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Sample records for extracellular matrix ecm

  1. EcmPred: Prediction of extracellular matrix proteins based on random forest with maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection

    KAUST Repository

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar Umar; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Kalies, Kai Uwe; Hartmann, Enno; Martinetz, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of tissues of multicellular organisms. It consists of secreted macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Malfunctions of ECM proteins lead to severe disorders such as marfan

  2. The ECM-Cell Interaction of Cartilage Extracellular Matrix on Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM is composed primarily of the network type II collagen (COLII and an interlocking mesh of fibrous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs, hyaluronic acid (HA, and chondroitin sulfate (CS. Articular cartilage ECM plays a crucial role in regulating chondrocyte metabolism and functions, such as organized cytoskeleton through integrin-mediated signaling via cell-matrix interaction. Cell signaling through integrins regulates several chondrocyte functions, including differentiation, metabolism, matrix remodeling, responses to mechanical stimulation, and cell survival. The major signaling pathways that regulate chondrogenesis have been identified as wnt signal, nitric oxide (NO signal, protein kinase C (PKC, and retinoic acid (RA signal. Integrins are a large family of molecules that are central regulators in multicellular biology. They orchestrate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesive interactions from embryonic development to mature tissue function. In this review, we emphasize the signaling molecule effect and the biomechanics effect of cartilage ECM on chondrogenesis.

  3. EcmPred: Prediction of extracellular matrix proteins based on random forest with maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection

    KAUST Repository

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar Umar

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of tissues of multicellular organisms. It consists of secreted macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Malfunctions of ECM proteins lead to severe disorders such as marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, numerous chondrodysplasias, and skin diseases. In this work, we report a random forest approach, EcmPred, for the prediction of ECM proteins from protein sequences. EcmPred was trained on a dataset containing 300 ECM and 300 non-ECM and tested on a dataset containing 145 ECM and 4187 non-ECM proteins. EcmPred achieved 83% accuracy on the training and 77% on the test dataset. EcmPred predicted 15 out of 20 experimentally verified ECM proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome, we predicted novel ECM proteins validated with gene ontology and InterPro. The dataset and standalone version of the EcmPred software is available at http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/Extracellular_matrix_proteins/EcmPred. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the main extracellular matrix (ECM) enzymes in collagen degradation, as a target for anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska-Trypuć, Agata; Matejczyk, Marzena; Rosochacki, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    The main group of enzymes responsible for the collagen and other protein degradation in extracellular matrix (ECM) are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Collagen is the main structural component of connective tissue and its degradation is a very important process in the development, morphogenesis, tissue remodeling, and repair. Typical structure of MMPs consists of several distinct domains. MMP family can be divided into six groups: collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins, membrane-type MMPs, and other non-classified MMPs. MMPs and their inhibitors have multiple biological functions in all stages of cancer development: from initiation to outgrowth of clinically relevant metastases and likewise in apoptosis and angiogenesis. MMPs and their inhibitors are extensively examined as potential anticancer drugs. MMP inhibitors can be divided into two main groups: synthetic and natural inhibitors. Selected synthetic inhibitors are in clinical trials on humans, e.g. synthetic peptides, non-peptidic molecules, chemically modified tetracyclines, and bisphosphonates. Natural MMP inhibitors are mainly isoflavonoids and shark cartilage.

  5. Modeling extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations in ovarian cancer by multiphoton excited fabrication of stromal models (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, Paul J.; Ajeti, Visar; Lara, Jorge; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Patankar, Mansh

    2016-04-01

    A profound remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs in human ovarian cancer but it unknown how this affects tumor growth, where this understanding could lead to better diagnostics and therapeutic approaches. We investigate the role of these ECM alterations by using multiphoton excited (MPE) polymerization to fabricate biomimetic models to investigate operative cell-matrix interactions in invasion/metastasis. First, we create nano/microstructured gradients mimicking the basal lamina to study adhesion/migration dynamics of ovarian cancer cells of differing metastatic potential. We find a strong haptotactic response that depends on both contact guidance and ECM binding cues. While we found enhanced migration for more invasive cells, the specifics of alignment and directed migration also depend on cell polarity. We further use MPE fabrication to create collagen scaffolds with complex, 3D submicron morphology. The stromal scaffold designs are derived directly from "blueprints" based on SHG images of normal, high risk, and malignant ovarian tissues. The models are seeded with different cancer cell lines and this allows decoupling of the roles of cell characteristics (metastatic potential) and ECM structure and composition (normal vs cancer) on adhesion/migration dynamics. We found the malignant stroma structure promotes enhanced migration and proliferation and also cytoskeletal alignment. Creating synthetic models based on fibers patterns further allows decoupling the topographic roles of the fibers themselves vs their alignment within the tissue. These models cannot be synthesized by other conventional fabrication methods and we suggest the MPE image-based fabrication method will enable a variety of studies in cancer biology.

  6. Pixel based SHG probes of extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations in ovarian cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kirby R.; Chaudhary, Rajeev; Handel, Julia; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2017-02-01

    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix in human ovarian cancer, can be reflected in increased collagen concentration, changes in alignment and/or up-regulation of different collagen isoforms, including Col III. Using fibrillar gel models, we demonstrate that Col I and Col III can be quantitatively distinguished by 3 distinct SHG polarization specific metrics: i) determination of helical pitch angle via the single axis molecular model, ii) dipole alignment via anisotropy, and iii) chirality via SHG circular dichroism (SHG-CD). These sub-resolution differentiations are possible due to differences in the α helix angles of the two isoforms, which co-mingle in the same fibrils. We also investigated the mechanism of the SHG-CD response and show that unlike conventional CD, it is dominated by electric dipole interactions and is consistent with the two state SHG model. We further applied these 3 polarization resolved analyses to human normal, high risk, benign tumors, and malignant human ovarian tissues. We found that these tissues could all be differentiated by these metrics, where high grade tissues had analogous α-helical pitch angles to the in the Col I/Col III gel model. This confirms literature suggestions based on immunofluorescence and gene expression that Col III is up-regulated in high grade ovarian cancers. The different tissues also displayed differing anisotropies, indicating the fibril assemblies are distinct and likely do not result from remodeling of existing collagen but synthesis of new collagen. Importantly, these SHG polarization methods provide structural information not otherwise possible and can serve as label-free biomarkers for ovarian and other cancers.

  7. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-integrin receptors predict invasive/metastatic propensities in cervical neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau-Levin, Mary; Chao, Clifford K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Background: In 15-30% of early stage cervical cancers undergoing radical surgery, pathology might show deep cervical stromal invasion, lymphovascular space involvement (LVS) or lymph node metastasis (LNM). These histological features ominously dictate the outcome through increasing pelvic failure and distant metastasis. Often, post-operative RT will be given. As the result, patients will receive duplicated local treatments (surgery and RT) which result in no better survival but higher complication rate, and it optimally increases health care costs. In the era of managed care, the medical community is mandated to choose the most appropriate local treatment modality for each individual patient to provide the best and the most efficient care. The results of the expression of biological markers on tumor cells for predicting invasive/metastatic propensity have been investigated in an attempt to select patients more suitable for treatment with radiation therapy alone, but the results have not been reproducible due to tumor heterogeneity. Based on the 'seed and soil' concept, we hypothesize that the cascade of invasion/metastasis involves aberrant adhesion characteristics in the tumor cell to the ECM, and integrin family as the receptors of ECM ligands are crucial in tumor cell for invasion and metastasis. The expression of αv and β4 integrin domains, which have shown to be related with biological aggressiveness of melanoma cell line and endometrial cancer, may be predictive for the aggressiveness of in vivo human cervical cancer. To examine this hypothesis, the following experiments were conducted. Materials and Methods: We examined the expression of αv and β4 integrin domains in 33 specimens, including 6 normal cervix; 6 squamous cell carcinoma, ≤2cm but with LVS; 7 squamous cell carcinoma, >2cm but without LVS or LNM; 14 squamous cell carcinoma, >2cm and with LVS or LNM. Anti-Human Integrin αv and β4 monoclonal antibodies that react to vitronectin and basement

  8. Wavelength dependent SHG imaging and scattering probes of extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations in ovarian cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, Paul J.; Tilbury, Karissa B.; Campbell, Kirby R.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Patankar, Manish

    2017-02-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the most deadly gynecological cancer with a poor aggregate survival rate. To improve upon this situation, we utilized collagen-specific Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) imaging microscopy and optical scattering measurements to probe structural differences in the extracellular matrix of normal stroma, benign tumors, endometrioid tumors, and low and high-grade serous (LGS and HGS) tumors. The SHG signatures of the emission directionality and conversion efficiency as well as the optical scattering are related to the organization of collagen on the sub-micron size. The wavelength dependence of these readouts adds additional characterization of the size and distribution of collagen fibrils/fibers relative to the interrogating wavelengths. We found strong wavelength dependent dependencies of these metrics that were different between the different tumors that are related to respective structural attributes in the collagen organization. These sub-resolution determinations are consistent with the dualistic classification of type I and II serous tumors. However, type I endometrioid tumors have strongly differing ECM architecture than the serous malignancies. Moreover, our analyses are further consistent with LGS and benign tumors having similar etiology. We identified optimal wavelengths for the SHG metrics as well as optical scattering measurements. The SHG metrics and optical scattering measurements were then used to form a linear discriminant model to classify the tissues, and we obtained high accuracy ( 90%) between the tissue types. This delineation is superior to current clinical performance and has potential applicability in supplementing histological analysis, understanding the etiology, as well as development of an in vivo screening tool.

  9. Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Kim, Moon Suk; Kim, Young Jick; Choi, Byung Hyune; Lee, Chun Tek; Park, So Ra; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3) is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS) are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using western blot and circular dichroism (CD) analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+) rhTGF-β3 EMLDS) in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair. PMID:27258120

  10. Extracellular Matrix (ECM Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Sim Yang

    Full Text Available Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3 is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs using western blot and circular dichroism (CD analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+ rhTGF-β3 EMLDS in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair.

  11. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extracellular matrix scaffolds for cartilage and bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, K.E.M.; van Weeren, P.R.; Badylak, S.F.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Malda, J.

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative medicine approaches based on decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds and tissues are rapidly expanding. The rationale for using ECM as a natural biomaterial is the presence of bioactive molecules that drive tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Moreover, appropriately

  13. The extracellular matrix deposited by asthmatic airway smooth muscle cells in a resting state reflects a healthy matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkness, Louise; Ashton, Anthony; Burgess, Janette

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The remodelled asthmatic airway features an altered extracellular matrix (ECM) & increased vasculature. Previous studies found asthmatic (A) airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) to deposit an ECM with enhanced bioactivity. These studies however investigated ECM deposited in the presence

  14. Incorporation of Tenascin-C into the Extracellular Matrix by Periostin Underlies an Extracellular Meshwork Architecture*

    OpenAIRE

    Kii, Isao; Nishiyama, Takashi; Li, Minqi; Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Saito, Mitsuru; Amizuka, Norio; Kudo, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) underlies a complicated multicellular architecture that is subjected to significant forces from mechanical environment. Although various components of the ECM have been enumerated, mechanisms that evolve the sophisticated ECM architecture remain to be addressed. Here we show that periostin, a matricellular protein, promotes incorporation of tenascin-C into the ECM and organizes a meshwork architecture of the ECM. We found that both periostin null mice and tenascin-C...

  15. Towards integrating extracellular matrix and immunological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, David F; Thomas, Paul G

    2017-10-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex and dynamic structure made up of an estimated 300 different proteins. The ECM is also a rich source of cytokines and growth factors in addition to numerous bioactive ECM degradation products that influence cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The ECM is constantly being remodeled during homeostasis and in a wide range of pathological contexts. Changes in the ECM modulate immune responses, which in turn regulate repair and regeneration of tissues. Here, we review the many components of the ECM, enzymes involved in ECM remodeling, and the signals that feed into immunological pathways in the context of a dynamic ECM. We highlight studies that have taken an integrative approach to studying immune responses in the context of the ECM and studies that use novel proteomic strategies. Finally, we discuss research challenges relevant to the integration of immune and ECM networks and propose experimental and translational approaches to resolve these issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accelerated extracellular matrix turnover during exacerbations of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Jannie M B; Knox, Alan J; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    progression. Extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover reflects activity in tissues and consequently assessment of ECM turnover may serve as biomarkers of disease activity. We hypothesized that the turnover of lung ECM proteins were altered during exacerbations of COPD. METHODS: 69 patients with COPD hospitalised...... of circulating fragments of structural proteins, which may serve as markers of disease activity. This suggests that patients with COPD have accelerated ECM turnover during exacerbations which may be related to disease progression....

  17. Why regenerative medicine needs an extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Glenn D; Healy, Kevin E

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is now coming of age. Many attempts at cell therapy have failed to show significant efficacy, and the umbrella term 'stem cell therapy' is perceived in some quarters as hype or just expensive and unnecessary medical tourism. Here we present a short editorial in three parts. First, we examine the importance of using a semisynthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) mimetic, or sECM, to deliver and retain therapeutic cells at the site of administration. Second, we describe one approach in which biophysical and biochemical properties are tailored to each tissue type, which we call "design for optimal functionality." Third, we describe an alternative approach to sECM design and implementation, called "design for simplicity," in which a deconstructed, minimalist sECM is employed and biology is allowed to perform the customization in situ. We opine that an sECM, whether minimal or instructive, is an essential contributor to improve the outcomes of cell-based therapies.

  18. Shaping Synapses by the Neural Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ferrer-Ferrer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating data support the importance of interactions between pre- and postsynaptic neuronal elements with astroglial processes and extracellular matrix (ECM for formation and plasticity of chemical synapses, and thus validate the concept of a tetrapartite synapse. Here we outline the major mechanisms driving: (i synaptogenesis by secreted extracellular scaffolding molecules, like thrombospondins (TSPs, neuronal pentraxins (NPs and cerebellins, which respectively promote presynaptic, postsynaptic differentiation or both; (ii maturation of synapses via reelin and integrin ligands-mediated signaling; and (iii regulation of synaptic plasticity by ECM-dependent control of induction and consolidation of new synaptic configurations. Particularly, we focused on potential importance of activity-dependent concerted activation of multiple extracellular proteases, such as ADAMTS4/5/15, MMP9 and neurotrypsin, for permissive and instructive events in synaptic remodeling through localized degradation of perisynaptic ECM and generation of proteolytic fragments as inducers of synaptic plasticity.

  19. In vivo extracellular matrix protein expression by human periodontal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... Extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) are described as molecular regulators of these events. ..... zation and adhesive interaction of cells (Yamada, 1983). .... periodontal ligament fibroblasts after simulation of orthodontic force.

  20. Extracellular matrix fluctuations during early embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, A; Rupp, P A; Rongish, B J; Little, C D; Czirók, A

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) movements and rearrangements were studied in avian embryos during early stages of development. We show that the ECM moves as a composite material, whereby distinct molecular components as well as spatially separated layers exhibit similar displacements. Using scanning wide field and confocal microscopy we show that the velocity field of ECM displacement is smooth in space and that ECM movements are correlated even at locations separated by several hundred micrometers. Velocity vectors, however, strongly fluctuate in time. The autocorrelation time of the velocity fluctuations is less than a minute. Suppression of the fluctuations yields a persistent movement pattern that is shared among embryos at equivalent stages of development. The high resolution of the velocity fields allows a detailed spatio-temporal characterization of important morphogenetic processes, especially tissue dynamics surrounding the embryonic organizer (Hensen's node)

  1. "Tipping" extracellular matrix remodeling towards regression of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magdaleno, Fernando; Schierwagen, Robert; Uschner, Frank E

    2018-01-01

    Fibrosis development was initially conceived as an incessant progressive condition. Nowadays, it has become evident that fibrotic tissue undergoes a continuous two-way process: fibrogenesis and fibrinolysis, characterizing the remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM). However, in established...... fibrosis, this two-way process is tipped towards fibrogenesis and this leads to a self-perpetuating accumulation of ECM, a distinct metabolic unit, together with other cells and processes promoting fibrosis deposition. Several mechanisms promote fibrosis regression, such as degradation of ECM, infiltration...

  2. Extracellular matrix and its receptors in Drosophila neural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadie, Kendal; Baumgartner, Stefan; Prokop, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) and matrix receptors are intimately involved in most biological processes. The ECM plays fundamental developmental and physiological roles in health and disease, including processes underlying the development, maintenance and regeneration of the nervous system. To understand the principles of ECM-mediated functions in the nervous system, genetic model organisms like Drosophila provide simple, malleable and powerful experimental platforms. This article provides an overview of ECM proteins and receptors in Drosophila. It then focuses on their roles during three progressive phases of neural development: 1) neural progenitor proliferation, 2) axonal growth and pathfinding and 3) synapse formation and function. Each section highlights known ECM and ECM-receptor components and recent studies done in mutant conditions to reveal their in vivo functions, all illustrating the enormous opportunities provided when merging work on the nervous system with systematic research into ECM-related gene functions. PMID:21688401

  3. Extracellular matrix in canine mammary tumors with special focus on versican, a versatile extracellular proteoglycan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdélyi, Ildikó

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) research has become fundamental to understand cancer. This thesis focuses on the exploration of ECM composition and organization in canine mammary tumors, with a special interest in the large chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan (PG), versican. Chapter 1 gives an

  4. Stress-induced ECM alteration modulates cellular microRNAs that feedback to readjust the extracellular environment and cell behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna R Shcherbata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular environment is a complex entity comprising of the extracellular matrix (ECM and regulatory molecules. It is highly dynamic and under cell-extrinsic stress, transmits the stressed organism’s state to each individual ECM-connected cell. microRNAs (miRNAs are regulatory molecules involved in virtually all the processes in the cell, especially under stress. In this review, we analyse how microRNA expression is regulated downstream of various signal transduction pathways induced by changes in the extracellular environment. In particular, we focus on the muscular dystrophy-associated cell adhesion molecule dystroglycan capable of signal transduction. Then we show how exactly the same miRNAs feedback to regulate the extracellular environment. The ultimate goal of this bi-directional signal transduction process is to change cell behaviour under cell-extrinsic stress in order to respond to it accordingly.

  5. How does the extracellular matrix direct gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, M J; Hall, H G; Parry, G

    1982-01-01

    Based on the existing literature, a model is presented that postulates a ''dynamic reciprocity'' between the extracellular matrix (ECM) on the one hand and the cytoskeleton and the nuclear matrix on the other hand. The ECM is postulated to exert physical and chemical influences on the geometry and the biochemistry of the cell via transmembrane receptors so as to alter the pattern of gene expression by changing the association of the cytoskeleton with mRNA and the interaction of the chromatin with the nuclear matrix. This, in turn, would affect the ECM, which would affect the cell.

  6. Extracellular matrix hydrogels from decellularized tissues: Structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, Lindsey T; Cramer, Madeline C; Velankar, Sachin S; White, Lisa J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffolds prepared from decellularized tissues have been used to facilitate constructive and functional tissue remodeling in a variety of clinical applications. The discovery that these ECM materials could be solubilized and subsequently manipulated to form hydrogels expanded their potential in vitro and in vivo utility; i.e. as culture substrates comparable to collagen or Matrigel, and as injectable materials that fill irregularly-shaped defects. The mechanisms by which ECM hydrogels direct cell behavior and influence remodeling outcomes are only partially understood, but likely include structural and biological signals retained from the native source tissue. The present review describes the utility, formation, and physical and biological characterization of ECM hydrogels. Two examples of clinical application are presented to demonstrate in vivo utility of ECM hydrogels in different organ systems. Finally, new research directions and clinical translation of ECM hydrogels are discussed. More than 70 papers have been published on extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels created from source tissue in almost every organ system. The present manuscript represents a review of ECM hydrogels and attempts to identify structure-function relationships that influence the tissue remodeling outcomes and gaps in the understanding thereof. There is a Phase 1 clinical trial now in progress for an ECM hydrogel. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Incorporation of Tenascin-C into the Extracellular Matrix by Periostin Underlies an Extracellular Meshwork Architecture*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, Isao; Nishiyama, Takashi; Li, Minqi; Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Saito, Mitsuru; Amizuka, Norio; Kudo, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) underlies a complicated multicellular architecture that is subjected to significant forces from mechanical environment. Although various components of the ECM have been enumerated, mechanisms that evolve the sophisticated ECM architecture remain to be addressed. Here we show that periostin, a matricellular protein, promotes incorporation of tenascin-C into the ECM and organizes a meshwork architecture of the ECM. We found that both periostin null mice and tenascin-C null mice exhibited a similar phenotype, confined tibial periostitis, which possibly corresponds to medial tibial stress syndrome in human sports injuries. Periostin possessed adjacent domains that bind to tenascin-C and the other ECM protein: fibronectin and type I collagen, respectively. These adjacent domains functioned as a bridge between tenascin-C and the ECM, which increased deposition of tenascin-C on the ECM. The deposition of hexabrachions of tenascin-C may stabilize bifurcations of the ECM fibrils, which is integrated into the extracellular meshwork architecture. This study suggests a role for periostin in adaptation of the ECM architecture in the mechanical environment. PMID:19887451

  8. Incorporation of tenascin-C into the extracellular matrix by periostin underlies an extracellular meshwork architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, Isao; Nishiyama, Takashi; Li, Minqi; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Saito, Mitsuru; Amizuka, Norio; Kudo, Akira

    2010-01-15

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) underlies a complicated multicellular architecture that is subjected to significant forces from mechanical environment. Although various components of the ECM have been enumerated, mechanisms that evolve the sophisticated ECM architecture remain to be addressed. Here we show that periostin, a matricellular protein, promotes incorporation of tenascin-C into the ECM and organizes a meshwork architecture of the ECM. We found that both periostin null mice and tenascin-C null mice exhibited a similar phenotype, confined tibial periostitis, which possibly corresponds to medial tibial stress syndrome in human sports injuries. Periostin possessed adjacent domains that bind to tenascin-C and the other ECM protein: fibronectin and type I collagen, respectively. These adjacent domains functioned as a bridge between tenascin-C and the ECM, which increased deposition of tenascin-C on the ECM. The deposition of hexabrachions of tenascin-C may stabilize bifurcations of the ECM fibrils, which is integrated into the extracellular meshwork architecture. This study suggests a role for periostin in adaptation of the ECM architecture in the mechanical environment.

  9. The Role of Extracellular Matrix Quality in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jacob Hull; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Genovese, Federica

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) quality in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis (PF). In PF, the highly ordered structure of collagens and elastin within the ECM of the lung is severely disrupted and lacks its original tissue quality. Discussions about the ECM have...... focused on the role of protein quantity in relation to the progression of PF, while the importance of lung ECM quality, defined by the levels of ECM protein modifications and by the protein distribution in lung tissue, has not been properly addressed. The quality and function of proteins may be altered...... by different post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as crosslinking, proteolytic cleavage, citrullination, misfolding and glycosylation. This paper is the first to review key data from the literature related to the lung ECM at the molecular level, relate these to changes observed at a macroscopic level...

  10. Beyond the Matrix: The Many Non-ECM Ligands for Integrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce LaFoya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of integrins portrays these highly conserved cell surface receptors as mediators of cellular attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM, and to a lesser degree, as coordinators of leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium. These canonical activities are indispensable; however, there is also a wide variety of integrin functions mediated by non-ECM ligands that transcend the traditional roles of integrins. Some of these unorthodox roles involve cell-cell interactions and are engaged to support immune functions such as leukocyte transmigration, recognition of opsonization factors, and stimulation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Other cell-cell interactions mediated by integrins include hematopoietic stem cell and tumor cell homing to target tissues. Integrins also serve as cell-surface receptors for various growth factors, hormones, and small molecules. Interestingly, integrins have also been exploited by a wide variety of organisms including viruses and bacteria to support infectious activities such as cellular adhesion and/or cellular internalization. Additionally, the disruption of integrin function through the use of soluble integrin ligands is a common strategy adopted by several parasites in order to inhibit blood clotting during hematophagy, or by venomous snakes to kill prey. In this review, we strive to go beyond the matrix and summarize non-ECM ligands that interact with integrins in order to highlight these non-traditional functions of integrins.

  11. A novel assay for extracellular matrix remodeling associated with liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, N; Veidal, S S; Larsen, L

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and increased matrix-metalloprotease (MMPs) activity are hallmarks of fibrosis. We developed an ELISA for quantification of MMP-9 derived collagen type III (CO3) degradation.......Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and increased matrix-metalloprotease (MMPs) activity are hallmarks of fibrosis. We developed an ELISA for quantification of MMP-9 derived collagen type III (CO3) degradation....

  12. Extracellular matrix dynamics during vertebrate axis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirók, András; Rongish, Brenda J; Little, Charles D

    2004-04-01

    The first evidence for the dynamics of in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) pattern formation during embryogenesis is presented below. Fibrillin 2 filaments were tracked for 12 h throughout the avian intraembryonic mesoderm using automated light microscopy and algorithms of our design. The data show that these ECM filaments have a reproducible morphogenic destiny that is characterized by directed transport. Fibrillin 2 particles initially deposited in the segmental plate mesoderm are translocated along an unexpected trajectory where they eventually polymerize into an intricate scaffold of cables parallel to the anterior-posterior axis. The cables coalesce near the midline before the appearance of the next-formed somite. Moreover, the ECM filaments define global tissue movements with high precision because the filaments act as passive motion tracers. Quantification of individual and collective filament "behaviors" establish fate maps, trajectories, and velocities. These data reveal a caudally propagating traveling wave pattern in the morphogenetic movements of early axis formation. We conjecture that within vertebrate embryos, long-range mechanical tension fields are coupled to both large-scale patterning and local organization of the ECM. Thus, physical forces or stress fields are essential requirements for executing an emergent developmental pattern-in this case, paraxial fibrillin cable assembly.

  13. Force spectroscopy of hepatocytic extracellular matrix components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongsunthon, R., E-mail: YongsuntR@Corning.com [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States); Baker, W.A.; Bryhan, M.D.; Baker, D.E.; Chang, T.; Petzold, O.N.; Walczak, W.J.; Liu, J.; Faris, R.A.; Senaratne, W.; Seeley, L.A.; Youngman, R.E. [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    We present atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy data of live hepatocytes (HEPG2/C3A liver cell line) grown in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium, a complex solution of salts and amino acids commonly used for cell culture. Contact-mode imaging and force spectroscopy of this system allowed correlation of cell morphology and extracellular matrix (ECM) properties with substrate properties. Force spectroscopy analysis of cellular 'footprints' indicated that the cells secrete large polymers (e.g., 3.5 {mu}m contour length and estimated MW 1000 kDa) onto their substrate surface. Although definitive identification of the polymers has not yet been achieved, fluorescent-labeled antibody staining has specified the presence of ECM proteins such as collagen and laminin in the cellular footprints. The stretched polymers appear to be much larger than single molecules of known ECM components, such as collagen and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, thus suggesting that the cells create larger entangled, macromolecular structures from smaller components. There is strong evidence which suggests that the composition of the ECM is greatly influenced by the hydrophobicity of the substrate surface, with preferential production and/or adsorption of larger macromolecules on hydrophobic surfaces.

  14. Extracellular matrix in lung development, homeostasis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Horowitz, Jeffrey C; Naba, Alexandra; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Atabai, Kamran; Balestrini, Jenna; Bitterman, Peter B; Corley, Richard A; Ding, Bi-Sen; Engler, Adam J; Hansen, Kirk C; Hagood, James S; Kheradmand, Farrah; Lin, Qing S; Neptune, Enid; Niklason, Laura; Ortiz, Luis A; Parks, William C; Tschumperlin, Daniel J; White, Eric S; Chapman, Harold A; Thannickal, Victor J

    2018-03-08

    The lung's unique extracellular matrix (ECM), while providing structural support for cells, is critical in the regulation of developmental organogenesis, homeostasis and injury-repair responses. The ECM, via biochemical or biomechanical cues, regulates diverse cell functions, fate and phenotype. The composition and function of lung ECM become markedly deranged in pathological tissue remodeling. ECM-based therapeutics and bioengineering approaches represent promising novel strategies for regeneration/repair of the lung and treatment of chronic lung diseases. In this review, we assess the current state of lung ECM biology, including fundamental advances in ECM composition, dynamics, topography, and biomechanics; the role of the ECM in normal and aberrant lung development, adult lung diseases and autoimmunity; and ECM in the regulation of the stem cell niche. We identify opportunities to advance the field of lung ECM biology and provide a set recommendations for research priorities to advance knowledge that would inform novel approaches to the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic lung diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. In vivo extracellular matrix protein expression by human periodontal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that the orthodontic force applied to teeth generates a series of events that remodel the periodontal ligament (PDL). Extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) are described as molecular regulators of these events. However, the exact contribution of these proteins in human PDL modeling by orthodontic force ...

  16. Peroxidase enzymes regulate collagen extracellular matrix biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNichilo, Mark O; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Rayner, Timothy E; Borowicz, Romana A; Greenwood, John E; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase are heme-containing enzymes often physically associated with fibrotic tissue and cancer in various organs, without any direct involvement in promoting fibroblast recruitment and extracellular matrix (ECM) biosynthesis at these sites. We report herein novel findings that show peroxidase enzymes possess a well-conserved profibrogenic capacity to stimulate the migration of fibroblastic cells and promote their ability to secrete collagenous proteins to generate a functional ECM both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies conducted using cultured fibroblasts show that these cells are capable of rapidly binding and internalizing both myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase. Peroxidase enzymes stimulate collagen biosynthesis at a post-translational level in a prolyl 4-hydroxylase-dependent manner that does not require ascorbic acid. This response was blocked by the irreversible myeloperoxidase inhibitor 4-amino-benzoic acid hydrazide, indicating peroxidase catalytic activity is essential for collagen biosynthesis. These results suggest that peroxidase enzymes, such as myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, may play a fundamental role in regulating the recruitment of fibroblast and the biosynthesis of collagen ECM at sites of normal tissue repair and fibrosis, with enormous implications for many disease states where infiltrating inflammatory cells deposit peroxidases. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recruitment of dental pulp cells by dentine and pulp extracellular matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J G; Smith, A J; Shelton, R M; Cooper, P R

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether dentine tissue and preparations of extracellular matrix (ECM) from pulp (pECM) and dentine (dECM), and breakdown products, influenced pulp cell migration. Chemotaxis transwell and agarose spot assays demonstrated that both dentine and pulp ECM molecules acted as chemoattractants for primary pulp cells. Chemoattractant activities of dECM and pECM were enhanced when subjected to acid and enzymatic breakdown, respectively. This enhanced activity following physiologically relevant breakdown may be pertinent to the disease environment. Pulp cell migration in response to dental ECMs was dependent on an active rho pathway. Recruited cells exhibited increased stem cell marker expression indicating that dental ECMs and their breakdown products selectively attract progenitor cells that contribute to repair processes. In conclusion, combined these results indicate that ECM molecules contribute to cell recruitment necessary for regeneration of the dentine-pulp complex after injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Extracellular Matrix as a Regulator of Epidermal Stem Cell Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermnykh, Elina; Kalabusheva, Ekaterina; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina

    2018-03-27

    Epidermal stem cells reside within the specific anatomic location, called niche, which is a microenvironment that interacts with stem cells to regulate their fate. Regulation of many important processes, including maintenance of stem cell quiescence, self-renewal, and homeostasis, as well as the regulation of division and differentiation, are common functions of the stem cell niche. As it was shown in multiple studies, extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes a lot to stem cell niches in various tissues, including that of skin. In epidermis, ECM is represented, primarily, by a highly specialized ECM structure, basement membrane (BM), which separates the epidermal and dermal compartments. Epidermal stem cells contact with BM, but when they lose the contact and migrate to the overlying layers, they undergo terminal differentiation. When considering all of these factors, ECM is of fundamental importance in regulating epidermal stem cells maintenance, proper mobilization, and differentiation. Here, we summarize the remarkable progress that has recently been made in the research of ECM role in regulating epidermal stem cell fate, paying special attention to the hair follicle stem cell niche. We show that the destruction of ECM components impairs epidermal stem cell morphogenesis and homeostasis. A deep understanding of ECM molecular structure as well as the development of in vitro system for stem cell maintaining by ECM proteins may bring us to developing new approaches for regenerative medicine.

  19. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    , the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread...... is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression....

  20. The matrikine N-α-PGP couples extracellular matrix fragmentation to endothelial permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, Cornelia S; Scott, David W; Xu, Xin; Roda, Mojtaba Abdul; Payne, Gregory A; Wells, J Michael; Viera, Liliana; Winstead, Colleen J; Bratcher, Preston; Sparidans, Rolf W; Redegeld, Frank A; Jackson, Patricia L; Folkerts, Gert; Blalock, J Edwin; Patel, Rakesh P; Gaggar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    The compartmentalization and transport of proteins and solutes across the endothelium is a critical biologic function altered during inflammation and disease, leading to pathology in multiple disorders. The impact of tissue damage and subsequent extracellular matrix (ECM) fragmentation in regulating

  1. FK506 protects against articular cartilage collagenous extra-cellular matrix degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Siebelt (Michiel); A.E. van der Windt (Anna); H.C. Groen (Harald); M. Sandker (Marjan); J.H. Waarsing (Jan); C. Müller (Cristina); M. de Jong (Marcel); H. Jahr (Holger); H.H. Weinans (Harrie)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a non-rheumatologic joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the cartilage extra-cellular matrix (ECM), enhanced subchondral bone remodeling, activation of synovial macrophages and osteophyte growth. Inhibition of calcineurin (Cn)

  2. hMSCs Cultured on Plant-Derived Tissue Engineering Extracellular Matrix in a Microgravity Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to fabricate an all plant-derived renewable, biodegradable complete mimic of the bone extracellular matrix (ECM). For the first...

  3. Targeting the extracellular matrix to disrupt cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freja Albjerg Venning

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multi-step process, with each step involving intricate cross-talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM. Many ECM proteins are significantly de-regulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.

  4. Extracellular matrix alterations in human corneas with bullous keratopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE. To uncover abnormalities of extracellular matrix (ECM) distribution in human corneas with pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy (PBK/ABK). METHODS. Indirect immunofluorescence with antibodies to 27 ECM components was used on frozen sections of 14 normal and 20 PBK/ABK corneas...... in some cases, correlated with decreased visual acuity. In normal central corneas, tenascin was never found. Other major ECM abnormalities in PBK/ABK corneas compared to normals included: discontinuous epithelial BM straining for laminin-1 (alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 1), entactin/nidogen and fibronectin......; accumulation of fibronectin and alpha 1-alpha 2 type IV collagen on the endothelial face of the Descemet's membrane; and abnormal deposition of stromal ECM (tenascin, fibronectin, decorin, types I, III, V, VI, VIII, XII, XIV collagen) and BM components (type IV, collagen, perlecan, bamacan, laminin-1, entactin...

  5. An immunofluorescence assay for extracellular matrix components highlights the role of epithelial cells in producing a stable, fibrillar extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar S. Qureshi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Activated fibroblasts are considered major drivers of fibrotic disease progression through the production of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM in response to signals from damaged epithelial and inflammatory cells. Nevertheless, epithelial cells are capable of expressing components of the ECM, cross-linking enzymes that increase its stability and are sensitive to factors involved in the early stages of fibrosis. We therefore wanted to test the hypothesis that epithelial cells can deposit ECM in response to stimulation in a comparable manner to fibroblasts. We performed immunofluorescence analysis of components of stable, mature extracellular matrix produced by primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells and renal fibroblasts in response to cytokine stimulation. Whilst fibroblasts produced a higher basal level of extracellular matrix components, epithelial cells were able to deposit significant levels of fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV in response to cytokine stimulation. In response to hypoxia, epithelial cells showed an increase in collagen IV deposition but not in response to the acute stress stimuli aristolochic acid or hydrogen peroxide. When epithelial cells were in co-culture with fibroblasts we observed significant increases in the level of matrix deposition which could be reduced by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β blockade. Our results highlight the role of epithelial cells acting as efficient producers of stable extracellular matrix which could contribute to renal tubule thickening in fibrosis.

  6. The influence of an in vitro generated bone-like extracellular matrix on osteoblastic gene expression of marrow stromal cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Q.P.; Kasper, F.K.; Baggett, L.S.; Raphael, R.M.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The function and development of cells rely heavily on the signaling interactions with the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Therefore, a tissue engineering scaffold should mimic native ECM to recreate the in vivo environment. Previously, we have shown that an in vitro generated ECM secreted by

  7. The extracellular matrix - the under-recognized element in lung disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, Janette K.; Mauad, Thais; Tjin, Gavin; Karlsson, Jenny C.; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    The lung is composed of airways and lung parenchyma, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) contains the main building blocks of both components. The ECM provides physical support and stability to the lung, and as such it has in the past been regarded as an inert structure. More recent research has

  8. Role of Stroma-Derived Extracellular Matrix in Regulation of Growth and Hormonal Responsiveness of Normal and Cancerous Human Breast Epithelium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodward, Terry

    1997-01-01

    Specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and their cellular receptors (integrins) are required for normal mammary gland morphogenesis and differentiation, while their expression is dramatically altered during tumorigenesis...

  9. Intermolecular interactions of thrombospondins drive their accumulation in extracellular matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae Joong; Christofidou, Elena D.; Keene, Douglas R.; Hassan Milde, Marwah; Adams, Josephine C.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombospondins participate in many aspects of tissue organization in adult tissue homeostasis, and their dysregulation contributes to pathological processes such as fibrosis and tumor progression. The incorporation of thrombospondins into extracellular matrix (ECM) as discrete puncta has been documented in various tissue and cell biological contexts, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We find that collagen fibrils are disorganized in multiple tissues of Thbs1 −/− mice. I...

  10. Chondrogenic properties of collagen type XI, a component of cartilage extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Wei, Yiyong; Hung, Clark; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2018-08-01

    Cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) has been used for promoting tissue engineering. However, the exact effects of ECM on chondrogenesis and the acting mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the chondrogenic effects of cartilage ECM on human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and identified the contributing molecular components. To this end, a preparation of articular cartilage ECM was supplemented to pellets of chondrogenically differentiating MSCs, pellets of human chondrocytes, and bovine articular cartilage explants to evaluate the effects on cell proliferation and the production of cartilaginous matrix. Selective enzymatic digestion and screening of ECM components were conducted to identify matrix molecules with chondrogenic properties. Cartilage ECM promoted MSC proliferation, production of cartilaginous matrix, and maturity of chondrogenic differentiation, and inhibited the hypertrophic differentiation of MSC-derived chondrocytes. Selective digestion of ECM components revealed a contributory role of collagens in promoting chondrogenesis. The screening of various collagen subtypes revealed strong chondrogenic effect of collagen type XI. Finally, collagen XI was found to promote production and inhibit degradation of cartilage matrix in human articular chondrocyte pellets and bovine articular cartilage explants. Our results indicate that cartilage ECM promotes chondrogenesis and inhibits hypertrophic differentiation in MSCs. Collagen type XI is the ECM component that has the strongest effects on enhancing the production and inhibiting the degradation of cartilage matrix. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel insights into the function and dynamics of extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten A; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Genovese, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that altered components and posttranslational modifications of proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM) may both initiate and drive disease progression. The ECM is a complex grid consisting of multiple proteins, most of which play a vital role in containing......) explore key structural and functional components of the ECM as exemplified by monogenetic disorders leading to severe pathologies, 2) discuss selected pathological posttranslational modifications of ECM proteins resulting in altered functional (signaling) properties from the original structural proteins......, and 3) discuss how these findings support the novel concept that an increasing number of components of the ECM harbor signaling functions that can modulate fibrotic liver disease. The ECM entails functions in addition to anchoring cells and modulating their migratory behavior. Key ECM components...

  12. Cell stiffness, contractile stress and the role of extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Steven S.; Kim, Jina; Ahn, Kwangmi; Trepat, Xavier; Drake, Kenneth J.; Kumar, Sarvesh; Ling, Guoyu; Purington, Carolyn; Rangasamy, Tirumalai; Kensler, Thomas W.; Mitzner, Wayne; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Biswal, Shyam

    2009-01-01

    Here we have assessed the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and rigidity on mechanical properties of the human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. Cell stiffness and contractile stress showed appreciable changes from the most relaxed state to the most contracted state: we refer to the maximal range of these changes as the cell contractile scope. The contractile scope was least when the cell was adherent upon collagen V, followed by collagen IV, laminin, and collagen I, and greatest for fibronectin. Regardless of ECM composition, upon adherence to increasingly rigid substrates, the ASM cell positively regulated expression of antioxidant genes in the glutathione pathway and heme oxygenase, and disruption of a redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf2), culminated in greater contractile scope. These findings provide biophysical evidence that ECM differentially modulates muscle contractility and, for the first time, demonstrate a link between muscle contractility and Nrf2-directed responses.

  13. Engineering Three-dimensional Epithelial Tissues Embedded within Extracellular Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski-Daspit, Alexandra S; Nelson, Celeste M

    2016-07-10

    The architecture of branched organs such as the lungs, kidneys, and mammary glands arises through the developmental process of branching morphogenesis, which is regulated by a variety of soluble and physical signals in the microenvironment. Described here is a method created to study the process of branching morphogenesis by forming engineered three-dimensional (3D) epithelial tissues of defined shape and size that are completely embedded within an extracellular matrix (ECM). This method enables the formation of arrays of identical tissues and enables the control of a variety of environmental factors, including tissue geometry, spacing, and ECM composition. This method can also be combined with widely used techniques such as traction force microscopy (TFM) to gain more information about the interactions between cells and their surrounding ECM. The protocol can be used to investigate a variety of cell and tissue processes beyond branching morphogenesis, including cancer invasion.

  14. Cell stiffness, contractile stress and the role of extracellular matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Steven S., E-mail: san@jhsph.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Kim, Jina [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Ahn, Kwangmi [Division of Biostatistics, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Trepat, Xavier [CIBER, Enfermedades Respiratorias, 07110 Bunyola (Spain); Drake, Kenneth J. [Division of Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kumar, Sarvesh; Ling, Guoyu; Purington, Carolyn; Rangasamy, Tirumalai; Kensler, Thomas W.; Mitzner, Wayne [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Fredberg, Jeffrey J. [Division of Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Biswal, Shyam [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Here we have assessed the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and rigidity on mechanical properties of the human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. Cell stiffness and contractile stress showed appreciable changes from the most relaxed state to the most contracted state: we refer to the maximal range of these changes as the cell contractile scope. The contractile scope was least when the cell was adherent upon collagen V, followed by collagen IV, laminin, and collagen I, and greatest for fibronectin. Regardless of ECM composition, upon adherence to increasingly rigid substrates, the ASM cell positively regulated expression of antioxidant genes in the glutathione pathway and heme oxygenase, and disruption of a redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf2), culminated in greater contractile scope. These findings provide biophysical evidence that ECM differentially modulates muscle contractility and, for the first time, demonstrate a link between muscle contractility and Nrf2-directed responses.

  15. Levels of Circulating MMCN-151, a Degradation Product of Mimecan, Reflect Pathological Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, N; Vassiliadis, E; Zheng, Qiuju

    2011-01-01

    Arterial extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is one of the major hallmarks of atherosclerosis. Mimecan, also known as osteoglycin has been implicated in the integrity of the ECM. This study assessed the validity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...

  16. Control of extracellular matrix assembly by syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klass, C M; Couchman, J R; Woods, A

    2000-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and organization is maintained by transmembrane signaling and integrins play major roles. We now show that a second transmembrane component, syndecan-2 heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is pivotal in matrix assembly. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were stably...... to rearrange laminin or fibronectin substrates into fibrils and to bind exogenous fibronectin. Transfection of activated alphaIIbalphaLdeltabeta3 integrin into alpha(5)-deficient CHO B2 cells resulted in reestablishment of the previously lost fibronectin matrix. However, cotransfection of this cell line with S...

  17. Collagen and related extracellular matrix proteins in atherosclerotic plaque development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shami, Annelie; Gonçalves, Isabel; Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anna

    2014-10-01

    The structure, composition and turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as cell-matrix interactions are crucial in the developing atherosclerotic plaque. There is a need for further insight into specific proteins in the ECM and their functions in the developing plaque, and during the last few years a number of publications have highlighted this very important field of research. These novel findings will be addressed in the present review. This review covers literature focused on collagen and ECM proteins interacting with collagen, and what their roles may be in plaque development. Acute myocardial infarction and stroke are common diseases that cause disability and mortality, and the underlying mechanism is often the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. The vascular ECM and the tissue repair in the atherosclerotic lesion are important players in plaque progression. Understanding how specific proteins in the ECM interact with cells in the plaque and affect the fate of the plaque can lead to new treatments for cardiovascular disease.

  18. Cartilage extracellular matrix as a biomaterial for cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyotake, Emi A; Beck, Emily C; Detamore, Michael S

    2016-11-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues possesses the model characteristics that biomaterials for tissue engineering strive to mimic; however, owing to the intricate hierarchical nature of the ECM, it has yet to be fully characterized and synthetically fabricated. Cartilage repair remains a challenge because the intrinsic properties that enable its durability and long-lasting function also impede regeneration. In the last decade, cartilage ECM has emerged as a promising biomaterial for regenerating cartilage, partly because of its potentially chondroinductive nature. As this research area of cartilage matrix-based biomaterials emerged, investigators facing similar challenges consequently developed convergent solutions in constructing robust and bioactive scaffolds. This review discusses the challenges, emerging trends, and future directions of cartilage ECM scaffolds, including a comparison between two different forms of cartilage matrix: decellularized cartilage (DCC) and devitalized cartilage (DVC). To overcome the low permeability of cartilage matrix, physical fragmentation greatly enhances decellularization, although the process itself may reduce the chondroinductivity of fabricated scaffolds. The less complex processing of a scaffold composed of DVC, which has not been decellularized, appears to have translational advantages and potential chondroinductive and mechanical advantages over DCC, without detrimental immunogenicity, to ultimately enhance cartilage repair in a clinically relevant way. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Printing three-dimensional tissue analogues with decellularized extracellular matrix bioink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Jang, Jinah; Ha, Dong-Heon; Won Kim, Sung; Rhie, Jong-Won; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Deok-Ho; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2014-06-01

    The ability to print and pattern all the components that make up a tissue (cells and matrix materials) in three dimensions to generate structures similar to tissues is an exciting prospect of bioprinting. However, the majority of the matrix materials used so far for bioprinting cannot represent the complexity of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) and thus are unable to reconstitute the intrinsic cellular morphologies and functions. Here, we develop a method for the bioprinting of cell-laden constructs with novel decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) bioink capable of providing an optimized microenvironment conducive to the growth of three-dimensional structured tissue. We show the versatility and flexibility of the developed bioprinting process using tissue-specific dECM bioinks, including adipose, cartilage and heart tissues, capable of providing crucial cues for cells engraftment, survival and long-term function. We achieve high cell viability and functionality of the printed dECM structures using our bioprinting method.

  20. Mechanistic understanding of nanoparticles' interactions with extracellular matrix: the cell and immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Ayse Basak; Nikitovic, Dragana; Neagu, Monica; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Docea, Anca Oana; Shtilman, Mikhail I; Golokhvast, Kirill; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-06-24

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an extraordinarily complex and unique meshwork composed of structural proteins and glycosaminoglycans. The ECM provides essential physical scaffolding for the cellular constituents, as well as contributes to crucial biochemical signaling. Importantly, ECM is an indispensable part of all biological barriers and substantially modulates the interchange of the nanotechnology products through these barriers. The interactions of the ECM with nanoparticles (NPs) depend on the morphological characteristics of intercellular matrix and on the physical characteristics of the NPs and may be either deleterious or beneficial. Importantly, an altered expression of ECM molecules ultimately affects all biological processes including inflammation. This review critically discusses the specific behavior of NPs that are within the ECM domain, and passing through the biological barriers. Furthermore, regenerative and toxicological aspects of nanomaterials are debated in terms of the immune cells-NPs interactions.

  1. Suppression of ICE and Apoptosis in Mammary Epithelial Cells by Extracellular Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreau, Nancy; Sympson, C. J.; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J.

    1994-12-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) plays a major role in development and tissue regeneration. Basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM), but not fibronectin or collagen, was shown to suppress apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells in tissue culture and in vivo. Apoptosis was induced by antibodies to beta 1 integrins or by overexpression of stromelysin-1, which degrades ECM. Expression of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) correlated with the loss of ECM, and inhibitors of ICE activity prevented apoptosis. These results suggest that ECM regulates apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells through an integrin-dependent negative regulation of ICE expression.

  2. The regulation of growth and metabolism of kidney stem cell with regional specificity using extracellular matrix derived from kidney

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neill, John D.; Freytes, Donald O.; Anandappa, Annabelle; Oliver, Juan A.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Native extracellular matrix (ECM) that is secreted and maintained by resident cells is of great interest for cell culture and cell delivery. We hypothesized that specialized bioengineered niches for stem cells can be established using ECM-derived scaffolding materials. Kidney was selected as a model system because of the high regional diversification of renal tissue matrix. By preparing the ECM from three specialized regions of the kidney (cortex, medulla, and papilla; whole kidney, heart, an...

  3. Streptococcus pyogenes degrades extracellular matrix in chondrocytes via MMP-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Atsuo; Okahashi, Nobuo; Maruyama, Fumito; Ooshima, Takashi; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide range of human diseases, including bacterial arthritis. The pathogenesis of arthritis is characterized by synovial proliferation and the destruction of cartilage and subchondral bone in joints. We report here that GAS strain JRS4 invaded a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 and induced the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas an isogenic mutant of JRS4 lacking a fibronectin-binding protein, SAM1, failed to invade the chondrocytes or degrade the ECM. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was strongly elevated during the infection with GAS. A reporter assay revealed that the activation of the AP-1 transcription factor and the phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinase participated in MMP-13 expression. These results suggest that MMP-13 plays an important role in the destruction of infected joints during the development of septic arthritis

  4. Micromechanical anisotropy and heterogeneity of the meniscus extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qu, Feini; Han, Biao; Wang, Chao; Li, Hao; Mauck, Robert L; Han, Lin

    2017-05-01

    To understand how the complex biomechanical functions of the meniscus are endowed by the nanostructure of its extracellular matrix (ECM), we studied the anisotropy and heterogeneity in the micromechanical properties of the meniscus ECM. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the time-dependent mechanical properties of juvenile bovine meniscus at deformation length scales corresponding to the diameters of collagen fibrils. At this scale, anisotropy in the elastic modulus of the circumferential fibers, the major ECM structural unit, can be attributed to differences in fibril deformation modes: uncrimping when normal to the fiber axis, and laterally constrained compression when parallel to the fiber axis. Heterogeneity among different structural units is mainly associated with their variations in microscale fiber orientation, while heterogeneity across anatomical zones is due to alterations in collagen fibril diameter and alignment at the nanoscale. Unlike the elastic modulus, the time-dependent properties are more homogeneous and isotropic throughout the ECM. These results enable a detailed understanding of the meniscus structure-mechanics at the nanoscale, and can serve as a benchmark for understanding meniscus biomechanical functions, documenting disease progression and designing tissue repair strategies. Meniscal damage is a common cause of joint injury, which can lead to the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis among young adults. Restoration of meniscus function requires repairing its highly heterogeneous and complex extracellular matrix. Employing AFM, this study quantifies the anisotropic and heterogeneous features of the meniscus ECM structure and mechanics. The micromechanical properties are interpreted within the context of the collagen fibril nanostructure and its variation with tissue anatomical locations. These results provide a fundamental structure-mechanics knowledge benchmark, against which, repair and regeneration strategies can

  5. A non-equilibrium thermodynamic model for tumor extracellular matrix with enzymatic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shi-Lei; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2017-07-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of a solid tumor not only affords scaffolding to support tumor architecture and integrity but also plays an essential role in tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and therapeutics. In this paper, a non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory is established to study the chemo-mechanical behaviors of tumor ECM, which is modeled as a poroelastic polyelectrolyte consisting of a collagen network and proteoglycans. By using the principle of maximum energy dissipation rate, we deduce a set of governing equations for drug transport and mechanosensitive enzymatic degradation in ECM. The results reveal that osmosis is primarily responsible for the compression resistance of ECM. It is suggested that a well-designed ECM degradation can effectively modify the tumor microenvironment for improved efficiency of cancer therapy. The theoretical predictions show a good agreement with relevant experimental observations. This study aimed to deepen our understanding of tumor ECM may be conducive to novel anticancer strategies.

  6. Quantification of fibronectin as a method to assess ex vivo extracellular matrix remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Cecilie Liv; Gudmann, N.; Willumsen, N.

    2016-01-01

    Altered architecture, composition and quality of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are pathological hallmarks of several inflammatory and fibro-proliferative pathological processes such as osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), fibrosis and cancer. One of the most important components...... of the ECM is fibronectin. Fibronectin serves as an adhesion molecule anchoring cells to the underlying basement membrane through direct interaction with integrin receptors. Fibronectin hereby modulates the properties of the ECM and affects cellular processes. Quantification of fibronectin remodeling could...... therefore be used to assess the changes in the ECM that occur during progression of fibro-proliferative pathologies. Ex vivo models are becoming state-of-the-art tools to study ECM remodeling as the cellular composition and the organization of the ECM are preserved. Ex vivo models may therefore...

  7. Novel serological neo-epitope markers of extracellular matrix proteins for the detection of portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana Julie; Karsdal, M A; Byrjalsen, I

    2013-01-01

    The hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is an invasive, but important diagnostic and prognostic marker in cirrhosis with portal hypertension (PHT). During cirrhosis, remodelling of fibrotic tissue by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is a permanent process generating small fragments of degrade...... extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins known as neoepitopes, which are then released into the circulation....

  8. PI3K/Akt1 signalling specifies foregut precursors by generating regionalized extra-cellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villegas, S Nahuel; Rothová, Michaela; Barrios-Llerena, Martin E

    2013-01-01

    -to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Akt1 transduced this activity via modifications to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and appropriate ECM could itself induce anterior endodermal identity in the absence of PI3K signalling. PI3K/Akt1-modified ECM contained low levels of Fibronectin (Fn1) and we found that Fn1 dose was key...... to specifying anterior endodermal identity in vivo and in vitro. Thus, localized PI3K activity affects ECM composition and ECM in turn patterns the endoderm. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00806.001....

  9. Influence of the temporal deposition of extracellular matrix on the mechanical properties of tissue-engineered cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshgoftar, M.; Wilson, W.; Ito, K.; Donkelaar, van C.C.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of the load-bearing capacity of tissue engineered (TE) cartilage is expected to improve the clinical outcome of implantations. Generally, cartilage TE studies aim to increase the total extracellular matrix (ECM) content to improve implant mechanical properties. Besides the ECM content,

  10. Extracellular matrix components supporting human islet function in alginate-based immunoprotective microcapsules for treatment of diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llacua Carrasco, Luis; de Haan, Bart J; Smink, Sandra A; de Vos, Paul

    In the pancreas, extracellular matrix (ECM) components play an import role in providing mechanical and physiological support, and also contribute to the function of islets. These ECM-connections are damaged during islet-isolation from the pancreas and are not fully recovered after encapsulation and

  11. Biomimetics of the extracellular matrix: an integrated three-dimensional fiber-hydrogel composite for cartilage tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coburn, J.; Gibson, M.; Bandalini, P.A.; Laird, C.; Mao, H.Q.; Moroni, Lorenzo; Seliktar, D.; Elisseeff, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of an integrated fibrous protein network and proteoglycan-based ground (hydrogel) substance. We designed a novel electrospinning technique to engineer a three dimensional fiber-hydrogel composite that mimics the native ECM structure, is injectable, and

  12. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, T W; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging....... Structural changes include an increase in the collagen concentration, a change in the elastic fiber system, and an increase in fat infiltration of skeletal muscle. Biochemical changes include a decreased turnover of collagen with potential accumulation of enzymatically mediated collagen cross...

  13. Variation in extracellular matrix genes is associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Vink, Roel G; Gielen, Marij

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipocytes is important for body weight regulation. Here, we investigated whether genetic variation in ECM-related genes is associated with weight regain among participants of the European DiOGenes study. Overweight and obese subjects (n = 469, 310 females, 159 m.......40-5.63). Concluding, variants of ECM genes are associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner....

  14. Post-translational modifications of the extracellular matrix are key events in cancer progression: opportunities for biochemical marker development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, D J; Bay-Jensen, A C; Vassiliadis, E

    2011-01-01

    -associated extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Furthermore, severe cellular stress and inflammation, caused by cancer, results in generation of PTMs, which will be distributed throughout the ECM. This gives rise to release of protein-specific fragments to the circulation. Here we highlight the importance of remodeling...... of the ECM in cancer and the generation of PTMs, which may be cancer specific and reflect disease progression; thus having potential for biochemical marker development....

  15. Osteoblasts extracellular matrix induces vessel like structures through glycosylated collagen I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, D.; Valli, M.; Viglio, S.; Ferrari, N.; Ledda, B.; Volta, C.; Manduca, P.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a fundamental role in angiogenesis affecting endothelial cells proliferation, migration and differentiation. Vessels-like network formation in vitro is a reliable test to study the inductive effects of ECM on angiogenesis. Here we utilized matrix deposed by osteoblasts as substrate where the molecular and structural complexity of the endogenous ECM is preserved, to test if it induces vessel-like network formation by endothelial cells in vitro. ECM is more similar to the physiological substrate in vivo than other substrates previously utilized for these studies in vitro. Osteogenic ECM, prepared in vitro from mature osteoblasts at the phase of maximal deposition and glycosylation of collagen I, induces EAhy926, HUVEC, and HDMEC endothelial cells to form vessels-like structures and promotes the activation of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2); the functionality of the p-38/MAPK signaling pathway is required. Osteogenic ECM also induces a transient increase of CXCL12 and a decrease of the receptor CXCR4. The induction of vessel-like networks is dependent from proper glycosylation of collagens and does not occur on osteogenic ECMs if deglycosylated by -galactosidase or on less glycosylated ECMs derived from preosteoblasts and normal fibroblasts, while is sustained on ECM from osteogenesis imperfecta fibroblasts only when their mutation is associated with over-glycosylation of collagen type I. These data support that post-translational glycosylation has a role in the induction in endothelial cells in vitro of molecules conductive to self-organization in vessels-like structures.

  16. Osteoblasts extracellular matrix induces vessel like structures through glycosylated collagen I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, D. [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy); Valli, M.; Viglio, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Pavia (Italy); Ferrari, N. [Istituto Nazionale per la ricerca sul Cancro, Genova (Italy); Ledda, B.; Volta, C. [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy); Manduca, P., E-mail: man-via@unige.it [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2010-03-10

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a fundamental role in angiogenesis affecting endothelial cells proliferation, migration and differentiation. Vessels-like network formation in vitro is a reliable test to study the inductive effects of ECM on angiogenesis. Here we utilized matrix deposed by osteoblasts as substrate where the molecular and structural complexity of the endogenous ECM is preserved, to test if it induces vessel-like network formation by endothelial cells in vitro. ECM is more similar to the physiological substrate in vivo than other substrates previously utilized for these studies in vitro. Osteogenic ECM, prepared in vitro from mature osteoblasts at the phase of maximal deposition and glycosylation of collagen I, induces EAhy926, HUVEC, and HDMEC endothelial cells to form vessels-like structures and promotes the activation of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2); the functionality of the p-38/MAPK signaling pathway is required. Osteogenic ECM also induces a transient increase of CXCL12 and a decrease of the receptor CXCR4. The induction of vessel-like networks is dependent from proper glycosylation of collagens and does not occur on osteogenic ECMs if deglycosylated by -galactosidase or on less glycosylated ECMs derived from preosteoblasts and normal fibroblasts, while is sustained on ECM from osteogenesis imperfecta fibroblasts only when their mutation is associated with over-glycosylation of collagen type I. These data support that post-translational glycosylation has a role in the induction in endothelial cells in vitro of molecules conductive to self-organization in vessels-like structures.

  17. Genetic Background is a Key Determinant of Glomerular Extracellular Matrix Composition and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, Michael J; Woolf, Adrian S; Huang, Jennifer L; Byron, Adam; Humphries, Jonathan D; Price, Karen L; Kolatsi-Joannou, Maria; Collinson, Sophie; Denny, Thomas; Knight, David; Mironov, Aleksandr; Starborg, Toby; Korstanje, Ron; Humphries, Martin J; Long, David A; Lennon, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    Glomerular disease often features altered histologic patterns of extracellular matrix (ECM). Despite this, the potential complexities of the glomerular ECM in both health and disease are poorly understood. To explore whether genetic background and sex determine glomerular ECM composition, we investigated two mouse strains, FVB and B6, using RNA microarrays of isolated glomeruli combined with proteomic glomerular ECM analyses. These studies, undertaken in healthy young adult animals, revealed unique strain- and sex-dependent glomerular ECM signatures, which correlated with variations in levels of albuminuria and known predisposition to progressive nephropathy. Among the variation, we observed changes in netrin 4, fibroblast growth factor 2, tenascin C, collagen 1, meprin 1-α, and meprin 1-β. Differences in protein abundance were validated by quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, and the collective differences were not explained by mutations in known ECM or glomerular disease genes. Within the distinct signatures, we discovered a core set of structural ECM proteins that form multiple protein-protein interactions and are conserved from mouse to man. Furthermore, we found striking ultrastructural changes in glomerular basement membranes in FVB mice. Pathway analysis of merged transcriptomic and proteomic datasets identified potential ECM regulatory pathways involving inhibition of matrix metalloproteases, liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, notch, and cyclin-dependent kinase 5. These pathways may therefore alter ECM and confer susceptibility to disease. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Bioengineered Bruch's-like extracellular matrix promotes retinal pigment epithelial differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel McLenachan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the eye, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE adheres to a complex protein matrix known as Bruch's membrane (BrM. The aim of this study was to provide enriched conditions for RPE cell culture through the production of a BrM-like matrix. Our hypothesis was that a human RPE cell line would deposit an extracellular matrix (ECM resembling BrM. The composition and structure of ECM deposited by ARPE19 cells (ARPE19-ECM was characterized. To produce ARPE19-ECM, ARPE19 cells were cultured in the presence dextran sulphate. ARPE19-ECM was decellularized using deoxycholate and characterized by immunostaining and western blot analysis. Primary human RPE and induced pluripotent stem cells were seeded onto ARPE19-ECM or geltrex coated surfaces and examined by microscopy or RT-PCR. Culture of ARPE19 cells with dextran sulphate promoted nuclear localization of SOX2, formation of tight junctions and deposition of ECM. ARPE19 cells deposited ECM proteins found in the inner layers of BrM, including fibronectin, vitronectin, collagens IV and V as well as laminin-alpha-5, but not those found in the middle elastic layer (elastin or the outer layers (collagen VI. ARPE19-ECM promoted pigmentation in human RPE and pluripotent stem cell cultures. Expression of RPE65 was significantly increased on ARPE19-ECM compared with geltrex in differentiating pluripotent stem cell cultures. ARPE19 cells deposit ECM with a composition and structure similar to BrM in the retina. Molecular cues present in ARPE19-ECM promote the acquisition and maintenance of the RPE phenotype. Together, these results demonstrate a simple method for generating a BrM-like surface for enriched RPE cell cultures.

