WorldWideScience

Sample records for extra tropical perturbations

  1. Generation of Curvature Perturbations with Extra Anisotropic Stress

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Kazuhiko; Mathews, Grant J

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of curvature perturbations and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum in the presence of an hypothesized extra anisotropic stress in the early universe. Such extra anisotropic stress terms might arise, for example, from the presence of the dark radiation term in brane-world cosmology. For the first time we evolve the scalar modes of such perturbations before and after neutrino decoupling and analyze their effects on the CMB spectrum. A novel result of this work is that the cancellation of the neutrino and extra anisotropic stress could lead to a spectrum of residual curvature perturbations which by themselves could reproduce the observed CMB power spectrum. This possibility may be testable as it would generate non-Gaussian fluctuations which could be constrained by future observations of density fluctuations.

  2. Extra-tropical origin of equatorial Pacific cold bias in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burls, N.; Muir, L.; Vincent, E. M.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    General circulation models frequently suffer from a substantial cold bias in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). For instance, the majority of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) have this particular problem (17 out of the 26 models evaluated in this project). Our study investigates the extent to which these equatorial cold biases are related to mean climate biases generated in the extra-tropics and then communicated to the equator via the oceanic subtropical cells (STCs). With an evident relationship across the CMIP5 models between equatorial SSTs and upper ocean temperatures in the extra-tropical subduction regions, our analysis confirms that cold SST biases within the extra-tropical Pacific translate into a cold equatorial SST bias via the STCs. An assessment of the relationship between these extra-tropical SST biases and surface heat flux components indicates a link to biases in the simulated shortwave fluxes. Further sensitivity studies with a climate model (CESM) in which extra-tropical cloud albedo is systematically varied illustrate the influence of cloud albedo perturbations, not only directly above the oceanic subduction regions but across the extended extra-tropical Pacific, on the equatorial bias. The CESM experiments reveal a quadratic relationship between extra-tropical albedo and the root-mean-square-error in equatorial SSTs - a relationship with which the CMIP5 models generally agree. Thus, our study suggests that one way to improve the equatorial cold bias is to improve the representation of cloud albedo in mid-latitudes.

  3. Extra-tropical origin of equatorial Pacific cold bias in climate models with links to cloud albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burls, Natalie J.; Muir, Leslie; Vincent, Emmanuel M.; Fedorov, Alexey

    2017-09-01

    General circulation models frequently suffer from a substantial cold bias in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). For instance, the majority of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) have this particular problem (17 out of the 26 models evaluated in the present study). Here, we investigate the extent to which these equatorial cold biases are related to mean climate biases generated in the extra-tropics and then communicated to the equator via the oceanic subtropical cells (STCs). With an evident relationship across the CMIP5 models between equatorial SSTs and upper ocean temperatures in the extra-tropical subduction regions, our analysis suggests that cold SST biases within the extra-tropical Pacific indeed translate into a cold equatorial bias via the STCs. An assessment of the relationship between these extra-tropical SST biases and local surface heat flux components indicates a link to biases in the simulated shortwave fluxes. Further sensitivity studies with a climate model (CESM) in which extra-tropical cloud albedo is systematically varied illustrate the influence of cloud albedo perturbations, not only directly above the oceanic subduction regions but across the extra-tropics, on the equatorial bias. The CESM experiments reveal a quadratic relationship between extra-tropical Pacific albedo and the root-mean-square-error in equatorial SSTs—a relationship with which the CMIP5 models generally agree. Thus, our study suggests that one way to improve the equatorial cold bias in the models is to improve the representation of subtropical and mid-latitude cloud albedo.

  4. Extra-tropical origin of equatorial Pacific cold bias in climate models with links to cloud albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burls, Natalie J.; Muir, Leslie; Vincent, Emmanuel M.; Fedorov, Alexey

    2016-11-01

    General circulation models frequently suffer from a substantial cold bias in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). For instance, the majority of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) have this particular problem (17 out of the 26 models evaluated in the present study). Here, we investigate the extent to which these equatorial cold biases are related to mean climate biases generated in the extra-tropics and then communicated to the equator via the oceanic subtropical cells (STCs). With an evident relationship across the CMIP5 models between equatorial SSTs and upper ocean temperatures in the extra-tropical subduction regions, our analysis suggests that cold SST biases within the extra-tropical Pacific indeed translate into a cold equatorial bias via the STCs. An assessment of the relationship between these extra-tropical SST biases and local surface heat flux components indicates a link to biases in the simulated shortwave fluxes. Further sensitivity studies with a climate model (CESM) in which extra-tropical cloud albedo is systematically varied illustrate the influence of cloud albedo perturbations, not only directly above the oceanic subduction regions but across the extra-tropics, on the equatorial bias. The CESM experiments reveal a quadratic relationship between extra-tropical Pacific albedo and the root-mean-square-error in equatorial SSTs—a relationship with which the CMIP5 models generally agree. Thus, our study suggests that one way to improve the equatorial cold bias in the models is to improve the representation of subtropical and mid-latitude cloud albedo.

  5. Impact of environmental perturbation on a tropical fish community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Tissawewa is a tropical reservoir in which annually recurring water level fluctuations are the main source of environmental variations. Aspects of a major perturbation studied related to (i) a progressive water level decrease that ultimately caused the reservoir to (ii) dry completely and a radical

  6. Synoptic and climatological aspects of extra-tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckebusch, G. C.

    2010-09-01

    Mid-latitude cyclones are highly complex dynamical features embedded in the general atmospheric circulation of the extra-tropics. Although the basic mechanisms leading to the formation of cyclones are commonly understood, the specific conditions and physical reasons triggering extreme, partly explosive development, are still under investigation. This includes also the identification of processes which might modulate the frequency and intensity of cyclone systems on time scales from days to centennials. This overview presentation will thus focus on three main topics: Firstly, the dynamic-synoptic structures of cyclones, the possibility to objectively identify cyclones and wind storms, and actual statistical properties of cyclone occurrence under recent climate conditions are addressed. In a second part, aspects of the interannual variability and its causing mechanisms are related to the seasonal predictability of extreme cyclones producing severe storm events. Extending the time frame will mean to deduce information on decadal or even centennial time periods. Thus, actual work to decadal as well as climatological variability and changes will be presented. In the last part of the talk focus will be laid on potential socio-economical impacts of changed cyclone occurrence. By means of global and regional climate modeling, future damages in terms of insured losses will be investigated and measures of uncertainty estimated from a multi-model ensemble analysis will be presented.

  7. Steady-state aerosol distributions in the extra-tropical, lower stratosphere and the processes that maintain them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Wilson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of aerosol, N2O and OCS made in the Northern Hemisphere below 21 km altitude following the eruption of Pinatubo are presented and analyzed. After September 1999, the oxidation of OCS and the sedimentation of particles in the extra-tropical overworld maintain the aerosol in a steady state. This analysis empirically links precursor gas to aerosol abundance throughout this region. These processes are tracked with age-of-air which offers advantages over tracking as a function of latitude and altitude. In the extra-tropical, lowermost stratosphere, normalized volume distributions appear constant in time after the fall of 1999. Exchange with the troposphere is important in understanding aerosol evolution there. Size distributions of volcanically perturbed aerosol are included to distinguish between volcanic and non-volcanic conditions. This analysis suggests that model failures to correctly predict OCS and aerosol properties below 20 km in the Northern Hemisphere extra tropics result from inadequate descriptions of atmospheric circulation.

  8. Steady-state aerosol distributions in the extra-tropical, lower stratosphere and the processes that maintain them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Wilson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of aerosol, N2O and OCS made in the Northern Hemisphere below 21 km altitude following the eruption of Pinatubo are presented and analyzed. After September 1999, the oxidation of OCS and sedimentation of particles in the extra-tropical overworld north of 45 N are found to maintain the aerosol in a steady state. This analysis empirically links precursor gas to aerosol abundance throughout this region. These processes are tracked with age-of-air which offers advantages over tracking as a function of latitude and altitude. In the extra-tropical, lowermost stratosphere, normalized volume distributions appear constant in time after the fall of 1999. Exchange with the troposphere is important in understanding aerosol evolution there. Size distributions of volcanically perturbed aerosol are included to distinguish between volcanic and non-volcanic conditions. This analysis suggests that model failures to correctly predict OCS and aerosol properties below 20 km in the Northern Hemisphere extra tropics result from inadequate descriptions of atmospheric circulation.

  9. Effect of the extra dimensions on the meson spectra in the perturbed background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, J.; Heshmatian, S.

    2017-05-01

    A class of the d-dimensional black holes space-time with the perturbed geometric function and dilaton field is considered to study meson spectroscopy. Holographic description of the black holes are used to investigate the meson spectra and the effective potential of mesons which described by a massless scalar field in the d-dimensional black holes with a dilaton background. The effects of perturbations and extra dimensions on the meson spectra and effective potential are investigated by using some experimental data and simulation of spectra ratios.

  10. Perturbations in the carbon budget of the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, John; Mitchard, Edward; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-10-01

    The carbon budget of the tropics has been perturbed as a result of human influences. Here, we attempt to construct a 'bottom-up' analysis of the biological components of the budget as they are affected by human activities. There are major uncertainties in the extent and carbon content of different vegetation types, the rates of land-use change and forest degradation, but recent developments in satellite remote sensing have gone far towards reducing these uncertainties. Stocks of carbon as biomass in tropical forests and woodlands add up to 271 ± 16 Pg with an even greater quantity of carbon as soil organic matter. Carbon loss from deforestation, degradation, harvesting and peat fires is estimated as 2.01 ± 1.1 Pg annum(-1); while carbon gain from forest and woodland growth is 1.85 ± 0.09 Pg annum(-1). We conclude that tropical lands are on average a small carbon source to the atmosphere, a result that is consistent with the 'top-down' result from measurements in the atmosphere. If they were to be conserved, they would be a substantial carbon sink. Release of carbon as carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning in the tropics is 0.74 Pg annum(-1) or 0.57 MgC person(-1) annum(-1) , much lower than the corresponding figures from developed regions of the world.

  11. On the structure of the extra-tropical transition layer from in-situ observations

    OpenAIRE

    Pisso, I.; Law, K. S.; Fierli, F.; P. H. Haynes; P. Hoor; Palazzi, E; F. Ravegnani; S. Viciani

    2012-01-01

    In-situ observations of atmospheric tracers from multiple measurement campaigns over the period 1994–2007 were combined to investigate the Extra-tropical Transition Layer (ExTL) region and the properties of large scale meridional transport. We used potential temperature, equivalent latitude and distance relative to the local dynamical tropopause as vertical coordinates to highlight the behaviour of trace gases in the tropopause region. Vertical coordinates based on constant PV surfaces...

  12. Tropical extra-tropical thermocline water mass exchanges in the Community Climate Model v.3 Part I: the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wainer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatological annual mean tropical-extra-tropical pathways of thermocline waters in the Atlantic Ocean are investigated with the NCAR CCSM numerical coupled model. Results from three numerical experiments are analyzed: Two are fully coupled runs with different spatial resolution (T42 and T85 for the atmospheric component. The third numerical experiment is an ocean-only run forced by NCEP winds and fluxes. Results show that the different atmospheric resolutions have a significant impact on the subduction pathways in the Atlantic because of how the wind field is represented. These simulation results also show that the water subducted at the subtropics reaching the EUC is entirely from the South Atlantic. The coupled model ability to simulate the STCs is discussed.

  13. Perturbations to the Lower Ionosphere by Tropical Cyclone Evan in the South Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sushil; Amor, Samir Nait; Chanrion, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    ) observed during tropical cyclone (TC) Evan, 9-16 December 2012 when TC was in the proximity of the transmitter-receiver links. We observed a maximum amplitude perturbation of 5.7dB on JJI transmitter during 16 December event. From Long Wave Propagation Capability model applied to three selected events we...

  14. Impact of horizontal spatial resolution on the derivation of the source receptor relationship—an extra-tropical cyclone case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Bum; Lee, Tae-Young

    2004-11-01

    A numerical study has been made to evaluate the impact of horizontal resolution on the estimation of the source receptor (S R) relationship. Numerical experiments with four different horizontal grid sizes have been performed for an extra-tropical cyclonic episode in East Asia. CSU RAMS and YU-SADM (Yonsei University's sulfuric acid deposition model) have been used to simulate meteorological and pollutant fields, respectively.In this study, enhanced spatial resolution has improved the simulation of an extra-tropical cyclone, cold front and associated precipitation systems. As spatial resolution increases, the circulation associated with the cyclone and cold front becomes stronger, and the amount of frontal rainfall increases. This study has shown that enhancement of spatial resolution tends to increase self-contributions but decrease foreign contributions to the wet deposition associated with an extra-tropical cyclone. It has been found that increased precipitation for enhanced spatial resolution reduces the amount of transported pollutant but increases the wet deposition of locally emitted pollutants. The larger self-contribution for higher resolutions may also be partially due to the increased strength of resolved convection. The impact of enhancing spatial resolution on dry deposition is felt mostly over downstream regions where the centres of the lows and fronts pass. Contributions from upstream sources increase as cyclonic circulation becomes stronger with increasing spatial resolution. On the other hand, enhancing spatial resolution does not significantly affect the S R relationship for either dry or wet deposition in the other regions where the extra-tropical cyclone does not pass. This study indicates that improved simulation of a cold front does not significantly affect the S R relationship for wet deposition over the area of passage of the cold front. An additional discussion infers a S R relationship for the wet deposition associated with a typical extra-tropical

  15. Natural and Anthropogenically Perturbed Biogenic Aerosol over Tropical South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, H.; Robinson, N.; Allan, J. D.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forested regions are of interest as sources of atmospheric aerosol since they cover very large areas of the tropics and are a source of a large amount of volatile organic compounds which act as precursors for particle formation. Natural forest regions offer the potential to study the background state of the tropics and so potentially gain some insight into the pre-perturbed atmosphere. However, over the last decade in South East Asia, a considerable fraction of the native tropical deciduous forest has been deforested and replanted with palm oil plantations. This changes the range of volatile organic compounds that are emitted and act as sources of secondary organic aerosol. A suite of intensive ground and airborne measurements were made over both tropical forest and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysia as part of the "Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) during 2008. These data will be used together with recent improvements in our understanding of aerosol formation from biogenic compounds to discuss aerosol formation in tropical regions and the influence of human influence through widespread palm oil agriculture.

  16. A global climate model based, Bayesian climate projection for northern extra-tropical land areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzhanov, Maxim M.; Eliseev, Alexey V.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2012-04-01

    Projections with contemporary global climate models (GCMs) still markedly deviate from each other on magnitude of climate changes, in particular, in middle to subpolar latitudes. In this work, a climate projection based on the ensemble of 18 CMIP3 GCM models forced by SRES A1B scenario is performed for the northern extra-tropical land. To assess the change of soil state, off-line simulations are performed with the Deep Soil Simulator (DSS) developed at the A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS). This model is forced by output of the above-mentioned GCM simulations. Ensemble mean and ensemble standard deviation for any variable are calculated by using Bayesian averaging which allows to enhance a contribution from more realistic models and diminish that from less realistic models. As a result, uncertainty for soil and permafrost variables become substantially narrower. The Bayesian weights for each model are calculated based on their performance for the present-day surface air temperature (SAT) and permafrost distributions, and for SAT trend during the 20th century. The results, except for intra-ensemble standard deviations, are not very sensitive to particular choice of Bayesian traits. Averaged over the northern extra-tropical land, annual mean surface air temperature in the ensemble increases by 3.1 ± 1.4 K (ensemble mean±intra-ensemble standard deviation) during the 21st century. Precipitation robustly increases in the pan-Arctic and decreases in the Mediterranean/Black Sea region. The models agree on near-surface permafrost degradation during the 21st century. The area underlain by near-surface permafrost decreases from the contemporary value 20 ± 3 mln sq. km to 14 ± 3 mln sq. km in the late 21st century. This leads to risk for geocryological hazard due to soil subsidence. This risk is classified as moderate to high in the southern and western parts of Siberia and Tibet in Eurasia, and in the region from Alaska

  17. Understanding the impact of extra-tropical storms from CORDEX projections over the Scandinavian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldore, Vidyunmala; Luna, Byron Quan

    2017-04-01

    Response of extra-tropical storms to climate change over the Scandinavian coast in high resolution regional climate projection is investigated in the current study. The complex interactions between North Atlantic oscillation, arctic amplification, ocean-atmospheric interactions and changing nature of synoptic waves will affect the generation and extremity of storm types. The nature of these storms is dependent on large-scale systems over this region, and hence higher resolution climate models might be able to represent the structure and intensity of the storms with accuracy. We propose a tracking algorithm for two seasons autumn (September-October-November) and winter season (December-January-February) providing features to detect the frequency and intensity of storm types for a given coast. Our objective is to understand the impact of changing nature of extreme storm types over the Scandinavian coast. Using a spatial assessment, possible impacts due to future storms in RCP8.5 scenario are assessed and hazard levels are represented.

  18. The transition from the tropical to the extra-tropical ozone-QBO signature in EMAC-ESCiMo, ERA interim and ozone CCI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzenmacher, Tobias; Joeckel, Patrick; Braesicke, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the tropical zonal mean stratospheric winds is a major driver of interannual ozone variability in the tropics. The associated ozone variability is clearly seen in the tropics. In addition, it affects the interannual ozone variability in sub-tropical and mid-latitude regions. The QBO influence on ozone in all latitudes can be diagnosed in climate model data (free running or nudged EMAC simulations from the ESCiMo project), reanalysis data (ERA-Interim) and satellite data (ozone CCI). We extract the ozone-QBO signature from the data by using a Fourier filtering technique so that the modelled and observed structures can be compared. Starting from the signal in total column ozone, we construct composite latitude height cross-sections of ozone to reveal the vertical structure of QBO related changes for different phases of the ozone-QBO. We discuss the differences between the modelled (EMAC) and observed (CCI) signatures and compare them to ERA-Interim (a data assimilation system). With this diagnostic we improve our understanding of the physical mechanisms that contribute to ozone variability and how an `ozone change signal' can migrate from the tropics to the extra-tropics. Understanding the main mechanisms involved in this signal transfer lays the foundation for an improved trend detection on decadal time scales.

  19. On the structure of the extra-tropical transition layer from in-situ observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pisso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In-situ observations of atmospheric tracers from multiple measurement campaigns over the period 1994–2007 were combined to investigate the Extra-tropical Transition Layer (ExTL region and the properties of large scale meridional transport. We used potential temperature, equivalent latitude and distance relative to the local dynamical tropopause as vertical coordinates to highlight the behaviour of trace gases in the tropopause region. Vertical coordinates based on constant PV surfaces allowed us to relate the dynamical definition of the tropopause with trace gases distributions and vertical gradients and hence analyse its latitudinal dependence and seasonal variability. Analysis of the available data provides a working definition of the upper limit of the ExTL based on the upper limit of the region of high vertical CO gradient in PV relative coordinates. A secondary local maximum in vertical O3 gradient can be used a proxy for the lower limit, although it is less clearly defined than that of CO. The sloping isopleths of CO and O3 mixing ratios and the CO mixing ratio gradient are consistent with isopleths in purely dynamical diagnostics such as χ30 d, the proportion of air masses in contact with the PBL within one month and underline the differences between the PV based and chemical tropopauses. The use of tropopause relative coordinates allows different seasons to be analysed together to produce climatological means. The weak dependence of dynamical diagnostics of transport on the absolute values of tracer concentrations makes them a suitable process-oriented tool to evaluate global chemical models and make Lagrangian comparisons.

  20. On the structure of the extra-tropical transition layer from in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisso, I.; Law, K. S.; Fierli, F.; Haynes, P. H.; Hoor, P.; Palazzi, E.; Ravegnani, F.; Viciani, S.

    2012-10-01

    In-situ observations of atmospheric tracers from multiple measurement campaigns over the period 1994-2007 were combined to investigate the Extra-tropical Transition Layer (ExTL) region and the properties of large scale meridional transport. We used potential temperature, equivalent latitude and distance relative to the local dynamical tropopause as vertical coordinates to highlight the behaviour of trace gases in the tropopause region. Vertical coordinates based on constant PV surfaces allowed us to relate the dynamical definition of the tropopause with trace gases distributions and vertical gradients and hence analyse its latitudinal dependence and seasonal variability. Analysis of the available data provides a working definition of the upper limit of the ExTL based on the upper limit of the region of high vertical CO gradient in PV relative coordinates. A secondary local maximum in vertical O3 gradient can be used a proxy for the lower limit, although it is less clearly defined than that of CO. The sloping isopleths of CO and O3 mixing ratios and the CO mixing ratio gradient are consistent with isopleths in purely dynamical diagnostics such as χ30 d, the proportion of air masses in contact with the PBL within one month and underline the differences between the PV based and chemical tropopauses. The use of tropopause relative coordinates allows different seasons to be analysed together to produce climatological means. The weak dependence of dynamical diagnostics of transport on the absolute values of tracer concentrations makes them a suitable process-oriented tool to evaluate global chemical models and make Lagrangian comparisons.

  1. Diagnosing the transition layer in the extra-tropical lowermost stratosphere using MLS O3 and MOPITT CO analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-H. Peuch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the Extra-tropical Transition Layer (ExTL in the lowermost stratosphere is investigated using a Chemistry Transport Model (CTM and analyses derived from assimilation of MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder O3 and MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere CO data. We use O3-CO correlations to quantify the effect of the assimilation on the height and depth of the ExTL. We firstly focus on a Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange (STE case study which occurred on 15 August 2007 over the British Isles (50° N, 10° W. We also extend the study at the global scale for the month of August 2007. For the STE case study, MOPITT CO analyses have the capability to sharpen the ExTL distribution whereas MLS O3 analyses provide a tropospheric expansion of the ExTL distribution with its maximum close to the thermal tropopause. When MLS O3 and MOPITT CO analyses are used together, the ExTL shows more realistic results and matches the thermal tropopause. At global scale, MOPITT CO analyses still show a sharper chemical transition between stratosphere and troposphere than the free model run. MLS O3 analyses move the ExTL toward the troposphere and broaden it. When MLS O3 analyses and MOPITT CO analyses are used together the ExTL matches the thermal tropopause poleward of 50°. This study shows that data assimilation can help overcome the shortcomings associated with a relatively coarse model resolution. The ExTL spread is larger in the Northern Hemisphere than the Southern Hemisphere suggesting that mixing processes are more active in the UTLS in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. This work opens perspectives for studying the seasonal variations of the ExTL at extra-tropical latitudes.

  2. The extra-tropical NH temperature in the last two millennia: reconstructions of low-frequency variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Christiansen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present two new multi-proxy reconstructions of the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere (30–90° N mean temperature: a two-millennia long reconstruction reaching back to AD 1 based on 32 proxies and a 500-yr long reconstruction reaching back to AD 1500 based on 91 proxies. The proxies are of different types and of different resolutions (annual, annual-to-decadal, and decadal but all have previously been shown to relate to local or regional temperature. We use a reconstruction method, LOC, that recently has been shown to confidently reproduce low-frequency variability. Confidence intervals are obtained by an ensemble pseudo-proxy method that both estimates the variance and the bias of the reconstructions. The two-millennia long reconstruction shows a well defined Medieval Warm Period with a peak warming ca. AD 950–1050 reaching 0.7 °C relative to the reference period AD 1880–1960. The 500-yr long reconstruction confirms previous results obtained with the LOC method applied to a smaller proxy compilation; in particular it shows the Little Ice Age cumulating in AD 1580–1720 with a temperature minimum of −1.1 °C below the reference period. The reconstructed local temperatures, the magnitude of which are subject to wide confidence intervals, show a rather geographically homogeneous LIA while more geographical inhomogeneities are found for the Medieval Warm Period. Reconstructions based on different number of proxies show only small differences suggesting that LOC reconstructs 50-yr smoothed extra-tropical NH mean temperatures well and that low-frequency noise in the proxies is a relatively small problem.

  3. Analysing and combining atmospheric general circulation model simulations forced by prescribed SST. Northern extra tropical response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moron, V. [Universite' de Provence, UFR des sciences geographiques et de l' amenagement, Aix-en-Provence (France); Navarra, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Ward, M. N. [University of Oklahoma, Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, Norman OK (United States); Foland, C. K. [Hadley Center for Climate Prediction and Research, Meteorological Office, Bracknell (United Kingdom); Friederichs, P. [Meteorologisches Institute des Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Maynard, K.; Polcher, J. [Paris Universite' Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris

    2001-08-01

    the intensity of Nino 3.4 SST anomalies. The leading reproducible mode in JJA is clearer and more skilful for SLP than for Z500 and also seems related to the SST time evolution of tropical Pacific. It is characterised by an out-of-phase between the whole North Pacific and a horseshoe shaped area from Eastern Siberia and Gulf of Mexico. The leading OM mode found in MAM and SON, are quite close to the DJF one (at least for the modelled anomalies), but they are less skilful than in DJF. The most skilful mode (i.e. SLP-Z500 mode in DJF an SLP mode in JJA) is almost similar to the most reproducible one during these particular seasons. In MAM and SON, the SST-forced pattern is very close to the wintertime one. The warm episodes in the central and eastern tropical Pacific are then associated with negative pressure anomalies at the sea level and also at 500 hPa over the whole North Pacific and from SE US Coast to Western Europe (from SE US Coast to Scandinavia for Z500) and positive pressure anomalies on Central Canada, north of 55{sup 0}-60{sup 0} N across the North Atlantic and also over Northern Siberia (in MAM). The variance forced by SST are lower in MAM and SON than in DJF and, as suggested above, the skill of this SST-forced mode is weak in MAM and almost close to zero in SON.

  4. Analyzing the Response of Climate Perturbations to (Tropical) Cyclones using the WRF Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, M.; Mittal, R.; Radhakrishnan, C.; Cipriani, J.; Watson, C.

    2015-12-01

    An analysis of global climate models shows considerable changes in the intensity and characteristics of future, warm climate cyclones. At regional scales, deviations in cyclone characteristics are often derived using idealized perturbations in the humidity, temperature and surface conditions. In this work, a more realistic approach is adopted by applying climate perturbations from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) to ERA-interim data to generate the initial and boundary conditions for future climate simulations. The climate signal perturbations are generated from the differences in 21 years of mean data from CCSM4 with representative concentration pathways (RCP8.5) for the periods: (a) 2070-2090 (future climate), (b) 2025-2045 (near-future climate) and (c) 1985-2005 (current climate). Four individual cyclone cases are simulated with and without climate perturbations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with a nested configuration. Each cyclone is characterized by variations in intensity, landfall location, precipitation and societal damage. To calculate societal damage, we use the recently introduced Cyclone Damage Potential (CDP) index evolved from the Willis Hurricane Index (WHI). As CDP has been developed for general societal applications, this work should provide useful insights for resilience analyses and industry (e.g., re-insurance).

  5. Effects of zonal perturbations of sea surface temperature on tropical equilibrium states: A cloud-resolving modeling study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng Cui; Shouting Gao

    2008-01-01

    The effects of zonal perturbations of sea surface temperature (SST) on tropical equilibrium states are investigated based on a series of two-dimensional cloud-resolving simulations with imposed zero vertical velocity, constant zonal wind, and a zonal model domain of 768 km. Four experiments with zonal SST perturbations of wavenumbers 1 (Cl), 2 (C2), 4 (C3), and 8 (C4) are compared to a control experiment with zonally uniform SST (CO). The 40-day integrations show that the temperatures reach quasi-equilibrium states with distinct differences. Cl and C2 produce warmer equilibrium states whereas C3 and C4 generate colder equilibrium states than CO does. The heat budgets in the five experiments are analyzed. Compared to CO, less IR cooling over smaller clear-sky regions in Cl and more condensational heating in C2 are responsible for wanner equilibrium states. A reduced condensational heating leads to the cold equilibrium state in C3. The interaction between convective systems in C4 causes a decrease of condensational heating, which accounts for the cold equilibrium state.

  6. Palms, peccaries and perturbations: widespread effects of small-scale disturbance in tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queenborough Simon A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbance is an important process structuring ecosystems worldwide and has long been thought to be a significant driver of diversity and dynamics. In forests, most studies of disturbance have focused on large-scale disturbance such as hurricanes or tree-falls. However, smaller sub-canopy disturbances could also have significant impacts on community structure. One such sub-canopy disturbance in tropical forests is abscising leaves of large arborescent palm (Arececeae trees. These leaves can weigh up to 15 kg and cause physical damage and mortality to juvenile plants. Previous studies examining this question suffered from the use of static data at small spatial scales. Here we use data from a large permanent forest plot combined with dynamic data on the survival and growth of > 66,000 individuals over a seven-year period to address whether falling palm fronds do impact neighboring seedling and sapling communities, or whether there is an interaction between the palms and peccaries rooting for fallen palm fruit in the same area as falling leaves. We tested the wider generalisation of these hypotheses by comparing seedling and sapling survival under fruiting and non-fruiting trees in another family, the Myristicaceae. Results We found a spatially-restricted but significant effect of large arborescent fruiting palms on the spatial structure, population dynamics and species diversity of neighbouring sapling and seedling communities. However, these effects were not found around slightly smaller non-fruiting palm trees, suggesting it is seed predators such as peccaries rather than falling leaves that impact on the communities around palm trees. Conversely, this hypothesis was not supported in data from other edible species, such as those in the family Myristicaceae. Conclusions Given the abundance of arborescent palm trees in Amazonian forests, it is reasonable to conclude that their presence does have a significant, if spatially

  7. Estimating present day extreme water level exceedance probabilities around the coastline of Australia: tides, extra-tropical storm surges and mean sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Ivan D.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; MacPherson, Leigh R.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Mason, Matthew S.; Crompton, Ryan P.; George, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of extreme water levels along low-lying, highly populated and/or developed coastlines can lead to considerable loss of life and billions of dollars of damage to coastal infrastructure. Therefore it is vitally important that the exceedance probabilities of extreme water levels are accurately evaluated to inform risk-based flood management, engineering and future land-use planning. This ensures the risk of catastrophic structural failures due to under-design or expensive wastes due to over-design are minimised. This paper estimates for the first time present day extreme water level exceedence probabilities around the whole coastline of Australia. A high-resolution depth averaged hydrodynamic model has been configured for the Australian continental shelf region and has been forced with tidal levels from a global tidal model and meteorological fields from a global reanalysis to generate a 61-year hindcast of water levels. Output from this model has been successfully validated against measurements from 30 tide gauge sites. At each numeric coastal grid point, extreme value distributions have been fitted to the derived time series of annual maxima and the several largest water levels each year to estimate exceedence probabilities. This provides a reliable estimate of water level probabilities around southern Australia; a region mainly impacted by extra-tropical cyclones. However, as the meteorological forcing used only weakly includes the effects of tropical cyclones, extreme water level probabilities are underestimated around the western, northern and north-eastern Australian coastline. In a companion paper we build on the work presented here and more accurately include tropical cyclone-induced surges in the estimation of extreme water level. The multi-decadal hindcast generated here has been used primarily to estimate extreme water level exceedance probabilities but could be used more widely in the future for a variety of other research and practical

  8. Sediment Transport Processes in a West-central Florida Open Marine Marsh Tidal Creek; the Role of Tides and Extra-tropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Lynn A.; Hine, Albert C.; Luther, Mark E.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Wright, Eric E.

    1995-08-01

    The extensive open marine marshes on Florida's Gulf of Mexico coast constitute one of the largest continuous coastal marsh systems in the U.S.A. and are characterized by (1) the absence of an apparent modern or relict sediment supply, (2) a thin 1-2 m sediment veneer overlying highly karstified bedrock and (3) both low wave and low tidal energy regimes. More importantly, the Florida open marine marsh system appears to be keeping pace with current rates of sea-level rise in spite of a limited inorganic sediment supply and low tidal energies. Although the magnitudes and directions of suspended solid transport and the processes controlling these transports have been rigorously documented for other U.S.A. marsh systems, they have not been documented in the Florida marsh system. Total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, current speeds and water levels were monitored in Cedar Creek, Florida, so that the TSS loads could be calculated and the processes exerting control over material exchange could be determined. Both TSS concentration and load are modulated by spring/neap variations and time-velocity asymmetries in the tidal currents. Concentrations at the creek mouth increase by as much as two orders of magnitude during strong wind events due to the presence of waves; however, large net sediment loads appear to be related to the coupled effects of waves and large tidal prisms. Waves initially mobilize sediments in the adjacent embayment but increased tidal prisms, and the associated higher velocities, are requisite for transport of this material further into the creek. Large tidal prisms may be the result of astronomically high tides or meteorologically forced tides. In Cedar Creek, the most important meteorological events affecting sedimentary processes are extra-tropical storms. This is because they occur at much higher frequencies than tropical storms and hurricanes, even though the latter are more potent and potentially could transport greater amounts of material

  9. Cosmology With Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Martín, J

    2005-01-01

    We review several properties of models that include extra dimensions, focusing on aspects related to cosmology and particle physics phenomenology. The properties of effective four dimensional inflationary geometry are studied in two distinct frameworks: (i) in Kaluza- Klein (KK) compactifications and (ii) in braneworld scenarios. From numerical simulations we find that inflationary braneworlds are unstable if the scale of inflation is too large in comparison with the stabilization scale of the interbrane distance. The analysis of perturbations confirms the existence of a tachyon associated with the volume modulus of the extra dimensions both in braneworlds and KK compactifications. With the numerical program BRANECODE non- perturbative properties of braneworlds are studied. We fully understand the non-perturbative consequences of this instability. Generic attractors are (i) an increase of the interbrane distance and the formation of a naked singularity, (ii) the brane colli...

  10. Perturbations in Massive Gravity Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Crisostomi, Marco; Pilo, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    We study cosmological perturbations for a ghost free massive gravity theory formulated with a dynamical extra metric that is needed to massive deform GR. In this formulation FRW background solutions fall in two branches. In the dynamics of perturbations around the first branch solutions, no extra degree of freedom with respect to GR ispresent at linearized level, likewise what is found in the Stuckelberg formulation of massive gravity where the extra metric isflat and non dynamical. In the first branch, perturbations are probably strongly coupled. On the contrary, for perturbations around the second branch solutions all expected degrees of freedom propagate. While tensor and vector perturbations of the physical metric that couples with matter follow closely the ones of GR, scalars develop an exponential Jeans-like instability on sub-horizon scales. On the other hand, around a de Sitter background there is no instability. We argue that one could get rid of the instabilities by introducing a mirror dark matter ...

  11. Extra-dimensional models on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Knechtli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this review we summarize the ongoing effort to study extra-dimensional gauge theories with lattice simulations. In these models the Higgs field is identified with extra-dimensional components of the gauge field. The Higgs potential is generated by quantum corrections and is protected from divergencies by the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. Dimensional reduction to four dimensions can occur through compactification or localization. Gauge-Higgs unification models are often studied using perturbation theory. Numerical lattice simulations are used to go beyond these perturbative expectations and to include non-perturbative effects. We describe the known perturbative predictions and their fate in the strongly-coupled regime for various extra-dimensional models.

  12. Cosmologically safe QCD axion as a present from extra dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawasaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a QCD axion model where the origin of PQ symmetry and suppression of axion isocurvature perturbations are explained by introducing an extra dimension. Each extra quark–antiquark pair lives on branes separately to suppress PQ breaking operators. The size of the extra dimension changes after inflation due to an interaction between inflaton and a bulk scalar field, which implies that the PQ symmetry can be drastically broken during inflation to suppress undesirable axion isocurvature fluctuations.

  13. Cosmologically safe QCD axion as a present from extra dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Yamada, Masaki, E-mail: yamadam@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2015-11-12

    We propose a QCD axion model where the origin of PQ symmetry and suppression of axion isocurvature perturbations are explained by introducing an extra dimension. Each extra quark–antiquark pair lives on branes separately to suppress PQ breaking operators. The size of the extra dimension changes after inflation due to an interaction between inflaton and a bulk scalar field, which implies that the PQ symmetry can be drastically broken during inflation to suppress undesirable axion isocurvature fluctuations.

  14. Perturbing PLA

    CERN Document Server

    Kozma, Gady

    2012-01-01

    We proved earlier that every measurable function on the circle, after a uniformly small perturbation, can be written as a power series (i.e. a series of exponentials with positive frequencies), which converges almost everywhere. Here we show that this result is basically sharp: the perturbation cannot be made smooth or even H\\"older. We discuss also a similar problem for perturbations with lacunary spectrum.

  15. An early onset of ENSO influence in the extra-tropics of the southwest Pacific inferred from a 14, 600 year high resolution multi-proxy record from Paddy's Lake, northwest Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kristen K.; Fletcher, Michael-Shawn; Gadd, Patricia S.; Heijnis, Henk; Jacobsen, Geraldine E.

    2017-02-01

    Tropical El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important influence on natural systems and cultural change across the Pacific Ocean basin. El Niño events result in negative moisture anomalies in the southwest Pacific and are implicated in droughts and catastrophic wildfires across eastern Australia. An amplification of tropical El Niño activity is reported in the east Pacific after ca. 6.7 ka; however, proxy data for ENSO-driven environmental change in Australia suggest an initial influence only after ca. 5 ka. Here, we reconstruct changes in vegetation, fire activity and catchment dynamics (e.g. erosion) over the last 14.6 ka from part of the southwest Pacific in which ENSO is the main control of interannual hydroclimatic variability: Paddy's Lake, in northwest Tasmania (1065 masl), Australia. Our multi-proxy approach includes analyses of charcoal, pollen, geochemistry and radioactive isotopes. Our results reveal a high sensitivity of the local and regional vegetation to climatic change, with an increase of non-arboreal pollen between ca. 14.6-13.3 ka synchronous with the Antarctic Cold Reversal, and a sensitivity of the local vegetation and fire activity to ENSO variability recorded in the tropical east Pacific through the Holocene. We detect local-scale shifts in vegetation, fire and sediment geochemistry at ca. 6.3, 4.8 and 3.4 ka, simultaneous with increases in El Niño activity in the tropical Pacific. Finally, we observe a fire-driven shift in vegetation from a pyrophobic association dominated by rainforest elements to a pyrogenic association dominated by sclerophyllous taxa following a prolonged (>1 ka) phase of tropical ENSO-amplification and a major local fire event at ca. 3.4 ka. Our results reveal the following key insights: (1) that ENSO has been a persistent modulator of southwest Pacific climate and fire activity through the Holocene; (2) that the climate of northwest Tasmania is sensitive to long-term shifts in tropical ENSO variability; and

  16. Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.

  17. Flowering plant physiology triggered the expansion of tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Boyce, C. K.

    2009-12-01

    Transpiration has long been known to feed precipitation, but unique hydraulic characteristics of flowering plants recently have been recognized to impart transpiration capacities dramatically higher than any other plants, living or extinct. Here we show through climate modeling that the replacement of angiosperm with non-angiosperm vegetation would result in a hotter, drier, and more seasonal Amazon basin—dry season length increases by 80 days over the eastern Amazon and overall area of everwet conditions decreases by a factor of five. Evolution of angiosperm physiology has uniquely facilitated spread of warm everwet forests and their enormous biodiversity, perhaps including their early Cenozoic expansion to extra-tropical latitudes. Divergent responses may be expected to general climate parameters and discrete environmental perturbations before and after evolution of angiosperm dominated ecosystems.

  18. Brane modeling in warped extra-dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Aqeel

    2012-01-01

    Five-dimensional scenarios with infinitesimally thin branes replaced by appropriate configurations of a scalar field were considered. A possibility of periodic extra dimension was discussed in the presence on non-minimal scalar-gravity coupling and a generalized Gibbons-Kallosh-Linde sum rule was found. In order to avoid constraints imposed by periodicity, a non-compact spacial extra dimension was introduced. A five dimensional model with warped geometry and two thin branes mimicked by a scalar profile was constructed and discussed. In the thin brane limit the model corresponds to a set-up with two positive-tension branes. The presence of two branes allows to address the issue of the hierarchy problem which could be solved by the standard warping of the four dimensional metric. Stability of the background solution was discussed and verified in the presence of the most general perturbations of the metric and the scalar field.

  19. SCONUL Research Extra

    OpenAIRE

    John Hall

    2006-01-01

    SCONUL Research Extra is a cooperative access and borrowing scheme for staff and research students in UK and Irish higher education institutions. Under the terms of the scheme, eligible researchers may visit any participating library and register as an external borrower. The scheme is run on behalf of SCONUL, the Society of College, National and University Libraries which represents the directors of the library and information services in all the universities of the United Kingdom and Ireland...

  20. A Way to the Dark Side of the Universe through Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, J A

    2002-01-01

    As indicated by Einstein's general relativity, matter and geometry are two faces of a single nature. In our point of view, extra dimensions, as a member of the {\\em geometry face}, will be treated as a part of the {\\em matter face} when they are beyond our poor vision, thereby providing dark energy sources effectively. The geometrical structure and the evolution pattern of extra dimensions therefore may play an important role in cosmology. Various possible impacts of extra dimensions on cosmology are investigated. In one way, the evolution of homogeneous extra dimensions may contribute to dark energy, driving the accelerating expansion of the universe. In the other way, both the energy perturbations in the ordinary three-space, combined with homogeneous extra dimensions, and the inhomogeneities in the extra space may contribute to dark matter. In this paper we wish to sketch the basic idea and show how extra dimensions may lead to the dark side of our universe.

  1. Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewett, J.L.; /SLAC

    2006-11-07

    If the structure of spacetime is different than that readily observed, gravitational physics, particle physics and cosmology are all immediately affected. The physics of extra dimensions offers new insights and solutions to fundamental questions arising in these fields. Novel ideas and frameworks are continuously born and evolved. They make use of string theoretical features and tools and they may reveal if and how the 11-dimensional string theory is relevant to our four-dimensional world. We have outlined some of the experimental observations in particle and gravitational physics as well as astrophysical and cosmological considerations that can constrain or confirm these scenarios. These developing ideas and the wide interdisciplinary experimental program that is charted out to investigate them mark a renewed effort to describe the dynamics behind spacetime. We look forward to the discovery of a higher dimensional spacetime.

  2. Qubits from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Lévay, Péter

    2011-01-01

    We link the recently discovered black hole-qubit correspondence to the structure of extra dimensions. In particular we show that for toroidal compactifications of type IIB string theory simple qubit systems arise naturally from the geometrical data of the tori parametrized by the moduli. We also generalize the recently suggested idea of the attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure of GHZ-like entangled states on the event horizon, to moduli stabilization for flux attractors in F-theory compactifications on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau four-folds. Finally using a simple example we show that the natural arena for qubits to show up is an embedded one within the realm of fermionic entanglement of quantum systems with indistinguishable constituents.

  3. SCONUL Research Extra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hall

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available SCONUL Research Extra is a cooperative access and borrowing scheme for staff and research students in UK and Irish higher education institutions. Under the terms of the scheme, eligible researchers may visit any participating library and register as an external borrower. The scheme is run on behalf of SCONUL, the Society of College, National and University Libraries which represents the directors of the library and information services in all the universities of the United Kingdom and Ireland, and in most other UK institutions of higher education, and the directors of the national libraries; it is for all institutions in membership of SCONUL able to lend library materials and, with 158 institutions signed up, it is now the largest reciprocal borrowing scheme in the UK and Ireland, serving almost the entire membership of SCONUL.

