supplemented with (i 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii 0.24% PSE, (iii hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37% plus PSE (0.24% or (iv OA/UA mixture (0.01% for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  10. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  11. A laboratory method to estimate the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Cassiolato

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble plant organic compounds have been proposed to be efficient in alleviating soil acidity. Laboratory methods were evaluated to estimate the efficiency of plant extracts to neutralize soil acidity. Plant samples were dried at 65ºC for 48 h and ground to pass 1 mm sieve. Plant extraction procedure was: transfer 3.0 g of plant sample to a becker, add 150 ml of deionized water, shake for 8 h at 175 rpm and filter. Three laboratory methods were evaluated: sigma (Ca+Mg+K of the plant extracts; electrical conductivity of the plant extracts and titration of plant extracts with NaOH solution between pH 3 to 7. These methods were compared with the effect of the plant extracts on acid soil chemistry. All laboratory methods were related with soil reaction. Increasing sigma (Ca+Mg+K, electrical conductivity and the volume of NaOH solution spent to neutralize H+ ion of the plant extracts were correlated with the effect of plant extract on increasing soil pH and exchangeable Ca and decreasing exchangeable Al. It is proposed the electrical conductivity method for estimating the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity because it is easily adapted for routine analysis and uses simple instrumentations and materials.Tem sido proposto que os compostos orgânicos de plantas solúveis em água são eficientes na amenização da acidez do solo. Foram avaliados métodos de laboratório para estimar a eficiência dos extratos de plantas na neutralização da acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram secos a 65º C por 48 horas, moídos e passados em peneira de 1mm. Utilizou-se o seguinte procedimento para obtenção do extrato de plantas: transferir 3.0 g da amostra de planta para um becker, adicionar 150 ml de água deionizada, agitar por 8h a 175 rpm e filtrar. Avaliaram-se três métodos de laboratório: sigma (Ca + Mg + K do extrato de planta, condutividade elétrica (CE do extrato de planta e titulação do extrato de planta com solu

  12. Synthesis of molecular imprinting polymers for extraction of gallic acid from urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawani, Showkat Ahmad; Sen, Tham Soon; Ibrahim, Mohammad Nasir Mohammad

    2018-02-21

    The molecularly imprinted polymers for gallic acid were synthesized by precipitation polymerization. During the process of synthesis a non-covalent approach was used for the interaction of template and monomer. In the polymerization process, gallic acid was used as a template, acrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator and acetonitrile as a solvent. The synthesized imprinted and non-imprinted polymer particles were characterized by using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The rebinding efficiency of synthesized polymer particles was evaluated by batch binding assay. The highly selective imprinted polymer for gallic acid was MIPI1 with a composition (molar ratio) of 1:4:20, template: monomer: cross-linker, respectively. The MIPI1 showed highest binding efficiency (79.50%) as compared to other imprinted and non-imprinted polymers. The highly selective imprinted polymers have successfully extracted about 80% of gallic acid from spiked urine sample.

  13. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium from Egyptian phosphoric acid using a synergistic D2EHPA-DBBP mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalek, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of uranium from Egyptian phosphoric acid with synergistic mixture of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and di-butyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP) is reported in this paper. The influence of various factors such as D2EHPA concentration, DBBP concentration, phosphoric acid concentration, contact time, aqueous: organic phase's ratio (aq:org) and temperature on the degree of extraction has been established. The data on the effect of temperature on the extraction showed that the enthalpy change is -23.12 kJ/mol. Uranium extracted by D2EHPA- DBBP is further subjected to a second cycle of extraction and scrubbing impurities. The uranium is finally converted to a high purity UO 3 product using precipitation with hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment at 375 deg C. (author)

  15. Citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 and purification of citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2013-11-01

    In this study, citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 was investigated. After the compositions of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for citric acid production were optimized, the results showed that natural components of extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers without addition of any other components were suitable for citric acid production by the yeast strain. During 10 L fermentation using the extract containing 84.3 g L(-1) total sugars, 68.3 g L(-1) citric acid was produced and the yield of citric acid was 0.91 g g(-1) within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 9.2 g L(-1) of residual total sugar and 2.1 g L(-1) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented medium. At the same time, citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was purified. It was found that 67.2 % of the citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was recovered and purity of citric acid in the crystal was 96 %.

  16. RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION WITH A TRIISOOCTYLAMINE DILUENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malmary

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary alkylamines in solution with organic diluents are attractive extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous phases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism for extraction of organic acids from water by a long-chain aliphatic tertiary amine. In order to attain this objective, we studied the liquid-liquid equilibria between the triisooctylamine + 1-octanol + n-heptane system as solvent and an aqueous solution of an individual carboxylic acid such as citric, lactic and malic acids. The experiments showed that the partition coefficient for a particular organic acid depends on the kind of solute, notably when the acid concentration in the aqueous phase is low. A mathematical model, where both chemical association and physical distribution are taken into consideration, is proposed. The model suggests that the various complexes obtained between amine and organic acids contribute to the distribution of the solute between the coexisting phases in equilibrium.

  17. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of cobalt-60 in seawater by solvent extraction with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, C.L.; Lo, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Cobalt-60 was extracted from a large volume of seawater and concentrated in a small volume of organic solution of pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (HPDC) in chloroform. All foreign nuclides in the organic phase were stripped completely with 12N HCl and 2N HNO 3 successively. By this procedure, a chemically pure Co-60 chelate, 60 Co(PDC) 3 , in chloroform was obtained. The recovery of Co-60 activity was found to average 99%. Cobalt-60 in seawater can thus be simply, rapidly and accurately determined by direct NaI(Tl) scintillation counting. The time for a single analysis, for example, exclusive of the counting operation, is about 40 min. The effects of various foreign nuclides on the extraction of Co-60 were examined by the use of 42 radiotracers and the results are tabulated. The nuclides Ag + , Mn 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Hg 2+ , Fe 3+ , Ga 3+ , In 3+ , As 3+ , Sn 4+ , and Cr 6+ were extracted almost completely into chloroform with cobalt as the pyrrolidinedithiocarbamates. The extraction yield of Sb 3+ was close to 90%. Appreciable fractions of Cs + , Ba 2+ , Cr 3+ , Zr 4+ and Np 5+ were also found in the organic phase. (T.I.)

  19. Synthesis of potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate encapsulated polymeric beads for extraction of Cs from acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagare, Anant B.; Singh, Krishan Kant; Kumar, Manmohan; Shinde, Vaishali S.

    2016-01-01

    137 Cs is one of the major radionuclides formed during the fission of 235 U in nuclear reactors. It is a main source of radiation in High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) generated after the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Separation of Cs from HLLW, decreases radiation exposure throughout the vitrification process and avoids thermal deformation of conditioned waste matrix during storage. Therefore, there is a necessity for selective separation of Cs from HLLW and other such acidic waste streams. The liquid-liquid extraction is widely used as a technology for separation and recovery of metal ions from radioactive wastes. Such technologies play an important role in all the bulk separation processes, but they have noticeable limitations, such as difficulty in handling, losses of extractant in aqueous phase, secondary waste generation, third phase problems at higher metal loading, etc. Due to these limitations it is necessary to explore the advance, more capable and exactly feasible alternatives. In this respect it is assumed that solid-liquid based Extractant Encapsulated Polymeric Beads (EEPBs) may resolve some of these limitations. The metal hexacyanoferrates (HCFs) are preferred as Cs extractant over the other materials due to their selectivity and high capacity to remove cesium from aqueous radioactive wastes. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a novel potasium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (KCoHCF) encapsulated polyether sulphone beads, and its use as a cesium sorbent material

  20. Disposition of the iron, influenced by the application of humic acid, extracted of filter cake of sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales L, Carmen Soledad; Garcia Ocampo, Alvaro

    1995-01-01

    Two extracting (NaOH and KOH) and several acidifying solutions were used to get humic acids from filter cake of sugar cane, composted coffee beans and hen manure. The humic acids obtained were characterized and applied to evaluate their effect on the iron availability to tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in nutrient solutions. The amount of humic acids extracted from filter cake is between hen manure and composted coffee beans. The nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of the different humic materials indicated that the ones extracted from filter cake have a carboxylic chain larger than the other two materials and an aliphatic chain lower than the leonardite humic acids and also are younger. Application of 40 to 80 mg/L of humic acids to nutrient solutions promote physiological responses on tomato plants due to greater assimilation of N, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu and Mn

  1. Effects of microwave power and irradiation time on pectin extraction from watermelon rinds (Citrullus lanatus) with acetic acid using microwave assisted extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, A. M.; Ishartani, D.; Dewanty, P. S.