  19. Role of the extracellular matrix during neural crest cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perris, R; Perissinotto, D

    2000-07-01

    Once specified to become neural crest (NC), cells occupying the dorsal portion of the neural tube disrupt their cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts, acquire motile properties, and embark upon an extensive migration through the embryo to reach their ultimate phenotype-specific sites. The understanding of how this movement is regulated is still rather fragmentary due to the complexity of the cellular and molecular interactions involved. An additional intricate aspect of the regulation of NC cell movement is that the timings, modes and patterns of NC cell migration are intimately associated with the concomitant phenotypic diversification that cells undergo during their migratory phase and the fact that these changes modulate the way that moving cells interact with their microenvironment. To date, two interplaying mechanisms appear central for the guidance of the migrating NC cells through the embryo: one involves secreted signalling molecules acting through their cognate protein kinase/phosphatase-type receptors and the other is contributed by the multivalent interactions of the cells with their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). The latter ones seem fundamental in light of the central morphogenetic role played by the intracellular signals transduced through the cytoskeleton upon integrin ligation, and the convergence of these signalling cascades with those triggered by cadherins, survival/growth factor receptors, gap junctional communications, and stretch-activated calcium channels. The elucidation of the importance of the ECM during NC cell movement is presently favoured by the augmenting knowledge about the macromolecular structure of the specific ECM assembled during NC development and the functional assaying of its individual constituents via molecular and genetic manipulations. Collectively, these data propose that NC cell migration may be governed by time- and space-dependent alterations in the expression of inhibitory ECM components; the relative ratio

  20. Supercritical carbon dioxide extracted extracellular matrix material from adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun Kit; Luo, Baiwen; Guneta, Vipra [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, Liang; Foo, Selin Ee Min [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Dai, Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Tan, Nguan Soon [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, Singapore 138673 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore); Choong, Cleo, E-mail: cleochoong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore); Wong, Marcus Thien Chong [Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore)

    2017-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of extracellular matrix (ECM) material that can be isolated by delipidating and decellularizing the tissue. However, the current delipidation and decellularization methods either involve tedious and lengthy processes or require toxic chemicals, which may result in the elimination of vital proteins and growth factors found in the ECM. Hence, an alternative delipidation and decellularization method for adipose tissue was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) that eliminates the need of any harsh chemicals and also reduces the amount of processing time required. The resultant SC-CO{sub 2}-treated ECM material showed an absence of nuclear content but the preservation of key proteins such as collagen Type I, collagen Type III, collagen Type IV, elastin, fibronectin and laminin. In addition, other biological factors such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also retained. Subsequently, the resulting SC-CO{sub 2}-treated ECM material was used as a bioactive coating on tissue culture plastic (TCP). Four different cell types including adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) were used in this study to show that the SC-CO{sub 2}-treated ECM coating can be potentially used for various biomedical applications. The SC-CO{sub 2}-treated ECM material showed improved cell-material interactions for all cell types tested. In addition, in vitro scratch wound assay using HaCaT cells showed that the presence of SC-CO{sub 2}-treated ECM material enhanced keratinocyte migration whilst the in vitro cellular studies using THP-1-derived macrophages showed that the SC-CO{sub 2}-treated ECM material did not evoke pro-inflammatory responses from the THP-1-derived macrophages. Overall

  1. Supercritical carbon dioxide extracted extracellular matrix material from adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun Kit; Luo, Baiwen; Guneta, Vipra; Li, Liang; Foo, Selin Ee Min; Dai, Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo; Wong, Marcus Thien Chong

    2017-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of extracellular matrix (ECM) material that can be isolated by delipidating and decellularizing the tissue. However, the current delipidation and decellularization methods either involve tedious and lengthy processes or require toxic chemicals, which may result in the elimination of vital proteins and growth factors found in the ECM. Hence, an alternative delipidation and decellularization method for adipose tissue was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) that eliminates the need of any harsh chemicals and also reduces the amount of processing time required. The resultant SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed an absence of nuclear content but the preservation of key proteins such as collagen Type I, collagen Type III, collagen Type IV, elastin, fibronectin and laminin. In addition, other biological factors such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also retained. Subsequently, the resulting SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material was used as a bioactive coating on tissue culture plastic (TCP). Four different cell types including adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) were used in this study to show that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM coating can be potentially used for various biomedical applications. The SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed improved cell-material interactions for all cell types tested. In addition, in vitro scratch wound assay using HaCaT cells showed that the presence of SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material enhanced keratinocyte migration whilst the in vitro cellular studies using THP-1-derived macrophages showed that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material did not evoke pro-inflammatory responses from the THP-1-derived macrophages. Overall, this study shows the efficacy

  2. Supercritical carbon dioxide extracted extracellular matrix material from adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun Kit; Luo, Baiwen; Guneta, Vipra; Li, Liang; Foo, Selin Ee Min; Dai, Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo; Wong, Marcus Thien Chong

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of extracellular matrix (ECM) material that can be isolated by delipidating and decellularizing the tissue. However, the current delipidation and decellularization methods either involve tedious and lengthy processes or require toxic chemicals, which may result in the elimination of vital proteins and growth factors found in the ECM. Hence, an alternative delipidation and decellularization method for adipose tissue was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) that eliminates the need of any harsh chemicals and also reduces the amount of processing time required. The resultant SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed an absence of nuclear content but the preservation of key proteins such as collagen Type I, collagen Type III, collagen Type IV, elastin, fibronectin and laminin. In addition, other biological factors such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also retained. Subsequently, the resulting SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material was used as a bioactive coating on tissue culture plastic (TCP). Four different cell types including adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) were used in this study to show that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM coating can be potentially used for various biomedical applications. The SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed improved cell-material interactions for all cell types tested. In addition, in vitro scratch wound assay using HaCaT cells showed that the presence of SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material enhanced keratinocyte migration whilst the in vitro cellular studies using THP-1-derived macrophages showed that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material did not evoke pro-inflammatory responses from the THP-1-derived macrophages. Overall, this study shows the efficacy

  3. Extracellular matrix adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Michael; Magnusson, Peter; Krogsgaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues enables linking to other tissues, and plays a key role in force transmission and tissue structure maintenance in tendons, ligaments, bone and muscle. ECM turnover is influenced by physical activity, and both collagen synthesis and metalloprotease......-beta and IL-6 is enhanced following exercise. For tendons, metabolic activity (e.g. detected by positron emission tomography scanning), circulatory responses (e.g. as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and dye dilution) and collagen turnover are markedly increased after exercise. Tendon blood flow...... is regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated pathways, and glucose uptake is regulated by specific pathways in tendons that differ from those in skeletal muscle. Chronic loading in the form of physical training leads both to increased collagen turnover as well as to some degree of net collagen synthesis...

  4. Red Wine administration to Apolipoprotein E-deficient Mice reduces their Macrophage-derived Extracellular Matrix Atherogenic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIELLE KAPLAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteoglycans (PGs from the arterial extracellular matrix (ECM contribute to the trapping of LDL and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL in the arterial wall, a phenomenon called "lipoprotein retention". Moreover, we have shown that subsequent to their binding to the matrix, LDL and Ox-LDL are taken up by macrophages. Oxidative stress significantly increases macrophage secretion of ECM-PGs, lipoprotein binding to the ECM and the uptake of ECM-retained lipoproteins by macrophages. The aim of the present study was to determine whether red wine administration to atherosclerotic mice would affect their peritoneal macrophage-derived extracellular matrix properties, such as the glycosaminoglycan content and the ability to bind LDL. In addition, we questioned the ability of LDL bound to the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM to be taken up by macrophages. Red wine administration to atherosclerotic mice did not affect the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM glycosaminoglycan content but it significantly reduced the mice peritoneal macrophages-derived ECM ability to bind LDL and the subsequent uptake of ECM-retained LDL by the macrophages. The present study thus clearly demonstrated the inhibitory effect of red wine consumption by E0 mice on their peritoneal macrophage-derived extracellular matrix atherogenic properties.

  5. Bioprinting of 3D Tissue Models Using Decellularized Extracellular Matrix Bioink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Bioprinting provides an exciting opportunity to print and pattern all the components that make up a tissue-cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) material-in three dimensions (3D) to generate tissue analogues. A large number of materials have been used for making bioinks; however, majority of them cannot represent the complexity of natural ECM and thus are unable to reconstitute the intrinsic cellular morphologies and functions. We present here a method for making of bioink from decellularized extracellular matrices (dECMs) and a protocol for bioprinting of cell-laden constructs with this novel bioink. The dECM bioink is capable of providing an optimized microenvironment that is conducive to the growth of 3D structured tissue. We have prepared bioinks from different tissues, including adipose, cartilage and heart tissues and achieved high cell viability and functionality of the bioprinted tissue structures using our novel bioink.

  6. Mechanisms of redox metabolism and cancer cell survival during extracellular matrix detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mark A; Schafer, Zachary T

    2018-01-16

    Non-transformed cells that become detached from the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergo dysregulation of redox homeostasis and cell death. In contrast, cancer cells often acquire the ability to mitigate programmed cell death pathways and recalibrate the redox balance to survive after ECM detachment, facilitating metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, recent studies of the mechanisms by which cancer cells overcome ECM detachment-induced metabolic alterations have focused on mechanisms in redox homeostasis. The insights into these mechanisms may inform the development of therapeutics that manipulate redox homeostasis to eliminate ECM-detached cancer cells. Here, we review how ECM-detached cancer cells balance redox metabolism for survival. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Escherichia coli biofilms have an organized and complex extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia; Zhou, Yizhou; Pinkner, Jerome S; Dodson, Karen W; Crowley, Jan R; Heuser, John; Chapman, Matthew R; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Henderson, Jeffrey P; Hultgren, Scott J

    2013-09-10

    Bacterial biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, and their resilience is derived in part from a complex extracellular matrix that can be tailored to meet environmental demands. Although common developmental stages leading to biofilm formation have been described, how the extracellular components are organized to allow three-dimensional biofilm development is not well understood. Here we show that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains produce a biofilm with a highly ordered and complex extracellular matrix (ECM). We used electron microscopy (EM) techniques to image floating biofilms (pellicles) formed by UPEC. EM revealed intricately constructed substructures within the ECM that encase individual, spatially segregated bacteria with a distinctive morphology. Mutational and biochemical analyses of these biofilms confirmed curli as a major matrix component and revealed important roles for cellulose, flagella, and type 1 pili in pellicle integrity and ECM infrastructure. Collectively, the findings of this study elucidated that UPEC pellicles have a highly organized ultrastructure that varies spatially across the multicellular community. Bacteria can form biofilms in diverse niches, including abiotic surfaces, living cells, and at the air-liquid interface of liquid media. Encasing these cellular communities is a self-produced extracellular matrix (ECM) that can be composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids. The ECM protects biofilm bacteria from environmental insults and also makes the dissolution of biofilms very challenging. As a result, formation of biofilms within humans (during infection) or on industrial material (such as water pipes) has detrimental and costly effects. In order to combat bacterial biofilms, a better understanding of components required for biofilm formation and the ECM is required. This study defined the ECM composition and architecture of floating pellicle biofilms formed by Escherichia coli.

  8. Extracellular matrix biomimicry for the creation of investigational and therapeutic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellowe, Amanda S; Gonzalez, Anjelica L

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a web of fibrous proteins that serves as a scaffold for tissues and organs, and is important for maintaining homeostasis and facilitating cellular adhesion. Integrin transmembrane receptors are the primary adhesion molecules that anchor cells to the ECM, thus integrating cells with their microenvironments. Integrins play a critical role in facilitating cell-matrix interactions and promoting signal transduction, both from the cell to the ECM and vice versa, ultimately mediating cell behavior. For this reason, many advanced biomaterials employ biomimicry by replicating the form and function of fibrous ECM proteins. The ECM also acts as a reservoir for small molecules and growth factors, wherein fibrous proteins directly bind and present these bioactive moieties that facilitate cell activity. Therefore biomimicry can be enhanced by incorporating small molecules into ECM-like substrates. Biomimetic ECM materials have served as invaluable research tools for studying interactions between cells and the surrounding ECM, revealing that cell-matrix signaling is driven by mechanical forces, integrin engagement, and small molecules. Mimicking pathological ECMs has also elucidated disease specific cell behaviors. For example, biomimetic tumor microenvironments have been used to induce metastatic cell behaviors, and have thereby shown promise for in vitro cancer drug testing and targeting. Further, ECM-like substrates have been successfully employed for autologous cell recolonization for tissue engineering and wound healing. As we continue to learn more about the mechanical and biochemical characteristics of the ECM, these properties can be harnessed to develop new biomaterials, biomedical devices, and therapeutics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Adherence of Staphylococci to plastic, mesothelial cells and mesothelial extracellular matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betjes, M. G.; Tuk, C. W.; Struijk, D. G.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.; Beelen, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    In this study we have investigated whether mesothelial cells (MC) and mesothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) are suitable substrates for the adherence of Staphylococci. Mesothelial cells were isolated from the peritoneal dialysis effluent by making use of their lack of Fc-receptors and capacity to

  10. Collagen fiber alignment and biaxial mechanical behavior of porcine urinary bladder derived extracellular matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Thomas W.; Wognum, Silvia; Joyce, Erinn M.; Freytes, Donald O.; Sacks, Michael S.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2008-01-01

    The collagen fiber alignment and biomechanical behavior of naturally occurring extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds are important considerations for the design of medical devices from these materials. Both should be considered in order to produce a device to meet tissue specific mechanical

  11. Plasticity of the actin cytoskeleton in response to extracellular matrix nanostructure and dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starke, J.; Wehrle-Haller, B.; Friedl, P.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile cells discriminate and adapt to mechanosensory input from extracellular matrix (ECM) topographies to undergo actin-based polarization, shape change and migration. We tested 'cell-intrinsic' and adaptive components of actin-based cell migration in response to widely used in vitro

  12. Mifepristone inhibits extracellular matrix formation in uterine leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amrita; Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Cox, Jeris; Catherino, William H

    2016-04-01

    To characterize the efficacy of mifepristone treatment on extracellular matrix (ECM) production in leiomyomas. Laboratory study. University research laboratory. None. Treatment of human immortalized two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) leiomyoma and myometrial cells with mifepristone and the progestin promegestone (R5020). Expression of COL1A1, fibronectin, versican variant V0, and dermatopontin in treated leiomyoma cells by Western blot analysis and confirmatory immunohistochemistry staining of treated 3D cultures. Treatment with progestin stimulated production of COL1A1, fibronectin, versican, and dermatopontin. Mifepristone treatment inhibited protein production of these genes, most notably with versican expression. Combination treatment with both the agonist and antagonist further inhibited protein expression of these genes. Immunohistochemistry performed on 3D cultures demonstrated generalized inhibition of ECM protein concentration. Our study demonstrated that the progesterone agonist R5020 directly stimulated extracellular matrix components COL1A1, fibronectin, versican, and dermatopontin production in human leiomyoma cells. Progesterone antagonist mifepristone decreased protein production of these genes to levels comparable with untreated leiomyoma cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Nonlinear mechanical response of the extracellular matrix: learning from articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Sarah; Das, Moumita

    2015-03-01

    We study the mechanical structure-function relations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) with focus on nonlinear shear and compression response. As a model system, our study focuses on the ECM in articular cartilage tissue which has two major mechanobiological components: a network of the biopolymer collagen that acts as a stiff, reinforcing matrix, and a flexible aggrecan network that facilitates deformability. We model this system as a double network hydrogel made of interpenetrating networks of stiff and flexible biopolymers respectively. We study the linear and nonlinear mechanical response of the model ECM to shear and compression forces using a combination of rigidity percolation theory and energy minimization approaches. Our results may provide useful insights into the design principles of the ECM as well as biomimetic hydrogels that are mechanically robust and can, at the same time, easily adapt to cues in their surroundings.

  14. Clinical Usage of an Extracellular, Collagen-rich Matrix: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouIssa, Abdelfatah; Mari, Walid; Simman, Richard

    2015-11-01

    OASIS Ultra (Smith and Nephew, St. Petersburg, FL) is an extracellular, collagen-rich matrix derived from submucosa of porcine intestine. It is composed of collagen type I, glycosaminoglycan, and proteoglycans. This extracellular matrix (ECM) differs from the single layer in thickness and offers ease of handling and application. It also stimulates cell migration and structural support, provides moisture environment, decreases inflammation, and induces cell proliferation and cellular attachments. In this case series, the authors present their experience with this product in various clinical scenarios. The authors used the product in a variety of wounds with different etiologies to test the clinical outcome of the ECM. This was an observational case series with prospective review of 6 different patients with different types of wounds who received treatment with the ECM during their treatment. The product was applied on the following types of wounds: chronic venous ulcer, nonhealing Achilles tendon vasculitic wound, Marjolin's ulcer, posttraumatic wound, stage IV sacral-coccygeal pressure wound, and complicated transmetatarsal amputation of gangrenous left forefoot diabetic wound. All of these wounds healed within the expected time periods and without complications. In general, healing was achieved in 4-16 weeks using 1-12 applications of the ECM. Wounds with different etiologies were successfully treated with an extracellular, collagen-rich matrix. By replacing the lost ECM to guide cellular growth and migration, this product did ultimately hasten the healing process.

  15. ISDoT: in situ decellularization of tissues for high-resolution imaging and proteomic analysis of native extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayorca-Guiliani, Alejandro E.; Madsen, Chris D.; Cox, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a master regulator of cellular phenotype and behavior. It has a crucial role in both normal tissue homeostasis and disease pathology. Here we present a fast and efficient approach to enhance the study of ECM composition and structure. Termed in situ...... decellularization of tissues (ISDoT), it allows whole organs to be decellularized, leaving native ECM architecture intact. These three-dimensional decellularized tissues can be studied using high-resolution fluorescence and second harmonic imaging, and can be used for quantitative proteomic interrogation of the ECM....... Our method is superior to other methods tested in its ability to preserve the structural integrity of the ECM, facilitate high-resolution imaging and quantitatively detect ECM proteins. In particular, we performed high-resolution sub-micron imaging of matrix topography in normal tissue and over...

  16. Integrins and extracellular matrix in mechanotransduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramage L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay RamageQueen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UKAbstract: Integrins are a family of cell surface receptors which mediate cell–matrix and cell–cell adhesions. Among other functions they provide an important mechanical link between the cells external and intracellular environments while the adhesions that they form also have critical roles in cellular signal-transduction. Cell–matrix contacts occur at zones in the cell surface where adhesion receptors cluster and when activated the receptors bind to ligands in the extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix surrounds the cells of tissues and forms the structural support of tissue which is particularly important in connective tissues. Cells attach to the extracellular matrix through specific cell-surface receptors and molecules including integrins and transmembrane proteoglycans. Integrins work alongside other proteins such as cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules, selectins, and syndecans to mediate cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions and communication. Activation of adhesion receptors triggers the formation of matrix contacts in which bound matrix components, adhesion receptors, and associated intracellular cytoskeletal and signaling molecules form large functional, localized multiprotein complexes. Cell–matrix contacts are important in a variety of different cell and tissue properties including embryonic development, inflammatory responses, wound healing, and adult tissue homeostasis. This review summarizes the roles and functions of integrins and extracellular matrix proteins in mechanotransduction.Keywords: ligand binding, α subunit, ß subunit, focal adhesion, cell differentiation, mechanical loading, cell–matrix interaction

  17. Neural ECM in addiction, schizophrenia, and mood disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, B.R.; Smit, A.B.; Spijker, S.; van den Oever, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) has a prominent role in brain development, maturation of neural circuits, and adult neuroplasticity. This multifactorial role of the ECM suggests that processes that affect composition or turnover of ECM in the brain could lead to altered brain function, possibly

  18. The regulation of growth and metabolism of kidney stem cells with regional specificity using extracellular matrix derived from kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, John D; Freytes, Donald O; Anandappa, Annabelle J; Oliver, Juan A; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana V

    2013-12-01

    Native extracellular matrix (ECM) that is secreted and maintained by resident cells is of great interest for cell culture and cell delivery. We hypothesized that specialized bioengineered niches for stem cells can be established using ECM-derived scaffolding materials. Kidney was selected as a model system because of the high regional diversification of renal tissue matrix. By preparing the ECM from three specialized regions of the kidney (cortex, medulla, and papilla; whole kidney, heart, and bladder as controls) in three forms: (i) intact sheets of decellularized ECM, (ii) ECM hydrogels, and (iii) solubilized ECM, we investigated how the structure and composition of ECM affect the function of kidney stem cells (with mesenchymal stem cells, MSCs, as controls). All three forms of the ECM regulated KSC function, with differential structural and compositional effects. KSCs cultured on papilla ECM consistently displayed lower proliferation, higher metabolic activity, and differences in cell morphology, alignment, and structure formation as compared to KSCs on cortex and medulla ECM, effects not observed in corresponding MSC cultures. These data suggest that tissue- and region-specific ECM can provide an effective substrate for in vitro studies of therapeutic stem cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Extracellular Matrix in Plants and Animals: Hooks and Locks for Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Stavolone

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM of animal and plants cells plays important roles in viral diseases. While in animal cells extracellular matrix components can be exploited by viruses for recognition, attachment and entry, the plant cell wall acts as a physical barrier to viral entry and adds a higher level of difficulty to intercellular movement of viruses. Interestingly, both in plant and animal systems, ECM can be strongly remodeled during virus infection, and the understanding of remodeling mechanisms and molecular players offers new perspectives for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the different roles played by the ECM in plant and animal hosts during virus infection with special emphasis on the similarities and differences. Possible biotechnological applications aimed at improving viral resistance are discussed.

  20. Simple and high yielding method for preparing tissue specific extracellular matrix coatings for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeQuach, Jessica A; Mezzano, Valeria; Miglani, Amar; Lange, Stephan; Keller, Gordon M; Sheikh, Farah; Christman, Karen L

    2010-09-27

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a highly complex, tissue-specific network of proteins and polysaccharides, which help regulate many cellular functions. Despite the complex nature of the ECM, in vitro cell-based studies traditionally assess cell behavior on single ECM component substrates, which do not adequately mimic the in vivo extracellular milieu. We present a simple approach for developing naturally derived ECM coatings for cell culture that provide important tissue-specific cues unlike traditional cell culture coatings, thereby enabling the maturation of committed C2C12 skeletal myoblast progenitors and human embryonic stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Here we show that natural muscle-specific coatings can (i) be derived from decellularized, solubilized adult porcine muscle, (ii) contain a complex mixture of ECM components including polysaccharides, (iii) adsorb onto tissue culture plastic and (iv) promote cell maturation of committed muscle progenitor and stem cells. This versatile method can create tissue-specific ECM coatings, which offer a promising platform for cell culture to more closely mimic the mature in vivo ECM microenvironment.

  1. Biomarkers of the extracellular matrix and of collagen fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikias, Georgios K; Tziakas, Dimitrios N

    2015-03-30

    A great body of evidence has shown that extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations are present in the major types of cardiac diseases: ischemic heart disease, heart disease associated with pressure overload, heart disease associated with volume overload, and intrinsic myocardial disease or cardiomyopathy. Collagen, type I and III, is the principal structural protein found in the myocardium and its pro- or telopeptides are released into the circulation during the course of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, these peptides may reflect collagen synthesis and break-down and also represent a much more useful tool to address ECM changes from a distance. Clinical trials have been performed during recent years to examine the usage of these peptides as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in heart failure (HF) patients. This review aims to summarize published data concerning cardiac ECM and its circulating biomarkers. Studies that focused on collagen metabolism related biomarkers in patients with HF are analyzed. Finally, limitations associated with the clinical use of the aforementioned biomarkers are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anatomical region-dependent enhancement of 3-dimensional chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells by soluble meniscus extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrauff, Benjamin B; Shimomura, Kazunori; Gottardi, Riccardo; Alexander, Peter G; Tuan, Rocky S

    2017-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from decellularized tissues has been found to promote tissue neogenesis, most likely mediated by specific biochemical and physical signaling motifs that promote tissue-specific differentiation of progenitor cells. Decellularized ECM has been suggested to be efficacious for the repair of tissue injuries. However, decellularized meniscus contains a dense collagenous structure, which impedes cell seeding and infiltration and is not readily applicable for meniscus repair. In addition, the meniscus consists of two distinct anatomical regions that differ in vascularity and cellular phenotype. The purpose of this study was to explore the region-specific bioactivity of solubilized ECM derived from the inner and outer meniscal regions as determined in 2D and 3D cultures of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). When added as a medium supplement to 2D cultures of MSCs, urea-extracted fractions of the inner (imECM) and outer meniscal ECM (omECM) enhanced cell proliferation while imECM most strongly upregulated fibrochondrogenic differentiation on the basis of gene expression profiles. When added to 3D cultures of MSCs seeded in photocrosslinked methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels, both ECM fractions upregulated chondrogenic differentiation as determined by gene expression and protein analyses, as well as elevated sulfated glycosaminoglycan sGAG content, compared to ECM-free controls. The chondrogenic effect at day 21 was most pronounced with imECM supplementation, but equivalent between ECM groups by day 42. Despite increased cartilage matrix, imECM and omECM constructs possessed compressive moduli similar to controls. In conclusion, soluble meniscal ECM may be considered for use as a tissue-specific reagent to enhance chondrogenesis for MSC-based 3D cartilage tissue engineering. The inner region of the knee meniscus is frequently injured and possesses a poor intrinsic healing capacity. Solubilized extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from

  3. Biofilm-specific extracellular matrix proteins of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Siva; Baum, Marc M.; Kerwin, James; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Webster, Simon; Schaudinn, Christoph; VanderVelde, David; Webster, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a human respiratory tract pathogen can form colony biofilms in vitro. Bacterial cells and the amorphous extracellular matrix (ECM) constituting the biofilm can be separated using sonication. The ECM from 24 hr and 96 hr NTHi biofilms contained polysaccharides and proteinaceous components as detected by NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. More conventional chemical assays on the biofilm ECM confirmed the presence of these components and also DNA. Proteomics revealed eighteen proteins present in biofilm ECM that were not detected in planktonic bacteria. One ECM protein was unique to 24 hr biofilms, two were found only in 96 hr biofilms, and fifteen were present in the ECM of both 24 hr and 96 hr NTHi biofilms. All proteins identified were either associated with bacterial membranes or were cytoplasmic proteins. Immunocytochemistry showed two of the identified proteins, a DNA-directed RNA polymerase and the outer membrane protein OMP P2, associated with bacteria and biofilm ECM. Identification of biofilm-specific proteins present in immature biofilms is an important step in understanding the in vitro process of NTHi biofilm formation. The presence of a cytoplasmic protein and a membrane protein in the biofilm ECM of immature NTHi biofilms suggests that bacterial cell lysis may be a feature of early biofilm formation. PMID:24942343

  4. Composition of the Extracellular Matrix of Lymphatic Novel Threadlike Structures: Is It Keratin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyub Huh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lumen of novel threadlike structures (NTSs is enclosed by a single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM. We hypothesized that collagen may be a component of the ECM associated with lymphatic NTSs. Methods. Six female New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized, and the NTS structures within lymphatic vessels were identified by contrast-enhanced stereomicroscopy or alcian blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens were stained with acridine orange, YOYO-1, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI. The structural and molecular composition of the ECM was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and proteomic analysis. Results. The lymph vessel wall was stained red by DiI, and rod-shaped nuclei were stained green by YOYO-1. The area surrounding the NTS was also stained red and contained green rod-shaped nuclei. TEM images showed that the NTS consisted of many ECM fibers and the ECM fibers appeared to be ~100 nm in diameter and had narrowly spaced striated bands. Proteomic analysis of the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM identified 4 proteins: keratin 10, cytokeratin 3, cytokeratin 12, and soluble adenylyl cyclase. Conclusion. The TEM study suggested that the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM did not contain collagen. This was confirmed by proteomic analysis, which showed that keratin was the major component of the ECM.

  5. Molecular composition of extracellular matrix in the vestibular nuclei of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Eva; Gaál, Botond; Kecskes, Szilvia; Matesz, Clara

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the molecular and structural composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) shows regional differences in the central nervous system. By using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, we provide here a detailed map of the distribution of ECM molecules in the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) of the rat. We have observed common characteristics of the ECM staining pattern in the VNC and a number of differences among the individual vestibular nuclei and their subdivisions. The perineuronal net (PNN), which is the pericellular condensation of ECM, showed the most intense staining for hyaluronan, aggrecan, brevican and tenascin-R in the superior, lateral and medial vestibular nuclei, whereas the HAPLN1 link protein and the neurocan exhibited moderate staining intensity. The rostral part of the descending vestibular nucleus (DVN) presented a similar staining pattern in the PNN, with the exception of brevican, which was negative. The caudal part of the DVN had the weakest staining for all ECM molecules in the PNN. Throughout the VNC, versican staining in the PNN, when present, was distinctive due to its punctuate appearance. The neuropil also exhibited heterogeneity among the individual vestibular nuclei in ECM staining pattern and intensity. We find that the heterogeneous distribution of ECM molecules is associated in many cases with the variable cytoarchitecture and hodological organization of the vestibular nuclei, and propose that differences in the ECM composition may be related to specific neuronal functions associated with gaze and posture control and vestibular compensation.

  6. Methods for the visualization and analysis of extracellular matrix protein structure and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Annemarie K; Loughran, Elizabeth A; Klymenko, Yuliya; Liu, Yueying; Kim, Oleg; Asem, Marwa; McAbee, Kevin; Ravosa, Matthew J; Stack, M Sharon

    2018-01-01

    This chapter highlights methods for visualization and analysis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, with particular emphasis on collagen type I, the most abundant protein in mammals. Protocols described range from advanced imaging of complex in vivo matrices to simple biochemical analysis of individual ECM proteins. The first section of this chapter describes common methods to image ECM components and includes protocols for second harmonic generation, scanning electron microscopy, and several histological methods of ECM localization and degradation analysis, including immunohistochemistry, Trichrome staining, and in situ zymography. The second section of this chapter details both a common transwell invasion assay and a novel live imaging method to investigate cellular behavior with respect to collagen and other ECM proteins of interest. The final section consists of common electrophoresis-based biochemical methods that are used in analysis of ECM proteins. Use of the methods described herein will enable researchers to gain a greater understanding of the role of ECM structure and degradation in development and matrix-related diseases such as cancer and connective tissue disorders. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Serological neo-epitope extracellular matrix related markers reflecting collagen or elastin degradation are elevated in a mouse model of allergic asthma exacerbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckmann, M.; Rønnow, S.; Bülow-Sand, J.M.; Wegmann, M.; Lunding, L.; Burgess, J.; Bahmer, T.; Leeming, D.J.; Kopp, M.V.

    2018-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by symptoms including increased mucus production, reversible airway obstruction and lung inflammation: all of which are exaggerated during asthma exacerbations. Extracellular matrix remodeling is associated with the release of ECM protein

  8. Interactions between Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and their Extracellular Matrix Revealed by a Serum Free Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vishal; Dye, Danielle E; Kinnear, Beverley F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Grounds, Miranda D; Coombe, Deirdre R

    2015-01-01

    Decellularisation of skeletal muscle provides a system to study the interactions of myoblasts with muscle extracellular matrix (ECM). This study describes the efficient decellularisation of quadriceps muscle with the retention of matrix components and the use of this matrix for myoblast proliferation and differentiation under serum free culture conditions. Three decellularisation approaches were examined; the most effective was phospholipase A2 treatment, which removed cellular material while maximizing the retention of ECM components. Decellularised muscle matrices were then solubilized and used as substrates for C2C12 mouse myoblast serum free cultures. The muscle matrix supported myoblast proliferation and differentiation equally as well as collagen and fibronectin. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that myoblasts seeded on muscle matrix and fibronectin differentiated to form long, well-aligned myotubes, while myoblasts seeded on collagen were less organized. qPCR analyses showed a time dependent increase in genes involved in skeletal muscle differentiation and suggested that muscle-derived matrix may stimulate an increased rate of differentiation compared to collagen and fibronectin. Decellularized whole muscle three-dimensional scaffolds also supported cell adhesion and spreading, with myoblasts aligning along specific tracts of matrix proteins within the scaffolds. Thus, under serum free conditions, intact acellular muscle matrices provided cues to direct myoblast adhesion and migration. In addition, myoblasts were shown to rapidly secrete and organise their own matrix glycoproteins to create a localized ECM microenvironment. This serum free culture system has revealed that the correct muscle ECM facilitates more rapid cell organisation and differentiation than single matrix glycoprotein substrates.

  9. Extracellular matrix component signaling in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A. B.; Leitinger, Birgit; Gullberg, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Cell responses to the extracellular matrix depend on specific signaling events. These are important from early development, through differentiation and tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance, and disease pathogenesis. Signaling not only regulates cell adhesion cytoskeletal organization and motil...... as well as matrix constitution and protein crosslinking. Here we summarize roles of the three major matrix receptor types, with emphasis on how they function in tumor progression. [on SciFinder(R)]...

  10. Feasibility of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular matrix scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Xu, Yan; Jin, Chengzhe; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Li, Zhiyong; Pei, Xuan; Wang, Liming

    2013-12-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) materials are widely used in cartilage tissue engineering. However, the current ECM materials are unsatisfactory for clinical practice as most of them are derived from allogenous or xenogenous tissue. This study was designed to develop a novel autologous ECM scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. The autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived ECM (aBMSC-dECM) membrane was collected and fabricated into a three-dimensional porous scaffold via cross-linking and freeze-drying techniques. Articular chondrocytes were seeded into the aBMSC-dECM scaffold and atelocollagen scaffold, respectively. An in vitro culture and an in vivo implantation in nude mice model were performed to evaluate the influence on engineered cartilage. The current results showed that the aBMSC-dECM scaffold had a good microstructure and biocompatibility. After 4 weeks in vitro culture, the engineered cartilage in the aBMSC-dECM scaffold group formed thicker cartilage tissue with more homogeneous structure and higher expressions of cartilaginous gene and protein compared with the atelocollagen scaffold group. Furthermore, the engineered cartilage based on the aBMSC-dECM scaffold showed better cartilage formation in terms of volume and homogeneity, cartilage matrix content, and compressive modulus after 3 weeks in vivo implantation. These results indicated that the aBMSC-dECM scaffold could be a successful novel candidate scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  11. Teaching the Extracellular Matrix and Introducing Online Databases within a Multidisciplinary Course with i-Cell-MATRIX: A Student-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joao Carlos; Costa, Manuel Joao; Palha, Joana Almeida

    2010-01-01

    The biochemistry and molecular biology of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is difficult to convey to students in a classroom setting in ways that capture their interest. The understanding of the matrix's roles in physiological and pathological conditions study will presumably be hampered by insufficient knowledge of its molecular structure.…

  12. Extracellular matrix elasticity and topography: material-based cues that affect cell function via conserved mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Isaac A.; Putnam, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical, mechanical, and topographic extracellular matrix (ECM) cues have been extensively studied for their influence on cell behavior. These ECM cues alter cell adhesion, cell shape, and cell migration, and activate signal transduction pathways to influence gene expression, proliferation, and differentiation. ECM elasticity and topography, in particular, have emerged as material properties of intense focus based on strong evidence these physical cue can partially dictate stem cell differentiation. Cells generate forces to pull on their adhesive contacts, and these tractional forces appear to be a common element of cells’ responses to both elasticity and topography. This review focuses on recently published work that links ECM topography and mechanics and their influence on differentiation and other cell behaviors, We also highlight signaling pathways typically implicated in mechanotransduction that are (or may be) shared by cells subjected to topographic cues. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the potential implications of these commonalities for cell based therapies and biomaterial design. PMID:24910444

  13. Adhesion properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus mucus-binding factor to mucin and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Keita; Nakamata, Koichi; Ueno, Shintaro; Terao, Akari; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Sujaya, I Nengah; Fukuda, Kenji; Urashima, Tadasu; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We previously described potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, isolated from fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which showed high adhesion to porcine colonic mucin (PCM) and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Recently, mucus-binding factor (MBF) was found in the GG strain of L. rhamnosus as a mucin-binding protein. In this study, we assessed the ability of recombinant MBF protein from the FSMM22 strain, one of the isolates of L. rhamnosus from fermented Sumbawa mare milk, to adhere to PCM and ECM proteins by overlay dot blot and Biacore assays. MBF bound to PCM, laminin, collagen IV, and fibronectin with submicromolar dissociation constants. Adhesion of the FSMM22 mbf mutant strain to PCM and ECM proteins was significantly less than that of the wild-type strain. Collectively, these results suggested that MBF contribute to L. rhamnosus host colonization via mucin and ECM protein binding.

  14. Alterations in proteins of bone marrow extracellular matrix in undernourished mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Vituri

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of protein malnutrition on the glycoprotein content of bone marrow extracellular matrix (ECM. Two-month-old male Swiss mice were submitted to protein malnutrition with a low-protein diet containing 4% casein as compared to 20% casein in the control diet. When the experimental group had attained a 20% loss of their original body weight, we extracted the ECM proteins from bone marrow with PBS buffer, and analyzed ECM samples by SDS-PAGE (7.5% and ECL Western blotting. Quantitative differences were observed between control and experimental groups. Bone marrow ECM from undernourished mice had greater amounts of extractable fibronectin (1.6-fold increase and laminin (4.8-fold increase when compared to the control group. These results suggest an association between fluctuations in the composition of the hematopoietic microenvironment and altered hematopoiesis observed in undernourished mice.

  15. Hypoxia-driven angiogenesis: role of tip cells and extracellular matrix scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Stéphane; Monnot, Catherine; Muller, Laurent; Eichmann, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Angiogenesis is a highly coordinated tissue remodeling process leading to blood vessel formation. Hypoxia triggers angiogenesis via induction of expression of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF instructs endothelial cells to form tip cells, which lead outgrowing capillary sprouts, whereas Notch signaling inhibits sprout formation. Basement membrane deposition and mechanical cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) induced by hypoxia may participate to coordinated vessel sprouting in conjunction with the VEGF and Notch signaling pathways. Hypoxia regulates ECM composition, deposition, posttranslational modifications and rearrangement. In particular, hypoxia-driven vascular remodeling is dynamically regulated through modulation of ECM-modifying enzyme activities that eventually affect both matricellular proteins and growth factor availability. Better understanding of the complex interplay between endothelial cells and soluble growth factors and mechanical factors from the ECM will certainly have significant implications for understanding the regulation of developmental and pathological angiogenesis driven by hypoxia.

  16. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging......-links and a buildup of advanced glycation end-product cross-links. Altered mechanotransduction, poorer activation of satellite cells, poorer chemotactic and delayed inflammatory responses, and a change in modulators of the ECM are important cellular changes. It is possible that the structural and biochemical changes...... in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the increased stiffness and impairment in force generated by the contracting muscle fibers seen with aging. The cellular interactions provide and potentially coordinate an adaptation to mechanical loading and ensure successful regeneration after muscle injury. Some...

  17. The Role of Structural Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brunner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM plays a key role in the modulation of cancer cell invasion. In urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UC the role of ECM proteins has been widely studied. The mechanisms, which are involved in the development of invasion, progression and generalization, are complex, depending on the interaction of ECM proteins with each other as well as with cancer cells. The following review will focus on the pathogenetic role and prognostic value of structural proteins, such as laminins, collagens, fi bronectin (FN, tenascin (Tn-C and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 in UC. In addition, the role of integrins mediating the interaction of ECM molecules and cancer cells will be addressed, since integrin-mediated FN, Tn-C and TSP1 interactions seem to play an important role during tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis.

  18. Basic Components of Vascular Connective Tissue and Extracellular Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halper, Jaroslava

    2018-01-01

    Though the composition of the three layers constituting the blood vessel wall varies among the different types of blood vessels, and some layers may even be missing in capillaries, certain basic components, and properties are shared by all blood vessels, though each histologically distinct layer contains a unique complement of extracellular components, growth factors and cytokines, and cell types as well. The structure and composition of vessel layers informs and is informed by the function of the particular blood vessel. The adaptation of the composition and the resulting function of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to changes in circulation/blood flow and a variety of other extravascular stimuli can be characterized as remodeling spearheaded by vascular cells. There is a surprising amount of cell traffic among the three layers. It starts with endothelial cell mediated transmigration of inflammatory cells from the bloodstream into the subendothelium, and then into tissue adjoining the blood vessel. Smooth muscle cells and a variety of adventitial cells reside in tunica media and tunica externa, respectively. The latter cells are a mixture of progenitor/stem cells, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, pericytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and respond to endothelial injury by transdifferentiation as they travel into the two inner layers, intima and media for corrective mission in the ECM composition. This chapter addresses the role of various vascular cell types and ECM components synthesized by them in maintenance of normal structure and in their contribution to major pathological processes, such as atherosclerosis, organ fibrosis, and diabetic retinopathy. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Extracellular Matrix and Methylcellulose Hydrogels Augments and Regenerates the Paralyzed Vocal Fold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Kim

    Full Text Available Vocal fold paralysis results from various etiologies and can induce voice changes, swallowing complications, and issues with aspiration. Vocal fold paralysis is typically managed using injection laryngoplasty with fat or synthetic polymers. Injection with autologous fat has shown excellent biocompatibility. However, it has several disadvantages such as unpredictable resorption rate, morbidities associated with liposuction procedure which has to be done in operating room under general anesthesia. Human adipose-derived extracellular matrix (ECM grafts have been reported to form new adipose tissue and have greater biostability than autologous fat graft. Here, we present an injectable hydrogel that is constructed from adipose tissue derived soluble extracellular matrix (sECM and methylcellulose (MC for use in vocal fold augmentation. Human sECM derived from adipose tissue was extracted using two major steps-ECM was isolated from human adipose tissue and was subsequently solubilized. Injectable sECM/MC hydrogels were prepared by blending of sECM and MC. Sustained vocal fold augmentation and symmetric vocal fold vibration were accomplished by the sECM/MC hydrogel in paralyzed vocal fold which were confirmed by laryngoscope, histology and a high-speed imaging system. There were increased number of collagen fibers and fatty granules at the injection site without significant inflammation or fibrosis. Overall, these results indicate that the sECM/MC hydrogel can enhance vocal function in paralyzed vocal folds without early resorption and has potential as a promising material for injection laryngoplasty for stable vocal fold augmentation which can overcome the shortcomings of autologous fat such as unpredictable duration and morbidity associated with the fat harvest.

  20. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Extracellular Matrix and Methylcellulose Hydrogels Augments and Regenerates the Paralyzed Vocal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Eun Na; Sung, Myung Whun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Cho, Yong Woo; Kwon, Seong Keun

    2016-01-01

    Vocal fold paralysis results from various etiologies and can induce voice changes, swallowing complications, and issues with aspiration. Vocal fold paralysis is typically managed using injection laryngoplasty with fat or synthetic polymers. Injection with autologous fat has shown excellent biocompatibility. However, it has several disadvantages such as unpredictable resorption rate, morbidities associated with liposuction procedure which has to be done in operating room under general anesthesia. Human adipose-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) grafts have been reported to form new adipose tissue and have greater biostability than autologous fat graft. Here, we present an injectable hydrogel that is constructed from adipose tissue derived soluble extracellular matrix (sECM) and methylcellulose (MC) for use in vocal fold augmentation. Human sECM derived from adipose tissue was extracted using two major steps-ECM was isolated from human adipose tissue and was subsequently solubilized. Injectable sECM/MC hydrogels were prepared by blending of sECM and MC. Sustained vocal fold augmentation and symmetric vocal fold vibration were accomplished by the sECM/MC hydrogel in paralyzed vocal fold which were confirmed by laryngoscope, histology and a high-speed imaging system. There were increased number of collagen fibers and fatty granules at the injection site without significant inflammation or fibrosis. Overall, these results indicate that the sECM/MC hydrogel can enhance vocal function in paralyzed vocal folds without early resorption and has potential as a promising material for injection laryngoplasty for stable vocal fold augmentation which can overcome the shortcomings of autologous fat such as unpredictable duration and morbidity associated with the fat harvest.

  1. Extracellular matrix production by human osteoblasts cultured on biodegradable polymers applicable for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, S F; Lu, H H; Khan, Y; Burems, J; Mitchell, J; Tuan, R S; Laurencin, C T

    2003-03-01

    The nature of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial in regulating cell functions via cell-matrix interactions, cytoskeletal organization, and integrin-mediated signaling. In bone, the ECM is composed of proteins such as collagen (CO), fibronectin (FN), laminin (LM), vitronectin (VN), osteopontin (OP) and osteonectin (ON). For bone tissue engineering, the ECM should also be considered in terms of its function in mediating cell adhesion to biomaterials. This study examined ECM production, cytoskeletal organization, and adhesion of primary human osteoblastic cells on biodegradable matrices applicable for tissue engineering, namely polylactic-co-glycolic acid 50:50 (PLAGA) and polylactic acid (PLA). We hypothesized that the osteocompatible, biodegradable polymer surfaces promote the production of bone-specific ECM proteins in a manner dependent on polymer composition. We first examined whether the PLAGA and PLA matrices could support human osteoblastic cell growth by measuring cell adhesion at 3, 6 and 12h post-plating. Adhesion on PLAGA was consistently higher than on PLA throughout the duration of the experiment, and comparable to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). ECM components, including CO, FN, LM, ON, OP and VN, produced on the surface of the polymers were quantified by ELISA and localized by immunofluorescence staining. All of these proteins were present at significantly higher levels on PLAGA compared to PLA or TCPS surfaces. On PLAGA, OP and ON were the most abundant ECM components, followed by CO, FN, VN and LN. Immunofluorescence revealed an extracellular distribution for CO and FN, whereas OP and ON were found both intracellularly as well as extracellularly on the polymer. In addition, the actin cytoskeletal network was more extensive in osteoblasts cultured on PLAGA than on PLA or TCPS. In summary, we found that osteoblasts plated on PLAGA adhered better to the substrate, produced higher levels of ECM molecules, and showed greater cytoskeletal

  2. Methods in studying ECM degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, V.; Buttle, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Almost all tissues in our body contain specific cells associated with the tissue itself, and an extracellular matrix (ECM) that consists of a variety of proteins of which the bulk is formed by different types of collagens, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. TheECMplays a pivotal role in numerous

  3. Astrocytes as a source for Extracellular matrix molecules and cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eWiese

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research of the past 25 years has shown that astrocytes do more than participating and building up the blood brain barrier and detoxify the active synapse by reuptake of neurotransmitters and ions. Indeed, astrocytes express neurotransmitter receptors and, as a consequence, respond to stimuli. Deeper knowledge of the differentiation processes during development of the central nervous system (CNS might help explaining and even help treating neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and psychiatric disorders in which astrocytes have been shown to play a role. Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes develop from a multipotent stem cell that prior to this has produced primarily neuronal precursor cells. This switch towards the more astroglial differentiation is regulated by a change in receptor composition on the cell surface and responsiveness of the respective trophic factors Fibroblast growth factor (FGF and Epidermal growth factor (EGF. The glial precursor cell is driven into the astroglial direction by signaling molecules like Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs, and EGF. However, the early astrocytes influence their environment not only by releasing and responding to diverse soluble factors but also express a wide range of extracellular matrix (ECM molecules, in particular proteoglycans of the lectican family and tenascins. Lately these ECM molecules have been shown to participate in glial development. In this regard, especially the matrix protein Tenascin C (Tnc proved to be an important regulator of astrocyte precursor cell proliferation and migration during spinal cord development. On the other hand, ECM molecules expressed by reactive astrocytes are also known to act mostly in an inhibitory fashion under pathophysiological conditions. In this regard, we further summarize recent data concerning the role of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and Tnc under pathological

  4. Targeting Heparin to Collagen within Extracellular Matrix Significantly Reduces Thrombogenicity and Improves Endothelialization of Decellularized Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Suen, Rachel; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2016-12-12

    Thrombosis within small-diameter vascular grafts limits the development of bioartificial, engineered vascular conduits, especially those derived from extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe an easy-to-implement strategy to chemically modify vascular ECM by covalently linking a collagen binding peptide (CBP) to heparin to form a heparin derivative (CBP-heparin) that selectively binds a subset of collagens. Modification of ECM with CBP-heparin leads to increased deposition of functional heparin (by ∼7.2-fold measured by glycosaminoglycan composition) and a corresponding reduction in platelet binding (>70%) and whole blood clotting (>80%) onto the ECM. Furthermore, addition of CBP-heparin to the ECM stabilizes long-term endothelial cell attachment to the lumen of ECM-derived vascular conduits, potentially through recruitment of heparin-binding growth factors that ultimately improve the durability of endothelialization in vitro. Overall, our findings provide a simple yet effective method to increase deposition of functional heparin on the surface of ECM-based vascular grafts and thereby minimize thrombogenicity of decellularized tissue, overcoming a significant challenge in tissue engineering of bioartificial vessels and vascularized organs.

  5. Influence of residual composition on the structure and properties of extracellular matrix derived hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio-Rizo, Jesús A; Rangel-Argote, Magdalena; Castellano, Laura E; Delgado, Jorge; Mata-Mata, José L; Mendoza-Novelo, Birzabith

    2017-10-01

    In this work, hydrolysates of extracellular matrix (hECM) were obtained from rat tail tendon (TR), bovine Achilles tendon (TAB), porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and bovine pericardium (PB), and they were polymerized to generate ECM hydrogels. The composition of hECM was evaluated by quantifying the content of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG), fibronectin and laminin. The polymerization process, structure, physicochemical properties, in vitro degradation and biocompatibility were studied and related to their composition. The results indicated that the hECM derived from SIS and PB were significantly richer in sGAG, fibronectin and laminin, than those derived from TAB and TR. These differences in hECM composition influenced the polymerization and the structural characteristics of the fibrillar gel network. Consequently, the swelling, mechanics and degradation of the hydrogels showed a direct relationship with the remaining composition. Moreover, the cytocompatibility and the secretion of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) by macrophages were enhanced in hydrogels with the highest residual content of ECM biomolecules. The results of this work evidenced the role of the ECM molecules remaining after both decellularization and hydrolysis steps to produce tissue derived hydrogels with structure and properties tailored to enhance their performance in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of eosinophils activated with Alternaria on the production of extracellular matrix from nasal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Heon; Ye, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Sung-Yong; Kim, Yee-Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Eosinophils and fibroblasts are known to play major roles in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps. Fungi are commonly found in nasal secretion and are associated with airway inflammation. To investigate whether activated eosinophils by airborne fungi can influence the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) from nasal fibroblasts. Inferior turbinate and nasal polyp fibroblasts were stimulated with Alternaria or Aspergillus, respectively, for 24 hours and ECM messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were measured. Eosinophils isolated from healthy volunteers were stimulated with Alternaria or Aspergillus for 4 hours then superoxide, eosinophil peroxidase, and transforming growth factor β1 were measured. Then activated eosinophils were cocultured with nasal fibroblasts for 24 hours, and ECM mRNA expressions were measured. Alternaria strongly enhanced ECM mRNA expression and protein production from nasal fibroblasts. Alternaria also induced the production of superoxide, eosinophil peroxidase, and transforming growth factor β1 from eosinophils, and activated eosinophils enhanced ECM mRNA expression when they were cocultured without the Transwell insert system. Eosinophils activated with Alternaria enhanced ECM mRNA expression from nasal polyp fibroblasts. Alternaria plays an important role in tissue fibrosis in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps by directly or indirectly influencing the production of ECM from nasal fibroblasts. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extracellular Matrix Molecular Remodeling in Human Liver Fibrosis Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Baiocchini

    Full Text Available Chronic liver damage leads to pathological accumulation of ECM proteins (liver fibrosis. Comprehensive characterization of the human ECM molecular composition is essential for gaining insights into the mechanisms of liver disease. To date, studies of ECM remodeling in human liver diseases have been hampered by the unavailability of purified ECM. Here, we developed a decellularization method to purify ECM scaffolds from human liver tissues. Histological and electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that the ECM scaffolds, devoid of plasma and cellular components, preserved the three-dimensional ECM structure and zonal distribution of ECM components. This method has been then applied on 57 liver biopsies of HCV-infected patients at different stages of liver fibrosis according to METAVIR classification. Label-free nLC-MS/MS proteomics and computation biology were performed to analyze the ECM molecular composition in liver fibrosis progression, thus unveiling protein expression signatures specific for the HCV-related liver fibrotic stages. In particular, the ECM molecular composition of liver fibrosis was found to involve dynamic changes in matrix stiffness, flexibility and density related to the dysregulation of predominant collagen, elastic fibers and minor components with both structural and signaling properties. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular bases underlying ECM remodeling in liver fibrosis and suggests new molecular targets for fibrolytic strategies.

  8. Cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell adhesion are linked by syndecan-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakideeri Karat, Sandeep Gopal; Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Pocock, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell junctions that employ microfilaments are sites of tension. They are important for tissue repair, morphogenetic movements and can be emblematic of matrix contraction in fibrotic disease and the stroma of solid tumors. One cell surface receptor, syndecan...... calcium. While it is known that cell-ECM and cell-cell junctions may be linked, possible roles for syndecans in this process are not understood. Here we show that wild type primary fibroblasts and those lacking syndecan-4 utilize different cadherins in their adherens junctions and that tension is a major...... factor in this differential response. This corresponds to the reduced ability of fibroblasts lacking syndecan-4 to exert tension on the ECM and we now show that this may extend to reduced tension in cell-cell adhesion....

  9. Macrophage-mediated proteolytic remodeling of the extracellular matrix in atherosclerosis results in neoepitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Barascuk, Natasha; Register, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    in almost all stages of atherosclerosis, by both initiating atherosclerotic plaques and degrading them through the secretion of proteolytic enzymes leading to rupture. This review summarizes the literature on the role of macrophages and their proteolytic activity on proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM......) of the atherosclerotic plaque with a view to suggest a novel approach for identification of vulnerable plaques and turnover by the use of a new type of biomarker. The PubMed database was searched using the terms macrophages, foam cells, atherosclerosis, CVD, ECM remodeling, biomarker, neoepitope, matrix...... of the constituents of the ECM of the atherosclerotic plaque. At present it is not clear which proteases play pivotal roles at distinct stages of pathogenesis, rather that the combined proteolytic potential with some proteases at early stages and other at later stages may result in plaque rupture. This macrophage...

  10. Analysis of the interaction of extracellular matrix and phenotype of bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Kyker, Kimberly D; Saban, Ricardo; Knowlton, Nicholas; Dozmorov, Igor; Centola, Michael B; Hurst, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular matrix has a major effect upon the malignant properties of bladder cancer cells both in vitro in 3-dimensional culture and in vivo. Comparing gene expression of several bladder cancer cells lines grown under permissive and suppressive conditions in 3-dimensional growth on cancer-derived and normal-derived basement membrane gels respectively and on plastic in conventional tissue culture provides a model system for investigating the interaction of malignancy and extracellular matrix. Understanding how the extracellular matrix affects the phenotype of bladder cancer cells may provide important clues to identify new markers or targets for therapy. Five bladder cancer cell lines and one immortalized, but non-tumorigenic, urothelial line were grown on Matrigel, a cancer-derived ECM, on SISgel, a normal-derived ECM, and on plastic, where the only ECM is derived from the cells themselves. The transcriptomes were analyzed on an array of 1186 well-annotated cancer derived cDNAs containing most of the major pathways for malignancy. Hypervariable genes expressing more variability across cell lines than a set expressing technical variability were analyzed further. Expression values were clustered, and to identify genes most likely to represent biological factors, statistically over-represented ontologies and transcriptional regulatory elements were identified. Approximately 400 of the 1186 total genes were expressed 2 SD above background. Approximately 100 genes were hypervariable in cells grown on each ECM, but the pattern was different in each case. A core of 20 were identified as hypervariable under all 3 growth conditions, and 33 were hypervariable on both SISgel and Matrigel, but not on plastic. Clustering of the hypervariable genes showed very different patterns for the same 6 cell types on the different ECM. Even when loss of cell cycle regulation was identified, different genes were involved, depending on the ECM. Under the most permissive conditions

  11. Fetal brain extracellular matrix boosts neuronal network formation in 3D bioengineered model of cortical brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Disha; Chwalek, Karolina; Stuntz, Emily; Pouli, Dimitra; Du, Chuang; Tang-Schomer, Min; Georgakoudi, Irene; Black, Lauren D; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) constituting up to 20% of the organ volume is a significant component of the brain due to its instructive role in the compartmentalization of functional microdomains in every brain structure. The composition, quantity and structure of ECM changes dramatically during the development of an organism greatly contributing to the remarkably sophisticated architecture and function of the brain. Since fetal brain is highly plastic, we hypothesize that the fetal brain ECM may contain cues promoting neural growth and differentiation, highly desired in regenerative medicine. Thus, we studied the effect of brain-derived fetal and adult ECM complemented with matricellular proteins on cortical neurons using in vitro 3D bioengineered model of cortical brain tissue. The tested parameters included neuronal network density, cell viability, calcium signaling and electrophysiology. Both, adult and fetal brain ECM as well as matricellular proteins significantly improved neural network formation as compared to single component, collagen I matrix. Additionally, the brain ECM improved cell viability and lowered glutamate release. The fetal brain ECM induced superior neural network formation, calcium signaling and spontaneous spiking activity over adult brain ECM. This study highlights the difference in the neuroinductive properties of fetal and adult brain ECM and suggests that delineating the basis for this divergence may have implications for regenerative medicine.

  12. Extracellular matrix and tissue engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, H.A.M.; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is a key component during regeneration and maintenance of tissues and organs, and it therefore plays a critical role in successful tissue engineering as well. Tissue engineers should recognise that engineering technology can be deduced from natural repair processes. Due to

  13. Depressed immune surveillance against cancer: role of deficient T cell: extracellular matrix interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, A; Castronovo, V; Stepień-Sopniewska, B; Grieb, P; Ryba, M; Mrowiec, T; Korczak-Kowalska, G; Wierzbicki, P; Matysiak, W; Dybowska, B

    1994-07-01

    Although T cells infiltrate malignant tumors, the local immune response is usually inefficient and tumors escape destruction. While extracellular matrix proteins strongly costimulate T cell responses in normal individuals, our studies indicate that peripheral blood T cells from cancer patients and tumor infiltrating cells respond poorly or are resistant to stimulative signals mediated by collagen I and IV and fibronectin. Moreover, the adhesive properties of cancer T cells are markedly depressed. Those functional deficiencies are paralleled by variable deficits in integrin and non-integrin T cell receptors for extracellular matrix. Immunotherapy with BCG causes a dramatic but transient increase in T cell: ECM interactions.

  14. The ECM deposited by basal asthmatic and non-asthmatic ASM cells is different in composition but not biological function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkness, L.; Ashton, A.; Burgess, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The remodelled asthmatic airway has increased airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) growth, expanded vasculature, and altered extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is the external cellular microenvironment which regulates cell behaviour. Under proliferative, inflammatory, or fibrotic conditions, the

  15. Redox Signaling in Diabetic Wound Healing Regulates Extracellular Matrix Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkemoeller, Britta; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2017-10-20

    Impaired wound healing is a major complication of diabetes, and can lead to development of chronic foot ulcers in a significant number of patients. Despite the danger posed by poor healing, very few specific therapies exist, leaving patients at risk of hospitalization, amputation, and further decline in overall health. Recent Advances: Redox signaling is a key regulator of wound healing, especially through its influence on the extracellular matrix (ECM). Normal redox signaling is disrupted in diabetes leading to several pathological mechanisms that alter the balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and scavenging. Importantly, pathological oxidative stress can alter ECM structure and function. There is limited understanding of the specific role of altered redox signaling in the diabetic wound, although there is evidence that ROS are involved in the underlying pathology. Preclinical studies of antioxidant-based therapies for diabetic wound healing have yielded promising results. Redox-based therapeutics constitute a novel approach for the treatment of wounds in diabetes patients that deserve further investigation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 823-838.

  16. Mechanical phenotyping of cells and extracellular matrix as grade and stage markers of lung tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzetta, Valeria; Musella, Ida; Rapa, Ida; Volante, Marco; Netti, Paolo A; Fusco, Sabato

    2017-07-15

    The mechanical cross-talk between cells and the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) regulates the properties, functions and healthiness of the tissues. When this is disturbed it changes the mechanical state of the tissue components, singularly or together, and cancer, along with other diseases, may start and progress. However, the bi-univocal mechanical interplay between cells and the ECM is still not properly understood. In this study we show how a microrheology technique gives us the opportunity to evaluate the mechanics of cells and the ECM at the same time. The mechanical phenotyping was performed on the surgically removed tissues of 10 patients affected by adenocarcinoma of the lung. A correlation between the mechanics and the grade and stage of the tumor was reported and compared to the mechanical characteristics of the healthy tissue. Our findings suggest a sort of asymmetric modification of the mechanical properties of the cells and the extra-cellular matrix in the tumor, being the more compliant cell even though it resides in a stiffer matrix. Overall, the simultaneous mechanical characterization of the tissues constituents (cells and ECM) provided new support for diagnosis and offered alternative points of analysis for cancer mechanobiology. When the integrity of the mechanical cross-talk between cells and the extra-cellular matrix is disturbed cancer, along with other diseases, may initiate and progress. Here, we show how a new technique gives the opportunity to evaluate the mechanics of cells and the ECM at the same time. It was applied on surgically removed tissues of 10 patients affected by adenocarcinoma of the lung and a correlation between the mechanics and the grade and stage of the tumor was reported and compared to the mechanical characteristics of the healthy tissue. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitochondrial function in engineered cardiac tissues is regulated by extracellular matrix elasticity and tissue alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra-Leite, Davi M; Andres, Allen M; Petersen, Andrew P; Ariyasinghe, Nethika R; Cho, Nathan; Lee, Jezell A; Gottlieb, Roberta A; McCain, Megan L

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondria in cardiac myocytes are critical for generating ATP to meet the high metabolic demands associated with sarcomere shortening. Distinct remodeling of mitochondrial structure and function occur in cardiac myocytes in both developmental and pathological settings. However, the factors that underlie these changes are poorly understood. Because remodeling of tissue architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity are also hallmarks of ventricular development and disease, we hypothesize that these environmental factors regulate mitochondrial function in cardiac myocytes. To test this, we developed a new procedure to transfer tunable polydimethylsiloxane disks microcontact-printed with fibronectin into cell culture microplates. We cultured Sprague-Dawley neonatal rat ventricular myocytes within the wells, which consistently formed tissues following the printed fibronectin, and measured oxygen consumption rate using a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. Our data indicate that parameters associated with baseline metabolism are predominantly regulated by ECM elasticity, whereas the ability of tissues to adapt to metabolic stress is regulated by both ECM elasticity and tissue alignment. Furthermore, bioenergetic health index, which reflects both the positive and negative aspects of oxygen consumption, was highest in aligned tissues on the most rigid substrate, suggesting that overall mitochondrial function is regulated by both ECM elasticity and tissue alignment. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial function is regulated by both ECM elasticity and myofibril architecture in cardiac myocytes. This provides novel insight into how extracellular cues impact mitochondrial function in the context of cardiac development and disease. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A new methodology has been developed to measure O 2 consumption rates in engineered cardiac tissues with independent control over tissue alignment and matrix elasticity. This led to the findings that matrix

  18. An investigation of the influence of extracellular matrix anisotropy and cell–matrix interactions on tissue architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Dyson, R. J.

    2015-09-02

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Mechanical interactions between cells and the fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) in which they reside play a key role in tissue development. Mechanical cues from the environment (such as stress, strain and fibre orientation) regulate a range of cell behaviours, including proliferation, differentiation and motility. In turn, the ECM structure is affected by cells exerting forces on the matrix which result in deformation and fibre realignment. In this paper we develop a mathematical model to investigate this mechanical feedback between cells and the ECM. We consider a three-phase mixture of collagen, culture medium and cells, and formulate a system of partial differential equations which represents conservation of mass and momentum for each phase. This modelling framework takes into account the anisotropic mechanical properties of the collagen gel arising from its fibrous microstructure. We also propose a cell–collagen interaction force which depends upon fibre orientation and collagen density. We use a combination of numerical and analytical techniques to study the influence of cell–ECM interactions on pattern formation in tissues. Our results illustrate the wide range of structures which may be formed, and how those that emerge depend upon the importance of cell–ECM interactions.

  19. An investigation of the influence of extracellular matrix anisotropy and cell–matrix interactions on tissue architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Dyson, R. J.; Green, J. E. F.; Whiteley, J. P.; Byrne, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Mechanical interactions between cells and the fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) in which they reside play a key role in tissue development. Mechanical cues from the environment (such as stress, strain and fibre orientation) regulate a range of cell behaviours, including proliferation, differentiation and motility. In turn, the ECM structure is affected by cells exerting forces on the matrix which result in deformation and fibre realignment. In this paper we develop a mathematical model to investigate this mechanical feedback between cells and the ECM. We consider a three-phase mixture of collagen, culture medium and cells, and formulate a system of partial differential equations which represents conservation of mass and momentum for each phase. This modelling framework takes into account the anisotropic mechanical properties of the collagen gel arising from its fibrous microstructure. We also propose a cell–collagen interaction force which depends upon fibre orientation and collagen density. We use a combination of numerical and analytical techniques to study the influence of cell–ECM interactions on pattern formation in tissues. Our results illustrate the wide range of structures which may be formed, and how those that emerge depend upon the importance of cell–ECM interactions.