  4. Tropical malabsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, B S; Venkataraman, S; Mukhopadhya, A

    2006-01-01

    Malabsorption is an important clinical problem both in visitors to the tropics and in native residents of tropical countries. Infections of the small intestine are the most important cause of tropical malabsorption. Protozoal infections cause malabsorption in immunocompetent hosts, but do so more commonly in the setting of immune deficiency. Helminth infections occasionally cause malabsorption or protein‐losing enteropathy. Intestinal tuberculosis, chronic pancreatitis and small‐bowel bacterial overgrowth are important causes of tropical malabsorption. In recent years, inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease have become major causes of malabsorption in the tropics. Sporadic tropical sprue is still an important cause of malabsorption in adults and in children in South Asia. Investigations to exclude specific infective, immunological or inflammatory causes are important before considering tropical sprue as a diagnosis. This article briefly reviews the management of tropical sprue and presents an algorithm for its investigation and management. PMID:17148698

  5. Piomiosite tropical Tropical pyomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Ghiotti de Siqueira

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A piomiosite tropical, apesar de ser uma patologia reconhecida em nosso meio há mais de cem anos, ainda é pouco divulgada no Brasil, e pode-se perder tempo e dinheiro em exames para afastar a possibilidade de tumores ou tratar sua incidência vem aumentando em regiões de clima temperado, devido à disseminação do Vírus da lmunodeticiência Humana e aos tratamentos imúnossupressivos. Apesar de realizado em instituições que muitas vezes não apresentam recursos diagnósticos de primeira linha, demonstramos que o tratamento pode ser adequado se houver experiência clínica e bom senso. São descritos quarenta casos de piomiosite tropical, atendidos consecutivamente por um mesmo cirurgião; a idade média dos pacientes foi de 16 anos e o sexo predominante o masculino. O diagnóstico foi clínico em 73% dos casos e o tratamento realizado foi drenagem por incisão direta sobre a massa, deixando dreno tubular, usado para irrigação do abscesso. O tempo médio de permanência do dreno no local foi de cinco dias, e a média de permanência hospitalar, sete dias. Dois casos (5% evoluíram para osteomielite e um caso foi a óbito. A evolução foi satisfatória em 93% dos pacientes.Tropical pyomyositis, although a recognized pathology for more than a century, is still poorly known in Brazil, and one could waste time and money on exams for negative diagnosis for tumors or inadequately treat a potentially fatal disease. Initially referred to as a tropical disease, its incidence is increasing in temperate regions due to the dissemination of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and immunosuppressive treatments. In spite of our Institution frequently lacking quality diagnostic resources, we managed adequate treatment by using clinical experience and good judgement. A total of 40 cases of tropical pyomyositis are described, all treated by the same surgeon, with a mean age of 16 years, predominantly male. Clinical diagnosis was realized in 73% of the cases

  6. Cosmological density perturbations from perturbed couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujikawa, S

    2003-01-01

    The density perturbations generated when the inflaton decay rate is perturbed by a light scalar field $\\chi$ are studied. By explicitly solving the perturbation equations for the system of two scalar fields and radiation, we show that even in low energy-scale inflation nearly scale-invariant spectra of scalar perturbations with an amplitude set by observations are obtained through the conversion of $\\chi$ fluctuations into adiabatic density perturbations. We demonstrate that the spectra depend on the average decay rate of the inflaton & on the inflaton fluctuations. We then apply this new mechanism to string cosmologies & generalized Einstein theories and discuss the conditions under which scale-invariant spectra are possible.

  7. Using Extra Credit to Facilitate Extra Learning in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muztaba Fuad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Giving students extra credit work is a hotly debated pedagogical issue. This paper shares experience of using extra credit quizzes to push students to think critically and beyond the boundaries. This particular type of quizzes are not announced before and presented to students as a surprise quiz. A certain percentage of the grade earned in these quizzes was included in student’s final grade calculations. With a well-developed model of questions, quiz structure and grade calculation, the presented model of extra credit eliminates negativity related to extra credit work and also motivates students into course work. Our findings showed that by relieving students from the mental pressure of test taking and by making those tests/quizzes as extra credit; students actually performs better in solving harder problems and eventually learns more of the advanced course topics.

  8. Matter Density Perturbations in Modified Teleparallel Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yi-Peng

    2012-01-01

    We study the matter density perturbations in modified teleparallel gravity theories, where extra degrees of freedom arise from the local Lorentz violation in the tangent space. We formulate a vierbein perturbation with variables addressing all the 16 components of the vierbein field. By assuming the perfect fluid matter source, we examine the cosmological implication of the 6 unfamiliar new degrees of freedom in modified $f(T)$ gravity theories. We find that despite the new modes in the vierbein scenario provide no explicit significant effect in the small-scale regime, they exhibit some deviation from the standard general relativity results in super-horizon scales.

  9. Extra Low ENergy Antiproton

    CERN Multimedia

    To produce dense antiproton beams at very low energies (110 keV), it has been proposed to install a small decelerator ring between the existing AD ring and the experimental area. Phase-space blowup during deceleration is compensated by electron cooling such that the final emittances are comparable to the 5MeV beam presently delivered by the AD. An immediate consequence is a significant increase in the number of trapped antiprotons at the experiments as outlined in the proposal CERN/SPSC-2009-026; SPCS-P-338. This report describes the machine parameters and layout of the proposal ELENA (Extra Low ENergy Antiproton)ring also gives an approximate estimate of cost and manpower needs. Since the initial estimate, published in 2007 (CERN-AB-2007-079), the ELENA design has evolved considerably. This is due to a new location in the AD hall to acommodate for the possibility of another experimental zone, as suggested by the SPCS, and also due to improvements in the ring optics and layout. The cost estimate that is prese...

  10. Detection of merger and splitting of extra-tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Sarah; Hanley, John

    2013-04-01

    Results from the project IMILAST (Intercomparison of mid-latitude storm diagnostics) show that, despite a wide variety in the 15 cyclone identification and tracking techniques considered, a reasonable agreement on tracks of intense cyclones can be reached, at least in the central intensifying stage of the cyclone life cycle. In contrast, diagnostics of cyclone genesis and lysis events show reduced agreement amongst the methods with genesis and lysis density maps exhibiting coherence over smaller spatial scales. Recent work by Hanley and Caballero claims that multi-centre cyclones occur more frequently as storm intensity increases, with an associated increase in the probability of spurious splittings by single-centre tracking routines. We investigate whether the methodological differences in handling of cyclone merger and splitting are responsible for the range in genesis/lysis outcomes exhibited in IMILAST results or whether other factors, such as cyclone definition, have more influence over the spread. The study is focussed on a number of selected cases of intense cyclones that undergo a clear merger or splitting. Of the methods contributing to the IMILAST project, three explicitly handle cyclone merger and splitting. In demonstrating the differences between the techniques, we explore what each approach has to offer.

  11. Extra relativistic degrees of freedom without extra particles using Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Mastache, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    A recent number of analysis of cosmological data have shown indications for the presence of extra radiation beyond the standard model at equality and nucleosynthesis epoch, which has been usually interpreted as an effective number of neutrinos, Neff > 3.046. In this work we establish the theoretical basis for a particle physics-motivated model (Bound Dark Matter, BDM) which explain the need of extra radiation. The BDM model describes dark matter particles which are relativistic at a scale below aac due to non-perturbative methods, as protons and neutrons do, this process is described by a time dependent equation of state, w_bdm(a). We compute the range of values of the BDM model, xc=ac*vc, that explain the values obtain for the 4He at BBN and Neff at equality. Combining different analysis we conclude that this may happen in xc = 5.01 (^{+6.01}_{-5.01}) x 10^{-5} with a vc = 0.56 \\pm 0.39. We conclude that we can account for the apparent extra radiation Nex using phase transition in the dark matter with a time...

  12. Supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabio Zwirner

    2004-02-01

    This talk reviews some aspects of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of extra dimensions. The first part is a general introduction, recalling the motivations for supersymmetry and extra dimensions, as well as some unsolved problems of four-dimensional models of supersymmetry breaking. The central part is a more focused introduction to a mechanism for (super)symmetry breaking, proposed first by Scherk and Schwarz, where extra dimensions play a crucial role. The last part is devoted to the description of some recent results and of some open problems.

  13. Inflation from periodic extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Higaki, Tetsutaro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a realization of a small field inflation based on string inspired supergravities. In theories accompanying extra dimensions, compactification of them with small radii is required for realistic situations. Since the extra dimension can have a periodicity, there will appear (quasi-)periodic functions under transformations of moduli of the extra dimensions in low energy scales. Such a periodic property can lead to a UV completion of so-called multi-natural inflation model where inflaton potential consists of a sum of multiple sinusoidal functions with a decay constant smaller than the Planck scale. As an illustration, we construct a SUSY breaking model, and then show that such an inflaton potential can be generated by a sum of world sheet instantons in intersecting brane models on extra dimensions containing $T^2/{\\mathbb Z}_2$ orbifold. We show also predictions of cosmic observables by numerical analyzes.

  14. Phenomenology of universal extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; /Florida U.

    2006-10-01

    In this proceeding, the phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED), in which all the Standard Model fields propagate, is explored. We focus on models with one universal extra dimension, compactified on an S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2} orbifold. We revisit calculations of Kaluza-Klein (KK) dark matter without an assumption of the KK mass degeneracy including all possible coannihilations. We then contrast the experimental signatures of low energy supersymmetry and UED.

  15. Tropical Zoology

    OpenAIRE

    Messana, Giuseppe; Chelazzi, Lorenzo; Taiti, Stefano; Paoli, Pasquino

    2008-01-01

    Tropical Zoology is an international journal publishing original papers in the fields of experimental and descriptive zoology concerning tropical areas, with particular attention to the Afrotropical Region. Review papers are welcome. A book review is included. As a rule, the yearly volume comprises two issues.

  16. Tropical Zoology

    OpenAIRE

    Messana, Giuseppe; Chelazzi, Lorenzo; Taiti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Tropical Zoology is an international journal publishing original papers in the fields of experimental and descriptive zoology concerning tropical areas, with particular attention to the Afrotropical Region. Review papers are welcome. A book review is included. As a rule, the yearly volume comprises two issues.

  17. Extra-pair paternity in the long-tailed finch Poephila acuticauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica P. van Rooij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of passerine birds are socially monogamous, true genetic monogamy is rare, with extra-pair paternity (EPP occurring in almost 90% of surveyed socially monogamous species. We present the first molecular data on the genetic breeding system of the long-tailed finch, Poephila acuticauda, a grass finch endemic to the tropical northern savannah of Australia. Although the species forms socially monogamous pair bonds during the breeding season, we found that extra-pair males sired 12.8% of 391 offspring, in 25.7% of 101 broods. Our findings provide only the second estimate of extra-pair paternity in the estrildid finch family.

  18. Brane World Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Casali, A G; Wang, B; Casali, Adenauer G.; Abdalla, Elcio; Wang, Bin

    2004-01-01

    We consider a brane world and its gravitational linear perturbations. We present a general solution of the perturbations in the bulk and find the complete perturbed junction conditions for generic brane dynamics. We also prove that (spin 2) gravitational waves in the great majority of cases can only arise in connection with a non-vanishing anisotropic stress. This has far reaching consequences for inflation in the brane world. Moreover, contrary to the case of the radion, perturbations are stable.

  19. Extra Stimulation in Intermediate Grade Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, George E.

    Three types of extra stimulation in reading are discussed: extra teacher time devoted to teaching reading, extra student time devoted to practice in reading, and extra motivation and reinforcement leading to greater amounts of student reading outside the school. Problems are created (1) when teaching time spent on reading is increased in the…

  20. Ambiguity in running spectral index with an extra light field during inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohri, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of inflation there could be extra dynamical scalar fields that will soon disappear (become static) before the end of inflation. In the light of multi-field inflation, those extra degrees of freedom may not change the prediction of the original spectrum of the curvature perturbation. One can remove such fields introducing extra number of e-foldings prior to $N_e\\sim 60$, however such extra e-foldings may make the trans-Planckian problem worse due to the Lyth bound. We show that such extra scalar fields can change the running of the spectral index to give correction of $\\pm 0.01$ without modifying other cosmological parameters. The ambiguity in the running of the spectral index, which could be generated by such additional dynamical fields, can be used to nullify the tension between BICEP2 and other experiments.

  1. Collider searches for extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsberg, Greg; /Brown U.

    2004-12-01

    Searches for extra spatial dimensions remain among the most popular new directions in our quest for physics beyond the Standard Model. High-energy collider experiments of the current decade should be able to find an ultimate answer to the question of their existence in a variety of models. Until the start of the LHC in a few years, the Tevatron will remain the key player in this quest. In this paper, we review the most recent results from the Tevatron on searches for large, TeV{sup -1}-size, and Randall-Sundrum extra spatial dimensions, which have reached a new level of sensitivity and currently probe the parameter space beyond the existing constraints. While no evidence for the existence of extra dimensions has been found so far, an exciting discovery might be just steps away.

  2. Flavor Models In Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Valadez, J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of implementing flavor symmetries in the context of extra dimensions. To the particle content of the Standard Model we add an additional scalar (flavon) field and we assume that all the fields propagate in the extra-dimensional space-time. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value the flavor symmetry is effectively broken thus generating the Yukawa textures associated with the particles. An specific model in 5D that reproduces all fermion masses, mixing angles and ratios is presented.

  3. Signatures of Large Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hossenfelder, S; Stöcker, H

    2004-01-01

    String theory suggests modifications of our spacetime such as extra dimensions and the existence of a mininal length scale. In models with addidional dimensions, the Planck scale can be lowered to values accessible by future colliders. Effective theories which extend beyond the standart-model by including extra dimensions and a minimal length allow computation of observables and can be used to make testable predictions. Expected effects that arise within these models are the production of gravitons and black holes. Furthermore, the Planck-length is a lower bound to the possible resolution of spacetime which might be reached soon.

  4. Cosmology With Dynamical Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, J K

    2005-01-01

    Nearly every attempt to unify the fundamental forces incorporates the idea of compact extra dimensions. The notion was introduced by Kaluza and Klein in the 1920s and is an essential part of contemporary string theory and M-theory. In most treatments the extra dimensions are static. We consider the consequences of extra dimensions with time-varying radii. The radii are modeled by light scalar fields. These may have unusual properties which produce observable effects, such as non-canonical kinetic energies, couplings to matter and radiation, and non- minimal coupling to gravity. Extra dimensions may be responsible for dark energy in the late universe. The simplest model of dark energy is characterized by its equation of state. We show that constraints placed on realistic models by the universality of free fall, variation of fundamental constants and metric tests of gravity are often stricter than bounds on the equation of state. Testing the equivalence principle maybe an effective way of distinguishing some qu...

  5. Wormholes leading to extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bronnikov, K A

    2016-01-01

    In 6D general relativity with a scalar field as a source of gravity, a new type of static wormhole solutions is presented: such wormholes connect our universe with a small 2D extra subspace with a universe where this extra subspace is large, and the whole space-time is effectively 6-dimensional. We consider manifolds with the structure M0 x M1 x M2 , where M0 is 2D Lorentzian space-time while each of M1 an M2 can be a 2-sphere or a 2-torus. After selecting possible asymptotic behaviors of the metric functions compatible with the field equations, we give two explicit examples of wormhole solutions with spherical symmetry in our space-time and toroidal extra dimensions. In one example, with a massless scalar field (it is a special case of a well-known more general solution), the extra dimensions have a large constant size at the "far end"; the other example contains a nonzero potential $V(\\phi)$ which provides a 6D anti-de Sitter asymptotic, where all spatial dimensions are infinite.

  6. Origin of the 'Extra Entropy'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, R.

    2008-01-01

    I will discuss how one can determine the origin of the 'extra entropy' in groups and clusters and the feedback needed in models of galaxy formation. I will stress the use of x-ray spectroscopy and imaging and the critical value that Con-X has in this regard.

  7. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  8. Cosmology with dynamical extra dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Joel K.

    Nearly every attempt to unify the fundamental forces incorporates the idea of compact extra dimensions. The notion was introduced by Kaluza and Klein in the 1920s and is an essential part of contemporary string theory and M-theory. In most treatments the extra dimensions are static. We consider the consequences of extra dimensions with time-varying radii. The radii are modeled by light scalar fields. These may have unusual properties which produce observable effects, such as non-canonical kinetic energies, couplings to matter and radiation, and non-minimal coupling to gravity. Extra dimensions may be responsible for dark energy in the late universe. The simplest model of dark energy is characterized by its equation of state. We show that constraints placed on realistic models by the universality of free fall, variation of fundamental constants and metric tests of gravity are often stricter than bounds on the equation of state. Testing the equivalence principle maybe an effective way of distinguishing some quintessence models from a cosmological constant. In certain dark energy models the speed of sound is much less than the speed of light. We calculate how this affects the cosmic microwave background and show that the speed of sound may be measurable, provided dark energy is sufficiently dense at decoupling. This is another possible signature of quintessence. Dynamical extra dimensions may have consequences for the early universe. In the cyclic model, the universe is described in terms of a series of contractions and expansions of an extra dimension. The big bang is preceded by a big crunch and quantum fluctuations of the scalar field produce structure in universe. We consider how the fluctuations evolve and build over many cycles and show that there are no observable instabilities or adverse effects. In the cyclic model extra dimensions act as both dark energy and as an agent to cause contraction and a big crunch. Previous theorems suggested that contraction

  9. Perturbative tests of non-perturbative counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Atish; Gomes, João

    2010-03-01

    We observe that a class of quarter-BPS dyons in mathcal{N} = 4 theories with charge vector ( Q, P) and with nontrivial values of the arithmetic duality invariant I := gcd( Q∧ P) are nonperturbative in one frame but perturbative in another frame. This observation suggests a test of the recently computed nonperturbative partition functions for dyons with nontrivial values of the arithmetic invariant. For all values of I, we show that the nonperturbative counting yields vanishing indexed degeneracy for this class of states everywhere in the moduli space in precise agreement with the perturbative result.

  10. Generalized Supersymmetric Perturbation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. G(o)n(ǖ)l

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using the basic ingredient of supersymmetry, a simple alternative approach is developed to perturbation theory in one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The formulae for the energy shifts and wavefunctions do not involve tedious calculations which appear in the available perturbation theories. The model applicable in the same form to both the ground state and excited bound states, unlike the recently introduced supersymmetric perturbation technique which, together with other approaches based on logarithmic perturbation theory, are involved within the more general framework of the present formalism.

  11. Density matrix perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Challacombe, Matt

    2004-05-14

    An orbital-free quantum perturbation theory is proposed. It gives the response of the density matrix upon variation of the Hamiltonian by quadratically convergent recursions based on perturbed projections. The technique allows treatment of embedded quantum subsystems with a computational cost scaling linearly with the size of the perturbed region, O(N(pert.)), and as O(1) with the total system size. The method allows efficient high order perturbation expansions, as demonstrated with an example involving a 10th order expansion. Density matrix analogs of Wigner's 2n+1 rule are also presented.

  12. Perturbative Topological Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert

    We give a review of the application of perturbative techniques to topological quantum field theories, in particular three-dimensional Chern-Simons-Witten theory and its various generalizations. To this end we give an introduction to graph homology and homotopy algebras and the work of Vassiliev and Kontsevich on perturbative knot invariants.

  13. Perturbing supersymmetric black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Onozawa, H; Mishima, T; Ishihara, H; Onozawa, Hisashi; Okamura, Takashi; Mishima, Takashi; Ishihara, Hideki

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in the N=2 supergravity is presented. In the extreme case, the black hole responds to the perturbation of each field in the same manner. This is possibly because we can match the modes of the graviton, gravitino, and photon using supersymmetry transformations.

  14. Effective description of brane terms in extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Aguila, Francisco; /CAFPE, Granada; Perez-Victoria, Manuel; /CERN; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    We study how theories defined in (extra-dimensional) spaces with localized defects can be described perturbatively by effective field theories in which the width of the defects vanishes. These effective theories must incorporate a ''classical'' renormalization, and we propose a renormalization prescription a la dimensional regularization for codimension 1, which can be easily used in phenomenological applications. As a check of the validity of this setting, we compare some general predictions of the renormalized effective theory with those obtained in a particular ultraviolet completion based on deconstruction.

  15. Frame independent cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

  16. Scalar mass corrections from compact extra dimensions on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Del Debbio, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    We explore the phase diagram of the SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in 5 dimensions by numerical simulations. The lattice system shows a dimensionally-reduced phase where the extra dimension is small compared to the four dimensional correlation length. In the low-energy regime of this phase, the system behaves like a four-dimensional gauge theory coupled to an adjoint scalar field. By tuning the bare parameters of the lattice model, we identify lines of constant physics, and analyse the behaviour of the non-perturbative scalar mass as a function of the compactification and the cut-off scales. The perturbative prediction that the effective theory contains a light particle with a mass that is independent of the cut-off is tested against non-pertubative results.

  17. Search for extra space dimensions with ATLAS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ambreesh Gupta; ATLAS Collaboration

    2004-03-01

    If extra spatial dimensions were to exist, they could provide a solution to the hierarchy problem. The studies done by the ATLAS Collaboration on the sensitivity of the detector to various extra dimension models are reported in this document.

  18. Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter H.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the deforestation problem and some efforts for solving the problem. Considers the impact of population growth, poverty, and ignorance. Includes a discussion of the current rapid decline in tropical forests, the consequences of destruction, and an outlook for the future. (YP)

  19. The Perturbed Puma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Shu-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Yu

    2012-04-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.

  20. Perturbations of planar algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of {\\em weight} of a planar algebra $P$ and construct a new planar algebra referred as the {\\em perturbation of $P$} by the weight. We establish a one-to-one correspondence between pivotal structures on 2-categories and perturbations of planar algebras by weights. To each bifinite bimodule over $II_1$-factors, we associate a {\\em bimodule planar algebra} bimodule corresponds naturally with sphericality of the bimodule planar algebra. As a consequence of this, we reproduce an extension of Jones' theorem (of associating 'subfactor planar algebras' to extremal subfactors). Conversely, given a bimodule planar algebra, we construct a bifinite bimodule whose associated bimodule planar algebra is the one which we start with using perturbations and Jones-Walker-Shlyakhtenko-Kodiyalam-Sunder method of reconstructing an extremal subfactor from a subfactor planar algebra. We show that the perturbation class of a bimodule planar algebra contains a unique spherical unimodular bimodule planar algeb...

  1. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  2. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  3. Perturbations and quantum relaxation

    CERN Document Server

    Kandhadai, Adithya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether small perturbations can cause relaxation to quantum equilibrium over very long timescales. We consider in particular a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator, which can serve as a model of a field mode on expanding space. We assume an initial wave function with small perturbations to the ground state. We present evidence that the trajectories are highly confined so as to preclude relaxation to equilibrium even over very long timescales. Cosmological implications are briefly discussed.

  4. The Perturbed Puma Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Shu-Jun; LIU Qiu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations.We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model.In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry,the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero.The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.%The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.

  5. Effects of thermal inflation on small scale density perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Sungwook E; Lee, Young Jae; Stewart, Ewan D; Zoe, Heeseung

    2015-01-01

    In cosmological scenarios with thermal inflation, extra eras of moduli matter domination, thermal inflation and flaton matter domination exist between primordial inflation and the radiation domination of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. During these eras, cosmological perturbations on small scales can enter and re-exit the horizon, modifying the power spectrum on those scales. The largest modified scale, $k_\\mathrm{b}$, touches the horizon size when the expansion changes from deflation to inflation at the transition from moduli domination to thermal inflation. We analytically calculate the evolution of perturbations from moduli domination through thermal inflation and evaluate the curvature perturbation on the constant radiation density hypersurface at the end of thermal inflation to determine the late time curvature perturbation. Our resulting transfer function suppresses the power spectrum by a factor $\\sim 50$ at $k \\gg k_\\mathrm{b}$, with $k_\\mathrm{b}$ corresponding to anywhere from megaparsec to subparsec scal...

  6. Light Stops from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Pepin, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    In supersymmetric models the mass of the stops can be considered as the naturalness measure of the theory. Roughly, the lighter the stops are, the more natural the theory is. Both, the absence of supersymmetric signals at experiment and the measurement of the Higgs mass, put scenarios with light stops under increasing tension. I will present a supersymmetry breaking mechanism of the Scherk-Schwarz type that, by introducing extra $SU(2)_L$ triplets in the Higgs sector, is able to generate the correct Higgs mass while keeping stops light.

  7. Higgs Bosons in Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, motivated by the recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson at the LHC with a mass m_H\\simeq 126 GeV, we review different models where the hierarchy problem is solved by means of a warped extra dimension. In the Randall-Sundrum model electroweak observables provide very strong bounds on the mass of KK modes which motivates extensions to overcome this problem. Two extensions are briefly discussed. One particular extension is based on the deformation of the metric such that it strongly departs from the AdS_5 structure in the IR region while it goes asymptotically to AdS_5 in the UV brane. This model has the IR brane close to a naked metric singularity (which is outside the physical interval) characteristic of soft-walls constructions. The proximity of the singularity provides a strong wave-function renormalization for the Higgs field which suppresses the T and S parameters. The second class of considered extensions are based on the introduction of an extra gauge group in the bulk such that the custod...

  8. Clustering under Perturbation Resilience

    CERN Document Server

    Balcan, Maria Florina

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Bilu and Linial \\cite{BL} formalized an implicit assumption often made when choosing a clustering objective: that the optimum clustering to the objective should be preserved under small multiplicative perturbations to distances between points. They showed that for max-cut clustering it is possible to circumvent NP-hardness and obtain polynomial-time algorithms for instances resilient to large (factor $O(\\sqrt{n})$) perturbations, and subsequently Awasthi et al. \\cite{ABS10} considered center-based objectives, giving algorithms for instances resilient to O(1) factor perturbations. In this paper, we greatly advance this line of work. For the $k$-median objective, we present an algorithm that can optimally cluster instances resilient to $(1 + \\sqrt{2})$-factor perturbations, solving an open problem of Awasthi et al.\\cite{ABS10}. We additionally give algorithms for a more relaxed assumption in which we allow the optimal solution to change in a small $\\epsilon$ fraction of the points after perturbation. ...

  9. Renormalized Cosmological Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Crocce, M

    2006-01-01

    We develop a new formalism to study nonlinear evolution in the growth of large-scale structure, by following the dynamics of gravitational clustering as it builds up in time. This approach is conveniently represented by Feynman diagrams constructed in terms of three objects: the initial conditions (e.g. perturbation spectrum), the vertex (describing non-linearities) and the propagator (describing linear evolution). We show that loop corrections to the linear power spectrum organize themselves into two classes of diagrams: one corresponding to mode-coupling effects, the other to a renormalization of the propagator. Resummation of the latter gives rise to a quantity that measures the memory of perturbations to initial conditions as a function of scale. As a result of this, we show that a well-defined (renormalized) perturbation theory follows, in the sense that each term in the remaining mode-coupling series dominates at some characteristic scale and is subdominant otherwise. This is unlike standard perturbatio...

  10. Flavor Symmetries in Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, A; Aranda, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of flavor based on a discrete local symmetry that reproduces all fermion masses and mixing angles both in the quark and lepton sectors. The particle content of the model is that of the standard model plus an additional flavon field. All the fields propagate in a fifth universal extra dimension and the flavor scale is associated with the cutoff of the 5D theory which is $\\sim 10$ TeV. The Yukawa matrices as well as the Majorana mass matrix for the neutrinos are generated by higher dimension operators involving the flavon field. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value it breaks the flavor symmetry and thus generates the Yukawa couplings. The model is consistent with the nearly bimaximal solution to the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits.

  11. Materia extraña

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez Cadenas, J J

    2008-01-01

    Enero, 1999. Unas extrañas burbujas se han colocado en el acelerador de particulas del CERN (Ginebra). Ante el riesgo de que esto desencadene una catástrofe a escala mundial, el centro ordena detener el experimento. Años después, Irene, una joven y promotedora científica, es contratada en la división de Física Teórica del CERN. Allí coincide con el mayor Espinosa, destinado a la sede suiza de la ONU para trabajar en un proyecto contra la proliferación de armas nucleares. La misión de Espinosa resulta ser mucho más arriesgada de lo que parecía. Irene ambiciosa y rebelde, toma una decisión de efectos imprevisibles.

  12. Exploring Extra Dimensions in Spectroscopy Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Feng; LIU Hong-Ya

    2006-01-01

    @@ We propose an idea in spectroscopy to search for extra spatial dimensions as well as to detect the possible deviation from Newton's inverse-square law at small scale, and we take high-Z hydrogenic systems and muonic atoms as illustrations. The relevant experiments might help to explore a more than two extra dimensions scenario in the brane world model proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, Dvali (ADD) and to set constraints for fundamental parameters such as the size of extra dimensions.

  13. Rapid millennial-scale vegetation changes in the tropical Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrego, D.H.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Rama-Corredor, O.; Martrat, B.; Grimalt, J.O.; Thompson, L.

    2015-01-01

    We compare eight pollen records reflecting climatic and environmental change from the tropical Andes. Our analysis focuses on the last 50 ka, with particular emphasis on the Pleistocene to Holocene transition. We explore ecological grouping and downcore ordination results as two approaches for extra

  14. Perturbed S3 neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph; Naeem Shahid, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of the perturbation which violates the permutation symmetry of three Majorana neutrinos but preserves the well known (23) interchange symmetry. This is done in the presenceof an arbitrary Majorana phase which serves to insure the degeneracy of the three neutrinos at the unper...

  15. Cosmological perturbations in antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert

    2014-10-01

    We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.

  16. Instantaneous stochastic perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lüscher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A form of stochastic perturbation theory is described, where the representative stochastic fields are generated instantaneously rather than through a Markov process. The correctness of the procedure is established to all orders of the expansion and for a wide class of field theories that includes all common formulations of lattice QCD.

  17. A DYNAMICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE WIND FIELD IN TROPICAL CYCLONES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Shi-feng; CUI Xiao-peng; PAN Jin-song; ZHOU Guan-bo; HU Bo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the primitive equations in polar coordinates and with the supposition that parcel velocity in tropical cyclones is in linear variation and that the distribution of surface pressure agrees with the Fujita formula, a set of equations are derived, which describe the impact of perturbations of central pressure, position of tropical cyclones, direction and velocity of movement of tropical cyclones on the wind field. It is proved that the second order approximation of the kinetic energy of tropical cyclones can be described by the equations under linear approximation. Typhoon Wipha (2007) is selected to verify the above interpretation method, and the results show that the interpretation method of the wind field could give very good results before the landfall of tropical cyclones, while making no apparent improvement after the landfall. The dynamical interpretation method in this paper is applicable to improving the forecasts of the wind field of tropical cyclones close to the coast.

  18. High order multiplication perturbation method for singular perturbation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文志; 黄培彦

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a high order multiplication perturbation method for sin-gularly perturbed two-point boundary value problems with the boundary layer at one end. By the theory of singular perturbations, the singularly perturbed two-point boundary value problems are first transformed into the singularly perturbed initial value problems. With the variable coefficient dimensional expanding, the non-homogeneous ordinary dif-ferential equations (ODEs) are transformed into the homogeneous ODEs, which are then solved by the high order multiplication perturbation method. Some linear and nonlinear numerical examples show that the proposed method has high precision.

  19. Extra and intradural spinal Hemangioblastoma Hemangioblastoma espinal extra e intradural Hemangioblastoma espinhal extra e intradural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Campos Moraes Amato

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system (CNS are low-grade highly vascularized tumors that may be sporadic or associated with Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Extradural hemangioblastomas are uncommon and those located extra and intradurally are even rarer. This study uses an illustrative case and literature review to discuss the difficulties to consider the correct diagnosis and to select the best surgical approach. A 57 years-old white male patient presented with myelopathy and right C5 radiculopathy. The images showed a lobulated, hourglass shaped, highly enhanced extra/intradural lesion that occupied the spinal canal and widened the C4-C5 right intervertebral foramen. Total resection of the intradural lesion was achieved through a posterior approach, but the extradural part could only be partially removed. Complete improvement was observed after four months of follow-up and the residual tumor has been followed up clinically and radiologically. Even though the preoperative impression was of a spinal schwannoma, the histopathological examination revealed grade I hemangioblastoma as per WHO. Despite their rarity, current complementary exams allow considering the diagnosis of hemangioblastoma preoperatively. That is essential to a better surgical planning in view of the particular surgical features of this lesion.Hemangioblastomas del sistema nervioso central (SNC son tumores altamente vascularizados, de grado bajo, que pueden ser esporádicos o vinculados a la enfermedad de Von Hippel-Lindau. Hemangioblastomas extradurales no son comunes, y aquellos localizados extra e intraduralmente son aún más raros. Este estudio usa un caso ilustrativo y la revisión de la literatura para analizar las dificultades cuanto a considerar el diagnóstico correcto y para seleccionar el mejor abordaje quirúrgico. Un paciente, hombre blanco de 57 años de edad, presentaba mielopatía con radiculopatía C5 derecha. Las imágenes mostraban lesión extra

  20. Extra informatie op matrixborden : mogelijkheden en effecten.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de & Niet, M. de

    2002-01-01

    In this report, the possibilities of displaying extra safety information on Dynamic Message Signs (DMSs) are explored. The technical possibilities for placing extra information on the signs are looked at, and the road safety effects are examined. The information to be displayed can be divided into t

  1. Extra dimensions at particle colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvergsnes, Erik Wolden

    2004-08-01

    This thesis consists of an introduction where we consider different aspects of theories involving extra dimensions, together with four research publications (Papers I-IV) attached at the end. The introductional chapters should serve as background material for better understanding the models on which the articles are based. In Chap. 4 we also present some plots not included in the papers. The topic of Papers I-III is graviton induced Bremsstrahlung. In Paper I we consider the contribution to this process from graviton exchange through gluon-gluon fusion at the LHC, compared to the QED background. Only final-state radiation is considered in Paper I, whereas in Paper II we extend this work to include also the quark-antiquark annihilation with graviton exchange, as well as initial-state radiation for both graviton and Standard Model exchange. Paper III is a study of graviton-induced Bremsstrahlung at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders, including both initial- and final-state radiation. Paper IV is devoted to a study of the center-edge asymmetry at hadron colliders, an asymmetry which previously had been studied for e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. The center-edge asymmetry can be used as a method of distinguishing between spin-1 and spin-2 exchange, something which will be of major importance if a signal is observed.

  2. Perturbations can enhance qauntum search

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, J; Bae, Joonwoo; Kwon, Younghun

    2003-01-01

    In general, a quantum algorithm wants to avoid decoherence or perturbation, since such factors may cause errors in the algorithm. In this letter, we will supply the answer to the interesting question: can the factors seemingly harmful to a quantum algorithm(for example, perturbations) enhance the algorithm? We show that some perturbations to the generalized quantum search Hamiltonian can reduce the running time and enhance the success probability. We also provide the narrow bound to the perturbation which can be beneficial to quantum search. In addition, we show that the error induced by a perturbation on the Farhi and Gutmann Hamiltonian can be corrected by another perturbation.

  3. Aspects of perturbative unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2016-07-01

    We reconsider perturbative unitarity in quantum field theory and upgrade several arguments and results. The minimum assumptions that lead to the largest time equation, the cutting equations and the unitarity equation are identified. Using this knowledge and a special gauge, we give a new, simpler proof of perturbative unitarity in gauge theories and generalize it to quantum gravity, in four and higher dimensions. The special gauge interpolates between the Feynman gauge and the Coulomb gauge without double poles. When the Coulomb limit is approached, the unphysical particles drop out of the cuts and the cutting equations are consistently projected onto the physical subspace. The proof does not extend to nonlocal quantum field theories of gauge fields and gravity, whose unitarity remains uncertain.

  4. Aspects of perturbative unitarity

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    We reconsider perturbative unitarity in quantum field theory and upgrade several arguments and results. The minimum assumptions that lead to the largest time equation, the cutting equations and the unitarity equation are identified. Using this knowledge and a special gauge, we give a new, simpler proof of perturbative unitarity in gauge theories and generalize it to quantum gravity, in four and higher dimensions. The special gauge interpolates between the Feynman gauge and the Coulomb gauge without double poles. When the Coulomb limit is approached, the unphysical particles drop out of the cuts and the cutting equations are consistently projected onto the physical subspace. The proof does not extend to nonlocal quantum field theories of gauge fields and gravity, whose unitarity remains uncertain.

  5. Degenerate Density Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Palenik, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Fractional occupation numbers can be used in density functional theory to create a symmetric Kohn-Sham potential, resulting in orbitals with degenerate eigenvalues. We develop the corresponding perturbation theory and apply it to a system of $N_d$ degenerate electrons in a harmonic oscillator potential. The order-by-order expansions of both the fractional occupation numbers and unitary transformations within the degenerate subspace are determined by the requirement that a differentiable map exists connecting the initial and perturbed states. Using the X$\\alpha$ exchange-correlation (XC) functional, we find an analytic solution for the first-order density and first through third-order energies as a function of $\\alpha$, with and without a self-interaction correction. The fact that the XC Hessian is not positive definite plays an important role in the behavior of the occupation numbers.

  6. Large Spin Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Alday, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    We consider conformal field theories around points of large twist degeneracy. Examples of this are theories with weakly broken higher spin symmetry and perturbations around generalised free fields. At the degenerate point we introduce twist conformal blocks. These are eigenfunctions of certain quartic operators and encode the contribution, to a given four-point correlator, of the whole tower of intermediate operators with a given twist. As we perturb around the degenerate point, the twist degeneracy is lifted. In many situations this breaking is controlled by inverse powers of the spin. In such cases the twist conformal blocks can be decomposed into a sequence of functions which we systematically construct. Decomposing the four-point correlator in this basis turns crossing symmetry into an algebraic problem. Our method can be applied to a wide spectrum of conformal field theories in any number of dimensions and at any order in the breaking parameter. As an example, we compute the spectrum of various theories ...

  7. Cosmological Perturbations in Antigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Marius

    2014-01-01

    We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely-signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the Standard Model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically-complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity", during each successive transition from a Big Crunch to a Big Bang. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, its cosmological solutions are stable at the perturbative level.

  8. Perturbatively charged holographic disorder

    CERN Document Server

    O'Keeffe, Daniel K

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of holography applied to condensed matter physics, we study a model of perturbatively charged disorder in D=4 dimensions. Starting from initially uncharged AdS_4, a randomly fluctuating boundary chemical potential is introduced by turning on a bulk gauge field parameterized by a disorder strength and a characteristic scale k_0. Accounting for gravitational backreaction, we construct an asymptotically AdS solution perturbatively in the disorder strength. The disorder averaged geometry displays unphysical divergences in the deep interior. We explain how to remove these divergences and arrive at a well behaved solution. The disorder averaged DC conductivity is calculated and is found to contain a correction to the AdS result. The correction appears at second order in the disorder strength and scales inversely with k_0. We discuss the extension to a system with a finite initial charge density. The disorder averaged DC conductivity may be calculated by adopting a technique developed for hologr...

  9. Degenerate density perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.

    2016-09-01

    Fractional occupation numbers can be used in density functional theory to create a symmetric Kohn-Sham potential, resulting in orbitals with degenerate eigenvalues. We develop the corresponding perturbation theory and apply it to a system of Nd degenerate electrons in a harmonic oscillator potential. The order-by-order expansions of both the fractional occupation numbers and unitary transformations within the degenerate subspace are determined by the requirement that a differentiable map exists connecting the initial and perturbed states. Using the X α exchange-correlation (XC) functional, we find an analytic solution for the first-order density and first- through third-order energies as a function of α , with and without a self-interaction correction. The fact that the XC Hessian is not positive definite plays an important role in the behavior of the occupation numbers.

  10. Perturbative String Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ooguri, H; Ooguri, Hirosi; Yin, Zheng

    1996-01-01

    These lecture notes are based on a course on string theories given by Hirosi Ooguri in the first week of TASI 96 Summer School at Boulder, Colorado. It is an introductory course designed to provide students with minimum knowledge before they attend more advanced courses on non-perturbative aspects of string theories in the School. The course consists of five lectures: 1. Bosonic String, 2. Toroidal Compactifications, 3. Superstrings, 4. Heterotic Strings, and 5. Orbifold Compactifications.

  11. Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2014-05-01

    In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables Φ, Ψ and Ξ, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.

  12. Paraganglioma funcional extra-adrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arroyo-Martínez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Los paragangliomas funcionales son tumores raros, se originan del tejido cromafín extraadrenal productor de catecolaminas, con frecuencia son malignos y tienen alta incidencia de enfermedad persistente o recurrente¹. Se les conoce como: glomus, quemodectomas, paragangliomas cromafines y glomerulocitomas. La localización es diversa y refleja la distribución paraganglionar en el cuerpo, desde la base del cráneo hasta el piso pélvico. Los paragangliomas se encuentran en donde hay ganglios del sistema autónomo, sin embargo, aproximadamente el 90% de estos tumores aparecen en las glándulas suprarrenales (y constituyen los feocromocitomas y el 10% restante tienen una ubicación extraadrenal, mas se ha dicho que su incidencia puede ser subestimada, variando del 18% al 22% en adultos, y en niños hasta un 30%. Los extra-adrenales se originan con mayor frecuencia en el abdomen (85%, otros en el tórax (12% y más raramente en la cabeza y el cuello (3% ². Los estudios de imágenes y la medición de la producción no fisiológica de catecolaminas pueden ayudar en el diagnóstico de esta entidad. La cirugía es el tratamiento de elección. Presentamos aquí el caso de una paciente de 32 años, primigesta con HTAIE que requirió cesárea, quien tuvo un postparto tórpido y pese a múltiples tratamientos antihipertensivos su patología fue de difícil manejo, con complicaciones oftálmicas. Tiempo después la paciente se estudia por hiperhidrosis, se solicitan exámenes de laboratorio e imágenes y se le documenta incidentalmente, una tumoración retroperitoneal izquierda, se le amplían los estudios, y se llega al diagnóstico correcto. La tumoración requirió resección quirúrgica. Tuvo un postoperatorio satisfactorio y la paciente egresó con control en la Consulta Externa.Functioning paragangliomas are rare tumors that produce catecholamines. They originate from extra-adrenal chromaffin cells. They are frequentIy malignant and are associated

  13. Perturbation semigroup of matrix algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, N.; Suijlekom, W.D. van

    2016-01-01

    In this article we analyze the structure of the semigroup of inner perturbations in noncommutative geometry. This perturbation semigroup is associated to a unital associative *-algebra and extends the group of unitary elements of this *-algebra. We compute the perturbation semigroup for all matrix algebras.

  14. Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.

  15. Paraganglioma funcional extra-adrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arroyo-Martínez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Los paragangliomas funcionales son tumores raros, se originan del tejido cromafín extraadrenal productor de catecolaminas, con frecuencia son malignos y tienen alta incidencia de enfermedad persistente o recurrente¹. Se les conoce como: glomus, quemodectomas, paragangliomas cromafines y glomerulocitomas. La localización es diversa y refleja la distribución paraganglionar en el cuerpo, desde la base del cráneo hasta el piso pélvico. Los paragangliomas se encuentran en donde hay ganglios del sistema autónomo, sin embargo, aproximadamente el 90% de estos tumores aparecen en las glándulas suprarrenales (y constituyen los feocromocitomas y el 10% restante tienen una ubicación extraadrenal, mas se ha dicho que su incidencia puede ser subestimada, variando del 18% al 22% en adultos, y en niños hasta un 30%. Los extra-adrenales se originan con mayor frecuencia en el abdomen (85%, otros en el tórax (12% y más raramente en la cabeza y el cuello (3% ². Los estudios de imágenes y la medición de la producción no fisiológica de catecolaminas pueden ayudar en el diagnóstico de esta entidad. La cirugía es el tratamiento de elección. Presentamos aquí el caso de una paciente de 32 años, primigesta con HTAIE que requirió cesárea, quien tuvo un postparto tórpido y pese a múltiples tratamientos antihipertensivos su patología fue de difícil manejo, con complicaciones oftálmicas. Tiempo después la paciente se estudia por hiperhidrosis, se solicitan exámenes de laboratorio e imágenes y se le documenta incidentalmente, una tumoración retroperitoneal izquierda, se le amplían los estudios, y se llega al diagnóstico correcto. La tumoración requirió resección quirúrgica. Tuvo un postoperatorio satisfactorio y la paciente egresó con control en la Consulta Externa.