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this research are to study the effect of microwave power (119.7 W, 199.5 W and 279.3 W) and irradiation time (6, 9 and 12 min) on pectin extraction by using Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) with acetic acid and to do a preliminary characterization of pectin from watermelon rinds. A randomized factorial design with two factors was used to determine the effect of microwave power and processing time on the yield, equivalent weight, degree of methoxylation (DM), galacturonic acid content (GA) and the degree of esterification (DE) of extracted pectin. The results showed that extracted pectin from watermelon rinds using MAE method have yield ranged from 3.925% to 5.766%, with equivalent weight ranged from 1249.702 to 2007.756. Extracted pectin have a DM value ranged from 3.89% to 10.81%. Galacturonic acid content that meets with IPPA standard resulted from extraction condition of 279.3-watt microwave power for 9 min and 12 min. The degree of esterification (DE) value ranged from 56.86% to 85.76%, and this value exhibited a relatively high methoxyl pectin (>50%). The best pectin properties was obtained at a microwave power of 279.3 watts for 12 min.

  2. Caesium extraction from acidic high level liquid wastes with functionalized calixarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.; Dozol, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of French law programme, studies are under way to selectively remove caesium from acidic high activity wastes. Calix[4]arene crown derivatives exhibit outstanding efficiency and selectivity for caesium. An optimisation of the formulation of a selective extractant system for Cs based on crown calixarenes and usable in a process which use liquid-liquid extraction is presented. A system involving a monoamide as a modifier is proposed. Besides these improvements, a reference solvent based on a standard 1,3-di-(n-octyl-oxy)2,4-calix(4)arene crown is studied. Flow-sheets related to this system are calculated and easily transferable to the optimised new system. (authors)

  3. Optical spectra of vanadium (5, 4) compounds during extraction by di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbatova, L.D.; Medvedeva, N.I.

    2000-01-01

    Optical spectra of vanadium (5, 4) complexes with HDEHP are studied using literature data on quantum-chemical calculations of vanadium (5) and vanadium (4) oxides. Extraction of vanadium is conducted by undiluted HDEHP from sulfuric acid solutions. Absorption electron spectra (AES) of vanadium (5), vanadium (4) and vanadium (5, 4) compounds are presented. In AES of vanadium (5, 4) four absorption bands at 24000, 17000, 14500 and 13500 cm -1 appear. Comparison with spectra of vanadium (5) and vanadium (4) shows that band 17000 cm -1 which appears only during mutual extraction of vanadium (5) and vanadium (4) is caused by transitions appearing between filled and empty levels of d-zone broadened by vanadium (5) and vanadium (4) interaction [ru

  4. Reactivation in UV inactivated Escherichia coli by cell-free extracts of propionic acid bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'eva, L.I.; Nikitenko, G.V.; Khodzhaev, E.Yu.; Ponomareva, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    For the first time reactivation of cell extraction of three strains of Propionibacterium shermanii in UV inactivated not filament-forming strain Escherichia colli AB 1157 is shown. Reactivation was demonstrated in prencubated and postincubated test-culture and increased as survival of E.coli decreased in a range 1,8-0,006%. The factor (factores) of defense in dialysable, thermolable and is present as in a fraction of nucleoproteins and nucleic acids so in a fraction of soluble proteins. The extracts were inactivated by incubation with proteinase K and trypsin, partly decreased activity by incubation with alpha-amylase and selected nuclease but not with lipase. Polypeltide nature of reactivative factor is supposed

  5. Cell extracts of propionic acid bacteria reactivate cells of Escherichia coli inactivated by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'eva, L.I.; Nikitenko, G.V.; Khodzhaev, E.Yu.; Ponomareva, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Cell extracts of three Propionibacterium shermanii strains were shown to exert a reactivating effect on cells of E. coli AB 1157 inactivated by ultraviolet radiation. The reactivating effect was revealed after both preincubation and postincubation of the irradiated cells with the extracts. The effect increased with a decrease of the survival rate within the range of 1.8-0.006%. The protective factor (or factors) is dialyzable and thermolabile; it was detected both in the fraction of soluble proteins and in the fraction of nucleoproteins and nucleic acids. The protective properties of dialyzate disappear after incubation with proteinase K and trypsin, decrease after incubation with α-amylase, deoxyribonuclease-1, or ribonuclease, and do not change under the influence of lipase. The reactivating factor is believed to be of a polypeptide nature

  6. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid extracts on porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Patrick P; Shetty, Kalidas

    2004-01-01

    Porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) was allowed to react with herbal extracts containing rosmarinic acid (RA) and purified RA. The derivatized enzyme-phytochemical mixtures obtained were characterized for residual amylase activity. These in vitro experiments showed that the amylase activity was inhibited in the presence of these phytochemicals. The extent of amylase inhibition correlated with increased concentration of RA. RA-containing oregano extracts yielded higher than expected amylase inhibition than similar amount of purified RA, suggesting that other phenolic compounds or phenolic synergies may contribute to additional amylase inhibitory activity. The significance of food-grade, plant-based amylase inhibitors for modulation of diabetes mellitus and other oxidation-linked diseases is hypothesized and discussed.

  7. Extraction of molybdenum by the di-n-butyl 2.2.N.hydroxyhexanamide (tri-n-butylacetohydroxamic acid) from aqueous acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landesman, C.

    1991-11-01

    The design of a new industrial process for the production of the fission product 99 Mo, led to study of the extraction of 99 Mo(VI) by the tri-n-butylacetohydroxamic acid (TBAH). Due to the large affinity of TBAH for Mo(VI), the study was conducted with unusual experimental conditions : the concentrations of the extracting molecule and metallic ion were very low, typically CTBAH = 10 -5 M and CMo(VI) = 10 -8 M. The overall extraction system was described using a mathematical model quite simple, which, in particular, takes into account all the Mo(VI) species present in the aqueous phase. When the extractions were carried out from a perchloric acid medium, two different extraction mechanisms of Mo(VI) were identified : for C HC10 4 3 , the extraction of Mo(VI) corresponds to a cationic exchange, whereas for C HC10 4 > 3 mol/dm 3 , a neutral Mo(VI) compound is extracted. Moreover it was found that the extracting system Mo(VI)/TBAH is extremely sensitive to the temperature. It is thus possible to change the way of the transfer of Mo(VI) between the two phases, by control of the temperature of the mixture : the extraction is carried out at room temperature and the back-extraction at elevated temperature

  8. Evaluation and optimization of nucleic acid extraction methods for the molecular analysis of bacterial communities associated with corrored steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marty, F.; Ghiglione, J.-F.; Païsse, S.; Gueuné, H.; Quillet, L.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Different DNA and RNA extraction approaches were evaluated and protocols optimized on in situ corrosion products from carbon steel in marine environments. Protocols adapted from the PowerSoil DNA/RNA Isolation methods resulted in the best nucleic acid (NA) extraction performances (ie combining high

  9. Towards integrated biorefinery from dried distillers grains: Selective extraction of pentoses using dilute acid hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Dania A.; Lupitskyy, Robert; Timmons, David; Gupta, Mayank; Satyavolu, Jagannadh