  20. Modeling the tumor extracellular matrix: Tissue engineering tools repurposed towards new frontiers in cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bartley J; West, Jennifer L

    2014-06-27

    Cancer progression is mediated by complex epigenetic, protein and structural influences. Critical among them are the biochemical, mechanical and architectural properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In recognition of the ECM's important role, cancer biologists have repurposed matrix mimetic culture systems first widely used by tissue engineers as new tools for in vitro study of tumor models. In this review we discuss the pathological changes in tumor ECM, the limitations of 2D culture on both traditional and polyacrylamide hydrogel surfaces in modeling these characteristics and advances in both naturally derived and synthetic scaffolds to facilitate more complex and controllable 3D cancer cell culture. Studies using naturally derived matrix materials like Matrigel and collagen have produced significant findings related to tumor morphogenesis and matrix invasion in a 3D environment and the mechanotransductive signaling that mediates key tumor-matrix interaction. However, lack of precise experimental control over important matrix factors in these matrices have increasingly led investigators to synthetic and semi-synthetic scaffolds that offer the engineering of specific ECM cues and the potential for more advanced experimental manipulations. Synthetic scaffolds composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), for example, facilitate highly biocompatible 3D culture, modular bioactive features like cell-mediated matrix degradation and complete independent control over matrix bioactivity and mechanics. Future work in PEG or similar reductionist synthetic matrix systems should enable the study of increasingly complex and dynamic tumor-ECM relationships in the hopes that accurate modeling of these relationships may reveal new cancer therapeutics targeting tumor progression and metastasis. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on the growth of haematopoietic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celebi, Betuel; Pineault, Nicolas; Mantovani, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation and haematological recovery are currently limited by the amount of haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) present in each unit. HPCs and haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) normally interact with cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins present within the endosteal and vascular niches. Hence, we investigated whether coating of culture surfaces with ECM proteins normally present in the marrow microenvironment could benefit the ex vivo expansion of HPCs. Towards this, collagen types I and IV (COL I and IV), laminin (LN) and fibronectin (FN) were tested individually or as component of two ECM-mix complexes. Individually, ECM proteins had both common and unique properties on the growth and differentiation of UCB CD34+ cells; some ECM proteins favoured the differentiation of some lineages over that of others (e.g. FN for erythroids), some the expansion of HPCs (e.g. LN and megakaryocyte (MK) progenitor) while others had less effects. Next, two ECM-mix complexes were tested; the first one contained all four ECM proteins (4ECMp), while the second 'basement membrane-like structure' was without COL I (3ECMp). Removal of COL I led to strong reductions in cell growth and HPCs expansion. Interestingly, the 4ECMp-mix complex reproducibly increased CD34+ (1.3-fold) and CD41+ (1.2-fold) cell expansions at day 6 (P < 0.05) versus control, and induced greater myeloid progenitor expansion (P < 0.05) than 3ECMp. In conclusion, these results suggest that optimization of BM ECM protein complexes could provide a better environment for the ex vivo expansion of haematopoietic progenitors than individual ECM protein.

  2. Extracellular matrix aggregates from differentiating embryoid bodies as a scaffold to support ESC proliferation and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saik-Kia Goh

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs have emerged as potential cell sources for tissue engineering and regeneration owing to its virtually unlimited replicative capacity and the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Current differentiation strategies primarily involve various growth factor/inducer/repressor concoctions with less emphasis on the substrate. Developing biomaterials to promote stem cell proliferation and differentiation could aid in the realization of this goal. Extracellular matrix (ECM components are important physiological regulators, and can provide cues to direct ESC expansion and differentiation. ECM undergoes constant remodeling with surrounding cells to accommodate specific developmental event. In this study, using ESC derived aggregates called embryoid bodies (EB as a model, we characterized the biological nature of ECM in EB after exposure to different treatments: spontaneously differentiated and retinoic acid treated (denoted as SPT and RA, respectively. Next, we extracted this treatment-specific ECM by detergent decellularization methods (Triton X-100, DOC and SDS are compared. The resulting EB ECM scaffolds were seeded with undifferentiated ESCs using a novel cell seeding strategy, and the behavior of ESCs was studied. Our results showed that the optimized protocol efficiently removes cells while retaining crucial ECM and biochemical components. Decellularized ECM from SPT EB gave rise to a more favorable microenvironment for promoting ESC attachment, proliferation, and early differentiation, compared to native EB and decellularized ECM from RA EB. These findings suggest that various treatment conditions allow the formulation of unique ESC-ECM derived scaffolds to enhance ESC bioactivities, including proliferation and differentiation for tissue regeneration applications.

  3. Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on the growth of haematopoietic progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celebi, Betuel; Pineault, Nicolas [Hema-Quebec, Research and Development Department, Quebec City, G1V 5C3, PQ (Canada); Mantovani, Diego, E-mail: nicolas.pineault@hema-quebec.qc.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Materials Engineering and University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, Quebec City, G1V 0A6, PQ (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation and haematological recovery are currently limited by the amount of haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) present in each unit. HPCs and haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) normally interact with cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins present within the endosteal and vascular niches. Hence, we investigated whether coating of culture surfaces with ECM proteins normally present in the marrow microenvironment could benefit the ex vivo expansion of HPCs. Towards this, collagen types I and IV (COL I and IV), laminin (LN) and fibronectin (FN) were tested individually or as component of two ECM-mix complexes. Individually, ECM proteins had both common and unique properties on the growth and differentiation of UCB CD34+ cells; some ECM proteins favoured the differentiation of some lineages over that of others (e.g. FN for erythroids), some the expansion of HPCs (e.g. LN and megakaryocyte (MK) progenitor) while others had less effects. Next, two ECM-mix complexes were tested; the first one contained all four ECM proteins (4ECMp), while the second 'basement membrane-like structure' was without COL I (3ECMp). Removal of COL I led to strong reductions in cell growth and HPCs expansion. Interestingly, the 4ECMp-mix complex reproducibly increased CD34+ (1.3-fold) and CD41+ (1.2-fold) cell expansions at day 6 (P < 0.05) versus control, and induced greater myeloid progenitor expansion (P < 0.05) than 3ECMp. In conclusion, these results suggest that optimization of BM ECM protein complexes could provide a better environment for the ex vivo expansion of haematopoietic progenitors than individual ECM protein.

  4. Extracellular matrix-derived hydrogels for dental stem cell delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanath, Aiswarya; Vanacker, Julie; Germain, Loic; Leprince, Julien G.; Diogenes, Anibal; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; White, Lisa J.; des Rieux, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Decellularised mammalian extracellular matrices (ECM) have been widely accepted as an ideal substrate for repair and remodelling of numerous tissues in clinical and pre-clinical studies. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of ECM scaffolds derived from site-specific homologous tissues to direct cell differentiation. The present study investigated the suitability of hydrogels derived from different source tissues: bone, spinal cord and dentine, as suitable carriers to deliver human ap...

  5. Lipocalins Are Required for Apical Extracellular Matrix Organization and Remodeling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman-Rubinsky, Rachel; Cohen, Jennifer D; Sundaram, Meera V

    2017-10-01

    A lipid and glycoprotein-rich apical extracellular matrix (aECM) or glycocalyx lines exposed membranes in the body, and is particularly important to protect narrow tube integrity. Lipocalins ("fat cups") are small, secreted, cup-shaped proteins that bind and transport lipophilic cargo and are often found in luminal or aECM compartments such as mammalian plasma, urine, or tear film. Although some lipocalins can bind known aECM lipids and/or matrix metalloproteinases, it is not known if and how lipocalins affect aECM structure due to challenges in visualizing the aECM in most systems. Here we show that two Caenorhabditis elegans lipocalins, LPR-1 and LPR-3, have distinct functions in the precuticular glycocalyx of developing external epithelia. LPR-1 moves freely through luminal compartments, while LPR-3 stably localizes to a central layer of the membrane-anchored glycocalyx, adjacent to the transient zona pellucida domain protein LET-653 Like LET-653 and other C. elegans glycocalyx components, these lipocalins are required to maintain the patency of the narrow excretory duct tube, and also affect multiple aspects of later cuticle organization. lpr-1 mutants cannot maintain a continuous excretory duct apical domain and have misshapen cuticle ridges (alae) and abnormal patterns of cuticular surface lipid staining. lpr-3 mutants cannot maintain a passable excretory duct lumen, properly degrade the eggshell, or shed old cuticle during molting, and they lack cuticle barrier function. Based on these phenotypes, we infer that both LPR-1 and LPR-3 are required to build a properly organized aECM, while LPR-3 additionally is needed for aECM clearance and remodeling. The C. elegans glycocalyx provides a powerful system, amenable to both genetic analysis and live imaging, for investigating how lipocalins and lipids affect aECM structure. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. ECM remodeling and its plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingchen; Jones, Christopher A. R.; Cibula, Matthew; Mao, Xiaoming; Sander, Leonard M.; Levine, Herbert; Sun, Bo

    The mechanical interactions between cells and Extracellular Matrix (ECM) are of great importance in many cellular processes. These interactions are reciprocal, i.e. contracting cells pull and reorganize the surrounding matrix, while the remodeled matrix feeds back to regulate cell activities. Recent experiments show in collagen gels with densely distributed cells, aligned fiber bundles are formed in the direction between neighboring cells. Fibers flow into the center region between contracting cell pairs in this process, which causes the concentration of fibers in the fiber bundles to become significantly enhanced. Using an extended lattice-based model, we show that viscoelasticity plays an essential role in ECM remodeling and contributes to the enhanced concentration in fiber bundles. We further characterize ECM plasticity within our model and verify our results with rheometer experiments.

  7. Myogenic Progenitor Cells Control Extracellular Matrix Production by Fibroblasts during Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Christopher S; Kirby, Tyler J; Kosmac, Kate; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2017-01-05

    Satellite cells, the predominant stem cell population in adult skeletal muscle, are activated in response to hypertrophic stimuli and give rise to myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) within the extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds myofibers. This ECM is composed largely of collagens secreted by interstitial fibrogenic cells, which influence satellite cell activity and muscle repair during hypertrophy and aging. Here we show that MPCs interact with interstitial fibrogenic cells to ensure proper ECM deposition and optimal muscle remodeling in response to hypertrophic stimuli. MPC-dependent ECM remodeling during the first week of a growth stimulus is sufficient to ensure long-term myofiber hypertrophy. MPCs secrete exosomes containing miR-206, which represses Rrbp1, a master regulator of collagen biosynthesis, in fibrogenic cells to prevent excessive ECM deposition. These findings provide insights into how skeletal stem and progenitor cells interact with other cell types to actively regulate their extracellular environments for tissue maintenance and adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. IMMUNE RESPONSE TO EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX COLLAGEN IN CHRONIC HEPATITIS C INDUCED LIVER FIBROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Brian B.; Seetharam, Anil; Subramanian, Vijay; Ilias, Haseeb; Lisker–Melman, Mauricio; Korenblat, Kevin; Anderson, Christopher; Shenoy, Surendra; Chapman, William C.; Crippin, Jeffrey S.; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection and recurrence post-transplant (OLT) is associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) components remodeling, particularly collagen (Col), leading to fibrosis. Our aim was to determine whether development of antibodies (Abs) to self antigen Col in HCV infection correlates with fibrosis stage and peripheral cytokine response. Chronic HCV patients, those with recurrence after OLT undergoing biopsy and healthy control subjects were enrolled. HCV subjects (n=70) were...

  9. In vivo xenogeneic scaffold fate is determined by residual antigenicity and extracellular matrix preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Maelene L.; Wong, Janelle L.; Vapniarsky, Natalia; Griffiths, Leigh G.

    2016-01-01

    The immunological potential of animal-derived tissues and organs is the critical hurdle to increasing their clinical implementation. Glutaraldehyde-fixation cross-links proteins in xenogeneic tissues (e.g., bovine pericardium) to delay immune rejection, but also compromises the regenerative potential of the resultant biomaterial. Unfixed xenogeneic biomaterials in which xenoantigenicity has been ameliorated and native extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture has been maintained have the potent...

  10. Vinculin is required for cell polarization, migration, and extracellular matrix remodeling in 3D collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thievessen, Ingo; Fakhri, Nikta; Steinwachs, Julian; Kraus, Viola; McIsaac, R Scott; Gao, Liang; Chen, Bi-Chang; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Betzig, Eric; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Waterman, Clare M; Fabry, Ben

    2015-11-01

    Vinculin is filamentous (F)-actin-binding protein enriched in integrin-based adhesions to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Whereas studies in 2-dimensional (2D) tissue culture models have suggested that vinculin negatively regulates cell migration by promoting cytoskeleton-ECM coupling to strengthen and stabilize adhesions, its role in regulating cell migration in more physiologic, 3-dimensional (3D) environments is unclear. To address the role of vinculin in 3D cell migration, we analyzed the morphodynamics, migration, and ECM remodeling of primary murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with cre/loxP-mediated vinculin gene disruption in 3D collagen I cultures. We found that vinculin promoted 3D cell migration by increasing directional persistence. Vinculin was necessary for persistent cell protrusion, cell elongation, and stable cell orientation in 3D collagen, but was dispensable for lamellipodia formation, suggesting that vinculin-mediated cell adhesion to the ECM is needed to convert actin-based cell protrusion into persistent cell shape change and migration. Consistent with this finding, vinculin was necessary for efficient traction force generation in 3D collagen without affecting myosin II activity and promoted 3D collagen fiber alignment and macroscopical gel contraction. Our results suggest that vinculin promotes directionally persistent cell migration and tension-dependent ECM remodeling in complex 3D environments by increasing cell-ECM adhesion and traction force generation. © FASEB.

  11. Extracellular matrix control of mammary gland morphogenesis and tumorigenesis: insights from imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghajar, Cyrus M; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-10-23

    The extracellular matrix (ECM), once thought to solely provide physical support to a tissue, is a key component of a cell's microenvironment responsible for directing cell fate and maintaining tissue specificity. It stands to reason, then, that changes in the ECM itself or in how signals from the ECM are presented to or interpreted by cells can disrupt tissue organization; the latter is a necessary step for malignant progression. In this review, we elaborate on this concept using the mammary gland as an example. We describe how the ECM directs mammary gland formation and function, and discuss how a cell's inability to interpret these signals - whether as a result of genetic insults or physicochemical alterations in the ECM - disorganizes the gland and promotes malignancy. By restoring context and forcing cells to properly interpret these native signals, aberrant behavior can be quelled and organization re-established. Traditional imaging approaches have been a key complement to the standard biochemical, molecular, and cell biology approaches used in these studies. Utilizing imaging modalities with enhanced spatial resolution in live tissues may uncover additional means by which the ECM regulates tissue structure, on different length scales, through its pericellular organization (short-scale) and by biasing morphogenic and morphostatic gradients (long-scale).

  12. In vitro evaluation of the interactions between human corneal endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin San; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Min Jeong; Giegengack, Matthew; Khan, Faraaz A; Soker, Shay; Khang, Gilson

    2013-01-01

    The corneal endothelium is the innermost cell layer of the cornea and rests on Descemet's membrane consisting of various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins which can directly affect the cellular behaviors such as cell adhesion, proliferation, polarity, morphogenesis and function. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactions between the ECM environment and human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), with the ultimate goal to improve cell proliferation and function in vitro. To evaluate the interaction of HCECs with ECM proteins, cells were seeded on ECM-coated tissue culture dishes, including collagen type I (COL I), collagen type IV (COL IV), fibronectin (FN), FNC coating mix (FNC) and laminin (LM). Cell adhesion and proliferation of HCECs on each substratum and expression of CEC markers were studied. The results showed that HCECs plated on the COL I, COL IV, FN and FNC-coated plates had enhanced cell adhesion initially; the number for COL I, COL IV, FN and FNC was significantly higher than the control (P < 0.05). In addition, cells grown on ECM protein-coated dishes showed more compact cellular morphology and CEC marker expression compared to cells seeded on uncoated dishes. Collectively, our results suggest that an adequate ECM protein combination can provide a long-term culture environment for HCECs for corneal endothelium transplantation. (paper)

  13. Optical metrics of the extracellular matrix predict compositional and mechanical changes after myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kyle P.; Sullivan, Kelly E.; Liu, Zhiyi; Ballard, Zachary; Siokatas, Christos; Georgakoudi, Irene; Black, Lauren D.

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the organization and mechanical function of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for the development of therapeutic strategies that regulate wound healing following disease or injury. However, these relationships are challenging to elucidate during remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) due to rapid changes in cellularity and an inability to characterize both ECM microstructure and function non-destructively. In this study, we overcome those challenges through whole organ decellularization and non-linear optical microscopy to directly relate the microstructure and mechanical properties of myocardial ECM. We non-destructively quantify collagen organization, content, and cross-linking within decellularized healthy and infarcted myocardium using second harmonic generation (SHG) and two photon excited autofluorescence. Tensile mechanical testing and compositional analysis reveal that the cumulative SHG intensity within each image volume and the average collagen autofluorescence are significantly correlated with collagen content and elastic modulus of the ECM, respectively. Compared to healthy ECM, infarcted tissues demonstrate a significant increase in collagen content and fiber alignment, and a decrease in cross-linking and elastic modulus. These findings indicate that cross-linking plays a key role in stiffness at the collagen fiber level following infarction, and highlight how this non-destructive approach to assessing remodeling can be used to understand ECM structure-function relationships.

  14. Vibrio cholerae O1 secretes an extracellular matrix in response to antibody-mediated agglutination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Baranova

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae O1 is one of two serogroups responsible for epidemic cholera, a severe watery diarrhea that occurs after the bacterium colonizes the human small intestine and secretes a potent ADP-ribosylating toxin. Immunity to cholera is associated with intestinal anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies, which are known to inhibit V. cholerae motility and promote bacterial cell-cell crosslinking and aggregation. Here we report that V. cholerae O1 classical and El Tor biotypes produce an extracellular matrix (ECM when forcibly immobilized and agglutinated by ZAC-3 IgG, an intestinally-derived monoclonal antibody (MAb against the core/lipid A region of LPS. ECM secretion, as demonstrated by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy, occurred within 30 minutes of antibody exposure and peaked by 3 hours. Non-motile mutants of V. cholerae did not secrete ECM following ZAC-3 IgG exposure, even though they were susceptible to agglutination. The ECM was enriched in O-specific polysaccharide (OSP but not Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS. Finally, we demonstrate that ECM production by V. cholerae in response to ZAC-3 IgG was associated with bacterial resistant to a secondary complement-mediated attack. In summary, we propose that V. cholerae O1, upon encountering anti-LPS antibodies in the intestinal lumen, secretes an ECM (or O-antigen capsule possibly as a strategy to shield itself from additional host immune factors and to exit an otherwise inhospitable host environment.

  15. Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-06-01

    It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

  16. Adipose Extracellular Matrix/Stromal Vascular Fraction Gel Secretes Angiogenic Factors and Enhances Skin Wound Healing in a Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells are an attractive cell type for cytotherapy in wound healing. The authors recently developed a novel, adipose-tissue-derived, injectable extracellular matrix/stromal vascular fraction gel (ECM/SVF-gel for stem cell therapy. This study was designed to assess the therapeutic effects of ECM/SVF-gel on wound healing and potential mechanisms. ECM/SVF-gel was prepared for use in nude mouse excisional wound healing model. An SVF cell suspension and phosphate-buffered saline injection served as the control. The expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 in ECM/SVF-gel were analyzed at different time points. Angiogenesis (tube formation assays of ECM/SVF-gel extracts were evaluated, and vessels density in skin was determined. The ECM/SVF-gel extract promoted tube formation in vitro and increased the expression of the angiogenic factors VEGF and bFGF compared with those in the control. The expression of the inflammatory chemoattractant MCP-1 was high in ECM/SVF-gel at the early stage and decreased sharply during the late stage of wound healing. The potent angiogenic effects exerted by ECM/SVF-gel may contribute to the improvement of wound healing, and these effects could be related to the enhanced inflammatory response in ECM/SVF-gel during the early stage of wound healing.

  17. NG2 proteoglycan increases mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jing; Wang Yang; Zhu, Zhonghua; Liu Jianshe; Wang Yumei; Zhang Chun; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Lang, Florian; Feng Yuxi

    2007-01-01

    As a membrane-spanning protein, NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan interacts with molecules on both sides of plasma membrane. The present study explored the role of NG2 in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the normal kidneys, NG2 was observed predominantly in glomerular mesangium, Bowman's capsule and interstitial vessels. Both mRNA and protein expression in kidneys was significantly higher in strepozotocin-induced diabetic rats than that in normal rats. In the cultured rat mesangial cell line HBZY-1, overexpression of NG2 promoted mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production, such as type VI collagen and laminin. Furthermore, target knockdown of NG2 resulted in decreased cell proliferation and ECM formation. The observations suggest that NG2 is up-regulated in diabetic nephropathy. It actively participates in the development and progression of glomerulosclerosis by stimulating proliferation of mesangial cells and deposition of ECM

  18. Early extracellular matrix changes are associated with later development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Catharina; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Schultz, Hans Henrik

    2017-01-01

    are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify potential early changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) in different compartments of the transplanted lung prior to the development of BOS. Methods: Transbronchial biopsies from a cohort of 58 lung transplantation patients at the Copenhagen...... and immunohistochemistry. Results: A time-specific and compartment-specific pattern of ECM changes was detected. Alveolar total collagen (p=0.0190) and small airway biglycan (p=0.0199) increased between 3 and 12 months after transplantation in patients developing BOS, while collagen type IV (p=0.0124) increased...... in patients without BOS. Patients with early-onset BOS mirrored this increase. Patients developing grade 3 BOS showed distinct ECM changes already at 3 months. Patients with BOS with treated acute rejections displayed reduced alveolar total collagen (p=0.0501) and small airway biglycan (p=0.0485) at 3 months...

  19. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins: tenascin-C, fibronectin and galectin-3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ulamec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The interchanged stromal-epithelial relations and altered expression profiles of various extracellular matrix (ECM proteins creates a suitable microenvironment for cancer development and growth. We support the opinion that remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM plays an important role in the cancer progression. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ECM proteins tenascin-C, fibronectin and galectin-3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: Glands and surrounding stroma were analyzed in randomly selected specimens from 52 patients with prostate cancer and 28 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP. To evaluate the intensity of tenascin-C, fibronectin and galectin-3 expression the percentage of positively immunostained stromal cells was examined.Results: Compared to BPH, stroma of prostatic adenocarcinoma showed statistically significant increase in tenascin-C expression (p<0.001, predominantly around neoplastic glands, while fibronectin (p=0.001 and galectin-3 (p<0.001 expression in the same area was decreased.Conclusions: Our study confirms changes in the expression of ECM proteins of prostate cancer which may have important role in the cancer development.

  20. Distinct profile of vascular progenitor attachment to extracellular matrix proteins in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Laura; Li, Yuhua; Addison, Christina L; Brand, Marjorie; Javidnia, Hedyeh; Corsten, Martin; Burns, Kevin; Allan, David S

    2012-04-01

    Vascular progenitor cells (VPCs) facilitate angiogenesis and initiate vascular repair by homing in on sites of damage and adhering to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. VPCs also contribute to tumor angiogenesis and induce angiogenic switching in sites of metastatic cancer. In this study, the binding of attaching cells in VPC clusters that form in vitro on specific ECM proteins was investigated. VPC cluster assays were performed in vitro on ECM proteins enriched in cancer cells and in remodelling tissue. Profiles of VPC clusters from patients with cancer were compared to healthy controls. The role of VEGF and integrin-specific binding of angiogenic attaching cells was addressed. VPC clusters from cancer patients were markedly increased on fibronectin relative to other ECM proteins tested, in contrast to VPC clusters from control subjects, which formed preferentially on laminin. Specific integrin-mediated binding of attaching cells in VPC clusters was matrix protein-dependent. Furthermore, cancer patients had elevated plasma VEGF levels compared to healthy controls and VEGF facilitated preferential VPC cluster formation on fibronectin. Incubating cells from healthy controls with VEGF induced a switch from the 'healthy' VPC binding profile to the profile observed in cancer patients with a marked increase in VPC cluster formation on fibronectin. The ECM proteins laminin and fibronectin support VPC cluster formation via specific integrins on attaching cells and can facilitate patterns of VPC cluster formation that are distinct in cancer patients. Larger studies, however, are needed to gain insight on how tumor angiogenesis may differ from normal repair processes.

  1. The endogenous fluorescence of fibroblast in collagen gels as indicator of stiffness of the extracellular matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Martinez, J. P.; Ortega-Martinez, A.; Franco, W.

    2016-03-01

    The stiffness or rigidity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell response. Established mechanical tests to measure stiffness, such as indentation and tensile tests, are invasive and destructive to the sample. Endogenous or native molecules to cells and ECM components, like tryptophan and cross-links of collagen, display fluorescence upon irradiation with ultraviolet light. Most likely, the concentration of these endogenous fluorophores changes as the stiffness of the ECM changes. In this work we investigate the endogenous fluorescence of collagen gels containing fibroblasts as a non-invasive non-destructive method to measure stiffness of the ECM. Human fibroblast cells were cultured in three-dimensional gels of type I collagen (50,000 cells/ml). This construct is a simple model of tissue contraction. During contraction, changes in the excitation-emission matrix (a fluorescence map in the 240-520/290-530 nm range) of constructs were measured with a spectrofluoremeter, and changes in stiffness were measured with a standard indentation test over 16 days. Results show that a progressive increase in fluorescence of the 290/340 nm excitation-emission pair correlates with a progressive increase in stiffness (r=0.9, α=0.5). The fluorescence of this excitation-emission pair is ascribed to tryptophan and variations in the fluorescence of this pair correlate with cellular proliferation. In this tissue model, the endogenous functional fluorescence of proliferating fibroblast cells is a biomechanical marker of stiffness of the ECM.

  2. Regulation of corneal stroma extracellular matrix assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shoujun; Mienaltowski, Michael J; Birk, David E

    2015-04-01

    The transparent cornea is the major refractive element of the eye. A finely controlled assembly of the stromal extracellular matrix is critical to corneal function, as well as in establishing the appropriate mechanical stability required to maintain corneal shape and curvature. In the stroma, homogeneous, small diameter collagen fibrils, regularly packed with a highly ordered hierarchical organization, are essential for function. This review focuses on corneal stroma assembly and the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis. Corneal collagen fibrillogenesis involves multiple molecules interacting in sequential steps, as well as interactions between keratocytes and stroma matrix components. The stroma has the highest collagen V:I ratio in the body. Collagen V regulates the nucleation of protofibril assembly, thus controlling the number of fibrils and assembly of smaller diameter fibrils in the stroma. The corneal stroma is also enriched in small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) that cooperate in a temporal and spatial manner to regulate linear and lateral collagen fibril growth. In addition, the fibril-associated collagens (FACITs) such as collagen XII and collagen XIV have roles in the regulation of fibril packing and inter-lamellar interactions. A communicating keratocyte network contributes to the overall and long-range regulation of stromal extracellular matrix assembly, by creating micro-domains where the sequential steps in stromal matrix assembly are controlled. Keratocytes control the synthesis of extracellular matrix components, which interact with the keratocytes dynamically to coordinate the regulatory steps into a cohesive process. Mutations or deficiencies in stromal regulatory molecules result in altered interactions and deficiencies in both transparency and refraction, leading to corneal stroma pathobiology such as stromal dystrophies, cornea plana and keratoconus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigating the role of the extracellular matrix on differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and MC3T3 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, H.A.M.; Dechering, Koen; Someren, Eugene; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a promising cell source for bone tissue engineering, but due to their limited number and donor variation, other cell types are used to answer relevant questions in bone tissue engineering. Since the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex entity with

  4. Disentangling the multifactorial contributions of fibronectin, collagen and cyclic strain on MMP expression and extracellular matrix remodeling by fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Lin, Z.; Foolen, J.; Schoen, I.; Santoro, A.; Zenobi-Wong, M.; Vogel, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Early wound healing is associated with fibroblasts assembling a provisional fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), which is subsequently remodeled and interlaced by type I collagen. This exposes fibroblasts to time-variant sets of matrices during different stages of wound healing. Our goal was

  5. Influence of tissue- and cell-scale extracellular matrix distribution on the mechanical properties of tissue-engineered cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshgoftar, M.; Wilson, W.; Ito, K.; Donkelaar, C.C. van

    2013-01-01

    The insufficient load-bearing capacity of today's tissue- engineered (TE) cartilage limits its clinical application. Generally, cartilage TE studies aim to increase the extracellular matrix (ECM) content, as this is thought to determine the load-bearing properties of the cartilage. However, there

  6. Influence of tissue- and cell-scale extracellular matrix distribution on the mechanical properties of tissue engineered cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshgoftar, M.; Wilson, W.; Ito, K.; Donkelaar, van C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The insufficient load-bearing capacity of today’s tissue- engineered (TE) cartilage limits its clinical application. Generally, cartilage TE studies aim to increase the extracellular matrix (ECM) content, as this is thought to determine the load-bearing properties of the cartilage. However, there

  7. Extracellular matrix protein 1, a direct targeting molecule of parathyroid hormone–related peptide, negatively regulates chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification via associating with progranulin growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Li; Zhao, Yun-Peng; Tian, Qing-Yun; Feng, Jian-Quan; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Merregaert, Joseph; Liu, Chuan-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification are precisely controlled by cellular interactions with surrounding matrix proteins and growth factors that mediate cellular signaling pathways. Here, we report that extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) is a previously unrecognized regulator of chondrogenesis. ECM1 is induced in the course of chondrogenesis and its expression in chondrocytes strictly depends on parathyroid hormone–related peptide (PTHrP) signaling pathway. Overexpression of ECM1 suppresses, whereas suppression of ECM1 enhances, chondrocyte differentiation and hypertrophy in vitro and ex vivo. In addition, target transgene of ECM1 in chondrocytes or osteoblasts in mice leads to striking defects in cartilage development and endochondral bone formation. Of importance, ECM1 seems to be critical for PTHrP action in chondrogenesis, as blockage of ECM1 nearly abolishes PTHrP regulation of chondrocyte hypertrophy, and overexpression of ECM1 rescues disorganized growth plates of PTHrP-null mice. Furthermore, ECM1 and progranulin chondrogenic growth factor constitute an interaction network and act in concert in the regulation of chondrogenesis.—Kong, L., Zhao, Y.-P., Tian, Q.-Y., Feng, J.-Q., Kobayashi, T., Merregaert, J., Liu, C.-J. Extracellular matrix protein 1, a direct targeting molecule of parathyroid hormone–related peptide, negatively regulates chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification via associating with progranulin growth factor. PMID:27075243

  8. Extracellular matrix remodeling and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in visceral adipose during weight cycling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Cíntia Rabelo E Paiva; Gotardo, Érica Martins Ferreira; Santos, Paola Souza; Acedo, Simone Coghetto; de Morais, Thainá Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2017-10-15

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is necessary for a health adipose tissue (AT) expansion and also has a role during weight loss. We investigate the ECM alteration during weight cycling (WC) in mice and the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was assessed using GM6001, an MMP inhibitor, during weight loss (WL). Obesity was induced in mice by a high-fat diet. Obese mice were subject to caloric restriction for WL followed by reintroduction to high-fat diet for weight regain (WR), resulting in a WC protocol. In addition, mice were treated with GM6001 during WL period and the effects were observed after WR. Activity and expression of MMPs was intense during WL. MMP inhibition during WL results in inflammation and collagen content reduction. MMP inhibition during WL period interferes with the period of subsequent expansion of AT resulting in improvements in local inflammation and systemic metabolic alterations induced by obesity. Our results suggest that MMPs inhibition could be an interesting target to improve adipose tissue inflammation during WL and to support weight cyclers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ornamenting 3D printed scaffolds with cell-laid extracellular matrix for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Song, Tae-Ha; Rijal, Girdhari; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    3D printing technique is the most sophisticated technique to produce scaffolds with tailorable physical properties. But, these scaffolds often suffer from limited biological functionality as they are typically made from synthetic materials. Cell-laid mineralized ECM was shown to be potential for improving the cellular responses and drive osteogenesis of stem cells. Here, we intend to improve the biological functionality of 3D-printed synthetic scaffolds by ornamenting them with cell-laid mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) that mimics a bony microenvironment. We developed bone graft substitutes by using 3D printed scaffolds made from a composite of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and mineralized ECM laid by human nasal inferior turbinate tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hTMSCs). A rotary flask bioreactor was used to culture hTMSCs on the scaffolds to foster formation of mineralized ECM. A freeze/thaw cycle in hypotonic buffer was used to efficiently decellularize (97% DNA reduction) the ECM-ornamented scaffolds while preserving its main organic and inorganic components. The ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds supported osteoblastic differentiation of newly-seeded hTMSCs by upregulating four typical osteoblastic genes (4-fold higher RUNX2; 3-fold higher ALP; 4-fold higher osteocalcin; and 4-fold higher osteopontin) and increasing calcium deposition compared to bare 3D printed scaffolds. In vivo, in ectopic and orthotopic models in rats, ECM-ornamented scaffolds induced greater bone formation than that of bare scaffolds. These results suggest a valuable method to produce ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds as off-the-shelf bone graft substitutes that combine tunable physical properties with physiological presentation of biological signals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The exit strategy: Pharmacological modulation of extracellular matrix production and deposition for better aqueous humor drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattabiraman, Padmanabhan P; Toris, Carol B

    2016-09-15

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is an optic neuropathy and an irreversible blinding disease. The etiology of glaucoma is not known but numerous risk factors are associated with this disease including aging, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), race, myopia, family history and use of steroids. In POAG, the resistance to the aqueous humor drainage is increased leading to elevated IOP. Lowering the resistance and ultimately the IOP has been the only way to slow disease progression and prevent vision loss. The primary drainage pathway comprising of the trabecular meshwork (TM) is made up of relatively large porous beams surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM). Its juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT) or the cribriform meshwork is made up of cells embedded in dense ECM. The JCT is considered to offer the major resistance to the aqueous humor outflow. This layer is adjacent to the endothelial cells forming Schlemm's canal, which provides approximately 10% of the outflow resistance. The ECM in the TM and the JCT undergoes continual remodeling to maintain normal resistance to aqueous humor outflow. It is believed that the TM is a major contributor of ECM proteins and evidence points towards increased ECM deposition in the outflow pathway in POAG. It is not clear how and from where the ECM components emerge to hinder the normal aqueous humor drainage. This review focuses on the involvement of the ECM in ocular hypertension and glaucoma and the mechanisms by which various ocular hypotensive drugs, both current and emerging, target ECM production, remodeling, and deposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards rebuilding vaginal support utilizing an extracellular matrix bioscaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rui; Knight, Katrina; Easley, Deanna; Palcsey, Stacy; Abramowitch, Steven; Moalli, Pamela A

    2017-07-15

    As an alternative to polypropylene mesh, we explored an extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffold derived from urinary bladder matrix (MatriStem™) in the repair of vaginal prolapse. We aimed to restore disrupted vaginal support simulating application via transvaginal and transabdominal approaches in a macaque model focusing on the impact on vaginal structure, function, and the host immune response. In 16 macaques, after laparotomy, the uterosacral ligaments and paravaginal attachments to pelvic side wall were completely transected (IACUC# 13081928). 6-ply MatriStem was cut into posterior and anterior templates with a portion covering the vagina and arms simulating uterosacral ligaments and paravaginal attachments, respectively. After surgically exposing the correct anatomical sites, in 8 animals, a vaginal incision was made on the anterior and posterior vagina and the respective scaffolds were passed into the vagina via these incisions (transvaginal insertion) prior to placement. The remaining 8 animals underwent the same surgery without vaginal incisions (transabdominal insertion). Three months post implantation, firm tissue bands extending from vagina to pelvic side wall appeared in both MatriStem groups. Experimental endpoints examining impact of MatriStem on the vagina demonstrated that vaginal biochemical and biomechanical parameters, smooth muscle thickness and contractility, and immune responses were similar in the MatriStem no incision group and sham-operated controls. In the MatriStem incision group, a 41% decrease in vaginal stiffness (P=0.042), a 22% decrease in collagen content (P=0.008) and a 25% increase in collagen subtypes III/I was observed vs. Sham. Active MMP2 was increased in both Matristem groups vs. Sham (both P=0.002). This study presents a novel application of ECM bioscaffolds as a first step towards the rebuilding of vaginal support. Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition related to failure of the supportive soft tissues of the vagina

  12. Accumulation of Extracellular Matrix in Advanced Lesions of Canine Distemper Demyelinating Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehusen, Frauke; Al-Azreg, Seham A; Raddatz, Barbara B; Haist, Verena; Puff, Christina; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Ulrich, Reiner; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In demyelinating diseases, changes in the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) may contribute to demyelination and failure of myelin repair and axonal sprouting, especially in chronic lesions. To characterize changes in the ECM in canine distemper demyelinating leukoencephalitis (DL), histochemical and immunohistochemical investigations of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cerebella using azan, picrosirius red and Gomori`s silver stain as well as antibodies directed against aggrecan, type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin and phosphacan showed alterations of the ECM in CDV-infected dogs. A significantly increased amount of aggrecan was detected in early and late white matter lesions. In addition, the positive signal for collagens I and IV as well as fibronectin was significantly increased in late lesions. Conversely, the expression of phosphacan was significantly decreased in early and more pronounced in late lesions compared to controls. Furthermore, a set of genes involved in ECM was extracted from a publically available microarray data set and was analyzed for differential gene expression. Gene expression of ECM molecules, their biosynthesis pathways, and pro-fibrotic factors was mildly up-regulated whereas expression of matrix remodeling enzymes was up-regulated to a relatively higher extent. Summarized, the observed findings indicate that changes in the quality and content of ECM molecules represent important, mainly post-transcriptional features in advanced canine distemper lesions. Considering the insufficiency of morphological regeneration in chronic distemper lesions, the accumulated ECM seems to play a crucial role upon regenerative processes and may explain the relatively small regenerative potential in late stages of this disease.

  13. Extracellular S100A4(mts1) stimulates invasive growth of mouse endothelial cells and modulates MMP-13 matrix metalloproteinase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Hansen, Birgitte; Ornås, Dorte; Grigorian, Mariam

    2004-01-01

    with the transcriptional modulation of genes involved in the proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Treatment of SVEC 4-10 with the S100A4 protein leads to the transcriptional activation of collagenase 3 (MMP-13) mRNA followed by subsequent release of the protein from the cells. Beta-casein zymography...... demonstrates enhancement of proteolytic activity associated with MMP-13. This observation indicates that extracellular S100A4 stimulates the production of ECM degrading enzymes from endothelial cells, thereby stimulating the remodeling of ECM. This could explain the angiogenic and metastasis...

  14. Collagen XII and XIV, New Partners of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein in the Skin Extracellular Matrix Suprastructure*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pallavi; Zwolanek, Daniela; Keene, Douglas R.; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Blumbach, Katrin; Heinegård, Dick; Zaucke, Frank; Paulsson, Mats; Krieg, Thomas; Koch, Manuel; Eckes, Beate

    2012-01-01

    The tensile and scaffolding properties of skin rely on the complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds cells, vasculature, nerves, and adnexus structures and supports the epidermis. In the skin, collagen I fibrils are the major structural component of the dermal ECM, decorated by proteoglycans and by fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices such as collagens XII and XIV. Here we show that the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), an abundant component of cartilage ECM, is expressed in healthy human skin. COMP expression is detected in the dermal compartment of skin and in cultured fibroblasts, whereas epidermis and HaCaT cells are negative. In addition to binding collagen I, COMP binds to collagens XII and XIV via their C-terminal collagenous domains. All three proteins codistribute in a characteristic narrow zone in the superficial papillary dermis of healthy human skin. Ultrastructural analysis by immunogold labeling confirmed colocalization and further revealed the presence of COMP along with collagens XII and XIV in anchoring plaques. On the basis of these observations, we postulate that COMP functions as an adapter protein in human skin, similar to its function in cartilage ECM, by organizing collagen I fibrils into a suprastructure, mainly in the vicinity of anchoring plaques that stabilize the cohesion between the upper dermis and the basement membrane zone. PMID:22573329

  15. Collagen XII and XIV, new partners of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in the skin extracellular matrix suprastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pallavi; Zwolanek, Daniela; Keene, Douglas R; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Blumbach, Katrin; Heinegård, Dick; Zaucke, Frank; Paulsson, Mats; Krieg, Thomas; Koch, Manuel; Eckes, Beate

    2012-06-29

    The tensile and scaffolding properties of skin rely on the complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds cells, vasculature, nerves, and adnexus structures and supports the epidermis. In the skin, collagen I fibrils are the major structural component of the dermal ECM, decorated by proteoglycans and by fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices such as collagens XII and XIV. Here we show that the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), an abundant component of cartilage ECM, is expressed in healthy human skin. COMP expression is detected in the dermal compartment of skin and in cultured fibroblasts, whereas epidermis and HaCaT cells are negative. In addition to binding collagen I, COMP binds to collagens XII and XIV via their C-terminal collagenous domains. All three proteins codistribute in a characteristic narrow zone in the superficial papillary dermis of healthy human skin. Ultrastructural analysis by immunogold labeling confirmed colocalization and further revealed the presence of COMP along with collagens XII and XIV in anchoring plaques. On the basis of these observations, we postulate that COMP functions as an adapter protein in human skin, similar to its function in cartilage ECM, by organizing collagen I fibrils into a suprastructure, mainly in the vicinity of anchoring plaques that stabilize the cohesion between the upper dermis and the basement membrane zone.

  16. Mechanical forces regulate the interactions of fibronectin and collagen I in extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Kristopher E; Vukmirovic, Radmila; Zhe, Lin; Klotzsch, Enrico; Smith, Michael L; Gourdon, Delphine; Luna, Sheila; Vogel, Viola

    2015-08-14

    Despite the crucial role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in directing cell fate in healthy and diseased tissues--particularly in development, wound healing, tissue regeneration and cancer--the mechanisms that direct the assembly and regulate hierarchical architectures of ECM are poorly understood. Collagen I matrix assembly in vivo requires active fibronectin (Fn) fibrillogenesis by cells. Here we exploit Fn-FRET probes as mechanical strain sensors and demonstrate that collagen I fibres preferentially co-localize with more-relaxed Fn fibrils in the ECM of fibroblasts in cell culture. Fibre stretch-assay studies reveal that collagen I's Fn-binding domain is responsible for the mechano-regulated interaction. Furthermore, we show that Fn-collagen interactions are reciprocal: relaxed Fn fibrils act as multivalent templates for collagen assembly, but once assembled, collagen fibres shield Fn fibres from being stretched by cellular traction forces. Thus, in addition to the well-recognized, force-regulated, cell-matrix interactions, forces also tune the interactions between different structural ECM components.

  17. Study on the correlation between extracellular matrix protein-1 and the growth, metastasis and angiogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin-Yu; Liu, Juan; Lv, Feng; Liu, Ming-Qiu; Wan, Jing-Ming

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between extracellular matrix protein-1 (ECM1) and the growth, metastasis and angiogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma. Forty-five samples with laryngeal benign and malignant tumors confirmed by pathology in Laiwu City People's Hospital from March 2006 to March 2011 were collected, in which there were 29 cases with laryngeal carcinoma and 16 with benign tumors. The expression of ECM1 and factor VIII-related antigens in patients with laryngeal carcinoma and those with benign tumors was respectively detected using immunohistochemical method, and the correlation between ECM1 staining grade and microvessel density (MVD) was analyzed. In laryngeal carcinoma tissue, ECM1 was mainly expressed in cytoplasm, less in cytomembrane or intercellular substance. With abundant expression in the tissue of laryngeal benign tumors (benign mesenchymoma and hemangioma), ECM1 was primarily expressed in the connective tissue, which was different from the expression in laryngeal carcinoma tissue. The proportion of positive ECM1 staining (++) in patients with laryngeal carcinoma was dramatically higher than those with benign tumors (pcorrelation analysis revealed that ECM1 staining grade in laryngeal carcinoma tissue had a significantly-positive correlation with MVD (r=0.866, p=0.000). ECM1 expression in laryngeal carcinoma is closely associated with tumor cell growth, metastasis and angiogenesis, which can be considered as an effective predictor in the occurrence and postoperative recurrence of laryngeal carcinoma.

  18. Coating extracellular matrix proteins on a (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-treated glass substrate for improved cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hiro-taka; Ishihara, Seiichiro; Harada, Ichiro; Mizutani, Takeomi; Ishikawa, Masayori; Kawabata, Kazushige; Haga, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that a (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-treated glass surface is superior to an untreated glass surface for coating with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins when used as a cell culture substrate to observe cell physiology and behavior. We found that MDCK cells cultured on untreated glass coated with ECM removed the coated ECM protein and secreted different ECM proteins. In contrast, the cells did not remove the coated ECM protein when seeded on (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-treated (i.e., silanized) glass coated with ECM. Furthermore, the morphology and motility of cells grown on silanized glass differed from those grown on non-treated glass, even when both types of glass were initially coated with laminin. We also found that cells on silanized glass coated with laminin had higher motility than those on silanized glass coated with fibronectin. Based on our results, we suggest that silanized glass is a more suitable cell culture substrate than conventional non-treated glass when coated by ECM for observations of ECM effects on cell physiology.

  19. Disruption of fibronectin matrix affects type IV collagen, fibrillin and laminin deposition into extracellular matrix of human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filla, Mark S; Dimeo, Kaylee D; Tong, Tiegang; Peters, Donna M

    2017-12-01

    Fibronectin fibrils are a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the trabecular meshwork (TM). They are a key mediator of the formation of the ECM which controls aqueous humor outflow and contributes to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The purpose of this work was to determine if a fibronectin-binding peptide called FUD, derived from the Streptococcus pyogenes Functional Upstream Domain of the F1 adhesin protein, could be used to control fibronectin fibrillogenesis and hence ECM formation under conditions where its expression was induced by treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. FUD was very effective at preventing fibronectin fibrillogenesis in the presence or absence of steroid treatment as well as the removal of existing fibronectin fibrils. Disruption of fibronectin fibrillogenesis by FUD also disrupted the incorporation of type IV collagen, laminin and fibrillin into the ECM. The effect of FUD on these other protein matrices, however, was found to be dependent upon the maturity of the ECM when FUD was added. FUD effectively disrupted the incorporation of these other proteins into matrices when added to newly confluent cells that were forming a nascent ECM. In contrast, FUD had no effect on these other protein matrices if the cell cultures already possessed a pre-formed, mature ECM. Our studies indicate that FUD can be used to control fibronectin fibrillogenesis and that these fibrils play a role in regulating the assembly of other ECM protein into matrices involving type IV collagen, laminin, and fibrillin within the TM. This suggests that under in vivo conditions, FUD would selectively disrupt fibronectin fibrils and de novo assembly of other proteins into the ECM. Finally, our studies suggest that targeting fibronectin fibril assembly may be a viable treatment for POAG as well as other glaucomas involving excessive or abnormal matrix deposition of the ECM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Urea and Thiourea on Generation of Xenogeneic Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Maelene L.; Wong, Janelle L.; Horn, Rebecca M.; Sannajust, Kimberley C.; Rice, Dawn A.

    2016-01-01

    Effective solubilization of proteins by chaotropes in proteomic applications motivates their use in solubilization-based antigen removal/decellularization strategies. A high urea concentration has previously been reported to significantly reduce lipophilic antigen content of bovine pericardium (BP); however, structure and function of the resultant extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold were compromised. It has been recently demonstrated that in vivo ECM scaffold fate is determined by two primary outcome measures as follows: (1) sufficient reduction in antigen content to avoid graft-specific adaptive immune responses and (2) maintenance of native ECM structural proteins to avoid graft-specific innate responses. In this work, we assessed residual antigenicity, ECM architecture, ECM content, thermal stability, and tensile properties of BP subjected to a gradient of urea concentrations to determine whether an intermediate concentration exists at which both antigenicity and structure–function primary outcome measures for successful in vivo scaffold outcome can simultaneously be achieved. Alteration in tissue structure–function properties at various urea concentrations with decreased effectiveness for antigen removal makes use of urea-mediated antigen removal unlikely to be suitable for functional scaffold generation. PMID:27230226

  1. Regulation of aortic extracellular matrix synthesis via noradrenergic system and angiotensin II in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dab, Houcine; Hachani, Rafik; Dhaouadi, Nedra; Sakly, Mohsen; Hodroj, Wassim; Randon, Jacques; Bricca, Giampiero; Kacem, Kamel

    2012-10-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis regulation by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or angiotensin II (ANG II) was widely reported, but interaction between the two systems on ECM synthesis needs further investigation. We tested implication of SNS and ANG II on ECM synthesis in juvenile rat aorta. Sympathectomy with guanethidine (50 mg/kg, subcutaneous) and blockade of the ANG II AT1 receptors (AT1R) blocker with losartan (20 mg/kg/day in drinking water) were performed alone or in combination in rats. mRNA and protein synthesis of collagen and elastin were examined by Q-RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Collagen type I and III mRNA were increased respectively by 62 and 43% after sympathectomy and decreased respectively by 31 and 60% after AT1R blockade. Combined treatment increased collagen type III by 36% but not collagen type I. The same tendency of collagen expression was observed at mRNA and protein levels after the three treatments. mRNA and protein level of elastin was decreased respectively by 63 and 39% and increased by 158 and 15% after losartan treatment. Combined treatment abrogates changes induced by single treatments. The two systems act as antagonists on ECM expression in the aorta and combined inhibition of the two systems prevents imbalance of mRNA and protein level of collagen I and elastin induced by single treatment. Combined inhibition of the two systems prevents deposit or excessive reduction of ECM and can more prevent cardiovascular disorders.

  2. Mechanics and crack formation in the extracellular matrix with articular cartilage as a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Sarah; Silverberg, Jesse; Bonassar, Lawrence; Cohen, Itai; Das, Moumita

    We investigate the mechanical structure-function relations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) with focus on crack formation and failure. As a model system, our study focuses on the ECM in articular cartilage (AC), the tissue that covers the ends of bones, and distributes load in joints including in the knees, shoulders, and hips. The strength, toughness, and crack resistance of native articular cartilage is unparalleled in materials made by humankind. This mechanical response is mainly due to its ECM. The ECM in AC has two major mechanobiological components: a network of the biopolymer collagen and a flexible aggrecan gel. We model this system as a biopolymer network embedded in a swelling gel, and investigate the conditions for the formation and propagation of cracks using a combination of rigidity percolation theory and energy minimization approaches. Our results may provide useful insights into the design principles of the ECM as well as of biomimetic hydrogels that are mechanically robust and can, at the same time, easily adapt to cues in their surroundings. This work was partially supported by a Cottrell College Science Award.

  3. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Supportive and Unsupportive Extracellular Matrix Substrates for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Maintenance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soteriou, Despina; Iskender, Banu; Byron, Adam; Humphries, Jonathan D.; Borg-Bartolo, Simon; Haddock, Marie-Claire; Baxter, Melissa A.; Knight, David; Humphries, Martin J.; Kimber, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells that have indefinite replicative potential and the ability to differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers. hESCs are conventionally grown on mitotically inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or feeder cells of human origin. In addition, feeder-free culture systems can be used to support hESCs, in which the adhesive substrate plays a key role in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal or differentiation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components define the microenvironment of the niche for many types of stem cells, but their role in the maintenance of hESCs remains poorly understood. We used a proteomic approach to characterize in detail the composition and interaction networks of ECMs that support the growth of self-renewing hESCs. Whereas many ECM components were produced by supportive and unsupportive MEF and human placental stromal fibroblast feeder cells, some proteins were only expressed in supportive ECM, suggestive of a role in the maintenance of pluripotency. We show that identified candidate molecules can support attachment and self-renewal of hESCs alone (fibrillin-1) or in combination with fibronectin (perlecan, fibulin-2), in the absence of feeder cells. Together, these data highlight the importance of specific ECM interactions in the regulation of hESC phenotype and provide a resource for future studies of hESC self-renewal. PMID:23658023

  4. Age-related collagen turnover of the interstitial matrix and basement membrane: Implications of age- and sex-dependent remodeling of the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Stephanie N.; Willumsen, Nicholas; Armbrecht, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a vital role in maintaining normal tissue function. Collagens are major components of the ECM and there is a tight equilibrium between degradation and formation of these proteins ensuring tissue health and homeostasis. As a consequence of tissue turnover, small...... collagen fragments are released into the circulation, which act as important biomarkers in the study of certain tissue-related remodeling factors in health and disease. The aim of this study was to establish an age-related collagen turnover profile of the main collagens of the interstitial matrix (type I...... an increased turnover. In summary, collagen turnover is affected by age and sex with the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane being differently regulated. The observed changes needs to be accounted for when measuring ECM related biomarkers in clinical studies....

  5. Effect of chondrocyte-derived early extracellular matrix on chondrogenesis of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Beom; Seo, Sinji; Kim, Jin-A; Heo, Jin-Chul; Lim, Young-Cheol; Ha, Chul-Won

    2015-06-24

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding cells contains a variety of proteins that provide structural support and regulate cellular functions. Previous studies have shown that decellularized ECM isolated from tissues or cultured cells can be used to improve cell differentiation in tissue engineering applications. In this study we evaluated the effect of decellularized chondrocyte-derived ECM (CDECM) on the chondrogenesis of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDMSCs) in a pellet culture system. After incubation with or without chondrocyte-derived ECM in chondrogenic medium for 1 or 3 weeks, the sizes and wet masses of the cell pellets were compared with untreated controls (hPDMSCs incubated in chondrogenic medium without chondrocyte-derived ECM). In addition, histologic analysis of the cell pellets (Safranin O and collagen type II staining) and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of chondrogenic markers (aggrecan, collagen type II, and SOX9) were carried out. Our results showed that the sizes and masses of hPDMSC pellets incubated with chondrocyte-derived ECM were significantly higher than those of untreated controls. Differentiation of hPDMSCs (both with and without chondrocyte-derived ECM) was confirmed by Safranin O and collagen type II staining. Chondrogenic marker expression and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels were significantly higher in hPDMSC pellets incubated with chondrocyte-derived ECM compared with untreated controls, especially in cells precultured with chondrocyte-derived ECM for 7 d. Taken together, these results demonstrate that chondrocyte-derived ECM enhances the chondrogenesis of hPDMSCs, and this effect is further increased by preculture with chondrocyte-derived ECM. This preculture method for hPDMSC chondrogenesis represents a promising approach for cartilage tissue engineering.

  6. Teaching the extracellular matrix and introducing online databases within a multidisciplinary course with i-cell-MATRIX: A student-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, João Carlos; Costa, Manuel João; Palha, Joana Almeida

    2010-03-01

    The biochemistry and molecular biology of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is difficult to convey to students in a classroom setting in ways that capture their interest. The understanding of the matrix's roles in physiological and pathological conditions study will presumably be hampered by insufficient knowledge of its molecular structure. Internet-available resources can bridge the division between the molecular details and ECM's biological properties and associated processes. This article presents an approach to teach the ECM developed for first year medical undergraduates who, working in teams: (i) Explore a specific molecular component of the matrix, (ii) identify a disease in which the component is implicated, (iii) investigate how the component's structure/function contributes to ECM' supramolecular organization in physiological and in pathological conditions, and (iv) share their findings with colleagues. The approach-designated i-cell-MATRIX-is focused on the contribution of individual components to the overall organization and biological functions of the ECM. i-cell-MATRIX is student centered and uses 5 hours of class time. Summary of results and take home message: A "1-minute paper" has been used to gather student feedback on the impact of i-cell-MATRIX. Qualitative analysis of student feedback gathered in three consecutive years revealed that students appreciate the approach's reliance on self-directed learning, the interactivity embedded and the demand for deeper insights on the ECM. Learning how to use internet biomedical resources is another positive outcome. Ninety percent of students recommend the activity for subsequent years. i-cell-MATRIX is adaptable by other medical schools which may be looking for an approach that achieves higher student engagement with the ECM. Copyright © 2010 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The planar cell polarity protein VANGL2 coordinates remodeling of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B Blairanne; Mundell, Nathan; Dunlap, Julie; Jessen, Jason

    2012-07-01

    Understanding how planar cell polarity (PCP) is established, maintained, and coordinated in migrating cell populations is an important area of research with implications for both embryonic morphogenesis and tumor cell invasion. We recently reported that the PCP protein Vang-like 2 (VANGL2) regulates the endocytosis and cell surface level of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP14 or MT1-MMP). Here, we further discuss these findings in terms of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, cell migration, and zebrafish gastrulation. We also demonstrate that VANGL2 function impacts the focal degradation of ECM by human cancer cells including the formation or stability of invadopodia. Together, our findings implicate MMP14 as a downstream effector of VANGL2 signaling and suggest a model whereby the regulation of pericellular proteolysis is a fundamental aspect of PCP in migrating cells.

  8. In vivo xenogeneic scaffold fate is determined by residual antigenicity and extracellular matrix preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Maelene L; Wong, Janelle L; Vapniarsky, Natalia; Griffiths, Leigh G

    2016-06-01

    The immunological potential of animal-derived tissues and organs is the critical hurdle to increasing their clinical implementation. Glutaraldehyde-fixation cross-links proteins in xenogeneic tissues (e.g., bovine pericardium) to delay immune rejection, but also compromises the regenerative potential of the resultant biomaterial. Unfixed xenogeneic biomaterials in which xenoantigenicity has been ameliorated and native extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture has been maintained have the potential to overcome limitations of current clinically utilized glutaraldehyde-fixed biomaterials. The objective of this work was to determine how residual antigenicity and ECM architecture preservation modulate recipient immune and regenerative responses towards unfixed bovine pericardium (BP) ECM scaffolds. Disruption of ECM architecture during scaffold generation, with either SDS-decellularization or glutaraldehyde-fixation, stimulated recipient foreign body response and resultant fibrotic encapsulation following leporine subpannicular implantation. Conversely, BP scaffolds subjected to stepwise removal of hydrophilic and lipophilic antigens using amidosulfobetaine-14 (ASB-14) maintained native ECM architecture and thereby avoided fibrotic encapsulation. Removal of hydrophilic and lipophilic antigens significantly decreased local and systemic graft-specific, adaptive immune responses and subsequent calcification of BP scaffolds compared to scaffolds undergoing hydrophile removal only. Critically, removal of antigenic components and preservation of ECM architecture with ASB-14 promoted full-thickness recipient non-immune cellular repopulation of the BP scaffold. Further, unlike clinically utilized fixed BP, ASB-14-treated scaffolds fostered rapid intimal and medial vessel wall regeneration in a porcine carotid patch angioplasty model. This work highlights the importance of residual antigenicity and ECM architecture preservation in modulating recipient immune and regenerative

  9. Phrase Mining of Textual Data to Analyze Extracellular Matrix Protein Patterns Across Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, David Alexandre; Murali, Sanjana; Sigdel, Dibakar; Shi, Yu; Wang, Xuan; Shen, Jiaming; Choi, Howard; Caufield, J Harry; Wang, Wei; Ping, Peipei; Han, Jiawei

    2018-05-18

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been shown to play important roles regulating multiple biological processes in an array of organ systems, including the cardiovascular system. By using a novel bioinformatics text-mining tool, we studied six categories of cardiovascular disease (CVD), namely ischemic heart disease (IHD), cardiomyopathies (CM), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), congenital heart disease (CHD), arrhythmias (ARR), and valve disease (VD), anticipating novel ECM protein-disease and protein-protein relationships hidden within vast quantities of textual data. We conducted a phrase-mining analysis, delineating the relationships of 709 ECM proteins with the six groups of CVDs reported in 1,099,254 abstracts. The technology pipeline known as Context-aware Semantic Online Analytical Processing (CaseOLAP) was applied to semantically rank the association of proteins to each and all six CVDs, performing analyses to quantify each protein-disease relationship. We performed principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering of the data, where each protein is visualized as a six dimensional vector. We found that ECM proteins display variable degrees of association with the six CVDs; certain CVDs share groups of associated proteins whereas others have divergent protein associations. We identified 82 ECM proteins sharing associations with all six CVDs. Our bioinformatics analysis ascribed distinct ECM pathways (via Reactome) from this subset of proteins, namely insulin-like growth factor regulation and interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 signaling, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of all six CVDs. Finally, we performed hierarchical clustering analysis and identified protein clusters associated with a targeted CVD; analyses revealed unexpected insights underlying ECM-pathogenesis of CVDs.

  10. Adapted Boolean network models for extracellular matrix formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollbold Johannes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the rapid data accumulation on pathogenesis and progression of chronic inflammation, there is an increasing demand for approaches to analyse the underlying regulatory networks. For example, rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterised by joint destruction and perpetuated by activated synovial fibroblasts (SFB. These abnormally express and/or secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, collagens causing joint fibrosis, or tissue-degrading enzymes resulting in destruction of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM. We applied three methods to analyse ECM regulation: data discretisation to filter out noise and to reduce complexity, Boolean network construction to implement logic relationships, and formal concept analysis (FCA for the formation of minimal, but complete rule sets from the data. Results First, we extracted literature information to develop an interaction network containing 18 genes representing ECM formation and destruction. Subsequently, we constructed an asynchronous Boolean network with biologically plausible time intervals for mRNA and protein production, secretion, and inactivation. Experimental gene expression data was obtained from SFB stimulated by TGFβ1 or by TNFα and discretised thereafter. The Boolean functions of the initial network were improved iteratively by the comparison of the simulation runs to the experimental data and by exploitation of expert knowledge. This resulted in adapted networks for both cytokine stimulation conditions. The simulations were further analysed by the attribute exploration algorithm of FCA, integrating the observed time series in a fine-tuned and automated manner. The resulting temporal rules yielded new contributions to controversially discussed aspects of fibroblast biology (e.g., considerable expression of TNF and MMP9 by fibroblasts stimulation and corroborated previously known facts (e.g., co-expression of collagens and MMPs after TNF

  11. Neoplastic and stromal cells contribute to an extracellular matrix gene expression profile defining a breast cancer subtype likely to progress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Triulzi

    Full Text Available We recently showed that differential expression of extracellular matrix (ECM genes delineates four subgroups of breast carcinomas (ECM1, -2, -3- and -4 with different clinical outcome. To further investigate the characteristics of ECM signature and its impact on tumor progression, we conducted unsupervised clustering analyses in 6 additional independent datasets of invasive breast tumors from different platforms for a total of 643 samples. Use of four different clustering algorithms identified ECM3 tumors as an independent group in all datasets tested. ECM3 showed a homogeneous gene pattern, consisting of 58 genes encoding 43 structural ECM proteins. From 26 to 41% of the cases were ECM3-enriched, and analysis of datasets relevant to gene expression in neoplastic or corresponding stromal cells showed that both stromal and breast carcinoma cells can coordinately express ECM3 genes. In in vitro experiments, β-estradiol induced ECM3 gene production in ER-positive breast carcinoma cell lines, whereas TGFβ induced upregulation of the genes leading to ECM3 gene classification, especially in ER-negative breast carcinoma cells and in fibroblasts. Multivariate analysis of distant metastasis-free survival in untreated breast tumor patients revealed a significant interaction between ECM3 and histological grade (p = 0.001. Cox models, estimated separately in grade I-II and grade III tumors, indicated a highly significant association between ECM3 and worse survival probability only in grade III tumors (HR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.3-7.0, p = 0.0098. Gene Set Enrichment analysis of ECM3 compared to non-ECM3 tumors revealed significant enrichment of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT genes in both grade I-II and grade III subsets of ECM3 tumors. Thus, ECM3 is a robust cluster that identifies breast carcinomas with EMT features but with accelerated metastatic potential only in the undifferentiated (grade III phenotype. These findings support the

  12. Changes in muscle fiber contractility and extracellular matrix production during skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

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    Mendias, Christopher L; Schwartz, Andrew J; Grekin, Jeremy A; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Sugg, Kristoffer B

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal muscle can adapt to increased mechanical loads by undergoing hypertrophy. Transient reductions in whole muscle force production have been reported during the onset of hypertrophy, but contractile changes in individual muscle fibers have not been previously studied. Additionally, the extracellular matrix (ECM) stores and transmits forces from muscle fibers to tendons and bones, and determining how the ECM changes during hypertrophy is important in understanding the adaptation of muscle tissue to mechanical loading. Using the synergist ablation model, we sought to measure changes in muscle fiber contractility, collagen content, and cross-linking, and in the expression of several genes and activation of signaling proteins that regulate critical components of myogenesis and ECM synthesis and remodeling during muscle hypertrophy. Tissues were harvested 3, 7, and 28 days after induction of hypertrophy, and nonoverloaded rats served as controls. Muscle fiber specific force (sF o ), which is the maximum isometric force normalized to cross-sectional area, was reduced 3 and 7 days after the onset of mechanical overload, but returned to control levels by 28 days. Collagen abundance displayed a similar pattern of change. Nearly a quarter of the transcriptome changed over the course of overload, as well as the activation of signaling pathways related to hypertrophy and atrophy. Overall, this study provides insight into fundamental mechanisms of muscle and ECM growth, and indicates that although muscle fibers appear to have completed remodeling and regeneration 1 mo after synergist ablation, the ECM continues to be actively remodeling at this time point. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study utilized a rat synergist ablation model to integrate changes in single muscle fiber contractility, extracellular matrix composition, activation of important signaling pathways in muscle adaption, and corresponding changes in the muscle transcriptome to provide novel insight into the basic

  13. Increased extracellular matrix density decreases MCF10A breast cell acinus formation in 3D culture conditions.

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    Lance, Amanda; Yang, Chih-Chao; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Dean, Delphine; Deitch, Sandy; Burg, Karen J L; Dréau, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to the generation and dynamic of normal breast tissue, in particular to the generation of polarized acinar and ductal structures. In vitro 3D culture conditions, including variations in the composition of the ECM, have been shown to directly influence the formation and organization of acinus-like and duct-like structures. Furthermore, the density of the ECM appears to also play a role in the normal mammary tissue and tumour formation. Here we show that the density of the ECM directly influences the number, organization and function of breast acini. Briefly, non-malignant human breast MCF10A cells were incubated in increasing densities of a Matrigel®-collagen I matrix. Elastic moduli near and distant to the acinus structures were measured by atomic force microscopy, and the number of acinus structures was determined. Immunochemistry was used to investigate the expression levels of E-cadherin, laminin, matrix metalloproteinase-14 and ß-casein in MCF10A cells. The modulus of the ECM was significantly increased near the acinus structures and the number of acinus structures decreased with the increase in Matrigel-collagen I density. As evaluated by the expression of laminin, the organization of the acinus structures present was altered as the density of the ECM increased. Increases in both E-cadherin and MMP14 expression by MCF10A cells as ECM density increased were also observed. In contrast, MCF10A cells expressed lower ß-casein levels as the ECM density increased. Taken together, these observations highlight the key role of ECM density in modulating the number, organization and function of breast acini. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cell Adhesions: Actin-Based Modules that Mediate Cell-Extracellular Matrix and Cell-Cell Interactions

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    Bachir, Alexia; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Nelson, W. James; Bianchini, Julie M.