  16. Perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    This book will be of great interest to advanced students and researchers in the area of high energy theoretical physics. Being the most complete and updated review volume on Perturbative QCD, it serves as an extremely useful textbook or reference book. Some of the reviews in this volume are the best that have been written on the subject anywhere. Contents: Factorization of Hard Processes in QCD (J C Collins, D E Soper & G Sterman); Exclusive Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics (S J Brodsky & G P Lepage); Coherence and Physics of QCD Jets (Yu L Dokshitzer, V A Khoze & S I Troyan); Pomeron in Qu

  17. Perturbative nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Silas R; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2009-01-01

    We present a new formulation of effective field theory for nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions which treats pion interactions perturbatively, and we offer evidence that the expansion converges satisfactorily to third order in the expansion, which we have computed analytically for s and d wave NN scattering. Starting with the Kaplan-Savage-Wise (KSW) expansion about the nontrivial fixed point corresponding to infinite NN scattering length, we cure the convergence problems with that theory by summing to all orders the singular short distance part of the pion tensor interaction. This method makes possible a host of high precision analytic few-body calculations in nuclear physics.

  18. Non-Perturbative Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Mastropietro, Vieri

    2008-01-01

    The notion of renormalization is at the core of several spectacular achievements of contemporary physics, and in the last years powerful techniques have been developed allowing to put renormalization on a firm mathematical basis. This book provides a self-consistent and accessible introduction to the sophisticated tools used in the modern theory of non-perturbative renormalization, allowing an unified and rigorous treatment of Quantum Field Theory, Statistical Physics and Condensed Matter models. In particular the first part of this book is devoted to Constructive Quantum Field Theory, providi

  19. Gauge Invariant Cosmological Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, R

    1993-01-01

    After an introduction to the problem of cosmological structure formation, we develop gauge invariant cosmological perturbation theory. We derive the first order perturbation equations of Einstein's equations and energy momentum ``conservation''. Furthermore, the perturbations of Liouville's equation for collisionless particles and Boltzmann's equation for Compton scattering are worked out. We fully discuss the propagation of photons in a perturbed Friedmann universe, calculating the Sachs--Wolfe effect and light deflection. The perturbation equations are extended to accommodate also perturbations induced by seeds. With these general results we discuss some of the main aspects of the texture model for the formation of large scale structure in the Universe (galaxies, clusters, sheets, voids). In this model, perturbations in the dark matter are induced by texture seeds. The gravitational effects of a spherically symmetric collapsing texture on dark matter, baryonic matter and photons are calculated in first orde...

  20. Piomiosite tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Araújo Torres

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve 7 casos de piomiosite tropical, enfatizando a exceção que constituem, quando se considera a extrema raridade da supuração muscular em outras doenças e citando várias idéias existentes quanto à sua patogenia. O quadro clínico dos 7 casos é semelhante à maioria dos já relatados em outros trabalhos, aparecendo entretanto piodermite em 2 doentes, o que não é comum. A freqüência da eosinofilia e a normalidade de enzimas geralmente elevadas em outras miopatias, estão de acordo com as publicações existentes. Embora o tratamento seja basicamente cirúrgico, aceita a possibilidade de cura com antibióticos, cujo uso empírico poderia abortar inúmeros casos, contribuindo para o virtual desconhecimento da doença no meio brasileiro. Considera provável ser grande número de doentes tratado como portadores de abscessos como quaisquer outros, sem se atentar para a já referida resistência dos músculos esqueléticos à supuração. Dá importância ao desconhecimento da doença como causa de demora no diagnóstico, com possíveis repercussões no prognóstico. Esse fato, aliado a semelhanças climáticas de certas regiões brasileiras com zonas africanas onde a incidência é alta, justifica, segundo o autor, maior interesse pela doença.Seven cases of tropical pyomyositis are reported emphasizing the unique character of muscular suppuration, an exceedingly unusual occurrence in other diseases; possible explanations as to the pathogenical mechanismsare reviewed. Clinical aspects are similar to those of previously described cases but for pyodermitis, an unconmmon feature found in two cases. Eosinophila and normal leveis of serum enzymes usually altered in other muscle diseases are also in accordance to previous papers. Surgical drainage is the treatment of choice, but the early administration of antibiotics might abort the evolution of many cases; the empirical use of such drugs modifies clinical course and most patients

  1. Extra dimensions in space and time

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak

    2010-01-01

    Covers topics such as Einstein and the Fourth Dimension; Waves in a Fifth Dimension; and String Theory and Branes Experimental Tests of Extra Dimensions. This book offers a discussion on Two-Time Physics

  2. Piomiosite tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Araújo Torres

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve 7 casos de piomiosite tropical, enfatizando a exceção que constituem, quando se considera a extrema raridade da supuração muscular em outras doenças e citando várias idéias existentes quanto à sua patogenia. O quadro clínico dos 7 casos é semelhante à maioria dos já relatados em outros trabalhos, aparecendo entretanto piodermite em 2 doentes, o que não é comum. A freqüência da eosinofilia e a normalidade de enzimas geralmente elevadas em outras miopatias, estão de acordo com as publicações existentes. Embora o tratamento seja basicamente cirúrgico, aceita a possibilidade de cura com antibióticos, cujo uso empírico poderia abortar inúmeros casos, contribuindo para o virtual desconhecimento da doença no meio brasileiro. Considera provável ser grande número de doentes tratado como portadores de abscessos como quaisquer outros, sem se atentar para a já referida resistência dos músculos esqueléticos à supuração. Dá importância ao desconhecimento da doença como causa de demora no diagnóstico, com possíveis repercussões no prognóstico. Esse fato, aliado a semelhanças climáticas de certas regiões brasileiras com zonas africanas onde a incidência é alta, justifica, segundo o autor, maior interesse pela doença.

  3. Pasta de azeite versus azeite virgem extra

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Susana Marisa da Cunha

    2009-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Alimentar - Instituto Superior de Agronomia Innovative products of high nutritional quality, with healthy benefits and extended conservation are an asset to the food sector. With beneficial health properties and high nutritional quality, extra virgin olive oil is an extraordinary fat, thanks to its unique chemical composition. The olive oil spread, subject of this study, is an innovative product, created from extra virgin olive oil, with a consistency ...

  4. Ambiguity in running spectral index with an extra light field during inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [Cosmophysics group, Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, and The Graduate University for Advanced Study (Sokendai), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.jp [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fukaya, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    At the beginning of inflation there could be extra dynamical scalar fields that will soon disappear (become static) before the end of inflation. In the light of multi-field inflation, those extra degrees of freedom may alter the time-dependence of the original spectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is possible to remove such fields introducing extra number of e-foldings prior to 0N{sub e}∼ 6, however such extra e-foldings may make the trans-Planckian problem worse due to the Lyth bound. We show that such extra scalar fields can change the running of the spectral index to give correction of ± 0.01 without adding significant contribution to the spectral index. The corrections to the spectral index (and the amplitude) could be important in considering global behavior of the corrected spectrum, although they can be neglected in the estimation of the spectrum and its spectral index at the pivot scale. The ambiguity in the running of the spectral index, which could be due to such fields, can be used to nullify tension between BICEP2 and Planck experiments.

  5. Editorial: Focus on Extra Space Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Pomarol, Alex

    2010-07-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have just started. In addition to verifying the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, these experiments will probe a new energy frontier and test extensions of the SM. The existence of extra dimensions is one of the most attractive possibilities for physics beyond the SM. This focus issue contains a collection of articles addressing both theoretical and phenomenological aspects of extra-dimensional models. Focus on Extra Space Dimensions Contents Minimal universal extra dimensions in CalcHEP/CompHEP AseshKrishna Datta, Kyoungchul Kong and Konstantin T Matchev Disordered extra dimensions Karim Benakli Codimension-2 brane-bulk matching: examples from six and ten dimensions Allan Bayntun, C P Burgess and Leo van Nierop Gauge threshold corrections in warped geometry Kiwoon Choi, Ian-Woo Kim and Chang Sub Shin Holographic methods and gauge-Higgs unification in flat extra dimensions Marco Serone Soft-wall stabilization Joan A Cabrer, Gero von Gersdorff and Mariano Quirós Warped five-dimensional models: phenomenological status and experimental prospects Hooman Davoudiasl, Shrihari Gopalakrishna, Eduardo Pontón and José Santiago

  6. Uniqueness of the gauge invariant action for cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-12-01

    In second order perturbation theory different definitions are known of gauge invariant perturbations in single field inflationary models. Consequently the corresponding gauge invariant cubic actions do not have the same form. Here we show that the cubic action for one choice of gauge invariant variables is unique in the following sense: the action for any other, non-linearly related variable can be brought to the same bulk action, plus additional boundary terms. These boundary terms correspond to the choice of hypersurface and generate extra, disconnected contributions to the bispectrum. We also discuss uniqueness of the action with respect to conformal frames. When expressed in terms of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation on uniform field hypersurfaces the action for cosmological perturbations has a unique form, independent of the original Einstein or Jordan frame. Crucial is that the gauge invariant comoving curvature perturbation is frame independent, which makes it extremely helpful in showing the quantum equivalence of the two frames, and therefore in calculating quantum effects in nonminimally coupled theories such as Higgs inflation.

  7. Influence of sea surface on the tropical atmosphere: Scale dependent feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, S. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Total deep cloud cover in the tropics may not be not sensitive to the underlying SST field, but its spatial distribution seems to be strongly sensitive to the SST distribution. This would make the stability of the ocean-atmosphere system to SST perturbations, and the important mechanisms for maintaining stability, dependent on the spatial arrangement of the perturbation. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Direct perturbation method for perturbed complex Burgers equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Xue-Ping; Lin Ji; Yao Jian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    So far, Lou's direct perturbation method has been applied successfully to solve the nonlinear Schrōdinger equa-tion(NLSE) hierarchy, such as the NLSE, the coupled NLSE, the critical NLSE, and the derivative NLSE. But to our knowledge, this method for other types of perturbed nonlinear evolution equations has still been lacking. In this paper, Lou's direct perturbation method is applied to the study of perturbed complex Burgers equation. By this method, we calculate not only the zero-order adiabatic solution, but also the first order modification.

  9. Introduction to perturbation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, M

    1995-01-01

    This book is an introductory graduate text dealing with many of the perturbation methods currently used by applied mathematicians, scientists, and engineers. The author has based his book on a graduate course he has taught several times over the last ten years to students in applied mathematics, engineering sciences, and physics. The only prerequisite for the course is a background in differential equations. Each chapter begins with an introductory development involving ordinary differential equations. The book covers traditional topics, such as boundary layers and multiple scales. However, it also contains material arising from current research interest. This includes homogenization, slender body theory, symbolic computing, and discrete equations. One of the more important features of this book is contained in the exercises. Many are derived from problems of up- to-date research and are from a wide range of application areas.

  10. Extra-oral halitosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangerman, A; Winkel, E G

    2010-03-01

    Halitosis can be subdivided into intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis, depending on the place where it originates. Most reports now agree that the most frequent sources of halitosis exist within the oral cavity and include bacterial reservoirs such as the dorsum of the tongue, saliva and periodontal pockets, where anaerobic bacteria degrade sulfur-containing amino acids to produce the foul smelling volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), especially hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH). Tongue coating is considered to be the most important source of VSCs. Oral malodor can now be treated effectively. Special attention in this overview is given to extra-oral halitosis. Extra-oral halitosis can be subdivided into non-blood-borne halitosis, such as halitosis from the upper respiratory tract including the nose and from the lower respiratory tract, and blood-borne halitosis. The majority of patients with extra-oral halitosis have blood-borne halitosis. Blood-borne halitosis is also frequently caused by odorous VSCs, in particular dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3). Extra-oral halitosis, covering about 5-10% of all cases of halitosis, might be a manifestation of a serious disease for which treatment is much more complicated than for intra-oral halitosis. It is therefore of utmost importance to differentiate between intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis. Differences between intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis are discussed extensively. The importance of applying odor characterization of various odorants in halitosis research is also highlighted in this article. The use of the odor index, odor threshold values and simulation of bad breath samples is explained.

  11. Applications of Cosmological Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Christopherson, Adam J

    2011-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is crucial for our understanding of the universe. The linear theory has been well understood for some time, however developing and applying the theory beyond linear order is currently at the forefront of research in theoretical cosmology. This thesis studies the applications of perturbation theory to cosmology and, specifically, to the early universe. Starting with some background material introducing the well-tested 'standard model' of cosmology, we move on to develop the formalism for perturbation theory up to second order giving evolution equations for all types of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations, both in gauge dependent and gauge invariant form. We then move on to the main result of the thesis, showing that, at second order in perturbation theory, vorticity is sourced by a coupling term quadratic in energy density and entropy perturbations. This source term implies a qualitative difference to linear order. Thus, while at linear order vorticity decays with the expan...

  12. Applications Of Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mohta, V

    2005-01-01

    Effective field theory techniques are used to describe the spectrum and interactions of hadrons. The mathematics of classical field theory and perturbative quantum field theory are reviewed. The physics of effective field theory and, in particular, of chiral perturbation theory and heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory are also reviewed. The geometry underlying heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is described in detail. Results by Coleman et. al. in the physics literature are stated precisely and proven. A chiral perturbation theory is developed for a multiplet containing the recently- observed exotic baryons. A small coupling expansion is identified that allows the calculation of self-energy corrections to the exotic baryon masses. Opportunities in lattice calculations are discussed. Chiral perturbation theory is used to study the possibility of two multiplets of exotic baryons mixed by quark masses. A new symmetry constraint on reduced partial widths is identified. Predictions in the literature based ...

  13. Large-Scale Structure in Brane-Induced Gravity I. Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scoccimarro, Roman

    2009-01-01

    We study the growth of subhorizon perturbations in brane-induced gravity using perturbation theory. We solve for the linear evolution of perturbations taking advantage of the symmetry under gauge transformations along the extra-dimension to decouple the bulk equations in the quasistatic approximation, which we argue may be a better approximation at large scales than thought before. We then study the nonlinearities in the bulk and brane equations, concentrating on the workings of the Vainshtein mechanism by which the theory becomes general relativity (GR) at small scales. We show that at the level of the power spectrum, to a good approximation, the effect of nonlinearities in the modified gravity sector may be absorbed into a renormalization of the gravitational constant. Since weak lensing is entirely unaffected by the extra nonlinear physics in these theories, the modified gravity can be described in this approximation by a single function, an effective gravitational constant that depends on space and time. ...

  14. Cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G., E-mail: m.lagos13@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: p.ferreira1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of classical scalar, vector and tensor cosmological perturbations in ghost-free massive bigravity. In particular, we find the full evolution equations and analytical solutions in a wide range of regimes. We show that there are viable cosmological backgrounds but, as has been found in the literature, these models generally have exponential instabilities in linear perturbation theory. However, it is possible to find stable scalar cosmological perturbations for a very particular choice of parameters. For this stable subclass of models we find that vector and tensor perturbations have growing solutions. We argue that special initial conditions are needed for tensor modes in order to have a viable model.

  15. Dark Energy as Evidence for Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, K A

    2003-01-01

    It is argued that fluctuations of quantum fields in four-dimensional space do not give rise to dark energy, but are rather a negligible contribution to dark matter. By (relativistic) dark matter we mean that the relation between pressure and energy density is $p=\\frac13 u$, while dark energy is characterized by $p=-u$. A possible source of dark energy are the fluctuations in quantum fields, including quantum gravity, inhabiting extra compactified dimensions. These fluctuations have been computed for some simple geometries, such as $S^2$, $S^4$, and $S^6$. If the extra dimensions are too small, they would give rise to a dark energy larger than that observed, whereas if they are too large they would be in conflict with experimental tests of Newton's law. This notion suggests that the size of the extra dimensions is of order 100 $\\mu$m. If the limit on the size of extra dimensions becomes lower than this bound, extra dimensions probably do not exist, and another source for cosmological dark energy will have to b...

  16. Compact Extra Dimensions in Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Deutschmann, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Extra-dimensions are a common topic in popular descriptions of theoretical physics with which undergraduate student most often have no contact in physics courses. This paper shows how students could be introduced to this topic by presenting an approach to two basic consequences of the presence of compact extra-dimensions based on undergraduate-level physics. The insensibility of low-energy physics to compact extra dimensions is illustrated in the context of non-relativistic quantum mechanics and the prediction of Kaluza-Klein excitations of particles is discussed in the framework of relativistic wave-equations. An exercise that could be used as a follow-up to the "particle in a box" is proposed.

  17. Extra-pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardhanabhuti, V. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N. [St Michael' s Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 1W8 (Canada); Bhatnagar, G.; Maviki, M.; Iyengar, S.; Adams, W.M. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Suresh, P., E-mail: sureshpriya2000@yahoo.com [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    Although, the diagnosis and evaluation of sarcoidosis has traditionally remained confined to the chest, its multi-system nature has been widely recognized. Radiological features of pulmonary sarcoidosis are well known but extra-pulmonary manifestations can produce a plethora of non-specific imaging findings that can affect subcutaneous tissue, and the neurological, cardiac, gastrointestinal, urological, liver, spleen, and skeletal systems. In the literature, there are various case reports and specific system reviews but there are few reviews that encompass all the extra-pulmonary manifestations. In this paper, we comprehensively review the imaging features of extra-pulmonary sarcoidosis with characteristic features as well as atypical presentations. In addition, we discuss the emerging role of nuclear medicine in sarcoidosis.

  18. Mediation of supersymmetry breaking in extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Scrucca, C A

    2004-01-01

    I review the mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking mediation that occur in sequestered models, where the visible and the hidden sectors are separated by an extra dimension and communicate only via gravitational interactions. By locality, soft breaking terms are forbidden at the classical level and reliably computable within an effective field theory approach at the quantum level. I present a self-contained discussion of these radiative gravitational effects and the resulting pattern of soft masses, and give an overview of realistic model building based on this set-up. I consider both flat and warped extra dimensions, as well as the possibility that there be localized kinetic terms for the gravitational fields.

  19. Electromagnetism from extra space multi connectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, C. [Moncton Univ., Moncton (France). Dept. de Mathematiques et de Statistique

    2001-09-01

    In a unified field theory of the Kaluza-Klein type, it is used a multi connected extra space to interpret geometrically the quantum properties of physics. This paper presents a pure geometric interpretation of electromagnetism. The electric change of a body is identified with its cross-section for interaction of twisted waves due to the extra space multi connectivity. A by-product of this interpretation is an expression for the permittivity of free space as an integral of the flux of these waves over their frequencies.

  20. Signatures of extra dimensional sterile neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Rodejohann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a large extra dimension model with active and sterile Dirac neutrinos. The sterile neutrino masses stem from compactification of an extra dimension with radius R and are chosen to have masses around eV or keV, in order to explain short-baseline anomalies or act as warm dark matter candidates. We study the effect of the sterile neutrino Kaluza–Klein tower in short-baseline oscillation experiments and in the beta spectrum as measurable by KATRIN-like experiments.

  1. Signatures of extra dimensional sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodejohann, Werner, E-mail: werner.rodejohann@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Zhang, He, E-mail: he.zhang@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2014-10-07

    We study a large extra dimension model with active and sterile Dirac neutrinos. The sterile neutrino masses stem from compactification of an extra dimension with radius R and are chosen to have masses around eV or keV, in order to explain short-baseline anomalies or act as warm dark matter candidates. We study the effect of the sterile neutrino Kaluza–Klein tower in short-baseline oscillation experiments and in the beta spectrum as measurable by KATRIN-like experiments.

  2. The Higgs Mechanism from an extra dimension

    CERN Document Server

    A., Yu

    2016-01-01

    The standard $SU(2) \\times U(1)$ fields are considered in 4D plus one extra compact dimension. As a result two basic effects are obtained. First, four Goldstone-like scalars are produced, three of them are used to create longitudinal modes of the $W,Z$ fields, while the fourth becomes the Higgs-like scalar. Second, $W$ and $Z$ get their masses from the extra compact dimension with the standard pattern of symmetry violation. The resulting theory has the same fields as in the standard model, but without the Higgs vacuum average. The properties of the new Higgs scalar and its interaction with fermions are briefly discussed.

  3. Phenomenology of symmetry breaking from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Alfaro, J; Gavela-Legazpi, Maria Belen; Rigolin, S; Salvatori, M

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the electroweak hierarchy problem, we study the symmetry breaking pattern induced by a background magnetic flux living on extra dimensions, with the four-dimensional scalar fields being gauge boson components in full space. For SU(N) and two compact, toroidal, extra dimensions, we determine analytically the possible field configurations of stable vacua and their symmetries. From the four-dimensional point of view, the system responds dynamically to the magnetic background by an infinite chain of vacuum expectation values so as to reach a stable vacuum. The equivalence between flux compactification and constant boundary conditions - either Scherk-Schwarz or twisted - is established.

  4. Inversion of the perturbation series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-01-18

    We investigate the inversion of the perturbation series and its resummation, and prove that it is related to a recently developed parametric perturbation theory. Results for some illustrative examples show that in some cases series reversion may improve the accuracy of the results.

  5. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  6. Path integral for inflationary perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokopec, T.; Rigopoulos, G.

    2010-01-01

    The quantum theory of cosmological perturbations in single-field inflation is formulated in terms of a path integral. Starting from a canonical formulation, we show how the free propagators can be obtained from the well-known gauge-invariant quadratic action for scalar and tensor perturbations, and

  7. Tropical Cyclone Signatures in Atmospheric Convective Available Potential Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studholme, Joshua; Gulev, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Tropical cyclones play an important role in the climate system providing transports of energy and water vapor, forcing the ocean, and also affecting mid-latitude circulation phenomena. Tropical cyclone tracks experience strong interannual variability and in addition, longer term trend-like changes in all ocean basins. Analysis of recent historical data reveal a poleward shift in the locations of tropical cyclone tracks in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (Kossin et al. 2014, Nature, 509, 349-352). The physical consequences of these alterations are largely unconstrained. For example, the increasing encroachment of tropical cyclone activity into the extra-tropical environment presents a novel and still poorly understood paradigm for tropical-extratropical interactions. In this respect, the role that the atmospheric convective available potential energy (CAPE) plays in the dynamics of tropical cyclones is highly interesting. The two characteristic global-scale spatial patterns in CAPE are identified using EOF analysis. The first pattern shows an abundance of CAPE in the centre of the Pacific and corresponds to the El Nino Southern Oscillation. The second one is capturing positive CAPE anomalies in the oceanic tropics and negative anomalies over equatorial Africa. Associated with these buoyancy patterns, alterations in tropical cyclone activity occur in all basins forming both zonal and meridional patterns. Atmospheric buoyancy is the trigger for deep convection, and subsequently cyclone genesis. This is the mechanism of impact upon location at the start of cyclone tracks. It is found to have less impact upon where cyclones subsequently move, whether or not they undergo extratropical transition and when and where they experience lysis. It is shown that CAPE plays a critical role in the general circulation in the tropics which in turn is the larger steering context for embedded systems within the Walker and Hadley cells. So this lack of `latter life' impact

  8. Anomalous gauge couplings from composite Higgs and warped extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichet, Sylvain [International Institute of Physics, UFRN,Av. Odilon Gomes de Lima, 1722, Capim Macio, 59078-400, Natal-RN (Brazil); Gersdorff, Gero von [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo State University (Brazil)

    2014-03-24

    We examine trilinear and quartic anomalous gauge couplings (AGCs) generated in composite Higgs models and models with warped extra dimensions. We first revisit the SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub Y} effective Lagrangian and derive the charged and two-photon neutral AGCs. We derive the general perturbative contributions to the pure field-strength operators from spin 0, (1/2), 1 resonances by means of the heat kernel method. In the composite Higgs framework, we derive the pattern of expected deviations from typical SO(N) embeddings of the light composite top partner. We then study a generic warped extra dimension framework with AdS{sub 5} background, recasting in few parameters the features of models relevant for AGCs. We also present a detailed study of the latest bounds from electroweak and Higgs precision observables, with and without brane kinetic terms. For vanishing brane kinetic terms, we find that the S and T parameters exclude KK gauge modes of the RS custodial [non-custodial] scenario below 7.7 [14.7] TeV, for a brane Higgs and below 6.6 [8.1] TeV for a Pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Higgs, at 95% CL. These constraints can be relaxed in presence of brane kinetic terms. The leading AGCs are probing the KK gravitons and the KK modes of bulk gauge fields in parts of the parameter space. In these scenarios, the future CMS and ATLAS forward proton detectors could be sensitive to the effect of KK gravitons in the multi-TeV mass range.

  9. Junction conditions of cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Tomita, K

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of perturbations is studied in cosmological models which consist of two different homogeneous regions connected in a spherical shell boundary. The junction conditions for the metric perturbations and the displacements of the shell boundary are analyzed and the surface densities of the perturbed energy and momentum in the shell are derived, using Mukohyama's gauge-invariant formalism and the Israel discontinuity condition. In both homogeneous regions the perturbations of scalar, vector and tensor types are expanded using the 3-dimensional harmonic functions, but the model coupling among them is caused in the shell by the inhomogeneity. By treating the perturbations with odd and even parities separately, it is found, however, that we can have consistent displacements and surface densities for given metric parturbations

  10. Multiplicative perturbations of local -semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chung-Cheng Kuo

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we establish some left and right multiplicative perturbation theorems concerning local -semigroups when the generator of a perturbed local -semigroup $S(\\cdot)$ may not be densely defined and the perturbation operator is a bounded linear operator from $\\overline{D(A)}$ into () such that = on $\\overline{D(A)}$, which can be applied to obtain some additive perturbation theorems for local -semigroups in which is a bounded linear operator from $[D(A)]$ into () such that = on $\\overline{D(A)}$. We also show that the perturbations of a (local) -semigroup $S(\\cdot)$ are exponentially bounded (resp., norm continuous, locally Lipschitz continuous, or exponentially Lipschitz continuous) if $S(\\cdot)$ is.

  11. Extra-1 acupressure for children undergoing anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Ming; Escalera, Sandra; Lin, Eric C; Maranets, Inna; Kain, Zeev N

    2008-09-01

    Acupuncture and related techniques have been used as adjuncts for perioperative anesthesia management. We examined whether acupressure in the Extra-1 (Yin-Tang) point would result in decreased preprocedural anxiety and reduced intraprocedural propofol requirements in a group of children undergoing endoscopic procedures. Fifty-two children were randomized to receive acupressure bead intervention either at the Extra-1 acupuncture point or at a sham point. A Bispectral Index (BIS) monitor was applied to all children before the onset of the intervention. Anxiety was assessed at baseline and before entrance to the operating room. Anesthetic techniques were standardized and maintained with IV propofol infusion titrated to keep BIS values of 40-60. We found that after the intervention, children in the Extra-1 group experienced reduced anxiety whereas children in the sham group experienced increased anxiety (-9% [-3 to -15] vs 2% [-6 to 7.4], P = 0.012). In contrast, no significant changes in BIS values were observed in the preprocedural waiting period between groups (P = ns). We also found that total intraprocedural propofol requirements did not differ between the two study groups (214 +/- 76 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) vs 229 +/- 95 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.52). We conclude that acupressure bead intervention at Extra-1 acupoint reduces preprocedural anxiety in children undergoing endoscopic procedures. This intervention, however, has no impact on BIS values or intraprocedural propofol requirements.

  12. Gauge coupling unification with extra Higgs doublets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Junpei [Research Center for Higher Education, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Gauge coupling unification is studied within the framework where there are extra Higgs doublets and E{sub 6} exotic fields. Supersymmetric models and nonsupersymmetric models are investigated, and a catalog of models with gauge coupling unification is presented. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Precision constraints on extra fermion generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Jens; Langacker, Paul

    2010-07-16

    There has been recent renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak precision constraints, in particular, in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for extra families and analyze them in view of the latest electroweak precision data.

  14. Probing Extra Dimensions with Neutrino Oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, P.A.N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C. P. 66.318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nunokawa, H. [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, C. P. 38071, 22452-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Zukanovich Funchal, R., E-mail: zukanov@fma.if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C. P. 66.318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    We consider a model where sterile neutrinos can propagate in a large compactified extra dimension (a) giving rise to Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes and the Standard Model left-handed neutrinos are confined to a 4-dimensional spacetime brane. The KK modes mix with the standard neutrinos modifying their oscillation pattern. We examine current experiments in this framework obtaining stringent limits on a.

  15. Extra-oral halitosis : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    Halitosis can be subdivided into intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis, depending on the place where it originates. Most reports now agree that the most frequent sources of halitosis exist within the oral cavity and include bacterial reservoirs such as the dorsum of the tongue, saliva and periodontal

  16. Cystic lesions accompanying extra-axial tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohle, PNM; Wurzer, HAL; Seelen, PJ; Kingma, LM; Go, KG

    1999-01-01

    We examined the mechanism of cyst formation in extra-axial tumours in the central nervous system (CNS). Cyst fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma were analysed in eight patients with nine peritumoral cysts: four with meningiomas, two with intracranial and two spinal intradural schwannom

  17. Extra dimensions and violations of Lorentz symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Overduin, James M

    2016-01-01

    We use experimental limits on Lorentz violation to obtain new constraints on Kaluza-Klein-type theories in which the extra dimensions may be large but do not necessarily have units of length. The associated variation in fundamental quantities such as rest mass must occur slowly, on cosmological scales.

  18. The Night Of Hennessy Paradis Extra Cognac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The world-known Hennessy Paradis Extra Cognaclaunched its"dazzling night"on the evening of May 22 tolet guests enjoy to their hearts’content the fine wine andthe charming glamour of the diamond evening dress. A liquid,dating back to the 18th century,was called

  19. Measuring the dimensionality of compact extra dimensions with inspiral gravitational waves from black-hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Li-E.; Zhao, Shu Hong; Xu, Peng

    2016-12-01

    Gravitational waves from coalescing black-hole binaries (BHBs) were recently observed by the advanced LIGO detectors. Based on the perturbation analysis, for general Kaluza-Klein theories with compact extra dimensions, we find a 1st-order post-Newtonian correction to the inspiral gravitational waveforms of black-hole binaries, that comes from the variations of the volume of the extra dimensions in near source zones. Such correction depends on a new parameter χ=\\frac{n}{2+n} with n the dimensionality of the extra space and it is irrelevant to the particular choice of the topology of the extra space. For the ideal case of a black-hole binary system following nearly circular orbital motion with almost equal or intermediate mass ratio, such higher-dimensional corrections to the chirping amplitude are worked out. Giving the power of tracing inspiral waves from coalescing massive BHBs with high signal-to-noise ratios, the planned space-borne antennas such as the eLISA and DECIGO may give us a measurement of the parameter χ in the near future and may serve us as new probes in the searching for the evidence of the hidden compact dimensions.

  20. Disformal transformation of cosmological perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Minamitsuji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the gauge-invariant cosmological perturbations in the gravity and matter frames in the general scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the disformal transformation. The gravity and matter frames are the extensions of the Einstein and Jordan frames in the scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the conformal transformation, respectively. First, it is shown that the curvature perturbation in the comoving gauge to the scalar field is disformally invariant as well as conformally invariant, which gives the predictions from the cosmological model where the scalar field is responsible both for inflation and cosmological perturbations. Second, in case that the disformally coupled matter sector also contributes to curvature perturbations, we derive the evolution equations of the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge from the energy (nonconservation in the matter sector, which are independent of the choice of the gravity sector. While in the matter frame the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge is conserved on superhorizon scales for the vanishing nonadiabatic pressure, in the gravity frame it is not conserved even if the nonadiabatic pressure vanishes. The formula relating two frames gives the amplitude of the curvature perturbation in the matter frame, once it is evaluated in the gravity frame.

  1. Tropical pulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovornkitti, S

    1996-03-01

    The term 'tropical' refers to the region of the Earth lying between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Located between these equatorial parallels demarcating the Torrid Zone are several underdeveloped and developing countries: Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, southern India, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Cuba, Ethiopia, Sudan and Nigeria, to name but a few considered to be 'tropical'. The climate in most of these countries is characterized by high temperatures and high humidity. The tropical climate and general state of socio-economic underdevelopment in such countries provide an ideal environment for pathogenic organisms, their vectors and intermediate hosts to flourish. Furthermore, the cultural habits and educational background of the people living in such countries expose them to pathogens and, when these people become infected, they readily become reservoirs for, or carriers of, those organisms. Ultimately, the adverse socioeconomic conditions of underdeveloped countries impede attempts to eradicate or control tropical diseases.

  2. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors......A new book that is particularly relevant as tropical countries experience increased pressure on land resources to improve agricultural production. To ensure sustainable land use, the potentials and limitations of different kinds of tropical soils must be known in relation to crop production...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  3. Cosmological perturbations beyond linear order

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is the standard tool to understand the formation of the large scale structure in the Universe. However, its degree of applicability is limited by the growth of the amplitude of the matter perturbations with time. This problem can be tackled with by using N-body simulations or analytical techniques that go beyond the linear calculation. In my talk, I'll summarise some recent efforts in the latter that ameliorate the bad convergence of the standard perturbative expansion. The new techniques allow better analytical control on observables (as the matter power spectrum) over scales very relevant to understand the expansion history and formation of structure in the Universe.

  4. The theory of singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    De Jager, E M

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this textbook is the mathematical theory of singular perturbations, which despite its respectable history is still in a state of vigorous development. Singular perturbations of cumulative and of boundary layer type are presented. Attention has been given to composite expansions of solutions of initial and boundary value problems for ordinary and partial differential equations, linear as well as quasilinear; also turning points are discussed. The main emphasis lies on several methods of approximation for solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations and on the mathemat

  5. Density perturbations with relativistic thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Maartens, R

    1997-01-01

    We investigate cosmological density perturbations in a covariant and gauge- invariant formalism, incorporating relativistic causal thermodynamics to give a self-consistent description. The gradient of density inhomogeneities splits covariantly into a scalar part, a rotational vector part that is determined by the vorticity, and a tensor part that describes the shape. We give the evolution equations for these parts in the general dissipative case. Causal thermodynamics gives evolution equations for viswcous stress and heat flux, which are coupled to the density perturbation equation and to the entropy and temperature perturbation equations. We give the full coupled system in the general dissipative case, and simplify the system in certain cases.

  6. Instabilities in mimetic matter perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2017-07-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter scenario with a general higher derivative function. We calculate the quadratic action and show that both the kinetic term and the gradient term have the wrong sings. We perform the analysis in both comoving and Newtonian gauges and confirm that the Hamiltonians and the associated instabilities are consistent with each other in both gauges. The existence of instabilities is independent of the specific form of higher derivative function which generates gradients for mimetic field perturbations. It is verified that the ghost instability in mimetic perturbations is not associated with the higher derivative instabilities such as the Ostrogradsky ghost.

  7. Perturbation Theory of Embedded Eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Matthias

    We study problems connected to perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues in two different setups. The first part deals with second order perturbation theory of mass shells in massive translation invariant Nelson type models. To this end an expansion of the eigenvalues w.r.t. fiber parameter up...... project gives a general and systematic approach to analytic perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues. The spectral deformation technique originally developed in the theory of dilation analytic potentials in the context of Schrödinger operators is systematized by the use of Mourre theory. The group...

  8. Persistent Cold States of the Tropical Pacific Ocean in an Intermediate Coupled Model and a General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, N.; Cane, M. A.; Seager, R.

    2014-12-01

    The tropical Pacific Ocean has persistently cool sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies that last several years to a decade, with either no El Niño events or very few weak El Niño events. These have been shown to cause large-scale droughts in the extratropics[i], including the major North American droughts such as the 1930s Dust Bowl, and may also be responsible for modulating the global mean surface temperature[ii]. Here we show that two models with different levels of complexity - the Zebiak-Cane model and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model version 2.1 - are able to produce such periods in a realistic manner. We then test the predictability of these periods in the Zebiak-Cane model using an ensemble of experiments with perturbed initial states. Our results show that the cool mean state is modestly predictable, while the lack of El Niño events during these cool periods is not. These results have implications for our understanding of the origins of such persistent cool states and the possibility of improving predictions of large-scale droughts. Further, we apply this method of using an ensemble of model simulations with perturbed initial states to make retrospective forecasts and to forecast the mean state of the tropical Pacific Ocean for the upcoming decade. Our results suggest, albeit with low confidence, that the current cool mean state will persist. This could imply the continuation of the drier than normal conditions that have, in general, afflicted southwest North America since the 1997/98 El Niño, as well as the current pause in global warming. [i] C. Herweijer and R. Seager, "The global footprint of persistent extra-tropical drought in the instrumental era," International Journal of Climatology, vol. 28, pp. 1761-1774, 2008. [ii] G. A. Meehl, J. M. Arblaster, J. T. Fasullo, A. Hu and K. E. Trenberth, "Model-based evidence of deep-ocean heat uptake during surface-temperature hiatus periods," Nature Climate Change, vol. 1, pp. 360

  9. Causal compensated perturbations in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, S.; Stebbins, A. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley (USA) Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to calculate linear perturbations in the gravitational and matter fields which arise causally in response to the presence of stiff matter sources in a FRW cosmology. It is shown that, in order to satisfy energy and momentum conservation, the gravitational fields of the source must be compensated by perturbations in the matter and gravitational fields, and the role of such compensation in containing the initial inhomogeneities in their subsequent evolution is discussed. A complete formal solution is derived in terms of Green functions for the perturbations produced by an arbitrary source in a flat universe containing cold dark matter. Approximate Green function solutions are derived for the late-time density perturbations and late-time gravitational waves in a universe containing a radiation fluid. A cosmological energy-momentum pseudotensor is defined to clarify the nature of energy and momentum conservation in the expanding universe. 55 refs.

  10. Dynamical Friction on extended perturbers

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, O

    2008-01-01

    Following a wave-mechanical treatment we calculate the drag force exerted by an infinite homogeneous background of stars on a perturber as this makes its way through the system. We recover Chandrasekhar's classical dynamical friction (DF) law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. We take into account a range of models that encompasses all plausible density distributions for satellite galaxies by considering the DF exerted on a Plummer sphere and a perturber having a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  11. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Ananthanarayan

    2003-11-01

    A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.

  12. Top Quark Pair in Association with an Extra Jet: Phenomenological Analysis at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Mohammad Ahmad [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The first measurement of the cross section of the top quark pair in association with an extra hard jet ($t\\bar{t}$+jet) has been performed with 4.1 fb₋1 of data collected at CDF. The measurement is an important test of perturbative QCD, as NLO effects play an important role in the calculation of the theoretical cross section. In addition, it is also important as a preview of the LHC, for which almost half of the top quark events will be produced with extra jets. Therefore, this process will be a substan- tial background for many new physics signals. The measurement is performed using SecVtx tagged events in the lepton plus jet channel. A data-driven approach is used to predict the background content, and a 2D likelihood is formed to simultaneously measure the $t\\bar{t}$+jet and $t\\bar{t}$ without extra jet cross sections. The measured result is σ$t\\bar{t}$+jet= 1.6±0.2stat±0.5syst pb which is in agreement with the recent NLO SM predic- tion σ$t\\bar{t}$+jet = $+0.16\\atop{-3.31}$ pb . In order to elucidate the kinematic profile of the extra jet, an isolation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has extracted correctly the extra jet out from the final state jets more than 60% of the time. This allowed for correcting the measured distributions of the extra jet for purity/efficiency in order to compare them with the MC distributions. The differences in the kinematic of the extra jet using different SecVtx requirements and different MC models (PYTHIA & MCFM) have been studied. The agreement between data and the simulations is reasonable. The fifth and the fourth highest ET jet in the final state of $t\\bar{t}$+jet sample are found to be equally likely the extra jet.

  13. Snakes and perturbed random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study some properties of random walks perturbed at extrema, which are generalizations of the walks considered e.g., in Davis (1999). This process can also be viewed as a version of {\\em excited random walk}, studied recently by many authors. We obtain a few properties related to the range of the process with infinite memory. We also prove the Strong law, Central Limit Theorem, and the criterion for the recurrence of the perturbed walk with finite memory.

  14. Extra Dimensions and the Universal Suppression of Higgs Boson Observables at High Energy Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, J D

    2002-01-01

    Precision electroweak data suggests the existence of a light Standard Model Higgs boson. Its width is very narrow by an accident of the fermion mass hierarchies, and so slight perturbations to the theory induce dramatic changes in the phenomenology of direct Higgs boson production. Several theory ideas motivated by low-scale extra dimensions lead to a universal rate suppression of Higgs boson observables. The Tevatron and LHC will have difficulty accruing compelling evidence for small universal suppression of rate observables, and even more difficulty discerning the underlying cause. A high energy e+e- collider would have relatively little trouble.

  15. Perturbed Einstein field equations using Maple

    CERN Document Server

    De Campos, M

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the perturbed components of affine connection and Ricci tensor using algebraic computation. Naturally, the perturbed Einstein field equations for the vacuum can written. The method can be used to obtain perturbed equations of the superior order.

  16. Construction Process Control of Large Extra Caissons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shaowei; WANG Hongxia; FAN Jiansheng

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of geotechnical engineering and variability in construction circumstances of large extra caissons make the problem of maintaining appropriate sink attitude quite difficult, especially in keeping sink uniformity and achieving the expected final sink depth. A new construction control method is presented using (H∞) theory, considering uncertainties in the mechanics model and external noise in the construction site parameters. The design method of an (H∞) controller has consequently been obtained for large extra caissons. Control results using only constructor experiences are compared with simulation results using the (H∞) controller for a practical engineering situation, which indicates that the (H∞) controller is successful in maintaining sink uniformity, avoiding sink as well as in achieving the expected final sink depth.

  17. Indirect Collider Signals for Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J L

    1999-01-01

    A recent suggestion that quantum gravity may become strong near the weak scale has several testable consequences. In addition to probing for the new large (submillimeter) extra dimensions associated with these theories via gravitational experiments, one could search for the Kaluza Klein towers of massive gravitons which are predicted in these models and which can interact with the fields of the Standard Model. Here we examine the indirect effects of these massive gravitons being exchanged in fermion pair production in \\epem\\ annihilation and Drell-Yan production at hadron colliders. In the latter case, we examine a novel feature of this theory, which is the contribution of gluon gluon initiated processes to lepton pair production. We find that these processes provide strong bounds, up to several TeV, on the string scale which are essentially independent of the number of extra dimensions. In addition, we analyze the angular distributions for fermion pair production with spin-2 graviton exchanges and demonstrat...

  18. Extra-dimensional confinement of quantum particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hedin, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    A basic theoretical framework is developed in which elementary particles have a component of their wave function extending into higher spatial dimensions. This model postulates an extension of the Schrodinger equation to include a 4th and 5th spatial component. A higher-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator confining potential localizes particles into 3-d space, characterizing the brane tension which confines Standard Model particles to the sub-manifold. Quantum effects allow a non-zero probability for a particle's evanescent existence in the higher dimensions, and suggest an experimental test for the validity of this model via particles being temporarily excited into the first excited state of the extra-dimensional potential well, in which their probability of existing in 3-d space transiently drops to zero. Several consistency checks of the outcomes of this extra-dimensional model are included in this paper. Among the outcomes of this model are: a match with the quantum phenomenon of zitterbewegung; the pr...