    2014-01-01

    The abundant availability and high level of hemicellulose content make dried distillers grains (DDG) an attractive feedstock for production of pentoses (C5) and conversion of C5 to bioproducts. One target of this work was to produce a C5 extract (hydrolyzate) with high yield and purity with a low concentration of C5 degradation products. A high selectivity towards pentoses was achieved using dilute acid hydrolysis of DDG in a percolation reactor with liquid recirculation. Pretreatment of starting material using screening and ultrasonication resulted in fractional increase of the pentose yield by 42%. A 94% yield of pentoses on the DDG (280.9 g kg −1 ) was obtained. Selective extraction of individual pentoses has been achieved by using a 2-stage hydrolysis process, resulting in arabinose-rich (arabinose 81.5%) and xylose-rich (xylose 85.2%) streams. A broader impact of this work is towards an Integrated Bio-Refinery based on DDG – for production of biofuels, biochemical intermediates, and other bioproducts. - Highlights: • A process for selective extraction of pentoses from DDG was presented as a part of integrated biorefinery approach. • The selectivity for pentoses was high using dilute acid hydrolysis in a percolation reactor with liquid recirculation. • Pretreatment of DDG using screening and ultrasonication resulted in fractional increase of the pentose yield by 42 %. • A 94% yield in pentoses (280.9 g kg −1 of DDG) was obtained. • A 2-stage hydrolysis process, developed to extract individual pentoses, resulted in arabinose and xylose rich streams

  10. Effect of decreasing acidity on the extractability of inorganic soil phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helinä Hartikainen

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The extractability of P by the water and anion exchange resin methods and reactions of soil inorganic P were investigated with seven acid mineral soil samples incubated with KOH solutions of various concentrations. The results were compared with the analytical data obtained from three soil samples incubated in a prolonged liming experiment. The resin extraction method proved more effective than the water extraction method. The amounts of P desorbed by both methods seemed to increase exponentially as the pH in the soil suspensions rose. The factors involved were discussed. On the basis of fractionation analyses P reacting to changes in the pH and participating in desorption processes was supposed to originate from secondary NH4F and NaOH soluble reserves. In general, as the acidity decreased NH4F-P increased at the expense of NaOH-P. In heavily limed gyttja soil also H2SO4-P increased. This was possibly induced by the precipitation of mobilized P as a Ca compound. The significance of pH in the extractability of soil P seemed somewhat to lessen as the amount of secondary P increased. The results were in accordance with the conception that liming improves the availability of inorganic P to plants and reduces the need for P fertilization. However, increasing of the soil pH involves the risk that P is more easily desorbed to the recipient water by the eroded soil material carried into the watercourse. Therefore, intensive liming is not recommendable close to the shoreline. Further, it should be taken into account that liming of lakes may also result in eutrophication as desorption of sedimentary inorganic P is enhanced.

  11. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  12. The production of rare earth elements group via tributyl phosphate extraction and precipitation stripping using oxalic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Jorjani, Esmaeil; Shahbazi, Malek

    2016-01-01

    In this study, solvent extraction and precipitation stripping were used to produce rare earth elements (REEs). Tributyl phosphate (TBP) was used to extract yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, and neodymium from an aqueous solution produced by nitric acid leaching of apatite concentrate. In the extraction stage, the effects of TBP concentration, pH, contact time, temperature, and phase ratio were investigated. The results show that about 95%, 90%, 87% and 80% of neodymium, cerium, lanthanum, and yttri...

  13. Study of the properties of dialkyl thiophosphoric acids. Application to the extraction of U, in phosphoric and nitric solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjelloun, N.

    1983-09-01

    A study is made of complex formation and liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) by dialkyl-thiophosphoric acids of formula (RO) 2 POSH and by the synergic mixtures: dialkylthiophosphoric acids-phosphine oxides. The aqueous phases studied consist of concentrated phosphoric acid solutions and nitric acid solutions. Several methods, including distribution coefficient measurements, U.V., visible and infrared absorption spectrophotometries and magnetic resonance, were used to study the extraction mechanisms and the structures of species formed in the organic phase. The influence of different parameters (partition of extraction agent, dimerisation, acid ligand-phosphine oxide association, extraction of inorganic acids...) on the uranium (VI) distribution coefficients enabled the constants of complex formation in the aqueous phase and extraction in the organic phase to be determined. These various properties were compared with those of dialkyl phosphoric and dithiophosphoric acids. The mechanisms established prove that sulfur donors ligands form stable complexes with UO 2 2+ ions although U(VI) is considered as a ''hard class a'' acceptor according to Ahrland's classification [fr

  14. Extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium in CMPO-HDEHP impregnated resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saipriya, K.; Kumar, T. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Facilities (India). Kalpakkam Reproscessing Plants; Kumaresan, R.; Nayak, P.K.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2016-05-01

    Chromatographic resin containing extractants such as octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) or bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or mixture of extractants (CMPO + HDEHP) in an acrylic polymer matrix was prepared and studied for the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) over a range of nitric acid concentration. The effect of various parameters such as concentration of nitric acid in aqueous phase and the concentration of CMPO and HDEHP in the resin phase was studied. The distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) in the impregnated resin increased with increased in the concentration of nitric acid for CMPO-impregnated resin, whereas a reverse trend was observed in HDEHP impregnated resin. In case of resin containing both the extractants, synergism was observed at low nitric acid concentration and antagonism at high nitric acid concentration. The mechanism of extraction was probed by slope analysis method at 0.01 and 2 M nitric acid concentrations. Citrate-buffered DTPA was used for the selective separation of Am(III), and a separation factor of 3-4 was obtained at pH 3.

  15. Triterpene Acids from Rose Hip Powder Inhibit Self-antigen- and LPS-induced Cytokine Production and CD4(+) T-cell Proliferation in Human Mononuclear Cell Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lasse; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A triterpene acid mixture consisting of oleanolic, ursolic and betulinic acid isolated from a standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.) has been shown to inhibit interleukin (IL)-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells. The present study examined the effects of the triterpene acid mixture on the cyto...

  16. Comparative study of the efficiency of complex formation and extraction of thorium by solutions of certain alkylaromatic α-hydroxy acids in heptanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charykov, A.K.; Aleksandrova, E.A.; Vasil'eva, O.N.

    1986-01-01

    The constants for the extraction of thorium by solutions of alkylaromatic α-hydroxy acids in heptanol occur in the order log K/sub ex/ (hydroxydiphenylacetic acid) > log K/sub ex/ (phenoxyacetic acid) > log K/sub ex/ (hydroxyphenylacetic acid). For the example of extraction equilibria involving the participation of thorium carboxylate complexes an extraction efficiency parameter is introduced which enables the efficiency of extraction to be predicted on the basis of information on the formation constants of the neutral complexes and the dissociation constants of the extractant acids in the aqueous phase

  17. Extraction of uranium from simulated ore by the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction method with nitric acid-TBP complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, Le Thi Kim; Imai, Tomoki; Tomioka, Osamu; Nakashima, Mikio; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Meguro, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method using CO 2 as a medium with an extractant of HNO 3 -tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) complex was applied to extract uranium from several uranyl phosphate compounds and simulated uranium ores. An extraction method consisting of a static extraction process and a dynamic one was established, and the effects of the experimental conditions, such as pressure, temperature, and extraction time, on the extraction of uranium were ascertained. It was found that uranium could be efficiently extracted from both the uranyl phosphates and simulated ores by the SFE method using CO 2 . It was thus demonstrated that the SFE method using CO 2 is useful as a pretreatment method for the analysis of uranium in ores. (author)

  18. Exhaustive and stable electromembrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Seip, Knut Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    The first part of the current work systematically described the screening of different types of organic solvents as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for electromembrane extraction (EME) of acidic drugs, including different alcohols, ketones, and ethers. Seven acidic drugs with a wide logP rang......). With this SLM, exhaustive EME was performed from diluted human plasma, and the recoveries of five out of seven analytes were over 91% after 10min EME. This approach was evaluated using HPLC-UV, and the evaluation data were found to be satisfactory...... to increasing viscosity and decreasing α and π* values. The system-current during EME was found to be dependent on the type and the volume of the SLM. In contact with human plasma, an SLM of pure 1-heptanol was unstable, and to improve stability, 1-heptanol was mixed with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE...