    2018-01-01

    Cell adhesions link cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to each other, and depend on interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. Both cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion sites contain discrete, yet overlapping functional modules. These modules establish physical association with the actin cytoskeleton, locally modulate actin organization and dynamics, and trigger intracellular signaling pathways. Interplay between these modules generates distinct actin architectures that underlie different stages, types, and functions of cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesions. Actomyosin contractility is required to generate mature, stable adhesions, as well as sense and translate the mechanical properties of the cellular environment to changes in cell organization and behavior. In this chapter we discuss the organization and function of different adhesion modules and how they interact with the actin cytoskeleton. We highlight the molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction in adhesions, and how adhesion molecules mediate crosstalk between cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion sites. PMID:28679638

  15. Aging of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix drives a stem cell fibrogenic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns-Reider, Kristen M; D'Amore, Antonio; Beezhold, Kevin; Rothrauff, Benjamin; Cavalli, Loredana; Wagner, William R; Vorp, David A; Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Shinde, Sunita; Zhang, Changqing; Barchowsky, Aaron; Rando, Thomas A; Tuan, Rocky S; Ambrosio, Fabrisia

    2017-06-01

    Age-related declines in skeletal muscle regeneration have been attributed to muscle stem cell (MuSC) dysfunction. Aged MuSCs display a fibrogenic conversion, leading to fibrosis and impaired recovery after injury. Although studies have demonstrated the influence of in vitro substrate characteristics on stem cell fate, whether and how aging of the extracellular matrix (ECM) affects stem cell behavior has not been investigated. Here, we investigated the direct effect of the aged muscle ECM on MuSC lineage specification. Quantification of ECM topology and muscle mechanical properties reveals decreased collagen tortuosity and muscle stiffening with increasing age. Age-related ECM alterations directly disrupt MuSC responses, and MuSCs seeded ex vivo onto decellularized ECM constructs derived from aged muscle display increased expression of fibrogenic markers and decreased myogenicity, compared to MuSCs seeded onto young ECM. This fibrogenic conversion is recapitulated in vitro when MuSCs are seeded directly onto matrices elaborated by aged fibroblasts. When compared to young fibroblasts, fibroblasts isolated from aged muscle display increased nuclear levels of the mechanosensors, Yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), consistent with exposure to a stiff microenvironment in vivo. Accordingly, preconditioning of young fibroblasts by seeding them onto a substrate engineered to mimic the stiffness of aged muscle increases YAP/TAZ nuclear translocation and promotes secretion of a matrix that favors MuSC fibrogenesis. The findings here suggest that an age-related increase in muscle stiffness drives YAP/TAZ-mediated pathogenic expression of matricellular proteins by fibroblasts, ultimately disrupting MuSC fate. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A study of extracellular matrix remodeling in aortic heart valves using a novel biaxial stretch bioreactor.

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    Lei, Ying; Masjedi, Shirin; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2017-11-01

    In aortic valves, biaxial cyclic stretch is known to modulate cell differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and organization. We designed a novel bioreactor that can apply independent and precise stretch along radial and circumferential directions in a tissue culture environment. While this bioreactor can be used for either native or engineered tissues, this study determined matrix remodeling and strain distribution of aortic cusps after culturing under biaxial stretch for 14 days. The contents of collagen and glycosaminoglycans were determined using standard biochemical assays and compared with fresh controls. Strain fields in static cusps were more uniform than those in stretched cusps, which indicated degradation of the ECM fibers. The glycosaminoglycan content was significantly elevated in the static control as compared to fresh or stretched cusps, but no difference was observed in collagen content among the groups. The strain profile of freshly isolated fibrosa vs. ventricularis and left, right, and noncoronary cusps were also determined by Digital Image Correlation technique. Distinct strain patterns were observed under stretch on fibrosa and ventricularis sides and among the three cusps. This work highlights the critical role of the anisotropic ECM structure for proper functions of native aortic valves and the beneficial effects of biaxial stretch for maintenance of the native ECM structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. VANGL2 interacts with integrin αv to regulate matrix metalloproteinase activity and cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Tammy N; Jessen, Jason R

    2017-12-15

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins are implicated in a variety of morphogenetic processes including embryonic cell migration and potentially cancer progression. During zebrafish gastrulation, the transmembrane protein Vang-like 2 (VANGL2) is required for PCP and directed cell migration. These cell behaviors occur in the context of a fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM). While it is thought that interactions with the ECM regulate cell migration, it is unclear how PCP proteins such as VANGL2 influence these events. Using an in vitro cell culture model system, we previously showed that human VANGL2 negatively regulates membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP14) and activation of secreted matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Here, we investigated the functional relationship between VANGL2, integrin αvβ3, and MMP2 activation. We provide evidence that VANGL2 regulates cell surface integrin αvβ3 expression and adhesion to fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin. Inhibition of MMP14/MMP2 activity suppressed the cell adhesion defect in VANGL2 knockdown cells. Furthermore, our data show that MMP14 and integrin αv are required for increased proteolysis by VANGL2 knockdown cells. Lastly, we have identified integrin αvβ3 as a novel VANGL2 binding partner. Together, these findings begin to dissect the molecular underpinnings of how VANGL2 regulates MMP activity and cell adhesion to the ECM. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma pathogenesis: a potential target for future therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Soriful; Ciavattini, Andrea; Petraglia, Felice; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2018-01-01

    Uterine leiomyoma (also known as fibroid or myoma) is the most common benign tumor of the uterus found in women of reproductive age. It is not usually fatal but can produce serious clinical symptoms, including excessive uterine bleeding, pelvic pain or pressure, infertility and pregnancy complications. Due to lack of effective medical treatments surgery has been a definitive choice for the management of this tumor. Extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and remodeling are thought to be crucial for fibrotic diseases such as uterine leiomyoma. Indeed, ECM plays important role in forming the bulk structure of leiomyoma, and the ECM-rich rigid structure within these tumors is thought to be a cause of abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain. Therefore, a better understanding of ECM accumulation and remodeling is critical for developing new therapeutics for uterine leiomyoma. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for all original and review articles/book chapters related to ECM and medical treatments of uterine leiomyoma published in English until May 2017. This review discusses the involvement of ECM in leiomyoma pathogenesis as well as current and future medical treatments that target ECM directly or indirectly. Uterine leiomyoma is characterized by elevated levels of collagens, fibronectin, laminins and proteoglycans. They can induce the mechanotransduction process, such as activation of the integrin-Rho/p38 MAPK/ERK pathway, resulting in cellular responses that are involved in pathogenesis and altered bidirectional signaling between leiomyoma cells and the ECM. ECM accumulation is affected by growth factors (TGF-β, activin-A and PDGF), cytokines (TNF-α), steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and microRNAs (miR-29 family, miR-200c and miR-93/106b). Among these, TGF-βs (1 and 3) and activin-A have been suggested as key players in the accumulation of excessive ECM (fibrosis) in leiomyoma. The presence of elevated levels of ECM and myofibroblasts in leiomyoma

  19. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular matrix enhances chondrogenic phenotype of and cartilage formation by encapsulated chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanheng; Lin, Hang; Shen, He; Wang, Bing; Lei, Guanghua; Tuan, Rocky S

    2018-03-15

    Mesenchymal stem cell derived extracellular matrix (MSC-ECM) is a natural biomaterial with robust bioactivity and good biocompatibility, and has been studied as a scaffold for tissue engineering. In this investigation, we tested the applicability of using decellularized human bone marrow derived MSC-ECM (hBMSC-ECM) as a culture substrate for chondrocyte expansion in vitro, as well as a scaffold for chondrocyte-based cartilage repair. hBMSC-ECM deposited by hBMSCs cultured on tissue culture plastic (TCP) was harvested, and then subjected to a decellularization process to remove hBMSCs. Compared with chondrocytes grown on TCP, chondrocytes seeded onto hBMSC-ECM exhibited significantly increased proliferation rate, and maintained better chondrocytic phenotype than TCP group. After being expanded to the same cell number and placed in high-density micromass cultures, chondrocytes from the ECM group showed better chondrogenic differentiation profile than those from the TCP group. To test cartilage formation ability, composites of hBMSC-ECM impregnated with chondrocytes were subjected to brief trypsin treatment to allow cell-mediated contraction, and folded to form 3-dimensional chondrocyte-impregnated hBMSC-ECM (Cell/ECM constructs). Upon culture in vitro in chondrogenic medium for 21 days, robust cartilage formation was observed in the Cell/ECM constructs. Similarly prepared Cell/ECM constructs were tested in vivo by subcutaneous implantation into SCID mice. Prominent cartilage formation was observed in the implanted Cell/ECM constructs 14 days post-implantation, with higher sGAG deposition compared to controls consisting of chondrocyte cell sheets. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that hBMSC-ECM is a superior culture substrate for chondrocyte expansion and a bioactive matrix potentially applicable for cartilage regeneration in vivo. Current cell-based treatments for focal cartilage defects face challenges, including chondrocyte dedifferentiation, need for

  20. Naturally Occurring Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds for Dermal Regeneration: Do They Really Need Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Eweida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pronounced effect of extracellular matrix (ECM scaffolds in supporting tissue regeneration is related mainly to their maintained 3D structure and their bioactive components. These decellularized matrix scaffolds could be revitalized before grafting via adding stem cells, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes to promote wound healing. We reviewed the online published literature in the last five years for the studies that performed ECM revitalization and discussed the results of these studies and the related literature. Eighteen articles met the search criteria. Twelve studies included adding cells to acellular dermal matrix (ADM, 3 studies were on small intestinal mucosa (SIS, one study was on urinary bladder matrix (UBM, one study was on amniotic membrane, and one study included both SIS and ADM loaded constructs. We believe that, in chronic and difficult-to-heal wounds, revitalizing the ECM scaffolds would be beneficial to overcome the defective host tissue interaction. This belief still has to be verified by high quality randomised clinical trials, which are still lacking in literature.

  1. Extracellular Matrix Molecules Facilitating Vascular Biointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K.C. Ng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available All vascular implants, including stents, heart valves and graft materials exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility that significantly reduces their clinical efficacy. A range of biomolecules in the subendothelial space have been shown to play critical roles in local regulation of thrombosis, endothelial growth and smooth muscle cell proliferation, making these attractive candidates for modulation of vascular device biointegration. However, classically used biomaterial coatings, such as fibronectin and laminin, modulate only one of these components; enhancing endothelial cell attachment, but also activating platelets and triggering thrombosis. This review examines a subset of extracellular matrix molecules that have demonstrated multi-faceted vascular compatibility and accordingly are promising candidates to improve the biointegration of vascular biomaterials.

  2. Tissue-specific extracellular matrix coatings for the promotion of cell proliferation and maintenance of cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; He, Yujiang; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Hammam, Nevin; Carnagey, Kristen; Myers, Regina; Atala, Anthony; Van Dyke, Mark

    2009-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that extracellular matrix (ECM) substitutes can have a dramatic impact on cell growth, differentiation and function. However, these ECMs are often applied generically and have yet to be developed for specific cell types. In this study, we developed tissue-specific ECM-based coating substrates for skin, skeletal muscle and liver cell cultures. Cellular components were removed from adult skin, skeletal muscle, and liver tissues, and the resulting acellular matrices were homogenized and dissolved. The ECM solutions were used to coat culture dishes. Tissue matched and non-tissue matched cell types were grown on these coatings to assess adhesion, proliferation, maintenance of phenotype and cell function at several time points. Each cell type showed better proliferation and differentiation in cultures containing ECM from their tissue of origin. Although subtle compositional differences in the three ECM types were not investigated in this study, these results suggest that tissue-specific ECMs provide a culture microenvironment that is similar to the in vivo environment when used as coating substrates, and this new culture technique has the potential for use in drug development and the development of cell-based therapies.

  3. The impact of extracellular matrix coatings on the performance of human renal cells applied in bioartificial kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huishi; Tasnim, Farah; Ying, Jackie Y; Zink, Daniele

    2009-05-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings have been used to improve cell performance in bioartificial kidneys (BAKs). However, their effects on primary human renal proximal tubule cells (HPTCs), which is the most important cell type with regard to clinical applications, have not been tested systematically. Also, the effects of ECM coatings on cell performance during extended time periods have not been addressed. Studying such effects is important for the development of long-term applications. Herein we analyzed for the first time systematically the effects of ECM coatings on proliferation and differentiation of human renal cells and we addressed, in particular, formation and long-term maintenance of differentiated epithelia. Our study focused on HPTCs. ECM coatings were tested alone or in combination with the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein-7 and other additives. The best results were obtained with ECMs consisting of the basal lamina components, laminin or collagen IV, and differentiated epithelia could be maintained up to three weeks on these ECMs. These results provide for the first time clear evidence which kinds of ECM coatings are most appropriate for BAKs. The results also showed that alpha-SMA-expressing myofibroblasts played a key role in the final disruption of differentiated epithelia. This suggests that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related processes might be the major obstacle in long-term applications and such processes should be carefully addressed in future BAK-related research.

  4. Influence of substrate composition on human embryonic stem cell differentiation and extracellular matrix production in embryoid bodies.

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    Laperle, Alex; Masters, Kristyn S; Palecek, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells reside in specialized niches in vivo. Specific factors, including the extracellular matrix (ECM), in these niches are directly responsible for maintaining the stem cell population. During development, components of the stem cell microenvironment also control differentiation with precise spatial and temporal organization. The stem cell microenvironment is dynamically regulated by the cellular component, including stem cells themselves. Thus, a mechanism exists whereby stem cells modify the ECM, which in turn affects the fate of the stem cell. In this study, we investigated whether the type of ECM initially adsorbed to the culture substrate can influence the composition of the ECM deposited by human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) differentiating in embryoid bodies, and whether different ECM composition and deposition profiles elicit distinct differentiation fates. We have shown that the initial ECM environment hESCs are exposed to affects the fate decisions of those cells and that this initial ECM environment is constantly modified during the differentiation process. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Extracellular matrix composition and rigidity regulate invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D pancreatic tumor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Gwendolyn; El-Hamidi, Hamid; Jafari, Seyedehrojin; Jones, Dustin P.; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2016-03-01

    The composition and mechanical compliance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to serve as regulators of tumor growth and invasive behavior. These effects may be particularly relevant in tumors of the pancreas, noted for a profound desmoplastic reaction and an abundance of stroma rich in ECM. In view of recent progress in the clinical implementation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for pancreatic tumors, in this report we examine how ECM composition and rheological properties impact upon invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D multicellular pancreatic tumor spheroids in ECM environments with characterized rheological properties. Tumor spheroids were cultured initially in attachment-free conditions to form millimeter-sized spheroids that were transplanted into reconstituted ECM microenvironments (Matrigel and Type I Collagen) that were characterized using bulk oscillatory shear rheology. Analysis of growth behavior shows that the soft collagen ECM promoted growth and extensive invasion and this microenvironment was used in subsequent assessment of PDT and chemotherapy response. Evaluation of treatment response revealed that primary tumor nodule growth is inhibited more effectively with PDT, while verteporfin PDT response is significantly enhanced in the ECM-infiltrating populations that are non-responsive to oxaliplatin chemotherapy. This finding is potentially significant, suggesting the potential for PDT to target these clinically problematic invasive populations that are associated with aggressive metastatic progression and chemoresistance. Experiments to further validate and identify the mechanistic basis of this observation are ongoing.

  6. Tumorigenic Potential of Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Stanley; Hymowitz, Michelle; Rollo, Ellen E.; Mann, Richard; Conner, Cathleen E.; Cao, Jian; Foda, Hussein D.; Tompkins, David C.; Toole, Bryan P.

    2001-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), a glycoprotein present on the cancer cell plasma membrane, enhances fibroblast synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The demonstration that peritumoral fibroblasts synthesize most of the MMPs in human tumors rather than the cancer cells themselves has ignited interest in the role of EMMPRIN in tumor dissemination. In this report we have demonstrated a role for EMMPRIN in cancer progression. Human MDA-MB-436 breast cancer cells, which are tumorigenic but slow growing in vivo, were transfected with EMMPRIN cDNA and injected orthotopically into mammary tissue of female NCr nu/nu mice. Green fluorescent protein was used to visualize metastases. In three experiments, breast cancer cell clones transfected with EMMPRIN cDNA were considerably more tumorigenic and invasive than plasmid-transfected cancer cells. Increased gelatinase A and gelatinase B expression (demonstrated by in situ hybridization and gelatin substrate zymography) was demonstrated in EMMPRIN-enhanced tumors. In contrast to de novo breast cancers in humans, human tumors transplanted into mice elicited minimal stromal or inflammatory cell reactions. Based on these experimental studies and our previous demonstration that EMMPRIN is prominently displayed in human cancer tissue, we propose that EMMPRIN plays an important role in cancer progression by increasing synthesis of MMPs. PMID:11395366

  7. Extracellular matrix-derived hydrogels for dental stem cell delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Aiswarya; Vanacker, Julie; Germain, Loïc; Leprince, Julian G; Diogenes, Anibal; Shakesheff, Kevin M; White, Lisa J; des Rieux, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Decellularized mammalian extracellular matrices (ECM) have been widely accepted as an ideal substrate for repair and remodelling of numerous tissues in clinical and pre-clinical studies. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of ECM scaffolds derived from site-specific homologous tissues to direct cell differentiation. The present study investigated the suitability of hydrogels derived from different source tissues: bone, spinal cord and dentine, as suitable carriers to deliver human apical papilla derived mesenchymal stem cells (SCAP) for spinal cord regeneration. Bone, spinal cord, and dentine ECM hydrogels exhibited distinct structural, mechanical, and biological characteristics. All three hydrogels supported SCAP viability and proliferation. However, only spinal cord and bone derived hydrogels promoted the expression of neural lineage markers. The specific environment of ECM scaffolds significantly affected the differentiation of SCAP to a neural lineage, with stronger responses observed with spinal cord ECM hydrogels, suggesting that site-specific tissues are more likely to facilitate optimal stem cell behavior for constructive spinal cord regeneration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 319-328, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Reinforcement of esophageal anastomoses with an extracellular matrix scaffold in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieponice, Alejandro; Gilbert, Thomas W; Badylak, Stephen F

    2006-12-01

    The gastric pull-up procedure, a standard intervention after radical esophagectomy, is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to leaks and stricture. A previous preclinical study showed that an extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold with autologous muscle tissue could be used to repair a complete circumferential defect in the cervical esophagus. The aim of the present study was to determine if healing of end-to-end anastomoses of the esophagus could be improved by reinforcement with an ECM scaffold. Twelve female mongrel dogs underwent a complete transection of either the cervical esophagus (n = 6) or the gastroesophageal junction (n = 6). A portion of the endomucosa at the anastomotic site was resected and replaced with an ECM scaffold in contact with the subjacent muscle and the muscle was anastomosed. The measured end points included macroscopic and microscopic evaluation and quantification of the esophageal diameter at the anastomotic site. No anastomotic leaks or systemic complications were observed in the ECM-treated animals. Morphologic findings in both groups showed complete mucosal covering of the surgery site. The remodeled esophageal tissue showed angiogenesis and complete epithelialization. Intact, organized layers of muscle tissue were present between the native muscularis externa and the submucosal layer and effectively bridged the transected ends. The ECM scaffold altered the default mechanism of esophageal repair. Scar tissue formation with associated stricture was virtually eliminated, and the esophageal healing response was characterized by the replacement with structurally normal tissue layers. These findings suggest that the high morbidity rate associated with esophagectomy procedures may be reduced by this ECM augmentation procedure at the anastomotic site.

  9. A Human Amnion-Derived Extracellular Matrix-Coated Cell-Free Scaffold for Cartilage Repair: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Makiko; Kimura, Tomoatsu; Seki, Shoji; Matsui, Yoshito; Yoshida, Toshiko; Koike-Soko, Chika; Okabe, Motonori; Motomura, Hiraku; Gejo, Ryuichi; Nikaido, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from human amniotic mesenchymal cells (HAMs) has various biological activities. In this study, we developed a novel HAM-derived ECM-coated polylactic-co-glycolic acid (ECM-PLGA) scaffold, examined its property on mesenchymal cells, and investigated its potential as a cell-free scaffold for cartilage repair. ECM-PLGA scaffolds were developed by inoculating HAM on a PLGA. After decellularization by irradiation, accumulated ECM was examined. Exogenous cell growth and differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the ECM-PLGA were analyzed in vitro by cell attachment/proliferation assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cell-free ECM-PLGA scaffolds were implanted into osteochondral defects in the trochlear groove of rat knees. After 4, 12, or 24 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the harvested tissues were examined histologically. The ECM-PLGA contained ECM that mimicked natural amniotic stroma that contains type I collagen, fibronectin, hyaluronic acid, and chondroitin sulfates. The ECM-PLGA showed excellent properties of cell attachment and proliferation. MSCs inoculated on the ECM-PLGA scaffold showed accelerated type II collagen mRNA expression after 3 weeks in culture. The ECM-PLGA implanted into an osteochondral defect in rat knees induced gradual tissue regeneration and resulted in hyaline cartilage repair, which was better than that in the empty control group. These in vitro and in vivo experiments show that the cell-free scaffold composed of HAM-derived ECM and PLGA provides a favorable growth environment for MSCs and facilitates the cartilage repair process. The ECM-PLGA may become a "ready-made" biomaterial for cartilage repair therapy.

  10. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues inhibit leiomyoma extracellular matrix despite presence of gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Cox, Jeris; Patel, Amrita; Catherino, William H

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of GnRH analogues (GnRH-a) leuprolide acetate (LA) and cetrorelix acetate on gonadal hormone-regulated expression of extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Laboratory study. University research laboratory. Women undergoing hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. The 3D cell cultures, protein analysis, Western blot, immunohistochemistry. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins, collagen 1, fibronectin, and versican in leiomyoma cells 3D cultures exposed to E2, P, LA, cetrorelix acetate, and combinations for 24- and 72-hour time points. The 3D leiomyoma cultures exposed to E2 for 24 hours demonstrated an increased expression of collagen-1 and fibronectin, which was maintained for up to 72 hours, a time point at which versican was up-regulated significantly. Although P up-regulated collagen-1 protein (1.29 ± 0.04) within 24 hours of exposure, significant increase in all extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins was observed when the gonadal hormones were used concomitantly. Significant decrease in the amount of ECM proteins was observed on use of GnRH-a, LA and cetrorelix, with 24-hour exposure. Both the compounds also significantly decreased ECM protein concentration despite the presence of E2 or both gonadal hormones. This study demonstrates that GnRH-a directly affect the gonadal hormone-regulated collagen-1, fibronectin, and versican production in their presence. These findings suggest that localized therapy with GnRH-a may inhibit leiomyoma growth even in the presence of endogenous gonadal hormone exposure, thereby providing a mechanism to eliminate the hypoestrogenic side effects associated with GnRH-a therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. In silico analysis suggests interaction between Ebola virus and the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko eVeljkovic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The worst Ebola virus (EV outbreak in history has hit Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea hardest and the trendlines in this crisis are grave, and now represents global public health threat concern. Limited therapeutic and/or prophylactic options which are available for humans suffering from Ebola virus disease (EVD further complicate situation. Previous studies suggested that the EV glycoprotein (GP is the main determinant causing structural damage of endothelial cells that triggers the hemorrhagic diathesis, but molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remains elusive. Using the informational spectrum method (ISM, a virtual spectroscopy method for analysis of the protein-protein interactions, the interaction of GP with endothelial extracellular matrix (ECM was investigated. Presented results of this in silico study suggest that Elastin Microfibril Interface Located Proteins (EMILINs are involved in interaction between GP and ECM. This finding could contribute to better understanding of EV/endothelium interaction and its role in pathogenesis, prevention and therapy of EVD.

  12. Culturing on decellularized extracellular matrix enhances antioxidant properties of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhou, Long; Chen, Xi; Liu, Tao; Pan, Guoqing; Cui, Wenguo; Li, Mao; Luo, Zong-Ping; Pei, Ming; Yang, Huilin; Gong, Yihong; He, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) have attracted great interest in clinical application because of their regenerative potential and their lack of ethical issues. Our previous studies showed that decellularized cell-deposited extracellular matrix (ECM) provided an in vivo-mimicking microenvironment for MSCs and facilitated in vitro cell expansion. This study was conducted to analyze the cellular response of UC-MSCs when culturing on the ECM, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular antioxidative enzymes, and the resistance to exogenous oxidative stress. After decellularization, the architecture of cell-deposited ECM was characterized as nanofibrous, collagen fibrils and the matrix components were identified as type I and III collagens, fibronectin, and laminin. Compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) plates, culturing on ECM yielded a 2-fold increase of UC-MSC proliferation and improved the percentage of cells in the S phase by 2.4-fold. The levels of intracellular ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) in ECM-cultured cells were reduced by 41.7% and 82.9%, respectively. More importantly, ECM-cultured UC-MSCs showed enhanced expression and activity of intracellular antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, up-regulated expression of silent information regulator type 1, and suppressed phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, a continuous treatment with exogenous 100 μM H_2O_2 dramatically inhibited osteogenic differentiation of UC-MSCs cultured on TCPS, but culturing on ECM retained the differentiation capacity for matrix mineralization and osteoblast-specific marker gene expression. Collectively, by providing sufficient cell amounts and enhancing antioxidant capacity, decellularized ECM can be a promising cell culture platform for in vitro expansion of UC-MSCs. - Highlights: • Decellularization preserved the architecture and components of cell-deposited ECM.

  13. Culturing on decellularized extracellular matrix enhances antioxidant properties of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaozhen [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Long; Chen, Xi [Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Liu, Tao [Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Pan, Guoqing; Cui, Wenguo; Li, Mao; Luo, Zong-Ping [Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Pei, Ming [Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Yang, Huilin [Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Gong, Yihong, E-mail: gongyih@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); He, Fan, E-mail: fanhe@suda.edu.cn [Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) have attracted great interest in clinical application because of their regenerative potential and their lack of ethical issues. Our previous studies showed that decellularized cell-deposited extracellular matrix (ECM) provided an in vivo-mimicking microenvironment for MSCs and facilitated in vitro cell expansion. This study was conducted to analyze the cellular response of UC-MSCs when culturing on the ECM, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular antioxidative enzymes, and the resistance to exogenous oxidative stress. After decellularization, the architecture of cell-deposited ECM was characterized as nanofibrous, collagen fibrils and the matrix components were identified as type I and III collagens, fibronectin, and laminin. Compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) plates, culturing on ECM yielded a 2-fold increase of UC-MSC proliferation and improved the percentage of cells in the S phase by 2.4-fold. The levels of intracellular ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in ECM-cultured cells were reduced by 41.7% and 82.9%, respectively. More importantly, ECM-cultured UC-MSCs showed enhanced expression and activity of intracellular antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, up-regulated expression of silent information regulator type 1, and suppressed phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, a continuous treatment with exogenous 100 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dramatically inhibited osteogenic differentiation of UC-MSCs cultured on TCPS, but culturing on ECM retained the differentiation capacity for matrix mineralization and osteoblast-specific marker gene expression. Collectively, by providing sufficient cell amounts and enhancing antioxidant capacity, decellularized ECM can be a promising cell culture platform for in vitro expansion of UC-MSCs. - Highlights: • Decellularization preserved the architecture and components of cell

  14. Collagenous Extracellular Matrix Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering: Lessons from the Common Sea Urchin Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kheng Lim; Holmes, David F

    2017-04-25

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering application may be made from a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues because the ECM can mimic the functions of the target tissue. The primary sources of collagenous ECM material are calf skin and bone. However, these sources are associated with the risk of having bovine spongiform encephalopathy or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Alternative sources for collagenous ECM materials may be derived from livestock, e.g., pigs, and from marine animals, e.g., sea urchins. Collagenous ECM of the sea urchin possesses structural features and mechanical properties that are similar to those of mammalian ones. However, even more intriguing is that some tissues such as the ligamentous catch apparatus can exhibit mutability, namely rapid reversible changes in the tissue mechanical properties. These tissues are known as mutable collagenous tissues (MCTs). The mutability of these tissues has been the subject of on-going investigations, covering the biochemistry, structural biology and mechanical properties of the collagenous components. Recent studies point to a nerve-control system for regulating the ECM macromolecules that are involved in the sliding action of collagen fibrils in the MCT. This review discusses the key attributes of the structure and function of the ECM of the sea urchin ligaments that are related to the fibril-fibril sliding action-the focus is on the respective components within the hierarchical architecture of the tissue. In this context, structure refers to size, shape and separation distance of the ECM components while function is associated with mechanical properties e.g., strength and stiffness. For simplicity, the components that address the different length scale from the largest to the smallest are as follows: collagen fibres, collagen fibrils, interfibrillar matrix and collagen molecules. Application of recent theories of stress transfer and fracture mechanisms in fibre reinforced

  15. Collagenous Extracellular Matrix Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering: Lessons from the Common Sea Urchin Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng Lim Goh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Scaffolds for tissue engineering application may be made from a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM of connective tissues because the ECM can mimic the functions of the target tissue. The primary sources of collagenous ECM material are calf skin and bone. However, these sources are associated with the risk of having bovine spongiform encephalopathy or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Alternative sources for collagenous ECM materials may be derived from livestock, e.g., pigs, and from marine animals, e.g., sea urchins. Collagenous ECM of the sea urchin possesses structural features and mechanical properties that are similar to those of mammalian ones. However, even more intriguing is that some tissues such as the ligamentous catch apparatus can exhibit mutability, namely rapid reversible changes in the tissue mechanical properties. These tissues are known as mutable collagenous tissues (MCTs. The mutability of these tissues has been the subject of on-going investigations, covering the biochemistry, structural biology and mechanical properties of the collagenous components. Recent studies point to a nerve-control system for regulating the ECM macromolecules that are involved in the sliding action of collagen fibrils in the MCT. This review discusses the key attributes of the structure and function of the ECM of the sea urchin ligaments that are related to the fibril-fibril sliding action—the focus is on the respective components within the hierarchical architecture of the tissue. In this context, structure refers to size, shape and separation distance of the ECM components while function is associated with mechanical properties e.g., strength and stiffness. For simplicity, the components that address the different length scale from the largest to the smallest are as follows: collagen fibres, collagen fibrils, interfibrillar matrix and collagen molecules. Application of recent theories of stress transfer and fracture mechanisms in fibre

  16. Collagenous Extracellular Matrix Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering: Lessons from the Common Sea Urchin Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kheng Lim; Holmes, David F.

    2017-01-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering application may be made from a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues because the ECM can mimic the functions of the target tissue. The primary sources of collagenous ECM material are calf skin and bone. However, these sources are associated with the risk of having bovine spongiform encephalopathy or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Alternative sources for collagenous ECM materials may be derived from livestock, e.g., pigs, and from marine animals, e.g., sea urchins. Collagenous ECM of the sea urchin possesses structural features and mechanical properties that are similar to those of mammalian ones. However, even more intriguing is that some tissues such as the ligamentous catch apparatus can exhibit mutability, namely rapid reversible changes in the tissue mechanical properties. These tissues are known as mutable collagenous tissues (MCTs). The mutability of these tissues has been the subject of on-going investigations, covering the biochemistry, structural biology and mechanical properties of the collagenous components. Recent studies point to a nerve-control system for regulating the ECM macromolecules that are involved in the sliding action of collagen fibrils in the MCT. This review discusses the key attributes of the structure and function of the ECM of the sea urchin ligaments that are related to the fibril-fibril sliding action—the focus is on the respective components within the hierarchical architecture of the tissue. In this context, structure refers to size, shape and separation distance of the ECM components while function is associated with mechanical properties e.g., strength and stiffness. For simplicity, the components that address the different length scale from the largest to the smallest are as follows: collagen fibres, collagen fibrils, interfibrillar matrix and collagen molecules. Application of recent theories of stress transfer and fracture mechanisms in fibre reinforced

  17. Planar cell polarity proteins differentially regulate extracellular matrix organization and assembly during zebrafish gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Michael R; Mundell, Nathan A; Sawyer, Leah M; Dunlap, Julie A; Jessen, Jason R

    2013-11-01

    Zebrafish gastrulation cell movements occur in the context of dynamic changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and require the concerted action of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins that regulate cell elongation and mediolateral alignment. Data obtained using Xenopus laevis gastrulae have shown that integrin-fibronectin interactions underlie the formation of polarized cell protrusions necessary for PCP and have implicated PCP proteins themselves as regulators of ECM. By contrast, the relationship between establishment of PCP and ECM assembly/remodeling during zebrafish gastrulation is unclear. We previously showed that zebrafish embryos carrying a null mutation in the four-pass transmembrane PCP protein vang-like 2 (vangl2) exhibit increased matrix metalloproteinase activity and decreased immunolabeling of fibronectin. These data implicated for the first time a core PCP protein in the regulation of pericellular proteolysis of ECM substrates and raised the question of whether other zebrafish PCP proteins also impact ECM organization. In Drosophila melanogaster, the cytoplasmic PCP protein Prickle binds Van Gogh and regulates its function. Here we report that similar to vangl2, loss of zebrafish prickle1a decreases fibronectin protein levels in gastrula embryos. We further show that Prickle1a physically binds Vangl2 and regulates both the subcellular distribution and total protein level of Vangl2. These data suggest that the ability of Prickle1a to impact fibronectin organization is at least partly due to effects on Vangl2. In contrast to loss of either Vangl2 or Prickle1a function, we find that glypican4 (a Wnt co-receptor) and frizzled7 mutant gastrula embryos with disrupted non-canonical Wnt signaling exhibit the opposite phenotype, namely increased fibronectin assembly. Our data show that glypican4 mutants do not have decreased proteolysis of ECM substrates, but instead have increased cell surface cadherin protein expression and increased intercellular

  18. Extracellular Matrix and Growth Factors Improve the Efficacy of Intramuscular Islet Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruyuki Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intramuscular islet transplantation is poor despite being technically simple, safe, and associated with reduced rates of severe complications. We evaluated the efficacy of combined treatment with extracellular matrix (ECM and growth factors in intramuscular islet transplantation.Male BALB/C mice were used for the in vitro and transplantation studies. The following three groups were evaluated: islets without treatment (islets-only group, islets embedded in ECM with growth factors (Matrigel group, and islets embedded in ECM without growth factors [growth factor-reduced (GFR Matrigel group]. The viability and insulin-releasing function of islets cultured for 96 h were significantly improved in Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups compared with the islets-only group.Blood glucose and serum insulin levels immediately following transplantation were significantly improved in the Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups and remained significantly improved in the Matrigel group at postoperative day (POD 28. On histological examination, significantly decreased numbers of TdT-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling-positive islet cells and significantly increased numbers of Ki67-positive cells were observed in the Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups at POD 3. Peri-islet revascularization was most prominent in the Matrigel group at POD 14.The efficacy of intramuscular islet transplantation was improved by combination treatment with ECM and growth factors through the inhibition of apoptosis, increased proliferation of islet cells, and promotion of revascularization.

  19. Fabrication and biological evaluation of uniform extracellular matrix coatings on discontinuous photolithography generated micropallet arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Nicholas M; Bachman, Mark; Li, Guann-Pyng; Nelson, Edward L

    2010-11-01

    The recent identification of rare cell populations within tissues that are associated with specific biological behaviors, for example, progenitor cells, has illuminated a limitation of current technologies to study such adherent cells directly from primary tissues. The micropallet array is a recently developed technology designed to address this limitation by virtue of its capacity to isolate and recover single adherent cells on individual micropallets. The capacity to apply this technology to primary tissues and cells with restricted growth characteristics, particularly adhesion requirements, is critically dependent on the capacity to generate functional extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings. The discontinuous nature of the micropallet array surface provides specific constraints on the processes for generating the desired ECM coatings that are necessary to achieve the full functional capacity of the micropallet array. We have developed strategies, reported herein, to generate functional coatings with various ECM protein components: fibronectin, EHS tumor basement membrane extract, collagen, and laminin-5; confirmed by evaluation for rapid cellular adherence of four dissimilar cell types: fibroblast, breast epithelial, pancreatic epithelial, and myeloma. These findings are important for the dissemination and expanded use of micropallet arrays and similar microtechnologies requiring the integrated use of ECM protein coatings to promote cellular adherence.

  20. Silk fibroin based biomimetic artificial extracellular matrix for hepatic tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasoju, Naresh; Bora, Utpal

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic tissue engineering, which aims to construct artificial liver tissues, requires a suitable extracellular matrix (ECM) for growth and proliferation of metabolically active hepatocytes. The current paper describes the development of a biomimetic artificial ECM, for hepatic tissue engineering applications, by mimicking the architectural features and biochemical composition of native ECM. Electrospinning was chosen as the fabrication technique of choice, while regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) and galactosylated chitosan (GalCS) were chosen as materials of choice. Poly(ethylene oxide) was used as a processing aid. Methodical optimization studies were performed to obtain smooth and continuous nanofibers with homogenous size distribution. Extensive characterization studies were performed to determine its morphological, physical, chemical/structural, thermal and cytotoxicity properties. Subsequently, detailed in vitro hepatocyte compatibility studies were performed using HepG2 cell line. Remarkably, the studies revealed that the growth, viability, metabolic activity and proliferation of hepatocytes were relatively superior on RSF–GalCS scaffold than on pure RSF and pure GalCS. In summary, the electrospun nanofibrous RSF–GalCS scaffold tries to mimic both architectural and biochemical features of native ECM, and hence could be an appropriate scaffold for in vitro engineering of hepatic tissue. However, additional experiments are needed to confirm the superiority in characteristic functionality of hepatocytes growing on RSF–GalCS scaffold in relation to RSF and GalCS scaffolds, and to test its behavior in vivo. (paper)

  1. From Nano to Macro: Studying the Hierarchical Structure of the Corneal Extracellular Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantock, Andrew J.; Winkler, Moritz; Parfitt, Geraint J.; Young, Robert D.; Brown, Donald J.; Boote, Craig; Jester, James V.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss current methods for studying ocular extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly from the ‘nano’ to the ‘macro’ levels of hierarchical organization. Since collagen is the major structural protein in the eye, providing mechanical strength and controlling ocular shape, the methods presented focus on understanding the molecular assembly of collagen at the nanometer level using x-ray scattering through to the millimeter to centimeter level using nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging of second harmonic generated (SHG) signals. Three-dimensional analysis of ECM structure is also discussed, including electron tomography, serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) and digital image reconstruction. Techniques to detect non-collagenous structural components of the ECM are also presented, and these include immunoelectron microscopy and staining with cationic dyes. Together, these various approaches are providing new insights into the structural blueprint of the ocular ECM, and in particular that of the cornea, which impacts upon our current understanding of the control of corneal shape, pathogenic mechanisms underlying ectatic disorders of the cornea and the potential for corneal tissue engineering. PMID:25819457

  2. Distribution volumes of macromolecules in human ovarian and endometrial cancers--effects of extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM), notably collagen and glucosaminoglycans, will restrict part of the space available for soluble macromolecules simply because the molecules cannot occupy the same space. This phenomenon may influence macromolecular drug uptake. To study the influence of steric and charge effects of the ECM on the distribution volumes of macromolecules in human healthy and malignant gynecologic tissues we used as probes 15 abundant plasma proteins quantified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The available distribution volume (VA) of albumin was increased in ovarian carcinoma compared with healthy ovarian tissue. Furthermore, VA of plasma proteins between 40 and 190 kDa decreased with size for endometrial carcinoma and healthy ovarian tissue, but was independent of molecular weight for the ovarian carcinomas. An effect of charge on distribution volume was only found in healthy ovaries, which had lower hydration and high collagen content, indicating that a condensed interstitium increases the influence of negative charges. A number of earlier suggested biomarker candidates were detected in increased amounts in malignant tissue, e.g., stathmin and spindlin-1, showing that interstitial fluid, even when unfractionated, can be a valuable source for tissue-specific proteins. We demonstrate that the distribution of abundant plasma proteins in the interstitium can be elucidated by mass spectrometry methods and depends markedly on hydration and ECM structure. Our data can be used in modeling of drug uptake, and give indications on ECM components to be targeted to increase the uptake of macromolecular substances. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Extracellular Matrix and Growth Factors Improve the Efficacy of Intramuscular Islet Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Haruyuki; Sakata, Naoaki; Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Fukase, Masahiko; Aoki, Takeshi; Ishida, Masaharu; Katayose, Yu; Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of intramuscular islet transplantation is poor despite being technically simple, safe, and associated with reduced rates of severe complications. We evaluated the efficacy of combined treatment with extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors in intramuscular islet transplantation. Male BALB/C mice were used for the in vitro and transplantation studies. The following three groups were evaluated: islets without treatment (islets-only group), islets embedded in ECM with growth factors (Matrigel group), and islets embedded in ECM without growth factors [growth factor-reduced (GFR) Matrigel group]. The viability and insulin-releasing function of islets cultured for 96 h were significantly improved in Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups compared with the islets-only group. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels immediately following transplantation were significantly improved in the Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups and remained significantly improved in the Matrigel group at postoperative day (POD) 28. On histological examination, significantly decreased numbers of TdT-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling-positive islet cells and significantly increased numbers of Ki67-positive cells were observed in the Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups at POD 3. Peri-islet revascularization was most prominent in the Matrigel group at POD 14. The efficacy of intramuscular islet transplantation was improved by combination treatment with ECM and growth factors through the inhibition of apoptosis, increased proliferation of islet cells, and promotion of revascularization.

  4. Innate Immune Cytokines, Fibroblast Phenotypes, and Regulation of Extracellular Matrix in Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Carl D

    2017-02-01

    Chronic inflammation can be caused by adaptive immune responses in autoimmune and allergic conditions, driven by a T lymphocyte subset balance (TH1, TH2, Th17, Th22, and/or Treg) and skewed cellular profiles in an antigen-specific manner. However, several chronic inflammatory diseases have no clearly defined adaptive immune mechanisms that drive chronicity. These conditions include those that affect the lung such as nonatopic asthma or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis comprising significant health problems. The remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) causes organ dysfunction, and it is largely generated by fibroblasts as the major cell controlling net ECM. As such, these are potential targets of treatment approaches in the context of ECM pathology. Fibroblast phenotypes contribute to ECM and inflammatory cell accumulation, and they are integrated into chronic disease mechanisms including cancer. Evidence suggests that innate cytokine responses may be critical in nonallergic/nonautoimmune disease, and they enable environmental agent exposure mechanisms that are independent of adaptive immunity. Innate immune cytokines derived from macrophage subsets (M1/M2) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subsets can directly regulate fibroblast function. We also suggest that STAT3-activating gp130 cytokines can sensitize fibroblasts to the innate cytokine milieu to drive phenotypes and exacerbate existing adaptive responses. Here, we review evidence exploring innate cytokine regulation of fibroblast behavior.

  5. Macrophage Depletion Attenuates Extracellular Matrix Deposition and Ductular Reaction in a Mouse Model of Chronic Cholangiopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syn, Wing-Kin; Lagaisse, Kimberly; van Hul, Noemi; Heindryckx, Femke; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Peeters, Liesbeth; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Leclercq, Isabelle A.; Canbay, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cholangiopathies, such as primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis, are progressive disease entities, associated with periportal accumulation of inflammatory cells, encompassing monocytes and macrophages, peribiliary extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and ductular reaction (DR). This study aimed to elucidate the relevance of macrophages in the progression of chronic cholangiopathies through macrophage depletion in a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) mouse model. One group of mice received a single i.p. injection of Clodronate encapsulated liposomes (CLOLipo) at day 7 of a 14 day DDC treatment, while control animals were co-treated with PBSLipo instead. Mice were sacrificed after 7 or respectively 14 days of treatment for immunohistochemical assessment of macrophage recruitment (F4/80), ECM deposition (Sirius Red, Laminin) and DR (CK19). Macrophage depletion during a 14 day DDC treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of ECM deposition. Porto-lobular migration patterns of laminin-rich ECM and ductular structures were significantly attenuated and a progression of DR was effectively inhibited by macrophage depletion. CLOLipo co-treatment resulted in a confined DR to portal regions without amorphous cell clusters. This study suggests that therapeutic options selectively directed towards macrophages might represent a feasible treatment for chronic cholestatic liver diseases. PMID:27618307

  6. Platelet-tumor cell interaction with the subendothelial extracellular matrix: relationship to cancer metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahalom, J; Biran, S; Fuks, Z; Vlodavsky, I [Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Radiation and Clinical Oncology; Eldor, A [Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Hematology

    1985-04-01

    Dissemination of neoplastic cells within the body involves invasion of blood vessels by tumor cells. This requires adhesion of blood-borne cells to the luminal surface of the vascular endothelium, invasion through the endothelial cell layer and local dissolution of the subendothelial basement membrane. The authors studied the interaction of platelets and tumor cells with cultured vascular endothelial cells and their secreted basement membrane-like extracellular matrix (ECM). Interaction of platelets with this ECM was associated with platelet activation, aggregation and degradation of heparan sulfate in the ECM by means of the platelet heparitinase. Biochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have demonstrated that platelets may detect even minor gaps between adjacent endothelial cells and degrade the ECM heparan sulfate. Platelets were also shown to recruit lymphoma cells into minor gaps in the vascular endothelium. It is suggested that the platelet heparitinase is involved in the impairment of the integrity of the vessel wall and thus play a role in tumor cell metastasis.

  7. Tissue-Derived Extracellular Matrix Bioscaffolds: Emerging Applications in Cartilage and Meniscus Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monibi, Farrah A; Cook, James L

    2017-08-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a common problem in orthopedic practice. Given the long-term consequences of unaddressed cartilage and meniscal pathology, a number of treatments have been attempted to stimulate repair or to replace the injured tissue. Despite advances in orthopedic surgery, effective treatments for cartilage and meniscus injuries remain a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering is a developing field that aims to regenerate injured tissues with a combination of cells, scaffolds, and signals. Many natural and synthetic scaffold materials have been developed and tested for the repair and restoration of a number of musculoskeletal tissues. Among these, biological scaffolds derived from cell and tissue-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) have shown great promise in tissue engineering given the critical role of the ECM for maintaining the biological and biomechanical properties, structure, and function of native tissues. This review article presents emerging applications for tissue-derived ECM scaffolds in cartilage and meniscus repair. We examine normal ECM composition and the current and future methods for potential treatment of articular cartilage and meniscal defects with decellularized scaffolds.

  8. Hydroxyapatite growth induced by native extracellular matrix deposition on solid surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramatarova L.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems have a remarkable capability to produce perfect fine structures such as seashells, pearls, bones, teeth and corals. These structures are composites of interacting inorganic (calcium phosphate or carbonate minerals and organic counterparts. It is difficult to say with certainty which part has the primary role. For example, the growth of molluscan shell crystals is thought to be initiated from a solution by the extracellular organic matrix (ECM. According to this theory, the matrix induces nucleation of calcium containing crystals. Recently, an alternative theory has been put forward, stating that a class of granulocytic hemocytes would be directly involved in shell crystal production in oysters. In the work presented here the surface of AISI 316 stainless steel was modified by deposition of ECM proteins. The ability of the modified substrates to induce nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA from simulated body fluid (SBF was examined by a kinetic study using two methods: (1 a simple soaking process in SBF and (2 a laser-liquid-solid interaction (LLSI process which allows interaction between a scanning laser beam and a solid substrate immersed in SBF. The deposited HA layers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that a coating of stainless steel surface with native ECM proteins induced nucleation and growth of HA and facilitated its crystallization. By the process of simple soaking of the samples, irrespective of their horizontal or vertical position in the solution, HA layers were grown due to the reactive ECM-coated stainless steel surface. It was shown that the process occurring in the first stages of the growth was not only a result of the force of gravity. The application of the LLSI process strongly influenced HA formation on the ECM-modified substrates by promoting and enhancing the HA nucleation and growth through a synergistic effect

  9. FK506 protects against articular cartilage collagenous extra-cellular matrix degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelt, M; van der Windt, A E; Groen, H C; Sandker, M; Waarsing, J H; Müller, C; de Jong, M; Jahr, H; Weinans, H

    2014-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a non-rheumatologic joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the cartilage extra-cellular matrix (ECM), enhanced subchondral bone remodeling, activation of synovial macrophages and osteophyte growth. Inhibition of calcineurin (Cn) activity through tacrolimus (FK506) in in vitro monolayer chondrocytes exerts positive effects on ECM marker expression. This study therefore investigated the effects of FK506 on anabolic and catabolic markers of osteoarthritic chondrocytes in 2D and 3D in vitro cultures, and its therapeutic effects in an in vivo rat model of OA. Effects of high and low doses of FK506 on anabolic (QPCR/histochemistry) and catabolic (QPCR) markers were evaluated in vitro on isolated (2D) and ECM-embedded chondrocytes (explants, 3D pellets). Severe cartilage damage was induced unilaterally in rat knees using papain injections in combination with a moderate running protocol. Twenty rats were treated with FK506 orally and compared to twenty untreated controls. Subchondral cortical and trabecular bone changes (longitudinal microCT) and macrophage activation (SPECT/CT) were measured. Articular cartilage was analyzed ex vivo using contrast enhanced microCT and histology. FK506 treatment of osteoarthritic chondrocytes in vitro induced anabolic (mainly collagens) and reduced catabolic ECM marker expression. In line with this, FK506 treatment clearly protected ECM integrity in vivo by markedly decreasing subchondral sclerosis, less development of subchondral pores, depletion of synovial macrophage activation and lower osteophyte growth. FK506 protected cartilage matrix integrity in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, FK506 treatment in vivo reduced OA-like responses in different articular joint tissues and thereby makes Cn an interesting target for therapeutic intervention of OA. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Leptospira interrogans induces uterine inflammatory responses and abnormal expression of extracellular matrix proteins in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Guo, Mengyao; Zhang, Wenlong; Song, Xiaojing; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Zecai; Jiang, Haichao; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans), a worldwide zoonosis, infect humans and animals. In dogs, four syndromes caused by leptospirosis have been identified: icteric, hemorrhagic, uremic (Stuttgart disease) and reproductive (abortion and premature or weak pups), and also it caused inflammation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex mixture of matrix molecules that is crucial to the reproduction. Both inflammatory response and ECM are closed relative to reproductive. The aim of this study was to clarify how L. interrogans affected the uterus of dogs, by focusing on the inflammatory responses, and ECM expression in dogs uterine tissue infected by L. interrogans. In the present study, 27 dogs were divided into 3 groups, intrauterine infusion with L. interrogans, to make uterine infection, sterile EMJH, and normal saline as a control, respectively. The uteruses were removed by surgical operation in 10, 20, and 30 days, respectively. The methods of histopathological analysis, ELISA, Western blot and qPCR were used. The results showed that L. interrogans induced significantly inflammatory responses, which were characterized by inflammatory cellular infiltration and high expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in uterine tissue of these dogs. Furthermore, L. interrogans strongly down-regulated the expression of ECM (collagens (CL) IV, fibronectins (FN) and laminins (LN)) in mRNA and protein levels. These data indicated that strongly inflammatory responses, and abnormal regulation of ECM might contribute to the proliferation of dogs infected by L. interrogans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Basic fibroblast growth factor binds to subendothelial extracellular matrix and is released by heparitinase and heparin-like molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkin, P.; Doctrow, S.; Klagsbrun, M.; Svahn, C.M.; Folkman, J.; Vlodavsky, I.

    1989-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) exhibits specific binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by cultured endothelial cells. Binding was saturable as a function both of time and of concentration of 125 I-bFGF. Scatchard analysis of FGF binding revealed the presence of about 1.5 x 10 12 binding sites/mm 2 ECM with an apparent k D of 610 nM. FGF binds to heparan sulfate (HS) in ECM as evidenced by (i) inhibition of binding in the presence of heparin or HS at 0.1-1 μg/mL, but not by chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, or hyaluronic acid at 10 μg/mL, (ii) lack of binding to ECM pretreated with heparitinase, but not with chondroitinase ABC, and (iii) rapid release of up to 90% of ECM-bound FGF by exposure to heparin, HS, or heparitinase, but not to chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, or chondroitinase ABC. Oligosaccharides derived from depolymerized heparin, and as small as the tetrasaccharide, released the ECM-bound FGF, but there was little or no release of FGF by modified nonanticoagulant heparins such as totally desulfated heparin, N-desulfated heparin, and N-acetylated heparin. FGF released from ECM was biologically active, as indicated by its stimulation of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in vascular endothelial cells and 3T3 fibroblasts. Similar results were obtained in studies on release of endogenous FGF-like mitogenic activity from Descement's membranes of bovine corneas. It is suggested that ECM storage and release of bFGF provide a novel mechanism for regulation of capillary blood vessel growth. Whereas ECM-bound FGF may be prevented from acting on endothelial cells, its displacement by heparin-like molecules and/or HS-degrading enzymes may elicit a neovascular response

  12. The extracellular matrix of plants: Molecular, cellular and developmental biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A symposium entitled ``The Extracellular Matrix of Plants: Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology was held in Tamarron, Colorado, March 15--21, 1996. The following topics were explored in addresses by 43 speakers: structure and biochemistry of cell walls; biochemistry, molecular biology and biosynthesis of lignin; secretory pathway and synthesis of glycoproteins; biosynthesis of matrix polysaccharides, callose and cellulose; role of the extracellular matrix in plant growth and development; plant cell walls in symbiosis and pathogenesis.

  13. Morphological appearance, content of extracellular matrix and vascular density of lung metastases predicts permissiveness to infiltration by adoptively transferred natural killer and T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Q.; Goding, S.; Hagenaars, M.

    2006-01-01

    . Analyses of tumors for extracellular matrix (ECM) components and PECAM-1(+) vasculature, revealed that the I-R lesions are hypovascularized and contain very little laminin, collagen and fibronectin. In contrast, the I-P loose tumors are well-vascularized and they contain high amounts of ECM components....... Interestingly, the distribution pattern of ECM components in the I-P loose tumors is almost identical to that of the normal lung tissue, indicating that these tumors develop around the alveolar walls which provide the loose tumors with both a supporting tissue and a rich blood supply. In conclusion, tumor...... infiltration by activated NK and T cells correlates with the presence of ECM components and PECAM-1(+) vasculature in the malignant tissue. Thus, analysis of the distribution of ECM and vasculature in tumor biopsies may help select patients most likely to benefit from cellular adoptive immunotherapy....

  14. YAP/TAZ-Dependent Reprogramming of Colonic Epithelium Links ECM Remodeling to Tissue Regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yui, Shiro; Azzolin, Luca; Maimets, Martti

    2018-01-01

    by remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM), increased FAK/Src signaling, and ultimately YAP/TAZ activation. In a defined cell culture system recapitulating the extracellular matrix remodeling observed in vivo, we show that a collagen 3D matrix supplemented with Wnt ligands is sufficient to sustain endogenous...

  15. Cartilaginous extracellular matrix-modified chitosan hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bogyu; Kim, Soyon; Lin, Brian; Wu, Benjamin M; Lee, Min

    2014-11-26

    Cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as type-II collagen (Col II) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) play a crucial role in chondrogenesis. However, direct clinical use of natural Col II or CS as scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering is limited by their instability and rapid enzymatic degradation. Here, we investigate the incorporation of Col II and CS into injectable chitosan hydrogels designed to gel upon initiation by exposure to visible blue light (VBL) in the presence of riboflavin. Unmodified chitosan hydrogel supported proliferation and deposition of cartilaginous ECM by encapsulated chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. The incorporation of native Col II or CS into chitosan hydrogels further increased chondrogenesis. The incorporation of Col II, in particular, was found to be responsible for the enhanced cellular condensation and chondrogenesis observed in modified hydrogels. This was mediated by integrin α10 binding to Col II, increasing cell-matrix adhesion. These findings demonstrate the potential of cartilage ECM-modified chitosan hydrogels as biomaterials to promote cartilage regeneration.

  16. Enhance and Maintain Chondrogenesis of Synovial Fibroblasts by Cartilage Extracellular Matrix Protein Matrilins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ming; Luo, Junming; Chen, Qian

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective Cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been proposed to play key roles in modulating cellular phenotypes during chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Matrilin (MATN) 1 and 3 are among the most up-regulated ECM proteins during chondrogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze their roles in chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts from synovium. Methods Primary synovial fibroblasts (SFBs) were purified from porcine synovium and incubated in pellet culture for 18 days. Chondrogenesis of SFB was analyzed by histological staining with safranin-O/fast green, and by quantifying glycosaminoglycans with dimethylmethylene blue assay. The mRNA levels of chondrogenic markers including collagen II, aggrecan, and Sox 9 were quantified by real-time RT-PCR, while the protein levels of Col II and matrilins were determined by western blot analysis. Results SFBs underwent chondrogenesis after incubation with TGF-β1 for three days; however, this process was attenuated during the subsequent incubation period. Expression of a MATN1 or 3 cDNA maintained and further enhanced chondrogenesis of SFBs as shown by increased cartilaginous matrix areas, elevated amount of glycosaminoglycans, and stimulated expression of chondrogenic markers. Conclusion Our findings suggest a novel function for MATN1 and 3 to maintain and enhance chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts initiated by TGF-β. Our results also support a critical role of cartilage-specific ECM proteins to modulate cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment during chondrogenic differentiation. PMID:18282772

  17. Enhancing and maintaining chondrogenesis of synovial fibroblasts by cartilage extracellular matrix protein matrilins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, M; Luo, J; Chen, Q

    2008-09-01

    Cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been proposed to play key roles in modulating cellular phenotypes during chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Matrilin (MATN)1 and MATN3 are among the most up-regulated ECM proteins during chondrogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze their roles in chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts from synovium. Primary synovial fibroblasts (SFBs) were purified from porcine synovium and incubated in pellet culture for 18 days. Chondrogenesis of SFB was analyzed by histological staining with safranin-O/fast green, and by quantifying glycosaminoglycans (GAG) with dimethylmethylene blue assay. The mRNA levels of chondrogenic markers including collagen II, aggrecan, and Sox 9 were quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, while the protein levels of Col II and MATNs were determined by western blot analysis. SFBs underwent chondrogenesis after incubation with transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) for 3 days; however, this process was attenuated during the subsequent incubation period. Expression of a Matn1 or Matn3 cDNA maintained and further enhanced chondrogenesis of SFBs as shown by increased cartilaginous matrix areas, elevated amount of GAG, and stimulated expression of chondrogenic markers. Our findings suggest a novel function for MATN1 and MATN3 to maintain and enhance chondrogenesis of mesenchymal fibroblasts initiated by TGF-beta. Our results also support a critical role of cartilage-specific ECM proteins to modulate cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment during chondrogenic differentiation.

  18. Culture temperature affects redifferentiation and cartilaginous extracellular matrix formation in dedifferentiated human chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Aoyama, Tomoki; Iijima, Hirotaka; Tajino, Junichi; Nagai, Momoko; Yamaguchi, Shoki; Zhang, Xiangkai; Kuroki, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    To date, there have been few studies on how temperature affects the phenotype and metabolism of human chondrocytes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of culture temperature on chondrocyte redifferentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation using dedifferentiated mature human chondrocytes in vitro. Dedifferentiated chondrocytes were cultured in a pellet culture system for up to 21 days. The pellets were randomly divided into three groups with different culture temperature (32, 37, and 41°C). Chondrocyte redifferentiation and ECM formation were evaluated by wet weight, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), histological, and biochemical analyses. The results showed that the wet weight and the mRNA expressions of collagen type II A1 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein at 37°C were higher than the corresponding values at 32°C. The histological and biochemical analyses revealed that the syntheses of type II collagen and proteoglycan were promoted at 37°C compared to those at 32°C, whereas they were considerably inhibited at 41°C. In conclusion, the results obtained herein indicated that temperature affects chondrocyte redifferentiation and ECM formation, and modulation of temperature might thus represent an advantageous means to regulate the phenotype and biosynthetic activity of chondrocytes. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Hypoxic stellate cells of pancreatic cancer stroma regulate extracellular matrix fiber organization and cancer cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Masafumi; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Horioka, Kohei; Okumura, Takashi; Moriyama, Taiki; Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Ohtsuka, Takao; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2016-03-28

    Desmoplasia and hypoxia in pancreatic cancer mutually affect each other and create a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Here, we show that microenvironment remodeling by hypoxic pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promotes cancer cell motility through alteration of extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber architecture. Three-dimensional (3-D) matrices derived from PSCs under hypoxia exhibited highly organized parallel-patterned matrix fibers compared with 3-D matrices derived from PSCs under normoxia, and promoted cancer cell motility by inducing directional migration of cancer cells due to the parallel fiber architecture. Microarray analysis revealed that procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) in PSCs was the gene that potentially regulates ECM fiber architecture under hypoxia. Stromal PLOD2 expression in surgical specimens of pancreatic cancer was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PLOD2 in PSCs blocked parallel fiber architecture of 3-D matrices, leading to decreased directional migration of cancer cells within the matrices. In conclusion, these findings indicate that hypoxia-induced PLOD2 expression in PSCs creates a permissive microenvironment for migration of cancer cells through architectural regulation of stromal ECM in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Engineering strategies to recapitulate epithelial morphogenesis within synthetic three-dimensional extracellular matrix with tunable mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroshnikova, Y A; Sarang-Sieminski, A L; Jorgens, D M; Auer, M; Spirio, L; Weaver, V M

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties (e.g. stiffness) of the extracellular matrix (ECM) influence cell fate and tissue morphogenesis and contribute to disease progression. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mechanisms by which ECM rigidity modulates cell behavior and fate remains rudimentary. To address this issue, a number of two and three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel systems have been used to explore the effects of the mechanical properties of the ECM on cell behavior. Unfortunately, many of these systems have limited application because fiber architecture, adhesiveness and/or pore size often change in parallel when gel elasticity is varied. Here we describe the use of ECM-adsorbed, synthetic, self-assembling peptide (SAP) gels that are able to recapitulate normal epithelial acini morphogenesis and gene expression in a 3D context. By exploiting the range of viscoelasticity attainable with these SAP gels, and their ability to recreate native-like ECM fibril topology with minimal variability in ligand density and pore size, we were able to reconstitute normal and tumor-like phenotypes and gene expression patterns in nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells. Accordingly, this SAP hydrogel system presents the first tunable system capable of independently assessing the interplay between ECM stiffness and multi-cellular epithelial phenotype in a 3D context

  1. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of extracellular matrix changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, including its progression from dysplasia to carcinoma, "field effects", genetic changes in tumor associated mucosa (TAM and effect of matrix metalloproteinases in breaking down of matrix proteins to facilitate invasion, has been well documented. However, what remains to be done is to extrapolate this knowledge to improve patient care. Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the extracellular matrix (ECM changes with the routine histochemical stains available to most histopathologists. Materials and Methods: The study includes 72 cases of OSCC in which the tumor and adjacent normal appearing areas were sampled to study the ECM changes with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E and Verhoeff′s-Van Gieson elastic stain (VVG. Results: Basophilic fragmentation of collagen (H and E and clumped short elastic fibers (VVG were seen in 12 (16.7% cases. Of the remaining cases, 18 (25% had a dense lymphocytic infiltrate and had no demonstrable elastic fibers. Those cases with H and E changes were further studied and compared with normal mucosa for ultrastructural changes. The ultrastructural study demonstrated an increase in oxytalan, elaunin and elastic fibers and decrease in collagen fibers with some transformation changes associated with OSCCs and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: Changes in transformation of collagen to elastic fibers and also the loss of both the fibers in areas of lymphocytic infiltration possibly indicate degradation of ECM fibers by factors released from the lymphocytes or tumor cells and the limiting effect on the tumor by ECM remodeling.