  19. Celulitis por cuerpo extraño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel B. Carrasco Guzmán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones de la piel y el tejido celular subcutáneo surgen como un grupo importante de afecciones con una alta morbilidad en edades pediátricas, generalmente relacionada con traumatismo y cuerpos extraños. Se presenta el caso de una escolar femenina de 6 años de edad, con síntomas y signos clínicos que sugieren celulitis en el muslo derecho,  por su evolución tórpida se le realizó el estudio ultrasonográfico que confirmó el diagnóstico etiológico de una celulitis secundaria a un traumatismo, provocada por la introducción de un gran cuerpo extraño, que pasó inadvertido para a familia de la menor.

  20. Neutrino anomalies and large extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Dighe, A S; Dighe, Amol S.; Joshipura, Anjan S.

    2001-01-01

    Theories with large extra dimensions can generate small neutrino masses when the standard model neutrinos are coupled to singlet fermions propagating in higher dimensions. The couplings can also generate mass splittings and mixings among the flavour neutrinos in the brane. We systematically study the minimal scenario involving only one singlet bulk fermion coupling weakly to the flavour neutrinos. We explore the neutrino mass structures in the brane that can potentially account for the atmospheric, solar and LSND anomalies simultaneously in a natural way. We demonstrate that in the absence of a priori mixings among the SM neutrinos, it is not possible to reconcile all these anomalies. The presence of some structure in the mass matrix of the SM neutrinos can solve this problem. This is exemplified by the Zee model, which when embedded in extra dimensions in a minimal way can account for all the neutrino anomalies.

  1. Origin of extra chromosome in Patau syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikiriyama, S; Niikawa, N

    1984-01-01

    Five live-born infants with Patau syndrome were studied for the nondisjunctional origin of the extra chromosome. Transmission modes of chromosomes 13 from parents to a child were determined using both QFQ- and RFA-heteromorphisms as markers, and the origin was ascertained in all of the patients. The extra chromosome had originated in nondisjunction at the maternal first meiotic division in two patients, at the maternal second meiosis in other two, and at the paternal first meiosis in the remaining one. Summarizing the results of the present study, together with those of the previous studies on a liveborn and abortuses with trisomy 13, nondisjunction at the maternal and the paternal meiosis occurred in this trisomy in the ratio of 14:3. This ratio is not statistically different from that inferred from the previous studies for Down syndrome. These findings suggest that there may be a fundamental mechanism common to the occurrence of nondisjunction in the acrocentric trisomies.

  2. Precision Constraints on Extra Fermion Generations

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past there has been renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak (EW) precision constraints, in particular in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for the increased activity regarding extra families and analyze them in view of the latest EW precision data.

  3. Extra gauge symmetries in BHT gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Blagojević, M

    2011-01-01

    We study the canonical structure of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend massive gravity, linearized around a maximally symmetric background. At the critical point in the space of parameters, defined by $\\Lambda_0/m^2=-1$, we discover an extra gauge symmetry, which reflects the existence of the partially massless mode. The number of the Lagrangian degrees of freedom is found to be 1. We show that the canonical structure of the theory at the critical point is unstable under linearization.

  4. Extra gauge symmetries in BHT gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, M.; Cvetković, B.

    2011-03-01

    We study the canonical structure of the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend massive gravity, linearized around a maximally symmetric background. At the critical point in the space of parameters, defined by Λ 0/ m 2 = -1, we discover an extra gauge symmetry, which reflects the existence of the partially massless mode. The number of the Lagrangian degrees of freedom is found to be 1. We show that the canonical structure of the theory at the critical point is unstable under linearization.

  5. Quantum simulation of an extra dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, O; Celi, A; Latorre, J I; Lewenstein, M

    2012-03-30

    We present a general strategy to simulate a D+1-dimensional quantum system using a D-dimensional one. We analyze in detail a feasible implementation of our scheme using optical lattice technology. The simplest nontrivial realization of a fourth dimension corresponds to the creation of a bi-volume geometry. We also propose single- and many-particle experimental signatures to detect the effects of the extra dimension.

  6. Dimensional reduction without continuous extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut, Lebanon and I.H.E.S. F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Froehlich, J.; Schubnel, B. [ETHZ, Mathematics and Physics Departments, Zuerich (Switzerland); Wyler, D. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    We describe a novel approach to dimensional reduction in classical field theory. Inspired by ideas from noncommutative geometry, we introduce extended algebras of differential forms over space-time, generalized exterior derivatives, and generalized connections associated with the 'geometry' of space-times with discrete extra dimensions. We apply our formalism to theories of gauge- and gravitational fields and find natural geometrical origins for an axion- and a dilaton field, as well as a Higgs field.

  7. Collider Implications Of Extra Dimensions At Lhc

    CERN Document Server

    Reema

    2005-01-01

    Scope and method of study. The intent of this research is to consider multiple TeV-1-size extra compact dimensions in an asymmetric string compactification scenario in which the SM gauge bosons can propagate into the TeV-1-size extra dimensions while the SM fermions are confined to the usual SM D3-brane. The contributions that the KK excitations of the gluons, g*'s, make to the multijet cross sections in proton- proton collisions at the LHC energy are calculated. Fortran was used to do the calculations. Findings and conclusions. At very high pT, the dijet signal will either be enhanced significantly due to virtual g* exchanges or place a lower bound on the compactification scale of about 8 TeV. It is found that the dijet signal is very sensitive to three parameters—the compactification scale, the string scale, and the number of extra dimensions. Thus, although the dijet signal is much more sensitive to KK effects, the dijet signal alone does not provide sufficient information to deduce the number of...

  8. MR findings of extra abdominal fibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Sung Moon; Rhee, Chang Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Jung Sik; Kim, Hong [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Kyung Jin [Suh Joo MRI center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Kil Ho [Youngnam Univ. College of Medicine, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate the MR findings of extra-abdominal fibromatosis and the role of MRI in primary diagnosis Fifteen cases in of histologically proven extra-abdominal fibromatosis in 13 patients were retrospectively reviewed. T1-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained in axial, coronal and sagittal planes. Gd-enhancement was performed in 14 cases, and dynamic enhancement studies in two. All lesions were evaluated for mass shape and margin definition. Among the 15 cases, tumors of the buttock accounted for five, and tumor of the thigh for two. in eight cases tumors were intermuscular and in six cases were intramuscular. In ten cases (67%) the mass extended along the long axis of the body and in 14 of 15 cases (93%) focal infiltration of adjacent structures was visible. The signal intensity of the lesion was in all cases inhomogeneous on both T1 and T2 weighted images. As seen on Gd-DTPA enhanced scans, the masses were inhomogeneously enhanced. In all cases MRI revealed star-shaped linear strands or a band-like low signal area in the mass. These features were not enhanced and were arranged along the long axis of the mass. MR findings of extra-abdominal fibromatosis were relatively characteristic and helpful for primary diagnosis of the condition.

  9. Computing Tropical Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, D.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, T.;

    2005-01-01

    The tropical variety of a d-dimensional prime ideal in a polynomial ring with complex coefficients is a pure d-dimensional polyhedral fan. This fan is shown to be connected in codimension one. We present algorithmic tools for computing the tropical variety, and we discuss our implementation...

  10. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    surface winds in the range of 34 to center of a tropical cyclone. 63 kt (17 to 32 m/sec) inclusive . MAXIMUA SUSTAINED WIND - The highest TROPICAL UPPER...PASADENA CIUDAD UNIVERSITARIA . MEXICO LISD CAMP SPRINGS CENTER, MD CIVIL DEFENSE, BELAU LOS ANGELES PUBLIC LIBRARY CIVIL DEFENSE, MAJURO MAURITIUS

  11. Boletin Agricultura Tropical

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Resumen Presenta los índices del boletín agricultura tropical primera revista de su género, aparecida en 1899. Abstract this document present the indexes of the bulletin of tropical agricultura, the first periodical of its kind, which appeared  in 1899.

  12. An Analysis of the Energetics of Tropical and Extra-Tropical Regions for Warm ENSO Composite Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayra Christine Sátyro

    Full Text Available Abstract This study focuses on the quantification and evaluation of the effects of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation warm phases, using a composite of five intense El Niño episodes between 1979 – 2011 on the Energetic Lorenz Cycle for four distinct regions around the globe: 80° S – 5° N (region 1, 50° S – 5° N (region 2, 30° S – 5° N (region 3, and 30° S – 30° N (region 4, using Data from NCEP reanalysis-II. Briefly, the results showed that zonal terms of potential energy and kinetic energy were intensified, except for region 1, where zonal kinetic energy weakened. Through the analysis of the period in which higher energy production is observed, a strong communication between the available zonal potential and the zonal kinetic energy reservoirs can be identified. This communication weakened the modes linked to eddies of potential energy and kinetic energy, as well as in the other two baroclinic conversions terms. Furthermore, the results indicate that for all the regions, the system itself works to regain its stable condition.

  13. Introduction to tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maclagan, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...

  14. Stability of perturbed geodesics in nD axisymmetric spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra-Araújo, C. H.; Anjos, R. C.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of self-gravity of a disk matter is evaluated by the simplest modes of oscillation frequencies for perturbed circular geodesics. We plotted the radial profiles of free oscillations of an equatorial circular geodesic perturbed within the orbital plane or in the vertical direction. The calculation is carried out to geodesics of an axisymmetric n-dimensional spacetime. The profiles are computed by examples of disks embeded in five-dimensional or six-dimensional spacetime, where we studied the motion of free test particles for three axisymmetric cases: (i) the Newtonian limit of a general proposed 5D and 6D axisymmetric spacetime; (ii) a simple Randall-Sundrum (RS) 5D spacetime; (iii) general 5D and 6D RS spacetime. The equation of motion of such particles is derived and the stability study is computed for both horizontal and vertical directions, to see how extra dimensions could affect the system. In particular, we investigate a disk constructed from Miyamoto-Nagai and Chazy-Curzon with a cut parameter to generate a disk potential. Those solutions have a simple extension for extra dimensions in case (i), and by solving vacuum Einstein field equations for a kind of RS-Weyl metric in cases (ii) and (iii). We find that it is possible to compute a range of possible solutions where such perturbed geodesics are stable. Basically, the stable solutions appear, for the radial direction, in special cases when the system has 5D and in all cases when the system has 6D and, for the axial direction, in all cases when the system has both 5D or 6D.

  15. Who Does Extra-Credit Work in Introductory Science Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy

    2005-01-01

    On the first day of classes, 81% of students in an introductory biology course claimed that they would submit extra-credit work if given the opportunity. When given two chances for extra-credit work, fewer than one-fourth of students submitted one or both assignments. Students who submitted extra-credit work were more likely to attend class,…

  16. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Seamus D; Hubber, David A

    2016-01-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long, initially sub-critical but accreting filaments. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length scale which is roughly 4 times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multi-wavelength density power spectrum there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispe...

  17. Gravitational waves from perturbed stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Non radial oscillations of neutron stars are associated with the emission of gravitational waves. The characteristic frequencies of these oscillations can be computed using the theory of stellar perturbations, and they are shown to carry detailed information on the internal structure of the emitting source. Moreover, they appear to be encoded in various radiative processes, as for instance in the tail of the giant flares of Soft Gamma Repeaters. Thus, their determination is central to the theory of stellar perturbation. A viable approach to the problem consists in formulating this theory as a problem of resonant scattering of gravitational waves incident on the potential barrier generated by the spacetime curvature. This approach discloses some unexpected correspondences between the theory of stellar perturbations and the theory of quantum mechanics, and allows us to predict new relativistic effects.

  18. Physicochemical Perturbations of Phase Equilibriums

    CERN Document Server

    Dobruskin, Vladimir Kh

    2010-01-01

    The alternative approach to the displacement of gas/liquid equilibrium is developed on the basis of the Clapeyron equation. The phase transition in the system with well-established properties is taken as a reference process to search for the parameters of phase transition in the perturbed equilibrium system. The main equation, derived in the framework of both classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, establishes a correlation between variations of enthalpies of evaporation, \\Delta (\\Delta H), which is induced by perturbations, and the equilibrium vapor pressures. The dissolution of a solute, changing the surface shape, and the effect of the external field of adsorbents are considered as the perturbing actions on the liquid phase. The model provides the unified method for studying (1) solutions, (2) membrane separations (3) surface phenomena, and (4) effect of the adsorption field; it leads to the useful relations between \\Delta (\\Delta H), on the one hand, and the osmotic pressures, the Donnan poten...

  19. Multi-field inflation and cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    We provide a concise review on multi-field inflation and cosmological perturbations. We discuss convenient and physically meaningful bases in terms of which perturbations can be systematically studied. We give formal accounts on the gauge fixing conditions and present the perturbation action in two gauges. We also briefly review non-linear perturbations.

  20. A Perturbative Window into Non-Perturbative Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Vafa, Cumrun

    2002-01-01

    We argue that for a large class of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories the effective superpotential as a function of the glueball chiral superfield is exactly given by a summation of planar diagrams of the same gauge theory. This perturbative computation reduces to a matrix model whose action is the tree-level superpotential. For all models that can be embedded in string theory we give a proof of this result, and we sketch an argument how to derive this more generally directly in field theory. These results are obtained without assuming any conjectured dualities and can be used as a systematic method to compute instanton effects: the perturbative corrections up to n-th loop can be used to compute up to n-instanton corrections. These techniques allow us to see many non-perturbative effects, such as the Seiberg-Witten solutions of N=2 theories, the consequences of Montonen-Olive S-duality in N=1* and Seiberg-like dualities for N=1 theories from a completely perturbative planar point of view in the same gauge theo...

  1. Doppler peaks from active perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J; Coulson, D; Ferreira, P; Magueijo, Joao; Albrecht, Andreas; Coulson, David; Ferreira, Pedro

    1995-01-01

    We examine how the qualitative structure of the Doppler peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave anisotropy depends on the fundamental nature of the perturbations which produced them. The formalism of Hu and Sugiyama is extended to treat models with cosmic defects. We discuss how perturbations can be ``active'' or ``passive'' and ``incoherent'' or ``coherent'', and show how causality and scale invariance play rather different roles in these various cases. We find that the existence of secondary Doppler peaks and the rough placing of the primary peak unambiguously reflect these basic properties.

  2. Tropic Testing of Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    kilometer track running through tropical forest . The track is a combination of a bauxite/dirt base with grades on the road up to 20 percent and log...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-817A Tropic Testing of Vehicles 5a...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground Tropic Regions Test Center (TEDT-YPT) 301 C. Street Yuma, AZ

  3. Extra-adrenal Pheochromocytoma in an Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah, Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male with symptoms of headache and diaphoresis presented to the emergency department. He had eight months of noted hypertension attributed to medications. On arrival his blood pressure was 229/117mmHg, and he was ill-appearing. His blood pressure was managed aggressively, and he was diagnosed with extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma by computed tomography. He eventually underwent resection of the mass. Children with severe, symptomatic hypertension should be evaluated for pheochromocytoma. Although rare, it is curable. Failure to diagnose carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(2:258-261.

  4. Aneurisma micotico de origem extra-vascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de uma paciente com três anos de idade portadora de oftalmoplegia completa unilateral e aneurisma da artéria carótida interna, em sua porção intra-cavernosa. A etiologia infecciosa extra-vascular, na vigência de tromboflebite de seio cavernoso, foi considerada. As informações da literatura são discutidas, sendo comentada a infrequência da patologia. A indicação de ligadura da artéria carótida interna, no tratamento desses aneurismas, merece ulterior comprovação.

  5. Enhanced gravitational scattering from large extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K; Wands, D; Koyama, Kazuya; Piazza, Federico; Wands, David

    2005-01-01

    We show that enhanced gravitational scattering on small scales (< 0.1 mm), which becomes possible in models with large extra dimensions, can establish statistical equilibrium between different particle species in the early Universe. Ultra-light WIMPs (e.g., axions) can be thermalized by such a mechanism and therefore are not viable CDM candidates in models with a fundamental Planck scale below about 10 TeV. More generally we note that the energy transfer rate is sensitive to trans-Planckian physics

  6. Radio communications with extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Communications between civilizations within our galaxy at the present level of radio engineering is possible, although civilizations must begin to search for each other to achieve this. If an extra-terrestrial civilization possessing a technology at our level wishes to make itself known and will transmit special radio signals to do this, then it can be picked up by us at a distance of several hundreds of light years using already existing radio telescopes and specially built radio receivers. If it wishes, this civilization can also send us information without awaiting our answer.

  7. Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, Romeo; Hack, Thomas-Paul; Pinamonti, Nicola; Rejzner, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.

  8. Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Romeo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Trento,Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo TN (Italy); Fredenhagen, Klaus [II Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Hack, Thomas-Paul [Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig,Brüderstr. 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Pinamonti, Nicola [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Rejzner, Katarzyna [Department of Mathematics, University of York,Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-04

    It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.

  9. Adaptation Strategies in Perturbed /s/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Jana; Hoole, Phil; Perrier, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the role of three articulatory parameters (tongue position, jaw position and tongue grooving) in the production of /s/. Six normal speakers' speech was perturbed by a palatal prosthesis. The fricative was recorded acoustically and through electromagnetic articulography in four conditions: (1) unperturbed,…

  10. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soper, D.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    1997-06-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.

  11. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics.

  12. Chiral Perturbation Theory and Unitarization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Arriola, E; Nieves, J; Peláez, J R

    2000-01-01

    We review our recent work on unitarization and chiral perturbation theory both in the $\\pi\\pi$ and the $\\pi N$ sectors. We pay particular attention to the Bethe-Salpeter and Inverse Amplitude unitarization methods and their recent applications to $\\pi\\pi$ and $\\pi N$ scattering.

  13. Transport studies using perturbative experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G. M. D.

    2000-01-01

    By inducing a small electron temperature perturbation in a plasma in steady state one can in principle determine the conductive and convective components of the electron heat flux, and the associated thermal diffusivity and convection velocity. The same can be done for other plasma parameters, like

  14. Extra-mammary findings in breast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Pierluigi; Costantini, M.; Belli, P.; Giuliani, M.; Bufi, E.; Fubelli, R.; Distefano, D.; Romani, M.; Bonomo, L. [Catholic University - Policlinic A. Gemelli, Department of Bio-Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Incidental extra-mammary findings in breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may be benign in nature, but may also represent a metastasis or another important lesion. We aimed to analyse the prevalence and clinical relevance of these unexpected findings. A retrospective review of 1535 breast MRIs was conducted. Only axial sequences were reassessed. Confirmation examinations were obtained in all cases. 285 patients had a confirmed incidental finding, which were located in the liver (51.9%), lung (11.2%), bone (7%), mediastinal lymph nodes (4.2%) or consisted of pleural/pericardial effusion (15.4%). 20.4% of incidental findings were confirmed to be malignant. Positive predictive value for MRI to detect a metastatic lesion was high if located within the bone (89%), lymph nodes (83%) and lung (59%), while it was low if located within the liver (9%) or if it consisted of pleural/pericardial effusion (6%). The axial enhanced sequence showed superior sensitivity to unenhanced images in detecting metastatic lesions, especially if only smaller ({<=}10 mm.) lesions were considered. The prevalence of metastatic incidental extra-mammary findings is not negligible. Particular attention should be to incidental findings located within the lung, bone and mediastinal lymph nodes. (orig.)

  15. Neutrino Mass Models in Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, J N

    2003-01-01

    Neutrinos play a crucial role in many areas of physics from very short distances to astrophysics and cosmology. It is a long held believe that they are good probes of physics at the GUT scale. Recent developments have made it clear that they can also be of fundamental importance for the physics of extra dimensions if these exist. Here we pedagogically review the construction of neutrino mass models in extra dimensions within the brane world scenarios. These models are usually nontrivial generalizations of their four dimensional counterparts. We describe the theoretical tools that have been forged and the new perpectives gained in this rapidly developing area. In particular we discuss the issues involve in building models without the use of right-handed singlets. It is very difficult to directly test the origin of neutrino masses in different models be it in four or more dimensions. We point out that different models give very different indirect signatures in the TeV region and in precision measurements.

  16. Neptune migration model with one extra planet

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, Lun-Wen; 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.06.008

    2009-01-01

    We explore conventional Neptune migration model with one additional planet of mass at 0.1-2.0 Me. This planet inhabited in the 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune during planet migration epoch, and then escaped from the Kuiper belt when Jovian planets parked near the present orbits. Adding this extra planet and assuming the primordial disk truncated at about 45 AU in the conventional Neptune migration model, it is able to explain the complex structure of the observed Kuiper belt better than the usual Neptune migration model did in several respects. However, numerical experiments imply that this model is a low-probability event. In addition to the low probability, two features produced by this model may be inconsistent with the observations. They are small number of low-inclination particles in the classical belt, and the production of a remnant population with near-circular and low-inclination orbit within a = 50-52 AU. According to our present study, including one extra planet in the conventional Neptune ...

  17. Exploring extra dimensions with scalar waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jones-Smith, Katherine; Verostek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a pedagogical introduction to the physics of extra dimensions focussing on the ADD, Randall-Sundrum and DGP models. In each of these models, the familiar particles and fields of the standard model are assumed to be confined to a four dimensional space-time called the brane; the brane is a slice through a higher dimensional space-time called the bulk. The geometry of the ADD, Randall-Sundrum and DGP space-times is described and the relation between Randall-Sundrum and Anti-de-Sitter space-time is explained. The necessary differential geometry background is introduced in an appendix that presumes no greater mathematical preparation than multivariable calculus. The ordinary wave equation and the Klein-Gordon equation are briefly reviewed followed by an analysis of the propagation of scalar waves in the bulk in all three extra-dimensional models. We also calculate the scalar field produced by a static point source located on the brane for all three models. For the ADD and Randall-Sundrum model...

  18. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking from Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, M; Yamawaki, K; Hashimoto, Michio; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking (DEWSB) in the $D (=6,8,...)$-dimensional bulk with compactified extra dimensions. We identify the critical binding strength for triggering the DEWSB, based on the ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation. In the top mode standard model with extra dimensions, where the standard model gauge bosons and the third generation of quarks and leptons are put in the bulk, we analyze the most attractive channel (MAC) by using renormalization group equations (RGEs) of (dimensionless) bulk gauge couplings and determine the effective cutoff where the MAC coupling exceeds the critical value. We then find that the top-condensation can take place for D=8. Combining RGEs of top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic couplings with compositeness conditions, we predict the top mass, $m_t=173-180$ GeV, and the Higgs mass, $m_H=181-211$ GeV, for D=8, where we took the universal compactification scale $1/R = 1-100$ TeV.

  19. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking from Extra Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2003-08-01

    We study the dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking (DEWSB) in the D(= 6, 8, ⋯)-dimensional bulk with compactified extra dimensions. We identify the critical binding strength for triggering the DEWSB, based on the ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation. In the top mode standard model with extra dimensions, where the standard model gauge bosons and the third generation of quarks and leptons are put in the bulk, we analyze the most attractive channel (MAC) by using renormalization group equations (RGEs) of (dimensionless) bulk gauge couplings and determine the effective cutoff where the MAC coupling exceeds the critical value. We then find that the top-condensation can take place for D = 8. Combining RGEs of top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic couplings with compositeness conditions, we predict the top mass, mt = 173 - 180 GeV, and the Higgs mass, mH = 181 - 211 GeV, for D = 8, where we took the universal compactification scale 1/R = 1 - 100 TeV.

  20. Extra-Galactic Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Kaper, Lex; Spaans, Marco; Foing, Bernard

    Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) have been observed ubiquitously along many sight-lines probing the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. Despite extensive efforts, their carrier(s) have not yet been identified, although they are very likely of a carbonaceous nature and reside in the gas phase. Possible candidates include, but are not limited to, polycyclic aromatic hydro- carbons (PAHs), fullerenes and carbon chains. To advance our understanding of DIB behaviour and thus DIB carrier properties we need to study environments inherently different from those observed in the Milky Way. Only recent advances in instrumentation and telescope capabilities are providing us with new exciting possibilities for extra-galactic DIB research. We present here a selection of our recent observational results for (extra)-galactic DIBs in the Local Group and beyond. In particular, DIBs in the Magellanic Clouds and in the spiral galaxy NGC1448. These first results show surprising similarities between certain DIB profiles as well as differences in DIB behaviour. Understanding diffuse cloud chemistry, in particular with respect to complex (carbonaceous) molecules, is crucial to any DIB carrier identification. In this respect, external galaxies offer a unique window as they exhibit local interstellar conditions (such as metallicity, UV-field and gas-to-dust ratio) very different from those observed in the Milky Way. We discuss briefly the effect of metallicity and the gas-to-dust ratio on the physi-chemical properties of diffuse clouds and the subsequent effects on the PAH charge state distribution and the DIB carriers.

  1. [Extra-articular manifestations of seronegative spondylarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammelli, Daniele

    2006-05-01

    Seronegative spondylarthritis are frequently characterised by extra-articular manifestations. They are frequently in recurrent uveitis. Between the cutaneous manifestations should be mentioned erythema nodosum, typical of inflammatory bowel diseases, and keratoderma blenorrhagicum, in the Reiter's syndrome. Cardiac complications in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) include aortic valvular regurgitation and arrhythmia and, more rarely, mitral valvulopathy, cardiomyopathy and pericarditis. Pulmonary involvement in AS includes ventilatory restrictive syndrome and fibro-bullous disease of the apex. Vertebral osteoporosis is a very important extra-articular manifestation because of the possibility of spontaneous fractures of the vertebrae. Central neurological manifestations include medullary compression from cervical sub-luxation while the most important peripheral involvements are lumbar stenosis and the cauda equina syndrome. Type AA amyloidosis is a rare late complication of the AS, possible cause of death especially in patients with aggressive disease. Kidney complications can be observed as consequences of prolonged anti-inflammatory therapy, but the most frequent renal complications are amyloidosis and mesangial IgA segmental and focal glomerulonephritis.

  2. Gauge symmetries emerging from extra dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkareuli, J. L.; Kepuladze, Z.

    2016-09-01

    We argue that extra dimensions with a properly chosen compactification scheme could be a natural source for emergent gauge symmetries. Actually, some proposed vector field potential terms or polynomial vector field constraints introduced in five-dimensional Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theory are shown to smoothly lead to spontaneous violation of an underlying 5D spacetime symmetry and generate pseudo-Goldstone vector modes as conventional 4D gauge boson candidates. As a special signature, there appear, apart from conventional gauge couplings, some properly suppressed direct multiphoton (multiboson, in general) interactions in emergent QED and Yang-Mills theories whose observation could shed light on their high-dimensional nature. Moreover, in emergent Yang-Mills theories an internal symmetry G also occurs spontaneously broken to its diagonal subgroups once 5D Lorentz violation happens. This breaking originates from the extra vector field components playing a role of some adjoint scalar field multiplet in the 4D spacetime. So, one naturally has the Higgs effect without a specially introduced scalar field multiplet. Remarkably, when being applied to grand unified theories (GUTs) this results in a fact that the emergent GUTs generically appear broken down to the Standard Model just at the 5D Lorentz violation scale M .

  3. The Universe’s extra bits

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Parallel universes, unknown forms of matter, extra dimensions….This is not cheap science fiction but very concrete physics theories that the scientists are trying to confirm with the LHC and other ongoing experiments. Although it's enough to make us dream about going to a parallel world for the weekend, let’s keep our feet firmly on the ground and try to work out what all these things really are…   Given the astonishing fact that 96% of the Universe is actually unknown, we can think of filling it with all sorts of weird and exotic things. Extra dimensions and parallel universes may indeed be real, that is, their existence is accepted by a large community of scientists who have worked out mathematical models and physical constraints. “The idea of a fifth dimension was first introduced by Kaluza and Klein at the beginning of the last century in an attempt to unify gravity and electromagnetism”, confirms Ignatios Antoniadis from CERN’s Th...

  4. Exploring alternative wind vulnerability and loss modeling methods - application to Europe extra-tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, N.

    2009-04-01

    Catastrophe models are used to assess the economic and insured loss to the built environment due to natural hazards such as earthquakes, windstorms, floods, storm surges, tsunamis, etc. A conventional catastrophe model estimating direct economic loss could be divided into three basic components; hazard, vulnerability and exposure. For a single event, the hazard component represents the best estimate realization of the hazard footprint over a region at the modeling resolution, i.e. variable grid, postalcode, cresta, etc. The vulnerability component represents the response of the buildings or any modeled structure to the hazard, quantified in terms of a loss ratio. The exposure component represents the value of the buildings in a portfolio covering a region or those underwritten by an insurer or a re-insurer. The exposure together with the vulnerability functions produces the expected economic loss of the hazard footprint for a given hazard event. In the case of estimating indirect economic losses and insured losses financial models are utilized with various financial structures applied on the economic loss estimates. The commonly used method of characterizing wind vulnerability of buildings is to develop functions of mean loss ratio or mean damage ratio (MDR) vs wind speed where the wind speed is often defined as the peak gust measured at a height of 10m above the ground elevation. The uncertainty associated with MDR due to the likelihood of the building experiencing a range of damage states and hence loss ratios at a given wind speed is quantified by a continuous statistical distribution with a mean (which is the MDR) and a standard deviation, SD. For a given event footprint a conventional catastrophe model calculates an MDR and associated SD for each location of a building portfolio. This together with the location exposure or insured value results in the location loss. The location losses are then aggregated together with their SDs to obtain the total expected loss over the event footprint and the associated uncertainty. Now, the actual loss in the building portfolio may not occur at every location, i.e. there are locations with and without loss. It is anticipated that the total incurred loss over the footprint falls within the range of modeled footprint loss and closer to the expected modeled loss value. An alternative methodology to the above was explored where it was attempted to model realizations of actual losses expected at each location. Firstly the building vulnerability was represented by its underlying fragility functions where each fragility function characterizes the likely damage mode and hence the loss ratio the building could experience during a windstorm and the associated probability of occurrence conditional on the wind speed. The damage modes considered are mutually exclusive and engineering considerations determine the extent of correlation between each damage mode (or sub-damage state). The fragility functions therefore describe the damage matrix for a building subjected to the wind hazard and this matrix produces the probability of damage as well as no damage. Hence at a building location subjected to a certain wind speed within the hazard footprint, one could sample from the damage matrix the actual damage ratio, which could range from zero (where no damage could occur) to the maximum likely damage ratio. By sampling all locations N times, one could subsequently obtain N realizations of the loss footprint hence obtain the expected total event loss and the loss distribution quantifying the uncertainty. In evaluating the insured loss or gross loss, the calculated ground-up loss at a location is used in the expected mode to estimate the gross loss based on the deductibles, limits and other relevant financial structures. This is in contrast to the conventional catastrophe model where the gross loss is calculated as a distributed loss using MDR and SD. The location correlation modeling was explored in the alternative methodology using correlated sampling techniques and compared with the methodology in

  5. A climatology of surface ozone in the extra tropics: cluster analysis of observations and model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tarasova

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Important aspects of the seasonal variations of surface ozone are discussed. The underlying analysis is based on the long-term (1990–2004 ozone records of Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP and the World Data Center of Greenhouse Gases which do have a strong Northern Hemisphere bias. Seasonal variations are pronounced at most of the 114 locations for any time of the day. Seasonal-diurnal variability classification using hierarchical agglomeration clustering reveals 5 distinct clusters: clean/rural, semi-polluted non-elevated, semi-polluted semi-elevated, elevated and polar/remote marine types. For the cluster "clean/rural" the seasonal maximum is observed in April, both for night and day. For those sites with a double maximum or a wide spring-summer maximum, the one in spring appears both for day and night, while the one in summer is more pronounced for daytime and hence can be attributed to photochemical processes. For the spring maximum photochemistry is a less plausible explanation as no dependence of the maximum timing is observed. More probably the spring maximum is caused by dynamical/transport processes. Using data from the 3-D atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 covering the period of 1998–2005 a comparison has been performed for the identified clusters. For the model data four distinct classes of variability are detected. The majority of cases are covered by the regimes with a spring seasonal maximum or with a broad spring-summer maximum (with prevailing summer. The regime with winter–early spring maximum is reproduced by the model for southern hemispheric locations. Background and semi-polluted sites appear in the model in the same cluster. The seasonality in this model cluster is characterized by a pronounced spring (May maximum. For the model cluster that covers partly semi-elevated semi-polluted sites the role of the photochemical production/destruction seems to be overestimated. Taking into consideration the differences in the data sampling procedure the carried out comparison demonstrates the ability of the model to reproduce the main regimes of surface ozone variability quite well.

  6. A climatology of surface ozone in the extra tropics: cluster analysis of observations and model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tarasova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Important aspects of the seasonal variations of surface ozone are discussed. The underlying analysis is based on the long-term (1990–2004 ozone records of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP and the World Data Centre of Greenhouse Gases, which provide data mostly for the Northern Hemisphere. Seasonal variations are pronounced at most of the 114 locations at all times of the day. A seasonal-diurnal variations classification using hierarchical agglomeration clustering reveals 6 distinct clusters: clean background, rural, semi-polluted non-elevated, semi-polluted semi-elevated, elevated and polar/remote marine. For the "clean background" cluster the seasonal maximum is observed in March-April, both for night and day. For those sites with a double maximum or a wide spring-summer maximum, the spring maximum appears both for day and night, while the summer maximum is more pronounced for daytime and hence can be attributed to photochemical processes. The spring maximum is more likely caused by dynamical/transport processes than by photochemistry as it is observed in spring for all times of the day. We compare the identified clusters with corresponding data from the 3-D atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 covering the period of 1998–2005. For the model output as for the measurements 6 clusters are considered. The simulation shows at most of the sites a spring seasonal maximum or a broad spring-summer maximum (with higher summer mixing ratios. For southern hemispheric and polar remote locations the seasonal maximum in the simulation is shifted to spring, while the absolute mixing ratios are in good agreement with the measurements. The seasonality in the model cluster covering background locations is characterized by a pronounced spring (April–May maximum. For the model clusters which cover rural and semi-polluted sites the role of the photochemical production/destruction seems to be overestimated. Taking into consideration the differences in the data sampling procedure, the comparison demonstrates the ability of the model to reproduce the main regimes of surface ozone variations quite well.

  7. A first global-scale hindcast of extreme sea levels induced by extra-tropical storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Flood risk in coastal areas has been increasing in past years. This can be partly attributed to climate change and rising sea levels that increase the likelihood of coastal flood hazards, but also to increasing flood exposure because the global population and capital is increasingly concentrated in coastal zones. Without action, the increasing trends in flood hazard and exposure will be associated with catastrophic flood losses in the future. The adequate allocation of global investments and prioritization of adaptation actions requires an accurate understanding of the current and future coastal flood risk on a global-scale. Despite this, global data on extreme sea levels are scarce. A few studies have assessed coastal flood risk at the global-scale. To date, these have been either based on extreme water levels in the DIVA database or on observations from tide gauges. Both datasets have limitations when assessing flood risk, including low-probability events, on a fully global scale. Hence, there is a need for an improved estimation of extreme sea level on a global-scale. Therefore, we are developing the first global hindcast of coastal water levels which covers the period 1979-2013. To do this, we apply a global hydrodynamic model which is based on the Delft3D Flexible Mesh software from Deltares. By forcing the model with the tidal potential and meteorological fields derived from the ERA-Interim global reanalysis, we are able to simulate the water levels resulting from tides and surges. Subsequently, we apply extreme value statistics to estimate exceedance probabilities. Similar hydrodynamic modelling efforts have been carried out at the regional scale, but as the modelling of surges in shallow coastal areas requires a high-resolution model grid, generally this approach is computationally too costly on a global-scale. However, the recent application of unstructured grids (or flexible mesh) in hydrodynamic models, allowing local refinement of the grid, has enabled the development of a global tide and surge model with a sufficient resolution in coastal areas, while maintaining the computational efficiency. Here, we present first insights in the performance of the model by a comparison of the simulated water levels with observations.

  8. SAME DISTRIBUTION OF LIMIT CYCLES TO PERTURBED CUBIC HAMILTONIAN SYSTEMS WITH DIFFERENT PERTURBATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Using qualitative analysis, we study perturbed Hamiltonian systems with different n-th order polynomial as perturbation terms. By numerical simulation, we show that these perturbed systems have the same distribution of limit cycles. Our results imply that these perturbed systems are equivalent in the sense of distribution of limit cycles. This is useful for studying limit cycles of perturbed systems.

  9. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    TAIWAN NAVPGSCOL LIBRARY CITIES SERVICES OIL GAS CORP NAVPOLAROCEANCEN SUITLAND CIUDAD UNIVERSITARIA , MEXICO NAVAL RESEARCH LAB CIVIL DEFENSE, SAIPAN...The system software has been provided An effort is now underway to develop a to OAO Corporation for inclusion in the JTWC series of examples...winds in the range of 34 to speed, typically within one degree of the center of a 63 kt (17 to 32 m/sec) inclusive . tropical cyclone. TROPICAL UPPER

  10. Effects of food supplementation on a tropical bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Alexandra M; Moore, Ignacio T

    2013-10-01

    Tropical birds typically exhibit a 'slow pace of life' relative to higher latitude species. This is often manifested as slow development, low fecundity, and high survival. Following from this, it is predicted that tropical birds may be more likely to trade current reproductive effort to favor self-maintenance, thus supporting survival and future reproduction. To test this idea, we conducted two food supplementation experiments on tropical rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in the eastern Andes of Ecuador. In the first experiment, we food-supplemented pairs during the non-breeding life-history stage, and in the second experiment, we food-supplemented pairs that were provisioning fledglings. In both experiments, a larger proportion of food-supplemented birds exhibited pre-basic molt (replacement of feathers) than in a control group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that a food-supplemented bird invests extra resources into molt, a form of self-maintenance, and contrasts with the majority of food supplementation studies in high latitude birds that show they typically advance the initiation of, or extend the period of, reproduction. Our results are consistent with the syndrome of the slow pace of life in the tropics and support the concept of fundamental differences between temperate-zone and tropical birds.

  11. Neglected tropical diseases outside the tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca F Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the growth in international travel and immigration, NTDs may be diagnosed in countries of the western world, but there has been no specific focus in the literature on imported NTDs. METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of immigrants and travelers diagnosed with one of the 13 core NTDs at a Tropical Medicine Referral Unit in Spain during the period April 1989-December 2007. Area of origin or travel was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 6168 patients (2634 immigrants, 3277 travelers and 257 VFR travelers in the cohort. NTDs occurred more frequently in immigrants, followed by VFR travelers and then by other travelers (p<0.001 for trend. The main NTDs diagnosed in immigrants were onchocerciasis (n = 240, 9.1% acquired mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, Chagas disease (n = 95, 3.6% in immigrants from South America, and ascariasis (n = 86, 3.3% found mainly in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Most frequent NTDs in travelers were: schistosomiasis (n = 43, 1.3%, onchocerciasis (n = 17, 0.5% and ascariasis (n = 16, 0.5%, and all were mainly acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. The main NTDs diagnosed in VFR travelers were onchocerciasis (n = 14, 5.4%, and schistosomiasis (n = 2, 0.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of imported NTDs is emerging as these infections acquire a more public profile. Specific issues such as the possibility of non-vectorial transmission outside endemic areas and how some eradication programmes in endemic countries may have an impact even in non-tropical western countries are addressed. Recognising NTDs even outside tropical settings would allow specific prevention and control measures to be implemented and may create unique opportunities for research in future.

  12. Notes on Rank One Perturbed Resolvent. Perturbation of Isolated Eigenvalue.

    CERN Document Server

    Chorosavin, S A

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a didactic commentary (a transcription with variations) to the paper of S.R. Foguel {\\it Finite Dimensional Perturbations in Banach Spaces}. Addressed, mainly: postgraduates and related readers. Subject: Suppose we have two linear operators, A, B, so that B - A is rank one. Let \\lambda_o be an {\\it isolated} point of the spectrum of A. In addition, let \\lambda_o be an {\\it eigenvalue} of A: \\lambda_o \\in \\sigma_{pp}(A) . The question is: Is \\lambda_o an eigenvalue of B ? And, if so, is the multiplicity of \\lambda_o in \\sigma_{pp}(B) equal to the multiplicity of \\lambda_o in \\sigma_{pp}(A) ? -- or less? -- or greater? Keywords: M.G.Krein's Formula, Finite Rank Perturbation.

  13. The impact of extratropical warming on the tropical precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Masakazu; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Tatebe, Hiroaki; Nozawa, Toru

    2017-04-01

    From paleoclimate evidence to future climate projections, it has been reported that the asymmetric warming (or cooling) between the northern and southern hemisphere extratropics induces the meridional shift in the tropical precipitation. Such a shift is often understood by the energy-flux framework in that the extra energy is transported from more warming to less warming hemispheres through the change in the Hadley circulation. As the Hadley circulation transports energy in opposite direction to the moisture, the tropical precipitation tends to be intensified in the hemisphere of a larger warming. This framework is shown to be particularly useful for modelling results without ocean dynamical feedback. In the current study, a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model is used to investigate the impact of extratropical warming on the tropical precipitation under the realistic RCP4.5 scenario. It is shown that the mid-high latitude warming alone in the poleward of 40° (56% global warming) can significantly affect the tropical precipitation change in the equatorward of 20° (38% hemispheric contrast) from late autumn to early winter. High-latitude warming alone affects much less. This meridional change in the tropical precipitation is largely explained by the circulation change, rather than the humidity change. The reduced northward eddy momentum and heat fluxes in the northern hemisphere induces anomalous Hadley circulation in the northern tropics. This change seems to weaken the equatorial upwelling in the Pacific, which leads to the equatorial SST rise. The equatorial sea surface warming induces the meridionally symmetric pattern of the anomalous Hadley circulation (though, asymmetric in strength), resulting in the northward migration of the tropical precipitation. The larger change in the ocean heat transport near the equator, relative to the atmosphere, requires a more refined theory than the conventional energy-flux framework.

  14. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrer, Ruth; Tansella, Vittorio

    2016-07-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  15. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  16. Higgs Phenomenology of Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakizaki Mitsuru

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimal model of Universal Extra Dimensions (MUED is briefly reviewed. We explain how the cross-sections for Higgs production via gluon fusion and decay into photons are modified, relative the the Standard Model (SM values, by KK particles running in loops, leading to an enhancement of the gg → h → γγ and gg → h → W+W− cross-sections. ATLAS and CMS searches for the SM Higgs in these channels are reinterpreted in the context of MUED and used to place new limits on the MUED parameter space. Only a small region of between 1 and 3 GeV around mh = 125 GeV for 500 GeV < R−1 < 1600 GeV remains open at the 95 % confidence level.

  17. Celulitis por cuerpo extraño

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Las infecciones de la piel y el tejido celular subcutáneo surgen como un grupo importante de afecciones con una alta morbilidad en edades pediátricas, generalmente relacionada con traumatismo y cuerpos extraños. Se presenta el caso de una escolar femenina de 6 años de edad, con síntomas y signos clínicos que sugieren celulitis en el muslo derecho,  por su evolución tórpida se le realizó el estudio ultrasonográfico que confirmó el diagnóstico etiológico de una celulitis secundaria a un traumat...

  18. Black holes, cosmology and extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bronnikov, Kirill A

    2013-01-01

    Assuming foundational knowledge of special and general relativity, this book guides the reader on issues surrounding black holes, wormholes, cosmology, and extra dimensions. Its first part is devoted to local strong field configurations (black holes and wormholes) in general relativity and the most relevant of alternative theories: scalar-tensor, f(R) and multidimensional theories. The second part is on cosmology, including inflation and a unified description of the whole evolution of the universe. The third part concerns multidimensional theories of gravity and contains a number of original results obtained by the authors. Expository work is conducted for a mechanism of symmetries and fundamental constants formation, while the original approach to nonlinear multidimensional gravity that is able to construct a unique perspective describing different phenomena is highlighted. Much of the content is new in book publications, because it was previously found only in journal publications, e.g. regarding regular bl...