  19. Determination of trace elements in acid rain by reversed phase extraction chromatography and neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.R.; Goski, D.G.; Chatt, A.

    1991-01-01

    A preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of selected trace elements in acid rain and other water samples. The method consists of preconcentration of the elements by reversed phase extraction chromatography using oxine-loaded Amberlite XAD-2 resin. Nearly 100% recoveries were obtained for Co, Cu, Hg, V and Zn at pH 6.0 and for Cd at pH 7.0. Manganese gave incomplete recoveries at the pH range of 4.0-8.0 studies. Various factors that can influence preconcentration of the elements have been investigated in detail. The precision and accuracy of measurements have been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials. The detection limits have been found to be of the order of ppb. The PNAA method has been applied to a number of acid rain and other water samples

  20. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglia, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.scaglia@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy); Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira [Laboratório de Química Ambiental, Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Avenida Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, São Carlos (Brazil); Tambone, Fulvia [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy); Adani, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.adani@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla Labs – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2 (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100–6000 mg carbon L{sup −1}. {sup 13}C CPMAS-NMR and GC–MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS {sup 13}CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R{sup 2} = − 0.85; p < 0.01, n = 6). - Highlights: • Vermicomposting converts waste into organic fertilizer. • Vermicomposts can have biostimulating effect for the presence of hormone-like molecules. • Auxine-like activity was associated to the vermicompost humic acid fraction (HA). • HA carboxylic acids and amino acids, were reported to act as auxin-like molecules. • A linear regression was found between molecules and auxin-like activity.

  1. Effects of radiation, acid, and base on the extractant dihexyl-[(diethylcarbamoyl)methyl] phosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahner, C.T.; Shoun, R.R.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-11-01

    The effects of exposure to gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and of contact with acidic and basic aqueous solutions on dihexyl[(diethylcarbamoyl)methyl]phosphonate (DHDECMP) were studied. Gamma radiation decomposes DHDECMP into a variety of products. The most troublesome of those are the acidic compounds that cause problems in stripping the actinides and lanthanides from the extractant at low acid concentrations. The rate of degradation of DHDECMP by radiation is about the same or only slightly higher than that of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). It is relatively easy to remove the radiation-produced impurities by equilibration (scrubbing) with sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide or by column chromatographic methods. The hydrolysis of DHDECMP in contact with aqueous solutions containing less than 3 M HNO 3 is not more severe than that of TBP under the same conditions but is significant above that acid concentration. Hydrolysis of DHDECMP in contact with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution does occur, but it should not pose an important problem with the short contact times such as those anticipated for the removal of the radiation-induced degradation products by caustic scrubbing. Results of various chromatographic tests to characterize the degradation products of DHDECMP are also given

  2. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara, E-mail: yuda.mechanical.engineer@student.uns.ac.id; Suyitno,, E-mail: suyitno@uns.ac.id; Sutanto, Bayu, E-mail: bayu.sutanto@student.uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Arifin, Zainal, E-mail: zainal-a@uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brawijaya University, Malang (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, E{sub HOMO} and E{sub LUMO} was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where E{sub red} = −0.37V, E{sub LUMO} = −4.28 eV, E{sub ox} = 1.15V, E{sub HOMO} = −5.83 eV, and E{sub band} {sub gap} = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  3. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno,; Sutanto, Bayu; Arifin, Zainal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, E_H_O_M_O and E_L_U_M_O was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where E_r_e_d = −0.37V, E_L_U_M_O = −4.28 eV, E_o_x = 1.15V, E_H_O_M_O = −5.83 eV, and E_b_a_n_d _g_a_p = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  4. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno, Arifin, Zainal; Sutanto, Bayu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, EHOMO and ELUMO was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where Ered = -0.37V, ELUMO = -4.28 eV, Eox = 1.15V, EHOMO = -5.83 eV, and Eband gap = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  5. New method for the rapid extraction of natural products: efficient isolation of shikimic acid from star anise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Jeremy; Deans, Bianca J; Olivier, Wesley J; Paull, Brett; Bissember, Alex C; Smith, Jason A

    2015-05-15

    A new, practical, rapid, and high-yielding process for the pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of multigram quantities of shikimic acid from star anise (Illicium verum) using an unmodified household espresso machine has been developed. This operationally simple and inexpensive method enables the efficient and straightforward isolation of shikimic acid and the facile preparation of a range of its synthetic derivatives.

  6. The complex reaction kinetics of neptunium including redox and extraction process in 30% TBP-nitric acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhang; Zhan-yuan Liu; Xian-ming Zhou; Li Li

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the complex and dynamic neptunium process chemistry in the TBP-HNO_3 system, the kinetics involved reversible redox reaction and extraction mass transfer was investigated. The results indicates that the mass transfer rate of Np(VI) is much faster than the redox reaction in aqueous solution. The concentrations of nitric acid and nitrous acid not only can change the Np(V) oxidation reaction and Np(VI) reduction reaction rate, but also can ultimately determine the distribution of neptunium extraction equilibrium. The variety of temperature can only influence the extraction equilibrium time, but cannot alter the equilibrium state of neptunium. (author)

  7. Liquid-liquid extraction of acids and water by a malonamide: I-anion specific effects on the polar core microstructure of the aggregated malonamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejugnat, Christophe; Dubois, Veronique; Dourdain, Sandrine; Pellet-Rostaing, Stephane; Zemb, Thomas; Berthon, Laurence; Meridiano, Yannick; Guillaumont, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In a solvent extraction process, the compositions of the phases in thermodynamic equilibrium (described as a Winsor-II regime) must be determined to obtain the extraction isotherms of ions as well as co-extracted water. By comparing the extractions of a series of acids by the malonamide DMDOHEMA (N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dioctyl hexyl-ethoxy malonamide) in n-heptane, the specific anion effects regarding third phase formation and the strength of the acid-extractant interaction were investigated. It is shown that third phase formation is driven by hydration enthalpy of acid, while the polar core microstructure is controlled by the pKa of the acids. Upon acid extraction, the promotion of third phase formation follows the series H 2 SO 4 ≅ H 3 PO 4 ≅ HClO 4 ≥ HNO 3 ≥ HCl ≥ HCOOH, which correlates to hydration enthalpy of acid in the case of mono-acids. The combination of IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations revealed two different modes of acid extraction, either by hydrogen bonding (extraction of non-dissociated acid: HA) or by protonation of the extractant (extraction of dissociated acid: H + A - ). The strength of the amide-acid interaction (protonation vs. hydrogen bonding) is correlated to the pKa of the acid and is responsible for the microstructure of the solution. (authors)

  8. Rapid microwave-assisted acid extraction of southern pine waste wood to remove metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Bin Yu

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood particles was investigated by extraction in a microwave reactor with binary combinations of acetic acid (AA), oxalic acid (OxA), and phosphoric acid (PhA). Use of OxA was not successful, as insoluble copper oxalate complexes impeded copper removal. The combination of OxA and AA also had...