  2. Extracellular matrix of adipogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells reveals a network of collagen filaments, mostly interwoven by hexagonal structural units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mujib; Sittinger, Michael; Ringe, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is the non-cellular component of tissues, which not only provides biological shelter but also takes part in the cellular decisions for diverse functions. Every tissue has an ECM with unique composition and topology that governs the process of determination, differentiation, proliferation, migration and regeneration of cells. Little is known about the structural organization of matrix especially of MSC-derived adipogenic ECM. Here, we particularly focus on the composition and architecture of the fat ECM to understand the cellular behavior on functional bases. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were adipogenically differentiated, then, were transferred to adipogenic propagation medium, whereas they started the release of lipid droplets leaving bare network of ECM. Microarray analysis was performed, to indentify the molecular machinery of matrix. Adipogenesis was verified by Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets and by qPCR of adipogenic marker genes PPARG and FABP4. Antibody staining demonstrated the presence of collagen type I, II and IV filaments, while alkaline phosphatase activity verified the ossified nature of these filaments. In the adipogenic matrix, the hexagonal structures were abundant followed by octagonal structures, whereas they interwoven in a crisscross manner. Regarding molecular machinery of adipogenic ECM, the bioinformatics analysis revealed the upregulated expression of COL4A1, ITGA7, ITGA7, SDC2, ICAM3, ADAMTS9, TIMP4, GPC1, GPC4 and downregulated expression of COL14A1, ADAMTS5, TIMP2, TIMP3, BGN, LAMA3, ITGA2, ITGA4, ITGB1, ITGB8, CLDN11. Moreover, genes associated with integrins, glycoproteins, laminins, fibronectins, cadherins, selectins and linked signaling pathways were found. Knowledge of the interactive-language between cells and matrix could be beneficial for the artificial designing of biomaterials and bioscaffolds. © 2013.

  3. Understanding cardiac extracellular matrix remodeling to develop biomarkers of myocardial infarction outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Holm; Mouton, Alan J.; DeLeon-Pennell, Kristine Y.

    2017-01-01

    matrix (ECM) scar formation to replace necrotic myocytes. While ECM accumulation following MI is termed cardiac fibrosis, this is a generic term that does not differentiate between ECM accumulation that occurs in the infarct region to form a scar that is structurally necessary to preserve left ventricle...

  4. [Effect of electroacupuncture intervention on expression of extracellular matrix collagen and metabolic enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jun; Zhang, Le; Ke, Mei-gui; Xu, Teng

    2013-12-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Dazhui" (GV 14) on the contents of extracellular matrix (ECM), collagen type II (COL-II), collagen type V (COL-V), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in rats with cervicovertebral disc degeneration so as to explore its mechanism underlying relief of intervertebral disc degeneration. A total of 28 SD rats were randomly divided into sham group (n = 7), model group (n = 7), EA group (n = 7) and medication group (n = 7). The model of cervical intervertebral disc degeneration was established by trans-section of the deep neck splenius, the longest muscles of head, neck costocervicalis, head semi-spinatus muscle, supraspinous ligament and interspinal ligaments of cervical 2-7 segments, etc. to produce imbalance between the dynamic and static force. EA was applied to "Dazhui" (GV 14) for 30 min, once daily for 28 days, with a 2 days' interval between two courses. Animals of the medication group were treated by oral administration of meloxicam tablets (0.75 mg/kg) once daily for 28 days, with a 2 days' interval between two courses. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expression of ECM, COL- II, COL-V, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 in the cervicovertebral disc tissue. Compared with the sham group, the expression levels of ECM and COL-II proteins in the cervicovertebral disc tissue were significantly decreased in the model group (P 0.05). EA of "Dazhui" (GV 14) can effectively regulate extracellular matrix system in rats with cervical intervertebral disc degeneration, which is possibly related to its effect in relieving cervical spondylosis.

  5. Electric field stimulation through a substrate influences Schwann cell and extracellular matrix structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu T.; Wei, Claudia; Chow, Jacqueline K.; Nguy, Lindsey; Nguyen, Hieu K.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Electric field (EF) stimulation has been used to cue cell growth for tissue engineering applications. In this study, we explore the electrical parameters and extracellular mechanisms that elicit changes in cell behavior when stimulated through the substrate. Approach. Rat Schwann cell morphology was compared when exposed to EF through the media or a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Ionic and structural effects were then analyzed on Matrigel and collagen I, respectively. Main results. When stimulating through media, cells had greater alignment perpendicular to the EF with higher current densities (106 mA cm-2 at 245 mV mm-1), and reached maximum alignment within 8 h. Stimulation through the substrate with EF (up to 110 mV mm-1) did not affect Schwann cell orientation, however the EF caused extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings on substrates to peel away, suggesting EF can physically change the ECM. Applying alternating current (ac) 2-1000 Hz signals through the media or substrate both caused cells to flatten and protrude many processes, without preferential alignment. Matrigel exposed to a substrate EF of 10 mV mm-1 for 2 h had a greater calcium concentration near the cathode, but quickly dissipated when the EF was removed. Schwann cells seeded 7 d after gels were exposed to substrate EF still aligned perpendicular to the EF direction. Microscopy of collagen I exposed to substrate EF shows alignment and bundling of fibrils. Significance. These findings demonstrate EF exposure can control Schwann cell alignment and morphology, change ECM bulk/surface architecture, and align ECM structures.

  6. Influence of pH on extracellular matrix preservation during lung decellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Balestrini, Jenna L; Mendez, Julio; Calle, Elizabeth A; Zhao, Liping; Niklason, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    The creation of decellularized organs for use in regenerative medicine requires the preservation of the organ extracellular matrix (ECM) as a means to provide critical cues for differentiation and migration of cells that are seeded onto the organ scaffold. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of varying pH levels on the preservation of key ECM components during the decellularization of rat lungs. Herein, we show that the pH of the 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS)-based decellularization solution influences ECM retention, cell removal, and also the potential for host response upon implantation of acellular lung tissue. The preservation of ECM components, including elastin, fibronectin, and laminin, were better retained in the lower pH conditions that were tested (pH ranges tested: 8, 10, 12); glycosaminoglycans were preserved to a higher extent in the lower pH groups as well. The DNA content following decellularization of the rat lung was inversely correlated with the pH of the decellularization solution. Despite detectible levels of cyotoskeletal proteins and significant residual DNA, tissues decellularized at pH 8 demonstrated the greatest tissue architecture maintenance and the least induction of host response of all acellular conditions. These results highlight the effect of pH on the results obtained by organ decellularization and suggest that altering the pH of the solutions used for decellularization may influence the ability of cells to properly differentiate and home to appropriate locations within the scaffold, based on the preservation of key ECM components and implantation results.

  7. The extracellular matrix of porcine mature oocytes: Origin, composition and presumptive roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivko Juraj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extracellular matrix (ECM of porcine mature oocytes was revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM after treatment with tannic acid and ruthenium red. Present in the perivitelline space (PVS and on the surface of the zona pellucida (ZP, it appeared to be composed of thin filaments and granules at the interconnections of the filaments, which were interpreted respectively as hyaluronic acid chains and bound proteoglycans. In order to determine whether this material is produced by the corona cells (the same ECM was found also on the surface of the zona pellucida and between cumulus cells or by the oocyte itself, the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans was checked by autoradiography on semi-thin and thin sections observed by light and electron microscopy. Immature oocytes within or without cumulus cells, were incubated with L [3H-] fucose or L [3H-] glucosamine – precursors respectively of glycoproteins and hyaluronic acid or hyaluronan (HA bound to proteoglycans – for various times (with or without chase and at different stages during in vitro maturation. In the first case, incorporation was found in both cumulus cells and ooplasm (notably in the Golgi area for 3H-fucose and labeled material accumulated in the ECM of the PVS and of the ZP surface. Labeling in the PVS with both precursors was maximum between metaphase I (MI and metaphase II (MII and was partially extracted by hyaluronidase but not by neuraminidase. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of glycoprotein synthesis, significantly decreased the amount of 3H-fucose labeled molecules in the PVS and increased the incidence of polyspermic penetration during subsequent in vivo fertilization. Since cumulus-free oocytes also secreted 3H-glucosamine containing compounds, both oocyte and cumulus cells probably contribute to the production of the ECM found in the PVS of mature oocytes. ECM and particularly its HA moiety present on both sides of the ZP may constitute a

  8. CADM1 controls actin cytoskeleton assembly and regulates extracellular matrix adhesion in human mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P Moiseeva

    Full Text Available CADM1 is a major receptor for the adhesion of mast cells (MCs to fibroblasts, human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs and neurons. It also regulates E-cadherin and alpha6beta4 integrin in other cell types. Here we investigated a role for CADM1 in MC adhesion to both cells and extracellular matrix (ECM. Downregulation of CADM1 in the human MC line HMC-1 resulted not only in reduced adhesion to HASMCs, but also reduced adhesion to their ECM. Time-course studies in the presence of EDTA to inhibit integrins demonstrated that CADM1 provided fast initial adhesion to HASMCs and assisted with slower adhesion to ECM. CADM1 downregulation, but not antibody-dependent CADM1 inhibition, reduced MC adhesion to ECM, suggesting indirect regulation of ECM adhesion. To investigate potential mechanisms, phosphotyrosine signalling and polymerisation of actin filaments, essential for integrin-mediated adhesion, were examined. Modulation of CADM1 expression positively correlated with surface KIT levels and polymerisation of cortical F-actin in HMC-1 cells. It also influenced phosphotyrosine signalling and KIT tyrosine autophosphorylation. CADM1 accounted for 46% of surface KIT levels and 31% of F-actin in HMC-1 cells. CADM1 downregulation resulted in elongation of cortical actin filaments in both HMC-1 cells and human lung MCs and increased cell rigidity of HMC-1 cells. Collectively these data suggest that CADM1 is a key adhesion receptor, which regulates MC net adhesion, both directly through CADM1-dependent adhesion, and indirectly through the regulation of other adhesion receptors. The latter is likely to occur via docking of KIT and polymerisation of cortical F-actin. Here we propose a stepwise model of adhesion with CADM1 as a driving force for net MC adhesion.

  9. Maintenance of the Extracellular Matrix in Rat Anterior Pituitary Gland: Identification of Cells Expressing Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Morio; Tofrizal, Alimuddin; Maliza, Rita; Batchuluun, Khongorzul; Ramadhani, Dini; Syaidah, Rahimi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Ken; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Yashiro, Takashi

    2015-12-25

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in creating cellular environments in tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that ECM components are localized in anterior pituitary cells and affect cell activity. Thus, clarifying the mechanism responsible for ECM maintenance would improve understanding of gland function. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are endogenous inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases and participate in ECM degradation. In this study, we investigated whether cells expressing TIMPs are present in rat anterior pituitary gland. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze expression of the TIMP family (TIMP1-4), and cells producing TIMPs in the gland were identified by using in situ hybridization. Expression of TIMP1, TIMP2, and TIMP3 mRNAs was detected, and the TIMP-expressing cells were located in the gland. The TIMP-expressing cells were also investigated by means of double-staining with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques. Double-staining revealed that TIMP1 mRNA was expressed in folliculostellate cells. TIMP2 mRNA was detected in folliculostellate cells, prolactin cells, and thyroid-stimulating hormone cells. TIMP3 mRNA was identified in endothelial cells, pericytes, novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells, and folliculostellate cells. These findings indicate that TIMP1-, TIMP2-, and TIMP3-expressing cells are present in rat anterior pituitary gland and that they are involved in maintaining ECM components.

  10. Maintenance of the Extracellular Matrix in Rat Anterior Pituitary Gland: Identification of Cells Expressing Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Morio; Tofrizal, Alimuddin; Maliza, Rita; Batchuluun, Khongorzul; Ramadhani, Dini; Syaidah, Rahimi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Ken; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Yashiro, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in creating cellular environments in tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that ECM components are localized in anterior pituitary cells and affect cell activity. Thus, clarifying the mechanism responsible for ECM maintenance would improve understanding of gland function. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are endogenous inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases and participate in ECM degradation. In this study, we investigated whether cells expressing TIMPs are present in rat anterior pituitary gland. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze expression of the TIMP family (TIMP1-4), and cells producing TIMPs in the gland were identified by using in situ hybridization. Expression of TIMP1, TIMP2, and TIMP3 mRNAs was detected, and the TIMP-expressing cells were located in the gland. The TIMP-expressing cells were also investigated by means of double-staining with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques. Double-staining revealed that TIMP1 mRNA was expressed in folliculostellate cells. TIMP2 mRNA was detected in folliculostellate cells, prolactin cells, and thyroid-stimulating hormone cells. TIMP3 mRNA was identified in endothelial cells, pericytes, novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells, and folliculostellate cells. These findings indicate that TIMP1-, TIMP2-, and TIMP3-expressing cells are present in rat anterior pituitary gland and that they are involved in maintaining ECM components

  11. Extracellular matrix remodeling and matrix metalloproteinases (ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like) characterization during intestine regeneration of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ting; Wan, Zixuan; Sun, Lina; Li, Xiaoni; Xing, Lili; Bai, Yucen; Wang, Fang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-10-01

    Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is essential for tissue regeneration. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques against ECM components to reveal changes of ECM during intestine regeneration of Apostichopus japonicus. The expression of collagen I and laminin reduced apparently from the eviscerated intestine, while fibronectin exhibited continuous expression in all regeneration stages observed. Meanwhile, we cloned two MMP genes from A. japonicus by RACE PCR. The full-length cDNA of ajMMP-2 like is 2733bp and contains a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 1716bp encoding 572 amino acids. The full-length cDNA of ajMMP-16 like is 2705bp and contains an ORF of 1452bp encoding 484 amino acids. The predicted protein sequences of each MMP contain two conserved domains, ZnMc_MMP and HX. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like share high sequence similarity with MMP-2 and MMP-16 from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, respectively. Then we investigated spatio-temporal expression of ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like during different regeneration stages by qRT-PCR and IHC. The expression pattern of them showed a roughly opposite trend from that of ECM components. According to our results, a fibronectin-dominate temporary matrix is created in intestine regeneration, and it might provide structural integrity for matrix and promote cell movement. We also hypothesize that ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like could accelerate cell migration and regulate interaction between ECM components and growth factors. This work provides new evidence of ECM and MMPs involvement in sea cucumber regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polylysine as a vehicle for extracellular matrix-targeted local drug delivery, providing high accumulation and long-term retention within the vascular wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakharov, D.V.; Jie, A.F.H.; Bekkers, M.E.A.; Emeis, J.J.; Rijken, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    We present the first steps in the elaboration of an approach of extracellular matrix-targeted local drug delivery (ECM-LDD), designed to provide a high concentration, ubiquitous distribution, and long-term retention of a drug within the vessel wall after local intravascular delivery. The approach is

  13. Changes in the Extracellular Matrix Are Associated With the Development of Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma Into High-Grade Serous Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, S.C.H.A. van der; Bulten, J.; Vijver, K.K. Van de; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Massuger, L.F.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The identification of a marker for early progression of preinvasive lesions into invasive pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) may provide novel handles for innovative screening and prevention strategies. The interplay between cancer cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of

  14. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  15. Mimicking the extracellular matrix with functionalized, metal-assembled collagen peptide scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Gordillo, Victor; Chmielewski, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Natural and synthetic three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds that mimic the microenvironment of the extracellular matrix (ECM), with growth factor storage/release and the display of cell adhesion signals, offer numerous advantages for regenerative medicine and in vitro morphogenesis and oncogenesis modeling. Here we report the design of collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) that assemble into a highly crosslinked 3-D matrix in response to metal ion stimuli, that may be functionalized with His-tagged cargoes, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP-His8) and human epidermal growth factor (hEGF-His6). The bound hEGF-His6 was found to gradually release from the matrix in vitro and induce cell proliferation in the EGF-dependent cell line MCF10A. The additional incorporation of a cell adhesion sequence (RGDS) at the N-terminus of the CMP creates an environment that facilitated the organization of matrix-encapsulated MCF10A cells into spheroid structures, thus mimicking the ECM environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation on extracellular matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, F. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX44QL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.mohamed@ex.ac.uk; Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU72XH (United Kingdom); Winlove, C.P. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX44QL (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-21

    The extracellular matrix is a ubiquitous and important component of tissues. We investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physical properties of its principal macromolecular components, pericardial collagen, ligament elastin and hyaluronan, a representative glycosaminoglycan. Samples were exposed to X-rays from an electron linear accelerator in the range of 10-100 Gy to cover the range of irradiation exposure during radiotherapy. A uniaxial mechanical testing protocol was used to characterize the fibrous proteins. For pericardial tissue the major change was an increase in the elastic modulus in the toe region of the curve ({<=}20% strain), from 23{+-}18 kPa for controls to 57{+-}22 kPa at a dose of 10 Gy (p=0.01, {alpha}=0.05). At larger strain ({>=}20% strain), the elastic modulus in the linear region decreased from 1.92{+-}0.70 MPa for control pericardium tissue to 1.31{+-}0.56 MPa (p=0.01, {alpha}=0.05) for 10 Gy X-irradiated sample. Similar observations have been made previously on tendon collagen at larger strains. For elastin, the stress-strain relationship was linear up to 30% strain, but the elastic modulus decreased significantly with irradiation (controls 626{+-}65 kPa, irradiated 474{+-}121 kPa (p=0.02, {alpha}=0.05), at 10 Gy X-irradiation). The results suggest that for collagen the primary effect of irradiation is generation of additional cross-links, while for elastin chain scissions are important. The viscosity of HA (at 1.25% w/v and 0.125% w/v) was measured by both cone and plate and capillary viscometry, the former providing measurement at uniform shear rate and the latter providing a more sensitive indication of changes at low viscosity. Both techniques revealed a dose-dependent reduction in viscosity (from 3400{+-}194 cP for controls to 1500{+-}88 cP at a shear rate of 2 s{sup -1} and dose of 75 Gy), again suggesting depolymerization.

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.; Bradley, D.A.; Winlove, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is a ubiquitous and important component of tissues. We investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physical properties of its principal macromolecular components, pericardial collagen, ligament elastin and hyaluronan, a representative glycosaminoglycan. Samples were exposed to X-rays from an electron linear accelerator in the range of 10-100 Gy to cover the range of irradiation exposure during radiotherapy. A uniaxial mechanical testing protocol was used to characterize the fibrous proteins. For pericardial tissue the major change was an increase in the elastic modulus in the toe region of the curve (≤20% strain), from 23±18 kPa for controls to 57±22 kPa at a dose of 10 Gy (p=0.01, α=0.05). At larger strain (≥20% strain), the elastic modulus in the linear region decreased from 1.92±0.70 MPa for control pericardium tissue to 1.31±0.56 MPa (p=0.01, α=0.05) for 10 Gy X-irradiated sample. Similar observations have been made previously on tendon collagen at larger strains. For elastin, the stress-strain relationship was linear up to 30% strain, but the elastic modulus decreased significantly with irradiation (controls 626±65 kPa, irradiated 474±121 kPa (p=0.02, α=0.05), at 10 Gy X-irradiation). The results suggest that for collagen the primary effect of irradiation is generation of additional cross-links, while for elastin chain scissions are important. The viscosity of HA (at 1.25% w/v and 0.125% w/v) was measured by both cone and plate and capillary viscometry, the former providing measurement at uniform shear rate and the latter providing a more sensitive indication of changes at low viscosity. Both techniques revealed a dose-dependent reduction in viscosity (from 3400±194 cP for controls to 1500±88 cP at a shear rate of 2 s -1 and dose of 75 Gy), again suggesting depolymerization

  18. Extracellular matrix as a driver for lung regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Niklason, Laura E

    2015-03-01

    Extracellular matrix has manifold roles in tissue mechanics, guidance of cellular behavior, developmental biology, and regenerative medicine. Over the past several decades, various pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that many connective tissues may be replaced and/or regenerated using suitable extracellular matrix scaffolds. More recently, decellularization of lung tissue has shown that gentle removal of cells can leave behind a "footprint" within the matrix that may guide cellular adhesion, differentiation and homing following cellular repopulation. Fundamental issues like understanding matrix composition and micro-mechanics remain difficult to tackle, largely because of a lack of available assays and tools for systematically characterizing intact matrix from tissues and organs. This review will critically examine the role of engineered and native extracellular matrix in tissue and lung regeneration, and provide insights into directions for future research and translation.

  19. Thiamine and benfotiamine prevent apoptosis induced by high glucose-conditioned extracellular matrix in human retinal pericytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, Elena; Nizheradze, Konstantin; Berrone, Elena; Tarallo, Sonia; Porta, Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Early and selective loss of pericytes and thickening of the basement membrane are hallmarks of diabetic retinopathy. We reported reduced adhesion, but no changes in apoptosis, of bovine retinal pericytes cultured on extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by endothelial cells in high glucose (HG). Since human and bovine pericytes may behave differently in conditions mimicking the diabetic milieu, we verified the behaviour of human retinal pericytes cultured on HG-conditioned ECM. Pericytes were cultured in physiological/HG on ECM produced by human umbilical vein endothelial cells in physiological/HG, alone or in the presence of thiamine and benfotiamine. Adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, p53 and Bcl-2/Bax ratio (mRNA levels and protein concentrations) were measured in wild-type and immortalized human pericytes. Both types of pericytes adhered less to HG-conditioned ECM and plastic than to physiological glucose-conditioned ECM. DNA synthesis was impaired in pericytes cultured in HG on the three different surfaces but there were no differences in proliferation. DNA fragmentation and Bcl-2/Bax ratio were greatly enhanced by HG-conditioned ECM in pericytes kept in both physiological and HG. Addition of thiamine and benfotiamine to HG during ECM production completely prevented these damaging effects. Apoptosis is strongly increased in pericytes cultured on ECM produced by endothelium in HG, probably due to impairment of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Thiamine and benfotiamine completely revert this effect. This behaviour is therefore completely different from that of bovine pericytes, underlining the importance of establishing species-specific cell models to study the mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Overcoming Barriers of Age to Enhance Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy: The Clout of the Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Owyong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing list of cancer immunotherapeutics approved for use in a population with an increasing number of aged individuals. Cancer immunotherapy (CIT mediates tumor destruction by activating anti-tumor immune responses that have been silenced through the oncogenic process. However, in an aging individual, immune deregulation is positively correlated with age. In this context, it is vital to examine the age-related changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME and specifically, those directly affecting critical players to ensure CIT efficacy. Effector T cells, regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and tumor-associated neutrophils play important roles in promoting or inhibiting the inflammatory response, while cancer-associated fibroblasts are key mediators of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Immune checkpoint inhibitors function optimally in inflamed tumors heavily invaded by CD4 and CD8 T cells. However, immunosenescence curtails the effector T cell response within the TME and causes ECM deregulation, creating a biophysical barrier impeding both effective drug delivery and pro-inflammatory responses. The ability of the chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T cell to artificially induce an adaptive immune response can be modified to degrade essential components of the ECM and alleviate the age-related changes to the TME. This review will focus on the age-related alterations in ECM and immune-stroma interactions within the TME. We will discuss strategies to overcome the barriers of immunosenescence and matrix deregulation to ameliorate the efficacy of CIT in aged subjects.

  1. Oxidation modifies the structure and function of the extracellular matrix generated by human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Christine Y; Degendorfer, Georg; Hammer, Astrid; Whitelock, John M; Malle, Ernst; Davies, Michael J

    2014-04-15

    ECM (extracellular matrix) materials, such as laminin, perlecan, type IV collagen and fibronectin, play a key role in determining the structure of the arterial wall and the properties of cells that interact with the ECM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peroxynitrous acid, an oxidant generated by activated macrophages, on the structure and function of the ECM laid down by HCAECs (human coronary artery endothelial cells) in vitro and in vivo. We show that exposure of HCAEC-derived native matrix components to peroxynitrous acid (but not decomposed oxidant) at concentrations >1 μM results in a loss of antibody recognition of perlecan, collagen IV, and cell-binding sites on laminin and fibronectin. Loss of recognition was accompanied by decreased HCAEC adhesion. Real-time PCR showed up-regulation of inflammation-associated genes, including MMP7 (matrix metalloproteinase 7) and MMP13, as well as down-regulation of the laminin α2 chain, in HCAECs cultured on peroxynitrous acid-treated matrix compared with native matrix. Immunohistochemical studies provided evidence of co-localization of laminin with 3-nitrotyrosine, a biomarker of peroxynitrous acid damage, in type II-III/IV human atherosclerotic lesions, consistent with matrix damage occurring during disease development in vivo. The results of the present study suggest a mechanism through which peroxynitrous acid modifies endothelial cell-derived native ECM proteins of the arterial basement membrane in atherosclerotic lesions. These changes to ECM and particularly perlecan and laminin may be important in inducing cellular dysfunction and contribute to atherogenesis.

  2. The role of extracellular matrix in lateral transmission of force in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingxin

    This dissertation describes the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the lateral transmission of force. It consists of an experimental studies of the ECM and mathematical modeling of lateral transmission of force. The effect of aging on the structural and mechanical properties of the epimysium of muscle of the rats were examined. No statistically significant differences were found in the ultrastructure, or the thickness of the epimysium. However, from the tensile stress-strain tests, it was found that the epimysium of muscles from old rats was much stiffer than that of the young rats. Based on these observations. It was concluded that the differences in the mechanical properties of the epimysium of the muscles from the old compared with young rats were not associated with the arrangement and size of collagen fibers in the epimysium. Consequently, other methods will be required to identify the structural bases of the mechanical differences. The stress-strain relationships for the epimysiums of the skeletal muscles from both the young and old rats were found to be nonlinear. A mathematical model was developed that showed that the nonlinear behavior results from the waviness and the reorientation of the collagen fibers in the epimysium. The ECM plays an important role in lateral transmission of force in skeletal muscle by providing shear stress between the muscle fibers or fascicles. A mathematical model was developed to investigate the mechanisms of lateral transmission. It was a modification of the shear lag theory for chopped fiber composite materials used in engineering applications. The modified shear lag theory includes an activation strain to account for muscle contraction and a myofibrils-endomysium interfaces that accounts for the molecular lateral linkages. The model was used to simulate the classic experiments of Street. It was demonstrated that lateral transmission of force in the skeletal muscle is affected by the mechanical and structural properties of

  3. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Stimulates Extra-Cellular Matrix Production in Cellular Spheroids

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    Megan Casco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies have been integrated into drug delivery, and non-invasive imaging applications, into nanostructured scaffolds for the manipulation of cells. The objective of this work was to determine how the physico-chemical properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs and their spatial distribution into cellular spheroids stimulated cells to produce an extracellular matrix (ECM. The MNP concentration (0.03 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL and 0.3 mg/mL, type (magnetoferritin, shape (nanorod—85 nm × 425 nm and incorporation method were studied to determine each of their effects on the specific stimulation of four ECM proteins (collagen I, collagen IV, elastin and fibronectin in primary rat aortic smooth muscle cell. Results demonstrated that as MNP concentration increased there was up to a 6.32-fold increase in collagen production over no MNP samples. Semi-quantitative Immunohistochemistry (IHC results demonstrated that MNP type had the greatest influence on elastin production with a 56.28% positive area stain compared to controls and MNP shape favored elastin stimulation with a 50.19% positive area stain. Finally, there are no adverse effects of MNPs on cellular contractile ability. This study provides insight on the stimulation of ECM production in cells and tissues, which is important because it plays a critical role in regulating cellular functions.

  4. Computational Characterization of Type I collagen-based Extra-cellular Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Long; Jones, Christopher Allen Rucksack; Lin, Daniel; Jiao, Yang; Sun, Bo

    2015-03-01

    A model of extracellular matrix (ECM) of collagen fibers has been built, in which cells could communicate with distant partners via fiber-mediated long-range-transmitted stress states. The ECM is modeled as a spring-like fiber network derived from skeletonized confocal microscopy data. Different local and global perturbations have been performed on the network, each followed by an optimized global Monte-Carlo (MC) energy minimization leading to the deformed network in response to the perturbations. In the optimization, a highly efficient local energy update procedure is employed and force-directed MC moves are used, which results in a convergence to the energy minimum state 20 times faster than the commonly used random displacement trial moves in MC. Further analysis and visualization of the distribution and correlation of the resulting force network reveal that local perturbations can give rise to global impacts: the force chains formed with a linear extent much further than the characteristic length scale associated with the perturbation sites and average fiber length. This behavior provides a strong evidence for our hypothesis of fiber-mediated long-range force transmission in ECM networks and the resulting long-range cell-cell mechanical signaling. ASU Seed Grant.

  5. The spatial-temporal characteristics of type I collagen-based extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher Allen Rucksack; Liang, Long; Lin, Daniel; Jiao, Yang; Sun, Bo

    2014-11-28

    Type I collagen abounds in mammalian extracellular matrix (ECM) and is crucial to many biophysical processes. While previous studies have mostly focused on bulk averaged properties, here we provide a comprehensive and quantitative spatial-temporal characterization of the microstructure of type I collagen-based ECM as the gelation temperature varies. The structural characteristics including the density and nematic correlation functions are obtained by analyzing confocal images of collagen gels prepared at a wide range of gelation temperatures (from 16 °C to 36 °C). As temperature increases, the gel microstructure varies from a "bundled" network with strong orientational correlation between the fibers to an isotropic homogeneous network with no significant orientational correlation, as manifested by the decaying of length scales in the correlation functions. We develop a kinetic Monte-Carlo collagen growth model to better understand how ECM microstructure depends on various environmental or kinetic factors. We show that the nucleation rate, growth rate, and an effective hydrodynamic alignment of collagen fibers fully determines the spatiotemporal fluctuations of the density and orientational order of collagen gel microstructure. Also the temperature dependence of the growth rate and nucleation rate follow the prediction of classical nucleation theory.

  6. Impaired extracellular matrix structure resulting from malnutrition in ovariectomized mature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khassawna, Thaqif; Böcker, Wolfgang; Brodsky, Katharina; Weisweiler, David; Govindarajan, Parameswari; Kampschulte, Marian; Thormann, Ulrich; Henss, Anja; Rohnke, Marcus; Bauer, Natali; Müller, Robert; Deutsch, Andreas; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz; Langheinrich, Alexander; Lips, Katrin S; Schnettler, Reinhard; Heiss, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Bone loss is a symptom related to disease and age, which reflects on bone cells and ECM. Discrepant regulation affects cell proliferation and ECM localization. Rat model of osteoporosis (OVX) was investigated against control rats (Sham) at young and old ages. Biophysical, histological and molecular techniques were implemented to examine the underlying cellular and extracellular matrix changes and to assess the mechanisms contributing to bone loss in the context of aging and the widely used osteoporotic models in rats. Bone loss exhibited a compromised function of bone cells and infiltration of adipocytes into bone marrow. However, the expression of genes regulating collagen catabolic process and adipogenesis was chronologically shifted in diseased bone in comparison with aged bone. The data showed the involvement of Wnt signaling inhibition in adipogenesis and bone loss due to over-expression of SOST in both diseased and aged bone. Further, in the OVX animals, an integrin-mediated ERK activation indicated the role of MAPK in osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis. The increased PTH levels due to calcium and estrogen deficiency activated osteoblastogenesis. Thusly, RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis was initiated. Interestingly, the data show the role of MEPE regulating osteoclast-mediated resorption at late stages in osteoporotic bone. The interplay between ECM and bone cells change tissue microstructure and properties. The involvement of Wnt and MAPK pathways in activating cell proliferation has intriguing similarities to oncogenesis and myeloma. The study indicates the importance of targeting both pathways simultaneously to remedy metabolic bone diseases and age-related bone loss.

  7. Effect of Extracellular Matrix Membrane on Bone Formation in a Rabbit Tibial Defect Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wook Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorbable extracellular matrix (ECM membrane has recently been used as a barrier membrane (BM in guided tissue regeneration (GTR and guided bone regeneration (GBR. Absorbable BMs are mostly based on collagen, which is more biocompatible than synthetic materials. However, implanted absorbable BMs can be rapidly degraded by enzymes in vivo. In a previous study, to delay degradation time, collagen fibers were treated with cross-linking agents. These compounds prevented the enzymatic degradation of BMs. However, cross-linked BMs can exhibit delayed tissue integration. In addition, the remaining cross-linker could induce inflammation. Here, we attempted to overcome these problems using a natural ECM membrane. The membrane consisted of freshly harvested porcine pericardium that was stripped from cells and immunoreagents by a cleaning process. Acellular porcine pericardium (APP showed a bilayer structure with a smooth upper surface and a significantly coarser bottom layer. APP is an ECM with a thin layer (0.18–0.35 mm but with excellent mechanical properties. Tensile strength of APP was 14.15±2.24 MPa. In in vivo experiments, APP was transplanted into rabbit tibia. The biocompatible material was retained for up to 3 months without the need for cross-linking. Therefore, we conclude that APP could support osteogenesis as a BM for up to 3 months.

  8. Extracellular matrix-dependent myosin dynamics during G1-S phase cell cycle progression in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadriraju, Kiran; Hansen, Linda K.

    2004-01-01

    Cell spreading and proliferation are tightly coupled in anchorage-dependent cells. While adhesion-dependent proliferation signals require an intact actin cytoskeleton, and some of these signals such as ERK activation have been characterized, the role of myosin in spreading and cell cycle progression under different extracellular matrix (ECM) conditions is not known. Studies presented here examine changes in myosin activity in freshly isolated hepatocytes under ECM conditions that promote either proliferation (high fibronectin density) or growth arrest (low fibronectin density). Three different measures were obtained and related to both spreading and cell cycle progression: myosin protein levels and association with cytoskeleton, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and its ATPase activity. During the first 48 h in culture, corresponding with transit through G1 phase, there was a six-fold increase in both myosin protein levels and myosin association with actin cytoskeleton. There was also a steady increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation and ATPase activity with spreading, which did not occur in non-spread, growth-arrested cells on low density of fibronectin. Myosin-inhibiting drugs blocked ERK activation, cyclin D1 expression, and S phase entry. Overexpression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1 overcame both ECM-dependent and actomyosin-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that cyclin D1 is a key event downstream of myosin-dependent cell cycle regulation

  9. Extracellular Matrix Proteins Expression Profiling in Chemoresistant Variants of the A2780 Ovarian Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Januchowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological malignancies. Extracellular matrix (ECM can affect drug resistance by preventing the penetration of the drug into cancer cells and increased resistance to apoptosis. This study demonstrates alterations in the expression levels of ECM components and related genes in cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, topotecan-, and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. Affymetrix Gene Chip Human Genome Array Strips were used for hybridisations. The genes that had altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scatter plots. The genes that were up- or downregulated more than fivefold were selected and listed. Among the investigated genes, 28 genes were upregulated, 10 genes were downregulated, and two genes were down- or upregulated depending on the cell line. Between upregulated genes 12 were upregulated very significantly—over 20-fold. These genes included COL1A2, COL12A1, COL21A1, LOX, TGFBI, LAMB1, EFEMP1, GPC3, SDC2, MGP, MMP3, and TIMP3. Four genes were very significantly downregulated: COL11A1, LAMA2, GPC6, and LUM. The expression profiles of investigated genes provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and the expression of ECM components. Identifying correlations between investigated genes and drug resistance will require further analysis.

  10. Cell-ECM Interactions During Cancer Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi

    The extracellular matrix (ECM), a fibrous material that forms a network in a tissue, significantly affects many aspects of cellular behavior, including cell movement and proliferation. Transgenic mouse tumor studies indicate that excess collagen, a major component of ECM, enhances tumor formation and invasiveness. Clinically, tumor associated collagen signatures are strong markers for breast cancer survival. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear since the properties of ECM are complex, with diverse structural and mechanical properties depending on various biophysical parameters. We have developed a three-dimensional elastic fiber network model, and parameterized it with in vitro collagen mechanics. Using this model, we study ECM remodeling as a result of local deformation and cell migration through the ECM as a network percolation problem. We have also developed a three-dimensional, multiscale model of cell migration and interaction with ECM. Our model reproduces quantitative single cell migration experiments. This model is a first step toward a fully biomechanical cell-matrix interaction model and may shed light on tumor associated collagen signatures in breast cancer. This work was partially supported by NIH-U01CA143069.

  11. Protein-anchoring therapy to target extracellular matrix proteins to their physiological destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikako; Ohno, Kinji

    2018-02-20

    Endplate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) deficiency is a form of congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) caused by mutations in COLQ, which encodes collagen Q (ColQ). ColQ is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that anchors AChE to the synaptic basal lamina. Biglycan, encoded by BGN, is another ECM protein that binds to the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) on skeletal muscle, which links the actin cytoskeleton and ECM proteins to stabilize the sarcolemma during repeated muscle contractions. Upregulation of biglycan stabilizes the DPAC. Gene therapy can potentially ameliorate any disease that can be recapitulated in cultured cells. However, the difficulty of tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific regulated expression of transgenes, as well as the difficulty of introducing a transgene into all cells in a specific tissue, prevents us from successfully applying gene therapy to many human diseases. In contrast to intracellular proteins, an ECM protein is anchored to the target tissue via its specific binding affinity for protein(s) expressed on the cell surface within the target tissue. Exploiting this unique feature of ECM proteins, we developed protein-anchoring therapy in which a transgene product expressed even in remote tissues can be delivered and anchored to a target tissue using specific binding signals. We demonstrate the application of protein-anchoring therapy to two disease models. First, intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 8-COLQ to Colq-deficient mice, resulting in specific anchoring of ectopically expressed ColQ-AChE at the NMJ, markedly improved motor functions, synaptic transmission, and the ultrastructure of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In the second example, Mdx mice, a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, were intravenously injected with AAV8-BGN. The treatment ameliorated motor deficits, mitigated muscle histopathologies, decreased plasma creatine kinase activities, and upregulated expression

  12. The Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Extracellular Matrix Synthesis and Degradation in a Rabbit Model of Disc Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-fu Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at determining if the electroacupuncture (EA is able to protect degenerated disc in vivo. New Zealand white rabbits (n=40 were used for the study. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups. EA intervention was applied to one of the four groups. Magnetic resonance imaging and Pfirrmann’s classification were obtained for each group to evaluate EA treatment on the intervertebral disc degeneration. Discs were analyzed using immunofluorescence for the labeling of collagens 1 and 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1. For protein expression analysis, western blot was used for biglycan and decorin. Outcomes indicated that EA intervention decreased the grades compared with the compressed disc. Immunofluorescence analysis showed a significant increase of collagens 1 and 2, TIMP-1, and BMP-2 positive cells, in contrast to MMP-13 after EA treatment for 28 days. The protein expression showed a sign of regeneration that decorin and biglycan were upregulated. It was concluded that EA contributed to the extracellular matrix (ECM anabolic processes and increased the ECM components. MMPs and their inhibitors involved in the mechanism of EA intervention on ECM decreased disc. It kept a dynamic balance between ECM synthesis and degradation.

  13. FAP-overexpressing fibroblasts produce an extracellular matrix that enhances invasive velocity and directionality of pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung-Ok; Mullins, Stefanie R; Franco-Barraza, Janusz; Valianou, Matthildi; Cukierman, Edna; Cheng, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    Alterations towards a permissive stromal microenvironment provide important cues for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this study, Fibroblast activation protein (FAP), a serine protease selectively produced by tumor-associated fibroblasts in over 90% of epithelial tumors, was used as a platform for studying tumor-stromal interactions. We tested the hypothesis that FAP enzymatic activity locally modifies stromal ECM (extracellular matrix) components thus facilitating the formation of a permissive microenvironment promoting tumor invasion in human pancreatic cancer. We generated a tetracycline-inducible FAP overexpressing fibroblastic cell line to synthesize an in vivo-like 3-dimensional (3D) matrix system which was utilized as a stromal landscape for studying matrix-induced cancer cell behaviors. A FAP-dependent topographical and compositional alteration of the ECM was characterized by measuring the relative orientation angles of fibronectin fibers and by Western blot analyses. The role of FAP in the matrix-induced permissive tumor behavior was assessed in Panc-1 cells in assorted matrices by time-lapse acquisition assays. Also, FAP + matrix-induced regulatory molecules in cancer cells were determined by Western blot analyses. We observed that FAP remodels the ECM through modulating protein levels, as well as through increasing levels of fibronectin and collagen fiber organization. FAP-dependent architectural/compositional alterations of the ECM promote tumor invasion along characteristic parallel fiber orientations, as demonstrated by enhanced directionality and velocity of pancreatic cancer cells on FAP + matrices. This phenotype can be reversed by inhibition of FAP enzymatic activity during matrix production resulting in the disorganization of the ECM and impeded tumor invasion. We also report that the FAP + matrix-induced tumor invasion phenotype is β 1 -integrin/FAK mediated. Cancer cell invasiveness can be affected by alterations in the tumor

  14. Co-culture of chondrons and mesenchymal stromal cells reduces the loss of collagen VI and improves extracellular matrix production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owida, H A; De Las Heras Ruiz, T; Dhillon, A; Yang, Y; Kuiper, N J

    2017-12-01

    Adult articular chondrocytes are surrounded by a pericellular matrix (PCM) to form a chondron. The PCM is rich in hyaluronan, proteoglycans, and collagen II, and it is the exclusive location of collagen VI in articular cartilage. Collagen VI anchors the chondrocyte to the PCM. It has been suggested that co-culture of chondrons with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) might enhance extracellular matrix (ECM) production. This co-culture study investigates whether MSCs help to preserve the PCM and increase ECM production. Primary bovine chondrons or chondrocytes or rat MSCs were cultured alone to establish a baseline level for ECM production. A xenogeneic co-culture monolayer model using rat MSCs (20, 50, and 80%) was established. PCM maintenance and ECM production were assessed by biochemical assays, immunofluorescence, and histological staining. Co-culture of MSCs with chondrons enhanced ECM matrix production, as compared to chondrocyte or chondron only cultures. The ratio 50:50 co-culture of MSCs and chondrons resulted in the highest increase in GAG production (18.5 ± 0.54 pg/cell at day 1 and 11 ± 0.38 pg/cell at day 7 in 50:50 co-culture versus 16.8 ± 0.61 pg/cell at day 1 and 10 ± 0.45 pg/cell at day 7 in chondron monoculture). The co-culture of MSCs with chondrons appeared to decelerate the loss of the PCM as determined by collagen VI expression, whilst the expression of high-temperature requirement serine protease A1 (HtrA1) demonstrated an inverse relationship to that of the collagen VI. Together, this implies that MSCs directly or indirectly inhibited HtrA1 activity and the co-culture of MSCs with chondrons enhanced ECM synthesis and the preservation of the PCM.

  15. Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrix Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation in Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Dzobo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs represent an area being intensively researched for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. MSCs may provide the opportunity to treat diseases and injuries that currently have limited therapeutic options, as well as enhance present strategies for tissue repair. The cellular environment has a significant role in cellular development and differentiation through cell–matrix interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of adipose-derived MSCs (ad-MSCs in the context of a cell-derived matrix so as to model the in vivo physiological microenvironment. The fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix (fd-ECM did not affect ad-MSC morphology, but reduced ad-MSC proliferation. Ad-MSCs cultured on fd-ECM displayed decreased expression of integrins α2 and β1 and subsequently lost their multipotency over time, as shown by the decrease in CD44, Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG gene expression. The fd-ECM induced chondrogenic differentiation in ad-MSCs compared to control ad-MSCs. Loss of function studies, through the use of siRNA and a mutant Notch1 construct, revealed that ECM-mediated ad-MSCs chondrogenesis requires Notch1 and β-catenin signaling. The fd-ECM also showed anti-senescence effects on ad-MSCs. The fd-ECM is a promising approach for inducing chondrogenesis in ad-MSCs and chondrogenic differentiated ad-MSCs could be used in stem cell therapy procedures.

  16. Fragmentation of extracellular matrix by hypochlorous acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, Alan A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    /chloramide decomposition, with copper and iron ions being effective catalysts, and decreased by compounds which scavenge chloramines/chloramides, or species derived from them. The effect of such matrix modifications on cellular behaviour is poorly understood, though it is known that changes in matrix materials can have...... profound effects on cell adhesion, proliferation, growth and phenotype. The observed matrix modifications reported here may therefore modulate cellular behaviour in diseases such as atherosclerosis where MPO-derived oxidants are generated....

  17. Structural ECM components in the premetastatic and metastatic niche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Anette M; Erler, Janine T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components that are important for creating structural changes in the premetastatic and metastatic niche. The successful arrival and survival of cancer cells that have left the primary tumor and colonized distant sites...... aimed at targeting cell-ECM interactions may well be one of the best viable approaches to combat metastasis and thus improve patient care....

  18. Dynamics of extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Hummitzsch, Katja; Murdiyarso, Lydia S

    2009-01-01

    Despite the mouse being an important laboratory species, little is known about changes in its extracellular matrix (ECM) during follicle and corpora lutea formation and regression. Follicle development was induced in mice (29 days of age/experimental day 0) by injections of pregnant mare's serum...... and antral follicles. The focimatrix, a specialised matrix of the membrana granulosa, contained collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2, perlecan and collagen type XVIII. In the corpora lutea, staining was restricted to capillary sub-endothelial basal...... gonadotrophin on days 0 and 1 and ovulation was induced by injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin on day 2. Ovaries were collected for immunohistochemistry (n=10 per group) on days 0, 2 and 5. Another group was mated and ovaries were examined on day 11 (n=7). Collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin...

  19. * Tissue-Specific Extracellular Matrix Enhances Skeletal Muscle Precursor Cell Expansion and Differentiation for Potential Application in Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deying; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yi, Hualin; Wang, Zhan; Wu, Rongpei; He, Dawei; Wei, Guanghui; Wei, Shicheng; Hu, Yun; Deng, Junhong; Criswell, Tracy; Yoo, James; Zhou, Yu; Atala, Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Skeletal muscle precursor cells (MPCs) are considered a key candidate for cell therapy in the treatment of skeletal muscle dysfunction due to injury, disease, or age. However, expansion of a sufficient number of functional skeletal muscle cells in vitro from a small tissue biopsy has been challenging due to changes in phenotypic expression of these cells under traditional culture conditions. Thus, the aim of the study was to develop a better culture system for the expansion and myo-differentiation of MPCs that could further be used for therapy. For this purpose, we developed an ideal method of tissue decellularization and compared the ability of different matrices to support MPC growth and differentiation. Porcine-derived skeletal muscle and liver and kidney extracellular matrix (ECM) were generated by decellularization methods consisting of distilled water, 0.2 mg/mL DNase, or 5% fetal bovine serum. Acellular matrices were further homogenized, dissolved, and combined with a hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel decorated with heparin (ECM-HA-HP). The cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of human MPCs were assessed when grown on gel alone, ECM, or each ECM-HA-HP substrate. Human MPC proliferation was significantly enhanced when cultured on the ECM-HA-HP substrates compared to the other substrates tested, with the greatest proliferation on the muscle ECM-HA-HP (mECM-HA-HP) substrate. The number of differentiated myotubes was significantly increased on the mECM-HA-HP substrate compared to the other gel-ECM substrates, as well as the numbers of MPCs expressing specific myogenic cell markers (i.e., myosin, desmin, myoD, and myf5). In conclusion, skeletal mECM-HA-HP as a culture substrate provided an optimal culture microenvironment potentially due to its similarity to the in vivo environment. These data suggest a potential use of skeletal muscle-derived ECM gel for the expansion and differentiation of human MPCs for cell-based therapy for skeletal muscle

  20. Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Hydrogel Scaffolds Derived from Decellularized Bone Extracellular Matrix and Collagen Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduano, Francesco; Marrelli, Massimo; White, Lisa J; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on hydrogel scaffolds derived from bone extracellular matrix (bECM) in comparison to those seeded on collagen I (Col-I), one of the main components of dental pulp ECM. DPSCs isolated from human third molars were characterized for surface marker expression and odontogenic potential prior to seeding into bECM or Col-I hydrogel scaffolds. The cells were then seeded onto bECM and Col-I hydrogel scaffolds and cultured under basal conditions or with odontogenic and growth factor (GF) supplements. DPSCs cultivated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) with and without supplements were used as controls. Gene expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and mineral deposition was observed by Von Kossa staining. When DPSCs were cultured on bECM hydrogels, the mRNA expression levels of DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE genes were significantly upregulated with respect to those cultured on Col-I scaffolds or TCPS in the absence of extra odontogenic inducers. In addition, more mineral deposition was observed on bECM hydrogel scaffolds as demonstrated by Von Kossa staining. Moreover, DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE mRNA expressions of DPSCs cultured on bECM hydrogels were further upregulated by the addition of GFs or osteo/odontogenic medium compared to Col-I treated cells in the same culture conditions. These results demonstrate the potential of the bECM hydrogel scaffolds to stimulate odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs.

  1. Integration of concepts: cardiac extracellular matrix remodeling after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleutjens, Jack P. M.; Creemers, Esther E. J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The cardiac extracellular matrix consists of a three-dimensional structural network of interstitial collagens to which other matrix components are attached. The main physiological functions of this network are to retain tissue integrity and cardiac pump function. Collagen deposition is controlled

  2. HGF potentiates extracellular matrix-driven migration of human myoblasts: involvement of matrix metalloproteinases and MAPK/ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mariela Natacha; de Mello, Wallace; Butler-Browne, Gillian S; Silva-Barbosa, Suse Dayse; Mouly, Vincent; Savino, Wilson; Riederer, Ingo

    2017-10-10

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is required for the activation of muscle progenitor cells called satellite cells (SC), plays a role in the migration of proliferating SC (myoblasts), and is present as a soluble factor during muscle regeneration, along with extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. In this study, we aimed at determining whether HGF is able to interact with ECM proteins, particularly laminin 111 and fibronectin, and to modulate human myoblast migration. We evaluated the expression of the HGF-receptor c-Met, laminin, and fibronectin receptors by immunoblotting, flow cytometry, or immunofluorescence and used Transwell assays to analyze myoblast migration on laminin 111 and fibronectin in the absence or presence of HGF. Zymography was used to check whether HGF could modulate the production of matrix metalloproteinases by human myoblasts, and the activation of MAPK/ERK pathways was evaluated by immunoblotting. We demonstrated that human myoblasts express c-Met, together with laminin and fibronectin receptors. We observed that human laminin 111 and fibronectin have a chemotactic effect on myoblast migration, and this was synergistically increased when low doses of HGF were added. We detected an increase in MMP-2 activity in myoblasts treated with HGF. Conversely, MMP-2 inhibition decreased the HGF-associated stimulation of cell migration triggered by laminin or fibronectin. HGF treatment also induced in human myoblasts activation of MAPK/ERK pathways, whose specific inhibition decreased the HGF-associated stimulus of cell migration triggered by laminin 111 or fibronectin. We demonstrate that HGF induces ERK phosphorylation and MMP production, thus stimulating human myoblast migration on ECM molecules. Conceptually, these data state that the mechanisms involved in the migration of human myoblasts comprise both soluble and insoluble moieties. This should be taken into account to optimize the design of therapeutic cell transplantation strategies by improving

  3. Binding of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors to extracellular matrix: 3D-QSAR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufen; Lukacova, Viera; Bartus, Vladimir; Nie, Xiaoping; Sun, Guorong; Manivannan, Ethirajan; Ghorpade, Sandeep R; Jin, Xiaomin; Manyem, Shankar; Sibi, Mukund P; Cook, Gregory R; Balaz, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    Binding to the extracellular matrix, one of the most abundant human protein complexes, significantly affects drug disposition. Specifically, the interactions with extracellular matrix determine the free concentrations of small molecules acting in tissues, including signaling peptides, inhibitors of tissue remodeling enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases, and other drug candidates. The nature of extracellular matrix binding was elucidated for 63 matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, for which the association constants to an extracellular matrix mimic were reported here. The data did not correlate with lipophilicity as a common determinant of structure-nonspecific, orientation-averaged binding. A hypothetical structure of the binding site of the solidified extracellular matrix surrogate was analyzed using the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis, which needed to be applied in our multi-mode variant. This fact indicates that the compounds bind to extracellular matrix in multiple modes, which cannot be considered as completely orientation-averaged and exhibit structural dependence. The novel comparative molecular field analysis models, exhibiting satisfactory descriptive and predictive abilities, are suitable for prediction of the extracellular matrix binding for the untested chemicals, which are within applicability domains. The results contribute to a better prediction of the pharmacokinetic parameters such as the distribution volume and the tissue-blood partition coefficients, in addition to a more imminent benefit for the development of more effective matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors.

  4. Extracellular Matrix-Regulated Gene Expression RequiresCooperation of SWI/SNF and Transcription Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ren; Spencer, Virginia A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-05-25

    Extracellular cues play crucial roles in the transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific genes, but whether and how these signals lead to chromatin remodeling is not understood and subject to debate. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and mammary-specific genes as models, we show here that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and prolactin cooperate to induce histone acetylation and binding of transcription factors and the SWI/SNF complex to the {beta}- and ?-casein promoters. Introduction of a dominant negative Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF complex, significantly reduced both {beta}- and ?-casein expression, suggesting that SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodeling is required for transcription of mammary-specific genes. ChIP analyses demonstrated that the ATPase activity of SWI/SNF is necessary for recruitment of RNA transcriptional machinery, but not for binding of transcription factors or for histone acetylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses showed that the SWI/SNF complex is associated with STAT5, C/EBP{beta}, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Thus, ECM- and prolactin-regulated transcription of the mammary-specific casein genes requires the concerted action of chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors.

  5. Targeting of ECM molecules and their metabolizing enzymes and receptors for the treatment of CNS diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berezin, Vladimir; Walmod, Peter Schledermann; Filippov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, their receptors at the cell surface, and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) involved in cell-cell or cell-ECM interactions are implicated in processes related to major diseases of the central nervous system including Alzheimer's disease (AD), epilepsy......, schizophrenia, addiction, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and cancer. There are multiple strategies for targeting the ECM molecules and their metabolizing enzymes and receptors with antibodies, peptides, glycosaminoglycans, and other natural and synthetic compounds. ECM-targeting treatments include...... chondroitinase ABC, heparin/heparan sulfate-mimicking oligosaccharides, ECM cross-linking antibodies, and drugs stimulating expression of ECM molecules. The amount or activity of ECM-degrading enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases can be modulated indirectly via the regulation of endogenous inhibitors like...

  6. Differential sensitivity of epithelial cells to extracellular matrix in polarity establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenobu Yonemura

    Full Text Available Establishment of apical-basal polarity is crucial for epithelial sheets that form a compartment in the body, which function to maintain the environment in the compartment. Effects of impaired polarization are easily observed in three-dimensional (3-D culture systems rather than in two-dimensional (2-D culture systems. Although the mechanisms for establishing the polarity are not completely understood, signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM are considered to be essential for determining the basal side and eventually generating polarity in the epithelial cells. To elucidate the common features and differences in polarity establishment among various epithelial cells, we analyzed the formation of epithelial apical-basal polarity using three cell lines of different origin: MDCK II cells (dog renal tubules, EpH4 cells (mouse mammary gland, and R2/7 cells (human colon expressing wild-type α-catenin (R2/7 α-Cate cells. These cells showed clear apical-basal polarity in 2-D cultures. In 3-D cultures, however, each cell line displayed different responses to the same ECM. In MDCK II cells, spheroids with a single lumen formed in both Matrigel and collagen gel. In R2/7 α-Cate cells, spheroids showed similar apical-basal polarity as that seen in MDCK II cells, but had multiple lumens. In EpH4 cells, the spheroids displayed an apical-basal polarity that was opposite to that seen in the other two cell types in both ECM gels, at least during the culture period. On the other hand, the three cell lines showed the same apical-basal polarity both in 2-D cultures and in 3-D cultures using the hanging drop method. The three lines also had similar cellular responses to ECM secreted by the cells themselves. Therefore, appropriate culture conditions should be carefully determined in advance when using various epithelial cells to analyze cell polarity or 3-D morphogenesis.

  7. Mesenchymal stromal cells improve human islet function through released products and extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzouni, Ahmed A; Vargas-Seymour, Andreia; Rackham, Chloe L; Dhadda, Paramjeet; Huang, Guo-Cai; Choudhary, Pratik; Nardi, Nance; King, Aileen J F; Jones, Peter M

    2017-12-01

    The aims of the present study were (i) to determine whether the reported beneficial effects of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) on mouse islet function extend to clinically relevant human tissues (islets and MSCs), enabling translation into improved protocols for clinical human islet transplantation; and (ii) to identify possible mechanisms through which human MSCs influence human islet function. Human islets were co-cultured with human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hASCs) or pre-treated with its products - extracellular matrix (ECM) and annexin A1 (ANXA1). Mouse islets were pre-treated with mouse MSC-derived ECM. Islet insulin secretory function was assessed in vitro by radioimmunoassay. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to screen human adipMSCs for potential ligands of human islet G-protein-coupled receptors. We show that co-culture with hASCs improves human islet secretory function in vitro , as measured by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, confirming previous reports using rodent tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these beneficial effects on islet function can be partly attributed to the MSC-derived products ECM and ANXA1. Our results suggest that hASCs have the potential to improve the quality of human islets isolated for transplantation therapy of Type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, it may be possible to achieve improvements in human islet quality in a cell-free culture system by using the MSC-derived products ANXA1 and ECM. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Modulators of the extracellular matrix and risk of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Masouda; Mannion, Sasha; Klug, Blake; Hobbs, Hayden; van der Merwe, Willem; Posthumus, Michael; Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V

    2017-02-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of ligaments continuously undergoes remodelling in order to maintain tissue homeostasis. Several key mediators of ECM remodelling were chosen for investigation in the present study. It is thought that polymorphisms within genes encoding signalling molecules may contribute to inter-individual variation in the responses to mechanical loading, potentially altering risk of injury. A genetic association study was conducted on 232 asymptomatic controls (CON) and 234 participants with surgically diagnosed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures; of which 135 participants reported a non-contact mechanism of injury (NON subgroup). All participants were genotyped for ten variants in eight genes encoding ECM remodelling proteins. Haplotypes and allele combinations were also inferred. The CASP8 rs3834129 ins allele was significantly over-represented in the male CON group compared to the male NON subgroup (p=0.047, OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.01-2.12). In female participants, the IL1B rs16944 TT genotype was significantly under-represented in the CON group compared to the NON subgroup (p=0.039, OR: 3.06, 95% CI: 1.09-8.64). Haplotype analysis revealed an under-representation of the CASP8 rs3834129-rs1045485 del-G haplotype in the CON group compared to both the ACL group (p=0.042; haplo.score:2.03) and the NON subgroup (p=0.037; haplo.score:2.09). Furthermore, following a pathway-based approach, genetic variants involved in the cell signalling cascade were associated with ACL injury risk. The novel independent associations and allele combinations observed implicate the apoptosis and cell signalling cascades as potential contributors to ACL injury susceptibility. Furthermore, these genetic variants may potentially modulate ECM remodelling in response to loading and ultimately contribute to ligament capacity. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Large area, label-free imaging of extracellular matrix using telecentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbal Onufrak, Michelle A.; Konger, Raymond L.; Kim, Young L.

    2017-02-01

    Subtle alterations in stromal tissue structures and organizations within the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been observed in several types of tissue abnormalities, including early skin cancer and wounds. Current microscopic imaging methods often lack the ability to accurately determine the extent of malignancy over a large area, due to their limited field of view. In this research we focus on the development of simple mesoscopic (i.e. between microscopic and macroscopic) biomedical imaging device for non-invasive assessment of ECM alterations over a large, heterogeneous area. In our technology development, a telecentric lens, commonly used in machine vision systems but rarely used in biomedical imaging, serves as a key platform to visualize alterations in tissue microenvironments in a label-free manner over a clinically relevant area. In general, telecentric imaging represents a simple, alternative method for reducing unwanted scattering or diffuse light caused by the highly anisotropic scattering properties of biological tissue. In particular, under telecentric imaging the light intensity backscattered from biological tissue is mainly sensitive to the scattering anisotropy factor, possibly associated with the ECM. We demonstrate the inherent advantages of combining telecentric lens systems with hyperspectral imaging for providing optical information of tissue scattering in biological tissue of murine models, as well as light absorption of hemoglobin in blood vessel tissue phantoms. Thus, we envision that telecentric imaging could potentially serve for simple site-specific, tissue-based assessment of stromal alterations over a clinically relevant field of view in a label-free manner, for studying diseases associated with disruption of homeostasis in ECM.

  10. Development of a Micronized Meniscus Extracellular Matrix Scaffold for Potential Augmentation of Meniscal Repair and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monibi, Farrah A; Bozynski, Chantelle C; Kuroki, Keiichi; Stoker, Aaron M; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Sherman, Seth L; Cook, James L

    2016-12-01

    Decellularized scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) hold promise for repair and regeneration of the meniscus, given the potential for ECM-based biomaterials to aid in stem cell recruitment, infiltration, and differentiation. The objectives of this study were to decellularize canine menisci to fabricate a micronized, ECM-derived scaffold and to determine the cytocompatibility and repair potential of the scaffold ex vivo. Menisci were decellularized with a combination of physical agitation and chemical treatments. For scaffold fabrication, decellularized menisci were cryoground into a powder and the size and morphology of the ECM particles were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Histologic and biochemical analyses of the scaffold confirmed effective decellularization with loss of proteoglycan from the tissue but no significant reduction in collagen content. When washed effectively, the decellularized scaffold was cytocompatible to meniscal fibrochondrocytes, synoviocytes, and whole meniscal tissue based on the resazurin reduction assay and histologic evaluation. In an ex vivo model for meniscal repair, radial tears were augmented with the scaffold delivered with platelet-rich plasma as a carrier, and compared to nonaugmented (standard-of-care) suture techniques. Histologically, there was no evidence of cellular migration or proliferation noted in any of the untreated or standard-of-care treatment groups after 40 days of culture. Conversely, cellular infiltration and proliferation were noted in scaffold-augmented repairs. These data suggest the potential for the scaffold to promote cellular survival, migration, and proliferation ex vivo. Further investigations are necessary to examine the potential for the scaffold to induce cellular differentiation and functional meniscal fibrochondrogenesis.

  11. Modulation of extracellular matrix proteins and hepatate stellate cell activation following gadolinium chloride induced Kuffer cell blockade in an experimental model of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Tekkesin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is now regarded as a common response to chronic liver injury; regardless of its nature (viral infections, alcohol abuse and metal overload. It is also characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM components. The ECM is a dynamic complex of macromolecules that includes collagens, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans, such as laminin and fibronectin; it has been shown that it does not only support the tissue structure, but also plays a major role in cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Remodelling of the ECM may be the signal that facilitates lobular reorganization during liver regeneration after a liver injury. Much work has been done concerning the ECM synthesis and protein contents.

  12. Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and irritable bowel syndrome have different profiles of extracellular matrix turnover, which also reflects disease activity in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Joachim Høg; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2017-01-01

    Increased protease activity is a key pathological feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the differences in extracellular matrix remodelling (ECM) in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are not well described. An increased understanding of the inflammatory processes may...... provide optimized disease monitoring and diagnostics. We investigated the tissue remodelling in IBD and IBS patients by using novel blood-based biomarkers reflecting ECM remodelling. Five ECM biomarkers (VICM, BGM, EL-NE, C5M, Pro-C5) were measured by competitive ELISAs in serum from 72 CD patients, 60 UC...... patients, 22 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 24 healthy donors. One-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression models, and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers. The ECM...