  19. Phenomenology of symmetry breaking from extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro, Jorge [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Broncano, Alicia [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Belen Gavela, Maria [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rigolin, Stefano [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salvatori, Matteo [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    Motivated by the electroweak hierarchy problem, we consider theories with two extra dimensions in which the four-dimensional scalar fields are components of gauge boson in full space. We explore the Nielsen-Olesen instability for SU(N) on a torus, in the presence of a magnetic background. A field theory approach is developed, computing explicitly the minimum of the complete effective potential, including tri-linear and quartic couplings and determining the symmetries of the stable vacua. We also develop appropriate gauge-fixing terms when both Kaluza-Klein and Landau levels are present and interacting, discussing the interplay between the possible six and four dimensional choices. The equivalence between coordinate dependent and constant Scherk-Schwarz boundary conditions - associated to either continuous or discrete Wilson lines - is analyzed.

  20. Dynamics of synoptic-scale cyclones: A conceptual view based on potential vorticity building blocks and the theory of optimal perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Hylke de

    2006-01-01

    The development of extra-tropical cyclones has been investigated for a model hierarchy. The aim of the study was to get insight into the main mechanisms responsible for the rapid development. A physically intuitive approach in terms of potential vorticity has been invoked to construct so-called

  1. Dipolar fluids under external perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, Sabine H L [Stranski-Laboratorium fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie Sekretariat TC7, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 124, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-04-20

    We discuss recent developments and present new findings on the structural and phase properties of dipolar model fluids influenced by various external perturbations. We concentrate on systems of spherical particles with permanent (point) dipole moments. Starting from what is known about the three-dimensional systems, particular emphasis is given to dipolar fluids in different confining situations involving both simple and complex (disordered) pore geometries. Further topics concern the effect of quenched positional disorder, the influence of external (electric or magnetic) fields, and the fluid-fluid phase behaviour of various dipolar mixtures. It is demonstrated that due to the translational-orientational coupling and due to the long range of dipolar interactions even simple perturbations such as hard walls can have a profound impact on the systems. (topical review)

  2. BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian [Physics Department, St. Lawrence University,Canton, NY 13617 (United States); Şengör, Gizem [Department of Physics, Syracuse University,Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

    2016-11-08

    BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas Dirac quantization, which amounts to quantization in synchronous gauge, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.

  3. Back Reaction of Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenberger, R H

    2000-01-01

    The presence of cosmological perturbations affects the background metric and matter configuration in which the perturbations propagate. This effect, studied a long time ago for gravitational waves, also is operational for scalar gravitational fluctuations, inhomogeneities which are believed to be more important in inflationary cosmology. The back-reaction of fluctuations can be described by an effective energy-momentum tensor. The issue of coordinate invariance makes the analysis more complicated for scalar fluctuations than for gravitational waves. We show that the back-reaction of fluctuations can be described in a diffeomorphism-invariant way. In an inflationary cosmology, the back-reaction is dominated by infrared modes. We show that these modes give a contribution to the effective energy-momentum tensor of the form of a negative cosmological constant whose absolute value grows in time. We speculate that this may lead to a self-regulating dynamical relaxation mechanism for the cosmological constant. This ...

  4. Perturbation analysis of Poisson processes

    CERN Document Server

    Last, Günter

    2012-01-01

    We consider a Poisson process $\\Phi$ on a general phase space. The expectation of a function of $\\Phi$ can be considered as a functional of the intensity measure $\\lambda$ of $\\Phi$. Extending ealier results of Molchanov and Zuyev (2000) on finite Poisson processes, we study the behaviour of this functional under signed (possibly infinite) perturbations of $\\lambda$. In particular we obtain general Margulis--Russo type formulas for the derivative with respect to non-linear transformations of the intensity measure depending on some parameter. As an application we study the behaviour of expectations of functions of multivariate pure jump L\\'evy processes under perturbations of the L\\'evy measure. A key ingredient of our approach is the explicit Fock space representation obtained in Last and Penrose (2011).

  5. BRST Quantization of Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to the perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas quantization in synchronous gauge, which amounts to Dirac quantization, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.

  6. Perturbations of Dark Matter Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, M D; Müller, D; 10.1142/S0218271809015072

    2009-01-01

    Until recently the study of the gravitational field of dark matter was primarily concerned with its local effects on the motion of stars in galaxies and galaxy clusters. On the other hand, the WMAP experiment has shown that the gravitational field produced by dark matter amplifies the higher acoustic modes of the CMBR power spectrum, more intensely than the gravitational field of baryons. Such a wide range of experimental evidences from cosmology to local gravity suggests the necessity of a comprehensive analysis of the dark matter gravitational field per se, regardless of any other attributes that dark matter may eventually possess. In this paper we introduce and apply Nash's theory of perturbative geometry to the study of the dark matter gravitational field alone, in a higher-dimensional framework. It is shown that the dark matter gravitational perturbations in the early universe can be explained by the extrinsic curvature of the standard cosmology. Together with the estimated presence of massive neutrinos,...

  7. Perturbations in electromagnetic dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Maroto, Antonio L. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Koivisto, Tomi S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Mota, David F., E-mail: jobeltra@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: T.Koivisto@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: maroto@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2009-10-01

    It has been recently proposed that the presence of a temporal electromagnetic field on cosmological scales could explain the phase of accelerated expansion that the universe is currently undergoing. The field contributes as a cosmological constant and therefore, the homogeneous cosmology produced by such a model is exactly the same as that of ΛCDM. However, unlike a cosmological constant term, electromagnetic fields can acquire perturbations which in principle could affect CMB anisotropies and structure formation. In this work, we study the evolution of inhomogeneous scalar perturbations in this model. We show that provided the initial electromagnetic fluctuations generated during inflation are small, the model is perfectly compatible with both CMB and large scale structure observations at the same level of accuracy as ΛCDM.

  8. Dynamic Extra Buses Scheduling Strategy in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic extra buses scheduling strategy to improve the transit service of transit routes. In this strategy, in order to decide when to dispatch an extra bus, the service reliability of transit route is assessed firstly. A model aimed at maximizing the benefit of the extra buses scheduling strategy is constructed to determine how many stops extra buses need to skip from the terminal to accommodate passengers at the following stops. A heuristic algorithm is defined and implemented to estimate the service reliability of transit route and to optimize the initial stop of extra buses scheduling strategy. Finally, the strategy is tested on two examples: a simple and a real-life transit route in the Dalian city in China. The results show that the extra buses scheduling strategy based on terminal stops with a reasonable threshold can save 8.01% waiting time of passengers.

  9. Perturbative Computation of Glueball Superpotentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Lam, C S; Vafa, C; Zanon, D

    2003-01-01

    Using N=1 superspace techniques in four dimensions we show how to perturbatively compute the superpotential generated for the glueball superfield upon integrating out massive charged fields. The technique applies to arbitrary gauge groups and representations. Moreover we show that for U(N) gauge theories admitting a large N expansion the computation dramatically simplifies and we prove the validity of the recently proposed recipe for computation of this quantity in terms of planar diagrams of matrix integrals.

  10. Perturbative computation of glueball superpotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, R.; Grisaru, M. T.; Lam, C. S.; Vafa, C.; Zanon, D.

    2003-10-01

    Using N=1 superspace techniques in four dimensions we show how to perturbatively compute the superpotential generated for the glueball superfield upon integrating out massive charged fields. The technique applies to arbitrary gauge groups and representations. Moreover, we show that for U(N) gauge theories admitting a large N expansion the computation dramatically simplifies and we prove the validity of the recently proposed recipe for computation of this quantity in terms of planar diagrams of matrix integrals.

  11. Perturbative computation of glueball superpotentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, R.; Grisaru, M.T.; Lam, C.S.; Vafa, C.; Zanon, D

    2003-10-30

    Using N=1 superspace techniques in four dimensions we show how to perturbatively compute the superpotential generated for the glueball superfield upon integrating out massive charged fields. The technique applies to arbitrary gauge groups and representations. Moreover, we show that for U(N) gauge theories admitting a large N expansion the computation dramatically simplifies and we prove the validity of the recently proposed recipe for computation of this quantity in terms of planar diagrams of matrix integrals.

  12. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long filaments as they form and grow by accretion. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length-scale which is roughly four times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multiwavelength density power spectrum, there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispersion relation. Our results allow one to estimate a minimum age for a filament which is breaking up into regularly spaced fragments, as well as an average accretion rate. We apply the model to observations of filaments in Taurus by Tafalla & Hacar and find accretion rates consistent with those estimated by Palmeirim et al.

  13. Compact extra dimensions in cosmologies with f(T) structure

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorini, Franco; Vasquez, Yerko

    2013-01-01

    The presence of compact extra dimensions in cosmological scenarios in the context of f(T)-like gravities is discussed. For the case of toroidal compactifications, the analysis is performed in an arbitrary number of extra dimensions. Spherical topologies for the extra dimensions are then carefully studied in six and seven spacetime dimensions, where the proper vielbein fields responsible for the parallelization process are found.

  14. Grey swan tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ning; Emanuel, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    We define `grey swan’ tropical cyclones as high-impact storms that would not be predicted based on history but may be foreseeable using physical knowledge together with historical data. Here we apply a climatological-hydrodynamic method to estimate grey swan tropical cyclone storm surge threat for three highly vulnerable coastal regions. We identify a potentially large risk in the Persian Gulf, where tropical cyclones have never been recorded, and larger-than-expected threats in Cairns, Australia, and Tampa, Florida. Grey swan tropical cyclones striking Tampa, Cairns and Dubai can generate storm surges of about 6 m, 5.7 m and 4 m, respectively, with estimated annual exceedance probabilities of about 1/10,000. With climate change, these probabilities can increase significantly over the twenty-first century (to 1/3,100-1/1,100 in the middle and 1/2,500-1/700 towards the end of the century for Tampa). Worse grey swan tropical cyclones, inducing surges exceeding 11 m in Tampa and 7 m in Dubai, are also revealed with non-negligible probabilities, especially towards the end of the century.

  15. Cosmological Perturbations: Vorticity, Isocurvature and Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Christopherson, Adam J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I review some recent, interlinked, work undertaken using cosmological perturbation theory -- a powerful technique for modelling inhomogeneities in the Universe. The common theme which underpins these pieces of work is the presence of non-adiabatic pressure, or entropy, perturbations. After a brief introduction covering the standard techniques of describing inhomogeneities in both Newtonian and relativistic cosmology, I discuss the generation of vorticity. As in classical fluid mechanics, vorticity is not present in linearized perturbation theory (unless included as an initial condition). Allowing for entropy perturbations, and working to second order in perturbation theory, I show that vorticity is generated, even in the absence of vector perturbations, by purely scalar perturbations, the source term being quadratic in the gradients of first order energy density and isocurvature, or non-adiabatic pressure perturbations. This generalizes Crocco's theorem to a cosmological setting. I then introduc...

  16. Perturbation theory and renormalisation group equations

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F; Litim, Daniel F.; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the perturbative expansion of several one-loop improved renormalisation group equations. It is shown that in general the integrated renormalisation group flows fail to reproduce perturbation theory beyond one loop.

  17. Science with the EXTraS Project: Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky

    CERN Document Server

    De Luca, A; Tiengo, A; D'Agostino, D; Watson, M G; Haberl, F

    2015-01-01

    The EXTraS project (Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky) will characterise the temporal behaviour of the largest ever sample of objects in the soft X-ray range (0.1-12 keV) with a complex, systematic and consistent analysis of all data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton X-ray observatory since its launch. We will search for, and characterize variability (both periodic and aperiodic) in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale and six orders of magnitude in flux. We will also search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis. Our analysis will be completed by multiwavelength characterization of new discoveries and phenomenological classification of variable sources. All results and products will be made available to the community in a public archive, serving as a reference for a broad range of astrophysical investigations.

  18. Data perturbation analysis of a linear model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The linear model features were carefully studied in the cases of data perturbation and mean shift perturbation.Some important features were also proved mathematically. The results show that the mean shift perturbation is equivalentto the data perturbation, that is, adding a parameter to an observation equation means that this set of data is deleted fromthe data set. The estimate of this parameter is its predicted residual in fact

  19. Perturbative versus non-perturbative decoupling of heavy quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knechtli, Francesco [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Bruno, Mattia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Finkenrath, Jacob [CaSToRC, Cyl Athalassa Campus, Nicosia (Cyprus); Leder, Bjoern [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration

    2015-11-15

    We simulate a theory with N{sub f}=2 heavy quarks of mass M. At energies much smaller than M the heavy quarks decouple and the theory can be described by an effective theory which is a pure gauge theory to leading order in 1/M. We present results for the mass dependence of ratios such as t{sub 0}(M)/t{sub 0}(0). We compute these ratios from simulations and compare them to the perturbative prediction. The latter relies on a factorisation formula for the ratios which is valid to leading order in 1/M.

  20. Tensorial Perturbations in an Accelerating Universe

    CERN Document Server

    De Campos, M

    2002-01-01

    We study tensorial perturbations (gravitational waves) in a universe with particle production (OSC). The background of gravitational waves produces a perturbation in the redshift observed from distant sources. The modes for the perturbation in the redshift (induced redshift) are calculated in a universe with particle production.

  1. FRW Cosmological Perturbations in Massive Bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Comelli, D; Pilo, L

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations of FRW solutions in ghost free massive bigravity, including also a second matter sector, are studied in detail. At early time, we find that sub horizon exponential instabilities are unavoidable and they lead to a premature departure from the perturbative regime of cosmological perturbations.

  2. Matrix perturbations: bounding and computing eigenvalues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis da Silva, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the somewhat negative connotation of the word, not every perturbation is a bad perturbation. In fact, while disturbing the matrix entries, many perturbations still preserve useful properties such as the orthonormality of the basis of eigenvectors or the Hermicity of the original matrix. In t

  3. Geometric Hamiltonian structures and perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omohundro, S.

    1984-08-01

    We have been engaged in a program of investigating the Hamiltonian structure of the various perturbation theories used in practice. We describe the geometry of a Hamiltonian structure for non-singular perturbation theory applied to Hamiltonian systems on symplectic manifolds and the connection with singular perturbation techniques based on the method of averaging.

  4. Perturbative Transport Studies in Fusion Plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardozo, N. J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of transport in fusion plasmas using perturbations of an equilibrium state reviewed. Essential differences between steady-state and perturbative transport studies are pointed out. Important transport issues that can be addressed with perturbative experiments are identified as: (i) Are the tr

  5. THE ENSEMBLE FORECASTING OF TROPICAL CYCLONE MOTION I:USING A PRIMITIVE EQUATION BAROTROPIC MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周霞琼; 端义宏; 朱永禔

    2003-01-01

    Ensemble forecasting of tropical cyclone (TC) motion was studied usinga primitive equation barotropic model by perturbing initial position and structure for 1979 - 1993 TC. The results show that TC initial position perturbation affects its track, but the ensemble mean is close to control forecast. Experiments was also performed by perturbing TC initial parameters which were used to generate TC initial field, and more improvement can be obtained by taking ensemble mean of selective member than selecting members randomly. The skill of 60 % - 70 % of all cases is improved in selective ensemble mean. When the ambient steeringcurrent is weak, more improvement can be obtained over the control forecast.

  6. NOAA's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Realtime El Nino and La Nina data from the tropical Pacific Ocean is provided by the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean / Triangle Trans-Ocean buoy network (TAO/TRITON) of...

  7. Mesoscale Processes in Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    analysis of the manner in which atmospheric vortices can interact; the first research results on the presence of mesoscale vortices in tropical cyclones...Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be...tropical cyclone motion; thermodynamic estimation of tropical cyclone intensity, which has been utilized in a WMO statement on climate change and tropical

  8. Stability of perturbed geodesics in $nD$ axisymmetric spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Coimbra-Araujo, C H

    2016-01-01

    The effect of self-gravity of a disk matter is evaluated by the simplest modes of oscillation frequencies for perturbed circular geodesics. It is plotted the radial profiles of free oscillations of an equatorial circular geodesic perturbed within the orbital plane or in the vertical direction. The calculation is carried out to geodesics of an axisymmetric $n$-dimensional spacetime. The profiles are computed by examples of disks embeded in five-dimensional or six-dimensional spacetime, where it is studied the motion of free test particles for three axisymmetric cases: (i) the Newtonian limit of a general proposed $5D$ and $6D$ axisymmetric spacetime; (ii) a simple Randall-Sundrum $5D$ spacetime; (iii) general $5D$ and $6D$ Randall-Sundrum spacetime. The equation of motion of such particles is derived and the stability study is computed for both horizontal and vertical directions, to see how extra dimensions could affect the system. In particular, we investigate a disk constructed from Schwarzschild and Chazy-C...

  9. Threshold Effects And Perturbative Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Bastero-Gil, M; Pérez-Mercader, J

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the effect of the renormalization procedure in the computation of the unification point for running coupling constants. We explore the effects of threshold--crossing on the $\\beta$--functions. We compute the running of the coupling constants of the Standard Model, between $m_Z$ and $M_P$, using a mass dependent subtraction procedure, and then compare the results with $\\bar{MS}$, and with the $\\theta$-- function approximation. We also do this for the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. In the latter, the bounds on susy masses that one obtains by requiring perturbative unification are dependent, to some extent, on the procedure.

  10. Perturbation analyses of intermolecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Yohei M.; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Ueda, Hiroki R.

    2011-08-01

    Conformational fluctuations of a protein molecule are important to its function, and it is known that environmental molecules, such as water molecules, ions, and ligand molecules, significantly affect the function by changing the conformational fluctuations. However, it is difficult to systematically understand the role of environmental molecules because intermolecular interactions related to the conformational fluctuations are complicated. To identify important intermolecular interactions with regard to the conformational fluctuations, we develop herein (i) distance-independent and (ii) distance-dependent perturbation analyses of the intermolecular interactions. We show that these perturbation analyses can be realized by performing (i) a principal component analysis using conditional expectations of truncated and shifted intermolecular potential energy terms and (ii) a functional principal component analysis using products of intermolecular forces and conditional cumulative densities. We refer to these analyses as intermolecular perturbation analysis (IPA) and distance-dependent intermolecular perturbation analysis (DIPA), respectively. For comparison of the IPA and the DIPA, we apply them to the alanine dipeptide isomerization in explicit water. Although the first IPA principal components discriminate two states (the α state and PPII (polyproline II) + β states) for larger cutoff length, the separation between the PPII state and the β state is unclear in the second IPA principal components. On the other hand, in the large cutoff value, DIPA eigenvalues converge faster than that for IPA and the top two DIPA principal components clearly identify the three states. By using the DIPA biplot, the contributions of the dipeptide-water interactions to each state are analyzed systematically. Since the DIPA improves the state identification and the convergence rate with retaining distance information, we conclude that the DIPA is a more practical method compared with the

  11. Eikonal perturbation theory in photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajiao Vélez, F.; Krajewska, K.; Kamiński, J. Z.

    2016-02-01

    The eikonal perturbation theory is formulated and applied to photoionization by strong laser pulses. A special emphasis is put on the first order approximation with respect to the binding potential, which is known as the generalized eikonal approximation [2015 Phys. Rev. A 91 053417]. The ordinary eikonal approximation and its domain of applicability is derived from the generalized eikonal approximation. While the former approach is singular for the electron trajectories which return to the potential center, the generalized eikonal avoids this problem. This property makes it a promising tool for further investigations of rescattering and high-order harmonic generation processes.

  12. Statistical Analysis of Ensemble Forecasts of Tropical Cyclone Tracks over the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    generally best suited for the extratropics such that no special perturbations are applied specific to individual tropical cyclones ( UCAR 2012...Available from http://edocs.nps.edu/]. 63 UCAR , cited 2012: Guide to GFS Ensemble Track Plots. [Available online at http://www.ral.ucar.edu/guidance

  13. Variability in the Subtropical-Tropical Cells and its Effect on Near-Surface Temperature of the Equatorial Pacific: a Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Lübbecke

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A set of experiments utilising different implementations of the global ORCA-LIM model with horizontal resolutions of 2°, 0.5° and 0.25° is used to investigate tropical and extra-tropical influences on equatorial Pacific SST variability at interannual to decadal time scales. The model experiments use a bulk forcing methodology building on the global forcing data set for 1958 to 2000 developed by Large and Yeager (2004 that is based on a blend of atmospheric reanalysis data and satellite products. Whereas representation of the mean structure and transports of the (sub-tropical Pacific current fields is much improved with the enhanced horizontal resolution, there is only little difference in the simulation of the interannual variability in the equatorial regime between the 0.5° and 0.25° model versions, with both solutions capturing the observed SST variability in the Nino3 region. The question of remotely forced oceanic contributions to the equatorial variability, in particular, the role of low-frequency changes in the transports of the Subtropical Cells (STCs, is addressed by a sequence of perturbation experiments using different combinations of fluxes. The solutions show the near-surface temperature variability to be governed by wind-driven changes in the Equatorial Undercurrent. The relative contributions of equatorial and off-equatorial atmospheric forcing differ between interannual and longer, (multi-decadal timescales: for the latter there is a significant impact of changes in the equatorward transport of subtropical thermocline water associated with the lower branches of the STCs, related to variations in the off-equatorial trade winds. A conspicuous feature of the STC variability is that the equatorward transports in the interior and along the western boundary partially compensate each other at both decadal and interannual time scales, with the strongest transport extrema occurring during El Ni~no episodes. The behavior is

  14. Higgs Pair Production in Models with Universal Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    de Sandes, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    In this letter we study the process of gluon fusion into a pair of Higgs bosons in a model with one universal extra dimension. We find that the contributions from the extra top quark Kaluza-Klein excitations lead to a Higgs pair production cross section that can be significantly altered compared to the Standard Model value for small values of the compactification scale.

  15. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum guarantee plus extras. 541.604 Section 541.604 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS... SALES EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may...

  16. Direct Detection of Extra-Solar Comets is Possible

    OpenAIRE

    Jura, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dust tails of comets similar to Hale-Bopp can scatter as much optical light as does the Earth. Space-based observatories such as the Terrestrial Planet Finder or Darwin that will detect extra-solar terrestrial planets also will be able to detect extra-solar comets.

  17. Fundamental and composite scalars from extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, Alfredo [Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)], E-mail: fefo@ucol.mx; Diaz-Cruz, J.L. [Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Apdo. Postal 1364, C.P. 72000 Puebla, Pue (Mexico)], E-mail: lorenzo.diaz@fcfm.buap.mx; Hernandez-Sanchez, J. [Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Centro de Investigacion en Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km. 4.5, C.P. 42184, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)], E-mail: jaimeh@uaeh.edu.mx; Noriega-Papaqui, R. [Dual C-P Institute of High Energy Physics, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: rnoriega@fisica.unam.mx

    2007-12-13

    We discuss a scenario consisting of an effective 4D theory containing fundamental and composite fields. The strong dynamics sector responsible for the compositeness is assumed to be of extra dimensional origin. In the 4D effective theory the SM fermion and gauge fields are taken as fundamental fields. The scalar sector of the theory resembles a bosonic topcolor in the sense there are two scalar Higgs fields, a composite scalar field and a fundamental gauge-Higgs unification scalar. A detailed analysis of the scalar spectrum is presented in order to explore the parameter space consistent with experiment. It is found that, under the model assumptions, the acceptable parameter space is quite constrained. As a part of our phenomenological study of the model, we evaluate the branching ratio of the lightest Higgs boson and find that our model predicts a large FCNC mode h{yields}tc, which can be as large as O(10{sup -3}). Similarly, a large BR for the top FCNC decay is obtained, namely BR(t{yields}c+H){approx_equal}10{sup -4}.

  18. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.

  19. Diphoton Resonance from a Warped Extra Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Martin; Neubert, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a warped extra dimension, which successfully address the hierarchy and flavor problems of elementary particle physics, can provide an elegant explanation of the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by ATLAS and CMS. A gauge-singlet bulk scalar with O(1) couplings to fermions is identified as the new resonance S, and the vector-like Kaluza-Klein excitations of the SM quarks and leptons mediate its loop-induced couplings to photons and gluons. The electroweak gauge symmetry almost unambiguously dictates the bulk matter content and hence the hierarchies of the S->\\gamma\\gamma, WW, ZZ, Z\\gamma, t\\bar t and dijet decay rates. We find that the S->Z\\gamma decay mode is strongly suppressed, such that Br(S->Z\\gamma)Br(S->\\gamma\\gamma)S->\\gamma\\gamma signal requires Kaluza-Klein masses in the multi-TeV range, in perfect agreement with bounds from flavor physics and electroweak precision observables.

  20. Gravitation, holographic principle, and extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Caimmi, R

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of Newton's theory of gravitation, restricted to point-like test particles and central bodies, stable circular orbits in ordinary space are related to stable circular paths on a massless, unmovable, undeformable vortex-like surface, under the action of a tidal gravitational field along the symmetry axis. An interpretation is made in the light of a holographic principle, in the sense that motions in ordinary space are connected with motions on a selected surface and vice versa. Then ordinary space is conceived as a 3-hypersurface bounding a $n$-hypervolume where gravitation takes origin, within a $n$-hyperspace. The extension of the holographic principle to extra dimensions implies the existence of a minimum distance where test particles may still be considered as distinct from the central body. Below that threshold, it is inferred test particles lose theirs individuality and "glue" to the central body via unification of the four known interactions and, in addition, (i) particles can no long...

  1. Diphoton resonance from a warped extra dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Martin; Hörner, Clara; Neubert, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a warped extra dimension, which successfully address the hierarchy and flavor problems of elementary particle physics, can provide an elegant explanation of the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by ATLAS and CMS. A gauge-singlet bulk scalar with {O} (1) couplings to fermions is identified as the new resonance S, and the vector-like Kaluza-Klein excitations of the SM quarks and leptons mediate its loop-induced couplings to photons and gluons. The electroweak gauge symmetry almost unambiguously dictates the bulk matter content and hence the hierarchies of the Sto γ γ, W W,ZZ,Zγ, toverline{t} and dijet decay rates. We find that the S → Zγ decay mode is strongly suppressed, such that Br( S → Zγ) /Br( S → γγ) converge and can be calculated in closed form with a remarkably simple result. Reproducing the observed pp → S → γγ signal requires Kaluza-Klein masses in the multi-TeV range, consistent with bounds from flavor physics and electroweak precision observables.

  2. Brane Stabilization and Regionality of Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Tolley, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Extra dimensions are a common feature of beyond the Standard Model physics. In a braneworld scenario, local physics on the brane can depend strongly on the brane's location within the bulk. Generically, the relevant properties of the bulk manifold for the physics on/of the brane are neither local nor global, but depend on the structure of finite regions of the bulk, even for locally homogeneous and isotropic bulk geometries. In a recent work, various mechanisms (in a braneworld context) were considered to stabilize the location of a brane within bulk spaces of non-trivial topology. In this work we elaborate on and generalize that work by considering additional bulk and brane dimensionalities as well as different boundary conditions on the bulk scalar field that provides a Casimir force on the brane, providing further insight on this effect. In D=2+1 (D=5+1) we consider both local and global contributions to the effective potential of a 1-brane (4-brane) wrapped around both the 2-dimensional hyperbolic horn an...

  3. LHC Signals from Warped Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agashe, K.; Belyaev, A.; Krupovnickas, T.; Perez, G.; Virzi, J.

    2006-12-06

    We study production of Kaluza-Klein gluons (KKG) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the framework of a warped extra dimension with the Standard Model (SM) fields propagating in the bulk. We show that the detection of KK gluon is challenging since its production is suppressed by small couplings to the proton's constituents. Moreover, the KK gluon decaysmostly to top pairs due to an enhanced coupling and hence is broad. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that for MKKG<~;; 4 TeV, 100 fb-1 of data at the LHC can provide discovery of the KK gluon. We utilize a sizeable left-right polarization asymmetry from the KK gluon resonance to maximize the signal significance, and we explore the novel feature of extremely highly energetic"top-jets." We briefly discuss how the detection of electroweak gauge KK states (Z/W) faces a similar challenge since their leptonic decays ("golden" modes) are suppressed. Our analysis suggests that other frameworks, for example little Higgs, which rely on UV completion via strong dynamics might face similar challenges, namely (1) Suppressed production rates for the new particles (such as Z'), due to their"lightfermion-phobic" nature, and (2) Difficulties in detection since the new particles are broad and decay predominantly to third generation quarks and longitudinal gauge bosons.

  4. Extra cellular matrix features in human meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnani, S; Castaldo, C; Di Meglio, F; Sciorio, S; Giordano-Lanza, G

    2000-01-01

    We collected human fetal and adult normal meninges to relate the age of the tissue with the presence of collagenous and non-collagenous components of Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM). Immunohistochemistry led us to observe some differences in the amount and in the distribution of these proteins between the two sets of specimens. In particular, laminin and tenascin seem to be expressed more intensely in fetal meninges when compared to adult ones. In order to investigate whether the morphofunctional characteristics of fetal meninges may be represented in pathological conditions we also studied meningeal specimens from human meningiomas. Our attention was particularly focused on the expression of those non-collagenous proteins involved in nervous cell migration and neuronal morphogenesis as laminin and tenascin, which were present in lesser amount in normal adult specimens. Microscopical evidences led us to hipothesize that these proteins which are synthesized in a good amount during the fetal development of meninges can be newly produced in tumors. On the contrary, the role of tenascin and laminin in adult meninges is probably only interesting for their biophysical characteristics.

  5. The ambiguity in ray perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieder, R.; Sambridge, M. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-01

    Ray perturbation theory is concerned with the change in ray paths and travel times due to changes in the slowness model or the end-point conditions of rays. Several different formulations of ray perturbation theory have been developed. Even for the same physical problem different perturbation equations have been derived. The reason for this is that ray perturbation theory contains a fundamental ambiguity. One can move a point along a curve without changing the shape of the curve. This means that the mapping from a reference curve to a perturbed curve is not uniquely defined, because on may associated a point on the reference curve with different points on the perturbed curve. The mapping that is used is usually defined implicitly by the choice of the coordinate system or the independent parameter. In this paper, a fomalism is developed where one can specify explicitly the mapping from the reference curve to the perturbed curve by choosing a stretch factor that relates increments in arc length along the reference curve and the perturbed curve. This is incorporated in a theory that is accurate to first order in the ray position and to second order in the travel time. The second order travel time perturbation describes the effect of changes in the position of the ray on the travel time. In the formulation of this paper, paraxial ray perturbations, slowness perturbations, and pure ray bending are treated in a uniform fashion. This may be very useful in nonlinear tomographic inversions which include earthquake relocation.

  6. Mountains and Tropical Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker circulation on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker circulation. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker circulation weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker circulation, but not the Hadley circulation, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our simulations, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker circulation on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.

  7. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    NAVOCEANCOMDET ALAMEDA CIUDAD UNIVERSITARIA , MEXICO NAVOCEANCOMDET ASHEVILLE CIVIL DEFENSE, SAIPAN NAVOCEANCOMDET ATSUGI CINCPACFLT NAVOCEANCOMDET BARBERS...minute mean) in "" begin to rotate about one another. When intense tropical the range of 34 to 63 kt (17 to 32 m/sec) inclusive . * -’.- cyclones are

  8. Teaching Traditional Tropical Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that the teaching of traditional tropical agriculture through the presentation of large numbers of categories or types tends to overemphasize superficial differences at the expense of comprehending the inner essence of life as it exists for the majority of the world's farmers. Offers an alternative approach which claims to foster greater…

  9. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison;

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation...... in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200-7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is >1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important...

  10. Testing gauge-invariant perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Törek, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Gauge-invariant perturbation theory for theories with a Brout-Englert-Higgs effect, as developed by Fr\\"ohlich, Morchio and Strocchi, starts out from physical, exactly gauge-invariant quantities as initial and final states. These are composite operators, and can thus be considered as bound states. In case of the standard model, this reduces almost entirely to conventional perturbation theory. This explains the success of conventional perturbation theory for the standard model. However, this is due to the special structure of the standard model, and it is not guaranteed to be the case for other theories. Here, we review gauge-invariant perturbation theory. Especially, we show how it can be applied and that it is little more complicated than conventional perturbation theory, and that it is often possible to utilize existing results of conventional perturbation theory. Finally, we present tests of the predictions of gauge-invariant perturbation theory, using lattice gauge theory, in three different settings. In ...

  11. Assessing Tropical Cyclone Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, J.; Czajkowski, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landfalling tropical cyclones impact large coastal and inland areas causing direct damage due to winds, storm-surge flooding, tornadoes, and precipitation; as well as causing substantial indirect damage such as electrical outages and business interruption. The likely climate change impact of increased tropical cyclone intensity, combined with increases in exposure, bring the possibility of increased damage in the future. A considerable amount of research has focused on modeling economic damage due to tropical cyclones, and a series of indices have been developed to assess damages under climate change. We highlight a number of ways this research can be improved through a series of case study analyses. First, historical loss estimates are revisited to properly account for; time, impacted regions, the source of damage by type, and whether the damage was direct/indirect and insured/uninsured. Second, the drivers of loss from both the socio-economic and physical side are examined. A case is made to move beyond the use of maximum wind speed to more stable metrics and the use of other characteristics of the wind field such as direction, degree of gustiness, and duration is explored. A novel approach presented here is the potential to model losses directly as a function of climate variables such as sea surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols. This work is the first stage in the development of a tropical cyclone loss model to enable projections of losses under scenarios of both socio-economic change (such as population migration or altered policy) and physical change (such as shifts in tropical cyclone activity one from basin to another or within the same basin).

  12. SST phases in the open-ocean and margins of the tropical Pacific; implication on tropical climate dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-J. Shiau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tropical Pacific exerts a major effect on the global climate system and might have driven large extra-tropical climate change. We present a 320 kyr high resolution UK'37-sea surface temperature (SST record from core MD052928 (11°17.26' S, 148°51.60' E, water depth 2250 m located off southeastern Papua New Guinea (PNG, in the western tropical Pacific. The age model of the core is based on AMS 14C dating of planktic foraminifers and correlation of benthic to the LR04 stack. The UK'37-SST ranges from 26.5 to 29 °C, showing glacial–interglacial and millennial variations. We assess the phase of the MD052928 UK'37-SST as part of a synthesis of five other SST records from the tropical Pacific at the precession, obliquity, and eccentricity bands. The SST records can be separated into two groups when considering SST phase relative to changes in orbital forcing, ice volume and greenhouse gases (GHGs. SST maxima at open-ocean sites within primary equatorial current systems occur between obliquity maxima and methane (CH4 maxima but early relative to ice volume minima and CO2 maxima at the obliquity band. In contrast, SST maxima at continental margin sites change are in phase with ice minima and CO2 maxima, likely influenced by the slow response of continental ice sheets and GHGs. At the precession band, the early group located on the Warm Pool area indicates a direct influenced by the local insolation, and with the similar phase progress as the obliquity band. These results indicate that the decreased high-low latitudes insolation gradient and increasing low latitude local insolation resulting in tropical Pacific SST rise. Higher SST would supply more moisture resulting in increased CH4 in the tropical wetlands. This promotes increasing CO2 and deglaciation leading to increase continental and continental margin surface temperatures.

  13. Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason

    2005-02-07

    We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.

  14. New Methods in Non-Perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-01-31

    In this work, we investigate the properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), by using newly developing mathematics and physics formalisms. Almost all of the mass in the visible universe emerges from a quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which has a completely negligible microscopic mass content. An intimately related issue in QCD is the quark confinement problem. Answers to non-perturbative questions in QCD remained largely elusive despite much effort over the years. It is also believed that the usual perturbation theory is inadequate to address these kinds of problems. Perturbation theory gives a divergent asymptotic series (even when the theory is properly renormalized), and there are non-perturbative phenomena which never appear at any order in perturbation theory. Recently, a fascinating bridge between perturbation theory and non-perturbative effects has been found: a formalism called resurgence theory in mathematics tells us that perturbative data and non-perturbative data are intimately related. Translating this to the language of quantum field theory, it turns out that non-perturbative information is present in a coded form in perturbation theory and it can be decoded. We take advantage of this feature, which is particularly useful to understand some unresolved mysteries of QCD from first principles. In particular, we use: a) Circle compactifications which provide a semi-classical window to study confinement and mass gap problems, and calculable prototypes of the deconfinement phase transition; b) Resurgence theory and transseries which provide a unified framework for perturbative and non-perturbative expansion; c) Analytic continuation of path integrals and Lefschetz thimbles which may be useful to address sign problem in QCD at finite density.

  15. Remotely sensed resilience of tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbesselt, Jan; Umlauf, Nikolaus; Hirota, Marina; Holmgren, Milena; van Nes, Egbert H.; Herold, Martin; Zeileis, Achim; Scheffer, Marten

    2016-11-01

    Recent work suggests that episodes of drought and heat can bring forests across climate zones to a threshold for massive tree mortality. As complex systems approach a threshold for collapse they tend to exhibit a loss of resilience, as reflected in declining recovery rates from perturbations. Trees may be no exception, as at the verge of drought-induced death, trees are found to be weakened in multiple ways, affecting their ability to recover from stress. Here we use worldwide time series of satellite images to show that temporal autocorrelation, an indicator of slow recovery rates, rises steeply as mean annual precipitation declines to levels known to be critical for tropical forests. This implies independent support for the idea that such forests may have a tipping point for collapse at drying conditions. Moreover, the demonstration that reduced rates of recovery (slowing down) may be detected from satellite data suggests a novel way to monitor resilience of tropical forests, as well as other ecosystems known to be vulnerable to collapse.

  16. Climate change and tropical marine agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, M James C

    2009-01-01

    The coral reef ecosystem forms part of a 'seascape' that includes land-based ecosystems such as mangroves and forests, and ideally should form a complete system for conservation and management. Aquaculture, including artisanal fishing for fish and invertebrates, shrimp farming, and seaweed farming, is a major part of the farming and gleaning practices of many tropical communities, particularly on small islands, and depends upon the integrity of the reefs. Climate change is making major impacts on these communities, not least through global warming and high CO(2) concentrations. Corals grow within very narrow limits of temperature, provide livelihoods for millions of people in tropical areas, and are under serious threat from a variety of environmental and climate extremes. Corals survive and grow through a symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic algae: zooxanthellae. Such systems apply highly co-operative regulation to minimize the fluctuation of metabolite concentration profiles in the face of transient perturbations. This review will discuss research on how climate influences reef ecosystems, and how science can lead to conservation actions, with benefits for the human populations reliant on the reefs for their survival.

  17. Spatially robust estimates of biological nitrogen (N) fixation imply substantial human alteration of the tropical N cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Benjamin W.; Smith, W. Kolby; Alan R. Townsend; Nasto, Megan K.; Sasha C. Reed; Chazdon, Robin L; Cleveland, Cory C

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is the largest natural source of new nitrogen (N) to terrestrial ecosystems. Tropical forest ecosystems are a putative global hotspot of BNF, but direct, spatially explicit measurements in the biome are virtually nonexistent. Nonetheless, robust estimates of tropical forest BNF are critical for understanding how these important ecosystems may respond to global change and assessing human perturbations to the N cycle. Here, we introduce a spatial sampling meth...

  18. Inflationary Perturbations and Precision Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Habib, S; Heitmann, K; Jungman, G; Habib, Salman; Heinen, Andreas; Heitmann, Katrin; Jungman, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    Inflationary cosmology provides a natural mechanism for the generation of primordial perturbations which seed the formation of observed cosmic structure and lead to specific signals of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation. In order to test the broad inflationary paradigm as well as particular models against precision observations, it is crucial to be able to make accurate predictions for the power spectrum of both scalar and tensor fluctuations. We present detailed calculations of these quantities utilizing direct numerical approaches as well as error-controlled uniform approximations, comparing with the (uncontrolled) traditional slow-roll approach. A simple extension of the leading-order uniform approximation yields results for the power spectra amplitudes, the spectral indices, and the running of spectral indices, with accuracy of the order of 0.1% - approximately the same level at which the transfer functions are known. Several representative examples are used to demonstrate these resul...

  19. World-line perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    van Holten, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    The motion of a compact body in space and time is commonly described by the world line of a point representing the instantaneous position of the body. In General Relativity such a world-line formalism is not quite straightforward because of the strict impossibility to accommodate point masses and rigid bodies. In many situations of practical interest it can still be made to work using an effective hamiltonian or energy-momentum tensor for a finite number of collective degrees of freedom of the compact object. Even so exact solutions of the equations of motion are often not available. In such cases families of world lines of compact bodies in curved space-times can be constructed by a perturbative procedure based on generalized geodesic deviation equations. Examples for simple test masses and for spinning test bodies are presented.

  20. Sudakov Safety in Perturbative QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Larkoski, Andrew J; Thaler, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Traditional calculations in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) are based on an order-by-order expansion in the strong coupling $\\alpha_s$. Observables that are calculable in this way are known as "safe". Recently, a class of unsafe observables was discovered that do not have a valid $\\alpha_s$ expansion but are nevertheless calculable in pQCD using all-orders resummation. These observables are called "Sudakov safe" since singularities at each $\\alpha_s$ order are regulated by an all-orders Sudakov form factor. In this letter, we give a concrete definition of Sudakov safety based on conditional probability distributions, and we study a one-parameter family of momentum sharing observables that interpolate between the safe and unsafe regimes. The boundary between these regimes is particularly interesting, as the resulting distribution can be understood as the ultraviolet fixed point of a generalized fragmentation function, yielding a leading behavior that is independent of $\\alpha_s$.

  1. Perturbativity in the seesaw mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Asaka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Standard Model extended by right-handed neutrinos to explain massive neutrinos through the seesaw mechanism. The new fermion can be observed when it has a sufficiently small mass and large mixings to left-handed neutrinos. If such a particle is the lightest right-handed neutrino, its contribution to the mass matrix of active neutrinos needs to be canceled by that of a heavier one. Yukawa couplings of the heavier one are then larger than those of the lightest one. We show that the perturbativity condition gives a severe upper bound on the mixing of the lightest right-handed neutrino, depending on the masses of heavier ones. Models of high energy phenomena, such as leptogenesis, can be constrained by low energy experiments.

  2. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose's hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose's hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime \\emph{as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations}.

  3. Perturbations of vortex ring pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Gubser, Steven S; Parikh, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    We study pairs of co-axial vortex rings starting from the action for a classical bosonic string in a three-form background. We complete earlier work on the phase diagram of classical orbits by explicitly considering the case where the circulations of the two vortex rings are equal and opposite. We then go on to study perturbations, focusing on cases where the relevant four-dimensional transfer matrix splits into two-dimensional blocks. When the circulations of the rings have the same sign, instabilities are mostly limited to wavelengths smaller than a dynamically generated length scale at which single-ring instabilities occur. When the circulations have the opposite sign, larger wavelength instabilities can occur.

  4. Noncommutative Fluid and Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Praloy

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the NC fluid dynamics and kinematics. In the second part we construct an extension of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing in anisotropy and inhomogeneity in th...