  9. Phytochemical Profiling of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, Terpenoids, and Volatile Fraction of a Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Cirlini, Martina; Tassotti, Michele; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-11-19

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile of a proprietary rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract rich in carnosic acid. A characterization of the (poly)phenolic and volatile fractions of the extract was carried out using mass spectrometric techniques. The (poly)phenolic composition was assessed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS n ) and a total of 57 compounds were tentatively identified and quantified, 14 of these being detected in rosemary extract for the first time. The rosemary extract contained 24 flavonoids (mainly flavones, although flavonols and flavanones were also detected), 5 phenolic acids, 24 diterpenoids (carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol derivatives), 1 triterpenoid (betulinic acid), and 3 lignans (medioresinol derivatives). Carnosic acid was the predominant phenolic compound. The volatile profile of the rosemary extract was evaluated by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) linked to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty-three volatile molecules (mainly terpenes, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and ketones) were identified. This characterization extends the current knowledge on the phytochemistry of Rosmarinus officinalis and is, to our knowledge, the broadest profiling of its secondary metabolites to date. It can assist in the authentication of rosemary extracts or rosemary-containing products or in testing its bioactivity. Moreover, this methodological approach could be applied to the study of other plant-based food ingredients.

  10. Phytochemical Profiling of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, Terpenoids, and Volatile Fraction of a Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Mena

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile of a proprietary rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract rich in carnosic acid. A characterization of the (polyphenolic and volatile fractions of the extract was carried out using mass spectrometric techniques. The (polyphenolic composition was assessed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MSn and a total of 57 compounds were tentatively identified and quantified, 14 of these being detected in rosemary extract for the first time. The rosemary extract contained 24 flavonoids (mainly flavones, although flavonols and flavanones were also detected, 5 phenolic acids, 24 diterpenoids (carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol derivatives, 1 triterpenoid (betulinic acid, and 3 lignans (medioresinol derivatives. Carnosic acid was the predominant phenolic compound. The volatile profile of the rosemary extract was evaluated by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME linked to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Sixty-three volatile molecules (mainly terpenes, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and ketones were identified. This characterization extends the current knowledge on the phytochemistry of Rosmarinus officinalis and is, to our knowledge, the broadest profiling of its secondary metabolites to date. It can assist in the authentication of rosemary extracts or rosemary-containing products or in testing its bioactivity. Moreover, this methodological approach could be applied to the study of other plant-based food ingredients.

  11. Extraction of methylmercury from tissue and plant samples by acid leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintelmann, Holger; Nguyen, Hong T. [Trent University, Chemistry Department, Peterborough, ON (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    A simple and efficient extraction method based on acidic leaching has been developed for measurement of methylmercury (MeHg) in benthic organisms and plant material. Methylmercury was measured by speciated isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), using gas chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS). Reagent concentration and digestion temperature were optimized for several alkaline and acidic extractants. Recovery was evaluated by addition of MeHg enriched with CH{sub 3}{sup 201}Hg{sup +}. Certified reference materials (CRM) were used to evaluate the efficiency of the procedure. The final digestion method used 5 mL of 4 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} at 55 C to leach MeHg from tissue and plant material. The digest was further processed by aqueous phase ethylation, without interference with the ethylation step, resulting in 96{+-}7% recovery of CH{sub 3}{sup 201}Hg{sup +} from oyster tissue and 93{+-}7% from pine needles. Methylmercury was stable in this solution for at least 1 week and measured concentrations of MeHg in CRM were statistically not different from certified values. The method was applied to real samples of benthic invertebrates and inter-laboratory comparisons were conducted using lyophilized zooplankton, chironomidae, and notonectidae samples. (orig.)

  12. Liquid-Liquid extraction of sulfuric acid using tri-n-dodecylamine/kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stas, J.

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid has been investigated by trin- dodecylamine (over line TDA) in kerosene in the presence of octanol- 1 as modifier. The effect of octanol-1 has been studied on the equilibrium constant of (TDAH) 2 SO 4 and TDAHHSO 4 formation in the concentration range from 5 to 25% v/v and within the temperature range from 25 to 50 centigrade degree. The equilibrium constants (K 1 and K 2 , at 25 centigrade degree), the enthalpy (ΔH 0 1 , ΔH 0 2 ) and the entropy (ΔS 0 1 , ΔS 0 2 ) changes were calculated for two extraction reactions of sulfuric acid by tri-n-dodecylamine containing 10% octanol-1 and they were found to be 10 9 .642 l 4 /mol 4 , 10 - 0.899 l/mol, -99.11, -22.17 kJ/mol, -0.149, -0.063 kJ/mol.K, respectively. The two reactions are: 2/overline TDA +2 H + +SO 4 2 -/rightleftarrows K 1 /overline (TDAH) 2 SO 4 and /overline (TDHA) 2 SO 4 H + +HSO 4 - /rightleftarrows K 2 2/overline TDAHHSO 4 . (author)

  13. Flameless atomic absorption determination of noble metals after extraction by mixture of di-2-ethylhexyldithiophosphoric acid and n-octylaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukhin, Yu.M.; Udalova, T.A.; Tsimbalist, V.G.; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Geologii i Geofiziki)

    1985-01-01

    A possibility of using the mixture of di-2-ethylhexyl dithiophosphoric acid (D2EHDTPA) and p-octylaniline (OA) (extractants of acid and basic character) for extraction atomic absorption determination of noble metals is studied. The mixture of D2EHDTPA with OA is shown to extract noble metals from hydrochloric acid solutions with distribution factors > 10 3 . An extraction atomic absorption method for determination of noble metals in copperbearing materials is suggested. The minimum determined contents of noble metals at the initial sample equal to 100 for gold, silver, platinum, palladium, rhodium and ruthenium make up (g/t) 0.0005, 0.0001, 0.015, 0.005, 0.002 and 0.015 respectively. Relative standard deviation constitutes Ssub(r)<0.2

  14. Batch Simulation of Rare Earths Extractive Separation by Di (2-Ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid and Tributylphosphate in Kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, Jarunee; Srinuttakul, Wanee

    2004-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction is applied to separate individual rare earths. In this research, 6-stage continuous countercurrent solvent extraction was simulated to extract rare earths from rare earth nitrate solution, which was obtained from monazite processing, to estimate the possible optimum operating conditions for pilot or industrial plants. The solvent(S) per feed(F) ratio (S/F) was varied from 1 to 3. The organic are 1.0 and 1.5 Molars (M) Di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) in kerosene. 50% tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene was applied for comparison. It was found that D2EHPA was a good extracting agent for heavy rare earths while TBP extracted well both light and heavy rare earths. After extraction with TBP and D2EHPA, the extraction efficiency at solvent per feed ratio (S/F) =2 and 3 showed a slight difference. S/F =2 was selected commercially for operation

  15. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  16. Experimental design for extraction and quantification of phenolic compounds and organic acids in white "Vinho Verde" grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopico-García, M S; Valentão, P; Guerra, L; Andrade, P B; Seabra, R M

    2007-01-30

    An experimental design was applied for the optimization of extraction and clean-up processes of phenolic compounds and organic acids from white "Vinho Verde" grapes. The developed analytical method consisted in two steps: first a solid-liquid extraction of both phenolic compounds and organic acids and then a clean-up step using solid-phase extraction (SPE). Afterwards, phenolic compounds and organic acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-UV, respectively. Plackett-Burman design was carried out to select the significant experimental parameters affecting both the extraction and the clean-up steps. The identified and quantified phenolic compounds were: quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol and epicatechin. The determined organic acids were oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, shikimic and fumaric acids. The obtained results showed that the most important variables were the temperature (40 degrees C) and the solvent (acid water at pH 2 with 5% methanol) for the extraction step and the type of sorbent (C18 non end-capped) for the clean-up step.

  17. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state and Study 2 (fed state]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals.