  13. Tailored PVA/ECM Scaffolds for Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Stocco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage lesions are a particular challenge for regenerative medicine due to cartilage low self-ability repair in case of damage. Hence, a significant goal of musculoskeletal tissue engineering is the development of suitable structures in virtue of their matrix composition and biomechanical properties. The objective of our study was to design in vitro a supporting structure for autologous chondrocyte growth. We realized a biohybrid composite scaffold combining a novel and nonspecific extracellular matrix (ECM, which is decellularized Wharton’s jelly ECM, with the biomechanical properties of the synthetic hydrogel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Wharton’s jelly ECM was tested for its ability in promoting scaffold colonization by chondrocytes and compared with polyvinyl alcohol itself and the more specific decellularized cartilage matrix. Our preliminary evidences highlighted the chance of using Wharton’s jelly ECM in combination with PVA hydrogels as an innovative and easily available scaffold for cartilage restoration.

  14. Tumor Cell Invasion Can Be Blocked by Modulators of Collagen Fibril Alignment That Control Assembly of the Extracellular Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Moran; Ben-Chetrit, Nir; Zhuravlev, Alina; Afik, Ran; Bassat, Elad; Solomonov, Inna; Yarden, Yosef; Sagi, Irit

    2016-07-15

    Abnormal architectures of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix (ECM) are hallmarks of many invasive diseases, including cancer. Targeting specific stages of collagen assembly in vivo presents a great challenge due to the involvement of various crosslinking enzymes in the multistep, hierarchical process of ECM build-up. Using advanced microscopic tools, we monitored stages of fibrillary collagen assembly in a native fibroblast-derived 3D matrix system and identified anti-lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) antibodies that alter the natural alignment and width of endogenic fibrillary collagens without affecting ECM composition. The disrupted collagen morphologies interfered with the adhesion and invasion properties of human breast cancer cells. Treatment of mice bearing breast cancer xenografts with the inhibitory antibodies resulted in disruption of the tumorigenic collagen superstructure and in reduction of primary tumor growth. Our approach could serve as a general methodology to identify novel therapeutics targeting fibrillary protein organization to treat ECM-associated pathologies. Cancer Res; 76(14); 4249-58. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Host-Parasite Interaction: Parasite-Derived and -Induced Proteases That Degrade Human Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Piña-Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic protozoa are among the most important pathogens worldwide. Diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and trypanosomiasis affect millions of people. Humans are constantly threatened by infections caused by these pathogens. Parasites engage a plethora of surface and secreted molecules to attach to and enter mammalian cells. The secretion of lytic enzymes by parasites into host organs mediates critical interactions because of the invasion and destruction of interstitial tissues, enabling parasite migration to other sites within the hosts. Extracellular matrix is a complex, cross-linked structure that holds cells together in an organized assembly and that forms the basement membrane lining (basal lamina. The extracellular matrix represents a major barrier to parasites. Therefore, the evolution of mechanisms for connective-tissue degradation may be of great importance for parasite survival. Recent advances have been achieved in our understanding of the biochemistry and molecular biology of proteases from parasitic protozoa. The focus of this paper is to discuss the role of protozoan parasitic proteases in the degradation of host ECM proteins and the participation of these molecules as virulence factors. We divide the paper into two sections, extracellular and intracellular protozoa.

  16. Increased extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) expression in the conjunctival epithelium exposed to antiglaucoma treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Antoine; Gabison, Eric; Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Riancho, Luisa; Menashi, Suzanne; Baudouin, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effect of preserved antiglaucoma eye drops on the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in conjunctival epithelial cells. A total of 18 patients treated for primary open-angle glaucoma with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) preserved eye drops and eight age-matched controls were included in this study. Glaucoma patients were divided into two groups according to their daily exposure to BAK: high-exposure (HE) group and low-exposure (LE) group. HLA-DR and EMMPRIN were quantified on conjunctival impression cytology specimens using flow cytometry. In parallel, IOBA-NHC conjunctival epithelial cells were exposed to different BAK concentrations, in the presence or absence of cyclosporine A (CsA), and their total and surface expressions of EMMPRIN were assessed by flow cytometry and results are given in relative fluorescence intensities (RFIs). Compared to the control group (1.71 ± 0.39 RFI), EMMPRIN was significantly increased in the HE (4.19 ± 1.50 RFI, p EMMPRIN (R(2) = 0.875, p EMMPRIN, which was proportional to the concentration of BAK. The surface expression of EMMPRIN was inhibited by CsA. The increased expression of EMMPRIN in patients topically treated with multiple antiglaucoma BAK-preserved eye drops suggests a matrix metalloproteinase-related modification of conjunctival ECM remodeling. In vitro results suggest that CsA has the potential to limit BAK effects on EMMPRIN.

  17. Novel serological neo-epitope markers of extracellular matrix proteins for the detection of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeming, D J; Karsdal, M A; Byrjalsen, I; Bendtsen, F; Trebicka, J; Nielsen, M J; Christiansen, C; Møller, S; Krag, A

    2013-11-01

    The hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is an invasive, but important diagnostic and prognostic marker in cirrhosis with portal hypertension (PHT). During cirrhosis, remodelling of fibrotic tissue by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is a permanent process generating small fragments of degraded extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins known as neoepitopes, which are then released into the circulation. To investigate their potential as plasma markers for detection of PHT. Ninety-four patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 liver-healthy controls were included. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients were collected. All patients received HVPG measurement with blood sampling. In these samples, the following degradation or formation markers were measured: C1M (type I-collagen), C3M and PRO-C3 (type III collagen), C4M and P4NP 7S (type IV collagen), C5M (type V collagen), C6M (type VI collagen), BGM (biglycan), ELM (elastin), CRPM (CRP). All ECM markers except for CRPM correlated significantly with HVPG. Interestingly, C4M, C5M and ELM levels were significantly higher in patients with HVPG >10 mmHg. Multiple regression analysis identified PRO-C3, C6M and ELM as significant determinants, while the models A and B including PRO-C3, ELM, C6M and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) provided better description of PHT (r = 0.75, P models provided odds ratios of >100 for having clinical significant PHT. These novel non-invasive extracellular matrix markers reflect the degree of liver dysfunction. The different degrees of portal hypertension correlated with these circulating neoepitopes. Using a single blood sample, these neoepitopes in combination with MELD detect the level of portal hypertension. © 2013 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18.  The role of metalloproteinases in modification of extracellular matrix in invasive tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Fink

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of endopeptydases which recquire a zinc ion at their active site, for proteolityc activity. There are six members of the MMP family: matrilysins, collagenases, stromelysins, gelatinases, membrane MMPs and other MMPs. Activity of MMPs is regulated at the level of gene transcription, mRNA stability, zymogene proteolitic activation, inhibition of an active enzyme and MMP degradation. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs are main intracellular inhibitors of MMPs. Host cells can be stimulated by tumor cells to produce MMPs by secreted interleukins, interferons, growth factors and an extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN. MMPs are produced by tumor cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, polimorphonuclear neutrophiles (PMNs and endothelial cells (ECs. MMPs affect many stages of tumor development, facilitating its growth through promoting tumor cells proliferation, invasion and migration, new blood vessels formation and blocking tumor cells apoptosis. MMPs can promote tumor development in several ways. ECM degradation results in release of peptide growth factors. Growth factors linked with cell surface or binding proteins can also be liberated by MMPs. MMPs can indirectly regulate integrin signalling or cleave E-cadherins, facilitating cell migration. MMPs support metastasis inducing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. MMP also support transendothelial migration. MMPs support angiogenesis by releasing pro-angiogenic factors and degrading ECM to support ECs migration. Cell surface growth factor receptors are also cleaved by MMPs, which results in inhibition of tumor development, so is release of anti-angiogenic factors from ECM

  19. Sox9 is required for precursor cell expansion and extracellular matrix organization during mouse heart valve development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Joy; Kist, Ralf; Scherer, Gerd; Yutzey, Katherine E

    2007-05-01

    Heart valve structures derived from mesenchymal cells of the endocardial cushions (ECs) are composed of highly organized cell lineages and extracellular matrix. Sox9 is a transcription factor required for both early and late stages of cartilage formation that is also expressed in the developing valves of the heart. The requirements for Sox9 function during valvulogenesis and adult valve homeostasis in mice were examined by conditional inactivation of Sox9 using Tie2-cre and Col2a1-cre transgenes. Sox9(flox/flox);Tie2-cre mice die before E14.5 with hypoplastic ECs, reduced cell proliferation and altered extracellular matrix protein (ECM) deposition. Sox9(flox/flox);Col2a1-cre mice die at birth with thickened heart valve leaflets, reduced expression of cartilage-associated proteins and abnormal ECM patterning. Thickened valve leaflets and calcium deposits, characteristic of valve disease, are observed in heterozygous adult Sox9(flox/+);Col2a1-cre mice. Therefore, Sox9 is required early in valve development for expansion of the precursor cell population and later is required for normal expression and distribution of valvular ECM proteins. These data indicate that Sox9 is required for early and late stages of valvulogenesis and identify a potential role for Sox9 in valve disease mechanisms.

  20. Serum markers of the extracellular matrix remodelling reflect antifibrotic therapy in bile-duct ligated rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eSchierwagen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundProgression of liver fibrosis is characterized by synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM. Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP cleave collagen fibers at a specific site and thereby generate soluble fragments of ECM (neo-epitopes. The levels of these neo-epitopes might reflect the stage of liver fibrosis and may allow monitoring of anti-fibrotic therapies. Here we analyzed these neo-epitopes as read-out for a liver directed therapy with statins.MethodsBile duct ligation (BDL was performed on wildtype rats, which received atorvastatin (15mg/kg*d for one week starting at one, two, three, four and five weeks after BDL (T1-T5, while controls remained untreated. Hepatic fibrosis was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and hepatic hydroxyproline content. TGFβ levels were measured by RT-PCR. Proteolytic activity of MMP-2 was examined by zymography. Levels of degradation MMP driven type I, III, IV and VI collagen degradation (C1M, C3M, C4M and C6M and type III and IV collagen formation (PRO-C3 and P4NP7S markers were assessed by specific ELISAs in serum probes.ResultsSerum markers of ECM neo-epitopes reflected significantly the deposition of ECM in the liver and were able to distinguish between early (T1-T3 and severe fibrosis (T4-T5. Statin treatment to the fibrotic livers resulted in reduction of neo-epitope markers, especially when therapy was started in the stage of severe fibrosis (T4-T5. Furthermore, these markers correlated with hepatic expression of profibrotic cytokines TGFβ1 and TGFβ2. Formation markers of type III and IV collagen (PRO-C3 and P4NP7S and degradation markers C4M and C6M correlated significantly with MMP-2 activity in rats with severe fibrosis. ConclusionDetermination of ECM remodelling turnover markers in serum allowed a distinction between mild and severe fibrosis. With respect to statin therapy, the markers may serve as read-out for efficacy of anti-fibrotic treatment.

  1. Metabolism during ECM Detachment: Achilles Heel of Cancer Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Joshua A; Hagel, Kimberly R; Hawk, Mark A; Schafer, Zachary T

    2017-07-01

    Integrin-mediated attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is required to combat the induction of programmed cell death in a variety of distinct cell types. If cells fail to maintain proper ECM attachment, they become subject to elimination via an apoptotic cell death program known as anoikis. However, anoikis inhibition is not sufficient to promote the long-term survival of ECM-detached cells. Several recent studies have unveiled the profound (anoikis-independent) impact of cell metabolism on the viability of ECM-detached cells. Thus, we posit that, during metastatic dissemination (when cancer cells are exposed to periods of ECM detachment), cancer cells must alter their metabolism in a fashion that promotes survival and ultimately contributes to metastatic outgrowth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genes responsible for vaginal extracellular matrix metabolism are modulated by women's reproductive cycle and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Shynlova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To analyze the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM biogenesis and remodeling in vaginal tissue of women with clinically normal pelvic floor support (defined as controls according to the phase of menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Materials and Methods This study examined the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs, and the Lysyl oxidase (LOX family genes in the anterior vaginal wall of Caucasian women by real-time RT-PCR. Initially, mRNA expression was assessed in premenopausal controls in the secretory (group 1, n = 10 vs. proliferative (group 2, n = 8 phase of menstrual cycle. In addition, we compared premenopausal controls in the proliferative phase (group 2 vs. postmenopausal controls (group 3, n = 5. Finally, we analyzed postmenopausal controls (group 3 vs. postmenopausal women with advanced POP (group 4, n = 13. Results According to the phase of menstrual cycle, MMP1 was significantly reduced (p = 0.003, whereas the expression of TIMP1 and LOXL4 was significantly up-regulated during proliferative phase (both p < 0.01 when compared to the secretory phase in premenopausal control women. Regarding menopausal status/ageing, all MMPs were down-regulated, while TIMP3, TIMP4 and LOXL2 were significantly up-regulated in postmenopausal control women when compared to premenopausal controls (p = 0.005, p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, correspondingly. TIMP4 and LOXL2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in postmenopausal POP patients compared to asymptomatic postmenopausal controls (p < 0.01 for both. Conclusions Our results indicate that ovarian cycle and age-related changes influence the expression of genes encoding proteins responsible for ECM metabolism in human vagina. Moreover, POP is associated with alteration in vaginal ECM components after menopause.

  3. Epithelial growth by rat vibrissae follicles in vitro requires mesenchymal contact via native extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, R.E.; Paus, R.; Stenn, K.S.; Kuklinska, E.; Moellmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    An in vitro assay utilizing the rat vibrissa anagen follicle as a model for studying the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMI) in hair growth is described. Through selective disruption of the epithelial-mesenchymal interface, we investigate whether the specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) of the dermal papilla and basement membrane zone (BMZ) serves a crucial function in hair follicle EMI. Epithelial bulbs incubated intact within their follicular sheaths incorporate thymidine primarily into cells of the hair matrix and outer root sheath, as shown by autoradiography. However, after removal of its mesenchymal associations (dermal papilla and extrabulbar connective tissue), the epithelial bulb showed no incorporation. Neither externally added collagen (type I or IV) nor the basement membrane components in Matrigel could substitute for the growth supporting influence of native surrounding stroma. Mechanical separation of the bulb from the dermal papilla in the basement membrane zone inhibited thymidine incorporation by the epithelium even though mesenchyme was still in close proximity. Enzymatic digestion of the dermal papilla ECM and the basal lamina by Dispase, a fibronectinase and type IV collagenase, also inhibited bulb growth without evidence of cytotoxicity. These experiments suggest that direct epithelial to mesenchymal contact is required for the support of follicular epithelial growth in vitro and that specific ECM components, possibly fibronectin and/or type IV collagen, rather than diffusable factors alone, play a crucial role in the mechanism of hair follicle EMI. The in vitro system described here provides an alternative to developmental EMI models and may serve as a valuable tool for studying EMI in the adult mammalian organism

  4. Syndecans as receptors and organizers of the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Gopal, Sandeep; Couchman, John

    2009-01-01

    , the collagens and glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix are prominent. Frequently, they do so in conjunction with other receptors, most notably the integrins. For this reason, they are often referred to as "co-receptors". However, just as with integrins, syndecans can interact with actin-associated proteins...... and signalling molecules, such as protein kinases. Some aspects of syndecan signalling are understood but much remains to be learned. The functions of syndecans in regulating cell adhesion and extracellular matrix assembly are described here. Evidence from null mice suggests that syndecans have roles...

  5. Mechanoregulatory tumor-stroma crosstalk in pancreatic cancer: Measurements of the effects of extracellular matrix mechanics on tumor growth behavior, and vice-versa, to inform therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Jonathan; Jones, Dustin; El-Hamidi, Hamid; Cramer, Gwendolyn; Hanna, William; Caide, Andrew; Jafari, Seyedehrojin

    The rheological properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to play key roles in regulating tumor growth behavior through mechanotranduction pathways. The role of the mechanical microenvironment may be particularly important tumors of the pancreas, noted for an abundance of rigid fibrotic stroma, implicated in therapeutic resistance. At the same time, cancer cells and their stromal partners (e.g. tumor associated fibroblasts) continually alter the mechanical microenvironment in response to extracellular physical and biochemical cues as part of a two-way mechanoregulatory dialog. Here, we describe experimental studies using 3D pancreatic cell cultures with customized mechanical properties, combined with optical microrheology to provide insight into tumor-driven matrix remodeling. Quantitative microscopy provides measurements of phenotypic changes accompanying systematic variation of ECM composition in collagen and laminin-rich basement membrane admixtures, while analysis of the trajectories of passive tracer particles embedded in ECM report dynamic changes in heterogeneity, microstructure and local shear modulus accompanying both ECM stiffening (fibrosis) processes, and ECM degradation near invading cells. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Cancer Institute, R00CA155045 (PI: Celli).

  6. Dextran sulphate crowding and sodium deoxycholate lysis of primary breast fibroblast cells achieve extracellular matrix deposition and decellularization for breast cancer stem cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroem Naruni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Lingkungan mikro yaitu sel stromal dam matriks ekstraseluler saat ini dinyatakansebagai kontributor dalam perkembangan tumor. Beberapa penelitian telah mengembangkan matriksekstraseluler yang mendukung perkembangan sel in vitro. Matriks ekstraseluler adalah suatu komplekssusunan supramolekuler dari berbagai macam glycoprotein dan proteoglycan. Matriks ekstraselulermenyediakan integritas jaringan, bertindak sebagai scaffold alami tempat sel melekat dan berinteraksiserta berperan sebagai reservoir pertumbuhan sel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan deposisidan deselularisasi yang optimal pada matriks ekstraseluler.Metode: Dalam penelitian ini, kami mengembangkan cells crowder untuk meningkatkan deposit matriksekstraseluler dari kultur sel primer fibroblast payudara yang diperoleh dari spesimen hasil operasimammoplasty. Dextran 500 kDa ditambahkan dalam media kultur DMEM lengkap yang telah ditambahkan0.5% FBS dan 100μM L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. Setelah tujuh hari, sel dilisis dengan menggunakanSodium Deoxycolate (DOC.Hasil: Deposisi matriks ekstraseluler dan proses deselulerisasi dari sel primer fibroblas payudara dapatterdeteksi dengan menggunakan antibodi Rabbit anti human fibronectin yang selanjutnya ditambahkandengan anti rabbit IgG yang telah dikonjugasi dengan Alexa Fluor 488.Kesimpulan: Penambahan dextran sulfat dan prosesing lysis dengan sodium deoxycolate dapatmeningkatkan deposisi dan menghasilkan deselularisasi matriks ekstraseluler. (Health Science Journalof Indonesia 2015;6:43-7Kata kunci: matriks ekstra selular, kanker mammae, stem cell, sel fibroblast AbstractBackground: The microenvironment including stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM is now consideredan active contributor to tumor progression. Certain studies have developed ECM which supports a suitable cellulargrowth in vitro. The ECM is a complex supramolecular assembly of a variety of glycoproteins and proteoglycans.Extracellular

  7. Effect of secondary metabolite of Actinidia deliciosa on the biofilm and extra-cellular matrix components of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vishvanath; Tiwari, Deepika; Patel, Varsha; Tiwari, Monalisa

    2017-09-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, increases gradually in the clinical setup. The high level of resistance mechanisms acquired by these bacteria makes their eradication difficult and biofilm formation is one of them. Biofilm comprises of closely packed bacterial population crowded together by extra-cellular matrix (ECM). ECM contains bacterial secreted polymers such as exopolysaccharides (EPS), proteins and extracellular-DNA (e-DNA) and rarely amyloidogenic proteins. Biofilm offers protection of underlying bacterial population against chemotherapeutic agents and host immune system. Therefore, present efforts are focused to find a novel therapeutic that targets biofilm-associated infections. Plants are used as a natural therapeutic for numerous ailments. In order to find an alternative of the available antibacterial drugs, we have focused on the natural herbal active compounds. In this study, we have extracted active compounds from various medicinal plants and screened its anti-biofilm activity against carbapenem resistant strain of A. baumannii. Results showed that polar extract of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) exhibit effective anti-biofilm activity. These two plants were also used for their phytochemical screening and TLC profiling to find out the constituting secondary metabolites. Actinidia deliciosa extract contains an alkaloid (sanquinarine) as well as a flavonoid (hydroxyflavone). Anti-biofilm effect of this extract on the ECM of A. baumannii showed that it reduces EPS, protein and eDNA contents in the ECM. Proteins of ECM have also shown to form amyloid like structure, which was evident from its interaction with the Congo Red. CFU counting after Actinidia deliciosa extract treatment also supported the results. Therefore, it can be concluded that polar extract of A. deliciosa can be used to find suitable alternative therapeutic to control biofilm formation by carbapenem resistant strain of

  8. Extracellular DNA as matrix component in microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria in nature primarily live in surface-associated communities commonly known as biofilms. Because bacteria in biofilms, in many cases, display tolerance to host immune systems, antibiotics, and biocides, they are often difficult or impossible to eradicate. Biofilm formation, therefore, leads...... to various persistent infections in humans and animals, and to a variety of complications in industry, where solid–water interfaces occur. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation is necessary for creating strategies to control biofilms. Recent studies have shown...... that extracellular DNA is an important component of the extracellular matrix of microbial biofilms. The present chapter is focussed on extracellular DNA as matrix component in biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an example from the Gram-negative bacteria, and Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as examples...

  9. Modulation of the mechanical properties of ventricular extracellular matrix hydrogels with a carbodiimide crosslinker and investigation of their cellular compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyohei Fujita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels made from the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM as two-dimensional (2D or 3D cell-culture substrates have beneficial biochemical effects on the differentiation of stem cells into cardiomyocytes. The mechanical properties of the substrates that match those of the host tissues have been identified as critical biophysical cues for coaxing the tissue-specific differentiation of stem cells. The objectives of the present study are (1 to fabricate hydrogels comprising pure ventricular ECM (vECM, (2 to make the gels possess mechanical properties similar to those of the decellularized ventricular tissue, and (3 to evaluate the cellular compatibility of the hydrogels. In order to achieve these aims, (1 a simplified protocol was developed to produce vECM solution easily and rapidly, (2 N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl-N’-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC was chosen to crosslink the hydrogels made from the vECM solution to enhance their mechanical properties and stabilize the microstructure of the gels, (3 rat embryonic fibroblasts or cardiomyocytes were cultured on these gels to determine the cellular compatibility of the gels. In particular, the nonlinearity and viscoelasticity of the gels were characterized quantitatively using a newly proposed nonlinear Kelvin model. The results showed that EDAC treatment allowed modulation of the mechanical properties of the gels to the same level as those of decellularized ventricular tissue in terms of the equilibrium elasticity and relaxation coefficient. Cell culture confirmed the cellular compatibility of the gels. Furthermore, an empirical relationship between the equilibrium elastic modulus of the gels and the vECM and EDAC concentrations was derived, which is important to tailor the mechanical properties of the gels. Finally, the influence of the mechanical properties of the gels on the behavior of cultured fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes was discussed.

  10. Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on macrophage differentiation, growth, and function: comparison of liquid and agar culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Both spaceflight and skeletal unloading suppress the haematopoietic differentiation of macrophages (Sonnenfeld et al., Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 61:648-653, 1990; Armstrong et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 75:2734-2739, 1993). The mechanism behind this reduction in haematopoiesis has yet to be elucidated. However, changes in bone marrow extracellular matrix (ECM) may be involved. To further understand the role of ECM products in macrophage differentiation, we have performed experiments evaluating the effects of fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV on macrophage development and function. Bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured on four different ECM substrates in liquid culture medium showed less growth than those cultured on plastic. Significant morphological differences were seen on each of the substrates used. Phenotypically and functionally, as measured by class II major histocompatibility molecule (MHCII) expression, MAC-2 expression, and the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), these macrophages were similar. In contrast, bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured in suspension, using agar, showed no difference in growth when exposed to ECM proteins. However, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion was affected by fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that the ECM products fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV have profound effects on macrophage development and function. Additionally, we suggest that an ECM-supplemented agar culture system provides an environment more analogous to in vivo bone marrow than does a traditional liquid culture system.

  11. An Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell–Derived Extracellular Matrix Scaffold Applied with Bone Marrow Stimulation for Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Jin, Chengzhe; Du, Xiaotao; Yan, Chao; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Xu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: It is well known that implanting a bioactive scaffold into a cartilage defect site can enhance cartilage repair after bone marrow stimulation (BMS). However, most of the current scaffolds are derived from xenogenous tissue and/or artificial polymers. The implantation of these scaffolds adds risks of pathogen transmission, undesirable inflammation, and other immunological reactions, as well as ethical issues in clinical practice. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of implanting autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell–derived extracellular matrix (aBMSC-dECM) scaffolds after BMS for cartilage repair. Methods: Full osteochondral defects were performed on the trochlear groove of both knees in 24 rabbits. One group underwent BMS only in the right knee (the BMS group), and the other group was treated by implantation of the aBMSC-dECM scaffold after BMS in the left knee (the aBMSC-dECM scaffold group). Results: Better repair of cartilage defects was observed in the aBMSC-dECM scaffold group than in the BMS group according to gross observation, histological assessments, immunohistochemistry, and chemical assay. The glycosaminoglycan and DNA content, the distribution of proteoglycan, and the distribution and arrangement of type II and I collagen fibers in the repaired tissue in the aBMSC-dECM scaffold group at 12 weeks after surgery were similar to that surrounding normal hyaline cartilage. Conclusions: Implanting aBMSC-dECM scaffolds can enhance the therapeutic effect of BMS on articular cartilage repair, and this combination treatment is a potential method for successful articular cartilage repair. PMID:24666429

  12. Extracellular matrix proteins: a positive feedback loop in lung fibrosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer, M.E.; van Boeijen, F.R.; Emson, C.L.; Turner, S.M.; Zandieh-Doulabi, B.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Smit, T.H.; Stoop, R.; Everts, V.

    2014-01-01

    Lung fibrosis is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. This not only affects tissue architecture and function, but it also influences fibroblast behavior and thus disease progression. Here we describe the expression of elastin, type V collagen and tenascin C during the

  13. Extracellular matrix proteins: A positive feedback loop in lung fibrosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer, M.E.; Boeijen, F.R.; Emson, C.L.; Turner, S.M.; Zandieh-Doulabi, B.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Smit, T.H.; Stoop, R.; Everts, V.

    2014-01-01

    Lung fibrosis is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. This not only affects tissue architecture and function, but it also influences fibroblast behavior and thus disease progression. Here we describe the expression of elastin, type V collagen and tenascin C during the

  14. Study of liquid scintillator in detecting the PMN-CL, Ly-CL and extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianxing; Cao Rui; Liang Qizhong; Zou Xiaowei

    1997-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and lymphocyte(Ly) in blood of patients with cirrhosis has two peaks. Basic peak value of PMN-CL and Ly-CL is increased, the maximal peak values of Zym-PMN and PHA-Ly are decreased, phagolyosis and opsonic function is also decreased, extracellular matrix (ECM) is all increased, HA is positively correlated with 'child' sort (r = 0.96, A>B>C). It suggests that OR is produced and released during CL and superoxide phosphatides is produced by OR in ECM of cirrhosis. It injures the membrane of cells and tissue. Analysis of CL is aided to study the development mechanism of liver fibrosis

  15. Bio-inspired configurable multiscale extracellular matrix-like structures for functional alignment and guided orientation of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Won-Gyu; Kim, Jangho; Choung, Yun-Hoon; Chung, Yesol; Suh, Kahp Y; Pang, Changhyun; Chung, Jong Hoon; Jeong, Hoon Eui

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by the hierarchically organized protein fibers in extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as the physiological importance of multiscale topography, we developed a simple but robust method for the design and manipulation of precisely controllable multiscale hierarchical structures using capillary force lithography in combination with an original wrinkling technique. In this study, based on our proposed fabrication technology, we approached a conceptual platform that can mimic the hierarchically multiscale topographical and orientation cues of the ECM for controlling cell structure and function. We patterned the polyurethane acrylate-based nanotopography with various orientations on the microgrooves, which could provide multiscale topography signals of ECM to control single and multicellular morphology and orientation with precision. Using our platforms, we found that the structures and orientations of fibroblast cells were greatly influenced by the nanotopography, rather than the microtopography. We also proposed a new approach that enables the generation of native ECM having nanofibers in specific three-dimensional (3D) configurations by culturing fibroblast cells on the multiscale substrata. We suggest that our methodology could be used as efficient strategies for the design and manipulation of various functional platforms, including well-defined 3D tissue structures for advanced regenerative medicine applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regeneration of Cartilage in Human Knee Osteoarthritis with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Autologous Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoo Pak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This clinical case series demonstrates that percutaneous injections of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs and homogenized extracellular matrix (ECM in the form of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF, along with hyaluronic acid (HA and platelet-rich plasma (PRP activated by calcium chloride, could regenerate cartilage-like tissue in human knee osteoarthritis (OA patients. Autologous lipoaspirates were obtained from adipose tissue of the abdominal origin. Afterward, the lipoaspirates were minced to homogenize the ECM. These homogenized lipoaspirates were then mixed with collagenase and incubated. The resulting mixture of ADSCs and ECM in the form of SVF was injected, along with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, into knees of three Korean patients with OA. The same affected knees were reinjected weekly with additional PRP activated by calcium chloride for 3 weeks. Pretreatment and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data, functional rating index, range of motion (ROM, and pain score data were then analyzed. All patients' MRI data showed cartilage-like tissue regeneration. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes in terms of ROM, subjective pain, and functional status were all improved. This study demonstrates that percutaneous injection of ADSCs with ECM contained in autologous adipose SVF, in conjunction with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, is a safe and potentially effective minimally invasive therapy for OA of human knees.

  17. Surface Topography and Mechanical Strain Promote Keratocyte Phenotype and Extracellular Matrix Formation in a Biomimetic 3D Corneal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jialin; Backman, Ludvig J; Malm, Adam D; Danielson, Patrik

    2017-03-01

    The optimal functionality of the native corneal stroma is mainly dependent on the well-ordered arrangement of extracellular matrix (ECM) and the pressurized structure. In order to develop an in vitro corneal model, it is crucial to mimic the in vivo microenvironment of the cornea. In this study, the influence of surface topography and mechanical strain on keratocyte phenotype and ECM formation within a biomimetic 3D corneal model is studied. By modifying the surface topography of materials, it is found that patterned silk fibroin film with 600 grooves mm -1 optimally supports cell alignment and ECM arrangement. Furthermore, treatment with 3% dome-shaped mechanical strain, which resembles the shape and mechanics of native cornea, significantly enhances the expression of keratocyte markers as compared to flat-shaped strain. Accordingly, a biomimetic 3D corneal model, in the form of a collagen-modified, silk fibroin-patterned construct subjected to 3% dome-shaped strain, is created. Compared to traditional 2D cultures, it supports a significantly higher expression of keratocyte and ECM markers, and in conclusion better maintains keratocyte phenotype, alignment, and fusiform cell shape. Therefore, the novel biomimetic 3D corneal model developed in this study serves as a useful in vitro 3D culture model to improve current 2D cultures for corneal studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Really old-palaeoimmunology: immunohistochemical analysis of extracellular matrix proteins in historic and pre-historic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, G; Kalischnig, G; Maurer, H; Mayerl, C; Müller, P U

    2001-09-01

    In this review, we summarize data concerning the respective preservation and deterioration of antigenic determinants of various collagenous and non-collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in palaeontologic material of different ages. ECM proteins are the major quantitative constituents of mammalian organisms and were, therefore, selected as important representative proteins for these analyses. The specimens, studied by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques, included the skin of 500-1500 year-old human mummies from Peru, skin and striated muscle from the 5300-year-old glacier mummy ("Iceman") from Tyrol, Austria, and a 50-million-year-old bat with preserved soft body parts from the fossil excavation site of Messel, Germany. In frozen sections of the former two sources, epitopes recognized by specific antibodies for triple-helical antigenic determinants of different types of collagen resistant against conventional proteases were preserved, while non-helical domains, as well as the non-collagenous ECM proteins, could no longer be demonstrated. The fossil bat, although showing evidence of fibrous, collagen-like structures in conventional histology, revealed no collagenous or non-collagenous ECM proteins by any technique. It later turned out that this was due to the replacement of the original soft parts in these fossils by lawns of bacteria. These studies introduced immunological techniques into palaeontology and opened new approaches for studying physiologically- and pathologically-altered structures in tissues of animals and humans of considerable historical age.

  19. Changes in the extracellular matrix and glycosaminoglycan synthesis during the initiation of regeneration in adult newt forelimbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mescher, A.L.; Munaim, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the distal tissues in a newt limb stump is completely reorganized in the 2-3-week period following amputation. In view of numerous in vitro studies showing that extracellular material influences cellular migration and proliferation, it is likely that the changes in the limb's ECM are important activities in the process leading to regeneration of such limbs. Using biochemical, autoradiographic, and histochemical techniques we studied temporal and spatial differences in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during the early, nerve-dependent phase of limb regeneration. Hyaluronic acid synthesis began with the onset of tissue dedifferentiation, became maximal within 1 weeks, and continued throughout the period of active cell proliferation. Chondroitin sulfate synthesis began somewhat later, increased steadily, and reached very high levels during chondrogenesis. During the first 10 days after amputation, distributions of sulfated and nonsulfated GAGs were both uniform throughout dedifferentiating tissues, except for a heavier localization near the bone. Since nerves are necessary to promote the regenerative process, we examined the neural influence on synthesis and accumulation of extracellular GAGs. Denervation decreased GAG production in all parts of the limb stump by approximately 50%. Newt dorsal root ganglia and brain-derived fibroblast growth factor each produced twofold stimulation of GAG synthesis in cultured 7-day regenerates. The latter effect was primarily on synthesis of hyaluronic acid. The results indicate that the trophic action of nerves on amphibian limb regeneration includes a positive influence on synthesis and extracellular accumulation of GAGs

  20. Regulation of proximal tubular cell differentiation and proliferation in primary culture by matrix stiffness and ECM components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Chun; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2014-09-15

    To explore whether matrix stiffness affects cell differentiation, proliferation, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in primary cultures of mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells (mPTECs), we used a soft matrix made from monomeric collagen type I-coated polyacrylamide gel or matrigel (MG). Both kinds of soft matrix benefited primary mPTECs to retain tubular-like morphology with differentiation and growth arrest and to evade TGF-β1-induced EMT. However, the potent effect of MG on mPTEC differentiation was suppressed by glutaraldehyde-induced cross-linking and subsequently stiffening MG or by an increasing ratio of collagen in the soft mixed gel. Culture media supplemented with MG also helped mPTECs to retain tubular-like morphology and a differentiated phenotype on stiff culture dishes as soft MG did. We further found that the protein level and activity of ERK were scaled with the matrix stiffness. U-0126, a MEK inhibitor, abolished the stiff matrix-induced dedifferentiation and proliferation. These data suggest that the ERK signaling pathway plays a vital role in matrix stiffness-regulated cell growth and differentiation. Taken together, both compliant property and specific MG signals from the matrix are required for the regulation of epithelial differentiation and proliferation. This study provides a basic understanding of how physical and chemical cues derived from the extracellular matrix regulate the physiological function of proximal tubules and the pathological development of renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Patterned layers of adsorbed extracellular matrix proteins: influence on mammalian cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Gillain, C C; Alaerts, J A; Dewez, J L; Rouxhet, P G

    2004-01-01

    Three patterned systems aiming at the control of mammalian cell behavior are presented. The determinant feature common to these systems is the spatial distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (mainly collagen) on polymer substrates. This distribution differs from one system to another with respect to the scale at which it is affected, from the supracellular to the supramolecular scale, and with respect to the way it is produced. In the first system, the surface of polystyrene was oxidized selectively to form micrometer-scale patterns, using photolithography. Adsorption of ECM proteins in presence of a competitor was enhanced on the oxidized domains, allowing selective cell adhesion to be achieved. In the second system, electron beam lithography was used to engrave grooves (depth and width approximately 1 microm) on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substratum. No modification of the surface chemistry associated to the created topography could be detected. Cell orientation along the grooves was only observed when collagen was preadsorbed on the substratum. In the third system, collagen adsorbed on PMMA was dried in conditions ensuring the formation of a nanometer-scale pattern. Cell adhesion was enhanced on such patterned collagen layers compared to smooth collagen layers.

  2. The extracellular matrix component laminin promotes gap junction formation in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Kouki, Tom; Fujiwara, Ken; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells in the anterior pituitary gland are believed to have multifunctional properties. FS cells connect to each other not only by mechanical means, but also by gap junctional cell-to-cell communication. Using transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) specifically in FS cells in the anterior pituitary gland (S100b-GFP rats), we recently revealed that FS cells in primary culture markedly change their shape, and form numerous interconnections with neighboring FS cells in the presence of laminin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) component of the basement membrane. Morphological and functional changes in cells are believed to be partly modified by matricrine signaling, by which ECM components function as cellular signals. In the present study, we examined whether gap junction formation between FS cells is affected by matricrine cues. A cell sorter was used to isolate FS cells from male S100b-GFP rat anterior pituitary for primary culture. We observed that mRNA and protein levels of connexin 43 in gap junction channels were clearly higher in the presence of laminin. In addition, we confirmed the formation of gap junctions between FS cells in primary culture by electron microscopy. Interestingly, we also observed that FS cells in the presence of laminin displayed well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Our findings suggest that, in anterior pituitary gland, FS cells may facilitate functional roles such as gap junctional cell-to-cell communication by matricrine signaling.

  3. Cryotherapy Reduces Inflammatory Response Without Altering Muscle Regeneration Process and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling of Rat Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Ramos, Gracielle; Pinheiro, Clara Maria; Messa, Sabrina Peviani; Delfino, Gabriel Borges; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Salvini, Tania de Fátima; Durigan, Joao Luiz Quagliotti

    2016-01-04

    The application of cryotherapy is widely used in sports medicine today. Cooling could minimize secondary hypoxic injury through the reduction of cellular metabolism and injury area. Conflicting results have also suggested cryotherapy could delay and impair the regeneration process. There are no definitive findings about the effects of cryotherapy on the process of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a clinical-like cryotherapy on inflammation, regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling on the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats 3, 7 and 14 days post-injury. It was observed that the intermittent application of cryotherapy (three 30-minute sessions, every 2 h) in the first 48 h post-injury decreased inflammatory processes (mRNA levels of TNF-α, NF-κB, TGF-β and MMP-9 and macrophage percentage). Cryotherapy did not alter regeneration markers such as injury area, desmin and Myod expression. Despite regulating Collagen I and III and their growth factors, cryotherapy did not alter collagen deposition. In summary, clinical-like cryotherapy reduces the inflammatory process through the decrease of macrophage infiltration and the accumulation of the inflammatory key markers without influencing muscle injury area and ECM remodeling.

  4. Fluorescent Labeling of Collagen Production by Cells for Noninvasive Imaging of Extracellular Matrix Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Katie; Yang, Ying; El Haj, Alicia J

    2017-04-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential component of tissues and provides both integrity and biological cues for cells. Collagen is one of the major proteins found within the ECM and therefore is an essential component of all engineered tissues. Therefore, in this article, we present a method for the online real-time monitoring of collagen deposition in three-dimensional engineered constructs. This method revolves around modification of collagen through the addition of azide-L-proline to cell culture media. The incorporation of azide-L-proline into the neocollagen produced by cells can then be detected by reaction with 10 mM of a Click-IT Alexa Fluor 488 DIBO Alkyne. The reaction was shown as being specific to the collagen as little background staining was observed in cultures, which did not contain the modified proline, and the staining was also depleted after treatment with collagenase and colocalization of collagen type I staining by immunochemistry assay. Real-time online staining of collagen deposition was observed under different culture conditions without affecting proliferation. Collagen deposition was observed to be increased under mechanical stimulation; however, the localization varied across stimulation regimes. This is a new technique for real-time monitoring of cell-produced collagen and will be a valuable addition to the tissue engineering field.

  5. Elastase effect on the extracellular matrix of rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispert, J.; Mogayzel, P.J. Jr.; Pratt, C.A.; Toselli, P.; Wolfe, B.L.; Faris, B.; Franzblau, C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of porcine pancreatic elastase on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of neonatal rat aortic smooth muscle cell cultures was monitored both chemically and ultrastructurally. Initially, the elastin appeared as non-coalesced material closely associated with filaments, presumably microfibrils. The insoluble elastin accumulated in the ECM of cells in culture for 6 weeks accounted for 40-45% of the total protein. After exposure to elastase for 30-60 minutes, the elastin content was reduced to 14-20%. The reduction in the total protein content of the cultures after elastase treatment was due primarily to the loss of elastin. Although the amino acid compositions of the elastin isolated from cultures both before and after elastase treatment were similar, there were striking ultrastructural differences in the amorphous elastin. The elastin assumed a mottled appearance after elastase exposure, similar to that seen in in vivo emphysema models. Pulse experiments with 3 H-valine demonstrated an increase in protein synthesis by the cells 20 hours after elastase exposure, suggesting the potential for elastin repair. The use of this culture system will aid in clarifying the role of elastolysis in pulmonary and vascular injuries

  6. In vitro extracellular matrix model to evaluate stroma cell response to transvaginal mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Ping; Huang, Kuan-Hui; Long, Cheng-Yu; Yang, Chau-Chen; Tong, Yat-Ching

    2014-04-01

    The use of surgical mesh for female pelvic floor reconstruction has increased in recent years. However, there is paucity of information about the biological responses of host stroma cells to different meshes. This study was aimed to establish an in vitro experimental model to study the micro-environment of extracellular matrix (ECM) with embedded mesh and the stroma cell behaviors to different synthetic meshes. Matrigel multi-cellular co-culture system with embedded mesh was used to evaluate the interaction of stroma cells and synthetic mesh in a simulated ECM environment. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and NIH3T3 fibroblasts were inoculated in the system. The established multi-cellular Matrigel co-culture system was used to detect stroma cell recruitment and tube formation ability for different synthetic meshes. HUVEC and NIH3T3 cells were recruited into the mesh interstices and organized into tube-like structures in type I mesh material from Perigee, Marlex and Prolift 24 hr after cell inoculation. On the contrary, there was little recruitment of HUVEC and NIH3T3 cells into the type III mesh of intra-vaginal sling (IVS). The Matrigel multi-cellular co-culture system with embedded mesh offers a useful in vitro model to study the biological behaviors of stroma cells in response to different types of synthetic meshes. The system can help to select ideal mesh candidates before actual implantation into the human body. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Intravital Confocal and Two-photon Imaging of Dual-color Cells and Extracellular Matrix Mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ufuk; Andresen, Volker; Baggett, Brenda; Utzinger, Urs

    2013-01-01

    To optimize imaging of cells in three dimensional culture we studied confocal backscattering, Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and autofluorescence as source of contrast in extracellular matrix (ECM) mimics and evaluated the attenuation as well as bleaching of endogenous cellular fluorescence signals. All common ECM mimics exhibit contrast observable with confocal reflectance microscopy. SHG imaging on collagen I based hydrogels provides high contrast and good optical penetration depth. Agarose is a useful embedding medium because it allows for large optical penetration and exhibits minimal autofluorescence while still providing good reflectance to detect voids in the embedding medium. We labeled breast cancer cells’ outline with DsRed2 and nucleus with eGFP. DsRed2 can be excited with confocal imaging at 568nm, and with two photon excitation (TPE) in the red and longer NIR. eGFP was excited at 488nm for confocal and in the NIR for TPE. While there is small difference in the bleaching rate for eGFP between confocal and TPE we observed significant difference for DsRed2 where bleaching is strongest during TPE in the red wavelengths and smallest during confocal imaging. After a few hundred microns depth in a collagen I hydrogel, TPE fluorescence becomes twice as strong compared to confocal imaging. PMID:23380006

  8. Tenascin-C in the extracellular matrix promotes the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenesis-defective endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Tercia Rodrigues [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Laboratorio de Biologia da Celula Endotelial e da Angiogenese (LabAngio), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho da Fonseca, Anna Carolina [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nunes, Sara Santana; Oliveira da Silva, Aline [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Laboratorio de Biologia da Celula Endotelial e da Angiogenese (LabAngio), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dubois, Luiz Gustavo Feijo; Faria, Jane; Kahn, Suzana Assad [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Viana, Nathan Bessa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Laboratorio de Pincas Oticas, Coordenacao de Programas de Estudos Avancados, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marcondes, Jorge [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Servico de Neurocirurgia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Legrand, Chantal [Institut Universitaire d' Hematologie, Universite Paris-Diderot, Paris 7, INSERM U553, Paris (France); Moura-Neto, Vivaldo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, INNT/INCT/MCT, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); and others

    2011-09-10

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains important cues for tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. The matricellular protein tenascin-C (TN-C) is overexpressed in remodeling tissues and cancer. In the present work, we studied the effect of different ECM-which exhibited a significant diversity in their TN-C content-in endothelial survival, proliferation and tubulogenic differentiation: autologous (endothelial) ECM devoid of TN-C, but bearing large amounts of FN; fibroblast ECM, bearing both high TN-C and FN contents; and finally, glioma-derived matrices, usually poor in FN, but very rich in TN-C. HUVECs initially adhered to the immobilized matrix produced by U373 MG glioma cells, but significantly detached and died by anoikis (50 to 80%) after 24 h, as compared with cells incubated with endothelial and fibroblast matrices. Surviving endothelial cells (20 to 50%) became up to 6-fold more proliferative and formed 74-97% less tube-like structures in vitro than cells grown on non-tumoral matrices. An antibody against the EGF-like repeats of tenascin-C (TN-C) partially rescued cells from the tubulogenic defect, indicating that this molecule is responsible for the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenic defective endothelial cells. Interestingly, by using defined substrata, in conditions that mimic glioma and normal cell ECM composition, we observed that fibronectin (FN) modulates the TN-C-induced selection of endothelial cells. Our data show that TN-C is able to modulate endothelial branching morphogenesis in vitro and, since it is prevalent in matrices of injured and tumor tissues, also suggest a role for this protein in vascular morphogenesis, in these physiological contexts.

  9. Tenascin-C in the extracellular matrix promotes the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenesis-defective endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Tercia Rodrigues; Carvalho da Fonseca, Anna Carolina; Nunes, Sara Santana; Oliveira da Silva, Aline; Dubois, Luiz Gustavo Feijo; Faria, Jane; Kahn, Suzana Assad; Viana, Nathan Bessa; Marcondes, Jorge; Legrand, Chantal; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains important cues for tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. The matricellular protein tenascin-C (TN-C) is overexpressed in remodeling tissues and cancer. In the present work, we studied the effect of different ECM-which exhibited a significant diversity in their TN-C content-in endothelial survival, proliferation and tubulogenic differentiation: autologous (endothelial) ECM devoid of TN-C, but bearing large amounts of FN; fibroblast ECM, bearing both high TN-C and FN contents; and finally, glioma-derived matrices, usually poor in FN, but very rich in TN-C. HUVECs initially adhered to the immobilized matrix produced by U373 MG glioma cells, but significantly detached and died by anoikis (50 to 80%) after 24 h, as compared with cells incubated with endothelial and fibroblast matrices. Surviving endothelial cells (20 to 50%) became up to 6-fold more proliferative and formed 74-97% less tube-like structures in vitro than cells grown on non-tumoral matrices. An antibody against the EGF-like repeats of tenascin-C (TN-C) partially rescued cells from the tubulogenic defect, indicating that this molecule is responsible for the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenic defective endothelial cells. Interestingly, by using defined substrata, in conditions that mimic glioma and normal cell ECM composition, we observed that fibronectin (FN) modulates the TN-C-induced selection of endothelial cells. Our data show that TN-C is able to modulate endothelial branching morphogenesis in vitro and, since it is prevalent in matrices of injured and tumor tissues, also suggest a role for this protein in vascular morphogenesis, in these physiological contexts.

  10. Specialisation of extracellular matrix for function in tendons and ligaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Helen L.; Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Rumian, Adam P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Tendons and ligaments are similar structures in terms of their composition, organisation and mechanical properties. The distinction between them stems from their anatomical location; tendons form a link between muscle and bone while ligaments link bones to bones. A range of overlapping functions can be assigned to tendon and ligaments and each structure has specific mechanical properties which appear to be suited for particular in vivo function. The extracellular matrix in tendon and ligament varies in accordance with function, providing appropriate mechanical properties. The most useful framework in which to consider extracellular matrix differences therefore is that of function rather than anatomical location. In this review we discuss what is known about the relationship between functional requirements, structural properties from molecular to gross level, cellular gene expression and matrix turnover. The relevance of this information is considered by reviewing clinical aspects of tendon and ligament repair and reconstructive procedures. PMID:23885341

  11. The Extracellular Matrix of Candida albicans Biofilms Impairs Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chad J; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Kernien, John F; Wang, Steven X; Beebe, David J; Huttenlocher, Anna; Ansari, Hamayail; Nett, Jeniel E

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophils release extracellular traps (NETs) in response to planktonic C. albicans. These complexes composed of DNA, histones, and proteins inhibit Candida growth and dissemination. Considering the resilience of Candida biofilms to host defenses, we examined the neutrophil response to C. albicans during biofilm growth. In contrast to planktonic C. albicans, biofilms triggered negligible release of NETs. Time lapse imaging confirmed the impairment in NET release and revealed neutrophils adhering to hyphae and migrating on the biofilm. NET inhibition depended on an intact extracellular biofilm matrix as physical or genetic disruption of this component resulted in NET release. Biofilm inhibition of NETosis could not be overcome by protein kinase C activation via phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and was associated with suppression of neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The degree of impaired NET release correlated with resistance to neutrophil attack. The clinical relevance of the role for extracellular matrix in diminishing NET production was corroborated in vivo using a rat catheter model. The C. albicans pmr1Δ/Δ, defective in production of matrix mannan, appeared to elicit a greater abundance of NETs by scanning electron microscopy imaging, which correlated with a decreased fungal burden. Together, these findings show that C. albicans biofilms impair neutrophil response through an inhibitory pathway induced by the extracellular matrix.

  12. Extracellular matrix components expression in human pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal organoids recapitulates retinogenesis in vivo and reveals an important role for IMPG1 and CD44 in the development of photoreceptors and interphotoreceptor matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felemban, Majed; Dorgau, Birthe; Hunt, Nicola Claire; Hallam, Dean; Zerti, Darin; Bauer, Roman; Ding, Yuchun; Collin, Joseph; Steel, David; Krasnogor, Natalio; Al-Aama, Jumana; Lindsay, Susan; Mellough, Carla; Lako, Majlinda

    2018-05-17

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in numerous processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, maturation, adhesion guidance and axonal growth. To date, there has been no detailed analysis of the ECM distribution during retinal ontogenesis in humans and the functional importance of many ECM components is poorly understood. In this study, the expression of key ECM components in adult mouse and monkey retina, developing and adult human retina and retinal organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells was studied. Our data indicate that basement membrane ECMs (Fibronectin and Collagen IV) were expressed in Bruch's membrane and the inner limiting membrane of the developing human retina, whilst the hyalectins (Versican and Brevican), cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), photoreceptor-specific ECMs Interphotoreceptor Matrix Proteoglycan 1 (IMPG1) and Interphotoreceptor Matrix Proteoglycan 2 (IMPG2) were detected in the developing interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM). The expression of IMPG1, Versican and Brevican in the developing IPM was conserved between human developing retina and human pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal organoids. Blocking the action of CD44 and IMPG1 in pluripotent stem cell derived retinal organoids affected the development of photoreceptors, their inner/outer segments and connecting cilia and disrupted IPM formation, with IMPG1 having an earlier and more significant impact. Together, our data suggest an important role for IMPG1 and CD44 in the development of photoreceptors and IPM formation during human retinogenesis. The expression and the role of many extracellular matrix (ECM) components during human retinal development is not fully understood. In this study, expression of key ECM components (Collagen IV, Fibronectin, Brevican, Versican, IMPG1 and IMPG2) was investigated during human retinal ontogenesis. Collagen IV and Fibronectin were expressed in Bruch's membrane; whereas Brevican, Versican

  13. Early Change of Extracellular Matrix and Diastolic Parameters in Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Angela B. S., E-mail: angelabssantos@yahoo.com.br [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Junges, Mauricio; Silvello, Daiane; Macari, Adriana; Araújo, Bruno S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Seligman, Beatriz G. [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Duncan, Bruce B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rohde, Luis Eduardo P.; Clausell, Nadine; Foppa, Murilo [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. It is not clear whether myocardial changes showed in this syndrome, such as diastolic dysfunction, are due to the systemic effects of the syndrome, or to specific myocardial effects. Compare diastolic function, biomarkers representing extracellular matrix activity (ECM), inflammation and cardiac hemodynamic stress in patients with the MS and healthy controls. MS patients (n = 76) and healthy controls (n=30) were submitted to a clinical assessment, echocardiographic study, and measurement of plasma levels of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1), ultrasensitive-reactive-C-Protein (us-CRP), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). MS group showed lower E' wave (10.1 ± 3.0 cm/s vs 11.9 ± 2.6 cm/s, p = 0.005), increased A wave (63.4 ± 14.1 cm/s vs. 53.1 ± 8.9 cm/s; p < 0.001), E/E' ratio (8.0 ± 2.2 vs. 6.3 ± 1.2; p < 0.001), MMP9 (502.9 ± 237.1 ng / mL vs. 330.4±162.7 ng/mL; p < 0.001), us-CRP (p = 0.001) and HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), but no difference for TIMP1 or NT-proBNP levels. In a multivariable analysis, only MMP9 was independently associated with MS. MS patients showed differences for echocardiographic measures of diastolic function, ECM activity, us-CRP and HOMA-IR when compared to controls. However, only MMP9 was independently associated with the MS. These findings suggest that there are early effects on ECM activity, which cannot be tracked by routine echocardiographic measures of diastolic function.

  14. Novel use for polyvinylpyrrolidone as a macromolecular crowder for enhanced extracellular matrix deposition and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rafi; Lim, Natalie Sheng Jie; Chee, Stella Min Ling; Png, Si Ning; Wohland, Thorsten; Raghunath, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Macromolecular crowding (MMC) is a biophysical effect that governs biochemical processes inside and outside of cells. Since standard cell culture media lack this effect, the physiological performance of differentiated and progenitor cells, including extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, is impaired in vitro. To bring back physiological crowdedness to in vitro systems, we have previously introduced carbohydrate-based macromolecules to culture media and have achieved marked improvements with mixed MMC in terms of ECM deposition and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We show here that although this system is successful, it is limited, due to viscosity, to only 33% of the fractional volume occupancy (FVO) of full serum, which we calculated to have an FVO of approximately 54% v/v. We show here that full-serum FVO can be achieved using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) 360 kDa. Under these conditions, ECM deposition in human fibroblasts and MSCs is on par, if not stronger than, with original MMC protocols using carbohydrates, but with a viscosity that is not significantly changed. In addition, we have found that the proliferation rate for bone marrow-derived MSCs and fibroblasts increases slightly in the presence of PVP360, similar to that observed with carbohydrate-based crowders. A palette of MMC compounds is now emerging that enables us to tune the crowdedness of culture media seamlessly from interstitial fluid (9% FVO), in which the majority of tissue cells might be based, to serum environments mimicking intravascular conditions. Despite identical FVO's, individual crowder size effects play a role and different cell types appear to have preferences in terms of FVO and the crowder that this is achieved with. However, in the quest of crowders that we have predicted to have a smoother regulatory approval path, PVP is a highly interesting compound, as it has been widely used in the medical and food industries and shows a novel promising use in cell culture and

  15. Early Change of Extracellular Matrix and Diastolic Parameters in Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Angela B. S.; Junges, Mauricio; Silvello, Daiane; Macari, Adriana; Araújo, Bruno S. de; Seligman, Beatriz G.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Rohde, Luis Eduardo P.; Clausell, Nadine; Foppa, Murilo

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. It is not clear whether myocardial changes showed in this syndrome, such as diastolic dysfunction, are due to the systemic effects of the syndrome, or to specific myocardial effects. Compare diastolic function, biomarkers representing extracellular matrix activity (ECM), inflammation and cardiac hemodynamic stress in patients with the MS and healthy controls. MS patients (n = 76) and healthy controls (n=30) were submitted to a clinical assessment, echocardiographic study, and measurement of plasma levels of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1), ultrasensitive-reactive-C-Protein (us-CRP), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). MS group showed lower E' wave (10.1 ± 3.0 cm/s vs 11.9 ± 2.6 cm/s, p = 0.005), increased A wave (63.4 ± 14.1 cm/s vs. 53.1 ± 8.9 cm/s; p < 0.001), E/E' ratio (8.0 ± 2.2 vs. 6.3 ± 1.2; p < 0.001), MMP9 (502.9 ± 237.1 ng / mL vs. 330.4±162.7 ng/mL; p < 0.001), us-CRP (p = 0.001) and HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), but no difference for TIMP1 or NT-proBNP levels. In a multivariable analysis, only MMP9 was independently associated with MS. MS patients showed differences for echocardiographic measures of diastolic function, ECM activity, us-CRP and HOMA-IR when compared to controls. However, only MMP9 was independently associated with the MS. These findings suggest that there are early effects on ECM activity, which cannot be tracked by routine echocardiographic measures of diastolic function

  16. Influence of the extracellular matrix on endogenous and transplanted stem cells after brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars eRoll

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The limited regeneration capacity of the adult central nervous system requires strategies to improve recovery of patients. In this context, the interaction of endogenous as well as transplanted stem cells with their environment is crucial. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms could help to improve regeneration by targeted manipulation.In the course of reactive gliosis, astrocytes upregulate Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and start, in many cases, to proliferate. Beside GFAP, subpopulations of these astroglial cells coexpress neural progenitor markers like Nestin. Although cells express these markers, the proportion of cells that eventually give rise to neurons is limited in many cases in vivo compared to the situation in vitro. In the first section, we present the characteristics of endogenous progenitor-like cells and discuss the differences in their neurogenic potential in vitro and in vivo.As the environment plays an important role for survival, proliferation, migration, and other processes, the second section of the review describes changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM, a complex network that contains numerous signaling molecules. It appears that signals in the damaged central nervous system lead to an activation and de-differentiation of astrocytes, but do not effectively promote neuronal differentiation of these cells. Factors that influence stem cells during development are upregulated in the damaged brain as part of an environment resembling a stem cell niche. We give a general description of the ECM composition, with focus on stem cell-associated factors like the glycoprotein Tenascin-C.Stem cell transplantation is considered as potential treatment strategy. Interaction of transplanted stem cells with the host environment is critical for the outcome of stem cell-based therapies. Possible mechanisms involving the ECM by which transplanted stem cells might improve recovery are discussed in the last section.

  17. Arterial extracellular matrix: a mechanobiological study of the contributions and interactions of elastin and collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ming-Jay; Turcotte, Raphaël; Lin, Charles P; Zhang, Yanhang

    2014-06-17

    The complex network structure of elastin and collagen extracellular matrix (ECM) forms the primary load bearing components in the arterial wall. The structural and mechanobiological interactions between elastin and collagen are important for properly functioning arteries. Here, we examined the elastin and collagen organization, realignment, and recruitment by coupling mechanical loading and multiphoton imaging. Two-photon excitation fluorescence and second harmonic generation methods were performed with a multiphoton video-rate microscope to capture real time changes to the elastin and collagen structure during biaxial deformation. Enzymatic removal of elastin was performed to assess the structural changes of the remaining collagen structure. Quantitative analysis of the structural changes to elastin and collagen was made using a combination of two-dimensional fast Fourier transform and fractal analysis, which allows for a more complete understanding of structural changes. Our study provides new quantitative evidence, to our knowledge on the sequential engagement of different arterial ECM components in response to mechanical loading. The adventitial collagen exists as large wavy bundles of fibers that exhibit fiber engagement after 20% strain. The medial collagen is engaged throughout the stretching process, and prominent elastic fiber engagement is observed up to 20% strain after which the engagement plateaus. The fiber orientation distribution functions show remarkably different changes in the ECM structure in response to mechanical loading. The medial collagen shows an evident preferred circumferential distribution, however the fiber families of adventitial collagen are obscured by their waviness at no or low mechanical strains. Collagen fibers in both layers exhibit significant realignment in response to unequal biaxial loading. The elastic fibers are much more uniformly distributed and remained relatively unchanged due to loading. Removal of elastin produces

  18. Temporal and Molecular Analyses of Cardiac Extracellular Matrix Remodeling following Pressure Overload in Adiponectin Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Dadson

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, circulating levels of which are reduced in obesity and diabetes, mediates cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling in response to pressure overload (PO. Here, we performed a detailed temporal analysis of progressive cardiac ECM remodelling in adiponectin knockout (AdKO and wild-type (WT mice at 3 days and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the induction of mild PO via minimally invasive transverse aortic banding. We first observed that myocardial adiponectin gene expression was reduced after 4 weeks of PO, whereas increased adiponectin levels were detected in cardiac homogenates at this time despite decreased circulating levels of adiponectin. Scanning electron microscopy and Masson's trichrome staining showed collagen accumulation increased in response to 2 and 4 weeks of PO in WT mice, while fibrosis in AdKO mice was notably absent after 2 weeks but highly apparent after 4 weeks of PO. Time and intensity of fibroblast appearance after PO was not significantly different between AdKO and WT animals. Gene array analysis indicated that MMP2, TIMP2, collagen 1α1 and collagen 1α3 were induced after 2 weeks of PO in WT but not AdKO mice. After 4 weeks MMP8 was induced in both genotypes, MMP9 only in WT mice and MMP1α only in AdKO mice. Direct stimulation of primary cardiac fibroblasts with adiponectin induced a transient increase in total collagen detected by picrosirius red staining and collagen III levels synthesis, as well as enhanced MMP2 activity detected via gelatin zymography. Adiponectin also enhanced fibroblast migration and attenuated angiotensin-II induced differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype. In conclusion, these data indicate that increased myocardial bioavailability of adiponectin mediates ECM remodeling following PO and that adiponectin deficiency delays these effects.

  19. Adhesion dynamics of porcine esophageal fibroblasts on extracellular matrix protein-functionalized poly(lactic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ning; Gong Yingxue; Chan, Vincent; Liao Kin; Chian, Kerm Sin

    2008-01-01

    Effective attachment of esophageal cells on biomaterials is one important requirement in designing engineered esophagus substitute for esophageal cancer treatment. In this study, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was subjected to surface modification by coupling extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on its surface to promote cell adhesion. Two typical ECM proteins, collagen type I (COL) and fibronectin (FN), were immobilized on the PLA surface with the aid of glutaraldehyde as a cross linker between aminolyzed PLA and ECM proteins. By using confocal reflectance interference contrast microscopy (C-RICM) integrating with phase contrast microscopy, the long-term adhesion dynamics of porcine esophageal fibroblasts (PEFs) on four types of surfaces (unmodified PLA, PLA-COOH, PLA-COL and PLA-FN) was investigated during 24 h of culture. It is demonstrated by C-RICM results that PEFs form strong adhesion contact on all four types of surfaces at different stages of cell seeding. Among the four surfaces, PEFs on the PLA-FN surface reach the maximum adhesion energy (9.5 x 10 -7 J m -2 ) in the shortest time (20 min) during the initial stage of cell seeding. After adhesion energy reaches the maximum value, PEFs maintain their highly deformed geometries till they reached a steady state after 20 h of culture. F-actin immunostaining results show that the evolvement of spatial organization of F-actin is tightly correlated with the formation of adhesion contact and cell spreading. Furthermore, the cell attachment ratio of PEFs on PLA in 2 h is only 26% compared with 88% on PLA-FN, 73% on PLA-COL and 36% on PLA-COOH. All the results demonstrate the effect of surface functionalization on the biophysical responses of PEFs in cell adhesion. Fibronectin-immobilized PLA demonstrates promising potential for application as an engineered esophagus substitute

  20. Bile canaliculi formation and biliary transport in 3D sandwich-cultured hepatocytes in dependence of the extracellular matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deharde, Daniela; Schneider, Christin; Hiller, Thomas; Fischer, Nicolas; Kegel, Victoria; Lübberstedt, Marc; Freyer, Nora; Hengstler, Jan G; Andersson, Tommy B; Seehofer, Daniel; Pratschke, Johann; Zeilinger, Katrin; Damm, Georg

    2016-10-01

    Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are still considered as gold standard for investigation of in vitro metabolism and hepatotoxicity in pharmaceutical research. It has been shown that the three-dimensional (3D) cultivation of PHH in a sandwich configuration between two layers of extracellular matrix (ECM) enables the hepatocytes to adhere three dimensionally leading to formation of in vivo like cell-cell contacts and cell-matrix interactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different ECM compositions on morphology, cellular arrangement and bile canaliculi formation as well as bile excretion processes in PHH sandwich cultures systematically. Freshly isolated PHH were cultured for 6 days between two ECM layers made of collagen and/or Matrigel in four different combinations. The cultures were investigated by phase contrast microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis with respect to cell-cell connections, repolarization as well as bile canaliculi formation. The influence of the ECM composition on cell activity and viability was measured using the XTT assay and a fluorescent dead or alive assay. Finally, the bile canalicular transport was analyzed by live cell imaging to monitor the secretion and accumulation of the fluorescent substance CDF in bile canaliculi. Using collagen and Matrigel in different compositions in sandwich cultures of hepatocytes, we observed differences in morphology, cellular arrangement and cell activity of PHH in dependence of the ECM composition. Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes with an underlay of collagen seem to represent the best in vivo tissue architecture in terms of formation of trabecular cell arrangement. Cultures overlaid with collagen were characterized by the formation of abundant bile canaliculi, while the bile canaliculi network in hepatocytes cultured on a layer of Matrigel and overlaid with collagen showed the most branched and stable canalicular network. All cultures showed a time-dependent leakage of

  1. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Haagsman, Henk P.; Roelen, Bernard A.J.