  5. Mathematical inference and control of molecular networks from perturbation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Rasheed, Mohammed

    One of the main challenges facing biologists and mathematicians in the post genomic era is to understand the behavior of molecular networks and harness this understanding into an educated intervention of the cell. The cell maintains its function via an elaborate network of interconnecting positive and negative feedback loops of genes, RNA and proteins that send different signals to a large number of pathways and molecules. These structures are referred to as genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) or molecular networks. GRNs can be viewed as dynamical systems with inherent properties and mechanisms, such as steady-state equilibriums and stability, that determine the behavior of the cell. The biological relevance of the mathematical concepts are important as they may predict the differentiation of a stem cell, the maintenance of a normal cell, the development of cancer and its aberrant behavior, and the design of drugs and response to therapy. Uncovering the underlying GRN structure from gene/protein expression data, e.g., microarrays or perturbation experiments, is called inference or reverse engineering of the molecular network. Because of the high cost and time consuming nature of biological experiments, the number of available measurements or experiments is very small compared to the number of molecules (genes, RNA and proteins). In addition, the observations are noisy, where the noise is due to the measurements imperfections as well as the inherent stochasticity of genetic expression levels. Intra-cellular activities and extra-cellular environmental attributes are also another source of variability. Thus, the inference of GRNs is, in general, an under-determined problem with a highly noisy set of observations. The ultimate goal of GRN inference and analysis is to be able to intervene within the network, in order to force it away from undesirable cellular states and into desirable ones. However, it remains a major challenge to design optimal intervention strategies

  6. National extra heavy crude oil upgrade; Melhoramento de petroleos extra pesados nacionais no ambiente de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Lilian Camen; Zilio, Evaldo L.; Guimarae, Regina C.; Tosta, Luiz C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Barros, Ricardo S. de [Fundacao Universitaria Jose Bonifacio (FUJB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leite, Luiz Fernando T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios-ES

    2008-07-01

    Brazilian petroleums are becoming increasingly heavy, reaching values of up to 7 deg API, which classifies them as extra heavy. They are also very viscous, sometimes presenting values as 10184 mm{sup 2}/s to 50 deg C. These two factors affect production operations like lifting, flow assurance and primary processing, with implications on transporting and refining. Trading these kinds of oils is also difficult; once there are not many refineries in the world able to process them. Due to these facts and also to the lower yield on premium products, the international market value is lower than the reference oil, for example, oil 'Brent'. Studies indicate that in some heavy oils fields the process of well lifting and also the flow in pipelines is almost impracticable in a first analysis, mainly offshore field, impacting both technically and economically the development of the production of a new field. Therefore it becomes necessary implement efforts to develop alternatives to increase oil's API density and at the same time reduce the viscosity of extra heavy oil inside the well, i.e. through a process of upgrading assuring its flow and consequently their production, primary processing and refining, increasing, the value of marketing. (author)

  7. Ensemble superparameterization versus stochastic parameterization: A comparison of model uncertainty representation in tropical weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Aneesh C.; Palmer, Tim N.

    2017-06-01

    Stochastic schemes to represent model uncertainty in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system has helped improve its probabilistic forecast skill over the past decade by both improving its reliability and reducing the ensemble mean error. The largest uncertainties in the model arise from the model physics parameterizations. In the tropics, the parameterization of moist convection presents a major challenge for the accurate prediction of weather and climate. Superparameterization is a promising alternative strategy for including the effects of moist convection through explicit turbulent fluxes calculated from a cloud-resolving model (CRM) embedded within a global climate model (GCM). In this paper, we compare the impact of initial random perturbations in embedded CRMs, within the ECMWF ensemble prediction system, with stochastically perturbed physical tendency (SPPT) scheme as a way to represent model uncertainty in medium-range tropical weather forecasts. We especially focus on forecasts of tropical convection and dynamics during MJO events in October-November 2011. These are well-studied events for MJO dynamics as they were also heavily observed during the DYNAMO field campaign. We show that a multiscale ensemble modeling approach helps improve forecasts of certain aspects of tropical convection during the MJO events, while it also tends to deteriorate certain large-scale dynamic fields with respect to stochastically perturbed physical tendencies approach that is used operationally at ECMWF.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryProbabilistic weather forecasts, especially for tropical weather, is still a significant challenge for global weather forecasting systems. Expressing uncertainty along with weather forecasts is important for informed decision making. Hence, we explore the use of a relatively new approach in using super-parameterization, where a cloud resolving model is embedded within a global

  8. Renormalisation in perturbative quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodigast, Andreas

    2012-07-02

    In this thesis, we derive the gravitational one-loop corrections to the propagators and interactions of the Standard Model field. We consider a higher dimensional brane world scenario: Here, gravitons can propagate in the whole D dimensional space-time whereas the matter fields are confined to a d dimensional sub-manifold (brane). In order to determine the divergent part of the one-loop diagrams, we develop a new regularisation scheme which is both sensitive for polynomial divergences and respects the Ward identities of the Yang-Mills theory. We calculate the gravitational contributions to the {beta} functions of non-Abelian gauge theories, the quartic scalar self-interaction and the Yukawa coupling between scalars and fermions. In the physically interesting case of a four dimensional matter brane, the gravitational contributions to the running of the Yang-Mills coupling constant vanish. The leading contributions to the other two couplings are positive. These results do not depend on the number of extra dimensions. We further compute the gravitationally induced one-loop counterterms with higher covariant derivatives for scalars, Dirac fermions and gauge bosons. In is shown that these counterterms do not coincide with the higher derivative terms in the Lee-Wick standard model. A possible connection between quantum gravity and the latter cannot be inferred.

  9. Boosted perturbations at the end of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Zaballa, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect on the primordial cosmological perturbations of a sharp transition from inflationary to a radiation and matter dominated epoch respectively. We assume that the perturbations are generated by the vacuum fluctuations of a scalar field slowly rolling down its potential, and that the transition into the subsequent epoch takes place much faster than a Hubble time. The behaviour of the superhorizon perturbations corresponding to cosmological scales in this case is well known. However, it is not clear how perturbations on scales of and smaller than the Hubble horizon scale at the end of inflation may evolve through such a transition. We derive the evolution equation for the gravitational potential $\\Psi$, which allows us to study the evolution of the perturbations on all scales under these circumstances. We show that for a certain range of scales inside the horizon at the end of inflation, the amplitude of the perturbations are enhanced relative to the superhorizon scales. This enhancement may le...

  10. Transient dynamics of perturbations in astrophysical disks

    CERN Document Server

    Razdoburdin, Dmitry N

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of one of the major unsolved problems in understanding astrophysical (in particular, accretion) disks: whether the disk interiors may be effectively viscous in spite of the absence of marnetorotational instability? In this case a rotational homogeneous inviscid flow with a Keplerian angular velocity profile is spectrally stable, making the transient growth of perturbations a candidate mechanism for energy transfer from the regular motion to perturbations. Transient perturbations differ qualitatively from perturbation modes and can grow substantially in shear flows due to the nonnormality of their dynamical evolution operator. Since the eigenvectors of this operator, alias perturbation modes, are mutually nonorthogonal, they can mutually interfere, resulting in the transient growth of their linear combinations. Physically, a growing transient perturbation is a leading spiral whose branches are shrunk as a result of the differential rotation of the flow. This paper discusses in d...

  11. Dynamics of Cosmological Perturbations in Position Space

    CERN Document Server

    Bashinsky, S V; Bashinsky, Sergei; Bertschinger, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    We show that the linear dynamics of cosmological perturbations can be described by coupled wave equations, allowing their efficient numerical and, in certain limits, analytical integration directly in position space. The linear evolution of any perturbation can then be analyzed with the Green's function method. Prior to hydrogen recombination, assuming tight coupling between photons and baryons, neglecting neutrino perturbations, and taking isentropic (adiabatic) initial conditions, the obtained Green's functions for all metric, density, and velocity perturbations vanish beyond the acoustic horizon. At the acoustic wavefronts, a positive gravitational potential perturbation produces narrow photon-baryon density spikes, which provide one of the major contributions to the observed cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropy on all scales. The gravitational interaction between cold dark matter and baryons causes a dip in the observed temperature of the radiation at the center of the initial perturbation. We...

  12. Newtonian Limits of the Relativistic Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J

    1997-01-01

    Relativistic cosmological perturbation analyses can be made based on several different fundamental gauge conditions. In the pressureless limit the variables in certain gauge conditions show the correct Newtonian behaviors. We consider the general curvature and the cosmological constant in the background medium. The perturbed density in the comoving gauge, and the perturbed velocity and the perturbed potential in the zero-shear gauge show the same behavior as the Newtonian ones in a general scale. Far inside horizon, except for the uniform-density gauge, density perturbations in all the fundamental gauge conditions show the correct Newtonian behavior. In this paper we elaborate these Newtonian correspondences. We also present the relativistic results considering general pressures in the background and perturbation.

  13. Search for Large Extra Dimensions in Dielectron and Diphoton Production

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Abramov, V; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Alves, G A; Amos, N; Anderson, E W; Baarmand, M M; Babintsev, V V; Babukhadia, L R; Baden, A; Baldin, B Yu; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Bantly, J; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bean, A; Begel, M; Belyaev, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bertram, I; Besson, A; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Blazey, G C; Blessing, S; Böhnlein, A; Bozhko, N; Borcherding, F; Brandt, A; Breedon, R; Briskin, G M; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burtovoi, V S; Butler, J M; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W S; Casey, D; Casilum, Z; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chekulaev, S V; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Chung, M; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Cochran, J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Dahl, O I; Davis, G A; Davis, K; De, K; Del Signore, K; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D S; Denisov, S P; Desai, S V; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; DiLoreto, G; Doulas, S; Draper, P; Ducros, Y; Dudko, L V; Duensing, S; Dugad, S R; Dyshkant, A; Edmunds, D L; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Engelmann, R; Eno, S; Eppley, G; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J K; Evans, H; Evdokimov, V N; Fahland, T; Fehér, S; Fein, D; Ferbel, T; Fisk, H E; Fisyak, Yu; Flattum, E M; Fleuret, F; Fortner, M R; Frame, K C; Fuess, S; Gallas, E J; Galjaev, A N; Gartung, P E; Gavrilov, V; Genik, R J; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gibbard, B; Gilmartin, R; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Goncharov, P I; González-Solis, J L; Gordon, H; Goss, L T; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graf, N; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Grinstein, S; Groer, L S; Grudberg, P M; Grünendahl, S; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Hadley, N J; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S L; Hagopian, V; Hahn, K S; Hall, R E; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Heuring, T C; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoftun, J S; Hou, S; Huang, Y; Ito, A S; Jerger, S A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A M; Jones, M; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D E; Karmgard, D J; Kehoe, R; Kim, S K; Klima, B; Klopfenstein, C; Knuteson, B; Ko, W; Kohli, J M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kozlovskii, E A; Krane, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M A; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kuznetsov, V E; Landsberg, G L; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J T; Lipton, R; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L H; Lundstedt, C; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Manankov, V; Mao, H S; Marshall, T; Martin, M I; Martin, R D; Mauritz, K M; May, B; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McDonald, J; McMahon, T; Melanson, H L; Meng, X C; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W B; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mincer, A; Mishra, C S; Mokhov, N V; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Mostafa, M A; Da Motta, H; Nagy, E; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Negroni, S; Norman, D; Oesch, L H; Oguri, V; Olivier, B; Oshima, N; Padley, P; Pan, L J; Para, A; Parashar, N; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Paterno, M; Patwa, A; Pawlik, B; Perkins, J; Peters, M; Peters, O; Piegaia, R; Piekarz, H; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quintas, P Z; Raja, R; Rajagopalan, S; Ramberg, E; Rapidis, P A; Reay, N W; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Rockwell, T; Roco, M T; Rubinov, P M; Ruchti, R C; Rutherfoord, John P; Santoro, A F S; Sawyer, L; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schwartzman, A; Scully, J R; Sen, N; Shabalina, E; Shankar, H C; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Shupe, M A; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Singh, H; Singh, J B; Sirotenko, V I; Slattery, P F; Smith, E; Smith, R P; Snihur, R; Snow, G A; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Solomon, J; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Sotnikova, N; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Stanton, N R; Steinbruck, G; Stephens, R W; Stevenson, M L; Stichelbaut, F; Stoker, D; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Streets, K; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sznajder, A; Taylor, W; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thompson, J; Toback, D; Tripathi, S M; Trippe, T G; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Van Gemmeren, P; Vaniev, V; Van Kooten, R; Varelas, N; Volkov, A A; Vorobev, A P; Wahl, H D; Wang, H; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weerts, H; White, A; White, J T; Whiteson, D; Wightman, J A; Wijngaarden, D A; Willis, S; Wimpenny, S J; Wirjawan, J V D; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Yamada, R; Yamin, P; Yasuda, T; Yip, K; Youssef, S; Yu, J; Yu, Z; Zanabria, M E; Zheng, H; Zhou, Z; Zhu, Z H; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2001-01-01

    We report a search for effects of large extra spatial dimensions in ppbar collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV with the DZero detector, using events containing a pair of electrons or photons. The data are in good agreement with the expected background and do not exhibit evidence for large extra dimensions. We set the most restrictive lower limits to date, at the 95% confidence level, on the effective Planck scale between 1.0 TeV and 1.4 TeV for several formalisms and numbers of extra dimensions.

  14. Search for Large Extra Dimensions in Dielectron and Diphoton Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Balm, P. W.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bean, A.; Begel, M.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bertram, I.; Besson, A.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, G. A.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Doulas, S.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Duensing, S.; Dugad, S. R.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Gilmartin, R.; Ginther, G.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Graham, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Groer, L.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hou, S.; Huang, Y.; Ito, A. S.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Juste, A.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kunori, S.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Landsberg, G.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lundstedt, C.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Manankov, V.; Mao, H. S.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, R. D.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Meng, X. C.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mihalcea, D.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Moore, R. W.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Nagy, E.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Negroni, S.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Olivier, B.; Oshima, N.; Padley, P.; Pan, L. J.; Para, A.; Parashar, N.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Patwa, A.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Peters, O.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pope, B. G.; Popkov, E.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramberg, E.; Rapidis, P. A.; Reay, N. W.; Reucroft, S.; Rha, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Schwartzman, A.; Sculli, J.; Sen, N.; Shabalina, E.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Simak, V.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Slattery, P.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sorín, V.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Soustruznik, K.; Souza, M.; Stanton, N. R.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Stutte, L.; Sznajder, A.; Taylor, W.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Thompson, J.; Toback, D.; Tripathi, S. M.; Trippe, T. G.; Turcot, A. S.; Tuts, P. M.; van Gemmeren, P.; Vaniev, V.; van Kooten, R.; Varelas, N.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.-M.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Whiteson, D.; Wightman, J. A.; Wijngaarden, D. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yasuda, T.; Yip, K.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Z.; Zanabria, M.; Zheng, H.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zutshi, V.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    2001-02-01

    We report a search for effects of large extra spatial dimensions in pp¯ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV with the D0 detector, using events containing a pair of electrons or photons. The data are in good agreement with the expected background and do not exhibit evidence for large extra dimensions. We set the most restrictive lower limits to date, at the 95% C.L. on the effective Planck scale between 1.0 and 1.4 TeV for several formalisms and numbers of extra dimensions.

  15. Intersection democracy for winding branes and stabilization of extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Rador, Tonguc

    2005-01-01

    We show that, in the context of pure Einstein gravity, a democratic principle for intersection possibilities of branes winding around extra dimensions in a given partitioning yield stabilization, while what the observed space follows is matter-like dust evolution . Here democracy is used in the sense that, in a given decimation of extra dimensions, all possible wrappings and hence all possible intersections are allowed. Generally, the necessary and sufficient condition for this is that the dimensionality $m$ of the observed space dimensions obey $3\\leqm \\le N$ where $N$ is the decimation order of the extra dimensions.

  16. La inquietante extrañeza en el cine

    OpenAIRE

    Antelo, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    La inquietante extrañeza en el cine parte de considerar la experiencia cinematográfica como un acontecimiento de la sensibilidad. La sala oscura proporciona una intimidad con extraños, y el silencio y la oscuridad evocan lo ‘infantil inextinguible’ de la angustia, descubierto por Sigmund Freud, cuando se atreve a penetrar la comarca de la estética y teoriza lo Unheimlich como lo extraño que invade lo familiar. Un afecto estético. Esta tesis muestra que el cine es Unheimlich pues acosa la real...

  17. La inquietante extra??eza en el cine

    OpenAIRE

    Antelo, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    La inquietante extra??eza en el cine parte de considerar la experiencia cinematogr??fica como un acontecimiento de la sensibilidad. La sala oscura proporciona una intimidad con extra??os, y el silencio y la oscuridad evocan lo ???infantil inextinguible??? de la angustia, descubierto por Sigmund Freud, cuando se atreve a penetrar la comarca de la est??tica y teoriza lo Unheimlich como lo extra??o que invade lo familiar. Un afecto est??tico. Esta tesis muestra que el cine es Unheimlich pues aco...

  18. Finite temperature Casimir effect in spacetime with extra compactified dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, L.P. [Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)], E-mail: lpteo@mmu.edu.my

    2009-02-16

    In this Letter, we derive the explicit exact formulas for the finite temperature Casimir force acting on a pair of parallel plates in the presence of extra compactified dimensions within the framework of Kaluza-Klein theory. Using the piston analysis, we show that at any temperature, the Casimir force due to massless scalar field with Dirichlet boundary conditions on the plates is always attractive and the effect of extra dimensions becomes stronger when the size or number of the extra dimensions increases. These properties are not affected by the explicit geometry and topology of the Kaluza-Klein space.

  19. A new energy source originating from extra dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Bi-Xiu; Ji Shi-Yin; Li Fang-Qiong

    2004-01-01

    In this work the Einstein gravitational field equations and the Lichnerowicz boundary formalism in the extra dimensions are used to build up our black hole model from 6-dimensional space-time. From the internal stress-energy tensor the solutions with energy levels and semiclassical space-quantization are obtained, which combines with only one metric condition outside the defect. We show a new type of energy source, which originates from extra dimensions. A part of the energy source of quasi-stellar object (QSO) maybe come from extra dimensions in that way. The theoretical arithmetic upper limit is identical to that of the output energy of QSO.

  20. Seasonal Variation of Ozone in the Tropical Lower Stratosphere: Southern Tropics are Different from Northern Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wang, Lei,; Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the seasonal behavior of ozone by using measurements from various instruments including ozonesondes, Aura Microwave Limb Sounder, and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II. We find that the magnitude of the annual variation in ozone, as a percentage of the mean ozone, exhibits a maximum at or slightly above the tropical tropopause. The maximum is larger in the northern tropics than in the southern tropics, and the annual maximum of ozone in the southern tropics occurs 2 months later than that in the northern tropics, in contrast to usual assumption that the tropics can be treated as a horizontally homogeneous region. The seasonal cycles of ozone and other species in this part of the lower stratosphere result from a combination of the seasonal variation of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and the seasonal variation of tropical and midlatitude mixing. In the Northern Hemisphere, the impacts of upwelling and mixing between the tropics and midlatitudes on ozone are in phase and additive. In the Southern Hemisphere, they are not in phase. We apply a tropical leaky pipe model independently to each hemisphere to examine the relative roles of upwelling and mixing in the northern and southern tropical regions. Reasonable assumptions of the seasonal variation of upwelling and mixing yield a good description of the seasonal magnitude and phase in both the southern and northern tropics. The differences in the tracers and transport between the northern and southern tropical stratospheres suggest that the paradigm of well-mixed tropics needs to be revised to consider latitudinal variations within the tropics.

  1. Old tropical botanical collections:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    The early history of botanical collections is reviewed, with particular emphasis on old collections from the tropics. The information available about older and newer botanical collections from the tropics was much improved after World War Two, including better lists of validly published names, more...... detailed description of literature and better information about collections and collectors. These improvements were initially made available as publications on paper, whereas now the information has become available on the Internet, at least in part. The changed procedures for handling botanical...... collections in connection with taxonomic research is sketched, from sending specimens on loan between institutions via publishing herbaria on microfiches to providing scanned images on the Internet. Examples from different institutions and organizations of how to make digitized images of specimens and other...

  2. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  3. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    only makes the edition and inclusion of updated information easy, but also provides tropical meteorology training notes for aerogra- phers. After all...center to the outer-most closed isobar. face winds in the range of 34 to 63 kt (17 to 32 m/sec), inclusive . STRENGTH - The average wind speed of the...INSTITUO CITY POLYTECHNIC OF HONG KONG DE GEOFISICA, MEXICO CIUDAD UNIVERSITARIA , MEXICO INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR DISASTER CIVIL DEFENSE, BELAU

  4. Approximation of pressure perturbations by FEM

    CERN Document Server

    Bichir, Cătălin - Liviu

    2011-01-01

    In the mathematical problem of linear hydrodynamic stability for shear flows against Tollmien-Schlichting perturbations, the continuity equation for the perturbation of the velocity is replaced by a Poisson equation for the pressure perturbation. The resulting eigenvalue problem, an alternative form for the two - point eigenvalue problem for the Orr - Sommerfeld equation, is formulated in a variational form and this one is approximated by finite element method (FEM). Possible applications to concrete cases are revealed.

  5. Cosmological perturbations in a noncommutative braneworld inflation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kourosh Nozari; Siamak Akhshabi

    2012-01-01

    We use the smeared,coherent state picture of noncommutativity to study evolution of perturbations in a noncommutative braneworld scenario.Within the standard procedure of studying braneworld cosmological perturbations,we study the evolution of the Bardeen metric potential and curvature perturbations in this model.We show that in this setup,the early stage of the universe's evolution has a transient phantom evolution with imaginary effective sound speed.

  6. Non-Perturbative Theory of Dispersion Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Boström, M; Persson, C; Parsons, D F; Buhmann, S Y; Brevik, I; Sernelius, Bo E

    2015-01-01

    Some open questions exist with fluctuation-induced forces between extended dipoles. Conventional intuition derives from large-separation perturbative approximations to dispersion force theory. Here we present a full non-perturbative theory. In addition we discuss how one can take into account finite dipole size corrections. It is of fundamental value to investigate the limits of validity of the perturbative dispersion force theory.

  7. Tropical arthritogenic alphaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Carla-Ruth; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2017-03-29

    Tropical alphaviruses have special tropism for bone and joint tissue. Patients can develop chronic rheumatic disorders similar to rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. The prototype is Chikungunya virus, although other lesser known viruses in our environment such as Sindbis, Ross River, Mayaro, O'nyong nyong and Barmah Forest viruses have the potential to be sped through vectors and cause chronic rheumatic disease. International population movements have increased the numbers of patients diagnosed with these tropical viruses in areas in which they are not endemic. Since they can leave persistent symptoms and affect the quality of life of the patients, it is important that we be aware of them. Changes in ecosystems have favored the expansion of competent mosquitoes, making fears of local transmission in southern Europe a reality. The objective of this review is to provide a clinical approach to the different arthritogenic tropical alphaviruses, especially those in which chronic rheumatic disease is more frequent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  8. On adiabatic perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, A.; Mukhanov, V.; Vikman, A.

    2010-02-01

    In a recent paper, Khoury and Steinhardt proposed a way to generate adiabatic cosmological perturbations with a nearly flat spectrum in a contracting Universe. To produce these perturbations they used a regime in which the equation of state exponentially rapidly changed during a short time interval. Leaving aside the singularity problem and the difficult question about the possibility to transmit these perturbations from a contracting Universe to the expanding phase, we will show that the methods used in Khoury are inapplicable for the description of the cosmological evolution and of the process of generation of perturbations in this scenario.

  9. On adiabatic perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Linde, A; Vikman, A

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper arXiv:0910.2230, Khoury and Steinhardt proposed a way to generate adiabatic cosmological perturbations with a nearly flat spectrum in a contracting Universe. To produce these perturbations they used a regime in which the equation of state exponentially rapidly changed during a short time interval. Leaving aside the singularity problem and the difficult question about the possibility to transmit these perturbations from a contracting Universe to the expanding phase, we will show that the methods used in arXiv:0910.2230 are inapplicable for the description of the cosmological evolution and of the process of generation of perturbations in this scenario.

  10. Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, A S

    2015-01-01

    This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. The corresponding computational algorithm is more efficient for high perturbative orders than the algorithms of Van Vleck and Magnus methods.

  11. Superhorizon Perturbations and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Erickcek, Adrienne L; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Superhorizon perturbations induce large-scale temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) via the Grishchuk-Zel'dovich effect. We analyze the CMB temperature anisotropies generated by a single-mode adiabatic superhorizon perturbation. We show that an adiabatic superhorizon perturbation in a LCDM universe does not generate a CMB temperature dipole, and we derive constraints to the amplitude and wavelength of a superhorizon potential perturbation from measurements of the CMB quadrupole and octupole. We also consider constraints to a superhorizon fluctuation in the curvaton field, which was recently proposed as a source of the hemispherical power asymmetry in the CMB.

  12. Perturbative spacetimes from Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, Andrés; Nicholson, Isobel; Ochirov, Alexander; O'Connell, Donal; Westerberg, Niclas; White, Chris D.

    2017-04-12

    The double copy relates scattering amplitudes in gauge and gravity theories. In this paper, we expand the scope of the double copy to construct spacetime metrics through a systematic perturbative expansion. The perturbative procedure is based on direct calculation in Yang-Mills theory, followed by squaring the numerator of certain perturbative diagrams as specified by the double-copy algorithm. The simplest spherically symmetric, stationary spacetime from the point of view of this procedure is a particular member of the Janis-Newman-Winicour family of naked singularities. Our work paves the way for applications of the double copy to physically interesting problems such as perturbative black-hole scattering.

  13. Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Andrey

    2016-06-01

    This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson's ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. We compare the efficiency of the corresponding computational algorithm with the efficiencies of the Van Vleck and Magnus methods for high perturbative orders.

  14. Perturbative spacetimes from Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, Andres; Nicholson, Isobel; Ochirov, Alexander; O'Connell, Donal; Westerberg, Niclas; White, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    The double copy relates scattering amplitudes in gauge and gravity theories. In this paper, we expand the scope of the double copy to construct spacetime metrics through a systematic perturbative expansion. The perturbative procedure is based on direct calculation in Yang-Mills theory, followed by squaring the numerator of certain perturbative diagrams as specified by the double-copy algorithm. The simplest spherically symmetric, stationary spacetime from the point of view of this procedure is a particular member of the Janis-Newman-Winicour family of naked singularities. Our work paves the way for applications of the double copy to physically interesting problems such as perturbative black-hole scattering.

  15. Controlling Disorder in Traffic Flow by Perturbation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIKe-Ping; GAOZi-You; CHENTian-Lun

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new technique for controlling disorder in traffic system. A kind of control signal which can be considered as a perturbation has been designated at a given site (perturbation point) of the single-lane highway. When a vehicle passes the perturbation point at a time, the velocity of the vehicle will be changed at the next time by the perturbation. This technique is tested for the deterministic NaSch traffic model. The simulation results indicate that the traffic system can be transited from the disorder states to the order states, such as fixed-point, periodic motion, etc.

  16. Tropical Glaciers: Recorders and Indicators of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Buffen, A.; Urmann, D.; Davis, M. E.; Lin, P.

    2008-12-01

    Tropical climate is dominated on interannual time scales by monsoons and especially by ENSO, which is responsible for meteorological phenomena that directly or indirectly affect most regions on the planet and their populations. Common tropical teleconnections to the extra tropics include a stronger Aleutian low, stronger westerlies, variations in convective activity (flooding and drought), and modulation of tropical storm intensities. New ice core records from the Quelccaya and Coropuna ice caps provide 1700 years of continuous, annually-resolved records of climate and environmental variability expressed in the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios, concentrations of mineral dust and various chemical species and net mass accumulation. These records provide an opportunity to examine the nature of tropical climate variability in greater detail, and to extract new information on ENSO and monsoon-linked climate phenomena. Quelccaya records display a prominent Little Ice Age isotopic depletion from 1520 to 1880 A.D. and a muted Medieval Warming between 1100 and 1300 AD. Drier conditions dominated from 300 to 500 AD, 1190 to 1470 AD and 1710 to 1910 with slightly wetter conditions from 500 to 1190 AD, and much wetter conditions from 1470 to 1710 A.D. and from 1910 A.D. to the present. The major cation and anion concentrations record other environmental changes over the past 1700 years. The longer tropical climate histories from Coropuna and Huascarán (Peru), Sajama (Bolivia), and Kilimanjaro (Tanzania) document abrupt climate disruptions such as the 4.2 ka drought and an extreme cold and wet period centered at 5.2 ka. The well documented ongoing ice loss on Quelccaya and Kilimanjaro paint a grim future for glacier histories from the tropics. The current melting of high-altitude, low-latitude ice fields is consistent with model predictions for a vertical amplification of temperature in the tropics. The ongoing glacier retreat in the Andes, Himalayas and Africa has

  17. Kuu plaat : Cardigans "Super Extra Gravity". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest : Cardigans "Super Extra Gravity", Metsatöll "Terast mis hangund me hinge 10218", Ursula "Annamemenõu", Critikal "Chapter One ehk Teine Maitse", Robbie Williams "Intensive Care", Depeche Mode "Playing the Angel"

  18. Extra limit counts for southern sea otter 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Extra limit counts of southern sea otters 2016" is a point layer representing the locations of sea otter sightings that fall outside the...

  19. Probing large extra dimensions with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaili, Arman [Institute of Convergence Fundamental Studies and School of Liberal Arts, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Peres, O.L.G.; Tabrizi, Zahra, E-mail: arman@ipm.ir, E-mail: orlando@ifi.unicamp.br, E-mail: tabrizi.physics@ipm.ir [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin - UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    In models with Large Extra Dimensions the smallness of neutrino masses can be naturally explained by introducing gauge singlet fermions which propagate in the bulk. The Kaluza-Klein modes of these fermions appear as towers of sterile neutrino states on the brane. We study the phenomenological consequences of this picture for the high energy atmospheric neutrinos. For this purpose we construct a detailed equivalence between a model with large extra dimensions and a (3+n) scenario consisting of three active and n extra sterile neutrino states, which provides a clear intuitive understanding of Kaluza-Klein modes. Finally, we analyze the collected data of high energy atmospheric neutrinos by IceCube experiment and obtain bounds on the radius of extra dimensions.

  20. Kuu plaat : Cardigans "Super Extra Gravity". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest : Cardigans "Super Extra Gravity", Metsatöll "Terast mis hangund me hinge 10218", Ursula "Annamemenõu", Critikal "Chapter One ehk Teine Maitse", Robbie Williams "Intensive Care", Depeche Mode "Playing the Angel"

  1. ExTrA: Exoplanets in Transit and their Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Bonfils, X; Jocou, L; Wunsche, A; Kern, P; Delboulbé, A; Delfosse, X; Feautrier, P; Forveille, T; Gluck, L; Lafrasse, S; Magnard, Y; Maurel, D; Moulin, T; Murgas, F; Rabou, P; Rochat, S; Roux, A; Stadler, E

    2015-01-01

    The ExTrA facility, located at La Silla observatory, will consist of a near-infrared multi-object spectrograph fed by three 60-cm telescopes. ExTrA will add the spectroscopic resolution to the traditional differential photometry method. This shall enable the fine correction of color-dependent systematics that would otherwise hinder ground-based observations. With both this novel method and an infrared-enabled efficiency, ExTrA aims to find transiting telluric planets orbiting in the habitable zone of bright nearby M dwarfs. It shall have the versatility to do so by running its own independent survey and also by concurrently following-up on the space candidates unveiled by K2 and TESS. The exoplanets detected by ExTrA will be amenable to atmospheric characterisation with VLTs, JWST, and ELTs and could give our first peek into an exo-life laboratory.

  2. Perturbation theory in the catalytic rate constant of the Henri-Michaelis-Menten enzymatic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Kosmas, Marios; Papamichael, Emmanouel M

    2012-11-01

    The Henry-Michaelis-Menten (HMM) mechanism of enzymatic reaction is studied by means of perturbation theory in the reaction rate constant k (2) of product formation. We present analytical solutions that provide the concentrations of the enzyme (E), the substrate (S), as well as those of the enzyme-substrate complex (C), and the product (P) as functions of time. For k (2) small compared to k (-1), we properly describe the entire enzymatic activity from the beginning of the reaction up to longer times without imposing extra conditions on the initial concentrations E ( o ) and S ( o ), which can be comparable or much different.

  3. Confinement and stability in presence of scalar fields and perturbation in the bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Pinaki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we have considered a five-dimensional warped product spacetime with spacelike extra dimension and with a scalar field source in the bulk. We have studied the dynamics of the scalar field under different types of potential in an effort to explain the confinement of particles in the five-dimensional spacetime. The behaviour of the system is determined from the nature of damping force on the system. We have also examined the nature of the effective potential under different circumstances. Lastly we have studied the system to determine whether or not the system attains asymptotically stable condition for both unperturbed and perturbed condition.

  4. Multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusions in hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Diwakar Gore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-known modifiable risk factor for thromboembolism. Retinal vascular occlusion in patients having hyperhomocysteinemia is a known entity, particularly in young patients. However, multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is a rare condition, which can be a presentation of this disease. We present a patient who had multiple extra macular BRVO; on complete systemic workup, he was found to have raised homocysteine levels.

  5. Extra-aortic implantable counterpulsation pump in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitnovetski, Sergei; Almeida, Aubrey A; Barr, Althea; Peters, William S; Milsom, F Paget; Ho, Betty; Smith, Julian A

    2008-06-01

    Extra-aortic counterpulsation for the management of chronic heart failure is a novel approach. We report the use of an extra-aortic implantable counterpulsation pump in the management of a 73-year-old patient with severe heart failure refractory to medical therapy. The implantable counterpulsation pump prolonged his life and greatly improved its quality. The patient lived almost 7 months after the implantation of the device and died of septic complications secondary to gas line infection.

  6. Extra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumors Associated with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T. Calvert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-abdominal desmoid tumors are a significant cause of morbidity in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Understanding of the basic biology and natural history of these tumors has increased substantially over the past decade. Accordingly, medical and surgical management of desmoid tumors has also evolved. This paper analyzes recent evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, molecular biology, histopathology, screening, and treatment of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors associated with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome.

  7. Kaluza-Klein Theory without Extra Dimensions: Curved Clifford Space

    CERN Document Server

    Pavsic, M

    2005-01-01

    A theory in which 16-dimensional curved Clifford space (C-space) provides realization of Kaluza-Klein theory is investigated. No extra dimensions of spacetime are needed: "extra dimensions" are in C-space. It is shown that the covariant Dirac equation in C-space contains Yang-Mills fields of the U(1)xSU(2)xSU(3) group as parts of the generalized spin connection of the C-space.

  8. Scale Factor in Very Early Universe with the Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Mohsenzadeh, M

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is presentation an expanding scenario of 5-dimensional space-time in the very early universe. We introduce the 5-dimensional generalized FRW metric and obtain the evolution of the bulk scale factor with space-like and time-like extra dimensions. It is shown that, additional space-like dimensions can produce an exponentially expansion for the bulk scale factor under repulsive strong gravitational force in the empty very early universe with the extra dimension.

  9. [On mistakes in contemporary literatures of extra points in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long-Xiang; Huang, You-Min

    2013-06-01

    Contemporary literatures which are taken as the base of literature study of extra points are insufficient and lack of reliability. The foundation of study is very weak. Based on abundant firsthand materials, analyses are made on the major problems of confounded names and locations, unclear quotation and source of reference in the study of contemporary literatures of extra points. Meanwhile, methods and way of thinking for solving the above mentioned problems are discussed in this article as well.

  10. Perturbation theory in light-cone quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langnau, A.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough investigation of light-cone properties which are characteristic for higher dimensions is very important. The easiest way of addressing these issues is by analyzing the perturbative structure of light-cone field theories first. Perturbative studies cannot be substituted for an analysis of problems related to a nonperturbative approach. However, in order to lay down groundwork for upcoming nonperturbative studies, it is indispensable to validate the renormalization methods at the perturbative level, i.e., to gain control over the perturbative treatment first. A clear understanding of divergences in perturbation theory, as well as their numerical treatment, is a necessary first step towards formulating such a program. The first objective of this dissertation is to clarify this issue, at least in second and fourth-order in perturbation theory. The work in this dissertation can provide guidance for the choice of counterterms in Discrete Light-Cone Quantization or the Tamm-Dancoff approach. A second objective of this work is the study of light-cone perturbation theory as a competitive tool for conducting perturbative Feynman diagram calculations. Feynman perturbation theory has become the most practical tool for computing cross sections in high energy physics and other physical properties of field theory. Although this standard covariant method has been applied to a great range of problems, computations beyond one-loop corrections are very difficult. Because of the algebraic complexity of the Feynman calculations in higher-order perturbation theory, it is desirable to automatize Feynman diagram calculations so that algebraic manipulation programs can carry out almost the entire calculation. This thesis presents a step in this direction. The technique we are elaborating on here is known as light-cone perturbation theory.

  11. Extra-pair mating and evolution of cooperative neighbourhoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrunn Eliassen

    Full Text Available A striking but unexplained pattern in biology is the promiscuous mating behaviour in socially monogamous species. Although females commonly solicit extra-pair copulations, the adaptive reason has remained elusive. We use evolutionary modelling of breeding ecology to show that females benefit because extra-pair paternity incentivizes males to shift focus from a single brood towards the entire neighbourhood, as they are likely to have offspring there. Male-male cooperation towards public goods and dear enemy effects of reduced territorial aggression evolve from selfish interests, and lead to safer and more productive neighbourhoods. The mechanism provides adaptive explanations for the common empirical observations that females engage in extra-pair copulations, that neighbours dominate as extra-pair sires, and that extra-pair mating correlates with predation mortality and breeding density. The models predict cooperative behaviours at breeding sites where males cooperate more towards public goods than females. Where maternity certainty makes females care for offspring at home, paternity uncertainty and a potential for offspring in several broods make males invest in communal benefits and public goods. The models further predict that benefits of extra-pair mating affect whole nests or neighbourhoods, and that cuckolding males are often cuckolded themselves. Derived from ecological mechanisms, these new perspectives point towards the evolution of sociality in birds, with relevance also for mammals and primates including humans.

  12. Generalized Uncertainty Principle in the Presence of Extra Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Ben-Bong; WU Hou-Wen; YANG Hai-Tang

    2011-01-01

    @@ We argue that in the generalized uncertainty principle(GUP)model,the parameter β0 whose square root,minimal measurable length and extra dimensions are both suggested by quantum gravity theories,we investigate the models based on the GUP and one extra dimension,compactified with radius p.We obtain an inspiring quantum mechanics scale.We also estimate the application range of the GUP model.It turns out that the minimum measurable length is exactly the compactification radius of the extra dimension.%We argue that in the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) model, the parameter 0o whose square root, multiplied by Planck length tv, approximates the minimum measurable distance, varies with energy scales. Since the minimal measurable length and extra dimensions are both suggested by quantum gravity theories, we investigate the models based on the GUP and one extra dimension, compactified with radius p. We obtain an inspiring relation βolp/p ~ 0(1). This relation is also consistent with the predictions at Planck scale and the usual quantum mechanics scale. We also estimate the application range of the GUP model. It turns out that the minimum measurable length is exactly the compactiScation radius of the extra dimension.

  13. Extra-pair mating and evolution of cooperative neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, Sigrunn; Jørgensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A striking but unexplained pattern in biology is the promiscuous mating behaviour in socially monogamous species. Although females commonly solicit extra-pair copulations, the adaptive reason has remained elusive. We use evolutionary modelling of breeding ecology to show that females benefit because extra-pair paternity incentivizes males to shift focus from a single brood towards the entire neighbourhood, as they are likely to have offspring there. Male-male cooperation towards public goods and dear enemy effects of reduced territorial aggression evolve from selfish interests, and lead to safer and more productive neighbourhoods. The mechanism provides adaptive explanations for the common empirical observations that females engage in extra-pair copulations, that neighbours dominate as extra-pair sires, and that extra-pair mating correlates with predation mortality and breeding density. The models predict cooperative behaviours at breeding sites where males cooperate more towards public goods than females. Where maternity certainty makes females care for offspring at home, paternity uncertainty and a potential for offspring in several broods make males invest in communal benefits and public goods. The models further predict that benefits of extra-pair mating affect whole nests or neighbourhoods, and that cuckolding males are often cuckolded themselves. Derived from ecological mechanisms, these new perspectives point towards the evolution of sociality in birds, with relevance also for mammals and primates including humans.

  14. Glacier monitoring and glacier-climate interactions in the tropical Andes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veettil, Bijeesh Kozhikkodan; Wang, Shanshan; Florêncio de Souza, Sergio; Bremer, Ulisses Franz; Simões, Jefferson Cardia

    2017-08-01

    In this review, we summarized the evolution of glacier monitoring in the tropical Andes during the last few decades, particularly after the development of remote sensing and photogrammetry. Advantages and limitations of glacier mapping, applied so far, in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia are discussed in detail. Glacier parameters such as the equilibrium line altitude, snowline and mass balance were given special attention in understanding the complex cryosphere-climate interactions, particularly using remote sensing techniques. Glaciers in the inner and the outer tropics were considered separately based on the precipitation and temperature conditions within a new framework. The applicability of various methods to use glacier records to understand and reconstruct the tropical Andean climate between the Last Glacial Maximum (11,700 years ago) and the present is also explored in this paper. Results from various studies published recently were analyzed and we tried to understand the differences in the magnitudes of glacier responses towards the climatic perturbations in the inner tropics and the outer tropics. Inner tropical glaciers, particularly those in Venezuela and Colombia near the January Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), are more vulnerable to increase in temperature. Surface energy balance experiments show that outer tropical glaciers respond to precipitation variability very rapidly in comparison with the temperature variability, particularly when moving towards the subtropics. We also analyzed the gradients in glacier response to climate change from the Pacific coast towards the Amazon Basin as well as with the elevation. Based on the current trends synthesised from recent studies, it is hypothesized that the glaciers in the inner tropics and the southern wet outer tropics will disappear first as a response to global warming whereas glaciers in the northern wet outer tropics and dry outer tropics show resistance to warming trends due to

  15. Perturbative Chern-Simons theory revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLellan, Brendan Donald Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider perturbative Chern-Simons theory on a closed and oriented three-manifold with a choice of contact structure following C. Beasley and E. Witten. Closed three manifolds that admit a Sasakian structure are explicitly computed to first order in perturbation in terms of their Seifert dat...

  16. Double soft theorem for perturbative gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arnab Priya

    2016-09-01

    Following up on the recent work of Cachazo, He and Yuan [1], we derive the double soft graviton theorem in perturbative gravity. We show that the double soft theorem derived using CHY formula precisely matches with the perturbative computation involving Feynman diagrams. In particular, we find how certain delicate limits of Feynman diagrams play an important role in obtaining this equivalence.

  17. Identifying influential multinomial observations by perturbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyangoma, S.O.; Fung, W.-K.; Jansen, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of the influence of individual observations on the outcome of the analysis by perturbation has received a lot of attention for situations in which the observations are independent and identically distributed. However, no methods based on minor perturbations for carrying out such asses

  18. Tokamak Transport Studies Using Perturbation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardozo, N. J. L.; Dehaas, J. C. M.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Orourke, J.; Sips, A.C.C.; Tubbing, B. J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the transport properties of tokamak plasmas using perturbation analysis are discussed. The focus is on experiments with not too large perturbations, such as sawtooth induced heat and density pulse propagation, power modulation and oscillatory gas-puff experiments. The approximations made

  19. ADDITIVE FUNCTIONALS AND PERTURBATION OF SEMIGROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The perturbation of semigroup by a multiplicative functional with bounded variation is investigated in the frame of weak duality. The strong continuity and Schrodinger type equation of the perturbated semigroup are discussed. A few switching identities and formulae conerning dual additive functionals and Revuz measures are given.