  18. Simultaneous column chromatographic extraction and purification of abscisic acid in peanut plants for direct HPLC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Wen; Fan, Wei-Wei; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Han, Han-Bing; Li, Hai-Hang

    2015-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), a universal signaling molecule, plays important roles in regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. The low contents and complex components in plants make it difficult to be accurately analyzed. A novel one-step sample preparation method for ABA in plants was developed. Fresh peanut (Arachis hypogaea) plant materials were fixed by oven-drying, microwave drying, boiling or Carnoy's fixative, and loaded onto a mini-preparing column. After washed the impurities, ABA was eluted with a small amount of solvent. ABA in plant materials was completely extracted and purified in 2mL solution and directly analyzed by HPLC, with a 99.3% recovery rate. Multiple samples can be simultaneously prepared. Analyses using this method indicated that the endogenous ABA in oven-dried peanut leaves increased 20.2-fold from 1.01 to 20.37μgg(-1) dry weight within 12h and then decreased in 30% polyethylene glycol 6000 treated plants, and increased 3.34-fold from 0.85 to 2.84μgg(-1) dry weight in 5 days and then decreased in soil drought treated plants. The method combined the column chromatographic extraction and solid-phase separation technologies in one step and can completely extracted plant endogenous ABA in a purified and highly concentrated form for direct HPLC analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Filtration Isolation of Nucleic Acids: A Simple and Rapid DNA Extraction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, Sally M; Neto, Mário F; Reed, Jennifer L; Wagner, Robin L

    2016-08-06

    FINA, filtration isolation of nucleic acids, is a novel extraction method which utilizes vertical filtration via a separation membrane and absorbent pad to extract cellular DNA from whole blood in less than 2 min. The blood specimen is treated with detergent, mixed briefly and applied by pipet to the separation membrane. The lysate wicks into the blotting pad due to capillary action, capturing the genomic DNA on the surface of the separation membrane. The extracted DNA is retained on the membrane during a simple wash step wherein PCR inhibitors are wicked into the absorbent blotting pad. The membrane containing the entrapped DNA is then added to the PCR reaction without further purification. This simple method does not require laboratory equipment and can be easily implemented with inexpensive laboratory supplies. Here we describe a protocol for highly sensitive detection and quantitation of HIV-1 proviral DNA from 100 µl whole blood as a model for early infant diagnosis of HIV that could readily be adapted to other genetic targets.

  20. Separation of trivalent actinide from lanthanide by a solvent extraction technique using imidazoledithiocarboxylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, S.; Yanaga, M.; Okuno, K.; Suganuma, H.; Satoh, I.

    2006-01-01

    The extraction behavior of 241 Am and 152,154 Eu by a solvent extraction technique using imidazoledithiocarboxylic acid (IMD) were investigated. Although the solubility of IMD into organic solvent is very poor, it was improved by the formation of ion pair with hydrophobic cation, such as tetrabutylammonium ion (TBA + ) or tetraoctylammonium ion (TOA + ). The obtained tetrabutylammonium imidazole-dithiocarboxylate (TBA + IMD - ) and tetraoctylammonium imidazoledithiocarboxylate (TOA + TMD - ) are able to solve into various organic solvents, for example cyclohexanone, chloroform and nitrobenzene, but not to solve into nonpolar alkane. The radionuclides of Am(III) and Eu(III) are able to be extracted in the region of 2 eq + IMD - /cyclohexanone and TOA + IMD - /cyclohexanone. The distribution ratio of Am(III) is higher than that of Eu(III) when the organic phase is 0.1 M TBA + IMD - /cyclohexanone and the aqueous phase is 1.0 M (H,Na)NO 3 . The separation factor (Am(III)/Eu(III)) at pH eq =5.5 is ca. 30. In the region of pH>6, the distribution ratios of Am(III) and Eu(III) in the system described above showed constant values, respectively. (author)

  1. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  2. Simultaneous separation and detection of actinides in acidic solutions using an extractive scintillating resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, J E; DeVol, T A

    2002-11-01

    An extractive scintillating resin was evaluated for the simultaneous separation and detection of actinides in acidic solutions. The transuranic extractive scintillating (TRU-ES) resin is composed of an inert macroporous polystyrene core impregnated with organic fluors (diphenyloxazole and 1,4-bis-(4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolyl)benzene) and an extractant (octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide in tributyl phosphate). The TRU-ES resin was packed into FEP Teflon tubing to produce a flow cell (0.2-mL free column volume), which is placed into a scintillation detection system to obtain pulse height spectra and time series data during loading and elution of actinides onto/from the resin. The alpha-particle absolute detection efficiencies ranged from 77% to 96.5%, depending on the alpha energy and quench. In addition to the on-line analyses, off-line analyses of the effluent can be conducted using conventional detection methods. The TRU-ES resin was applied to the quantification of a mixed radionuclide solution and two actual waste samples. The on-line characterization of the mixed radionuclide solution was within 10% of the reported activities whereas the agreement with the waste samples was not as good due to sorption onto the sample container walls and the oxidation state of plutonium. Agreement between the on-line and off-line analyses was within 35% of one another for both waste samples.

  3. Design of mixer settler extraction cycles II for recovery uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Jami; Hafni Lissa Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Mixer settler is technically designed for extraction and separation process of uranium from phosphoric acid solution. Design calculation results shows that: the mixer settler consists of two parts: part of extraction process in the mixer tank and part of separation process in settler tank. The mixer tank type of box with 4 baffles, the size of mixer tank, 0.8 m width, 0.8 m length, 1 m high of liquid, 1.05 m high of mixer tank, stirrer type of disk 6 blade, and power of mixing 4 hp and the settler tank type of rectangular with size of settler tank, 0.8 m width 5 m length, 1 m high of liquid, 1.05 m high of settler tank. For uranium recovery efficiency up to 91%, extraction process is done in 3 stage counter current flow using a solvent Organic (O) DEHPA-TOPO in Kerosene at a phase of ratio A/O of 2:1. The aqueous enter through stage 3 and the organic solvent enter through stage 1. The process of settling occurred with the value of settling velocity is 0.000694 m/s, dispersion factor Ψ = 0.3638 and the light fraction as the dispersed phase and value of Reynolds number (NRE) = 3,438. Because of the Reynolds number is lower than 5,000, it indicates that the quality of the separation is very good. (author)

  4. Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in acidic medium by orange peel extract and its main antioxidant compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M’hiri, Nouha; Veys-Renaux, Delphine; Rocca, Emmanuel; Ioannou, Irina; Boudhrioua, Nourhéne Mihoubi; Ghoul, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Catechol and derived functions are responsible for flavonoids antioxidant activity. • Antioxidant activity of adsorbed molecules explains cathodic inhibition. • Orange peel extract inhibition is enhanced by the precipitation of a covering film. - Abstract: Chemical compounds of orange peel extracts were identified and their antioxidant activities were determined. The inhibiting effect on acidic steel corrosion brought by the extract and selected antioxidant compounds (neohesperidin, naringin, ascorbic acid) was evaluated separately by electrochemical methods. Whatever the extract concentration, a significant inhibition is observed, whereas selected antioxidant compounds show only a slight effect. Both electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results and scanning electron microscopy observations after immersion reveal that the inhibiting efficiency of orange peel extract is not only due to the antioxidant activity of its compounds but also to the precipitation of a surface film.

  5. Extraction of Zinc and Manganese from Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Spent Batteries by Citric-Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of citric acid as reducing agent. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 24 full factorial design, and empirical equations for Mn and Zn extraction yields are determined from experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, and citric acid concentration. The highest values experimentally observed for extraction yields were 97% of manganese and 100% of zinc, under the following operating conditions: temperature 40∘C, pulp density 20%, sulphuric acid concentration 1.8 M, and citric acid 40 g L-1. A second series of leaching tests is also performed to derive other empirical models to predict zinc and manganese extraction. Precipitation tests, aimed both at investigating precipitation of zinc during leaching and at evaluating recovery options of zinc and manganese, show that a quantitative precipitation of zinc can be reached but a coprecipitation of nearly 30% of manganese also takes place. The achieved results allow to propose a battery recycling process based on a countercurrent reducing leaching by citric acid in sulphuric solution.