    2010-01-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  2. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilschut, Karlijn J. [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands); Haagsman, Henk P. [Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelen, Bernard A.J., E-mail: b.a.j.roelen@uu.nl [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  3. The emergence of extracellular matrix mechanics and cell traction forces as important regulators of cellular self-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Sara; Rausch, Manuel K; Petersen, Ansgar; Kuhl, Ellen; Duda, Georg N

    2015-01-01

    Physical cues play a fundamental role in a wide range of biological processes, such as embryogenesis, wound healing, tumour invasion and connective tissue morphogenesis. Although it is well known that during these processes, cells continuously interact with the local extracellular matrix (ECM) through cell traction forces, the role of these mechanical interactions on large scale cellular and matrix organization remains largely unknown. In this study, we use a simple theoretical model to investigate cellular and matrix organization as a result of mechanical feedback signals between cells and the surrounding ECM. The model includes bi-directional coupling through cellular traction forces to deform the ECM and through matrix deformation to trigger cellular migration. In addition, we incorporate the mechanical contribution of matrix fibres and their reorganization by the cells. We show that a group of contractile cells will self-polarize at a large scale, even in homogeneous environments. In addition, our simulations mimic the experimentally observed alignment of cells in the direction of maximum stiffness and the building up of tension as a consequence of cell and fibre reorganization. Moreover, we demonstrate that cellular organization is tightly linked to the mechanical feedback loop between cells and matrix. Cells with a preference for stiff environments have a tendency to form chains, while cells with a tendency for soft environments tend to form clusters. The model presented here illustrates the potential of simple physical cues and their impact on cellular self-organization. It can be used in applications where cell-matrix interactions play a key role, such as in the design of tissue engineering scaffolds and to gain a basic understanding of pattern formation in organogenesis or tissue regeneration.

  4. Differences in extracellular matrix proteins between Friesian horses with aortic rupture, unaffected Friesians and Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, M; Gröne, A; van de Lest, C H A; Saey, V; Duchateau, L; Wolsein, P; Chiers, K; Ducatelle, R; van Weeren, P R; de Bruijn, M; Delesalle, C

    2017-09-01

    Unlike in Warmblood horses, aortic rupture is quite common in Friesian horses, in which a hereditary trait is suspected. The aortic connective tissue in affected Friesians shows histological changes such as medial necrosis, elastic fibre fragmentation, mucoid material accumulation and fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology. However, ultrastructural examination of the collagen fibres of the mid-thoracic aorta has been inconclusive in further elucidating the pathogenesis of the disease. To assess several extracellular matrix (ECM) components biochemically in order to explore a possible underlying breed-related systemic ECM defect in Friesians with aortic rupture. Cadaver study. Tissues from affected Friesians (n = 18), unaffected Friesians (n = 10) and Warmblood horses (n = 30) were compared. Samples were taken from the thoracic aorta at the level of the rupture site, from two locations caudal to the rupture and from the deep digital flexor tendon. Total collagen content, post-translational modifications of collagen formation including lysine hydroxylation, and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP) and pyrrole cross-links were analysed. Additionally, elastin cross-links, glycosaminoglycan content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were assessed. Significantly increased MMP activity and increased LP and HP cross-linking, lysine hydroxylation and elastin cross-linking were found at the site of rupture in affected Friesians. These changes may reflect processes involved in healing and aneurysm formation. Unaffected Friesians had less lysine hydroxylation and pyrrole cross-linking within the tendons compared with Warmblood horses. No differences in the matrix of the aorta were found between normal Warmbloods and Friesian horses. Small sample size. The differences in collagen parameters in tendon tissue may reflect differences in connective tissue metabolism between Friesians and Warmblood horses. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  5. The Extracellular Matrix Regulates Granuloma Necrosis in Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shammari, Basim; Shiomi, Takayuki; Tezera, Liku; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Workman, Victoria; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Mauri, Francesco; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Robertson, Brian D; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Friedland, Jon S; Elkington, Paul T

    2015-08-01

    A central tenet of tuberculosis pathogenesis is that caseous necrosis leads to extracellular matrix destruction and bacterial transmission. We reconsider the underlying mechanism of tuberculosis pathology and demonstrate that collagen destruction may be a critical initial event, causing caseous necrosis as opposed to resulting from it. In human tuberculosis granulomas, regions of extracellular matrix destruction map to areas of caseous necrosis. In mice, transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase 1 causes caseous necrosis, the pathological hallmark of human tuberculosis. Collagen destruction is the principal pathological difference between humanised mice and wild-type mice with tuberculosis, whereas the release of proinflammatory cytokines does not differ, demonstrating that collagen breakdown may lead to cell death and caseation. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a 3-dimensional cell culture model of tuberculosis granuloma formation, using bioelectrospray technology. Collagen improved survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells analyzed on the basis of a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, propidium iodide staining, and measurement of the total number of viable cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that collagen destruction is an initial event in tuberculosis immunopathology, leading to caseous necrosis and compromising the immune response, revealing a previously unappreciated role for the extracellular matrix in regulating the host-pathogen interaction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Reduction of Inflammatory Responses and Enhancement of Extracellular Matrix Formation by Vanillin-Incorporated Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) Scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yujung; Kwon, Jeongil; Khang, Gilson; Lee, Dongwon

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major components of vanilla, a commonly used flavoring agent and preservative and is known to exert potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this work, vanillin-incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films and scaffolds were fabricated to evaluate the effects of vanillin on the inflammatory responses and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation in vitro and in vivo. The incorporation of vanillin to PLGA films induced hydrophilic nature, resulting i...

  7. Age and SPARC Change the Extracellular Matrix Composition of the Left Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra E. de Castro Brás

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a collagen-binding matricellular protein, has been implicated in procollagen processing and deposition. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and SPARC-dependent changes in protein composition of the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM. We studied 6 groups of mice (n=4/group: young (4-5 months old, middle-aged (11-12 m.o., and old (18–29 m.o. C57BL/6J wild type (WT and SPARC null. The left ventricle (LV was decellularized to enrich for ECM proteins. Protein extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE, digested in-gel, and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Relative quantification was performed by spectral counting, and changes in specific proteins were validated by immunoblotting. We identified 321 proteins, of which 44 proteins were extracellular proteins. Of these proteins, collagen III levels were lower in the old null mice compared to WT, suggestive of a role for SPARC in collagen deposition. Additionally, fibrillin showed a significant increase in the null middle-aged group, suggestive of increased microfibril deposition in the absence of SPARC. Collagen VI increased with age in both genotypes (>3-fold, while collagen IV showed increased age-associated levels only in the WT animals (4-fold, P<0.05. These changes may explain the previously reported age-associated increases in LV stiffness. In summary, our data suggest SPARC is a possible therapeutic target for aging induced LV dysfunction.

  8. The hyaluronan and proteoglycan link proteins: Organizers of the brain extracellular matrix and key molecules for neuronal function and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oohashi, Toshitaka; Edamatsu, Midori; Bekku, Yoko; Carulli, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    The hyaluronan and proteoglycanbinding link protein (Hapln) is a key molecule in the formation and control of hyaluronan-based condensed perineuronal matrix in the adult brain. This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the role of Haplns in the formation and control of two distinct types of perineuronal matrices, one for "classical" PNN and the other for the specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) at the node of Ranvier in the central nervous system (CNS). We introduce the structural components of each ECM organization including the basic concept of supramolecular structure named "HLT model". We furthermore summarize the developmental and physiological role of perineuronal ECMs from the studies of Haplns and related molecules. Finally, we also discuss the potential mechanism modulating PNNs in the adult CNS. This layer of organized matrices may exert a direct effect via core protein or sugar moiety from the structure or by acting as a binding site for biologically active molecules, which are important for neuronal plasticity and saltatory conduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth and morphogenesis of embryonic mouse organs on non-coated and extracellular matrix-coated Biopore membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, P.; Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    Embryonic mouse salivary glands, pancreata, and kidneys were isolated from embryos of appropriate gestational age by microdissection, and were cultured on Biopore membrane either non-coated or coated with type I collagen or Matrigel. As expected, use of Biopore membrane allowed high quality photomicroscopy of the living organs. In all organs extensive mesenchymal spreading was observed in the presence of type I collagen or Matrigel. However, differences were noted in the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings on epithelial growth and morphogenesis: salivary glands were minimally affected, pancreas morphogenesis was adversely affected, and kidney growth and branching apparently was enhanced. It is suggested that these differences in behaviour reflect differences in the strength of interactions between the mesenchymal cells and their surrounding endogenous matrix, compared to the exogenous ECM macromolecules. This method will be useful for culture of these and other embryonic organs. In particular, culture of kidney rudiments on ECM-coated Biopore offers a great improvement over previously used methods which do not allow morphogenesis to be followed in vitro.

  10. Spatial and temporal analysis of extracellular matrix proteins in the developing murine heart: a blueprint for regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kevin P; Jung, Jangwook P; Tran, Quyen A; Hsu, Shao-Pu P; Iida, Rioko; Ajeti, Visar; Campagnola, Paul J; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Squirrell, Jayne M; Lyons, Gary E; Ogle, Brenda M

    2013-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the embryonic heart guides assembly and maturation of cardiac cell types and, thus, may serve as a useful template, or blueprint, for fabrication of scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. Surprisingly, characterization of the ECM with cardiac development is scattered and fails to comprehensively reflect the spatiotemporal dynamics making it difficult to apply to tissue engineering efforts. The objective of this work was to define a blueprint of the spatiotemporal organization, localization, and relative amount of the four essential ECM proteins, collagen types I and IV (COLI, COLIV), elastin (ELN), and fibronectin (FN) in the left ventricle of the murine heart at embryonic stages E12.5, E14.5, and E16.5 and 2 days postnatal (P2). Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging identified fibrillar collagens at E14.5, with an increasing density over time. Subsequently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to compare the spatial distribution, organization, and relative amounts of each ECM protein. COLIV was found throughout the developing heart, progressing in amount and organization from E12.5 to P2. The amount of COLI was greatest at E12.5 particularly within the epicardium. For all stages, FN was present in the epicardium, with highest levels at E12.5 and present in the myocardium and the endocardium at relatively constant levels at all time points. ELN remained relatively constant in appearance and amount throughout the developmental stages except for a transient increase at E16.5. Expression of ECM mRNA was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and allowed for comparison of amounts of ECM molecules at each time point. Generally, COLI and COLIII mRNA expression levels were comparatively high, while COLIV, laminin, and FN were expressed at intermediate levels throughout the time period studied. Interestingly, levels of ELN mRNA were relatively low at early time points (E12.5), but increased significantly by P2. Thus

  11. Modulation of cardiac myocyte phenotype in vitro by the composition and orientation of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D G; Terracio, L; Terracio, M; Price, R L; Turner, D C; Borg, T K

    1994-10-01

    Cellular phenotype is the result of a dynamic interaction between a cell's intrinsic genetic program and the morphogenetic signals that serve to modulate the extent to which that program is expressed. In the present study we have examined how morphogenetic information might be stored in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and communicated to the neonatal heart cell (NHC) by the cardiac alpha 1 beta 1 integrin molecule. A thin film of type I collagen (T1C) was prepared with a defined orientation. This was achieved by applying T1C to the peripheral edge of a 100 mm culture dish. The T1C was then drawn across the surface of the dish in a continuous stroke with a sterile cell scraper and allowed to polymerize. When NHCs were cultured on this substrate, they spread, as a population, along a common axis in parallel with the gel lattice and expressed an in vivo-like phenotype. Individual NHCs displayed an elongated, rod-like shape and disclosed parallel arrays of myofibrils. These phenotypic characteristics were maintained for at least 4 weeks in primary culture. The evolution of this tissue-like organizational pattern was dependent upon specific interactions between the NHCs and the collagen-based matrix that were mediated by the cardiac alpha 1 beta 1 integrin complex. This conclusion was supported by a variety of experimental results. Altering the tertiary structure of the matrix or blocking the extracellular domains of either the cardiac alpha 1 or beta 1 integrin chain inhibited the expression of the tissue-like pattern of organization. Neither cell-to-cell contact or contractile function were necessary to induce the formation of the rod-like cell shape. However, beating activity was necessary for the assembly of a well-differentiated myofibrillar apparatus. These data suggest that the cardiac alpha 1 beta 1 integrin complex serves to detect and transduce phenotypic information stored within the tertiary structure of the surrounding matrix.

  12. Development of a three-dimensional unit cell to model the micromechanical response of a collagen-based extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Monica E; Roeder, Blayne A; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Kokini, Klod; Nauman, Eric A

    2010-04-01

    The three-dimensional microstructure and mechanical properties of the collagen fibrils within the extracellular matrix (ECM) is now being recognized as a primary factor in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, an appreciation of the mechanical aspects by which a cell interacts with its ECM is required for the development of engineered tissues. Ultimately, using these interactions to design tissue equivalents requires mathematical models with three-dimensional architecture. In this study, a three-dimensional model of a collagen fibril matrix undergoing uniaxial tensile stress was developed by making use of cellular solids. A structure consisting of thin struts was chosen to represent the arrangement of collagen fibrils within an engineered ECM. To account for the large deformation of tissues, the collagen fibrils were modeled as hyperelastic neo-Hookean or Mooney-Rivlin materials. The use of cellular solids allowed the fibril properties to be related to the ECM properties in closed form, which, in turn, allowed the estimation of fibril properties using ECM experimental data. A set of previously obtained experimental data consisting of simultaneous measures of the fibril microstructure and mechanical tests was used to evaluate the model's capability to estimate collagen fibril mechanical property when given tissue-scale data and to predict the tissue-scale mechanical properties when given estimated fibril stiffness. The fibril tangent modulus was found to be 1.26 + or - 0.70 and 1.62 + or - 0.88 MPa when the fibril was modeled as neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin material, respectively. There was no statistical significance of the estimated fibril tangent modulus among the different groups. Sensitivity analysis showed that the fibril mechanical properties and volume fraction were the two input parameters which required accurate values. While the volume fraction was easily obtained from the initial image of the gel, the fibril mechanical properties

  13. The extracellular matrix and altered diffusion in focal cortical dysplasia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homola, Aleš; Vargová, Lýdia; Cicanič, Michal; Zámečník, J.; Marusič, P.; Kršek, P.; Syková, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, S1 (2011), S106-S106 ISSN 0894-1491. [European meeting on Glia l Cells in Health and Disease /10./. 13.09.2011-17.09.2011, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA ČR GA309/09/1597 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : focal cortical dysplasia * diffusion * extracellular matrix Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  14. Extracellular matrix organization modulates fibroblast growth and growth factor responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S; Pawelek, P; Grinnell, F

    1989-06-01

    To learn more about the relationship between extracellular matrix organization, cell shape, and cell growth control, we studied DNA synthesis by fibroblasts in collagen gels that were either attached to culture dishes or floating in culture medium during gel contraction. After 4 days of contraction, the collagen density (initially 1.5 mg/ml) reached 22 mg/ml in attached gels and 55 mg/ml in floating gels. After contraction, attached collagen gels were well organized; collagen fibrils were aligned in the plane of cell spreading; and fibroblasts had an elongated, bipolar morphology. Floating collagen gels, however, were unorganized; collagen fibrils were arranged randomly; and fibroblasts had a stellate morphology. DNA synthesis by fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels was suppressed if the gels were floating in medium but not if the gels were attached, and inhibition was independent of the extent of gel contraction. Therefore, growth of fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels could be regulated by differences in extracellular matrix organization and cell shape independently of extracellular matrix density. We also compared the responses of fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels and monolayer culture to peptide growth factors including fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta, and interleukin 1. Cells in floating collagen gels were generally unresponsive to any of the growth factors. Cells in attached collagen gels and monolayer culture were affected similarly by fibroblast growth factor but not by the others. Our results indicate that extracellular matrix organization influenced not only cell growth, but also fibroblast responsiveness to peptide growth factors.

  15. Comparison of the effects of semicarbazide and β-aminopropionitrile on the arterial extracellular matrix in the Brown Norway rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, Nathalie; Kakou, Augustine; Challande, Pascal; Lacolley, Patrick; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary

    2009-01-01

    To investigate a putative role for semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) in arterial extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, we compared arteries of growing Brown Norway (BN) rats after chronic administration of semicarbazide (SCZ) and β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), two inhibitors with different properties and relative specificities for SSAO and lysyl oxidase (LOX). The BN model is particularly well adapted to evaluating effects of toxic compounds on the arterial elastic network. We measured aortic LOX and SSAO activities and quantified several ECM parameters. After a pilot study comparing doses previously studied and testing for additivity, we studied low and high equimolar doses of SCZ and BAPN. Both compounds similarly inhibited LOX, whereas SCZ inhibited SSAO far more effectively than BAPN. Both decreased carotid wall rupture pressure, increased tail tendon collagen solubility, decreased aortic insoluble elastin (% dry weight) and dose-dependently increased defects in the internal elastic lamina of abdominal aorta, iliac and renal arteries. Our results suggest that either these effects are mediated by LOX inhibition, SCZ being slightly more effective than BAPN in our conditions, or SSAO acts similarly to and in synergy with LOX on ECM, the greater SCZ effect reflecting the simultaneous inhibition of both enzymes. However, the high SCZ dose increased aortic collagen and ECM proteins other than insoluble elastin markedly more than did equimolar BAPN, possibly revealing a specific effect of SSAO inhibition. To discriminate between the two above possibilities, and to demonstrate unequivocally a specific effect of SSAO inhibition on ECM formation or organization, we must await availability of more specific inhibitors.

  16. Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) suppresses attachment and spreading of breast cancer cells on 2D and 3D extracellular matrix components by altering focal adhesion-associated signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic dissemination of cancer cells from primary tumor to secondary sites is a multi-step process that depends heavily on the ability of cancer cells to respond to the microenvironmental cues, such as changes in composition of surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), by adapting their adhesion a...

  17. DMPD: Fragments of extracellular matrix as mediators of inflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18243041 Fragments of extracellular matrix as mediators of inflammation. Adair-Kirk...l) Show Fragments of extracellular matrix as mediators of inflammation. PubmedID 18243041 Title Fragments of... extracellular matrix as mediators of inflammation. Authors Adair-Kirk TL, Senior

  18. High-Throughput Screening of Vascular Endothelium-Destructive or Protective Microenvironments: Cooperative Actions of Extracellular Matrix Composition, Stiffness, and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yonghui; Floren, Michael; Tan, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Pathological modification of the subendothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) has closely been associated with endothelial activation and subsequent cardiovascular disease progression. To understand regulatory mechanisms of these matrix modifications, the majority of previous efforts have focused on the modulation of either chemical composition or matrix stiffness on 2D smooth surfaces without simultaneously probing their cooperative effects on endothelium function on in vivo like 3D fibrous matrices. To this end, a high-throughput, combinatorial microarray platform on 2D and 3D hydrogel settings to resemble the compositions, stiffness, and structure of healthy and diseased subendothelial ECM has been established, and further their respective and combined effects on endothelial attachment, proliferation, inflammation, and junctional integrity have been investigated. For the first time, the results demonstrate that 3D fibrous structure resembling native ECM is a critical endothelium-protective microenvironmental factor by maintaining the stable, quiescent endothelium with strong resistance to proinflammatory stimuli. It is also revealed that matrix stiffening, in concert with chemical compositions resembling diseased ECM, particularly collagen III, could aggravate activation of nuclear factor kappa B, disruption of endothelium integrity, and susceptibility to proinflammatory stimuli. This study elucidates cooperative effects of various microenvironmental factors on endothelial activation and sheds light on new in vitro model for cardiovascular diseases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Undersulfation of proteoglycans and proteins alter C6 glioma cells proliferation, adhesion and extracellular matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes de Aguiar, Claudia B N; Garcez, Ricardo Castilho; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio; Trentin, Andréa Gonçalves

    2002-11-01

    Proteoglycans are considered to be important molecule in cell-microenvironment interactions. They are overexpressed in neoplastic cells modifying their growth and migration in hosts. In this work we verified that undersulfation of proteoglycans and other sulfated molecules, induced by sodium chlorate treatment, inhibited C6 glioma cells proliferation in a dose-dependent way. This effect was restored by the addition of exogenous heparin. We could not detect significant cell mortality in our culture condition. The treatment also impaired in a dose-dependent manner, C6 cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin). In addition, sodium chlorate treatment altered C6 glioma cell morphology, from the fibroblast-like to a more rounded one. This effect was accompanied by increased synthesis of fibronectin and alterations in its extracellular network organization. However, we could not observe modifications on laminin organization and synthesis. The results suggest an important connection between sulfation degree with important tumor functions, such as proliferation and adhesion. We suggest that proteoglycans may modulate the glioma microenvironment network during tumor cell progression and invasion.

  20. Granzyme B mediates both direct and indirect cleavage of extracellular matrix in skin after chronic low-dose ultraviolet light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Leigh G; Toro, Ana; Zhao, Hongyan; Brown, Keddie; Tebbutt, Scott J; Granville, David J

    2015-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is a hallmark of many chronic inflammatory diseases that can lead to a loss of function, aging, and disease progression. Ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation from the sun is widely considered as the major cause of visible human skin aging, causing increased inflammation and enhanced ECM degradation. Granzyme B (GzmB), a serine protease that is expressed by a variety of cells, accumulates in the extracellular milieu during chronic inflammation and cleaves a number of ECM proteins. We hypothesized that GzmB contributes to ECM degradation in the skin after UV irradiation through both direct cleavage of ECM proteins and indirectly through the induction of other proteinases. Wild-type and GzmB-knockout mice were repeatedly exposed to minimal erythemal doses of solar-simulated UV irradiation for 20 weeks. GzmB expression was significantly increased in wild-type treated skin compared to nonirradiated controls, colocalizing to keratinocytes and to an increased mast cell population. GzmB deficiency significantly protected against the formation of wrinkles and the loss of dermal collagen density, which was related to the cleavage of decorin, an abundant proteoglycan involved in collagen fibrillogenesis and integrity. GzmB also cleaved fibronectin, and GzmB-mediated fibronectin fragments increased the expression of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in fibroblasts. Collectively, these findings indicate a significant role for GzmB in ECM degradation that may have implications in many age-related chronic inflammatory diseases. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sprifermin (rhFGF18) modulates extracellular matrix turnover in cartilage explants ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reker, Ditte; Kjelgaard-Petersen, Cecilie Freja; Siebuhr, Anne Sofie

    2017-01-01

    (ECM) production. To gain further insight into the process of sprifermin in the cartilage tissue, this study aimed at investigating the ECM turnover of articular cartilage explants in a longitudinal manner. Methods: Bovine full-depth articular cartilage explants were stimulated with sprifermin...... by immuno-histochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. ECM turnover was quantified by biomarker ELISAs; ProC2 reflecting type II collagen formation, CS846 reflecting aggrecan formation, active MMP9, C2M and AGNx2 reflecting matrix metalloproteinase activity, and AGNx1 reflecting......, active MMP9 was slightly decreased, and AGNx1 was slightly increased. Over the course of treatment, the temporal order of ECM turnover responses was AGNx1, then ProC2, followed by CS846 and MMP9. Pro-inflammatory activation of the explants diminished the ECM turnover responses otherwise observed under...

  2. A three-dimensional collagen-fiber network model of the extracellular matrix for the simulation of the mechanical behaviors and micro structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shoubin; Huang, Zetao; Tang, Liqun; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Yongrou; Jiang, Yi

    2017-07-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structural and biochemical support to cells and tissues, which is a critical factor for modulating cell dynamic behavior and intercellular communication. In order to further understand the mechanisms of the interactive relationship between cell and the ECM, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) collagen-fiber network model to simulate the micro structure and mechanical behaviors of the ECM and studied the stress-strain relationship as well as the deformation of the ECM under tension. In the model, the collagen-fiber network consists of abundant random distributed collagen fibers and some crosslinks, in which each fiber is modeled as an elastic beam and a crosslink is modeled as a linear spring with tensile limit, it means crosslinks will fail while the tensile forces exceed the limit of spring. With the given parameters of the beam and the spring, the simulated tensile stress-strain relation of the ECM highly matches the experimental results including damaged and failed behaviors. Moreover, by applying the maximal inscribed sphere method, we measured the size distribution of pores in the fiber network and learned the variation of the distribution with deformation. We also defined the alignment of the collagen-fibers to depict the orientation of fibers in the ECM quantitatively. By the study of changes of the alignment and the damaged crosslinks against the tensile strain, this paper reveals the comprehensive mechanisms of four stages of 'toe', 'linear', 'damage' and 'failure' in the tensile stress-strain relation of the ECM which can provide further insight in the study of cell-ECM interaction.

  3. Intestinal Stem Cell Niche: The Extracellular Matrix and Cellular Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laween Meran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium comprises a monolayer of polarised columnar cells organised along the crypt-villus axis. Intestinal stem cells reside at the base of crypts and are constantly nourished by their surrounding niche for maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation. The cellular microenvironment including the adjacent Paneth cells, stromal cells, smooth muscle cells, and neural cells as well as the extracellular matrix together constitute the intestinal stem cell niche. A dynamic regulatory network exists among the epithelium, stromal cells, and the matrix via complex signal transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of these biological or mechanical signals could potentially lead to intestinal injury and disease. In this review, we discuss the role of different intestinal stem cell niche components and dissect the interaction between dynamic matrix factors and regulatory signalling during intestinal stem cell homeostasis.

  4. Association of Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin with the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyake Masami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin (DNT causes the turbinate atrophy in swine atrophic rhinitis, caused by a Bordetella bronchiseptica infection of pigs, by inhibiting osteoblastic differentiation. The toxin is not actively secreted from the bacteria, and is presumed to be present in only small amounts in infected areas. How such small amounts can affect target tissues is unknown. Results Fluorescence microscopy revealed that DNT associated with a fibrillar structure developed on cultured cells. A cellular component cross-linked with DNT conjugated with a cross-linker was identified as fibronectin by mass spectrometry. Colocalization of the fibronectin network on the cells with DNT was also observed by fluorescence microscope. Several lines of evidence suggested that DNT interacts with fibronectin not directly, but through another cellular component that remains to be identified. The colocalization was observed in not only DNT-sensitive cells but also insensitive cells, indicating that the fibronectin network neither serves as a receptor for the toxin nor is involved in the intoxicating procedures. The fibronectin network-associated toxin was easily liberated when the concentration of toxin in the local environment decreased, and was still active. Conclusions Components in the extracellular matrix are known to regulate activities of various growth factors by binding and liberating them in response to alterations in the extracellular environment. Similarly, the fibronectin-based extracellular matrix may function as a temporary storage system for DNT, enabling small amounts of the toxin to efficiently affect target tissues or cells.

  5. Expression of extracellular matrix components is disrupted in the immature and adult estrogen receptor β-null mouse ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Zalewski

    Full Text Available Within the ovary, Estrogen Receptor β (ERβ is localized to the granulosa cells of growing follicles. 17β-estradiol (E2 acting via ERβ augments the actions of follicle stimulating hormone in granulosa cells, leading to granulosa cell differentiation and formation of a preovulatory follicle. Adult ERβ-null females are subfertile and possess ovaries with reduced numbers of growing follicles and corpora lutea. Because the majority of E2 production by granulosa cells occurs once puberty is reached, a role for ERβ in the ovary prior to puberty has not been well examined. We now provide evidence that lack of ERβ disrupts gene expression as early as post-natal day (PND 13, and in particular, we identify a number of genes of the extracellular matrix (ECM that are significantly higher in ERβ-null follicles than in wildtype (WT follicles. Considerable changes occur to the ECM occur during normal folliculogenesis to allow for the dramatic growth, cellular differentiation, and reorganization of the follicle from the primary to preovulatory stage. Using quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence, we now show that several ECM genes are aberrantly overexpressed in ERβ-null follicles. We find that Collagen11a1, a protein highly expressed in cartilage, is significantly higher in ERβ-null follicles than WT follicles as early as PND 13, and this heightened expression continues through PND 23-29 into adulthood. Similarly, Nidogen 2, a highly conserved basement membrane glycoprotein, is elevated in ERβ-null follicles at PND 13 into adulthood, and is elevated specifically in the ERβ-null focimatrix, a basal lamina-like matrix located between granulosa cells. Focimatrix laminin and Collagen IV expression were also higher in ERβ-null ovaries than in WT ovaries at various ages. Our findings suggest two novel observations: a that ERβ regulates granulosa cell gene expression ovary prior to puberty, and b that ERβ regulates expression of ECM components in the

  6. Quantitative proteomic characterization of the lung extracellular matrix in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åhrman, Emma; Hallgren, Oskar; Malmström, Lars; Hedström, Ulf; Malmström, Anders; Bjermer, Leif; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Malmström, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a common feature in lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Here, we applied a sequential tissue extraction strategy to describe disease-specific remodeling of human lung tissue in disease, using end-stages of COPD and IPF. Our strategy was based on quantitative comparison of the disease proteomes, with specific focus on the matrisome, using data-independent acquisition and targeted data analysis (SWATH-MS). Our work provides an in-depth proteomic characterization of human lung tissue during impaired tissue remodeling. In addition, we show important quantitative and qualitative effects of the solubility of matrisome proteins. COPD was characterized by a disease-specific increase in ECM regulators, metalloproteinase inhibitor 3 (TIMP3) and matrix metalloproteinase 28 (MMP-28), whereas for IPF, impairment in cell adhesion proteins, such as collagen VI and laminins, was most prominent. For both diseases, we identified increased levels of proteins involved in the regulation of endopeptidase activity, with several proteins belonging to the serpin family. The established human lung quantitative proteome inventory and the construction of a tissue-specific protein assay library provides a resource for future quantitative proteomic analyses of human lung tissues. We present a sequential tissue extraction strategy to determine changes in extractability of matrisome proteins in end-stage COPD and IPF compared to healthy control tissue. Extensive quantitative analysis of the proteome changes of the disease states revealed altered solubility of matrisome proteins involved in ECM regulators and cell-ECM communication. The results highlight disease-specific remodeling mechanisms associated with COPD and IPF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extracellular matrix collagen alters cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of human uterine leiomyoma smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohestani, Faezeh; Braundmeier, Andrea G; Mahdian, Arash; Seo, Jane; Bi, JiaJia; Nowak, Romana A

    2013-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (ULs) are benign tumors occurring in the majority of reproductive aged women. Despite the high prevalence of these tumors, little is known about their etiology. A hallmark of ULs is the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), primarily collagens. Collagens are known to modulate cell behavior and function singularly or through interactions with integrins and growth factor-mediated mitogenic pathways. To better understand the pathogenesis of ULs and the role of ECM collagens in their growth, we investigated the interaction of leiomyoma smooth muscle cells (LSMCs) with two different forms of collagen, non-polymerized collagen (monomeric) and polymerized collagen (fibrillar), in the absence or presence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), an abundant growth factor in ULs. Primary cultures of human LSMCS from symptomatic patients were grown on these two different collagen matrices and their morphology, cytoskeletal organization, cellular proliferation, and signaling pathways were evaluated. Our results showed that LSMCs had distinct morphologies on the different collagen matrices and their basal as well as PDGF-stimulated proliferation varied on these matrices. These differences in proliferation were accompanied by changes in cell cycle progression and p21, an inhibitory cell cycle protein. In addition we found alterations in the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, cytoskeletal reorganization, and activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a direct effect of ECM on the proliferation of LSMCs through interplay between the collagen matrix and the PDGF-stimulated MAPK pathway. In addition, these findings will pave the way for identifying novel therapeutic approaches for ULs that target ECM proteins and their signaling pathways in ULs.

  8. Fibrosis of extracellular matrix is related to the duration of the disease but is unrelated to the dynamics of collagen metabolism in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiś, Paweł; Wiśniowska-Śmialek, Sylwia; Wypasek, Ewa; Biernacka-Fijalkowska, Barbara; Rudnicka-Sosin, Lucyna; Dziewiecka, Ewa; Faltyn, Patrycja; Khachatryan, Lusine; Karabinowska, Aleksandra; Kozanecki, Artur; Tomkiewicz-Pająk, Lidia; Podolec, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Fibrosis of extracellular matrix (ECM) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) corresponds to the myocardial over-production of various types of collagens. However, mechanism of this process is poorly understood. To investigate whether enhanced metabolism of ECM occur in DCM. Seventy consecutive DCM patients (pts) (48 ± 12.1 years, EF 24.4 ± 7.4 %) and 20 healthy volunteers were studied. Based on symptoms duration, pts were divided into new-onset (n = 35, 6 months) and chronic DCM (n = 35, >6 months). Markers of collagen type I and III synthesis-procollagen type I carboxy- and amino-terminal peptides (PICP and PINP) and procollagen type III carboxy- and amino-terminal peptides (PIIICP and PIIINP), collagen 1 (col-1), ECM metabolism controlling factors-tumor growth factor beta-1 (TGF1-β), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and ECM degradation enzymes-matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and their tissue inhibitor (TIMP-1) were measured in serum. All pts underwent right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy to study ECM fibrosis. The presence of fibrosis was detected in 24 (34.3 %) pts and was more prevalent in chronic DCM [17 (48.6 %) vs. 7 (20 %), p collagen type III prevailed over collagen type I. ECM metabolism was not different in DCM regardless of the duration of the disease and status of myocardial fibrosis. Serum markers of ECM metabolism were found not to be useful for the prediction of myocardial fibrosis in DCM.

  9. Extracellular matrix metabolism disorder induced by mechanical strain on human parametrial ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jie; Li, Bingshu; Liu, Cheng; Guo, Wenjun; Hong, Shasha; Tang, Jianming; Hong, Li

    2017-05-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a global health problem that may seriously impact the quality of life of the sufferer. The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms underlying alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism in the pathogenesis of POP, by investigating the expression of ECM components in human parametrial ligament fibroblasts (hPLFs) subject to various mechanical strain loads. Fibroblasts derived from parametrial ligaments were cultured from patients with POP and without malignant tumors, who underwent vaginal hysterectomy surgery. Fibroblasts at generations 3‑6 of exponential phase cells were selected, and a four‑point bending device was used for 0, 1,333 or 5,333 µ mechanical loading of cells at 0.5 Hz for 4 h. mRNA and protein expression levels of collagen type I α 1 chain (COL1A1), collagen type III α 1 chain (COL3A1), elastin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) ‑2 and ‑9, and transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1 were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Under increased mechanical strain (5,333 µ), mRNA and protein expression levels of COL1A1, COL3A1 elastin and TGF‑β1 decreased, particularly COL1A1; however, mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP‑2 and ‑9 were significantly increased, compared with the control group (0 µ strain). Following 1,333 µ mechanical strain, mRNA and protein expression levels of COL1A1, COL3A1 elastin and MMP‑2 increased, and MMP‑9 decreased, whereas no significant differences were observed in TGF‑β1 mRNA and protein expression levels. In conclusion, ECM alterations may be involved in pathogenesis of POP, with decreased synthesis and increased degradation of collagen and elastin. Furthermore, the TGF‑β1 signaling pathway may serve an important role in this process and thus may supply a new target and strategy for understanding the etiology and therapy of POP.

  10. Outcome of Large to Massive Rotator Cuff Tears Repaired With and Without Extracellular Matrix Augmentation: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilot, Gregory J; Alvarez-Pinzon, Andres M; Barcksdale, Leticia; Westerdahl, David; Krill, Michael; Peck, Evan

    2015-08-01

    To compare the results of arthroscopic repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs) with or without augmentation using an extracellular matrix (ECM) graft and to present ECM graft augmentation as a valuable surgical alternative used for biomechanical reinforcement in any RCT repair. We performed a prospective, blinded, single-center, comparative study of patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of a large to massive RCT with or without augmentation with ECM graft. The primary outcome was assessed by the presence or absence of a retear of the previously repaired rotator cuff, as noted on ultrasound examination. The secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively using the 12-item Short Form Health Survey, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder outcome score, a visual analog scale score, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index, and a shoulder activity level survey. We enrolled 35 patients in the study: 20 in the ECM-augmented rotator cuff repair group and 15 in the control group. The follow-up period ranged from 22 to 26 months, with a mean of 24.9 months. There was a significant difference between the groups in terms of the incidence of retears: 26% (4 retears) in the control group and 10% (2 retears) in the ECM graft group (P = .0483). The mean pain level decreased from 6.9 to 4.1 in the control group and from 6.8 to 0.9 in the ECM graft group (P = .024). The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score improved from 62.1 to 72.6 points in the control group and from 63.8 to 88.9 points (P = .02) in the treatment group. The mean Short Form 12 scores improved in the 2 groups, with a statistically significant difference favoring graft augmentation (P = .031), and correspondingly, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index scores improved in both arms, favoring the treatment group (P = .0412). The use of ECM for augmentation of arthroscopic repairs of large to massive RCTs reduces the incidence of retears

  11. Effect of apoptosis and response of extracellular matrix proteins after chemotherapy application on human breast cancer cell spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktem, G; Vatansever, S; Ayla, S; Uysal, A; Aktas, S; Karabulut, B; Bilir, A

    2006-02-01

    Multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) represents a three-dimensional structural form of tumors in laboratory conditions, and it has the characteristics of avascular micrometastases or intervascular spaces of big tumors. Recent studies indicate that extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins play a critical role in tumor metastasis, therefore normal and cancer cells require an ECM for survival, proliferation and differentiation. Doxorubicin and Docetaxel are widely used in the therapy of breast cancer, as well as in in vivo and in vitro studies. In this study, we examined the effect of apoptosis and proliferation of cells on the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, by using p53, bcl-2 and Ki67 gene expression, and the tendency to metastasis with extracellular matrix proteins, laminin and type IV collagen after chemotherapy in the spheroid model. The apoptotic cell death in situ was detected by TUNEL method. TUNEL-positive cells and positive immunoreactivities of laminin, type IV collagen, p53 and, bcl-2 were detected in the control group. There was no laminin and type IV collagen immunoreactivities in spheroids of drug groups. While TUNEL-positive cells and p53 immunoreactivity were detected in Docetaxel, Doxorubicin and Docetaxel/Doxorubicin groups, p53 immunoreactivity was not observed in the Docetaxel group. There was no bcl-2 immunoreactivity in either drug group. In addition, we did not detect Ki67 immunoreactivity in both control and drug treatment groups. However, the absence of Ki67 protein in MCF-7 breast multicellular tumor spheroids is possibly related to the cells in G0 or S phase. These chemotherapeutic agents may affect the presence of ECM proteins in this in vitro model of micrometastasis of spheroids. These findings suggest that the possible mechanism of cell death in Doxorubicin and Docetaxel/Doxorubicin treatment groups is related to apoptosis through the p53 pathway. However, we considered the possibility that there is another control mechanism for the

  12. Disentangling the multifactorial contributions of fibronectin, collagen and cyclic strain on MMP expression and extracellular matrix remodeling by fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Lin, Zhe; Foolen, Jasper; Schoen, Ingmar; Santoro, Alberto; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Vogel, Viola

    2014-11-01

    Early wound healing is associated with fibroblasts assembling a provisional fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), which is subsequently remodeled and interlaced by type I collagen. This exposes fibroblasts to time-variant sets of matrices during different stages of wound healing. Our goal was thus to gain insight into the ECM-driven functional regulation of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) being either anchored to a fibronectin (Fn) or to a collagen-decorated matrix, in the absence or presence of cyclic mechanical strain. While the cells reoriented in response to the onset of uniaxial cyclic strain, cells assembled exogenously added Fn with a preferential Fn-fiber alignment along their new orientation. Exposure of HFFs to exogenous Fn resulted in an increase in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression levels, i.e. MMP-15 (RT-qPCR), and MMP-9 activity (zymography), while subsequent exposure to collagen slightly reduced MMP-15 expression and MMP-9 activity compared to Fn-exposure alone. Cyclic strain upregulated Fn fibrillogenesis and actin stress fiber formation, but had comparatively little effect on MMP activity. We thus propose that the appearance of collagen might start to steer HFFs towards homeostasis, as it decreased both MMP secretion and the tension of Fn matrix fibrils as assessed by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer. These results suggest that HFFs might have a high ECM remodeling or repair capacity in contact with Fn alone (early event), which is reduced in the presence of Col1 (later event), thereby down-tuning HFF activity, a processes which would be required in a tissue repair process to finally reach tissue homeostasis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Bioprinting 3D cell-laden hydrogel microarray for screening human periodontal ligament stem cell response to extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yufei; Ji, Yuan; Huang, Guoyou; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng; Ling, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease negatively affecting up to 15% of adults worldwide. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) hold great promises for periodontal tissue regeneration, where it is necessary to find proper extracellular matrix (ECM) materials (e.g., composition, concentration). In this study, we proposed a bioprinting-based approach to generate nano-liter sized three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden hydrogel array with gradient of ECM components, through controlling the volume ratio of two hydrogels, such as gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) dimethacrylate. The resulting cell-laden array with a gradient of GelMA/PEG composition was used to screen human PDLSC response to ECM. The behavior (e.g., cell viability, spreading) of human PDLSCs in GelMA/PEG array were found to be depended on the volume ratios of GelMA/PEG, with cell viability and spreading area decreased along with increasing the ratio of PEG. The developed approach would be useful for screening cell-biomaterial interaction in 3D and promoting regeneration of functional tissue. (paper)

  14. Collaboration of 3D context and extracellular matrix in the development of glioma stemness in a 3D model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nina K L; Lim, Jia Kai; Leong, Meng Fatt; Sandanaraj, Edwin; Ang, Beng Ti; Tang, Carol; Wan, Andrew C A

    2016-02-01

    A hierarchy of cellular stemness exists in certain cancers, and any successful strategy to treat such cancers would have to eliminate the self-renewing tumor-initiating cells at the apex of the hierarchy. The cellular microenvironment, in particular the extracellular matrix (ECM), is believed to have a role in regulating stemness. In this work, U251 glioblastoma cells are cultured on electrospun polystyrene (ESPS) scaffolds coated with an array of 7 laminin isoforms to provide a 3D model for stem cell-related genes and proteins expression studies. We observed collaboration between 3D context and laminins in promoting glioma stemness. Depending on the laminin isoform presented, U251 cells cultured on ESPS scaffolds (3D) exhibited increased expression of stemness markers compared to those cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (2D). Our results indicate the influence of 3D (versus 2D) context on integrin expression, specifically, the upregulation of the laminin-binding integrins alpha 6 and beta 4. By a colony forming assay, we showed enhanced clonogenicity of cells grown on ESPS scaffolds in collaboration with laminins 411, 421, 511 and 521. Evaluation of patient glioma databases demonstrated significant enrichment of integrin and ECM pathway networks in tumors of worse prognosis, consistent with our observations. The present results demonstrate how 3D versus 2D context profoundly affects ECM signaling, leading to stemness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix in right ventricular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2017-10-01

    Right ventricular failure predicts adverse outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), and in subjects with left ventricular heart failure and is associated with interstitial fibrosis. This review manuscript discusses the cellular effectors and molecular mechanisms implicated in right ventricular fibrosis. The right ventricular interstitium contains vascular cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells, enmeshed in a collagen-based matrix. Right ventricular pressure overload in PH is associated with the expansion of the fibroblast population, myofibroblast activation, and secretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Mechanosensitive transduction of adrenergic signalling and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone cascade trigger the activation of right ventricular fibroblasts. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines may contribute to expansion and activation of macrophages that may serve as a source of fibrogenic growth factors, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Endothelin-1, TGF-βs, and matricellular proteins co-operate to activate cardiac myofibroblasts, and promote synthesis of matrix proteins. In comparison with the left ventricle, the RV tolerates well volume overload and ischemia; whether the right ventricular interstitial cells and matrix are implicated in these favourable responses remains unknown. Expansion of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix protein deposition are prominent features of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of arrhythmic events. Prevailing conceptual paradigms on right ventricular remodelling are based on extrapolation of findings in models of left ventricular injury. Considering the unique embryologic, morphological, and physiologic properties of the RV and the clinical significance of right ventricular failure, there is a need further to dissect RV-specific mechanisms of fibrosis and interstitial remodelling. Published on behalf of the European Society of

  16. ECM Decorated Electrospun Nanofiber for Improving Bone Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of nanofiber surface properties can lead to enhanced tissue regeneration outcomes in the context of bone tissue engineering. Herein, we developed a facile strategy to decorate elctrospun nanofibers using extracellular matrix (ECM in order to improve their performance for bone tissue engineering. Electrospun PLLA nanofibers (PLLA NF were seeded with MC3T3-E1 cells and allowed to grow for two weeks in order to harvest a layer of ECM on nanofiber surface. After decellularization, we found that ECM was successfully preserved on nanofiber surface while maintaining the nanostructure of electrospun fibers. ECM decorated on PLLA NF is biologically active, as evidenced by its ability to enhance mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs adhesion, support cell proliferation and promote early stage osteogenic differentiation of mBMSCs. Compared to PLLA NF without ECM, mBMSCs grown on ECM/PLLA NF exhibited a healthier morphology, faster proliferation profile, and more robust osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, our study suggests that ECM decoration on electrospun nanofibers could serve as an efficient approach to improving their performance for bone tissue engineering.

  17. Optimization and critical evaluation of decellularization strategies to develop renal extracellular matrix scaffolds as biological templates for organ engineering and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caralt, M; Uzarski, J S; Iacob, S; Obergfell, K P; Berg, N; Bijonowski, B M; Kiefer, K M; Ward, H H; Wandinger-Ness, A; Miller, W M; Zhang, Z J; Abecassis, M M; Wertheim, J A

    2015-01-01

    The ability to generate patient-specific cells through induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has encouraged development of three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds as bioactive substrates for cell differentiation with the long-range goal of bioengineering organs for transplantation. Perfusion decellularization uses the vasculature to remove resident cells, leaving an intact ECM template wherein new cells grow; however, a rigorous evaluative framework assessing ECM structural and biochemical quality is lacking. To address this, we developed histologic scoring systems to quantify fundamental characteristics of decellularized rodent kidneys: ECM structure (tubules, vessels, glomeruli) and cell removal. We also assessed growth factor retention--indicating matrix biofunctionality. These scoring systems evaluated three strategies developed to decellularize kidneys (1% Triton X-100, 1% Triton X-100/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 0.02% Trypsin-0.05% EGTA/1% Triton X-100). Triton and Triton/SDS preserved renal microarchitecture and retained matrix-bound basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Trypsin caused structural deterioration and growth factor loss. Triton/SDS-decellularized scaffolds maintained 3 h of leak-free blood flow in a rodent transplantation model and supported repopulation with human iPSC-derived endothelial cells and tubular epithelial cells ex vivo. Taken together, we identify an optimal Triton/SDS-based decellularization strategy that produces a biomatrix that may ultimately serve as a rodent model for kidney bioengineering. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. The mechanical properties of human adipose tissues and their relationships to the structure and composition of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouli, Nadia; Mansfield, Jessica; Green, Ellen; Bell, James; Knight, Beatrice; Liversedge, Neil; Tham, Ji Chung; Welbourn, Richard; Shore, Angela C; Kos, Katarina; Winlove, C Peter

    2013-12-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) expansion in obesity is characterized by cellular growth and continuous extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling with increased fibrillar collagen deposition. It is hypothesized that the matrix can inhibit cellular expansion and lipid storage. Therefore, it is important to fully characterize the ECM's biomechanical properties and its interactions with cells. In this study, we characterize and compare the mechanical properties of human subcutaneous and omental tissues, which have different physiological functions. AT was obtained from 44 subjects undergoing surgery. Force/extension and stress/relaxation data were obtained. The effects of osmotic challenge were measured to investigate the cellular contribution to tissue mechanics. Tissue structure and its response to tensile strain were determined using nonlinear microscopy. AT showed nonlinear stress/strain characteristics of up to a 30% strain. Comparing paired subcutaneous and omental samples (n = 19), the moduli were lower in subcutaneous: initial 1.6 ± 0.8 (means ± SD) and 2.9 ± 1.5 kPa (P = 0.001), final 11.7 ± 6.4 and 32 ± 15.6 kPa (P matrix fibers. These results suggest that subcutaneous AT has greater capacity for expansion and recovery from mechanical deformation than omental AT.

  19. Cardiac Fibroblast-Dependent Extracellular Matrix Accumulation Is Associated with Diastolic Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Kirk R.; Lord, C. Kevin; West, T. Aaron; Stewart, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Diastolic dysfunction is one of the earliest manifestations of diabetes-induced changes in left ventricular (LV) function, and results from a reduced rate of relaxation and increased stiffness. The mechanisms responsible for increased stiffness are not completely understood. Chronic hyperglycemia, advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), and increased levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines are molecular pathways known to be involved in regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and accumulation resulting in increased LV diastolic stiffness. Experiments were conducted using a genetically-induced mouse model of T2DM generated by a point mutation in the leptin receptor resulting in nonfunctional leptin receptors (db/db murine model). This study correlated changes in LV ECM and stiffness with alterations in basal activation of signaling cascades and expression of profibrotic markers within primary cultures of cardiac fibroblasts from diabetic (db/db) mice with nondiabetic (db/wt) littermates as controls. Primary cultures of cardiac fibrobroblasts were maintained in 25 mM glucose (hyperglycemic-HG; diabetic db/db) media or 5 mM glucose (normoglycemic-NG, nondiabetic db/wt) media. The cells then underwent a 24-hour exposure to their opposite (NG; diabetic db/db) media or 5 mM glucose (HG, nondiabetic db/wt) media. Protein analysis demonstrated significantly increased expression of type I collagen, TIMP-2, TGF-β, PAI-1 and RAGE in diabetic db/db cells as compared to nondiabetic db/wt, independent of glucose media concentration. This pattern of protein expression was associated with increased LV collagen accumulation, myocardial stiffness and LV diastolic dysfunction. Isolated diabetic db/db fibroblasts were phenotypically distinct from nondiabetic db/wt fibroblasts and exhibited a profibrotic phenotype in normoglycemic conditions. PMID:23991045

  20. Regulation of human mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into chondrocytes in extracellular matrix-based hydrogel scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingchun; Liang, Hui; Mou, Chenchen; Li, Xiaoran; Sun, Jie; Zhuang, Yan; Xiao, Zhifeng; Chen, Bing; Dai, Jianwu

    2014-02-01

    To induce human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into chondrocytes in three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments, we developed porous hydrogel scaffolds using the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) components of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and collagen (COL). The turbidity and viscosity experiments indicated hydrogel could form through pH-triggered co-precipitation when pH=2-3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the hydrogel scaffolds could controllably release growth factors as envisaged. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was released to stimulate hMSCs differentiation into chondrocytes; and then collagen binding domain-basic fibroblast growth factor (CBD-bFGF) was released to improve the differentiation and preserve the chondrocyte phenotype. In in vitro cell culture experiments, the differentiation processes were compared in different microenvironments: 2D culture in culture plate as control, 3D culture in the fabricated scaffolds without growth factors (CC), the samples with CBD-bFGF (CC-C), the samples with TGF-β (CC-T), the samples with CBD-bFGF/TGF-β (CC-CT). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the hMSC marker genes of CD44 and CD105 decreased; at the same time the chondrocyte marker genes of collagen type II and aggrecan increased, especially in the CC-CT sample. Immunostaining results further confirmed the hMSC marker protein of CD 44 disappeared and the chondrocyte marker protein of collagen type II emerged over time in the CC-CT sample. These results imply the ECM-based hydrogel scaffolds with growth factors can supply suitable 3D cell niches for hMSCs differentiation into chondrocytes and the differentiation process can be regulated by the controllably released growth factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. OmpL1 is an extracellular matrix- and plasminogen-interacting protein of Leptospira spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luis G V; Vieira, Monica L; Kirchgatter, Karin; Alves, Ivy J; de Morais, Zenaide M; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Romero, Eliete C; Nascimento, Ana L T O

    2012-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with multisystem involvement caused by pathogenic strains of the genus Leptospira. OmpL1 is an outer membrane protein of Leptospira spp. that is expressed during infection. In this work, we investigated novel features of this protein. We describe that OmpL1 is a novel leptospiral extracellular matrix (ECM)-binding protein and a plasminogen (PLG) receptor. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Star/pLysS as inclusion bodies, refolded, and purified by metal-chelating chromatography. The protein presented a typical β-strand secondary structure, as evaluated by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The recombinant protein reacted with antibodies in serum samples from convalescent leptospirosis patients with a high specificity compared to serum samples from individuals with unrelated diseases. These data strengthen the usefulness of OmpL1 as a diagnostic marker of leptospirosis. The characterization of the immunogenicity of recombinant OmpL1 in inoculated BALB/c mice showed that the protein has the capacity to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses, as denoted by high antibody titers and the proliferation of lymphocytes. We demonstrate that OmpL1 has the ability to mediate attachment to laminin and plasma fibronectin, with K(D) (equilibrium dissociation constant) values of 2,099.93 ± 871.03 nM and 1,239.23 ± 506.85 nM, respectively. OmpL1 is also a PLG receptor, with a K(D) of 368.63 ± 121.23 nM, capable of generating enzymatically active plasmin. This is the first report that shows and characterizes OmpL1 as an ECM-interacting and a PLG-binding protein of Leptospira spp. that may play a role in bacterial pathogenesis when expressed during infection.

  2. Thyroid hormone modulates the extracellular matrix organization and expression in cerebellar astrocyte: effects on astrocyte adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Andréa Gonçalves; De Aguiar, Cláudia Beatriz Nedel Mendes; Garcez, Ricardo Castilho; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio

    2003-06-01

    The effects of thyroid hormone (T(3)) on extracellular matrix (ECM) expression and organization in cerebellar astrocytes were studied. Control astrocytes exhibit laminin immunostaining distributed in a punctate configuration and fibronectin concentrated in focal points at the cell surface. These cells attach to the substratum by membrane points, as shown by scanning microscopy, possibly by focal points stained to fibronectin. In contrast, after T(3) treatment, laminin assumes a fibrillary pattern and fibronectin becomes organized in filaments homogeneously distributed on the cell surface; the cells acquire a very flat and spread morphology. T(3) treatment also modulates astrocyte adhesion. In addition, increased expression of both laminin and fibronectin was detected by Western blot. These alterations in fibronectin and/or laminin production and organization may be involved in the flat and spread morphology and in altered adhesion. We observed that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF(2)) added to cultures had similar effects to those described to T(3). Neutralizing antibodies against FGF(2) reversed T(3) effects on fibronectin and laminin distribution. We also observed that cerebellar neurons co-cultured on T(3)-treated astrocytes had an increase in the number of cells and presented longer neurites. Thus, we propose a novel mechanism of the effect of thyroid hormone on cerebellar development mediated by astrocytes: T(3) may induce astrocyte secretion of growth factors, mainly FGF(2), that autocrinally stimulate astrocyte proliferation, reorganization in ECM proteins, and alterations in cell spreading and adhesion. These effects may indirectly influence neuronal development. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Biglycan fragmentation in pathologies associated with extracellular matrix remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genovese, Federica; Barascuk, Natasha; Larsen, Lise Skakkebæk

    2013-01-01

    The proteoglycan biglycan (BGN) is involved in collagen fibril assembly and its fragmentation is likely to be associated with collagen turnover during the pathogenesis of diseases which involve dysregulated extracellular matrix remodeling (ECMR), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and liver fibrosis...

  4. Expression and clinical significance of extracellular matrix protein 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-C in lymphatic metastasis of human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiu-Wan; She, Hong-Qiang; Liang, Jing; Huang, Yu-Fan; Yang, Qing-Mo; Yang, Qiao-Lu; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) are secretory glycoproteins that are associated with lymphangiogenesis; these proteins could, therefore, play important roles in the lymphatic dissemination of tumors. However, very little is known about their potential roles in lymphangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether correlations exist between ECM1 and VEGF-C in human breast cancer, lymphangiogenesis, and the clinicopathological characteristics of the disease. ECM1 and VEGF-C mRNA and protein expression levels in 41 patients were investigated using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), or immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of breast cancer tissue, matched noncancerous breast epithelial tissues, and suspicious metastatic axillary lymph nodes. D2-40 labelled lymph vessels and lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) were counted. Correlations between ECM1 or VEGF-C protein expression levels, LMVD, and clinicopathological parameters were statistically tested. The rate of ECM1 positive staining in breast cancer tissues was higher (31/41, 75.6%) than that in the corresponding epithelial tissues (4/41, 9.8%, P < 0.001) and lymph nodes (13/41, 31.7%, P < 0.001). Similarly, the VEGF-C expression rate in cancer specimens was higher (33/41, 80.5%) than in epithelial tissues (19/41, 46.3%, P < 0.01) or lymph nodes (15/41, 36.6%, P < 0.01). Higher ECM1 and VEGF-C mRNA expression levels were also detected in the tumor tissues, compared to the non-cancerous tissue types or lymph nodes (P < 0.05). ECM1 protein expression was positively correlated with the estrogen receptor status (P < 0.05) and LMVD (P < 0.05). LMVD in the ECM1- and VEGF-C-positive tumor specimens was higher than that in the tissue types with negative staining (P < 0.05). Both ECM1 and VEGF-C were overexpressed in breast cancer tissue samples. ECM1 expression was positively correlated with estrogen responsiveness and the

  5. Matrix-directed differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to dermal-like fibroblasts that produce extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Unnikrishnan; Jayakumar, K; Krishnan, Lissy K

    2016-10-01

    Commercially available skin substitutes lack essential non-immune cells for adequate tissue regeneration of non-healing wounds. A tissue-engineered, patient-specific, dermal substitute could be an attractive option for regenerating chronic wounds, for which adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) could become an autologous source. However, ADMSCs are multipotent in nature and may differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes in vitro, and may develop into undesirable tissues upon transplantation. Therefore, ADMSCs committed to the fibroblast lineage could be a better option for in vitro or in vivo skin tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to standardize in vitro culture conditions for ADMSCs differentiation into dermal-like fibroblasts which can synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Biomimetic matrix composite, deposited on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), and differentiation medium (DM), supplemented with fibroblast-conditioned medium and growth factors, were used as a fibroblast-specific niche (FSN) for cell culture. For controls, ADMSCs were cultured on bare TCPS with either DM or basal medium (BM). Culture of ADMSCs on FSN upregulated the expression of differentiation markers such as fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1) and a panel of ECM molecules specific to the dermis, such as fibrillin-1, collagen I, collagen IV and elastin. Immunostaining showed the deposition of dermal-specific ECM, which was significantly higher in FSN compared to control. Fibroblasts derived from ADMSCs can synthesize elastin, which is an added advantage for successful skin tissue engineering as compared to fibroblasts from skin biopsy. To obtain rapid differentiation of ADMSCs to dermal-like fibroblasts for regenerative medicine, a matrix-directed differentiation strategy may be employed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Age-related collagen turnover of the interstitial matrix and basement membrane: Implications of age- and sex-dependent remodeling of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlet, Stephanie N; Willumsen, Nicholas; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Dietzel, Roswitha; Brix, Susanne; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A

    2018-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a vital role in maintaining normal tissue function. Collagens are major components of the ECM and there is a tight equilibrium between degradation and formation of these proteins ensuring tissue health and homeostasis. As a consequence of tissue turnover, small collagen fragments are released into the circulation, which act as important biomarkers in the study of certain tissue-related remodeling factors in health and disease. The aim of this study was to establish an age-related collagen turnover profile of the main collagens of the interstitial matrix (type I and III collagen) and basement membrane (type IV collagen) in healthy men and women. By using well-characterized competitive ELISA-assays, we assessed specific fragments of degraded (C1M, C3M, C4M) and formed (PINP, Pro-C3, P4NP7S) type I, III and IV collagen in serum from 617 healthy men and women ranging in ages from 22 to 86. Subjects were divided into 5-year age groups according to their sex and age. Groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis adjusted for Dunn's multiple comparisons test and Mann-Whitney t-test. Age-specific changes in collagen turnover was most profound for type I collagen. PINP levels decreased in men with advancing age, whereas in women, the level decreased in early adulthood followed by an increase around the age of menopause (age 40-60). Sex-specific changes in type I, III and IV collagen turnover was present at the age around menopause (age 40-60) with women having an increased turnover. In summary, collagen turnover is affected by age and sex with the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane being differently regulated. The observed changes needs to be accounted for when measuring ECM related biomarkers in clinical studies.

  7. Tailoring the properties of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix using carbodiimide cross-linking.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Modulation of properties of extracellular matrix (ECM) based scaffolds is key for their application in the clinical setting. In the present study, cross-linking was used as a tool for tailoring the properties of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM). CEM was cross-linked with varying cross-linking concentrations of N,N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N\\'-ethyl carbodiimide (EDC) in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Shrink temperature measurements and ATR-FT-IR spectra were used to determine the degree of cross-linking. The effect of cross-linking on degradation was tested using the collagenase assay. Uniaxial tensile properties and the ability to support fibroblasts were also evaluated as a function of cross-linking. Shrink temperature increased from 59 degrees C for non-cross-linked CEM to 78 degrees C for the highest EDC cross-linking concentration, while IR peak area ratios for the free -NH(2) group at 3290 cm(-1) to that of the amide I band at 1635 cm(-1) decreased with increasing EDC cross-linking concentration. Collagenase assay demonstrated that degradation rates for CEM can be tailored. EDC concentrations 0 to 0.0033 mmol\\/mg CEM were the cross-linking concentration range in which CEM showed varied susceptibility to collagenase degradation. Furthermore, cross-linking concentrations up to 0.1 mmol EDC\\/mg CEM did not have statistically significant effect on the uniaxial tensile strength, as well as morphology, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts on CEM. In conclusion, the degradation rates of CEM can be tailored using EDC-cross-linking, while maintaining the mechanical properties and the ability of CEM to support cells.

  8. Syndecans as receptors and organizers of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Gopal, Sandeep; Couchman, John R

    2010-01-01

    Syndecans are type I transmembrane proteins having a core protein modified with glycosaminoglycan chains, most commonly heparan sulphate. They are an ancient group of molecules, present in invertebrates and vertebrates. Among the plethora of molecules that can interact with heparan sulphate, the collagens and glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix are prominent. Frequently, they do so in conjunction with other receptors, most notably the integrins. For this reason, they are often referred to as "co-receptors". However, just as with integrins, syndecans can interact with actin-associated proteins and signalling molecules, such as protein kinases. Some aspects of syndecan signalling are understood but much remains to be learned. The functions of syndecans in regulating cell adhesion and extracellular matrix assembly are described here. Evidence from null mice suggests that syndecans have roles in postnatal tissue repair, inflammation and tumour progression. Developmental deficits in lower vertebrates in which syndecans are eliminated are also informative and suggest that, in mammals, redundancy is a key issue.