  20. ADDITIVE FUNCTIONALS AND PERTURBATION OF SEMIGROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINMENGWEI; YINGJIANGANG

    2001-01-01

    The perturbation of semigroup by a multiplicative functional with bounded variation is investigated in the frame of weak duality. The strong continuity and SchrSdinger type equation of the perturbated semigroup are discussed. A few switching identities and formulae conerning dual additive functionais and Revuz measures are given.

  1. Perturbation of eigenvalues embedded at a threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Melgaard, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Results are obtained on perturbation of eigenvalues and half-bound states (zero-resonances) embedded at a threshold. The results are obtained in a two-channel framework for small off-diagonal perturbations. The results are based on given asymptotic expansions of the component Hamiltonians....

  2. Tokamak Transport Studies Using Perturbation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardozo, N. J. L.; Dehaas, J. C. M.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Orourke, J.; Sips, A.C.C.; Tubbing, B. J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the transport properties of tokamak plasmas using perturbation analysis are discussed. The focus is on experiments with not too large perturbations, such as sawtooth induced heat and density pulse propagation, power modulation and oscillatory gas-puff experiments. The approximations made

  3. Perturbative expansion of Chern-Simons theory

    OpenAIRE

    SAWON, Justin

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the perturbative expansion of the Chern--Simons path integral is given. The main goal is to describe how trivalent graphs appear: as they already occur in the perturbative expansion of an analogous finite-dimensional integral, we discuss this case in detail.

  4. Tropical Atlantic temperature seasonality at the end of the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felis, Thomas; Giry, Cyril; Scholz, Denis; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pfeiffer, Madlene; Pätzold, Jürgen; Kölling, Martin; Scheffers, Sander R.

    2015-04-01

    The end of the last interglacial period, ~118 kyr ago, was characterized by substantial ocean circulation and climate perturbations resulting from instabilities of polar ice sheets. It has been suggested that these perturbations at the end of the last interglacial are crucial for a better understanding of future climate change. The seasonal temperature changes of the tropical ocean, however, which play an important role in seasonal climate extremes such as hurricanes, floods and droughts at the present day, are not well known for this period that led into the last glacial. Here we present a monthly resolved snapshot of reconstructed sea surface temperature in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean for 117.7 ± 0.8 kyr ago, using coral Sr/Ca and δ18O records in a precisely 230Th/U dated shallow-water fossil coral recovered from the southern Caribbean (Bonaire). We find that temperature seasonality was similar to today, which is consistent with the orbital insolation forcing. Our coral records and simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (COSMOS) indicate an orbital control on temperature seasonality in the tropical North Atlantic at the end of the last interglacial, despite the large-scale perturbations of ocean circulation and climate during this period, and suggest that temperature seasonality of the tropical surface ocean is controlled mainly by orbital insolation changes during interglacials.

  5. Tropical Whitefly IPM Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Francisco J

    2007-01-01

    The Tropical Whitefly IPM Project (TWFP) is an initiative of the Systemwide IPM Programme of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), financed by the Department for International Development (DFID) of the United Kingdom, the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Agency for International Development (USAID), the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), and the New Zealand Agency for International Development (NZAID), to manage whitefly pests and whitefly-transmitted viruses in the Tropics. Participating CGIAR and other international centers include the Centre for International Tropical Agriculture (CIAT); the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA); The International Potato Centre (CIP); the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre (AVRDC); and the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), in close collaboration with the National Resources Institute (NRI-UK); national agricultural research institutions; agricultural universities; and advanced agricultural research laboratories in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Pacific Region, and the Americas. The TWFP was launched in 1996 as five separate but closely linked subprojects targeting: (1) Bemisia tabaci as a vector of viruses affecting cassava and sweet potato in sub-Saharan Africa (IITA, NRI, CIP, CIAT); (2) B. tabaci as a vector of viruses in mixed cropping systems of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean (CIAT); (3) B. tabaci as a vector of viruses in mixed cropping systems of eastern and southern Africa (ICIPE, AVRDC); (4) B. tabaci as a vector of viruses in mixed cropping systems of Southeast Asia (AVRDC); (5) Trialeurodes vaporariorum as a pest in mixed cropping systems of the Andean highlands (CIAT); and (6) whiteflies as pests of cassava in South America (CIAT). Diagnostic surveys conducted in Phase I (1997-2000) clearly showed that the two main

  6. Relevant Perturbation of Entanglement Entropy and Stationarity

    CERN Document Server

    Nishioka, Tatsuma

    2014-01-01

    A relevant perturbation of the entanglement entropy of a sphere is examined holographically near the UV fixed point. Varying the conformal dimension of the relevant operator, we obtain three different sectors: 1) the entanglement entropy is stationary and the perturbative expansion is well-defined with respect to the relevant coupling, 2) the entropy is stationary, but the perturbation fails, 3) the entropy is neither stationary nor perturbative. We compare our holographic results with the numerical calculation for a free massive scalar field in three-dimensions, and find a qualitative agreement between them. We argue that these statements hold for any relevant perturbation in any quantum field theory invariant under the Poincare symmetry.

  7. Perturbative stability of catenoidal soap films

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    The perturbative stability of catenoidal soap films formed between parallel, equal radii, coaxial rings is studied using analytical and semi-analytical methods. Using a theorem on the nature of eigenvalues for a class of Sturm--Liouville operators, we show that for the given boundary conditions, azimuthally asymmetric perturbations are stable, while symmetric perturbations lead to an instability--a result demonstrated in Ben Amar et. al [7] using numerics and experiment. Further, we show how to obtain the lowest real eigenvalue of perturbations, using the semi-analytical Asymptotic Iteration Method (AIM). Conclusions using AIM support the analytically obtained result as well as the results in [7]. Finally, we compute the eigenfunctions and show, pictorially, how the perturbed soap film evolves in time.

  8. Cosmological perturbations through a simple bounce

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, L E

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a simple scalar field model that yields non-singular cosmological solutions. We study both the qualitative dynamics of the homogeneous and isotropic background and the evolution of inhomogeneous linear perturbations. We calculate the spectrum of perturbations generated on super-Hubble scales during the collapse phase from initial vacuum fluctuations on small scales and then evolve these numerically through the bounce. We show there is a gauge that remains well-defined throughout the bounce, even though other commonly used gauges break down. We show that the comoving curvature perturbation calculated during the collapse phase provides a good estimate of the resulting large scale adiabatic perturbation in the expanding phase while the Bardeen metric potential is dominated by what becomes a decaying mode after the bounce. We show that a power-law collapse phase with scale factor proportional $(-t)^{2/3}$ can yield a scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations in the ...

  9. Metric perturbations in Einstein-Cartan Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia de Andrade, L C

    2002-01-01

    Metric perturbations the stability of solution of Einstein-Cartan cosmology (ECC) are given. The first addresses the stability of solutions of Einstein-Cartan (EC) cosmological model against Einstein static universe background. In this solution we show that the metric is stable against first-order perturbations and correspond to acoustic oscillations. The second example deals with the stability of de Sitter metric also against first-order perturbations. Torsion and shear are also computed in these cases. The resultant perturbed anisotropic spacetime with torsion is only de Sitter along one direction or is unperturbed along one direction and perturbed against the other two. Cartan torsion contributes to the frequency of oscillations in the model. Therefore gravitational waves could be triggered by the spin-torsion scalar density .

  10. Perturbative photon production in a dispersive medium

    CERN Document Server

    Belgiorno, Francesco; Piazza, Francesco Dalla

    2014-01-01

    We investigate photon pair-creation in a dispersive dielectric medium induced by the presence of a spacetime varying dielectric constant. Our aim is to examine the possibility to observe new phenomena of pair creation induced by travelling dielectric perturbations e.g. created by laser pulses by means of the Kerr effect. In this perspective, we adopt a semi-phenomenological version of the Hopfield model in which a space-time dependent dielectric susceptibility appears. We focus our attention on perturbation theory, and provide general formulas for the photon production induced by a local but arbitrarily spacetime dependent refractive index perturbation. As an example, we further explore the case of an uniformly travelling perturbation, and provide examples of purely time-dependent perturbations.

  11. Adiabatic density-functional perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Xavier

    1995-08-01

    The treatment of adiabatic perturbations within density-functional theory is examined, at arbitrary order of the perturbation expansion. Due to the extremal property of the energy functional, standard variation-perturbation theorems can be used. The different methods (Sternheimer equation, extremal principle, Green's function, and sum over state) for obtaining the perturbation expansion of the wave functions are presented. The invariance of the Hilbert space of occupied wave functions with respect to a unitary transformation leads to the definition of a ``parallel-transport-gauge'' and a ``diagonal-gauge'' perturbation expansion. Then, the general expressions are specialized for the second, third, and fourth derivative of the energy, with an example of application of the method up to third order.

  12. Tropical Cyclone Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    GUARD 160 (13-14W)TS KEN-LOLA BOUCHARD 86 (32W) TY GAY CRITTENDEN 166 (15W) TY MAC BOUCHARD 92 (33W) TY HUNT SHOEMAKER 172 (16W) TY OWEN CRITTENDEN 98...GURAL 188 TC 02A BOUCHARD 190 TC 32W ( GAY ) CRI’TTENDEN 166 4. SUMMARY OF SOUTH PACIFIC AND SOUTH INDIAN OCEAN TROPICAL CYCLONES ............. 193 4.1...Commander Naval ICAO International Civil Aviation AFB Air Force Base Oceanography Command Organization AFGWC Air Force Global Weather COSM or INIT Initial

  13. Breeding tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Jank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.

  14. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Enewetak 3-08-1) at 120024Z July shows the tropical Atoll . It persisted into the next day when it was depression. The first warning was issued at...were 28 kt (14 m/sec) with nortn, formed a vortex 600 nm (1111 km) east of gusts to 48 kt (25 m/sec). There was limited damage Kwaj-diein Atoll in the...However, Ben did not track as forecast, but instead southeast of Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. moved north-northwestward until the 20th at G00Z

  15. Death In The Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Burnard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Mosquito Empires: Ecology and War in the Greater Caribbean, 1620-1914. J.R. Mcneill. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. xvi + 371 pp. (Paper US$ 24.99 Medicine in an Age of Commerce and Empire: Britain and its Tropical Colonies 1660-1830. Mark Harrison. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. x + 353 pp. (Cloth £65.00 Death in the New World: Cross-Cultural Encounters, 1492-1800. Erik R. Seeman. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. xii + 372 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00

  16. Building a non-perturbative quark-gluon vertex from a perturbative one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Rocio

    2016-10-01

    The quark-gluon vertex describes the electromagnetic and the strong interaction among these particles. The description of this interaction at high precision in both regimes, perturbative and non-perturbative, continues being a matter of interest in the context of QCD and Hadron Physics. There exist very helpful models in the literature that explain perturbative aspects of the theory but they fail describing non-perturbative phenomena, as confinement and dynamic chiral symmetry breaking. In this work we study the structure of the quark-gluon vertex in a non-perturbative regime examining QCD, checking results with QED, and working in the Schwinger-Dyson formalism.

  17. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  18. Linear Systems on Tropical Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Christian; Yu, Josephine

    2009-01-01

    A tropical curve \\Gamma is a metric graph with possibly unbounded edges, and tropical rational functions are continuous piecewise linear functions with integer slopes. We define the complete linear system |D| of a divisor D on a tropical curve \\Gamma analogously to the classical counterpart. We investigate the structure of |D| as a cell complex and show that linear systems are quotients of tropical modules, finitely generated by vertices of the cell complex. Using a finite set of generators, |D| defines a map from \\Gamma to a tropical projective space, and the image can be extended to a tropical curve of degree equal to \\deg(D). The tropical convex hull of the image realizes the linear system |D| as a polyhedral complex. We show that curves for which the canonical divisor is not very ample are hyperelliptic. We also show that the Picard group of a \\Q-tropical curve is a direct limit of critical groups of finite graphs converging to the curve.

  19. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Major factors that constrain tropical soil fertility and sustainable agriculture are low nutrient capital, moisture stress, erosion, high P fixation, high acidity with aluminium toxicity, and low soil biodiversity. The fragility of many tropical soils limits food production in annual cropping system

  20. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Major factors that constrain tropical soil fertility and sustainable agriculture are low nutrient capital, moisture stress, erosion, high P fixation, high acidity with aluminium toxicity, and low soil biodiversity. The fragility of many tropical soils limits food production in annual cropping system

  1. Cardiomegaly in tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    The term "cardiomegaly" is found in 5-7% of chest X-ray film evaluations in tropical Africa. However, "cardiomegaly" is a descriptive term, devoid of any aetiological meaning. Therefore, providing information about the aetiological factors leading to heart enlargement in a group of Africans (Nigerians) was the purpose of this study. In the years 2002-2011, 170 subjects (aged 17-80 years, mean age 42 years) in whom "cardiomegaly" was revealed by chest radiographs were studied at the Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele. The patients underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and several appropriate laboratory tests. Arterial hypertension was found to be most frequently associated with heart enlargement (39.4%), followed by dilated cardiomyopathy (21.76%), endomyocardial fibrosis (14.1%), valvular defects (9.4%), cardiac enlargement in the course of sickle-cell anaemia (6.47%), and schistosomal cor pulmonale (3.52%). This study is a contribution to a better aetiological elucidation of "cardiomegaly" in the tropics and emphasizes the importance of arterial hypertension as one of its causative factors. The dire need for effective treatment of hypertensive patients becomes evident. A high prevalence of elevated blood pressure seems to reflect an impact of civilization-related factors on the African communities.

  2. Tropical Cyclone Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. Peggy; Knosp, Brian W.; Vu, Quoc A.; Yi, Chao; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Infor ma tion System (TCIS) is a Web portal (http://tropicalcyclone.jpl.nasa.gov) that provides researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane parameters together with large-scale and convection resolving model outputs. It provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution satellite (see figure), airborne, and in-situ observations in both image and data formats. Large-scale datasets depict the surrounding environmental parameters such as SST (Sea Surface Temperature) and aerosol loading. Model outputs and analysis tools are provided to evaluate model performance and compare observations from different platforms. The system pertains to the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storm, the air-sea interaction processes, and the larger-scale environment as depicted by ocean heat content and the aerosol loading of the environment. Currently, the TCIS is populated with satellite observations of all tropical cyclones observed globally during 2005. There is a plan to extend the database both forward in time till present as well as backward to 1998. The portal is powered by a MySQL database and an Apache/Tomcat Web server on a Linux system. The interactive graphic user interface is provided by Google Map.

  3. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  4. Modifications of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation by a Geoengineering Perturbation of the Stratospheric Aerosol Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, V.; Garfinkel, C. I.; Newman, P. A.; Oman, L. D.; Waugh, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of geoengineering via stratospheric sulfate aerosol on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Chemistry Climate Model. We performed four 30-year simulations with a continuous injection of sulfur dioxide on the equator at 0 degree longitude. The four simulations differ by the amount of sulfur dioxide injected (5Tg per year and 2.5 Tg per year) and the altitude of the injection (16km-25km and 22km-25km). We find that such an injection dramatically alters the quasi-biennial oscillation, prolonging the phase of easterly shear with respect to the control simulation. In the case of maximum perturbation, i.e. highest stratospheric aerosol burden, the lower tropical stratosphere is locked into a permanent westerly QBO phase. This locked QBO westerly phase is caused by the increased aerosol heating and associated warming in the tropical lower stratosphere.

  5. Tropical pediatrics: 2002 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Ocampo, Perla D; Santos Ocampo-Padilla, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    It also presents the challenges that confront children in the tropics and their effects on the health of these children. These challenges include the technology divide, economic disparity, ecological changes, urbanization and industrialization, globalization, political instability, population explosion, and gender inequality. The paper paints a scenario of tropical pediatrics into the year 2015. Problems brought about by both underdevelopment and modernization, with urbanization and industrialization, will persist. Infectious diseases will continue to be the leading causes of deaths. The paper presents some significant achievements in the fight against tropical diseases and tries to predict what future progress will contribute to the alleviation of such diseases. The paper also outlines the commitment of the International Society of Tropical Pediatrics (ISTP) to improve the state of tropical pediatrics in the next 15 years.

  6. Realistic Field Theories on Submanifolds of Compact Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabelli, E.

    2005-04-05

    In this thesis, they study various physical models which assume the existence of spatial dimensions beyond the familiar three. While everyday observation suggests only three dimensions, there is no shortage of potential explanations for how extra dimensions could have escaped detection for so long. For instance, the extra dimensions could be compact, curled into a microscopic volume so that you can never move far in the extra dimensions without ending up back where you started. Or, the elements of everyday experience could be trapped on a three-dimensional membrane floating in a higher dimensions space. The models studied in this thesis each use both of these mechanisms in tandem, with electrons, photons, quarks, and the like being confined to a three-dimensional membrane that sits in a space with compact extra dimensions. Gravitons (and perhaps other new types of particles) could travel beyond the three-dimensional membrane, so they can feel the effects of the higher-dimensional space, but because the extra dimensions are compactified on a small scale, the effects are subtle.

  7. Quantitative methods in classical perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgilli, A.

    Poincaré proved that the series commonly used in Celestial mechanics are typically non convergent, although their usefulness is generally evident. Recent work in perturbation theory has enlightened this conjecture of Poincaré, bringing into evidence that the series of perturbation theory, although non convergent in general, furnish nevertheless valuable approximations to the true orbits for a very large time, which in some practical cases could be comparable with the age of the universe. The aim of the author's paper is to introduce the quantitative methods of perturbation theory which allow to obtain such powerful results.

  8. Density perturbation growth in teleparallel cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 (China); Wu, Yi-Peng, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: s9822508@m98.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-01

    We study the cosmological perturbations in teleparallel dark energy models in which there is a dynamical scalar field with a non-minimal coupling to gravity. We find that the propagating degrees of freedom are the same as in quintessence cosmology despite that variables of the perturbed vierbein field are greater than those in metric theories. We numerically show some evident discrepancy from general relativity in the evolutions of the perturbations on all scales of the universe. We also demonstrate that the gravitational interactions are enhanced during the unique tracker evolutions in these models.

  9. HIV-associated memory B cell perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiliang; Luo, Zhenwu; Wan, Zhuang; Wu, Hao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Tong; Jiang, Wei

    2015-05-21

    Memory B-cell depletion, hyperimmunoglobulinemia, and impaired vaccine responses are the hallmark of B cell perturbations inhuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Although B cells are not the targets for HIV infection, there is evidence for B cell, especially memory B cell dysfunction in HIV disease mediated by other cells or HIV itself. This review will focus on HIV-associated phenotypic and functional alterations in memory B cells. Additionally, we will discuss the mechanism underlying these perturbations and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on these perturbations.

  10. Perturbative Semiclassical Trace Formulae for Harmonic Oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob; Ögren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In this article we extend previous semiclassical studies by including more general perturbative potentials of the harmonic oscillator in arbitrary spatial dimensions. Our starting point is a radial harmonic potential with an arbitrary even monomial perturbation, which we use to study the resulting...... U(D) to O(D) symmetry breaking. We derive the gross structure of the semiclassical spectrum from periodic orbit theory, in the form of a perturbative (ħ → 0) trace formula. We then show how to apply the results to even-order polynomial potentials, possibly including mean-field terms. We have drawn...

  11. Perturbative loop corrections and nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Maggiore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocal gravity has been shown to provide a phenomenologically viable infrared modification of GR. A natural question is whether the required nonlocality can emerge from perturbative quantum loop corrections due to light particles. We show that this is not the case. For the value of the mass scale of the non-local models required by cosmology, the perturbative form factors obtained from the loop corrections, in the present cosmological epoch, are in the regime where they are local. The mechanism behind the generation of the required nonlocality must be more complex, possibly related to strong infrared effects and non-perturbative mass generation for the conformal mode.

  12. Asymptotic stability of singularly perturbed differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artstein, Zvi

    2017-02-01

    Asymptotic stability is examined for singularly perturbed ordinary differential equations that may not possess a natural split into fast and slow motions. Rather, the right hand side of the equation is comprised of a singularly perturbed component and a regular one. The limit dynamics consists then of Young measures, with values being invariant measures of the fast contribution, drifted by the slow one. Relations between the asymptotic stability of the perturbed system and the limit dynamics are examined, and a Lyapunov functions criterion, based on averaging, is established.

  13. What galaxy masses perturb the local cosmic expansion?

    CERN Document Server

    Peñarrubia, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We use 12 cosmological $N$-body simulations of Local Group systems (the Apostle models; Sawala et al. 2016) to inspect the relation between the virial mass of the main haloes ($M_{\\rm vir,1}$ and $M_{\\rm vir,2}$), the mass derived from the relative motion of the halo pair ($M_{\\rm tim}$), and that inferred from the local Hubble flow ($M_{\\rm lhf}$). We show that within the Spherical Collapse Model (SCM), which provides an idealized description of structure formation in an expanding Universe, the correspondence between the three mass estimates is exact, i.e. $M_{\\rm lhf}=M_{\\rm tim}=M_{\\rm vir,1}+M_{\\rm vir,2}$. However, comparison with Apostle simulations reveals that, contrary to what the SCM states, a relatively large fraction of the mass that perturbs the local Hubble flow and drives the relative trajectory of the main galaxies is not contained within $R_{\\rm vir}$, and that the amount of "extra-virial" mass tends to increase in galaxies with a slow accretion rate. In addition, we find that modelling the p...

  14. The Role of Extra-Credit Assignments in the Teaching of World Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, David

    2011-01-01

    The granting of extra credit is a hotly debated topic in all fields of education. Teachers are reluctant to offer extra credit for fear of inflating grades, but students are persistent in their demands for extra-credit points to which they have become accustomed. This article considers extra-credit assignments in the teaching of world languages.…

  15. Constraints on Large Extra Dimensions from the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P.; et al.

    2016-12-16

    We report new constraints on the size of large extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS experiment between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis employs a model in which sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions and thus modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities due to mixing between active and sterile neutrino states. Using Fermilab’s Neutrinos at the Main Injector beam exposure of 10.56×1020 protons on target, we combine muon neutrino charged current and neutral current data sets from the Near and Far Detectors and observe no evidence for deviations from standard three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The ratios of reconstructed energy spectra in the two detectors constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than 0.45 μm at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Stronger limits are obtained for nonvanishing masses.

  16. Constraints on large extra dimensions from the MINOS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Carroll, T. J.; Castromonte, C. M.; Chen, R.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.; de Rijck, S.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Flanagan, W.; Frohne, M. V.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Germani, S.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mayer, N.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mualem, L.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O'Connor, J.; Orchanian, M.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Pfützner, M. M.; Phan, D. D.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rebel, B.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sail, P.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schneps, J.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Sharma, R.; Sousa, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Todd, J.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Zwaska, R.; Minos Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We report new constraints on the size of large extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS experiment between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis employs a model in which sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions and thus modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities due to mixing between active and sterile neutrino states. Using Fermilab's Neutrinos at the Main Injector beam exposure of 10.56 ×1 020 protons on target, we combine muon neutrino charged current and neutral current data sets from the Near and Far Detectors and observe no evidence for deviations from standard three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The ratios of reconstructed energy spectra in the two detectors constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than 0.45 μ m at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Stronger limits are obtained for nonvanishing masses.

  17. Sidestepping the Cosmological Constant with Football-Shaped Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, S M; Carroll, Sean M.; Guica, Monica M.

    2003-01-01

    We present an exact solution for a factorizable brane-world spacetime with two extra dimensions and explicit brane sources. The compactification manifold has the topology of a two-sphere, and is stabilized by a bulk cosmological constant and magnetic flux. The geometry of the sphere is locally round except for conical singularities at the locations of two antipodal branes, deforming the sphere into an American-style football. The bulk magnetic flux needs to be fine-tuned to obtain flat geometry on the branes. Once this is done, the brane geometry is insensitive to the brane vacuum energy, which only affects the conical deficit angle of the extra dimensions. Solutions of this form provide a new arena in which to explore brane-world phenomenology and the effects of extra dimensions on the cosmological constant problem.

  18. On a time-dependent extra spatial dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhfittig, P K F

    2006-01-01

    In the usual brane-world scenario matter fields are confined to the four-dimensional spacetime, called a 3-brane, embedded in a higher-dimensional space, usually referred to as the bulk spacetime. In this paper we assume that the 3-brane a de Sitter space; there is only one extra spatial dimension, assumed to be time dependent. By using the form of the brane-world energy-momentum tensor suggested by Shiromizu et al. in the five-dimensional Einstein equations, it is shown that whenever the bulk cosmological constant \\Lambda is negative, the extra spatial dimension rapidly shrinks during the inflation of the brane. When \\Lambda>0, on the other hand, the extra spatial dimension either completely follows the cosmological expansion of the brane or completely ignores it. This behavior resembles the all-or-nothing behavior of ordinary systems in an expanding universe, as recently demonstrated by R.H. Price.

  19. Rossby wave extra invariant in the Galerkin approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Alexander M.

    2017-08-01

    The non-linear system of Rossby waves or plasma drift waves is known to have a unique adiabatic-like extra invariant in addition to the energy and enstrophy. This invariant is physically significant because its presence implies the generation of zonal flow. The latter is known to slow down the anomalous transport of temperature and particles in nuclear fusion with magnetic confinement. However, the derivation of the extra invariant - unlike the energy and enstrophy - is based on the continuum of resonances, while in numerical simulations there are only finite number of resonances. We show that precisely the same invariant takes place in the Galerkin approximations (even of low order, with a few ODEs). To show this we make variation of boundary conditions, when the solution is periodic in different directions. We also simplify the derivation of the extra conservation.

  20. Constraints on Large Extra Dimensions from the MINOS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Aurisano, A; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Carroll, T J; Castromonte, C M; Chen, R; Childress, S; Coelho, J A B; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; de Jong, J K; de Rijck, S; Devan, A V; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Flanagan, W; Frohne, M V; Gabrielyan, M; Gallagher, H R; Germani, S; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hahn, S R; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Holin, A; Huang, J; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mayer, N; McGivern, C; Medeiros, M M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Sher, S Moed; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; O'Connor, J; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R B; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Perch, A; Pfützner, M M; Phan, D D; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Poonthottathil, N; Qiu, X; Radovic, A; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sail, P; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tian, X; Timmons, A; Todd, J; Tognini, S C; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S G; Zwaska, R

    2016-01-01

    We report new constraints on the size of large extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS experiment between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis employs a model in which sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions and thus modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities due to mixing between active and sterile neutrino states. Using Fermilab's NuMI beam exposure of $10.56 \\times 10^{20}$ protons-on-target, we combine muon neutrino charged current and neutral current data sets from the Near and Far Detectors and observe no evidence for deviations from standard three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The ratios of reconstructed energy spectra in the two detectors constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than $0.45\\,\\mu\\text{m}$ at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Stronger limits are obtained for non-vanishing masses.

  1. Constraints on extra dimensions from precision molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Salumbides, E J; Gato-Rivera, B; Ubachs, W

    2015-01-01

    Accurate investigations of quantum level energies in molecular systems are shown to provide a test ground to constrain the size of compactified extra dimensions. This is made possible by the recent progress in precision metrology with ultrastable lasers on energy levels in neutral molecular hydrogen (H$_2$, HD and D$_2$) and the molecular hydrogen ions (H$_2^+$, HD$^+$ and D$_2^+$). Comparisons between experiment and quantum electrodynamics calculations for these molecular systems can be interpreted in terms of probing large extra dimensions, under which conditions gravity will become much stronger. Molecules are a probe of space-time geometry at typical distances where chemical bonds are effective, i.e. at length scales of an \\AA. Constraints on compactification radii for extra dimensions are derived within the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali framework, while constraints for curvature or brane separation are derived within the Randall-Sundrum framework. Based on the molecular spectroscopy of D$_2$ molecules an...

  2. Deviations From Newton's Law in Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Callin, P

    2006-01-01

    Deviations from Newton's Inverse-Squared Law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the Cosmological Constant Problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the Dark Energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant natu...

  3. Nonminimal universal extra dimensional model confronts Bs→μ+μ-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Anindya; Shaw, Avirup

    2016-03-01

    The addition of boundary localized kinetic and Yukawa terms to the action of a five-dimensional Standard Model would nontrivially modify the Kaluza-Klein spectra and some of the interactions among the Kaluza-Klein excitations compared to the minimal version of this model, in which these boundary terms are not present. In the minimal version of this framework, known as the universal extra dimensional model, special assumptions are made about these unknown, beyond the cutoff contributions to restrict the number of unknown parameters of the theory to be minimum. We estimate the contribution of Kaluza-Klein modes to the branching ratios of Bs (d )→μ+μ- in the framework of the nonminimal universal extra dimensional model, at one-loop level. The results have been compared to the experimental data to constrain the parameters of this model. From the measured decay branching ratio of Bs→μ+μ- (depending on the values of boundary localized parameters), the lower limit on R-1 can be as high as 800 GeV. We have briefly reviewed the bounds on nonminimal universal extra dimensional parameter space coming from electroweak precision observables. The present analysis (Bs→μ+μ-) has ruled out new regions of parameter space in comparison to the analysis of electroweak data. We have revisited the bound on R-1 in the universal extra dimensional model, which came out to be 454 GeV. This limit on R-1 in the universal extra dimensional framework is not as competitive as the limits derived from the consideration of relic density or Standard Model Higgs boson production and decay to W+W-. Unfortunately, the Bd→μ+μ- decay branching ratio would not set any significant limit on R-1 in a minimal or nonminimal universal extra dimensional model.

  4. Picturing perturbative parton cascades in QCD matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi Kurkela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on parametric reasoning, we provide a simple dynamical picture of how a perturbative parton cascade, in interaction with a QCD medium, fills phase space as a function of time.

  5. Perturbative Analysis of Gauged Matrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Kazakov, V A; Vafa, C; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gukov, Sergei; Kazakov, Vladimir A.; Vafa, Cumrun

    2003-01-01

    We analyze perturbative aspects of gauged matrix models, including those where classically the gauge symmetry is partially broken. Ghost fields play a crucial role in the Feynman rules for these vacua. We use this formalism to elucidate the fact that non-perturbative aspects of N=1 gauge theories can be computed systematically using perturbative techniques of matrix models, even if we do not possess an exact solution for the matrix model. As examples we show how the Seiberg-Witten solution for N=2 gauge theory, the Montonen-Olive modular invariance for N=1*, and the superpotential for the Leigh-Strassler deformation of N=4 can be systematically computed in perturbation theory of the matrix model/gauge theory (even though in some of these cases the exact answer can also be obtained by summing up planar diagrams of matrix models).

  6. Simple Perturbation Example for Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfriend, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simple example that illustrates various aspects of the Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory. The example is a particularly good one because it is straightforward and can be compared with both the exact solution and with experimental data. (JN)

  7. Creating Statistically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Armendariz-Picon, C

    2007-01-01

    In almost all structure formation models, primordial perturbations are created within a homogeneous and isotropic universe, like the one we observe. Because their ensemble averages inherit the symmetries of the spacetime in which they are seeded, cosmological perturbations then happen to be statistically isotropic and homogeneous. Certain anomalies in the cosmic microwave background on the other hand suggest that perturbations do not satisfy these statistical properties, thereby challenging perhaps our understanding of structure formation. In this article we relax this tension. We show that if the universe contains an appropriate triad of scalar fields with spatially constant but non-zero gradients, it is possible to generate statistically anisotropic and inhomogeneous primordial perturbations, even though the energy momentum tensor of the triad itself is invariant under translations and rotations.

  8. Gauge and motion in perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pound, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Through second order in perturbative general relativity, a small compact object in an external vacuum spacetime obeys a generalized equivalence principle: although it is accelerated with respect to the external background geometry, it is in free fall with respect to a certain \\emph{effective} vacuum geometry. However, this single principle takes very different mathematical forms, with very different behaviors, depending on how one treats perturbed motion. Furthermore, any description of perturbed motion can be altered by a gauge transformation. In this paper, I clarify the relationship between two treatments of perturbed motion and the gauge freedom in each. I first show explicitly how one common treatment, called the Gralla-Wald approximation, can be derived from a second, called the self-consistent approximation. I next present a general treatment of smooth gauge transformations in both approximations, in which I emphasise that the approximations' governing equations can be formulated in an invariant manner...

  9. Perturbations of spiky strings in flat spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Soumya; Panigrahi, Kamal L

    2016-01-01

    Perturbations of a class of semiclassical strings known today as spiky strings, are studied using the well-known Jacobi equations for small normal deformations of an embedded timelike surface. It is shown that there exists finite normal perturbations of the spiky string worldsheets embedded in a $2+1$ dimensional flat spacetime. Such perturbations lead to a rounding off the spikes, which, in a way, demonstrates the stable nature of the unperturbed worldsheet. The same features appear for the dual spiky string solution and in the spiky as well as their dual solutions in $3+1$ dimensional flat spacetime. Our results are based on exact solutions of the corresponding Jacobi equations which we obtain and use while constructing the profiles of the perturbed configurations.

  10. THE EIGENVALUE PERTURBATION BOUND FOR ARBITRARY MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Li; Jian-xin Chen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some new absolute and relative perturbation bounds for the eigenvalue for arbitrary matrices, which improves some recent results. The eigenvalue inclusion region is also discussed.

  11. Cosmological perturbations in mimetic Horndeski gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Arroja, Frederico; Karmakar, Purnendu; Matarrese, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    We study linear scalar perturbations around a flat FLRW background in mimetic Horndeski gravity. In the absence of matter, we show that the Newtonian potential satisfies a second-order differential equation with no spatial derivatives. This implies that the sound speed for scalar perturbations is exactly zero on this background. We also show that in mimetic $G^3$ theories the sound speed is equally zero. We obtain the equation of motion for the comoving curvature perturbation (first order differential equation) and solve it to find that the comoving curvature perturbation is constant on all scales in mimetic Horndeski gravity. We find solutions for the Newtonian potential evolution equation in two simple models. Finally we show that the sound speed is zero on all backgrounds and therefore the system does not have any wave-like scalar degrees of freedom.

  12. Rolling axions during inflation: perturbativity and signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Peloso, Marco; Unal, Caner

    2016-01-01

    The motion of a pseudo-scalar field $X$ during inflation naturally induces a significant amplification of the gauge fields to which it is coupled. The amplified gauge fields can source characteristic scalar and tensor primordial perturbations. Several phenomenological implications have been discussed in the cases in which (i) $X$ is the inflation, and (ii) $X$ is a field different from the inflation, that experiences a temporary speed up during inflation. In this second case, visible sourced gravitational waves (GW) can be produced at the CMB scales without affecting the scalar perturbations, even if the scale of inflation is several orders of magnitude below what is required to produce a visible vacuum GW signal. Perturbativity considerations can be used to limit the regime in which these results are under perturbative control. We revised limits recently claimed for the case (i), and we extend these considerations to the case (ii). We show that, in both cases, these limits are satisfied by the applications t...

  13. Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Federico

    2013-01-01

    The effective field theory of cosmological perturbations stems from considering a cosmological background solution as a state displaying spontaneous breaking of time translations and (adiabatic) perturbations as the related Nambu-Goldstone modes. With this insight, one can systematically develop a theory for the cosmological perturbations during inflation and, with minor modifications, also describe in full generality the gravitational interactions of dark energy, which are relevant for late-time cosmology. The formalism displays a unique set of Lagrangian operators containing an increasing number of cosmological perturbations and derivatives. We give an introductory description of the unitary gauge formalism for theories with broken gauge symmetry---that allows to write down the most general Lagrangian---and of the Stueckelberg "trick"---that allows to recover gauge invariance and to make the scalar field explicit. We show how to apply this formalism to gravity and cosmology and we reproduce the detailed ana...

  14. General degeneracy in density functional perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.

    2017-07-01

    Degenerate perturbation theory from quantum mechanics is inadequate in density functional theory (DFT) because of nonlinearity in the Kohn-Sham potential. Herein, we develop the fully general perturbation theory for open-shell, degenerate systems in Kohn-Sham DFT, without assuming the presence of symmetry or equal occupation of degenerate orbitals. To demonstrate the resulting methodology, we apply it to the iron atom in the central field approximation, perturbed by an electric quadrupole. This system was chosen because it displays both symmetry required degeneracy, between the five 3 d orbitals, as well as accidental degeneracy, between the 3 d and 4 s orbitals. The quadrupole potential couples the degenerate 3 d and 4 s states, serving as an example of the most general perturbation.

  15. Collision orbits in the presence of perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Cano, A. [Departamento de Algebra, Facultad de CC. Matematicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: antonio_diazcano@mat.ucm.es; Gonzalez-Gascon, F. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-10-16

    It is shown that for particles moving in a plane under the action of attracting central potentials and a perturbing force (potential but not central), orbits representing the falling down of the particle to the center of force exist.

  16. Cosmological perturbations in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Haro, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) could be studied from two totally different ways. The first one, called holonomy corrected LQC, is performed in the Hamiltonian framework, where the Asthekar connection is replaced by a suitable sinus function (holonomy correction), in order to have a well-defined quantum analogue. The alternative approach is based in the fact that isotropic LQC could be also obtained as a particular case of teleparallel $F(T)$ gravity (teleparallel LQC). Then, working in the Lagrangian framework and using the well-know perturbation equations in $F(T)$ gravity, we have obtained, in teleparallel LQC, the equations for scalar and tensor perturbations, and the corresponding Mukhanov-Sasaki equations. For scalar perturbations, our equation only differs from the one obtained by holonomy corrections in the velocity of sound, leading both formulations, essentially to the same scale invariant power spectrum when a matter-dominated universe is considered. However for tensor pe...

  17. Microwave Background Anisotropies from Scaling Seed Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, R; Durrer, Ruth; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    1997-01-01

    We study microwave background anisotropies induced by scaling seed perturbations in a universe dominated by cold dark matter. Using a gauge invariant linear perturbation analysis, we solve the perturbation equations on super-horizon scales, for CMB anisotropies triggered by generic gravitational seeds. We find that perturbations induced by seeds -- under very mild restrictions -- are nearly isocurvature. Thus, compensation, which is mainly the consequence of physically sensible initial conditions, is very generic. We then restrict our study to the case of scaling sources, motivated by global scalar fields. We parameterize the energy momentum tensor of the source by ``seed functions'' and calculate the Sachs-Wolfe and acoustic contributions to the CMB anisotropies. We discuss the dependence of the anisotropy spectrum on the parameters of the model considered. Even within the restricted class of models investigated in this work, we find a surprising variety of results for the position and height of the first ac...

  18. Adiabatic perturbations in coupled scalar field cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Joschka

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive and gauge invariant treatment of perturbations around cosmological scaling solutions for two canonical scalar fields coupled through a common potential in the early universe, in the presence of neutrinos, photons and baryons, but excluding cold dark matter. This setup is relevant for analyzing cosmic perturbations in scalar field models of dark matter with a coupling to a quintessence field. We put strong restrictions on the shape of the common potential and adopt a matrix-eigensystem approach to determine the dominant perturbations modes in such models. Similar to recent results in scenarios where standard cold dark matter couples to quintessence, we show that the stability of the adiabatic perturbation mode can be an issue for this class of scalar field dark matter models, but only for specific choices of the common potential. For an exponential coupling potential, a rather common shape arising naturally in many instances, this problem can be avoided. We explicitly calculate the d...

  19. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and American institutions and the dire conditions of funding and staffing in many tropical herbaria and botanical gardens. This happens at the same time as the collections become increasingly important for a series of modern approaches to evolutionary and biodiversity research and the needs of the biodiversity...... into one single large institution. A section followed on North-South collaboration relative to botanical collections and floristic research. Newman and colleagues presented the Flora of Thailand project with a history different from most of the other examples because Thailand was never colonized. Nordal...... and colleagues described how Norway has had programs to train botanists from a number of African countries. Balslev and colleagues present a successful capacity building project in Ecuador, which has resulted in a world-class herbarium and a cadre of well-trained taxonomists. Prance described a successful MSc...

  20. Universal Extra Dimension models with right-handed neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Shigeki; Senami, Masato; Yamanaka, Masato

    2008-01-01

    Relic abundance of dark matter is investigated in the framework of universal extra dimension (UED) models with right-handed neutrinos. These models are free from the KK graviton problem in the minimal UED model. The first KK particle of the right-handed neutrino is a dark matter candidate in this framework. When ordinary neutrino masses are large enough such as the degenerate mass spectrum case, the dark matter relic abundance can increase significantly. The scale of the extra dimension consistent with cosmological observations can be 500 GeV in the minimal setup of UED models with right-handed neutrinos.

  1. Phenomenology of S_4 Flavor Symmetric extra U(1) model

    CERN Document Server

    Daikoku, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We study several phenomenologies of an E_6 inspired extra U(1) model with S_4 flavor symmetry. With the assignment of left-handed quarks and leptons to S_4-doublet, SUSY flavor problem is softened. As the extra Higgs bosons are neutrinophilic, baryon number asymmetry in the universe is realized by leptogenesis without causing gravitino overproduction. We find that the allowed region for the lightest chargino mass is given by 100-140 GeV, if the dark matter is a singlino dominated neutralino whose mass is about 36 GeV.

  2. Observing Quantum Tunneling in Perturbation Series

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, H; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yasuta, Hirofumi

    1997-01-01

    It is well-known that the quantum tunneling makes conventional perturbation series non-Borel summable. We use this fact reversely and attempt to extract the decay width of the false-vacuum from the actual perturbation series of the vacuum energy density (vacuum bubble diagrams). It is confirmed that, at least in quantum mechanical examples, our proposal provides a complimentary approach to the the conventional instanton calculus in the strong coupling region.

  3. Tuning Leaky Nanocavity Resonances - Perturbation Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Shlafman, Michael; Salzman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Adiabatic frequency tuning of finite-lifetime-nanocavity electromagnetic modes affects also their quality-factor (Q). Perturbative Q change resulting from (real) frequency tuning, is a controllable parameter. Here, the influence of dielectric constant modulation (DCM) on cavity resonances is presented, by first order perturbation analysis for a 3D cavity with radiation losses. Semi-analytical expressions for DCM induced cavity mode frequency and Q changes are derived. The obtained results are in good agreement with numerical calculations.

  4. Alternative perturbation approaches in classical mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Raya, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Blvd. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-11-01

    We discuss two alternative methods, based on the Lindstedt-Poincare technique, for the removal of secular terms from the equations of perturbation theory. We calculate the period of an anharmonic oscillator by means of both approaches and show that one of them is more accurate for all values of the coupling constant. We believe that present discussion and comparison may be a suitable exercise for teaching perturbation theory in advanced undergraduate courses on classical mechanics.

  5. Double Soft Theorem for Perturbative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Arnab Priya

    2016-01-01

    Following up on the recent work of Cachazo, He and Yuan \\cite{arXiv:1503.04816 [hep-th]}, we derive the double soft graviton theorem in perturbative gravity. We show that the double soft theorem derived using CHY formula precisely matches with the perturbative computation involving Feynman diagrams. In particular, we find how certain delicate limits of Feynman diagrams play an important role in obtaining this equivalence.

  6. Reflection and transmission of conformal perturbation defects

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    We consider reflection and transmission of interfaces which implement renormalisation group flows between conformal fixed points in two dimensions. Such an RG interface is constructed from the identity defect in the ultraviolet CFT by perturbing the theory on one side of the defect line. We compute reflection and transmission coefficients in perturbation theory to third order in the coupling constant and check our calculations against exact constructions of RG interfaces between coset models.

  7. Density Perturbation Growth in Teleparallel Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    We study the cosmological perturbations in teleparallel dark energy models in which there is a dynamical scalar field with a non-minimal coupling to gravity. We find that the propagating degrees of freedom are the same as in quintessence cosmology despite that variables of the perturbed vierbein field are greater than those in metric theories. The resulting growth evolution shows that gravitational interactions are enhanced during the unique tracker evolution of teleparallel dark energy models.