  6. Characterization and purification of a bacterial chlorogenic acid esterase detected during the extraction of chlorogenic acid from arbuscular mycorrhizal tomato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrel, Jonathan; Javelle, Francine; Morandi, Dominique; Lucchi, Géraldine

    2016-12-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium able to grow using chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid) as sole carbon source has been isolated from the roots of tomato plants inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. An intracellular esterase exhibiting very high affinity (K m  = 2 μM) for chlorogenic acid has been extracted and purified by FPLC from the chlorogenate-grown cultures of this bacterium. The molecular mass of the purified esterase determined by SDS-PAGE was 61 kDa and its isoelectric point determined by chromatofocusing was 7.75. The esterase hydrolysed chlorogenic acid analogues (caffeoylshikimate, and the 4- and 3-caffeoylquinic acid isomers), feruloyl esterases substrates (methyl caffeate and methyl ferulate), and even caffeoyl-CoA in vitro but all of them were less active than chlorogenic acid, demonstrating that the esterase is a genuine chlorogenic acid esterase. It was also induced when the bacterial strain was cultured in the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric or ferulic acid) as sole carbon source, but not in the presence of simple phenolics such as catechol or protocatechuic acid, nor in the presence of organic acids such as succinic or quinic acids. The purified esterase was remarkably stable in the presence of methanol, rapid formation of methyl caffeate occurring when its activity was measured in aqueous solutions containing 10-60% methanol. Our results therefore show that this bacterial chlorogenase can catalyse the transesterification reaction previously detected during the methanolic extraction of chlorogenic acid from arbuscular mycorrhizal tomato roots. Data are presented suggesting that colonisation by Rhizophagus irregularis could increase chlorogenic acid exudation from tomato roots, especially in nutrient-deprived plants, and thus favour the growth of chlorogenate-metabolizing bacteria on the root surface or in the mycorhizosphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  7. Selective removal of chromium from sulphuric acid leach liquor of ilmenite ore by solvent extraction with trioctylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Olanipekun

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The selective removal of chromium, a trace impurity that degrades the whiteness of titanium(IV oxide pigments, from sulphuric acid leach liquor of ilmenite, was investigated by solvent extraction with xylene solutions of trioctylamine. Important factors of commercial significance affecting the extraction operation have been examined. More than 99% of the chromium was selectively removed in multiple batch extractions from the leach liquor and titanium losses were minimal (< 1%. The chromium content of extracted solutions was reduced to less than 1 ppm and thermal hydrolysis of these solutions yielded white titanium(IV oxide pigments that are suitable for use in the coatings pigment industry.

  8. Optimization of an innovative approach involving mechanical activation and acid digestion for the extraction of lithium from lepidolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieceli, Nathália; Nogueira, Carlos A.; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Durão, Fernando O.; Guimarães, Carlos; Margarido, Fernanda

    2018-01-01

    The recovery of lithium from hard rock minerals has received increased attention given the high demand for this element. Therefore, this study optimized an innovative process, which does not require a high-temperature calcination step, for lithium extraction from lepidolite. Mechanical activation and acid digestion were suggested as crucial process parameters, and experimental design and response-surface methodology were applied to model and optimize the proposed lithium extraction process. The promoting effect of amorphization and the formation of lithium sulfate hydrate on lithium extraction yield were assessed. Several factor combinations led to extraction yields that exceeded 90%, indicating that the proposed process is an effective approach for lithium recovery.

  9. Application of microwave energy to speed up the alkaline extraction of humic and fulvic acids from marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaris-Hortas, Vanessa; Moreda-Pineiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of microwave energy to speed up the alkaline extraction of humic substances (humic acid, HA, and fulvic acid, FA) from marine sediments has been checked. Extractions were performed by using 20 mL of sodium hydroxide at 0.1 M (two repeated extractions) after an ultrasound-assisted acid pre-treatment of samples to remove the carbonate fraction (ultrasound power at 17 kHz, 10 mL of 6.0 M hydrochloric acid for 15 min). After separation of HA and FA fractions by acidifying with 6 M HCl, the FA fraction (supernatant) was purified by passing the solution through a column of Amberlite XAD-8. Both HA and FA extracts were measured by UV-visible spectrophotometry. All variables affecting the extraction process (sodium hydroxide concentration and volume, ramp and hold times, temperature and number of repeated extractions) have been screened by using a Plackett-Burman design (PBD) as multivariate approach. The variables temperature and number of repeated extractions were the most significant factors (P = 95%) affecting the extraction of both FA and HA from marine sediments. These two variables have led optimum values of 150 deg. C and two repeated extractions. The developed method has been found precise (R.S.D.s of 9% for HA and 12% for FA, for 11 determinations) and its results were comparable in terms of elemental (C, H and N) composition to those obtained after applying methods based on mechanical stirring and ultrasounds assisting. However, higher HA and FA concentrations than those obtained after conventional stirring and ultrasound irradiation were obtained when applying microwave energy. This means a higher efficiency of microwave energy than ultrasounds or mechanical stirring to extract HA and FA fractions from marine sediments. The method was finally applied to different surface marine sediments from the Ria de Arousa estuary

  10. Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, GyeYoon; Han, KyuChul; Yoon, JinYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium from nitric acid solution using di-n-butylsulfoxide in petroleum ether as extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M.H.; Shahida, S. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad (Pakistan); Ali, A. [Nuclear Chemistry Div., Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-07-01

    A simple, efficient and economical liquid-liquid extraction method has been developed for quantitative extraction of uranium from 2 M HNO{sub 3} using di-n-butyl sulfoxide in petroleum ether. The dependence of the partition reaction of U(VI) on the concentration of HNO{sub 3}, extractant and temperature was studied. The reaction was found to be inversely dependent upon the temperature and the values for related thermodynamics functions ({delta}H, {delta}S, {delta}G) for extraction equilibrium were determined to be -33.6 kJ/mol, -1.29 kJ/mol/degree and -0.11 kJ/mol/degree, respectively. The effect of Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as salting-out agent and diverse ions on the extraction was examined. The salting-out agent slightly enhanced the extraction. All cations studied have showed negligible effect on the extraction, whereas phosphate and fluoride interfered seriously. Among others, oxalate, citrate and sulphide ions affect the extraction to a lesser extent. Uranium was successfully extracted from a synthetic mixture of Ti{sup +4}, Zr{sup +4}, Hf{sup +4} and Th{sup +4} using EDTA as masking agent. Among strippants, deionized water was found most suitable, and the recovery of uranium was noted to be {>=} 96%. The stoichiometric composition of the extracted species was found to be UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} . 2DBSO. The extraction mechanism is discussed on the basis of the results obtained. The extractant has high loading as well as recycling capacity without any degradation. The method was also applied to the Standard Reference Material (NBL-49) and the measured value was found to be in agreement with the reported value within {+-}2% deviation. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of in-situ fatty acid extraction protocols for the analysis of staphylococcal cell membrane associated fatty acids by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Marcus J; Dunstan, R Hugh

    2018-05-01

    The composition and integrity of the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is critical to the survival of staphylococci in dynamic environments and it is important to investigate how the cell membrane responds to changes in the environmental conditions. The staphylococcal membrane differs from eukaryotic and many other bacterial cell membranes by having a high abundance of branch fatty acids and relatively few unsaturated fatty acids. The range of available methods for extraction and efficient analyses of staphylococcal fatty acids was initially appraised to identify the best potential procedures for appraisal. Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Rosenbach (ATCC® 29213) was grown under optimal conditions to generate a cell biomass to compare the efficiencies of three approaches to extract and prepare methyl esters of the membrane fatty acids: (1) acidic direct transesterification of lipids, (2) modified basic direct transesterification of membrane lipids with adjusted reaction times and temperatures, and (3) base catalysed hydrolysis followed by acid catalysed esterification in two separate chemical reactions (MIDI process). All methods were able to extract fatty acids from the cell mass effectively where these lipids represented approximately 5% of the cellular dry mass. The acidic transesterification method had the least number of steps, the lowest coefficient of variation at 6.7% and good resistance to tolerating water. Basic transesterification was the least accurate method showing the highest coefficient of variation (26%). The MIDI method showed good recoveries, but had twice the number of steps and a coefficient of variation of 16%. It was also found that there was no need to use an anti-oxidant such as BHT for the protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids when the GC-MS injection liner was clean. It was concluded that the acidic transesterification procedures formed the most efficient and reproducible method for the analyses of staphylococcal membrane fatty acids