  9. Wetting and dewetting of extracellular matrix and glycocalix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Motomu; Rehfeldt, Florian; Schneider, Matthias F; Mathe, Gerald; Albersdoerfer, Antero; Neumaier, Klaus R; Purrucker, Oliver; Sackmann, Erich

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study wetting and dewetting of hydrated biopolymer layers mediating cell-cell and cell-tissue contacts, called the extracellular matrix and cell surface glycocalix, by the combination of various physical techniques. Here, the sum of the net effects of the various interfacial forces, which is referred to as the disjoining pressure, is used as a semi-quantitative measure to describe the thermodynamics of hydrated interlayers. The disjoining pressure can be measured by applying external forces to maintain the equilibrium distance between two parallel surfaces (in biology, two neighbouring plasma membranes). Using artificial models of the extracellular matrix and glycocalix, we describe stable cell-cell contacts in terms of the wetting (or spreading) of complex fluids on polymer surfaces. In fact, the adjustment of the wetting interaction via thin hydrating layers enables us to transform three-dimensional cell membranes into quasi-two-dimensional films on macroscopically large surfaces. Fine-tuning of local wetting conditions at the interface further allows for the selective wetting of native cell membranes on microstructured polysaccharide films, which has a large potential for individual detection of biological functions in confined geometries

  10. Niche Extracellular Matrix Components and Their Influence on HSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Mélanie J; Cao, Huimin; Heazlewood, Shen Y; Cao, Benjamin; Nilsson, Susan K

    2017-08-01

    Maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) takes place in a highly specialized microenvironment within the bone marrow. Technological improvements, especially in the field of in vivo imaging, have helped unravel the complexity of the niche microenvironment and have completely changed the classical concept from what was previously believed to be a static supportive platform, to a dynamic microenvironment tightly regulating HSC homeostasis through the complex interplay between diverse cell types, secreted factors, extracellular matrix molecules, and the expression of different transmembrane receptors. To add to the complexity, non-protein based metabolites have also been recognized as a component of the bone marrow niche. The objective of this review is to discuss the current understanding on how the different extracellular matrix components of the niche regulate HSC fate, both during embryonic development and in adulthood. Special attention will be provided to the description of non-protein metabolites, such as lipids and metal ions, which contribute to the regulation of HSC behavior. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1984-1993, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Specific extracellular matrix remodeling signature of colon hepatic metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maguy Del Rio

    Full Text Available To identify genes implicated in metastatic colonization of the liver in colorectal cancer, we collected pairs of primary tumors and hepatic metastases before chemotherapy in 13 patients. We compared mRNA expression in the pairs of patients to identify genes deregulated during metastatic evolution. We then validated the identified genes using data obtained by different groups. The 33-gene signature was able to classify 87% of hepatic metastases, 98% of primary tumors, 97% of normal colon mucosa, and 95% of normal liver tissues in six datasets obtained using five different microarray platforms. The identified genes are specific to colon cancer and hepatic metastases since other metastatic locations and hepatic metastases originating from breast cancer were not classified by the signature. Gene Ontology term analysis showed that 50% of the genes are implicated in extracellular matrix remodeling, and more precisely in cell adhesion, extracellular matrix organization and angiogenesis. Because of the high efficiency of the signature to classify colon hepatic metastases, the identified genes represent promising targets to develop new therapies that will specifically affect hepatic metastasis microenvironment.

  12. Regulation of pituitary hormones and cell proliferation by components of the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paez-Pereda

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix is a three-dimensional network of proteins, glycosaminoglycans and other macromolecules. It has a structural support function as well as a role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The extracellular matrix conveys signals through membrane receptors called integrins and plays an important role in pituitary physiology and tumorigenesis. There is a differential expression of extracellular matrix components and integrins during the pituitary development in the embryo and during tumorigenesis in the adult. Different extracellular matrix components regulate adrenocorticotropin at the level of the proopiomelanocortin gene transcription. The extracellular matrix also controls the proliferation of adrenocorticotropin-secreting tumor cells. On the other hand, laminin regulates the production of prolactin. Laminin has a dynamic pattern of expression during prolactinoma development with lower levels in the early pituitary hyperplasia and a strong reduction in fully grown prolactinomas. Therefore, the expression of extracellular matrix components plays a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix affects pituitary cell proliferation. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is very high in all types of human pituitary adenomas. Matrix metalloproteinase secreted by pituitary cells can release growth factors from the extracellular matrix that, in turn, control pituitary cell proliferation and hormone secretion. In summary, the differential expression of extracellular matrix components, integrins and matrix metalloproteinase contributes to the control of pituitary hormone production and cell proliferation during tumorigenesis.

  13. DNA builds and strengthens the extracellular matrix in Myxococcus xanthus biofilms by interacting with exopolysaccharides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available One intriguing discovery in modern microbiology is the extensive presence of extracellular DNA (eDNA within biofilms of various bacterial species. Although several biological functions have been suggested for eDNA, including involvement in biofilm formation, the detailed mechanism of eDNA integration into biofilm architecture is still poorly understood. In the biofilms formed by Myxococcus xanthus, a Gram-negative soil bacterium with complex morphogenesis and social behaviors, DNA was found within both extracted and native extracellular matrices (ECM. Further examination revealed that these eDNA molecules formed well organized structures that were similar in appearance to the organization of exopolysaccharides (EPS in ECM. Biochemical and image analyses confirmed that eDNA bound to and colocalized with EPS within the ECM of starvation biofilms and fruiting bodies. In addition, ECM containing eDNA exhibited greater physical strength and biological stress resistance compared to DNase I treated ECM. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that DNA interacts with EPS and strengthens biofilm structures in M. xanthus.

  14. Use of additives, scaffolds and extracellular matrix components for improvement of human pancreatic islet outcomes in vitro: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Natália Emerim; de Almeida Brondani, Letícia; Dieter, Cristine; Rheinheimer, Jakeline; Bouças, Ana Paula; Bauermann Leitão, Cristiane; Crispim, Daisy; Bauer, Andrea Carla

    2017-09-03

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is an established treatment to restore insulin independence in type 1 diabetic patients. Its success rates have increased lately based on improvements in immunosuppressive therapies and on islet isolation and culture. It is known that the quality and quantity of viable transplanted islets are crucial for the achievement of insulin independence and some studies have shown that a significant number of islets are lost during culture time. Thus, in an effort to improve islet yield during culture period, researchers have tested a variety of additives in culture media as well as alternative culture devices, such as scaffolds. However, due to the use of different categories of additives or devices, it is difficult to draw a conclusion on the benefits of these strategies. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to summarize the results of studies that described the use of medium additives, scaffolds or extracellular matrix (ECM) components during human pancreatic islets culture. PubMed and Embase repositories were searched. Of 5083 articles retrieved, a total of 37 articles fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. After data extraction, articles were grouped as follows: 1) "antiapoptotic/anti-inflammatory/antioxidant," 2) "hormone," 3) "sulphonylureas," 4) "serum supplements," and 5) "scaffolds or ECM components." The effects of the reviewed additives, ECM or scaffolds on islet viability, apoptosis and function (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion - GSIS) were heterogeneous, making any major conclusion hard to sustain. Overall, some "antiapoptotic/anti-inflammatory/antioxidant" additives decreased apoptosis and improved GSIS. Moreover, islet culture with ECM components or scaffolds increased GSIS. More studies are needed to define the real impact of these strategies in improving islet transplantation outcomes.

  15. A combination of low-dose bevacizumab and imatinib enhances vascular normalisation without inducing extracellular matrix deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffmann, L M; Brunold, M; Liwschitz, M; Goede, V; Loges, S; Wroblewski, M; Quaas, A; Alakus, H; Stippel, D; Bruns, C J; Hallek, M; Kashkar, H; Hacker, U T; Coutelle, O

    2017-02-28

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeting drugs normalise the tumour vasculature and improve access for chemotherapy. However, excessive VEGF inhibition fails to improve clinical outcome, and successive treatment cycles lead to incremental extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, which limits perfusion and drug delivery. We show here, that low-dose VEGF inhibition augmented with PDGF-R inhibition leads to superior vascular normalisation without incremental ECM deposition thus maintaining access for therapy. Collagen IV expression was analysed in response to VEGF inhibition in liver metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, in syngeneic (Panc02) and xenograft tumours of human colorectal cancer cells (LS174T). The xenograft tumours were treated with low (0.5 mg kg -1 body weight) or high (5 mg kg -1 body weight) doses of the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab with or without the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. Changes in tumour growth, and vascular parameters, including microvessel density, pericyte coverage, leakiness, hypoxia, perfusion, fraction of vessels with an open lumen, and type IV collagen deposition were compared. ECM deposition was increased after standard VEGF inhibition in patients and tumour models. In contrast, treatment with low-dose bevacizumab and imatinib produced similar growth inhibition without inducing detrimental collagen IV deposition, leading to superior vascular normalisation, reduced leakiness, improved oxygenation, more open vessels that permit perfusion and access for therapy. Low-dose bevacizumab augmented by imatinib selects a mature, highly normalised and well perfused tumour vasculature without inducing incremental ECM deposition that normally limits the effectiveness of VEGF targeting drugs.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus manganese transport protein C (MntC is an extracellular matrix- and plasminogen-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Salazar

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus--particularly nosocomial infections--represent a great concern. Usually, the early stage of pathogenesis consists on asymptomatic nasopharynx colonization, which could result in dissemination to other mucosal niches or invasion of sterile sites, such as blood. This pathogenic route depends on scavenging of nutrients as well as binding to and disrupting extracellular matrix (ECM. Manganese transport protein C (MntC, a conserved manganese-binding protein, takes part in this infectious scenario as an ion-scavenging factor and surprisingly as an ECM and coagulation cascade binding protein, as revealed in this work. This study showed a marked ability of MntC to bind to several ECM and coagulation cascade components, including laminin, collagen type IV, cellular and plasma fibronectin, plasminogen and fibrinogen by ELISA. The MntC binding to plasminogen appears to be related to the presence of surface-exposed lysines, since previous incubation with an analogue of lysine residue, ε-aminocaproic acid, or increasing ionic strength affected the interaction between MntC and plasminogen. MntC-bound plasminogen was converted to active plasmin in the presence of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA. The newly released plasmin, in turn, acted in the cleavage of the α and β chains of fibrinogen. In conclusion, we describe a novel function for MntC that may help staphylococcal mucosal colonization and establishment of invasive disease, through the interaction with ECM and coagulation cascade host proteins. These data suggest that this potential virulence factor could be an adequate candidate to compose an anti-staphylococcal human vaccine formulation.

  17. Breast cancer cell cyclooxygenase-2 expression alters extracellular matrix structure and function and numbers of cancer associated fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamachary, Balaji; Stasinopoulos, Ioannis; Kakkad, Samata; Penet, Marie-France; Jacob, Desmond; Wildes, Flonne; Mironchik, Yelena; Pathak, Arvind P; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2017-03-14

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a critically important mediator of inflammation that significantly influences tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. We investigated the role of COX-2 expressed by triple negative breast cancer cells in altering the structure and function of the extracellular matrix (ECM). COX-2 downregulation effects on ECM structure and function were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy of tumors derived from triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and a derived clone stably expressing a short hairpin (shRNA) molecule downregulating COX-2. MRI of albumin-GdDTPA was used to characterize macromolecular fluid transport in vivo and SHG microscopy was used to quantify collagen 1 (Col1) fiber morphology. COX-2 downregulation decreased Col1 fiber density and altered macromolecular fluid transport. Immunohistochemistry identified significantly fewer activated cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in low COX-2 expressing tumors. Metastatic lung nodules established by COX-2 downregulated cells were infrequent, smaller, and contained fewer Col1 fibers.COX-2 overexpression studies were performed with tumors derived from triple negative SUM-149 breast cancer cells lentivirally transduced to overexpress COX-2. SHG microscopy identified significantly higher Col1 fiber density in COX-2 overexpressing tumors with an increase of CAFs. These data expand upon the roles of COX-2 in shaping the structure and function of the ECM in primary and metastatic tumors, and identify the potential role of COX-2 in modifying the number of CAFs in tumors that may have contributed to the altered ECM.

  18. Stiffness of hyaluronic acid gels containing liver extracellular matrix supports human hepatocyte function and alters cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Daniel B; Zimmerman, Cynthia; Skardal, Aleksander; Atala, Anthony; Shupe, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    Tissue engineering and cell based liver therapies have utilized primary hepatocytes with limited success due to the failure of hepatocytes to maintain their phenotype in vitro. In order to overcome this challenge, hyaluronic acid (HA) cell culture substrates were formulated to closely mimic the composition and stiffness of the normal liver cellular microenvironment. The stiffness of the substrate was modulated by adjusting HA hydrogel crosslinking. Additionally, the repertoire of bioactive molecules within the HA substrate was bolstered by supplementation with normal liver extracellular matrix (ECM). Primary human hepatocyte viability and phenotype were determined over a narrow physiologically relevant range of substrate stiffnesses from 600 to 4600Pa in both the presence and absence of liver ECM. Cell attachment, viability, and organization of the actin cytoskeleton improved with increased stiffness up to 4600Pa. These differences were not evident in earlier time points or substrates containing only HA. However, gene expression for the hepatocyte markers hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and albumin significantly decreased on the 4600Pa stiffness at day 7 indicating that cells may not have maintained their phenotype long-term at this stiffness. Function, as measured by albumin secretion, varied with both stiffness and time in culture and peaked at day 7 at the 1200Pa stiffness, slightly below the stiffness of normal liver ECM at 3000Pa. Overall, gel stiffness affected primary human hepatocyte cell adhesion, functional marker expression, and morphological characteristics dependent on both the presence of liver ECM in gel substrates and time in culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A spectrophotometer-based diffusivity assay reveals that diffusion hindrance of small molecules in extracellular matrix gels used in 3D cultures is dominated by viscous effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgoczy, Roland; Pastor, Isabel; Colom, Adai; Giménez, Alicia; Mas, Francesc; Alcaraz, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    The design of 3D culture studies remains challenging due to the limited understanding of extracellular matrix (ECM)-dependent hindered diffusion and the lack of simple diffusivity assays. To address these limitations, we set up a cost-effective diffusivity assay based on a Transwell plate and the spectrophotometer of a Microplate Reader, which are readily accessible to cell biology groups. The spectrophotometer-based assay was used to assess the apparent diffusivity D of FITC-dextrans with molecular weight (4-70kDa) spanning the physiological range of signaling factors in a panel of acellular ECM gels including Matrigel, fibrin and type I collagen. Despite their technical differences, D data exhibited ∼15% relative difference with respect to FRAP measurements. Our results revealed that diffusion hindrance of small particles is controlled by the enhanced viscosity of the ECM gel in conformance with the Stokes-Einstein equation rather than by geometrical factors. Moreover, we provided a strong rationale that the enhanced ECM viscosity is largely contributed to by unassembled ECM macromolecules. We also reported that gels with the lowest D exhibited diffusion hindrance closest to the large physiologic hindrance of brain tissue, which has a typical pore size much smaller than ECM gels. Conversely, sparse gels (≤1mg/ml), which are extensively used in 3D cultures, failed to reproduce the hindered diffusion of tissues, thereby supporting that dense (but not sparse) ECM gels are suitable tissue surrogates in terms of macromolecular transport. Finally, the consequences of reduced diffusivity in terms of optimizing the design of 3D culture experiments were addressed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Airway remodelling and inflammation in asthma are dependent on the extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Cooley, Marion A; Nair, Prema M; Donovan, Chantal; Hsu, Alan C; Jarnicki, Andrew G; Haw, Tatt Jhong; Hansbro, Nicole G; Ge, Qi; Brown, Alexandra C; Tay, Hock; Foster, Paul S; Wark, Peter A; Horvat, Jay C; Bourke, Jane E; Grainge, Chris L; Argraves, W Scott; Oliver, Brian G; Knight, Darryl A; Burgess, Janette K; Hansbro, Philip M

    2017-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. It is characterized by allergic airway inflammation, airway remodelling, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Asthma patients, in particular those with chronic or severe asthma, have airway remodelling that is associated with the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as collagens. Fibulin-1 (Fbln1) is an important ECM protein that stabilizes collagen and other ECM proteins. The level of Fbln1c, one of the four Fbln1 variants, which predominates in both humans and mice, is increased in the serum and airways fluids in asthma but its function is unclear. We show that the level of Fbln1c was increased in the lungs of mice with house dust mite (HDM)-induced chronic allergic airway disease (AAD). Genetic deletion of Fbln1c and therapeutic inhibition of Fbln1c in mice with chronic AAD reduced airway collagen deposition, and protected against AHR. Fbln1c-deficient (Fbln1c -/- ) mice had reduced mucin (MUC) 5 AC levels, but not MUC5B levels, in the airways as compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Fbln1c interacted with fibronectin and periostin that was linked to collagen deposition around the small airways. Fbln1c -/- mice with AAD also had reduced numbers of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells around the airways and reduced airway contractility as compared with WT mice. After HDM challenge, these mice also had fewer airway inflammatory cells, reduced interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, IL-33, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and CXCL1 levels in the lungs, and reduced IL-5, IL-33 and TNF levels in lung-draining lymph nodes. Therapeutic targeting of Fbln1c reduced the numbers of GATA3-positive Th2 cells in the lymph nodes and lungs after chronic HDM challenge. Treatment also reduced the secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 from co-cultured dendritic cells and T cells restimulated with HDM extract. Human epithelial cells cultured with Fbln1c peptide produced more CXCL1 mRNA than medium-treated controls. Our data show

  1. Trabecular meshwork ECM remodeling in glaucoma: could RAS be a target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Puneet; Agarwal, Renu

    2018-06-14

    Disturbances of extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis in trabecular meshwork (TM) cause increased aqueous outflow resistance leading to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucomatous eyes. Therefore, restoration of ECM homeostasis is a rational approach to prevent disease progression. Since renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition positively alters ECM homeostasis in cardiovascular pathologies involving pressure and volume overload, it is likely that RAS inhibitors reduce IOP primarily by restoring ECM homeostasis. Areas covered: Current evidence showing the presence of RAS components in ocular tissue and its role in regulating aqueous humor dynamics is briefly summarized. The role of RAS in ECM remodeling is discussed both in terms of its effects on ECM synthesis and its breakdown. The mechanisms of ECM remodeling involving interactions of RAS with transforming growth factor-β, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, bone morphogenic proteins, connective tissue growth factor, and matrix metalloproteinases in ocular tissue are discussed. Expert opinion: Current literature strongly indicates a significant role of RAS in ECM remodeling in TM of hypertensive eyes. Hence, IOP-lowering effect of RAS inhibitors may primarily be attributed to restoration of ECM homeostasis in aqueous outflow pathways rather than its vascular effects. However, the mechanistic targets for RAS inhibitors have much wider distribution and consequences, which remain relatively unexplored in TM.

  2. Biological and bactericidal properties of Ag-doped bioactive glass in a natural extracellular matrix hydrogel with potential application in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-Y; Chatzistavrou, X; Faulk, D; Badylak, S; Zheng, L; Papagerakis, S; Ge, L; Liu, H; Papagerakis, P

    2015-06-20

    The aim of this study was the fabrication and evaluation of a novel bioactive and bactericidal material, which could have applications in dentistry by supporting tissue regeneration and killing oral bacteria. Our hypothesis was that a new scaffold for pulp-dentin tissue engineering with enhanced antibacterial activity could be obtained by associating extracellular matrix derived from porcine bladder with an antibacterial bioactive glass. Our study combines in vitro approaches and ectopic implantation in scid mice. The novel material was fabricated by incorporating a sol-gel derived silver (Ag)-doped bioactive glass (BG) in a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel in ratio 1:1 in weight % (Ag-BG/ECM). The biological properties of the Ag-BG/ECM were evaluated in culture with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). In particular, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, stem cells markers profile, and cell differentiation potential were studied. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei was measured. Moreover, the capability of the material to enhance pulp/dentin regeneration in vivo was also evaluated. Our data show that Ag-BG/ECM significantly enhances DPSCs' proliferation, it does not affect cell morphology and stem cells markers profile, protects cells from apoptosis, and enhances in vitro cell differentiation and mineralisation potential as well as in vivo dentin formation. Furthermore, Ag-BG/ECM strongly inhibits S. mutans and L. casei growth suggesting that the new material has also anti-bacterial properties. This study provides foundation for future clinical applications in dentistry. It could potentially advance the currently available options of dental regenerative materials.

  3. Platelet activation by extracellular matrix proteins in haemostasis and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Steve P

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of excessive blood loss to avoid fatal haemorrhage is a pivotal process for all organisms possessing a circulatory system. Increased circulating blood volume and pressure, as required in larger animals, make this process all the more important and challenging. It is essential to have a powerful and rapid system to detect damage and generate an effective seal, and which is also exquisitely regulated to prevent unwanted, excessive or systemic activation so as to avoid blockage of vessels. Thus, a highly specialised and efficient haemostatic system has evolved that consists of cellular (platelets) and protein (coagulation factors) components. Importantly, this is able to support haemostasis in both the low shear environment of the venous system and the high shear environment of the arterial system. Endothelial cells, lining the entire circulation system, play a crucial role in the delicate balance between activation and inhibition of the haemostatic system. An intact and healthy endothelium supports blood flow by preventing attachment of cells and proteins which is required for initiation of coagulation and platelet activation. Endothelial cells produce and release the two powerful soluble inhibitors of platelet activation, nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and express high levels of CD39 which rapidly metabolises the major platelet feedback agonist, ADP. This antithrombotic environment however can rapidly change following activation or removal of endothelial cells through injury or rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Loss of endothelial cells exposes the subendothelial extracellular matrix which creates strong signals for activation of the haemostatic system including powerful platelet adhesion and activation. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the subendothelial extracellular matrix influence these prothrombotic characteristics with life threatening thrombotic and bleeding complications, as illustrated by formation of

  4. [Inhibitory proteins of neuritic regeneration in the extracellular matrix: structure, molecular interactions and their functions. Mechanisms of extracellular balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Javier; Uribe-Escamilla, Rebeca; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    After injury of the central nervous system (CNS) in higher vertebrates, neurons neither grow nor reconnect with their targets because their axons or dendrites cannot regenerate within the injured site. In the CNS, the signal from the environment regulating neurite regeneration is not exclusively generated by one molecular group. This signal is generated by the interaction of various types of molecules such as extracellular matrix proteins, soluble factors and surface membrane molecules; all these elements interact with one another generating the matrix's biological state: the extracellular balance. Proteins in the balanced extracellular matrix, support and promote cellular physiological states, including neuritic regeneration. We have reviewed three types of proteins of the extracellular matrix possessing an inhibitory effect and that are determinant of neuritic regeneration failure in the CNS: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycans and tenascin. We also review some of the mechanisms involved in the balance of extracellular proteins such as isomerization, epimerization, sulfation and glycosylation as well as the assemblage of the extracellular matrix, the interaction between the matrix and soluble factors and its proteolytic degradation. In the final section, we have presented some examples of the matrix's role in development and in tumor propagation.

  5. Hypergravity Stimulates the Extracellular Matrix/Integrin-Signaling Axis and Proliferation in Primary Osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, M.; Vercoutere, W.; Roden, C.; Banerjee, I.; Krauser, W.; Holton, E.; Searby, N.; Globus, R.; Almeida, E.

    2003-01-01

    We set out to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the proliferative response of primary rat osteoblasts to mechanical stimulation using cell culture centrifugation as a model for hypergravity. We hypothesized that this proliferative response is mediated by specific integrin/Extracellular Matrix (ECM) interactions. To investigate this question we developed a cell culture centrifuge and an automated system that performs cell fixation during hypergravity loading. We generated expression vectors for various focal adhesion and cytoskeletal proteins fused to GFP or dsRed and visualized these structures in transfected (or infected) osteoblasts. The actin cytoskeleton was also visualized using rhodamine-phalloidin staining and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) levels were assessed biochemically. We observed that a 24 hour exposure to 50-g stimulated proliferation compared to the 1-g control when cells were plated on fibronectin, collagen Type I , and collagen Type IV, but not on uncoated tissue culture plastic surfaces. This proliferative response was greatest for osteoblasts grown on fibronectin (2-fold increase over 1-g control) and collagen Type I (1.4 fold increase over 1-g control), suggesting that specific matrices and integrins are involved in the signaling pathways required for proliferation. Exposing osteoblasts grown on different matrices to 10-g or 25-g showed that effects on proliferation depended on both matrix type and loading level. We found that osteoblasts exposed to a short pulse of hypergravity during adhesion spread further and had more GFP-FAK containing focal adhesions compared to their 1-g controls. While overall levels of FAK did not change, more FAK was in the active (phosphorylated) form under hypergravity than in the 1-g controls. Cytoskeletal F-actin organization into filaments was also more prominent after brief exposures to hypergravity during the first five minutes of adhesion. These results suggest that specific integrins sense

  6. Static Mechanical Loading Influences the Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Cell Adhesion Proteins in Vaginal Cells Derived From Premenopausal Women With Severe Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufaishi, Hala; Alarab, May; Drutz, Harold; Lye, Stephen; Shynlova, Oksana

    2016-08-01

    Primary human vaginal cells derived from women with severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP-HVCs) demonstrate altered cellular characteristics as compared to cells derived from asymptomatic women (control-HVCs). Using computer-controllable Flexcell stretch unit, we examined whether POP-HVCs react differently to mechanical loading as compared to control-HVCs by the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, cell-ECM adhesion proteins, and ECM degrading and maturating enzymes. Vaginal tissue biopsies from premenopausal patients with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System stage ≥3 (n = 8) and asymptomatic controls (n = 7) were collected during vaginal hysterectomy or repair. Human vaginal cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion, seeded on collagen (COLI)-coated plates, and stretched (24 hours, 25% elongation). Total RNA was extracted, and 84 genes were screened using Human ECM and Adhesion Molecules polymerase chain reaction array; selected genes were verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Stretch-conditioned media (SCM) were collected and analyzed by protein array, immunoblotting, and zymography. In mechanically stretched control-HVCs, transcript levels of integrins (ITGA1, ITGA4, ITGAV, and ITGB1) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 8, and 13 were downregulated (P SCM from POP-HVCs compared to control-HVCs. Primary human vaginal cells derived from women with severe pelvic organ prolapse and control-HVCs react differentially to in vitro mechanical stretch. Risk factors that induce stretch may alter ECM composition and cell-ECM interaction in pelvic floor tissue leading to the abatement of pelvic organ support and subsequent POP development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Biochemical and biomechanical properties of the pacemaking sinoatrial node extracellular matrix are distinct from contractile left ventricular matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Gluck

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix plays a role in differentiation and phenotype development of its resident cells. Although cardiac extracellular matrix from the contractile tissues has been studied and utilized in tissue engineering, extracellular matrix properties of the pacemaking sinoatrial node are largely unknown. In this study, the biomechanical properties and biochemical composition and distribution of extracellular matrix in the sinoatrial node were investigated relative to the left ventricle. Extracellular matrix of the sinoatrial node was found to be overall stiffer than that of the left ventricle and highly heterogeneous with interstitial regions composed of predominantly fibrillar collagens and rich in elastin. The extracellular matrix protein distribution suggests that resident pacemaking cardiomyocytes are enclosed in fibrillar collagens that can withstand greater tensile strength while the surrounding elastin-rich regions may undergo deformation to reduce the mechanical strain in these cells. Moreover, basement membrane-associated adhesion proteins that are ligands for integrins were of low abundance in the sinoatrial node, which may decrease force transduction in the pacemaking cardiomyocytes. In contrast to extracellular matrix of the left ventricle, extracellular matrix of the sinoatrial node may reduce mechanical strain and force transduction in pacemaking cardiomyocytes. These findings provide the criteria for a suitable matrix scaffold for engineering biopacemakers.

  8. Extracellular matrix in oral squamous cell carcinoma: Friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta R Patankar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The observations of this study revealed altered staining reactions of the collagenous stroma and glycoproteins suggesting that tumor cells may release certain enzymes that play a role in the manipulation of ECM to enhance their own survival.

  9. Synthetic osteogenic extracellular matrix formed by coated silicon dioxide nanosprings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hass Jamie L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of biomimetic materials that parallel the morphology and biology of extracellular matrixes is key to the ability to grow functional tissues in vitro and to enhance the integration of biomaterial implants into existing tissues in vivo. Special attention has been put into mimicking the nanostructures of the extracellular matrix of bone, as there is a need to find biomaterials that can enhance the bonding between orthopedic devices and this tissue. Methods We have tested the ability of normal human osteoblasts to propagate and differentiate on silicon dioxide nanosprings, which can be easily grown on practically any surface. In addition, we tested different metals and metal alloys as coats for the nanosprings in tissue culture experiments with bone cells. Results Normal human osteoblasts grown on coated nanosprings exhibited an enhanced rate of propagation, differentiation into bone forming cells and mineralization. While osteoblasts did not attach effectively to bare nanowires grown on glass, these cells propagated successfully on nanosprings coated with titanium oxide and gold. We observed a 270 fold increase in the division rate of osteoblasts when grow on titanium/gold coated nanosprings. This effect was shown to be dependent on the nanosprings, as the coating by themselves did not alter the growth rate of osteoblast. We also observed that titanium/zinc/gold coated nanosprings increased the levels of osteoblast production of alkaline phosphatase seven folds. This result indicates that osteoblasts grown on this metal alloy coated nanosprings are differentiating to mature bone making cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, we showed that osteoblasts grown on the same metal alloy coated nanosprings have an enhanced ability to deposit calcium salt. Conclusion We have established that metal/metal alloy coated silicon dioxide nanosprings can be used as a biomimetic material paralleling the morphology and biology of

  10. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheheltani, Rabee; McGoverin, Cushla M.; Rao, Jayashree; Vorp, David A.; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Pleshko, N.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key component and regulator of many biological tissues including aorta. Several aortic pathologies are associated with significant changes in the composition of the matrix, especially in the content, quality and type of aortic structural proteins, collagen and elastin. The purpose of this study was to develop an infrared spectroscopic methodology that is comparable to biochemical assays to quantify collagen and elastin in aorta. Enzymatically degraded porcine aorta samples were used as a model of ECM degradation in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). After enzymatic treatment, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the aortic tissue were acquired by an infrared fiber optic probe (IFOP) and FTIR imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS). Collagen and elastin content were quantified biochemically and partial least squares (PLS) models were developed to predict collagen and elastin content in aorta based on FTIR spectra. PLS models developed from FT-IRIS spectra were able to predict elastin and collagen content of the samples with strong correlations (RMSE of validation = 8.4% and 11.1% of the range respectively), and IFOP spectra were successfully used to predict elastin content (RMSE = 11.3% of the range). The PLS regression coefficients from the FT-IRIS models were used to map collagen and elastin in tissue sections of degraded porcine aortic tissue as well as a human AAA biopsy tissue, creating a similar map of each component compared to histology. These results support further application of FTIR spectroscopic techniques for evaluation of AAA tissues. PMID:24761431

  11. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to quantify collagen and elastin in an in vitro model of extracellular matrix degradation in aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheheltani, Rabee; McGoverin, Cushla M; Rao, Jayashree; Vorp, David A; Kiani, Mohammad F; Pleshko, Nancy

    2014-06-21

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key component and regulator of many biological tissues including aorta. Several aortic pathologies are associated with significant changes in the composition of the matrix, especially in the content, quality and type of aortic structural proteins, collagen and elastin. The purpose of this study was to develop an infrared spectroscopic methodology that is comparable to biochemical assays to quantify collagen and elastin in aorta. Enzymatically degraded porcine aorta samples were used as a model of ECM degradation in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). After enzymatic treatment, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the aortic tissue were acquired by an infrared fiber optic probe (IFOP) and FTIR imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS). Collagen and elastin content were quantified biochemically and partial least squares (PLS) models were developed to predict collagen and elastin content in aorta based on FTIR spectra. PLS models developed from FT-IRIS spectra were able to predict elastin and collagen content of the samples with strong correlations (RMSE of validation = 8.4% and 11.1% of the range respectively), and IFOP spectra were successfully used to predict elastin content (RMSE = 11.3% of the range). The PLS regression coefficients from the FT-IRIS models were used to map collagen and elastin in tissue sections of degraded porcine aortic tissue as well as a human AAA biopsy tissue, creating a similar map of each component compared to histology. These results support further application of FTIR spectroscopic techniques for evaluation of AAA tissues.

  12. Development of an integrated system for activity-based profiling of matrix metallo-proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freije, Jan Robert

    2006-01-01

    Matrix metallo-proteases constitute a family of extracellular zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are involved in degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and other bioactive non-ECM molecules. A plethora of studies have implicated important roles for MMPs in many diseases (including

  13. Collagen cross-linking: insights on the evolution of metazoan extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Pascual, Fernando; Slatter, David Anthony

    2016-11-23

    Collagens constitute a large family of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that play a fundamental role in supporting the structure of various tissues in multicellular animals. The mechanical strength of fibrillar collagens is highly dependent on the formation of covalent cross-links between individual fibrils, a process initiated by the enzymatic action of members of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family. Fibrillar collagens are present in a wide variety of animals, therefore often being associated with metazoan evolution, where the emergence of an ancestral collagen chain has been proposed to lead to the formation of different clades. While LOX-generated collagen cross-linking metabolites have been detected in different metazoan families, there is limited information about when and how collagen acquired this particular modification. By analyzing telopeptide and helical sequences, we identified highly conserved, potential cross-linking sites throughout the metazoan tree of life. Based on this analysis, we propose that they have importantly contributed to the formation and further expansion of fibrillar collagens.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cells can survive on the extracellular matrix-derived decellularized bovine articular cartilage scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Tavassoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective (s: The scarcity of articular cartilage defect to repair due to absence of blood vessels and tissue engineering is one of the promising approaches for cartilage regeneration. The objective of this study was to prepare an extracellular matrix derived decellularized bovine articular cartilage scaffold and investigate its interactions with seeded rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Materials and Methods: Bovine articular cartilage that was cut into pieces with 2 mm thickness, were decellularized by combination of physical and chemical methods including snap freeze-thaw and treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. The scaffolds were then seeded with 1, 1’-dioctadecyl-3, 3, 3’, 3’-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI labeled BM-MSCs and cultured for up to two weeks. Results: Histological studies of decellularized bovine articular cartilage showed that using 5 cycles of snap freeze-thaw in liquid nitrogen and treatment with 2.5% SDS for 4 hr led to the best decellularization, while preserving the articular cartilage structure. Adherence and penetration of seeded BM-MSCs on to the scaffold were displayed by histological and florescence examinations and also confirmed by electron microscopy. Conclusion: ECM-derived decellularized articular cartilage scaffold provides a suitable environment to support adhesion and maintenance of cultured BM-MSCs and could be applied to investigate cellular behaviors in this system and may also be useful for studies of cartilage tissue engineering.

  15. Extracellular matrix in tumours as a source of additional neoplastic lesions - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Janusz A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog. Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST, which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression. Despite the numerous histogenetic classifications of tumours (zygotoma benignum et zygotoma malignum, or mesenchymomata maligna et mesenchymomata benigna, currently in oncological diagnosis the view prevails that the direction of tumour differentiation and its degree of histologic malignancy (grading are more important factors than the histogenesis of the tumour.

  16. Cells involved in extracellular matrix remodeling after acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Larissa Ferraz [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Mataveli, Fábio D’Aguiar [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antônio; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Justo, Giselle Zenker; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Evaluate the effects of VEGF{sub 165} gene transfer in the process of remodeling of the extracellular matrix after an acute myocardial infarct. Wistar rats were submitted to myocardial infarction, after the ligation of the left descending artery, and the left ventricle ejection fraction was used to classify the infarcts into large and small. The animals were divided into groups of ten, according to the size of infarcted area (large or small), and received or not VEGF{sub 165} treatment. Evaluation of different markers was performed using immunohistochemistry and digital quantification. The primary antibodies used in the analysis were anti-fibronectin, anti-vimentin, anti-CD44, anti-E-cadherin, anti-CD24, anti-alpha-1-actin, and anti-PCNA. The results were expressed as mean and standard error, and analyzed by ANOVA, considering statistically significant if p≤0.05. There was a significant increase in the expression of undifferentiated cell markers, such as fibronectin (protein present in the extracellular matrix) and CD44 (glycoprotein present in the endothelial cells). However, there was decreased expression of vimentin and PCNA, indicating a possible decrease in the process of cell proliferation after treatment with VEGF{sub 165}. Markers of differentiated cells, E-cadherin (adhesion protein between myocardial cells), CD24 (protein present in the blood vessels), and alpha-1-actin (specific myocyte marker), showed higher expression in the groups submitted to gene therapy, compared to non-treated group. The value obtained by the relation between alpha-1-actin and vimentin was approximately three times higher in the groups treated with VEGF{sub 165}, suggesting greater tissue differentiation. The results demonstrated the important role of myocytes in the process of tissue remodeling, confirming that VEGF{sub 165} seems to provide a protective effect in the treatment of acute myocardial infarct.

  17. Cells involved in extracellular matrix remodeling after acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Larissa Ferraz; Mataveli, Fábio D’Aguiar; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antônio; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate the effects of VEGF_1_6_5 gene transfer in the process of remodeling of the extracellular matrix after an acute myocardial infarct. Wistar rats were submitted to myocardial infarction, after the ligation of the left descending artery, and the left ventricle ejection fraction was used to classify the infarcts into large and small. The animals were divided into groups of ten, according to the size of infarcted area (large or small), and received or not VEGF_1_6_5 treatment. Evaluation of different markers was performed using immunohistochemistry and digital quantification. The primary antibodies used in the analysis were anti-fibronectin, anti-vimentin, anti-CD44, anti-E-cadherin, anti-CD24, anti-alpha-1-actin, and anti-PCNA. The results were expressed as mean and standard error, and analyzed by ANOVA, considering statistically significant if p≤0.05. There was a significant increase in the expression of undifferentiated cell markers, such as fibronectin (protein present in the extracellular matrix) and CD44 (glycoprotein present in the endothelial cells). However, there was decreased expression of vimentin and PCNA, indicating a possible decrease in the process of cell proliferation after treatment with VEGF_1_6_5. Markers of differentiated cells, E-cadherin (adhesion protein between myocardial cells), CD24 (protein present in the blood vessels), and alpha-1-actin (specific myocyte marker), showed higher expression in the groups submitted to gene therapy, compared to non-treated group. The value obtained by the relation between alpha-1-actin and vimentin was approximately three times higher in the groups treated with VEGF_1_6_5, suggesting greater tissue differentiation. The results demonstrated the important role of myocytes in the process of tissue remodeling, confirming that VEGF_1_6_5 seems to provide a protective effect in the treatment of acute myocardial infarct

  18. Pancreatic morphogenesis and extracellular matrix organization during rat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaoka, M; Haratake, J; Hashimoto, H

    1993-07-01

    We investigated the rat pancreatic morphology at various developmental stages ranging from 12 days of gestation to the neonatal stage, with special emphasis on alterations in extracellular matrix organization in vivo. The rat pancreatic development in utero could be divided into four representative stages as follows: (1) initial epithelial buds (12 days of gestation), (2) elongated and branching epithelium (13-14 days), (3) tubular structure (15-16 days), and (4) acinar structure (17 days or more). Ultrastructurally, the fetal and neonatal pancreata were almost constantly encompassed by continuous basal lamina, except for the earliest stage, in which minute disruptions of basal lamina were observed. Through the disruption, the direct epithelial-mesenchymal contact was formed between an endocrine cell and an adjacent mesenchymal cell, which implied epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in processes of endocrine cell differentiation. Collagen fibrils were frequently accumulated at the cleft (branchpoint) of the branching epithelium during the second and third stages mentioned above. Immunohistochemically, fibronectin and collagen type-I were localized particularly beside the neck (narrow part) or cleft of the pancreatic epithelium at these stages, although continuous linear localization of these matrices was noted around the initial pancreatic bud. This was in contrast to invariable linear localization of laminin and collagen type-IV at the epithelial/mesenchymal interface throughout the pancreatic development. Diffuse fibrillar localization of fibronectin and collagen type-I in the mesenchyme was pronounced at the later stages and after birth. Collagen type-III was only focally detectable around the pancreatic epithelium from the second stage, and its distinct localization was noted in the interlobular connective tissue after birth. Thus, chronological changes in extracellular matrix organization seemed to be closely related to morphogenetic processes of the rat

  19. Basic components of connective tissues and extracellular matrix: elastin, fibrillin, fibulins, fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminin, tenascins and thrombospondins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halper, Jaroslava; Kjaer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Collagens are the most abundant components of the extracellular matrix and many types of soft tissues. Elastin is another major component of certain soft tissues, such as arterial walls and ligaments. Many other molecules, though lower in quantity, function as essential components of the extracellular matrix in soft tissues. Some of these are reviewed in this chapter. Besides their basic structure, biochemistry and physiology, their roles in disorders of soft tissues are discussed only briefly as most chapters in this volume deal with relevant individual compounds. Fibronectin with its muldomain structure plays a role of "master organizer" in matrix assembly as it forms a bridge between cell surface receptors, e.g., integrins, and compounds such collagen, proteoglycans and other focal adhesion molecules. It also plays an essential role in the assembly of fibrillin-1 into a structured network. Laminins contribute to the structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and modulate cellular functions such as adhesion, differentiation, migration, stability of phenotype, and resistance towards apoptosis. Though the primary role of fibrinogen is in clot formation, after conversion to fibrin by thrombin, it also binds to a variety of compounds, particularly to various growth factors, and as such fibrinogen is a player in cardiovascular and extracellular matrix physiology. Elastin, an insoluble polymer of the monomeric soluble precursor tropoelastin, is the main component of elastic fibers in matrix tissue where it provides elastic recoil and resilience to a variety of connective tissues, e.g., aorta and ligaments. Elastic fibers regulate activity of TGFβs through their association with fibrillin microfibrils. Elastin also plays a role in cell adhesion, cell migration, and has the ability to participate in cell signaling. Mutations in the elastin gene lead to cutis laxa. Fibrillins represent the predominant core of the microfibrils in elastic as well as non

  20. Extracellular DNA and lipoteichoic acids interact with exopolysaccharides in the extracellular matrix of Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Pedraza, Midian C.; Novais, Tatiana F.; Faustoferri, Roberta C.; Quivey, Robert G.; Terekhov, Anton; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Klein, Marlise I.

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans -derived exopolysaccharides are virulence determinants in the matrix of biofilms that cause caries. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) are found in cariogenic biofilms, but their functions are unclear. Therefore, strains of S. mutans carrying single deletions that would modulate matrix components were used: eDNA – ΔlytS and ΔlytT; LTA – ΔdltA and ΔdltD; and insoluble exopolysaccharide – ΔgtfB. Single-species (parental strain S. mutans UA159 or individual mutant strains) and mixed-species (UA159 or mutant strain, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus gordonii) biofilms were evaluated. Distinct amounts of matrix components were detected, depending on the inactivated gene. eDNA was found to be cooperative with exopolysaccharide in early phases, while LTA played a larger role in the later phases of biofilm development. The architecture of mutant strains biofilms was distinct (vs UA159), demonstrating that eDNA and LTA influence exopolysaccharide distribution and microcolony organization. Thus, eDNA and LTA may shape exopolysaccharide structure, affecting strategies for controlling pathogenic biofilms. PMID:28946780

  1. Extracellular DNA and lipoteichoic acids interact with exopolysaccharides in the extracellular matrix of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Pedraza, Midian C; Novais, Tatiana F; Faustoferri, Roberta C; Quivey, Robert G; Terekhov, Anton; Hamaker, Bruce R; Klein, Marlise I

    2017-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans-derived exopolysaccharides are virulence determinants in the matrix of biofilms that cause caries. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) are found in cariogenic biofilms, but their functions are unclear. Therefore, strains of S. mutans carrying single deletions that would modulate matrix components were used: eDNA - ∆lytS and ∆lytT; LTA - ∆dltA and ∆dltD; and insoluble exopolysaccharide - ΔgtfB. Single-species (parental strain S. mutans UA159 or individual mutant strains) and mixed-species (UA159 or mutant strain, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus gordonii) biofilms were evaluated. Distinct amounts of matrix components were detected, depending on the inactivated gene. eDNA was found to be cooperative with exopolysaccharide in early phases, while LTA played a larger role in the later phases of biofilm development. The architecture of mutant strains biofilms was distinct (vs UA159), demonstrating that eDNA and LTA influence exopolysaccharide distribution and microcolony organization. Thus, eDNA and LTA may shape exopolysaccharide structure, affecting strategies for controlling pathogenic biofilms.

  2. Engineering a collagen matrix that replicates the biological properties of native extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kwangwoo; Sakai, Yuuki; Funamoto, Seiichi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Kishida, Akio

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to replicate the function of native tissues that can be used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The key to such replication is the preparation of an artificial collagen matrix that possesses a structure resembling that of the extracellular matrix. We, therefore, prepared a collagen matrix by fibrillogenesis in a NaCl/Na(2)HPO(4) aqueous solution using a dialysis cassette and investigated its biological behavior in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro cell adhesion and proliferation did not show any significant differences. The degradation rate in the living body could be controlled according to the preparation condition, where the collagen matrix with high water content (F-collagen matrix, >98%) showed fast degradation and collagen matrix with lower water content (T-collagen matrix, >80%) showed no degradation for 8 weeks. The degradation did not affect the inflammatory response at all and relatively faster wound healing response was observed. Comparing this result with that of collagen gel and decellularized cornea, it can be concluded that the structural factor is very important and no cell abnormal behavior would be observed for quaternary structured collagen matrix.

  3. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in odontogenic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Abdulhadi Abbas

    2008-08-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is known to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. The expression of EMMPRIN in odontogenic cysts has not been previously studied. This study was done to determine the presence and the variability of EMMPRIN expression in various types of odontogenic cysts. An immunohistochemical study using a polyclonal anti-EMMPRIN antibody was done using 48 odontogenic cyst cases: 13 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), 18 dentigerous cysts (DCs), and 17 periapical cysts (PAs). Twelve cases of normal dental follicles (DFs) were also included in this study for comparison. EMMPRIN immunoreactivity was detected in all of the cysts and DFs studied. In odontogenic cysts, EMMPRIN immunoreactivity was generally higher in basal cells than in suprabasal cells. The overall EMMPRIN expression in the epithelial lining of the 3 different types of odontogenic cyst was significantly higher than in the DFs. Overall EMMPRIN expression was also found to be significantly higher in the epithelial lining of OKCs than in the other types of cysts. This study confirmed that EMMPRIN is present in odontogenic cysts and DFs. The higher EMMPRIN expression in OKCs suggests that it may be involved in the aggressive behavior of this type of cyst.

  4. Domain organizations of modular extracellular matrix proteins and their evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J

    1996-11-01

    Multidomain proteins which are composed of modular units are a rather recent invention of evolution. Domains are defined as autonomously folding regions of a protein, and many of them are similar in sequence and structure, indicating common ancestry. Their modular nature is emphasized by frequent repetitions in identical or in different proteins and by a large number of different combinations with other domains. The extracellular matrix is perhaps the largest biological system composed of modular mosaic proteins, and its astonishing complexity and diversity are based on them. A cluster of minireviews on modular proteins is being published in Matrix Biology. These deal with the evolution of modular proteins, the three-dimensional structure of domains and the ways in which these interact in a multidomain protein. They discuss structure-function relationships in calcium binding domains, collagen helices, alpha-helical coiled-coil domains and C-lectins. The present minireview is focused on some general aspects and serves as an introduction to the cluster.

  5. Treatment of Partial Thickness Burns with a Novel Extracellular Matrix in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-20

    partial thickness burn was produced using a brass scale weight. Groups of 10 rats were randomly assigned to the various treatments . Jackets made from...Objectives: The objective this study was to examine the cellular and immune responses to various extracellular matrices (ECM) in a rat burn model...significant difference between treatments in terms of mean wound area (p = 0.77). Histologic examination revealed that all of the grafts were infected, with

  6. A human pericardium biopolymeric scaffold for autologous heart valve tissue engineering: cellular and extracellular matrix structure and biomechanical properties in comparison with a normal aortic heart valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Frantisek; Schornik, David; Masin, Jaroslav; Filova, Elena; Mirejovsky, Tomas; Burdikova, Zuzana; Svindrych, Zdenek; Chlup, Hynek; Horny, Lukas; Daniel, Matej; Machac, Jiri; Skibová, Jelena; Pirk, Jan; Bacakova, Lucie

    2018-04-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and the biomechanical properties of human pericardium (HP) with the normal human aortic heart valve (NAV). HP tissues (from 12 patients) and NAV samples (from 5 patients) were harvested during heart surgery. The main cells in HP were pericardial interstitial cells, which are fibroblast-like cells of mesenchymal origin similar to the valvular interstitial cells in NAV tissue. The ECM of HP had a statistically significantly (p structures of the two tissues, the dense part of fibrous HP (49 ± 2%) and the lamina fibrosa of NAV (47 ± 4%), was similar. In both tissues, the secant elastic modulus (Es) was significantly lower in the transversal direction (p structure and has the biomechanical properties required for a tissue from which an autologous heart valve replacement may be constructed.

  7. IKKα/CHUK regulates extracellular matrix remodeling independent of its kinase activity to facilitate articular chondrocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Olivotto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The non-canonical NF-κB activating kinase IKKα, encoded by CHUK (conserved-helix-loop-helix-ubiquitous-kinase, has been reported to modulate pro- or anti- inflammatory responses, cellular survival and cellular differentiation. Here, we have investigated the mechanism of action of IKKα as a novel effector of human and murine chondrocyte extracellular matrix (ECM homeostasis and differentiation towards hypertrophy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IKKα expression was ablated in primary human osteoarthritic (OA chondrocytes and in immature murine articular chondrocytes (iMACs derived from IKKα(f/f:CreERT2 mice by retroviral-mediated stable shRNA transduction and Cre recombinase-dependent Lox P site recombination, respectively. MMP-10 was identified as a major target of IKKα in chondrocytes by mRNA profiling, quantitative RT-PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. ECM integrity, as assessed by type II collagen (COL2 deposition and the lack of MMP-dependent COL2 degradation products, was enhanced by IKKα ablation in mice. MMP-13 and total collagenase activities were significantly reduced, while TIMP-3 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 protein levels were enhanced in IKKα-deficient chondrocytes. IKKα deficiency suppressed chondrocyte differentiation, as shown by the quantitative inhibition of.Alizarin red staining and the reduced expression of multiple chondrocyte differentiation effectors, including Runx2, Col10a1 and Vegfa,. Importantly, the differentiation of IKKα-deficient chondrocytes was rescued by a kinase-dead IKKα protein mutant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: IKKα acts independent of its kinase activity to help drive chondrocyte differentiation towards a hypertrophic-like state. IKKα positively modulates ECM remodeling via multiple downstream targets (including MMP-10 and TIMP-3 at the mRNA and post-transcriptional levels, respectively to maintain maximal MMP-13 activity, which is required for ECM

  8. Extracellular matrix glycation and receptor for advanced glycation end-products activation: a missing piece in the puzzle of the association between diabetes and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Armando; Añazco, Carolina; González, Ileana; Araya, Paulina

    2018-04-05

    A growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggests that people with diabetes are at a significantly higher risk of many forms of cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Cancer cells are surrounded by a complex milieu, also known as tumor microenvironment, which contributes to the development and metastasis of tumors. Of note, one of the major components of this niche is the extracellular matrix (ECM), which becomes highly disorganized during neoplastic progression, thereby stimulating cancer cell transformation, growth and spread. One of the consequences of chronic hyperglycemia, the most frequently observed sign of diabetes and the etiological source of diabetes complications, is the irreversible glycation and oxidation of proteins and lipids leading to the formation of the advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). These compounds may covalently crosslink and biochemically modify structure and functions of many proteins, and AGEs accumulation is particularly high in long-living proteins with low biological turnover, features that are shared by most, if not all, ECM proteins. AGEs-modified proteins are recognized by AGE-binding proteins, and thus glycated ECM components have the potential to trigger Receptor for advanced glycation end-products-dependent mechanisms. The biological consequence of receptor for advanced glycation end-products activation mechanisms seems to be connected, in different ways, to drive some hallmarks of cancer onset and tumor growth. The present review intends to highlight the potential impact of ECM glycation on tumor progression by triggering receptor for advanced glycation end-products-mediated mechanisms.

  9. MicroRNA-15b silencing inhibits IL-1β-induced extracellular matrix degradation by targeting SMAD3 in human nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Liang; Yang, Cao; Yin, Huipeng; Zhao, Kangcheng; Liu, Wei; Hua, Wenbin; Wang, Kun; Song, Yu; Tu, Ji; Li, Shuai; Luo, Rongjin; Zhang, Yukun

    2017-04-01

    To determine the role of microRNA-15b (miR-15b) in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-induced extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the nucleus pulposus (NP). MiR-15b was up-regulated in degenerative NP tissues and in IL-1β-stimulated NP cells, as compared to the levels in normal controls (normal tissue specimens from patients with idiopathic scoliosis). Bioinformatics and luciferase activity analyses showed that mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3), a key mediator of the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway, was directly targeted by miR-15b. Functional analysis demonstrated that miR-15b overexpression aggravated IL-1β-induced ECM degradation in NP cells, while miR-15b inhibition had the opposite effects. Prevention of IL-1β-induced NP ECM degeneration by the miR-15b inhibitor was attenuated by small-interfering-RNA-mediated knockdown of SMAD3. In addition, activation of MAP kinase and nuclear factor-κB up-regulated miR-15b expression and down-regulated SMAD3 expression in IL-1β-stimulated NP cells. MiR-15b contributes to ECM degradation in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) via targeting of SMAD3, thus providing a novel therapeutic target for IDD treatment.

  10. Increased tenascin C and Toll-like receptor 4 levels in visceral adipose tissue as a link between inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Rotellar, Fernando; Valentí, Victor; Silva, Camilo; Gil, María J; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is associated with an altered inflammatory and extracellular matrix (ECM) profile. Tenascin C (TNC) is an ECM glycoprotein with proinflammatory effects. We aimed to explore the expression levels of TNC in adipose tissue analyzing the contribution of adipocytes and stromovascular fraction cells (SVFC) as well as its impact on inflammation and ECM regulation. We also analyzed the effect of the stimulation with TNF-α and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on both SVFC and adipocytes. Samples obtained from 75 subjects were used in the study. Expression levels of TNC, TLR4, MMP2, and MMP9 were analyzed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) as well as in both adipocytes and SVFC. In addition, Tnc expression was measured in two mice models of obesity. We show, for the first time, that VAT expression levels of TNC are increased in normoglycemic and type 2 diabetic obese patients (Pobese patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (Pobesity were significantly increased (Pexogenous TNC induced (Pobesity via visceral adipose tissue inflammation representing a link with ECM remodeling.

  11. Positional information in axolotl and mouse limb extracellular matrix is mediated via heparan sulfate and fibroblast growth factor during limb regeneration in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Anne Q; Lee, Jangwoo; Oei, Michelle; Flath, Craig; Hwe, Caitlyn; Mariano, Rachele; Vu, Tiffany; Shu, Cynthia; Dinh, Andrew; Simkin, Jennifer; Muneoka, Ken; Bryant, Susan V; Gardiner, David M

    2015-08-01

    Urodele amphibians are unique among adult vertebrates in their ability to regenerate complex body structures after traumatic injury. In salamander regeneration, the cells maintain a memory of their original position and use this positional information to recreate the missing pattern. We used an in vivo gain-of-function assay to determine whether components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have positional information required to induce formation of new limb pattern during regeneration. We discovered that salamander limb ECM has a position-specific ability to either inhibit regeneration or induce de novo limb structure, and that this difference is dependent on heparan sulfates that are associated with differential expression of heparan sulfate sulfotransferases. We also discovered that an artificial ECM containing only heparan sulfate was sufficient to induce de novo limb pattern in salamander limb regeneration. Finally, ECM from mouse limbs is capable of inducing limb pattern in axolotl blastemas in a position-specific, developmental-stage-specific, and heparan sulfate-dependent manner. This study demonstrates a mechanism for positional information in regeneration and establishes a crucial functional link between salamander regeneration and mammals.

  12. Neural ECM in laminar organization and connectivity development in healthy and diseased human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanov Milošević, Nataša; Judaš, Miloš; Aronica, Eleonora; Kostovic, Ivica

    2014-01-01

    The neural extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a supportive framework for differentiating cells and their processes and regulates morphogenetic events by spatially and temporally relevant localization of signaling molecules and by direct signaling via receptor and/or coreceptor-mediated action. The

  13. Large-Scale Investigation of Leishmania Interaction Networks with Host Extracellular Matrix by Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoux-Ardore, Marie; Peysselon, Franck; Weiss, Anthony; Bastien, Patrick; Pratlong, Francine

    2014-01-01

    We have set up an assay to study the interactions of live pathogens with their hosts by using protein and glycosaminoglycan arrays probed by surface plasmon resonance imaging. We have used this assay to characterize the interactions of Leishmania promastigotes with ∼70 mammalian host biomolecules (extracellular proteins, glycosaminoglycans, growth factors, cell surface receptors). We have identified, in total, 27 new partners (23 proteins, 4 glycosaminoglycans) of procyclic promastigotes of six Leishmania species and 18 partners (15 proteins, 3 glycosaminoglycans) of three species of stationary-phase promastigotes for all the strains tested. The diversity of the interaction repertoires of Leishmania parasites reflects their dynamic and complex interplay with their mammalian hosts, which depends mostly on the species and strains of Leishmania. Stationary-phase Leishmania parasites target extracellular matrix proteins and glycosaminoglycans, which are highly connected in the extracellular interaction network. Heparin and heparan sulfate bind to most Leishmania strains tested, and 6-O-sulfate groups play a crucial role in these interactions. Numerous Leishmania strains bind to tropoelastin, and some strains are even able to degrade it. Several strains interact with collagen VI, which is expressed by macrophages. Most Leishmania promastigotes interact with several regulators of angiogenesis, including antiangiogenic factors (endostatin, anastellin) and proangiogenic factors (ECM-1, VEGF, and TEM8 [also known as anthrax toxin receptor 1]), which are regulated by hypoxia. Since hypoxia modulates the infection of macrophages by the parasites, these interactions might influence the infection of host cells by Leishmania. PMID:24478075

  14. Use of Collagen Extracellular Matrix Dressing for the Treatment of a Recurrent Venous Ulcer in a 52-Year-Old Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes treatment for a 52-year-old man with a recurrent venous leg ulcer using a collagen dressing with extracellular matrix. The patient was admitted to the wound care service for a 3-week-old recurrent venous ulcer. Treatment included application of a collagen dressing with extracellular matrix twice weekly or as needed by the patient; application of a secondary dressing (4 × 4 gauze); and coverage with an expandable netting or gauze using a conforming stretch gauze bandage and latex-free dressing retention tape. The initial venous leg ulcer in this patient required 10 weeks to achieve closure. Ninety-eight percent resolution of the recurrent ulcer had occurred within 4 weeks of treatment, with complete closure at 7 weeks. The average healing time for recurrent venous ulcers is reported in the literature to be longer than initial venous ulcers. In the case provided, collagen ECM dressings promoted complete wound healing in 49 days.

  15. The dynamic extracellular matrix: intervention strategies during heart failure and atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeneman, Sylvia; Cleutjens, Jack P.; Faber, Birgit C.; Creemers, Esther E.; van Suylen, Robert-Jan; Lutgens, Esther; Cleutjens, Kitty B.; Daemen, Mat J.

    2003-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is no longer seen as the static embedding in which cells reside; it has been shown to be involved in cell proliferation, migration and cell-cell interactions. Turnover of the different extracellular matrix components is an active process with multiple levels of regulation.

  16. The extracellular matrix and focal adhesion kinase signaling regulate cancer stem cell function in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Begum

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs play an important role in the clonogenic growth and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. A hallmark of PDAC is the desmoplastic reaction, but the impact of the tumor microenvironment (TME on CSCs is unknown. In order to better understand the mechanisms, we examined the impact of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins on PDAC CSCs. We quantified the effect of ECM proteins, β1-integrin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK on clonogenic PDAC growth and migration in vitro and tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis in vivo in nude mice using shRNA and overexpression constructs as well as small molecule FAK inhibitors. Type I collagen increased PDAC tumor initiating potential, self-renewal, and the frequency of CSCs through the activation of FAK. FAK overexpression increased tumor initiation, whereas a dominant negative FAK mutant or FAK kinase inhibitors reduced clonogenic PDAC growth in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the FAK inhibitor VS-4718 extended the anti-tumor response to gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel in patient-derived PDAC xenografts, and the loss of FAK expression limited metastatic dissemination of orthotopic xenografts. Type I collagen enhances PDAC CSCs, and both kinase-dependent and independent activities of FAK impact PDAC tumor initiation, self-renewal, and metastasis. The anti-tumor impact of FAK inhibitors in combination with standard chemotherapy support the clinical testing of this combination.

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Human Tendon and Ligament: Solubilization and Analysis of Insoluble Extracellular Matrix in Connective Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nori; Taniguchi, Takako; Goda, Yuichiro; Kosaka, Hirofumi; Higashino, Kosaku; Sakai, Toshinori; Katoh, Shinsuke; Yasui, Natsuo; Sairyo, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hisaaki

    2016-12-02

    Connective tissues such as tendon, ligament and cartilage are mostly composed of extracellular matrix (ECM). These tissues are insoluble, mainly due to the highly cross-linked ECM proteins such as collagens. Difficulties obtaining suitable samples for mass spectrometric analysis render the application of modern proteomic technologies difficult. Complete solubilization of them would not only elucidate protein composition of normal tissues but also reveal pathophysiology of pathological tissues. Here we report complete solubilization of human Achilles tendon and yellow ligament, which is achieved by chemical digestion combined with successive protease treatment including elastase. The digestion mixture was subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The low specificity of elastase was overcome by accurate mass analysis achieved using FT-ICR-MS. In addition to the detailed proteome of both tissues, we also quantitatively determine the major protein composition of samples, by measuring peak area of some characteristic peptides detected in tissue samples and in purified proteins. As a result, differences between human Achilles tendon and yellow ligament were elucidated at molecular level.

  18. In Vitro Expression of the Extracellular Matrix Components Aggrecan, Collagen Types I and II by Articular Cartilage-Derived Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneevoigt, J; Fabian, C; Leovsky, C; Seeger, J; Bahramsoltani, M

    2017-02-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of hyaline cartilage is perfectly suited to transmit articular pressure load to the subchondral bone. Pressure is transferred by a high amount of aggrecan-based proteoglycans and collagen type II fibres in particular. After any injury, the hyaline cartilage is replaced by fibrocartilage, which is low in proteoglycans and contains collagen type I predominantly. Until now, long-term results of therapeutic procedures including cell-based therapies like autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) lead to a replacement tissue meeting the composition of fibrocartilage. Therefore, it is of particular interest to discover how and to what extent isolation and in vitro cultivation of chondrocytes affect the cells and their expression of ECM components. Hyaline cartilage-derived chondrocytes were cultivated in vitro and observed microscopically over a time period of 35 days. The expression of collagen type I, collagen type II and aggrecan was analysed using RT-qPCR and Western blot at several days of cultivation. Chondrocytes presented a longitudinal shape for the entire cultivation period. While expression of collagen type I prevailed within the first days, only prolonged cultivation led to an increase in collagen type II and aggrecan expression. The results indicate that chondrocyte isolation and in vitro cultivation lead to a dedifferentiation at least to the stage of chondroprogenitor cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Physiological regulation of extracellular matrix collagen and elastin in the arterial wall of rats by noradrenergic tone and angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dab, Houcine; Kacem, Kamel; Hachani, Rafik; Dhaouadi, Nadra; Hodroj, Wassim; Sakly, Mohsen; Randon, Jacques; Bricca, Giampiero

    2012-03-01

    The interactions between the effects of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and angiotensin II (ANG II) on vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis were determined in rats. The mRNA and protein content of collagen I, collagen III and elastin in the abdominal aorta (AA) and femoral artery (FA) was investigated in Wistar-Kyoto rats treated for 5 weeks with guanethidine, a sympathoplegic, losartan, an ANG II AT1 receptor (AT1R) blocker, or both. The effects of noradrenaline (NE) and ANG II on collagen III and elastin mRNA, and the receptor involved, were tested in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Guanethidine increased collagen types I and III and decreased elastin, while losartan had an opposite effect, although without effect on collagen III. The combination of treatments abrogated changes induced by simple treatment with collagen I and elastin, but increased collagen III mRNA in AA and not in FA. NE stimulated collagen III mRNA via β receptors and elastin via α1 and α2 receptors. ANG II stimulated collagen III but inhibited elastin mRNA via AT1R. Overall, SNS and ANG II exert opposite and antagonistic effects on major components of ECM in the vascular wall. This may be of relevance for the choice of a therapeutic strategy in vascular diseases.

  20. Prediction of equibiaxial loading stress in collagen-based extracellular matrix using a three-dimensional unit cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Monica E; Bell, Brett J; Roeder, Blayne A; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Kokini, Klod; Nauman, Eric A

    2013-03-01

    Mechanical signals are important factors in determining cell fate. Therefore, insights as to how mechanical signals are transferred between the cell and its surrounding three-dimensional collagen fibril network will provide a basis for designing the optimum extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment for tissue regeneration. Previously we described a cellular solid model to predict fibril microstructure-mechanical relationships of reconstituted collagen matrices due to unidirectional loads (Acta Biomater 2010;6:1471-86). The model consisted