  8. Non-perturbative renormalization in kaon decays

    CERN Document Server

    Donini, Andrea; Martinelli, G; Rossi, G C; Talevi, M; Testa, M; Vladikas, A

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the application of the MPSTV non-perturbative method \\cite{NPM} to the operators relevant to kaon decays. This enables us to reappraise the long-standing question of the $\\Delta I=1/2$ rule, which involves power-divergent subtractions that cannot be evaluated in perturbation theory. We also study the mixing with dimension-six operators and discuss its implications to the chiral behaviour of the $B_K$ parameter.

  9. Cosmological scalar field perturbations can grow

    CERN Document Server

    Alcubierre, Miguel; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Torres, José M

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that the small perturbations in the energy density to the homogeneous and isotropic configurations of a canonical scalar field in an expanding universe do not grow. We show that this is not true in general, and clarify the root of the misunderstanding. We revisit a simple model in which the linear perturbations grow like those in the standard cold dark matter scenario, but with the Jeans length at the scale of the Compton wavelength of the scalar particle.

  10. Perturbative partition function for squashed S^5

    CERN Document Server

    Imamura, Yosuke

    2012-01-01

    We compute the index of 6d N=(1,0) theories on S^5xR containing vector and hypermultiplets. We only consider the perturbative sector without instantons. By compactifying R to S^1 with a twisted boundary condition and taking the small radius limit, we derive the perturbative partition function on a squashed S^5. The 1-loop partition function is represented in a simple form with the triple sine function.

  11. General degeneracy in density functional perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Palenik, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Degenerate perturbation theory from quantum mechanics is inadequate in density functional theory (DFT) because of nonlinearity in the Kohn-Sham potential. We develop the fully general degenerate perturbation theory for DFT without assuming that the degeneracy is required by symmetry. The resulting methodology is applied to the iron atom ground state in order to demonstrate the effects of degeneracy that appears both due to symmetry requirements and accidentally, between different representations of the symmetry group.

  12. PRIMAL PERTURBATION SIMPLEX ALGORITHMS FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-qi Pan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two new perturbation simplex variants. Solving linear programming problems without introducing artificial variables, each of the two uses the dual pivot rule to achieve primal feasibility, and then the primal pivot rule to achieve optimality. The second algorithm, a modification of the first, is designed to handle highly degenerate problems more etficiently. Some interesting results concerning merit of the perturbation are established. Numerical results from preliminary tests are also reported.

  13. Simulations of long-term community dynamics in coral reefs--how perturbations shape trajectories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kubicek

    Full Text Available Tropical coral reefs feature extraordinary biodiversity and high productivity rates in oligotrophic waters. Due to increasing frequencies of perturbations--anthropogenic and natural--many reefs are under threat. Such perturbations often have devastating effects on these unique ecosystems and especially if they occur simultaneously and amplify each other's impact, they might trigger a phase shift and create irreversible conditions.We developed a generic, spatially explicit, individual-based model in which competition drives the dynamics of a virtual benthic reef community--comprised of scleractinian corals and algae--under different environmental settings. Higher system properties, like population dynamics or community composition arise through self-organization as emergent properties. The model was parameterized for a typical coral reef site at Zanzibar, Tanzania and features coral bleaching and physical disturbance regimes as major sources of perturbations. Our results show that various types and modes (intensities and frequencies of perturbations create diverse outcomes and that the switch from high diversity to single species dominance can be evoked by small changes in a key parameter. Here we extend the understanding of coral reef resilience and the identification of key processes, drivers and respective thresholds, responsible for changes in local situations. One future goal is to provide a tool which may aid decision making processes in management of coral reefs.

  14. Gauge and motion in perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Through second order in perturbative general relativity, a small compact object in an external vacuum spacetime obeys a generalized equivalence principle: although it is accelerated with respect to the external background geometry, it is in free fall with respect to a certain effective vacuum geometry. However, this single principle takes very different mathematical forms, with very different behaviors, depending on how one treats perturbed motion. Furthermore, any description of perturbed motion can be altered by a gauge transformation. In this paper, I clarify the relationship between two treatments of perturbed motion and the gauge freedom in each. I first show explicitly how one common treatment, called the Gralla-Wald approximation, can be derived from a second, called the self-consistent approximation. I next present a general treatment of smooth gauge transformations in both approximations, in which I emphasize that the approximations' governing equations can be formulated in an invariant manner. All of these analyses are carried through second perturbative order, but the methods are general enough to go to any order. Furthermore, the tools I develop, and many of the results, should have broad applicability to any description of perturbed motion, including osculating-geodesic and two-timescale descriptions.

  15. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)is administrated by Hainan Medical University and sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press,and aims to establish an international academic communicating platform for researchers of tropical biomedicine and public health workers,especially specialists and scholars of the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine research,to

  16. Near Horizon Extremal Geometry Perturbations: Dynamical Field Perturbations vs. Parametric Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Hajian, K; Sheikh-Jabbari, M M

    2014-01-01

    In arXiv:1310.3727 we formulated and derived the three universal laws governing Near Horizon Extremal Geometries (NHEG). In this work we focus on the Entropy Perturbation Law (EPL) which, similarly to the first law of black hole thermodynamics, relates perturbations of the charges labeling perturbations around a given NHEG to the corresponding entropy perturbation. We show that field perturbations governed by the linearized equations of motion and symmetry conditions which we carefully specify, satisfy the EPL. We also show that these perturbations are limited to those coming from difference of two NHEG solutions (i.e. variations on the NHEG solution parameter space). Our analysis and discussions shed light on the "no-dynamics" statements of arXiv:0906.2380 and arXiv:0906.2376.

  17. Effect of monsoonal perturbations on the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms in a tropical bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, J.S.; Anil, A.C.

    dominated by nano- and picophytoplankton, and the intervening blooms by microphytoplankton. All blooms coincided with flood tide or high tide under optimal salinity (>15) and light (depth of light penetration: >50 cm; solar radiation: 30-70 mW cm-2

  18. An Untargeted Metabolomics Survey from a Perturbation Model of Nitrogen Transformation in a Tropical Wastewater Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Angel Cokro, Anisa; Umashankar, Shivshankar;

    In order to understand metabolic changes occurring during nitrogen transformation in a complex wastewater community, we conducted a metabolome time series study on a volume of freshly sourced, anoxic activated sludge, studying metabolic changes associated with the transition from anoxic to aerobi...

  19. SOLVABILITY FOR NONLINEAR ELLIPTIC EQUATION WITH BOUNDARY PERTURBATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The solvability of nonlinear elliptic equation with boundary perturbation is considered. The perturbed solution of original problem is obtained and the uniformly valid expansion of solution is proved.

  20. Endemic and exotic tropical forests of Réunion Island observed by airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaoxia; Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien; Dieudonné, Elsa; Hamonou, Eric; Duflot, Valentin; Strasberg, Dominique; Flores, Olivier; Fournel, Jacques; Tulet, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Tropical forests are vital ecosystems widely threatened across the globe and yet remain the most difficult forest type to document. They are strongly perturbed by anthropogenic activities, which lead to coexistence of endemic and exotic tree species. We present an experiment performed over Réunion Island in May 2014, on sites ranging from coastal to rain forest, including tropical montane cloud forest as found on the Bélouve plateau. Réunion Island is home to the last remnants of primary tropical forest in the Mascarene archipelago, and still shelters significant biodiversity. Three key ecological parameters have been extracted from the lidar measurements: the canopy height (CH), the forest leaf area index (LAI) and the apparent foliage profile. The mean values of estimated LAI are between ~5 and 8 m2/m2 and the mean CH values are ~15 m for both tropical montane cloud and rain forests. Good agreement is found between Lidar- and MODIS-derived LAI for moderate LAI, but the LAI retrieved from lidar is larger than MODIS on rain forest sites (~8 against ~6 m2/m2 from MODIS). Regarding the characterization of tropical biomes, we show that the rain and montane tropical forests can be well distinguished from the planted forests by the use of the three ecological parameters retrieved, as the endemic and exotic forests can also be well distinguished.

  1. University Extra-Mural Studies and Extension Outreach: Incompatibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The argument of this paper is that--within a wide range of university responses to the challenge of outreach--there grew up in the extra-mural or adult education departments of many UK universities an alternative epistemological paradigm to the older and more traditional extension programmes. This paradigm threatened the extension approach and has…

  2. The epidemiology of extra-articular manifestations in ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolwijk, Carmen; Essers, Ivette; van Tubergen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and risks of common extra-articular manifestations (EAMs), that is, acute anterior uveitis (AAU), psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with population-based controls. METHODS: All incident patients...

  3. The blessing effect of an extra copy of chromosome 21

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solaf M. Elsayed

    2014-02-25

    Feb 25, 2014 ... The protective effect of the extra copy of chromosome against the ... genesis by decreasing the vascular endothelial growth factor. C (VEGF-C) levels in .... [8] Sun Y, Wang J, Liu Y, Song X, Zhang Y, Li K, et al. Results of.

  4. Clinical importance of extra vitamins from supplements and enriched foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, R.J.J.; Severs, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    -Consumers increasingly use vitamin supplements. Also, since June 1996, foodstuffs enriched with vitamins are available on the Dutch market. -These sources of extra vitamins may be useful for groups at risk for marginal vitamin deficiencies. -These risk groups include the chronically ill (e.g. diabe

  5. The ‘Deployment of Extra Processing’ Account of Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter; Nanay, Bence

    2015-01-01

    The paper formulates an alternative view about the core function of attention claiming that attention is not selection but the deployment of extra processing capacity. This way of thinking about attention has greater explanatory power, since it proposes a common implementation both for selection...

  6. Sarcoma sinovial extra-articular em cão

    OpenAIRE

    França,S.A.; Serakides,R.; Silva,A.E.; Rachid,M.A.; J.R.C. Moraes; Lavalle,G.E.; Ocarino,N.M.

    2004-01-01

    One four-year-old, female, Collie, dog presented subcutaneous enlarged mass at the lateral aspect of the left hindlimb, close to the knee joint. Based on the anatomopathological and immunohistochemical findings it was confirmed the diagnosis of extra-articular bifasic synovial sarcoma - grade II.

  7. Search for large extra dimensions in diphoton events at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Murgia, S

    2002-01-01

    In spite of its undisputed success, the Standard Model is not a theory of everything as it does not incorporate gravity. Gravity is the weakest of all forces and its strength becomes comparable to the remaining forces at energies of the order of the Planck scale, at approximately 10 19 GeV and the Standard Model is viewed as an effective theory at energies below this scale. Recently, a model of large extra dimensions has been formulated by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulous, and Dvali that claims that the electroweak scale (approximately 1 TeV) is the only fundamental scale in nature and the fact that the Planck scale appears so large is an artifact of the existence of extra dimensions in which only gravity propagates. This theory can be tested at existing collider experiments, where energies sufficiently high to probe the extra dimensions can be achieved. In particular, the existence of extra dimensions can manifest itself with production of Standard Model particles through graviton mediated processes and thus it pre...

  8. Injuries in Children with Extra Physical Education in Primary Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rexen, Christina; Andersen, Lars Bo; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2014-01-01

    (1) Examine the influence of extra physical education (EPE) on the number of musculoskeletal injuries in public schools accounting for organized sports participation (OSP) outside school. (2) Examine the major injury subgroup: growth-related overuse (GRO) through the overuse-related injury group....

  9. Search and investigation of extra-solar planets with polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, H. M.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Feldt, M.; Gisler, D.; Gratton, R.; Henning, Th.; Joos, F.; Kasper, M.; Lenzen, R.; Mouillet, D.; Moutou, C.; Quirrenbach, A.; Stam, D. M.; Thalmann, C.; Tinbergen, J.; Verinaud, C.; Waters, R.; Wolstencroft, R.

    Light reflected from planets is polarized. This basic property of planets provides the possibility for detecting and characterizing extra-solar planets using polarimetry. The expected polarization properties of extra-solar planets are discussed that can be inferred from polarimetry of "our" solar system planets. They show a large variety of characteristics depending on the atmospheric and/or surface properties. Best candidates for a polarimetric detection are extra-solar planets with an optically thick Rayleigh scattering layer.Even the detection of highly polarized extra-solar planets requires a very sophisticated instrument. We present the results from a phase A (feasibility) study for a polarimetric arm in the ESO VLT planet finder instrument. It is shown that giant planets around nearby stars can be searched and investigated with an imaging polarimeter, combined with a powerful AO system and a coronagraph at an 8 m class telescope.A similar type of polarimeter is also considered for the direct detection of terrestrial planets using an AO system on one of the future Extremely Large Telescopes.

  10. Extra nodal growth as a prognostic factor in malignant melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopal, SA; Tiebosch, ATMG; Daryanani, D; Plukker, JTM; Hoekstra, HJ

    Aim. Extra nodal growth (ENG) in lymph-node metastases may be an additional. indicator for poor prognosis and increased Loco-regional recurrence in patients with a cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Most studies analyzing prognostic factors tack a proper definition or description of the

  11. Search for extra-dimensions in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Brochu, F M

    2004-01-01

    We report on the most recent simulation studies performed in the ATLAS experiment, looking for new phenomena in proton--proton collisions predicted by different models involving extra space dimensions to solve the hierarchy problem. All studies performed here used the fast, parametrized simulation of the ATLAS detector, ATLFAST.

  12. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and…

  13. Chemical changes in extra virgin argan oil after thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr Eddine; Guillaume, Dom; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters, measured every 6 hours, of extra virgin argan oil heated for 24 h at 180 degrees C were investigated and compared with those of five other edible oils treated in the same thermoxidative condition. Argan oil was found to be particularly stable at high temperature, its level of polar compounds remaining low even after 24 h of heating.

  14. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and…

  15. Exploring the Universal Extra Dimension at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Majee, Swarup Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2009-01-01

    Besides supersymmetry, the other prime candidate of physics beyond the standard model (SM), crying out for verification at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is extra-dimension. To hunt for effects of Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of known fermions and bosons is very much in the agenda of the LHC. These KK states arise when the SM particles penetrate in the extra space-like dimension(s). In this paper, we consider a 5d scenario, called `Universal Extra Dimension', where the extra space coordinate, compactified on an orbifold $S^1/Z_2$, is accessed by {\\em all} the particles. The KK number ($n$) is conserved at all tree level vertices. This entails the production of KK states in pairs and renders the lightest KK particle stable, which leaves the detector carrying away missing energy. The splitting between different KK flavors is controlled by the zero mode masses and the bulk- and brane-induced one-loop radiative corrections. We concentrate on the production of an $n=1$ KK electroweak gauge boson in associa...

  16. Surgery for extra-articular trismus : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M. A.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Reintsema, H.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.; Werkera, P. M. N.

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify operations that are used to improve mouth opening in patients with extra-articular trismus (caused by cancer and its treatment, oral submucous fibrosis, or noma) and to find out if they work. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase,

  17. Overheden bereid extra te betalen voor auto's op alternatieve brandstof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsoever, F.J. van; Hagen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    De elektrische auto en een auto op groen gas worden door overheden hoger gewaardeerd dan de auto met reguliere verbrandingsmotor. Bovendien zijn overheden bereid extra te betalen voor een auto op alternatieve brandstof. Dit blijkt uit een masteronderzoek van de Universiteit Utrecht in opdracht

  18. Clinical importance of extra vitamins from supplements and enriched foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, R.J.J.; Severs, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    -Consumers increasingly use vitamin supplements. Also, since June 1996, foodstuffs enriched with vitamins are available on the Dutch market. -These sources of extra vitamins may be useful for groups at risk for marginal vitamin deficiencies. -These risk groups include the chronically ill (e.g. diabe

  19. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-01-01

    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  20. Dark Matter and Collider Phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hooper, D; Hooper, Dan; Profumo, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    We review the phenomenology of models with flat, compactified extra dimensions where all of the Standard Model fields are allowed to propagate in the bulk, known as Universal Extra Dimensions (UED). UED make for an interesting TeV-scale physics scenario, featuring a tower of Kaluza-Klein (KK) states approximately degenerate in mass at the scale set by the inverse size of the compactification radius. KK parity, the four-dimensional remnant of momentum conservation in the extra dimensions, implies two basic consequences: (1) contributions to Standard Model observables arise only at loop level, and KK states can only be pair-produced at colliders, and (2) the lightest KK particle (LKP) is stable, providing a suitable particle dark matter candidate. After a theoretical overview on extra dimensional models, and on UED in particular, we introduce the model particle spectrum and the constraints from precision electroweak tests and current colliders data. We then give a detailed overview of the LKP dark matter phenom...

  1. Charged current unitarity and extra neutral gauge bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J.; Sirling, A.

    1987-03-01

    The experimental status of the Kobayashi-Maskawa-Cabibbo (KMC) matrix is surveyed and shown to provide a precision test of the standard model at the level of its O(..cap alpha..) radiative corrections. Implications for new physics and constraints of extra neutral gauge bosons are described. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Signals of universal extra dimension at the international linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biplob Bhattacherjee

    2007-11-01

    In the minimal universal extra dimension model, single production of = 2 gauge bosons provides a unique discriminating feature from supersymmetry. We discuss how the proposed international linear collider can act as a = 2 factory, much in the same vein as LEP.

  3. Surgery for extra-articular trismus : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M A; Dijkstra, P U; Reintsema, H; Roodenburg, J L N; Werker, P M N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify operations that are used to improve mouth opening in patients with extra-articular trismus (caused by cancer and its treatment, oral submucous fibrosis, or noma) and to find out if they work. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cinah

  4. Surgery for extra-articular trismus : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M. A.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Reintsema, H.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.; Werkera, P. M. N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify operations that are used to improve mouth opening in patients with extra-articular trismus (caused by cancer and its treatment, oral submucous fibrosis, or noma) and to find out if they work. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cinah

  5. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and randomly…

  6. Extra-articular Mimickers of Lateral Meniscal Tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Joseph U.; Strauss, Eric J.; Lodha, Sameer; Bach, Bernard R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Lateral meniscus tears are a common entity seen in sports medicine. Although lateral-side knee pain is often the result of a meniscus injury, several extra-articular pathologies share signs and symptoms with a meniscus tear. It is critical for the clinician to be able to identify and understand extra-articular pathologies that can present similar to a lateral meniscus tear. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search for all relevant articles between 1980 and February 2010. Study Type: Clinical review. Results: Common extra-articular pathologies that can mimic lateral meniscal tears include iliotibial band syndrome, proximal tibiofibular joint instability, snapping biceps femoris or popliteus tendons, and peroneal nerve compression syndrome or neuritis. The patient history, physical examination features, and radiographic findings can be used to separate these entities from the more common intra-articular knee pathologies. Conclusions: In treating patients who present with lateral-sided knee pain, clinicians should be able to recognize and treat extra-articular pathologies that can present in a similar fashion as lateral meniscus tears. PMID:23015995

  7. Collider Implications of Multiple Non-Universal Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Ghavri, R; Nandi, S

    2006-01-01

    We consider multiple TeV scale extra compact dimensions in an asymmetric string compactification scenario in which the SM gauge bosons can propagate into the TeV scale extra dimensions while the SM fermions are confined to the usual SM D3 brane. We calculate the contributions that the KK excitations of the gluons make to the multijet cross sections in proton proton collisions at the LHC energy. At very high pT, the dijet signal will either be enhanced significantly due to virtual g star exchanges or place a lower bound on the compactification scale of about 8 TeV. We find that the dijet signal is very sensitive to three parameters: the compactification scale, the string scale, and the number of extra dimensions. Thus, although the dijet signal is much more sensitive to KK effects, the dijet signal alone does not provide sufficient information to deduce the number of extra dimensions nor the compactification scale. However, the three jet signal, which is not sensitive to the string scale, can be analyzed in co...

  8. Tropical intersection theory on R^n

    OpenAIRE

    Flossmann, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In these notes we survey the tropical intersection theory on R^n by deriving the properties for tropical cycles from the corresponding properties in Chow cohomology. For this we review the stable intersection product introduced by Mikhalkin and the push forward of tropical cycles defined by Allermann and Rau. Furthermore we define a pull back for tropical cycles based on the pull back of Minkowski weights. This pull back commutes with the tropical intersection product and satisfies the projec...

  9. Tropical intersection theory on R^n

    OpenAIRE

    Flossmann, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In these notes we survey the tropical intersection theory on R^n by deriving the properties for tropical cycles from the corresponding properties in Chow cohomology. For this we review the stable intersection product introduced by Mikhalkin and the push forward of tropical cycles defined by Allermann and Rau. Furthermore we define a pull back for tropical cycles based on the pull back of Minkowski weights. This pull back commutes with the tropical intersection product and satisfies the projec...

  10. Implicitization of surfaces via geometric tropicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Cueto, Maria Angelica

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe tropical methods for implicitization of surfaces. We construct the corresponding tropical surfaces via the theory of geometric tropicalization due to Hacking, Keel and Tevelev, which we enrich with a formula for computing tropical multiplicities of regular points in any dimension. We extend previous results for tropical implicitization of generic surfaces due to Sturmfels, Tevelev and Yu and provide methods for the non-generic case.

  11. NIGERIA - A TROPICAL COASTAL LOCATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-02-21

    Feb 21, 2008 ... “Department of Physics, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria ... The characteristic pattern of rainfall in Calabar, a coastal - tropical location ... percentiles over most of Australia for ... meteorological records of the Margaret.

  12. JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) brings together satellite and in situ data sets from various sources to help you find information for a particular...

  13. OF EPILEPSY IN TROPICAL COUNTRIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    League Against Epilepsy (Commission on Tropical Diseases,. 1993-1997). ... confirmation of diagnosis, natural history of the seizure disor- der, past medical history, ... This provides the means to localize a specific subject (the address should ...

  14. Perturbations of ultralight vector field dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembranos, J. A. R.; Maroto, A. L.; Núñez Jareño, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    We study the dynamics of cosmological perturbations in models of dark matter based on ultralight coherent vector fields. Very much as for scalar field dark matter, we find two different regimes in the evolution: for modes with {k}^2≪ Hma, we have a particle-like behaviour indistinguishable from cold dark matter, whereas for modes with {k}^2≫ Hma, we get a wave-like behaviour in which the sound speed is non-vanishing and of order c s 2 ≃ k 2/ m 2 a 2. This implies that, also in these models, structure formation could be suppressed on small scales. However, unlike the scalar case, the fact that the background evolution contains a non-vanishing homogeneous vector field implies that, in general, the evolution of the three kinds of perturbations (scalar, vector and tensor) can no longer be decoupled at the linear level. More specifically, in the particle regime, the three types of perturbations are actually decoupled, whereas in the wave regime, the three vector field perturbations generate one scalar-tensor and two vector-tensor perturbations in the metric. Also in the wave regime, we find that a non-vanishing anisotropic stress is present in the perturbed energy-momentum tensor giving rise to a gravitational slip of order ( Φ - Ψ)/ Φ ˜ c s 2 . Moreover in this regime the amplitude of the tensor to scalar ratio of the scalar-tensor modes is also h/ Φ ˜ c s 2 . This implies that small-scale density perturbations are necessarily associated to the presence of gravity waves in this model. We compare their spectrum with the sensitivity of present and future gravity waves detectors.

  15. Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-09-01

    Solving the anisotropic acoustic wave equation numerically using finite-difference methods introduces many problems and media restriction requirements, and it rarely contributes to the ability to resolve the anisotropy parameters. Among these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing the solution of the anisotropic acoustic wave equation allows direct access to the desired limitation-free solutions, that is, solutions perturbed from the elliptical anisotropic background medium. It also provides a platform for parameter estimation because of the ability to isolate the wavefield dependency on the perturbed anisotropy parameters. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield to perturbations in the anisotropy parameters. The solutions of the perturbation equations represented the coefficients of a Taylor-series-type expansion of the wavefield as a function of the perturbed parameter, which is in this case η or the tilt of the symmetry axis. The expansion with respect to the symmetry axis allows use of an acoustic transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) kernel to estimate the background wavefield and the corresponding perturbation coefficients. The VTI extrapolation kernel is about one-fourth the cost of the transversely isotropic model with a tilt in the symmetry axis kernel. Thus, for a small symmetry axis tilt, the cost of migration using a first-order expansion can be reduced. The effectiveness of the approach was demonstrated on the Marmousi model.

  16. Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Li, R. H.; Liu, S.M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G.L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics based on field observations made along the eastern Hainan Island during the period 2006–2009 were investigated to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes, and to provide an overview of human perturbations of coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The rivers showed seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, with enrichment of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved silicate, and depletion of PO43−. High riverine concentrations of nitr...

  17. Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, estuarine-lagoons, and coastal ecosystems along the eastern Hainan Island

    OpenAIRE

    Li, R. H.; Liu, S.M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G.L.; Ren, J. L.; J. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics were studied along the eastern Hainan Island based on field observations during 2006–2009, to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes and to have an overview of human perturbations on coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The concentrations of nutrients in the rivers had seasonal variations enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). High riverine concentrations of nitrate were mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer input. The ratios of DIN : ...

  18. Robust cloud feedback over tropical land in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Youichi; Ogura, Tomoo; Watanabe, Masahiro; Xie, Shang-Ping; Ueda, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    Cloud-related radiative perturbations over land in a warming climate are of importance for human health, ecosystem, agriculture, and industry via solar radiation availability and local warming amplification. However, robustness and physical mechanisms responsible for the land cloud feedback were not examined sufficiently because of the limited contribution to uncertainty in global climate sensitivity. Here we show that cloud feedback in general circulation models over tropical land is robust, positive, and is relevant to atmospheric circulation change and thermodynamic constraint associated with water vapor availability. In a warming climate, spatial variations in tropospheric warming associated with climatological circulation pattern result in a general weakening of tropical circulation and a dynamic reduction of land cloud during summer monsoon season. Limited increase in availability of water vapor also reduces the land cloud. The reduction of land cloud depends on global-scale oceanic warming and is not sensitive to regional warming patterns. The robust positive feedback can contribute to the warming amplification and drying over tropical land in the future.

  19. Tropical Paradise: una propuesta exportadora

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Hurtado, Luisa Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    El proyecto de grado de Administración de Negocios Internacionales expuesto en este trabajo académico, tiene su marco estructural en la empresa Tropical Paradise, comercializadora de cócteles tropicales liofilizados sin alcohol, con el cual se busca demostrar la factibilidad y viabilidad de que Colombia exporte un producto innovador en contrapuesta de los productos que exporta tradicionalmente a nivel mundial. Dentro del plan exportador de la empresa Tropical Paradise, Alemania será el pri...

  20. Search for large extra dimensions in diphoton events at CDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Simona

    In spite of its undisputed success, the Standard Model is not a theory of everything as it does not incorporate gravity. Gravity is the weakest of all forces and its strength becomes comparable to the remaining forces at energies of the order of the Planck scale, at approximately 10 19 GeV and the Standard Model is viewed as an effective theory at energies below this scale. Recently, a model of large extra dimensions has been formulated by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulous, and Dvali that claims that the electroweak scale (approximately 1 TeV) is the only fundamental scale in nature and the fact that the Planck scale appears so large is an artifact of the existence of extra dimensions in which only gravity propagates. This theory can be tested at existing collider experiments, where energies sufficiently high to probe the extra dimensions can be achieved. In particular, the existence of extra dimensions can manifest itself with production of Standard Model particles through graviton mediated processes and thus it predicts an enhancement of production cross sections at high invariant mass. The goal of this work is to search for an excess in the 100 pb-1 of diphoton data collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab at s = 1.8 TeV during the 1992--1996 run. No excess is observed and thus we place a 95% confidence level limit on the Planck scale in the bulk extra dimensions MS of 899 GeV for constructive interference and of 797 GeV for destructive interference (Hewett convention).

  1. Challenges in tropical plant nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie

    2007-01-01

    A major challenge facing agricultural scientists today is the need to secure food for an increasing world population. This growth occurs predominantly in developing, mostly tropical countries, where the majority of hungry people live. Reducing yield losses caused by pathogens of tropical agricultural crops is one measure that can contribute to increased food production. Although plant-parasitic nematodes are often not as important as some other biotic and nonbiotic constraints on crop production in the tropics, they can nevertheless cause extensive damage and substantial yield losses. The effects of agricultural, environmental, socioeconomic, and policy changes on the occurrence of plant-parasitic nematodes in the tropics and the losses these pathogens cause are largely undocumented. Recent developments pose new challenges to tropical nematology. The increased application of molecular diagnostics may widen the knowledge gap between nematologists working in developed countries and in the tropics. Uncertainties concerning the validity of nematode species will lead to practical problems related to quarantine measures and nematode management. The study of interactions between nematodes and other pathogens in disease complexes provide opportunities for multidisciplinary research with scientists from other disciplines but remain underexploited. Difficulties in recognizing emerging nematode threats prevent the timely implementation of management strategies, thus increasing yield losses. Research is needed to address these challenges. Examples are presented mainly but not exclusively from banana, peanut, and rice nematology.

  2. Measurement of dijet angular distributions at sqrt{s}=1.96TeV and searches for quark compositeness and extra spatial dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration, D0

    2009-06-01

    We present the first measurement of dijet angular distributions in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurement is based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector. Dijet angular distributions have been measured over a range of dijet masses, from 0.25 TeV to above 1.1 TeV. The data are in good agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD and are used to constrain new physics models including quark compositeness, large extra dimensions, and TeV{sup -1} scale extra dimensions. For all models considered, we set the most stringent direct limits to date.

  3. Measurement of dijet angular distributions at square root(s) = 1.96 TeV and searches for quark compositeness and extra spatial dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prado da Silva, W L; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-11-06

    We present the first measurement of dijet angular distributions in pp collisions at square root(s) = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurement is based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb(-1) collected with the D0 detector. Dijet angular distributions have been measured over a range of dijet masses, from 0.25 TeV to above 1.1 TeV. The data are in good agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD and are used to constrain new physics models including quark compositeness, large extra dimensions, and TeV(-1) scale extra dimensions. For all models considered, we set the most stringent direct limits to date.

  4. Rolling axions during inflation: perturbativity and signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloso, Marco; Sorbo, Lorenzo; Unal, Caner

    2016-09-01

    The motion of a pseudo-scalar field X during inflation naturally induces a significant amplification of the gauge fields to which it is coupled. The amplified gauge fields can source characteristic scalar and tensor primordial perturbations. Several phenomenological implications have been discussed in the cases in which (i) X is the inflaton, and (ii) X is a field different from the inflaton, that experiences a temporary speed up during inflation. In this second case, visible sourced gravitational waves (GW) can be produced at the CMB scales without affecting the scalar perturbations, even if the scale of inflation is several orders of magnitude below what is required to produce a visible vacuum GW signal. Perturbativity considerations can be used to limit the regime in which these results are under perturbative control. We revised limits recently claimed for the case (i), and we extend these considerations to the case (ii). We show that, in both cases, these limits are satisfied by the applications that generate signals at CMB scales. Applications that generate gravitational waves and primordial black holes at much smaller scales are at the limit of the validity of this perturbativity analysis, so we expect those results to be valid up to possibly order one corrections.

  5. Cosmological perturbations on the Phantom brane

    CERN Document Server

    Bag, Satadru; Shtanov, Yuri; Sahni, Varun

    2016-01-01

    We obtain a closed system of equations for scalar perturbations in a multi-component braneworld. Our braneworld possesses a phantom-like equation of state at late times, $w_{\\rm eff} < -1$, but no big-rip future singularity. In addition to matter and radiation, the braneworld possesses a new effective degree of freedom - the 'Weyl fluid' or 'dark radiation'. Setting initial conditions on super-Hubble spatial scales at the epoch of radiation domination, we evolve perturbations of radiation, pressureless matter and the Weyl fluid until the present epoch. We observe a gradual decrease in the amplitude of the Weyl-fluid perturbations after Hubble-radius crossing, which results in a negligible effect of the Weyl fluid on the evolution of matter perturbations on spatial scales relevant for structure formation. Consequently, the quasi-static approximation of Koyama and Maartens provides a good fit to the exact results during the matter-dominated epoch. We find that the late-time growth of density perturbations on...

  6. Four-Dimensional Spin Foam Perturbation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Faria Martins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We define a four-dimensional spin-foam perturbation theory for the BF-theory with a B∧B potential term defined for a compact semi-simple Lie group G on a compact orientable 4-manifold M. This is done by using the formal spin foam perturbative series coming from the spin-foam generating functional. We then regularize the terms in the perturbative series by passing to the category of representations of the quantum group U_q(g where g is the Lie algebra of G and q is a root of unity. The Chain-Mail formalism can be used to calculate the perturbative terms when the vector space of intertwiners Λ⊗Λ→A, where A is the adjoint representation of g, is 1-dimensional for each irrep Λ. We calculate the partition function Z in the dilute-gas limit for a special class of triangulations of restricted local complexity, which we conjecture to exist on any 4-manifold M. We prove that the first-order perturbative contribution vanishes for finite triangulations, so that we define a dilute-gas limit by using the second-order contribution. We show that Z is an analytic continuation of the Crane-Yetter partition function. Furthermore, we relate Z to the partition function for the F∧F theory.

  7. Local perturbations perturb—exponentially–locally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Roeck, W., E-mail: wojciech.deroeck@fys.kuleuven.be; Schütz, M., E-mail: marius.schutz@fys.kuleuven.be [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, K. U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2015-06-15

    We elaborate on the principle that for gapped quantum spin systems with local interaction, “local perturbations [in the Hamiltonian] perturb locally [the groundstate].” This principle was established by Bachmann et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 309, 835–871 (2012)], relying on the “spectral flow technique” or “quasi-adiabatic continuation” [M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. B 69, 104431 (2004)] to obtain locality estimates with sub-exponential decay in the distance to the spatial support of the perturbation. We use ideas of Hamza et al. [J. Math. Phys. 50, 095213 (2009)] to obtain similarly a transformation between gapped eigenvectors and their perturbations that is local with exponential decay. This allows to improve locality bounds on the effect of perturbations on the low lying states in certain gapped models with a unique “bulk ground state” or “topological quantum order.” We also give some estimate on the exponential decay of correlations in models with impurities where some relevant correlations decay faster than one would naively infer from the global gap of the system, as one also expects in disordered systems with a localized groundstate.

  8. Sarcoma sinovial extra-articular em cão Extra-articular synovial sarcoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. França

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available One four-year-old, female, Collie, dog presented subcutaneous enlarged mass at the lateral aspect of the left hindlimb, close to the knee joint. Based on the anatomopathological and immunohistochemical findings it was confirmed the diagnosis of extra-articular bifasic synovial sarcoma - grade II.

  9. Klinische betekenis van extra vitaminen uit supplementen en verrijkte voedingsmiddelen [Clinical importance of extra vitamins from supplements and enriched foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, R.J.J.; Severs, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    -Consumers increasingly use vitamin supplements. Also, since June 1996, foodstuffs enriched with vitamins are available on the Dutch market. -These sources of extra vitamins may be useful for groups at risk for marginal vitamin deficiencies. -These risk groups include the chronically ill (e.g.

  10. An overview of the EXTraS project: Exploring the X-ray Transient and Variable Sky

    CERN Document Server

    De Luca, A; Tiengo, A; D'Agostino, D; Watson, M G; Haberl, F; Wilms, J

    2015-01-01

    The EXTraS project (Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky) will harvest the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument onboard the ESA XMM-Newton X-ray observatory since its launch. This will include a search for fast transients, as well as a search and characterization of variability (both periodic and aperiodic) in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than nine orders of magnitude in time scale and six orders of magnitude in flux. X-ray results will be complemented by multiwavelength characterization of new discoveries. Phenomenological classification of variable sources will also be performed. All our results will be made available to the community. A didactic program in selected High Schools in Italy, Germany and the UK will also be implemented. The EXTraS project (2014-2016), funded within the EU/FP7 framework, is carried out by a collaboration including INAF (Italy), IUSS (Italy), C...

  11. Modeling multiple resource limitation in tropical dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvigy, D.; Xu, X.; Zarakas, C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are characterized by a long dry season when little rain falls. At the same time, many neotropical soils are highly weathered and relatively nutrient poor. Because TDFs are often subject to both water and nutrient constraints, the question of how they will respond to environmental perturbations is both complex and highly interesting. Models, our basic tools for projecting ecosystem responses to global change, can be used to address this question. However, few models have been specifically parameterized for TDFs. Here, we present a new version of the Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2) model that includes a new parameterization of TDFs. In particular, we focus on the model's framework for representing limitation by multiple resources (carbon, water, nitrogen, and phosphorus). Plant functional types are represented in terms of a dichotomy between "acquisitive" and "conservative" resource acquisition strategies. Depending on their resource acquisition strategy and basic stoichiometry, plants can dynamically adjust their allocation to organs (leaves, stem, roots), symbionts (e.g. N2-fixing bacteria), and mycorrhizal fungi. Several case studies are used to investigate how resource acquisition strategies affect ecosystem responses to environmental perturbations. Results are described in terms of the basic setting (e.g., rich vs. poor soils; longer vs. shorter dry season), and well as the type and magnitude of environmental perturbation (e.g., changes in precipitation or temperature; changes in nitrogen deposition). Implications for ecosystem structure and functioning are discussed.

  12. Perturbative analysis of gauged matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gukov, Sergei; Kazakov, Vladimir A.; Vafa, Cumrun

    2003-08-01

    We analyze perturbative aspects of gauged matrix models, including those where classically the gauge symmetry is partially broken. Ghost fields play a crucial role in the Feynman rules for these vacua. We use this formalism to elucidate the fact that nonperturbative aspects of N=1 gauge theories can be computed systematically using perturbative techniques of matrix models, even if we do not possess an exact solution for the matrix model. As examples we show how the Seiberg-Witten solution for N=2 gauge theory, the Montonen-Olive modular invariance for N=1*, and the superpotential for the Leigh-Strassler deformation of N=4 can be systematically computed in perturbation theory of the matrix model or gauge theory (even though in some of these cases an exact answer can also be obtained by summing up planar diagrams of matrix models).

  13. Perturbation calculation of thermodynamic density of states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G; Schulthess, T C; Nicholson, D M; Eisenbach, M; Stocks, G M

    2011-12-01

    The density of states g (ε) is frequently used to calculate the temperature-dependent properties of a thermodynamic system. Here a derivation is given for calculating the warped density of states g*(ε) resulting from the addition of a perturbation. The method is validated for a classical Heisenberg model of bcc Fe and the errors in the free energy are shown to be second order in the perturbation. Taking the perturbation to be the difference between a first-principles quantum-mechanical energy and a corresponding classical energy, this method can significantly reduce the computational effort required to calculate g(ε) for quantum systems using the Wang-Landau approach.

  14. Non-perturbative quantum geometry III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krefl, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds and the resulting quantum geometry is studied from a non-perturbative perspective. The quantum differential and thus the quantum periods exhibit Stokes phenomena over the combined string coupling and quantized Kähler moduli space. We outline that the underlying formalism of exact quantization is generally applicable to points in moduli space featuring massless hypermultiplets, leading to non-perturbative band splitting. Our prime example is local ℙ1 + ℙ1 near a conifold point in moduli space. In particular, we will present numerical evidence that in a Stokes chamber of interest the string based quantum geometry reproduces the non-perturbative corrections for the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of 4d supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory at strong coupling found in the previous part of this series. A preliminary discussion of local ℙ2 near the conifold point in moduli space is also provided.

  15. Cosmic Perturbations Through the Cyclic Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, J K; Steinhardt, P J; Turok, N G; Erickson, Joel K.; Gratton, Steven; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of cosmological perturbations in the cyclic model, paying particular attention to their behavior and interplay over multiple cycles. Our key results are: (1) galaxies and large scale structure present in one cycle are generated by the quantum fluctuations in the preceding cycle without interference from perturbations or structure generated in earlier cycles and without interfering with structure generated in later cycles; (2) the ekpyrotic phase, an epoch of gentle contraction with equation of state $w\\gg 1$ preceding the hot big bang, makes the universe homogeneous, isotropic and flat within any given observer's horizon; and, (3) although the universe is uniform within each observer's horizon, the global structure of the cyclic universe is more complex, owing to the effects of superhorizon length perturbations, and cannot be described in a uniform Friedmann-Robertson-Walker picture. In particular, we show that the ekpyrotic phase is so effective in smoothing, flattening and isotropiz...

  16. Elementary Theorems Regarding Blue Isocurvature Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Daniel J H

    2015-01-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the work of 0904.3800, which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O(10) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  17. Chiral Perturbation Theory With Lattice Regularization

    CERN Document Server

    Ouimet, P P A

    2005-01-01

    In this work, alternative methods to regularize chiral perturbation theory are discussed. First, Long Distance Regularization will be considered in the presence of the decuplet of the lightest spin 32 baryons for several different observables. This serves motivation and introduction to the use of the lattice regulator for chiral perturbation theory. The mesonic, baryonic and anomalous sectors of chiral perturbation theory will be formulated on a lattice of space time points. The consistency of the lattice as a regulator will be discussed in the context of the meson and baryon masses. Order a effects will also be discussed for the baryon masses, sigma terms and magnetic moments. The work will close with an attempt to derive an effective Wess-Zumino-Witten Lagrangian for Wilson fermions at non-zero a. Following this discussion, there will be a proposal for a phenomenologically useful WZW Lagrangian at non-zero a.

  18. Non-Perturbative Quantum Geometry III

    CERN Document Server

    Krefl, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds and the resulting quantum geometry is studied from a non-perturbative perspective. The quantum differential and thus the quantum periods exhibit Stockes phenomena over the combined string coupling and quantized Kaehler moduli space. We outline that the underlying formalism of exact quantization is generally applicable to points in moduli space featuring massless hypermultiplets, leading to non-perturbative band splitting. Our prime example is local P1xP1 near a conifold point in moduli space. In particular, we will present numerical evidence that in a Stockes chamber of interest the string based quantum geometry reproduces the non-perturbative corrections for the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of 4d supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory at strong coupling found in the previous part of this series. A preliminary discussion of local P2 near the conifold point in moduli space is also provided.

  19. Gaugeon Formalism for Perturbative Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the Yokoyama gaugeon formalism for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime. Within the gaugeon formalism, we extend the configuration space by introducing vector gaugeon fields describing quantum gauge freedom. Such extended theory of perturbative gravity admits quantum gauge transformations leading to an natural shift in the gauge parameter. Further we impose the Gupta-Bleuler type subsidiary condition to remove the unphysical gaugeon modes. To replace the Gupta-Bleuler type condition by more acceptable Kugo-Ojima type subsidiary condition we analyse the BRST symmetric gaugeon formalism. Further, the physical Hilbert space is constructed for the perturbative quantum gravity which remains invariant under both the BRST symmetry and quantum gauge transformations.

  20. Cosmological Perturbations in Extended Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gumrukcuoglu, A Emir; Lin, Chunshan; Mukohyama, Shinji; Trodden, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We study cosmological perturbations around self-accelerating solutions to two extensions of nonlinear massive gravity: the quasi-dilaton theory and the mass-varying theory. We examine stability of the cosmological solutions, and the extent to which the vanishing of the kinetic terms for scalar and vector perturbations of self-accelerating solutions in massive gravity is generic when the theory is extended. We find that these kinetic terms are in general non-vanishing in both extensions, though there are constraints on the parameters and background evolution from demanding that they have the correct sign. In particular, the self-accelerating solutions of the quasi-dilaton theory are always unstable to scalar perturbations with wavelength shorter than the Hubble length.