  13. Hyaluronic Acid Improves Bone Formation in Extraction Sockets With Chronic Pathology: A Pilot Study in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ju; Song, Hyun Young; Ben Amara, Heithem; Kyung-Rim, Kang; Koo, Ki-Tae

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies on ridge preservation focusing on fresh extraction sockets using graft materials for ridge preservation procedures have reported a delay in the tissue modeling and remodeling phases. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) on healing of infected sockets. Six beagle dogs were used in this study. Both mandibular third premolars were hemisected, and the distal roots were extracted. Subsequently, periodontal and endodontic lesions were induced at the remaining mesial root. After communication of the periodontal lesion, an endodontic periapical lesion was observed at 4 months, and the mesial roots of both the right and left sides were extracted. HA was applied into the socket of the test group, and no treatment was administered to the other group (control group). Three months after extraction of the mesial roots, the dogs were sacrificed, and histologic evaluations were performed. The sockets were filled by mineralized bone (47.80% ± 6.60%) and bone marrow (50.47% ± 6.38%) in the control group, whereas corresponding values were 63.29% ± 9.78% and 34.73% ± 8.97% for the test group, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups. Reversal lines and a copious lineup of osteoblasts were observed in the middle and apical parts of the sockets in the test group. An infected socket shows delayed healing of the socket wound, and HA, because of its osteoinductive, bacteriostatic, and anti-inflammatory properties, may improve bone formation and accelerate wound healing in infected sockets.

  14. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  15. Extraction of indicator quantities of zirconium by di-n-cresylphosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomin, V V; Potapova, S A

    1976-01-01

    The carrier-free extraction is studied of /sup 95/Zr from 1, 2, 5 and 9M HNO/sub 3/ with the solutions of d-n-cresyl-phosphoric acid (HA) in CHCl/sub 3/ concentrated from 1.25x10/sup -4/ to 5x10/sup -4/ M from the mixtures of HNO/sub 3/ and LiNO/sub 3/ NaNO/sub 3/, Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ solutions and HClO/sub 4/ and NaClO/sub 4/ depending on the concentration of hydrogen ions at a constant concentration of HA in CHCl/sub 3/ equal to 2.5x10/sup -4/ M, and the concentration of NO/sub 3//sup -/ and ClO/sub 4//sup -/ ions equal to 5 g-ion/1. The results are presented in terms of bilogarithmic dependencies of the distribution coefficient (..cap alpha..) on the equilibrium concentration of the (HA)/sub 2/ - ions in the aqueous phase. It follows from the data obtained that the region 1-5 M HNO/sub 3/ is dominated by the hydrolyzed ions of Zr(OH)/sub 2//sup 2 +/, while the region 3-5 M HClO/sub 4/ - by Zr/sup 4 +/, and the compound to be extracted has the composition ZrA/sub 4/. In the extraction of /sup 95/Zr with a 2.5x10/sup -4/ M solution of HA from HNO/sub 3/ or HClO/sub 4/ only, ..cap alpha.. passes through a minimum at a concentration of 3.4 and 5.4 M, respectively. The extraction is studied of /sup 95/Zr with a 2.5x1g/sup -4/ M solution of HA from the mixtures of HNO/sub 3/ and HClO/sub 4/ with an aggregate concentration of 1 and 5 M, respectively. At a definite mixture composition corresponding to the 1.3 M HNO/sub 3/ and 3.7 M HClO/sub 4/, ..cap alpha.. passes through a maximum. The maximum value of ..cap alpha.. is 11 times that in the extraction from 5 M HClO/sub 4/ and 4.5 times that in the extraction from 5 M HNO/sub 3/.

  16. The extraction of zirconium (IV) from sulfuric acid solutions with high-molecular weight quaternary ammonium compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Taichi; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    The extraction of zirconium sulfate in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions with trioctylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat-336; R 3 R'NCl) in organic solvents has been investigated under different conditions. In addition, the organic phases extracted sulfuric acid and zirconium sulfate were examined by IR and NMR spectroscopies. It has been found that Aliquat-336 extracts zirconium (IV) from sulfuric acid solutions according to the following ion-exchange reactions. i) The extraction of sulfuric acid is at first carried out through the equilibria, SO 4 2 - (aq) + 2R 3 R'NCl(org) reversible (R 3 R'N) 2 SO 4 (org) + 2Cl - (aq), (R 3 R'N) 2 SO 4 (org) + H + (aq) + HSO 4- (aq) reversible 2R 3 R'NHSO 4 (org). ii) The extraction of zirconium is expressed as the equilibrium reaction, Zr(SO 4 ) 3 2 - (aq) + 2xR 3 R'NHSO 4 (org) + (1-x)(R 3 R'N) 2 SO 4 (org) reversible (R 3 R'N) 2 [Zr(SO 4 ) 3 ](org) + xH 2 SO 4 (aq) + SO 4 2 - (aq), x = [R 3 R'NHSO 4 ]/(2[(R 3 R'N) 2 SO 4 ] + [R 3 R'NHSO 4 ]). Moreover, the hydrolyzed species (R 3 R'N)[ZrO(OH)(SO 4 )] is formed when zirconium is further extracted in an organic phase. (author)

  17. Green approach to corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid solutions by the extract of Murraya koenigii leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quraishi, M.A., E-mail: maquraishi@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Ambrish; Singh, Vinod Kumar [Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi 221002 (India); Yadav, Dileep Kumar; Singh, Ashish Kumar [Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2010-07-01

    The inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid solutions by the extract of Murraya koenigii leaves has been studied using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the leaves extract. The effect of temperature, immersion time and acid concentration on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in 1 M HCl and 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} with addition of extract was also studied. The inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. The adsorption of the extract on the mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The activation energy as well as other thermodynamic parameters (Q, {Delta}H*, and {Delta}S*) for the inhibition process was calculated. These thermodynamic parameters show strong interaction between inhibitor and mild steel surface. The results obtained show that the extract of the leaves of M. koenigii could serve as an effective inhibitor of the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric and sulphuric acid media.

  18. Total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and acceptance of synbiotic yoghurt with red ginger extract (Zingiberofficinale var. rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larasati, B. A.; Panunggal, B.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidant related to oxidative stress can caused the metabolic disorders. A functional food that high in antioxidant can be use as the alternative prevention. The addition of red ginger extract in yoghurt could form a functional food, that high in antioxidant, synbiotic and fiber. The influence of red ginger extract on yoghurt synbiotic against lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity and acceptance were analyzed. This was an experimental research with one factor complete randomized design, specifically the addition of red ginger extract 0%; 0,1%; 0,3% and 0,5% into synbiotic yoghurt. Total plate count method used to analyze the lactic acid bacteria, 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method for antioxidant activity, and acceptance analyzed with hedonic test. The higher the dose of extract added to synbiotic yoghurt, the antioxidant activity got significantly increased (ρ=0,0001), while the lactic acid bacteria got insignificantly decreased (ρ=0,085). The addition of 0,5% red ginger extract obtained the antioxidant activity of 71% and 4,86 × 1013 CFU/ml on lactic acid bacteria, which the requirement for probiotic on National Standard of Indonesia is >107 CFU/ml. The addition of extract had a significant effect on acceptance (ρ=0,0001) in flavor, color, and texture, but not aroma (ρ=0,266). The optimal product in this research was the yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,1% red ginger extract. To summarize, the addition of red ginger extract in synbiotic yoghurt had significant effect on antioxidant activity, flavor, color, and texture, but no significant effect on lactic acid bacteria and aroma.

  19. Methanol extract of Nigella sativa seed induces changes in the levels of neurotransmitter ami